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Sample records for quando ele fica

  1. Eling-Oz formula for the holographic bulk viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchel, Alex

    2011-05-01

    Recently Eling and Oz [1] proposed a simple formula for the bulk viscosity of holographic plasma. They argued that the formula is valid in the high temperature (near-conformal) regime, but is expected to break down at low temperatures. We point out that the formula is in perfect agreement with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of the cascading plasma [2, 3], as well as with the previous computations of the bulk viscosity of {N} = {2^*} plasma [4, 5]. In the latter case it correctly reproduces the critical behaviour of the bulk viscosity in the vicinity of the critical point with the vanishing speed of sound.

  2. Detective científica

    NASA Video Gallery

    La NASA posee muchos detectives que buscan pistas para resolver un misterio como la "detective científica" Monsi Roman. Se asegura de que el agua y el aire a bordo de la Estación Espacial Internaci...

  3. Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; MacDonald, R.R.; Massaglia, J.L.; Williamson, D.A.; Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial facilities. The objective of the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project was to assess the capability of each commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage facility, at which SNF is stored, to handle various SNF shipping casks. The purpose of this report is describe the FICA computer software and to provide the FICA user with a guide on how to use the FICA system. The FICA computer software consists of two executable programs: the FICA Reactor Report program and the FICA Summary Report program (written in the Ca-Clipper version 5.2 development system). The complete FICA software system is contained on either a 3.5 in. (double density) or a 5.25 in. (high density) diskette and consists of the two FICA programs and all the database files (generated using dBASE III). The FICA programs are provided as ``stand alone`` systems and neither the Ca-Clipper compiler nor dBASE III is required to run the FICA programs. The steps for installing the FICA software system and executing the FICA programs are described in this report. Instructions are given on how to install the FICA software system onto the hard drive of the PC and how to execute the FICA programs from the FICA subdirectory on the hard drive. Both FICA programs are menu driven with the up-arrow and down-arrow keys used to move the cursor to the desired selection.

  4. 20 CFR 632.83 - FICA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false FICA. 632.83 Section 632.83 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.83 FICA. Expenditures may be made from...

  5. 20 CFR 632.83 - FICA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false FICA. 632.83 Section 632.83 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.83 FICA. Expenditures may be made from...

  6. G1/ELE Functions in the Development of Rice Lemmas in Addition to Determining Identities of Empty Glumes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yali; Li, Wenqiang; Shi, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Rice empty glumes, also named sterile lemmas or rudimentary lemmas according to different interpretations, are distinct from lemmas in morphology and cellular pattern. Consistently, the molecular mechanism to control the development of lemmas is different from that of empty glumes. Rice LEAFY HULL STERILE1(OsLHS1) and DROOPING LEAF(DL) regulate the cellular pattern and the number of vascular bundles of lemmas respectively, while LONG STERILE LEMMA1 (G1)/ELONGATED EMPTY GLUME (ELE) and PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2)/OsMADS34 determine identities of empty glumes. Though some progress has been made, identities of empty glumes remain unclear, and genetic interactions between lemma genes and glume genes have been rarely elucidated. In this research, a new G1/ELE mutant g1–6 was identified and the phenotype was analyzed. Similar to previously reported mutant lines of G1/ELE, empty glumes of g1–6 plants transform into lemma-like organs. Furthermore, Phenotypes of single and double mutant plants suggest that, in addition to their previously described gene-specific functions, G1/ELE and OsLHS1 play redundant roles in controlling vascular bundle number, cell volume, and cell layer number of empty glumes and lemmas. Meanwhile, expression patterns of G1/ELE in osmads1-z flowers and OsLHS1 in g1–6 flowers indicate they do not regulate each other at the level of transcription. Finally, down-regulation of the empty glume gene OsMADS34/PAP2 and ectopic expression of the lemma gene DL, in the g1–6 plants provide further evidence that empty glumes are sterile lemmas. Generally, our findings provided valuable information for better understanding functions of G1 and OsLHS1 in flower development and identities of empty glumes. PMID:27462334

  7. G1/ELE Functions in the Development of Rice Lemmas in Addition to Determining Identities of Empty Glumes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mengjia; Li, Haifeng; Su, Yali; Li, Wenqiang; Shi, Chunhai

    2016-01-01

    Rice empty glumes, also named sterile lemmas or rudimentary lemmas according to different interpretations, are distinct from lemmas in morphology and cellular pattern. Consistently, the molecular mechanism to control the development of lemmas is different from that of empty glumes. Rice LEAFY HULL STERILE1(OsLHS1) and DROOPING LEAF(DL) regulate the cellular pattern and the number of vascular bundles of lemmas respectively, while LONG STERILE LEMMA1 (G1)/ELONGATED EMPTY GLUME (ELE) and PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2)/OsMADS34 determine identities of empty glumes. Though some progress has been made, identities of empty glumes remain unclear, and genetic interactions between lemma genes and glume genes have been rarely elucidated. In this research, a new G1/ELE mutant g1-6 was identified and the phenotype was analyzed. Similar to previously reported mutant lines of G1/ELE, empty glumes of g1-6 plants transform into lemma-like organs. Furthermore, Phenotypes of single and double mutant plants suggest that, in addition to their previously described gene-specific functions, G1/ELE and OsLHS1 play redundant roles in controlling vascular bundle number, cell volume, and cell layer number of empty glumes and lemmas. Meanwhile, expression patterns of G1/ELE in osmads1-z flowers and OsLHS1 in g1-6 flowers indicate they do not regulate each other at the level of transcription. Finally, down-regulation of the empty glume gene OsMADS34/PAP2 and ectopic expression of the lemma gene DL, in the g1-6 plants provide further evidence that empty glumes are sterile lemmas. Generally, our findings provided valuable information for better understanding functions of G1 and OsLHS1 in flower development and identities of empty glumes. PMID:27462334

  8. Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. ); Pope, R.B. )

    1992-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from the commercial facilities. In support of the development of the CRWMS, OCRWM sponsored the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project. The objective of this project was to assess the capability of each commercial facility to handle various spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. The project was conducted in two phases. During Phase I, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the data base for the project was created. During Phase II, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the data base was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed.

  9. Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project report

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, R.B.; MacDonald, R.R.; Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial facilities. The objective of the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project was to assess the capability of each commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage facility, at which SNF is stored, to handle various SNF shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to present and analyze the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. During Phase 1, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the database for the project was created. During Phase 2, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the database was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed. Each assessment of cask-handling capability contains three parts: the current capability of the facility (planning base); the potential enhanced capability if revisions were made to the facility licensing and/or administrative controls; and the potential enhanced capability if limited physical modifications were made to the facility. The main conclusion derived from the planning base assessments is that the current facility capabilities will not allow handling of any of the FICA Casks at 49 of the 122 facilities evaluated. However, consideration of potential revisions and/or modifications showed that all but one of the 49 facilities could be adapted to handle at least one of the FICA Casks. For this to be possible, facility licensing, administrative controls, and/or physical aspects of the facility would need to be modified.

  10. Molecular and biochemical analysis of RET/PTC4, a novel oncogenic rearrangement between RET and ELE1 genes, in a post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fugazzola, L; Pierotti, M A; Vigano, E; Pacini, F; Vorontsova, T V; Bongarzone, I

    1996-09-01

    A post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer, displaying a novel ELE1/RET oncogenic rearrangement with an anomalous fusion transcript, was molecularly characterized. In spite of the presence of a normal breakpoint in exon 5 of the activating ELE1 gene, the sequence of the rearranged genomic DNA showed a previously unreported intra-exonic breakpoint in the RET protooncogene. As a consequence, a cDNA sequence 93 nucleotides larger than the regular one, and with the exon 5 of ELE1 joined to exon 11 instead of exon 12 of RET, is formed. To characterize the product of this new oncogenic ELE1/RET rearrangement, here designated as RET/PTC4, we performed an immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis on cell extracts from NIH3T3 transfectants. The results showed the presence of two isoforms of the chimeric protein, displaying a constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation. As expected, the molecular weight of this protein was higher than that of RET/ PTC3 protein (p80 and p85, instead of p76 and p81). Previous reports, from our and other laboratories, showed that post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized by a high frequency (about 60%) of RET oncogenic rearrangements (Fugazzola et al., 1995; Klugbauer et al., 1995; Ito et al., 1994). These events predominantly involve ELE1 activating sequence, thus producing RET/PTC3 oncogene (Fugazzola et al., 1995; Klugbauer et al., 1995). Hence, this elevated frequency of RET rearrangements could increase the probability of selecting unusual events as that here described. Alternatively, targeted radiation effects could be responsible for the atypical RET rearrangement producing RET/PTC4 oncogene. PMID:8806699

  11. EleFantastic Bingo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.

    This game allows students to learn new science vocabulary and relevant facts about elephants. This bingo game is a valuable curriculum resource for any teacher who is teaching about elephants or other endangered animals. Directions for play, calling cards (six to a page), and play cards (four to a page), are included. (ASK)

  12. Phlogopite compositions as an indicator of both the geodynamic context of granitoids and the metallogeny aspect in Memve'ele Archean area, northwestern Congo craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntomba, Sylvestre M.; Bidzang, François Ndong; Ottou, José Eric Messi; Goussi Ngalamo, François Jeannot; Bisso, Dieudonné; Magnekou Takamte, Christelle Rufine; Ondoa, Joseph Mvondo

    2016-06-01

    A barium bearing phlogopite (celsian) has been found for the first time within the charnockitic and tonalitic suites that compose Archean mineral belt in Cameroon. Electron microprobe analyses of these phlogopites are reported and contain moderate contents of BaO (0.42-1.26 wt. %) and up to 5.95 wt. % TiO2. Micas are Mg-rich and their compositions indicate phlogopites rich-meroxenes. Phlogopites from Memve'ele are characterized by a nearly horizontal trend of increasing total aluminium (2.494-2.931 a.p.f.u.) and relatively constant Fe/(Fe + Mg) suggesting contributions of aluminous supracrustal material to the magmas by anatexis or assimilation. Compositions of the barium titanium bearing phlogopite vary systematically according to rock types. It seems that the substitution scheme include Ba + Al + VI (Mg, Fe)2+ + 2 IVSi = K + Si + VITi + 2IVAl was dominant in the Memve'ele area thus, this scheme has made easy incorporation of Ba into phlogopite structure. The binary diagram of aluminium vs. titanium shows that phlogopites from the Memve'ele area have been formed by the same metasomatic mechanism as phlogopites from Canary Island xenoliths and Mezitler andesites but Ba enrichment of phlogopites from the Memve'ele area implies an early Ba-metasomatism contrary to those from Mezitler. The estimated temperature of the studied phlogopites indicated mainly two groups: (1) temperature range from 662 to 688 °C (average 676 °C) for phlogopite grains with High Mg# in the trondhjemite sample and (2) temperatures with interval limits from 757 to 800 °C (average 777.07 °C) for remnant phlogopites; reflecting primary and late crystallization respectively from slightly to highly oxidized magma (-17.30 to -13.87 Kbars). The geothermal gradient with average temperatures are 35.57-53.360 °C/Km and 30.95-46.42 °C/Km corresponding to 14.56-21.84 Km and 14.56-30.58 Km depth of below crust respectively. The crystallizing melt is enriched in Ba emanated from sea water at medium

  13. Purification and characterization of two high molecular mass snake venom metalloproteinases (P-III SVMPs), named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, from the venom of Protobothrops elegans (Sakishima-habu).

    PubMed

    Oyama, Etsuko; Takahashi, Hidenobu

    2015-09-01

    We herein identified two high molecular mass metalloproteinases, named SV-PAD-2 and HR-Ele-1, in the venom of Protobothrops elegans. HR-Ele-1 appeared as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) regard under reducing and non-reducing conditions, and the molecular mass of this protease was approximately 60 kDa under reducing conditions. On the other hand, the molecular masses of SV-PAD-2 on SDS-PAGE were 110 kDa under the non-reducing condition and 52 kDa under the reducing condition. These SVMPs exhibited fibrinogenolytic and enzymatic activities against synthetic substrates for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the insulin B-chain, and were both inhibited by EDTA. SV-PAD-2 inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation, with IC50 values of 240 nM and 185 nM, respectively. HR-Ele-1 exhibited hemorrhagic activity, and its minimum hemorrhagic dose (MHD) was 0.05 μg in the guinea pig. PMID:26100665

  14. 76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA...)(3) (concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of...) to extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members to...

  15. 41 CFR 301-11.603 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.603... (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement...

  16. 41 CFR 301-11.603 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.603... (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement...

  17. 41 CFR 301-11.603 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.603... (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement...

  18. 41 CFR 301-11.603 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.603... (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement...

  19. 76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, November 1, 2011 (76 FR 67363). DATES: This... publication of final and temporary regulations (TD 9554), which was the subject of FR Doc. 2011-28176, is... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and...

  20. 76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Register on Tuesday, November 1, 2011 (76 FR 67363). DATES: This correction is effective on November 17... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5)...

  1. 76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Register on Tuesday, November 1, 2011 (76 FR 67363). DATES: This correction is effective on December 6... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 301 RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA... for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5)...

  2. 76 FR 67384 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 31 and 301 RIN 1545-BJ06 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA... and addition read as follows: Sec. 31.3121(b)(3)-1 Family Employment. * * * * * (c) [The text of the...)(5)-1 Family Employment. * * * * * (c) [The text of the proposed amendment to Sec....

  3. [Huanghua pear soluble solids contents Vis/NIR spectroscopy by analysis of variables optimization and FICA].

    PubMed

    Xu, Wen-li; Sun, Tong; Hu, Tian; Hu, Tao; Liu, Mu-hua

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model of the visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) diffuse transmission spectroscopy with fine stability and precise predictability for the non destructive testing of the soluble solids content of huanghua pear, through comparing the effects of various pretreatment methods, variable optimization method, fast independent principal component analysis (FICA) and least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) on mathematica model for SSC of huanghua pear, and the best combination of methods to establish model for SSC of huanghua pear was got. Vis/NIR diffuse transmission spectra of huanghua pear were acquired by a Quality Spec spectrometer, three methods including genetic algorithm, successive projections algorithm and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) were used firstly to select characteristic variables from spectral data of huanghua pears in the wavelength range of 550~950 nm, and then FICA was used to extract factors from the characteristic variables, finally, validation model for SSC in huanghua pears was built by LS-SVM on the basic of those parameters got above. The results showed that using LS-SVM on the foundation of the 21 variables screened by CARS and the 12 factors selected by FICA, the CARS-FICA-LS-SVM regression model for SSC in huanghua pears was built and performed best, the coefficient of determination and root mean square error of calibration and prediction sets were RC(2)=0.974, RMSEC=0.116%, RP(2)=0.918, and RMSEP=0.158% respectively, and compared with the mathematical model which uses PLS as modeling method, the number of variables was down from 401 to 21, the factors were also down from 14 to 12, the coefficient of determination of modeling and prediction sets were up to 0.023 and 0.019 respectively, while the root mean square errors of calibration and prediction sets were reduced by 0.042% and 0.010% respectively. These experimental results showed that using CARS-FICA-LS-SVM to

  4. Environment. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Dorland Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorland, Billie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit, which focuses on environment and ecology, is designed for upper grade elementary school pupils. Since the five lessons were designed specifically for substitute teachers, each is completely self-contained. Each lesson is developed in…

  5. Clinical Nursing Education: Using the FICA Spiritual History Tool to Assess Patients' Spirituality.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret G; Voss, Autumn; Vahle, Barb; Capp, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Nursing students often find it difficult to address spirituality in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of students' use of the FICA Spiritual History Tool during clinical practice on their own spirituality and comfort with the provision of spiritual care. The students (N = 31) completed the Spirituality and Spiritual Care Rating Scale at the beginning and end of the semester, which revealed changes, although not statistically significant, in students' spirituality, religiosity, and their provision of spiritual care. PMID:27166591

  6. 26 CFR 31.6302-1 - Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income taxes. 31.6302-1 Section 31.6302-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Administrative Provisions...

  7. 26 CFR 31.6302-1 - Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income taxes. 31.6302-1 Section 31.6302-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES...

  8. 26 CFR 31.6302-1 - Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income taxes. 31.6302-1 Section 31.6302-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES...

  9. 26 CFR 31.6302-1 - Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income taxes. 31.6302-1 Section 31.6302-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Administrative Provisions...

  10. 41 CFR 301-11.503 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.503...) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement is limited...

  11. 41 CFR 301-11.503 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.503...) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement is limited...

  12. 41 CFR 301-11.503 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.503...) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement is limited...

  13. 41 CFR 301-11.503 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.503...) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part? No. Reimbursement is limited...

  14. La dinámica demográfica y la desigualdad educativa en Méxicoa

    PubMed Central

    Giorguli Saucedo, Silvia E.; Vargas Valle, Eunice D.; Ulloa, Viviana Salinas; Hubert, Celia; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se presenta una investigación sobre el vínculo entre los procesos educativos y la dinámica demográfica en México. La tradición del pensamiento sobre población y desarrollo ha partido de la hipótesis de que el ritmo de crecimiento poblacional, el tamaño de las familias y la migración influyen sobre la acumulación de capital humano entre la población en edades escolares. Se explora aquí la relación del desempeño educativo de los jóvenes entre 14 y 23 años y la razón de dependencia juvenil, la fecundidad adolescente y la migración interna e internacional; para ello se utilizan datos agregados a escala municipal del año 2000. El análisis incluye indicadores de la oferta educativa municipal basados en estadísticas administrativas de la SEP. PMID:26146427

  15. Your Nose Knows. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Marie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for kindergarten pupils, but could be used effectively with primary pupils. The six lessons use the sense of smell to investigate various aspects of the earth, seasons, animals, and commercial use of fragrances. Each lesson…

  16. The Drip Impact. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jack Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudacher, Jack

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for senior high science classes. The primary emphasis of the material is on water, water analysis, and possible methods of watershed management; while the materials were designed for use in and around the Highline Public…

  17. Energy Futures... [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Parr Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Donald

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on energy is designed for junior high school science students. The 11 concepts of the unit have been developed into 11 lessons that should take from two to three weeks to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson,…

  18. [Peabody's Time Machine. Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Hirschel Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschel, John

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for use by a substitute teacher for instruction of intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The kit provides three days of lesson plans. There is closure at the end of each lesson and each day. Much emphasis is placed on…

  19. Archaeology/Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Muccilli Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccilli, Kathie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was written for seventh-grade students in anthropology. The six lessons and suggested activities will take from 15 to 30 days to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher,…

  20. Water. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, McGrath Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Jo Ellen

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on water is designed for primary grades. Included are ten lessons. Each lesson includes the concepts of the lesson, materials needed, time for the activity, procedure, evaluative activities, and follow-up activities. Included are…

  1. Earth Art. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Dye Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Dick

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit for elementary school children is designed to help bring more art into the classroom and to help students become more aware of their environment. Included are six lessons and a bibliography of suggested student references. Each lesson…

  2. Thoughts from You. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Northrop Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrop, Liz

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed to assist sixth-grade students to increase their awareness and appreciation of their environment, and to develop their thinking and feelings concerning it by using creative writing. It is recommended that the seven lessons…

  3. The Games Cities Play. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoe, Ruth

    This is a simulation game and a part of the environmental education program developed by the Highline Public Schools. The game emphasizes why a city is formed, how it grows, where it develops, and some problems with which it must cope. It is designed to be used with elementary students in the intermediate grades. The materials were tried and…

  4. Home Sweet Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Marie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The emphasis of the 10 lessons in this unit is on energy, the earth's resources, and the use of earth resources, by man and other living things. The materials are designed for use at grade 1, but could be used in higher grades. Each lesson…

  5. Acting for Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Ausen Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ausen, Wayne

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was designed for the fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grades to learn about ecology with the use of creative drama. The six lessons can be interchanged in any way that fits the needs of the class. Use of all six lessons should take about two…

  6. Water. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Toulouse & Edgar Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toulouse, Dick; Edgar, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on water is designed for seventh-grade science classes. Included are 13 lessons. Each lesson usually includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher, procedure, and evaluation activities. In addition, there…

  7. Biotic Communities. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Amoe-Thorson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoe, Ruth; Thorson, Michael

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit provides a number of activities to introduce students to ways of studying biotic communities, help them become good observers, and provide them with opportunities to use their skills. The materials include suggested activities, and…

  8. Your World My World. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Peace Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, Shirley

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit for kindergarten introduces the pupil to the concept of environment. Various aspects of the environment are explored through 14 lessons using our five senses. Each activity includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed,…

  9. Anthropology - Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Skidmore Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Margaret

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit may be used as an introduction to the study of anthropology, the influence of ecology on the study of anthropology, and an introduction to the physical school environment. For best results, it should be used at the beginning of the…

  10. Exponential Explosions! Today.... Tomorrow.... ? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jensen Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Melanie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for junior high school mathematics classes and emphasizes applications of exponents to problems of population growth and pollution. The nine lessons are designed for about eleven school days. Each lesson includes the concept…

  11. Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

  12. From Rocks to Pots. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Grim Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Dale

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for use by art classes at the secondary school level; it illustrates the availability of natural clay and provides the student with experiences such as digging the clay, locating desirable clays, preparing it for production,…

  13. And Then - Recycling. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lewis Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Dave

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. There are seven concepts in this unit on recycling which is designed for grade five and six students. Each concept has one lesson that is comprised of several activities. Several suggested extra activities have been added to further the students'…

  14. Adapting a Common Photographic Camera to Take Pictures of the Sky. (Spanish Title: Adaptando Una Camara Fotografica Comun Para Obtener Fotografias del Cielo.) Adaptando Uma Câmera Fotográfica Manual Simples Para Fotografar o Céu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danhoni Neves, Marcos Cesar; Pereira, Ricardo Francisco

    2007-12-01

    In this paper will be introduced a method of astrophotography using a non-reflex photographic camera (a low-cost method). It will be revised some photographic processes commonly used nowadays for comparison with the aims of this paper. En este trabajo será introducido un método de astrofotografia que utiliza una cámara fotográfica non-reflex (un método de bajo costo). Serán revisados algunos procesos fotográficos comúnmente utilizados actualmente para comparación con los objetivos de este trabajo. O presente artigo procura introduzir um método de astrofotografia utilizando uma câmera fotográfica não reflex, de baixo custo. É feita uma revisão do processo fotográfico comumente empregado para fins de comparação com os objetivos pretendidos no presente trabalho.

  15. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  16. Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y characterísticas sociodemográficas en la población Latina

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Castro, Lorena; Raventós-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-01-01

    El interés por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnóstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramáticos en el curso clínico del trastorno psicótico tales como: mayores recaídas, re-hospitalizaciones, síntomas más severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsicótico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideación suicida, así como alteraciones en otras áreas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimización, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnóstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnóstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, así como sus características sociodemográficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando énfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnóstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la población latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demográficos, clínicos y otras características de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnóstico permitiría mejorar los métodos para la detección y adecuada valoración del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia. PMID:21404151

  17. A snail in the long tail: a new Plekocheilus species collected by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Amphibulimidae)

    PubMed Central

    Breure, Abraham S. H.; Araujo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Among the historical collection gathered by the ‘Comisión Científica del Pacífico’ during 1862–1865, type material was found of one of the species described on the basis of the material collected shortly afterwards. Inspection of the types revealed that only one specimen may be considered as type material of Bulimus aristaceus Crosse, 1869; this specimen is now designated as the lectotype. The other specimens are described as a new species, Plekocheilus (Plekocheilus) cecepeus. PMID:26312021

  18. ...About This Problem of Air Pollution... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The lessons in this unit are designed to help students discover causes, effects, and results of air pollution through involvement in various activities; it is recommended for intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The unit can be used…

  19. Food: The Challenge to Manage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Roush Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for students at the senior high level who have a basic knowledge of nutrition, some experience in menu planning, and who are ready to put this knowledge of nutrition to work in selecting foods to attain maximum nutrition with…

  20. Eco-Kids Fly Off to the Forests. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was designed for use with fourth-grade students; it focuses on three forest biomes. Each of the biomes has characteristics of its own. The unit includes eight lessons, as well as additional activities. The unit, which incorporates…

  1. Mind-Full of Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Horton Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Sue

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This ecology unit has been designed to be used as an individualized reading program, the duration of which is about three weeks. The purpose is to help intermediate grade elementary school pupils become more aware of their natural world and their…

  2. The Sky Is Falling: A Study Of Particulates... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thompson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis W.

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. Designed for secondary school science classes, the unit is concerned with particulate matter of air pollution. Five lessons are included. The lessons include construction of equipment and collecting data. (RH)

  3. Ecological Smorgasbord: A Balanced Reading Diet. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lorain & Backman Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorain, Sue; Backman, Judi

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This material was basically designed to be used as an individualized reading kit for the intermediate grade student. The books in this kit readily lend themselves to a supplementary reading program as part of a science unit. Depending on a…

  4. Overpopulation Produces.... What Are We Going To Do About It? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Edgar Pak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Linda

    This unit is one of a series produced for environmental education programs by the Highline Public Schools. These materials are designed for use with junior high school students studying the concept of population, population trends, and problems created by changes in populations. The seven concepts in the unit take about three weeks to complete.…

  5. Living Today with an Eye Toward Tomorrow. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wilder Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Lou

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for a ninth-grade Home Economics class. Included are five lessons. Most activities relate to energy use. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher, and procedure. (RH)

  6. This Land Is Your Land. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Weber Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Lee

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit has been constructed for use by intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The seven lessons are designed to inform students about the land to develop a land ethic. The unit should be able to be completed in two to three weeks. The…

  7. It's All in the Air. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jan

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for intermediate grade elementary school students. Emphasized in the units are air, the use of air, and air pollution. The seven lessons can be used consecutively or spaced throughout the year. Each lesson includes the…

  8. Air Pollution: What You Can & Can't See. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thompson Pak.].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis W.

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit on air pollution is designed for secondary school students in grades 7 through 12. There are five lessons in the unit; since some of the activities can take as long as 90 days, use of the materials needs to be carefully planned. Each…

  9. Round and Round It Goes: A Study of Ecological Cycles. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Roaa Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Catherine

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit, designed for third- and fourth-grade students, emphasizes cycles and focuses on the water, oxygen, and nutrient cycles. The eleven lessons in this unit are designed to take one-half to one hour each. Use of the extra activities would…

  10. Practice What You Preach! [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Backman & Lorain Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Judi; Lorain, Sue

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed to be used with intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The intent of the 10 lessons is to provide activities that create a positive inner environment for each child so that effectiveness in the immediate and global…

  11. You Are What You Eat. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Campbell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Marsha

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit for elementary students in intermediate grades is concerned with nutrition, basic food groups, food production careers, future trends in food production and population growth, and ecology. The unit of 18 lessons is to be used over a six…

  12. Conducting Environmental Assessment Of Your Local Community. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Files Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Files, Tom

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for use by junior high school social studies students. Emphasis of the unit is on planning and conducting an environmental assessment of your local community. The unit contains ten lessons as well as supplementary printed…

  13. Eco-Kids: Experiment with Air on Spaceship Earth. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Loretta

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit, designed for intermediate grades in the elementary schools, is concerned with the study of air, air pollution, effects of air pollution, and ways of improving the quality of the air. Six lessons are included in the unit; most of the…

  14. Who Has a Better Idea? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Hearst Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearst, Gordon

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on technology, the environment, natural resources, and human values, is designed for upper grade elementary school pupils. Each of the 10 lessons is designed for a 1-2 hour period of time. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson,…

  15. Exploration with Garbage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lund and Wolff Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Cherie; Wolff, Chanelle

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is concerned with the topic of garbage. The eleven lessons explore what garbage is, problems of littering, ways to reduce garbage, and ways to use garbage. The materials were designed to be used with kindergarten pupils, but could be…

  16. The collection of birds from São Tomé and Príncipe at the Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical of the University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Melo, Martim; Beja, Pedro; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The former Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical-IICT (Lisbon, Portugal), recently integrated into the University of Lisbon, gathers important natural history collections from Portuguese-speaking African countries. In this study, we describe the bird collection from the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, which was fully taxonomically checked and georeferenced. The IICT bird collection contains 5598 specimens, of which 559 are from São Tomé and Príncipe, representing 85 taxa, including 19 endemic species and 13 endemic subspecies of birds. The specimens were collected between 1946 and 1973, although 43% of the records are from 1954 and 45% are from 1970. The geographic distribution of samples covers the whole territory, with a higher number of records from São Tomé than from Príncipe. The districts with highest number of records are Pagué (equivalent to Príncipe Island), and Água Grande and Mé-Zochi on São Tomé. Despite the relatively low number of specimens per taxon, the importance of the collection is considerable due to the high number of endemic and threatened species represented. Furthermore, it adds valuable information to the GBIF network, especially for a country whose two islands are each an Endemic Bird Area and for which substantial gaps in ornithological knowledge remain. PMID:27408605

  17. The collection of birds from São Tomé and Príncipe at the Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical of the University of Lisbon (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Melo, Martim; Beja, Pedro; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The former Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical-IICT (Lisbon, Portugal), recently integrated into the University of Lisbon, gathers important natural history collections from Portuguese-speaking African countries. In this study, we describe the bird collection from the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, which was fully taxonomically checked and georeferenced. The IICT bird collection contains 5598 specimens, of which 559 are from São Tomé and Príncipe, representing 85 taxa, including 19 endemic species and 13 endemic subspecies of birds. The specimens were collected between 1946 and 1973, although 43% of the records are from 1954 and 45% are from 1970. The geographic distribution of samples covers the whole territory, with a higher number of records from São Tomé than from Príncipe. The districts with highest number of records are Pagué (equivalent to Príncipe Island), and Água Grande and Mé-Zochi on São Tomé. Despite the relatively low number of specimens per taxon, the importance of the collection is considerable due to the high number of endemic and threatened species represented. Furthermore, it adds valuable information to the GBIF network, especially for a country whose two islands are each an Endemic Bird Area and for which substantial gaps in ornithological knowledge remain. PMID:27408605

  18. Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities. PMID:23749055

  19. Ever Stop to Think Man's Survival Is Dependent on His Use of Food Resources? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Nelson Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Judy

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for senior high school students who have a basic knowledge of nutrition and some experience in menu planning. The five lessons provide experiences in selecting, preparing, and storing foods to attain maximum nutrition with a…

  20. Cities Then and Now, and Where Do We Go from Here? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Skidmore, Muccilli Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Margaret; Muccilli, Kathie

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit on cities and urban life is designed for use with ninth-grade students, but could be used with other students. A variety of activities and materials for the activities are included. While some of the activities apply directly to…

  1. Please Touch ... Touching Is Living - And Living Is O.K.! [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Thorsen-Amoe Pak].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Michael; Amoe, Ruth

    This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed to direct intermediate grade pupils to positive attitudes and actions in the preservation of their environment. The culminating activity is the construction and placement of positive ecology signs. The goals of this unit are…

  2. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  3. Apuntes sobre la distribución geográfica de Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) en Colombia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neoleucinodes elegantalis is considered the most limiting pest for production and merchandising of solanaceous fruit and vegetables in the Neotropics. The present study updates the geographic distribution of N. elegantalis in areas of major agricultural production of Solanum lycopersicum, S. melong...

  4. EEsoF MICAD and ACADEMY macro files for coplanar waveguide and finite ground plan coplanar waveguide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of macro files is presented which when appended to either the EEsoF MICAD.ELE or EEsoF ACADEMY.ELE file permits the layout of coplanar waveguide and finite ground plane coplanar waveguide circuits.

  5. Managing Innovation in English Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in English language education (ELE) has become a major "growth area" in recent years. At the same time, an ELE innovation management literature has also developed, based on insights from innovation theory and their application, both from outside and within ELE, and concerned with attempting to critically evaluate and inform ELE…

  6. Comfort for the dying: five year retrospective and one year prospective studies of end of life experiences.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Peter; Lovelace, Hilary; Brayne, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Many cultures have reported end-of-life experiences (ELEs) as part of the dying process. However, few studies have examined the mental states of the dying in the weeks and days before death. Following an ELE pilot study with a palliative care team, 38 nurses, doctors and end-of-life carers from two hospices and a nursing home took part in a 5-year retrospective followed by a 1-year prospective ELE study. Interviewees' reports (first-hand and second-hand accounts from relatives, patients and residents) suggested that ELEs are not uncommon. ELEs included deathbed phenomena (DBP) such as visions, coincidences and the desire to reconcile with estranged family members. These experiences seemed to comfort both the dying and the bereaved. Interviewees described other phenomena such as clocks stopping synchronistically at the time of death, shapes leaving the body, light surrounding the body and strange animal behavior. Interviewees confirmed that ELEs differed from drug-induced hallucinations and occurred in clear consciousness. Most expressed concern about a lack of specialist ELE training and education and recommended that ELE modules be included in their training courses. ELEs provided comfort and hope for the dying and consolation for the bereaved. Further research is required to find the true prevalence and range of ELE phenomena. PMID:19913927

  7. The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958-1959, and 25% from years 1968-1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

  8. The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luís; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queirós; Consciência, Susana; Figueira, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigação Cientítica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 1958–1959, and 25% from years 1968–1969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Huíla, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Huíla area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa. PMID:24693221

  9. 77 FR 26579 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same; Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Leviton Manufacturing Co., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint... (``ELE''); Orbit Industries, Inc., of Los Angeles, California (``Orbit''); American Electric Depot...

  10. EVA Systems Flight Controller Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, EVA Systems Flight Controller Sandy Fletcher participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Northtowne Ele...

  11. Specific traumatic events during childhood as risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder development in adults.

    PubMed

    Schoedl, Aline F; Costa, Mariana P; Fossaluza, Victor; Mari, Jair J; Mello, Marcelo F

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate differences in early life events (ELE) on adult victims of severe interpersonal violence among patients who developed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and control group. Adult victims of interpersonal violence were evaluated to diagnose the presence of PTSD and ELE. 308 subjects were included, 141 in patient's group (PTSD+) and 167 in control group (PSTD-). PTSD+ group had more severe PTSD, depressive symptoms and higher ETI scores than PTSD- group. Patients in PTSD+ group had a more frequent history of ELE. Some ELE were more significant for the development of this predisposition. PMID:23520354

  12. Analysis of astronomy knowledge of the students in the Federal Institute Sao Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, A. C.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte integrante da pesquisa de mestrado acadêmico em ensino de ciências. Nele, busca-se apresentar os resultados da pesquisa realizada entre os 106 alunos do curso superior de tecnologia em automação industrial do Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo campus Cubatão, divididos em cinco turmas, duas no período matutino e três no período noturno. A análise dos resultados deste pré questionárioconstatou a falta de conhecimento básico dos discentes, sobre assuntos relacionados à astronomia, o que pode ser atribuído ao ineficiente processo de aprendizado pelo qual eles passaram tanto no ensino médio como no ensino fundamental, em escolas municipais, estaduais e particulares onde estudaram. No ensino de astronomia, têm-se diagnosticado constantemente diversas dificuldades conceituais tanto por parte de alunos como de professores de todas as áreas e níveis de ensino e poucos de fato a compreendem (ALBRECHT; VOELZKE, 2010). Demonstra-se as duas etapas concluídas do trabalho. A primeira etapa indica a análise dos conhecimentos prévios sobre conceitos astronômicos, através do questionário com 25 perguntas. A fim de corrigir as falhas constatadas, experimentalmente ministrou-se, externo ao conteúdo programático, um curso básico em astronomia, com diferentes estratégias de ensino, tais como, utilização de aulas expositivas dialogadas, recursos audiovisuais e palestras, para corrigir as dificuldades diagnosticadas. Essas estratégias de ensino se comprovaram adequadas às necessidades dos alunos e os conceitos foram finalmente compreendidos. Ao término do curso, completado o interstício de 120 dias, para caracterizar que houve a aprendizagem significativa, realizou-se uma nova pesquisa, quando, exatamente os mesmos 106 alunos responderam as mesmas 25 questões aplicadas na primeira etapa. Constata-se na segunda etapa, após análise, que em todas as questões, houve maior compreensão dos assuntos

  13. Search for WIMPs with NaI(Tl) detectors at Oto Cosmo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Ejiri, H.; Fushimi, K.; Hayashi, K.; Kishimoto, T.; Kudomi, N.; Kume, K.; Kuramoto, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Ohsumi, H.; Takahisa, K.; Tsujimoto, Y.; Umehara, S.

    2003-06-01

    The cold dark matter search has been carried out at Oto Cosmo Observatory with the large volume NaI(Tl) scintillators of ELEGANT V(ELE-V). The new limits on WIMPs could be obtained by the analysis of the annual modulation. Recently, the performance of NaI(Tl) detector in ELE-V was successfully improved. these are also discussed.

  14. ICT Support for Collaborative Learning--A Tale of Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consiglio, Teresa; van der Veer, Gerrit C.

    2013-01-01

    Based on experiences in teaching service design in a blended learning context, we developed an electronic learning environment (ELE) including features that turned out to be suitable for learners from different cultures. We used this ELE in Italy and in China. Students were guided through collaborative learning and mutual teaching. Students were…

  15. Elemene injection induced autophagy protects human hepatoma cancer cells from starvation and undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Keming; Hu, Chunping; Lin, Lin; Qin, Shukui; Cai, Xueting

    2014-01-01

    Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25152762

  16. Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

    2003-08-01

    De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

  17. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  18. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Khursheed; Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE), and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM) were mixed (1:4 v/v), and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9–4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5%) biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad spectrum

  19. Microwave Accelerated Green Synthesis of Stable Silver Nanoparticles with Eucalyptus globulus Leaf Extract and Their Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity on Clinical Isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Ahmed, Bilal; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid microwave assisted method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was developed using aqueous leaf extract of Eucalyptus globulus(ELE), and their antibacterial and antibiofilm potential investigated. With this aim, the aqueous solutions of ELE and AgNO3(1 mM) were mixed (1:4 v/v), and microwave irradiated at 2450 Mhz, for 30 sec. The instant color change of the ELE-AgNO3 mixture from pale yellow to dark brown indicated ELE-AgNPs synthesis. The intensity of peak at 428 nm in UV-Vis spectra, due to the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs, varied with the amount of ELE, AgNO3 concentration, pH and time of incubation. The biosynthesized ELE-AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR and TGA analyses. The size of ELE-AgNPs was determined to be in range of 1.9-4.3 nm and 5-25 nm, with and without microwave treatment, respectively. SEM exhibited the capping of AgNPs with the ELE constituents, and validated by FTIR analysis. The FTIR data revealed the presence of plant organic constituents and metabolites bound to ELE-AgNPs, which contributes for their stability. The antimicrobial activity of ELE-AgNPs was assessed by growth and biofilm inhibition of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) clinical bacterial isolates. The results demonstrated that S. aureus were more sensitive to ELE-AgNPs than E. coli and P. aeruginosa. MRSA exhibited higher sensitive than MSSA, whereas P. aeruginosa were more sensitive than E. coli to ELE-AgNPs treatment. Also, significant (83 ± 3% and 84 ± 5%) biofilm inhibition was observed in case of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The results elucidated environmentally friendly, economical and quick method for production of colloidal bio-functionalized ELE-AgNPs, for effectual clinical applications, as broad spectrum

  20. Eucalyptus leaf extract suppresses the postprandial elevation of portal, cardiac and peripheral fructose concentrations after sucrose ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Hosotani, Tetsuro; Kawasaki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Hayashi, Shuichi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu

    2010-05-01

    Overintake of sucrose or fructose induces adiposity. Fructose undergoes a strong Maillard reaction, which worsens diabetic complications. To determine whether Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract (ELE) suppresses the postprandial elevation of serum fructose concentrations (SFCs) in the portal, cardiac, and peripheral blood after sucrose ingestion, we performed gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and measured SFC without any interference by contaminating glucose in the samples. Fasting Wistar rats were orally administered water (control group) or ELE (ELE group) before sucrose ingestion. Blood was collected from the portal vein, heart, and tail. The increase in the SFCs in the portal and cardiac samples 30 min after sucrose ingestion was lower in the ELE group than in the control group. The coefficient of correlation between the SFCs in the portal and cardiac samples was 0.825. The peripheral SFC in the control group progressively increased and was 146 micromol/L at 60 min. This increase was significantly lower in the ELE group. In contrast, the serum glucose concentrations in the 2 groups were similar. ELE suppressed postprandial hyperfructosemia in the portal, cardiac, and peripheral circulations. ELE may counteract glycation caused by high blood fructose concentrations induced by the consumption of fructose-containing foods or drinks. PMID:20490315

  1. β-Elemene Inhibits Cell Proliferation by Regulating the Expression and Activity of Topoisomerases I and IIα in Human Hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Min; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Ya-jie; Zhai, Ping-ping; Su, Xi; Li, Xiang; Li, Yan; Hou, Li; Cui, Xiao-nan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of β-Elemene (β-ELE) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and topoisomerase I (TOPO I) and topoisomerase IIα (TOPO IIα) expression and activity of human hepatocarcinoma HepG-2 cells. Methods. After treatment with β-ELE, morphological alterations of HepG-2 cells were observed under an inverted microscope. Cell proliferation was assessed using an MTT assay, cell cycles were analyzed using flow cytometry, and apoptosis was detected by Annexin V/PI staining. The expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα was analyzed by Western blot techniques, and their activity was measured using the TOPO I-mediated, supercoiled pBR322 DNA relaxation and TOPO IIα-mediated Kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) decatenation assays, respectively. Supercoiled pBR322 and kDNA were also used to determine the direct effect of β-ELE on DNA breaks. Results. β-ELE significantly inhibited HepG-2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. β-ELE also induced tumor cell arrest at S phase, induced cell apoptosis, and downregulated the protein expression of TOPO I and TOPO IIα in a dose-dependent manner. β-ELE also inhibited TOPO I- and TOPO IIα-mediated DNA relaxation but did not directly induce DNA breakage at any concentration. Conclusion. β-ELE could inhibit the proliferation of HepG-2 cells and interfere with the expression and activity of TOPO I and TOPO IIα. PMID:26221582

  2. Report on the Workshop Interstellar Medium and Star Formation with ALMA: Looking to the Future. A Workshop to Honour Tom Wilson held at Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain, 16-17 June 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Pintado, Jesus

    2008-12-01

    In June 2008, a group of friends and colleagues of Tom Wilson gathered in Madrid to honour his scientific career in a workshop on ALMA organised by three of his PhD students. The workshop was devoted to reviewing recent progress in our understanding of the main topics of research that Tom has pursued during his career: the physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium and how stars form. Specific topics included Hii regions, molecular clouds, clumps, cores, outflows and masers in Galactic and extragalactic environments, mainly from an observational perspective.

  3. El Instituto de Nutrición de Centro América y Panamá: Servicios de Información Científica en Una Región en Vía de Desarrollo *

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Raquel; Corado, Adelina; Girón, Arturo

    1964-01-01

    Pioneering scientific information in underdeveloped areas poses several problems, such as (1) lack of understanding on the part of key functionaries as to the why, what, and when of information services; (2) lack of trained personnel to assume the responsibility for such services; (3) lack of economic resources; and (4) lack of information pertaining to available bibliographical sources in the particular area or region. The Bibliographic and Documentation Service of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) provides, in addition to the customary services, technical assistance for the organization or reorganization of biomedical libraries and makes INCAP library materials available to member countries, either by loan or photocopy. Although the program was designed for the member countries, INCAP tries to make its services available to other Latin American nations, Africa, and Asia, where similar nutritional problems are being studied. PMID:14119292

  4. Educational Thought in the Period of the Consolidation and Development of Socialist Society in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Traces Soviet educational history during the 1950s and 1960s. Presents chapter four from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Reviews theories and research of key Soviet educators during this period. (CH)

  5. NASA's Fiscal Year 2012 Budget Request

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA announced an $18.7 billion budget request for fiscal year 2012 that supports a reinvigorated path of innovation, technological development and scientific discovery. The budget supports all ele...

  6. Accurate Extraction of Electrostatic Force by a Voltage-Pulse Force Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2015-06-19

    The classification of interaction forces between two approaching bodies is important in a wide range of research fields. Here, we propose a method to unambiguously extract the electrostatic force (F(ele)), which is one of the most significant forces. This method is based on the measurement of the energy dissipation under applied voltage pulse between an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and sample. It allowed us to obtain F(ele) as a function of the tip-sample distance and voltage including the distance-independent part, to which conventional AFM is insensitive. The obtained F(ele) curves nicely fit the analytical model, enabling estimation of the geometry of the tip. The distance-dependent contact potential difference could also be correctly obtained by the measured F(ele), opening an alternative route to quantitative Kelvin probe force microscopy. PMID:26196989

  7. The Creation of a New System of Scientific Pedagogical Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Presents chapter 2 from Ele Isaevich Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Focuses on achievements of the 1920s in establishing a Soviet system of education. Reviews biographies and ideas of five eminent Soviet educators. (CH)

  8. A Brief Look at the Development of Certain Other Branches of Pedagogical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1989-01-01

    Concludes the excerpts from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Notes research done in the Soviet Union on preschool instruction, special education, adult, vocational, and technical education, and briefly mentions comparative research on modern foreign pedagogy. (CH)

  9. Research in the Field of the History of the School System and Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1989-01-01

    Presents the seventh chapter from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Reviews publications of research done in Soviet educational history since the 1920s. Lists influential Soviet education historians and briefly describes their areas of concentration. (CH)

  10. Theoretical investigations into the electronic structures and electron transport properties of fluorine and carbonyl end-functionalized quarterthiophenes.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Duan, Yuai; Gao, Hong-Ze; Su, Zhong-Мin; Geng, Yun

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we concentrate on systematic investigation on the fluorination and carbonylation effect on electron transport properties of thiophene-based materials with the aim of seeking and designing electron transport materials. Some relative factors, namely, frontier molecular orbital (FMO), vertical electron affinity (VEA), electron reorganization energy (λele), electron transfer integral (tele), electron drift mobility (μele) and band structures have been calculated and discussed based on density functional theory. The results show that the introduction of fluorine atoms and carbonyl group especially for the latter could effectively increase EA and reduce λele, which is beneficial to the improvement of electron transport performance. Furthermore, these introductions could also affect the tele by changing molecular packing manner and distribution of FMO. Finally, according to our calculation, the 3d system is considered to be a promising electron transport material with small λele, high electron transport ability and good ambient stability. PMID:25909689

  11. Distribution of macroalgae and sediment chlorophyll A along salinity and elevation gradients in Oregon tidal marshes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Algae contribute to trophic and biogeochemical processes in tidal wetlands. We investigated patterns of sediment pigment content and macroalgal abundance and diversity in marshes in four Oregon estuaries representing a variety of vegetation types, salinity regimes, and tidal ele...

  12. Astronomia cultural e meio ambiente segundo uma abordagem holística

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho ampliamos a discussão da abordagem holística para o ensino de astronomia que temos desenvolvido nos últimos anos, analisamos novos resultados e apresentamos exemplos práticos para interessados em experimentá-la. A constatação básica a orientar este enfoque é que cursos introdutórios em astronomia costumam ser excessiva e prematuramente técnicos, além de assumirem uma visão tradicional, muito estreita, do que seja educação científica, herdada da era cartesiana e positivista da ciência. Fundamentamos porque é importante que elementos de astronomia cultural ofereçam o mote e constituam o eixo norteador daqueles cursos e porque é urgente revermos a visão que temos da relação entre astronomia e meio ambiente. Um ponto central nesta abordagem é explorar formas de reativar e atualizar uma relação orgânica com o meio e excitar a consciência de nossa inevitável e profunda interdependência com ele em nível cósmico. Neste trabalho exemplificamos a possibilidade de concretização desta proposta em três diferentes situações: disciplinas de cursos de licenciatura em geografia e em física; escolas de nível fundamental; e, neste caso ainda a ser implementada, comunidades carentes. Estes casos envolvem públicos e espaços diferenciados para educação formal e não-formal. Dos casos já implementados, destacamos os resultados alcançados pelos alunos: enriquecimento cultural, aprendizagem significativa de conteúdos astronômicos tradicionais; mudanças de comportamento, incorporando contato diário com o céu; e freqüentes vivências de sentimentos empáticos que redirecionam a relação com a natureza e a consciência ecológica global. Além disto, para interessados em aplicar esta proposta, também socializamos procedimentos e cuidados para a implementação de ações alternativas consonantes com a mesma. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  13. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

    2010-08-01

    The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

  14. Astronomy Teaching in Argentina in the 19th Century. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en la Argentina del Siglo XIX.) O Ensino de Astronomia na Argentina no Século XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto Cornejo, Jorge; Santilli, Haydée

    2010-12-01

    según el positivismo francés, y el segundo de acuerdo al positivismo alemán. También señalaremos la distinta actitud de ambos observatorios frente a la educación. En esta última dimensión veremos cómo las ideas positivistas tuvieron gran importancia en la formación de maestros impartida en las Escuelas Normales. Estableceremos también la relevante influencia del contexto socio-histórico en el desarrollo de la astronomía, y, a su vez, apreciaremos que esta última fue un actor social fundamental en la Historia Argentina. Domingo F. Sarmiento acreditava que a astronomia de Copérnico fosse uma das disciplinas científicas fundamentais para a formação de um cidadão "moderno". Neste trabalho estudaremos astronomia a partir de duas perspectivas: a científica e a educacional Nosso estudo será desenvolvido para a Argentina no século XIX, a partir da iniciativa de Bernardino Rivadavia, em 1821, que estabeleceu um observatório astronômico em Buenos Aires, até as primeiras atividades dos observatórios de Córdoba e La Plata. Em ambas as perspectivas, científica e educativa, vamos analisar a influência das ideias positivistas. Discutiremos como existiram diferenças epistemológicas entre eles, o Observatório de Córdoba orientado de acordo com o positivismo francês, e La Plata, de acordo com o positivismo alemão. Ambos os observatórios tinha uma atitude diferente em relação à educação. As ideias positivistas foram muito importantes para treinar professores do ensino primário na Argentina. Nós iremos enfatizar a importante influência do contexto sócio-histórico na astronomia, já que esta ciência foi um importante ator social na história da Argentina.

  15. Inhibitory effects of eucalyptus and banaba leaf extracts on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis induced by a high-fructose/high-glucose diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Koeda, Tatsuki; Shojo, Aiko; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Fukusato, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to examine whether eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) and banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) leaf extract (BLE) inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to four distinct diets: starch diet (ST), high-fructose/high-glucose diet (FG), FG diet supplemented with ELE, or FG diet supplemented with BLE. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the BLE group than in the FG group. Liver histopathology, including steatosis, lipogranulomas, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, was significantly attenuated in the ELE and BLE groups compared with the FG group. Levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect oxidative injury to the liver, were significantly suppressed by ELE and BLE. Western blotting analysis indicated that interleukin-6 expression levels were significantly lower in the ELE and BLE groups than in the FG group. These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. PMID:26000287

  16. Inhibitory Effects of Eucalyptus and Banaba Leaf Extracts on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Induced by a High-Fructose/High-Glucose Diet in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Soejima, Yurie; Kumagai, Arisa; Koeda, Tatsuki; Shojo, Aiko; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Harada, Naoki; Yamaji, Ryoichi; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Toshikazu; Fukusato, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a liver disease associated with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to examine whether eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) leaf extract (ELE) and banaba (Lagerstroemia speciosa L.) leaf extract (BLE) inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to four distinct diets: starch diet (ST), high-fructose/high-glucose diet (FG), FG diet supplemented with ELE, or FG diet supplemented with BLE. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of treatment. Serum alanine aminotransferase and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in the BLE group than in the FG group. Liver histopathology, including steatosis, lipogranulomas, and perisinusoidal fibrosis, was significantly attenuated in the ELE and BLE groups compared with the FG group. Levels of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which reflect oxidative injury to the liver, were significantly suppressed by ELE and BLE. Western blotting analysis indicated that interleukin-6 expression levels were significantly lower in the ELE and BLE groups than in the FG group. These results suggest that ELE and BLE reduced lipogenesis, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine expression and thus inhibited NASH induced by excessive ingestion of fructose in rats. PMID:26000287

  17. Investigation of elemene-induced reversal of tamoxifen resistance in MCF-7 cells through oestrogen receptor α (ERα) re-expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xia; Tang, Bo; Zheng, Peishi; Zhang, Yang

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine therapy is an important therapeutic approach for the treatment of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. However, a number of these endocrine therapies can fail when the tumour loses its ER expression during treatment. To date, few studies have explored the potential clinical significance of traditional Chinese medicine in inducing the reversal of resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancers. We used the ERα-negative MCF7 breast cancer cell line to create a tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant cell line, MCF7/TAM cells. After treating MCF7/TAM cells with ELE to induce the re-expression of ERα, we investigated the role and molecular mechanisms by which elemene (ELE) promotes the reversal of resistance to endocrine therapy. We discovered that treatment with 10 μg/ml ELE restored the sensitivity of MCF7/TAM cells to TAM. RT-PCR analysis revealed that ELE treatment upregulated ERα mRNA levels in MCF7/TAM cells, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the upregulation of ERα expression. Western blot analysis revealed that ELE treatment decreased the protein expression levels of Ras, MEK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 in MCF7/TAM cells. The loss of ERα expression was the primary reason for TAM resistance in MCF7 cells. The ELE-induced reversal of TAM resistance was mediated by the upregulation of ERα mRNA and the re-expression of ERα through the MAPK pathway. PMID:23053650

  18. β-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

    2014-05-01

    β-elemene (β-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that β-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of β-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of β-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that β-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, β-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, β-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of β-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase‑3-β-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug

  19. Impact of long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators on lung function in a patient with post-infectious bronchiolitis obliterans.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Cecilia; Corcione, Nadia; Rea, Gaetano; Stefanelli, Francesco; Meoli, Ilernando; Vatrella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    ós terapia de curto e de longo prazo com uma combinação de corticosteroide/2-agonista de longa duração inalatórios, associada a um agente antimuscarínico de longa duração inalatório, o paciente apresentou uma melhora relevante da obstrução das vias aéreas, a qual fora irreversível durante o teste de broncodilatação. A função pulmonar do paciente piorou quando ele interrompeu a terapia inalatória tripla. Além disso, um programa de reabilitação pulmonar de três semanas significativamente melhorou seu desempenho físico. PMID:27383939

  20. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  1. Electrical stimulation to optimize cardioprotective exosomes from cardiac stem cells.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C R; Berman, A E; Weintraub, N L; Tang, Y L

    2016-03-01

    Injured or ischemic cardiac tissue has limited intrinsic capacity for regeneration. While stem cell transplantation is a promising approach to stimulating cardiac repair, its success in humans has thus far been limited. Harnessing the therapeutic benefits of stem cells requires a better understanding of their mechanisms of action and methods to optimize their function. Cardiac stem cells (CSC) represent a particularly effective cellular source for cardiac repair, and pre-conditioning CSC with electrical stimulation (EleS) was demonstrated to further enhance their function, although the mechanisms are unknown. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells primarily exert their effects through communicating with endogenous tissues via the release of exosomes containing cardioprotective molecules such as miRNAs, which upon uptake by recipient cells may stimulate survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Exosomes are also effective therapeutic agents in isolation and may provide a feasible alternative to stem cell transplantation. We hypothesize that EleS enhances CSC-mediated cardiac repair through its beneficial effects on production of cardioprotective exosomes. Moreover, we hypothesize that the beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure may in part result from EleS-induced preconditioning of endogenous CSC to promote cardiac repair. With future research, our hypothesis may provide applications to optimize stem cell therapy and augment current pacing protocols, which may significantly advance the treatment of patients with heart disease. PMID:26880625

  2. β-elemene decreases cell invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhang, Yang; Li, Yinghua

    2013-08-01

    Inactivation of E-cadherin results in cell migration and invasion, hence leading to cancer aggressiveness and metastasis. Downregulation of E-cadherin is closely correlated with a poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Thus, re-introducing E-cadherin is a novel strategy for cancer therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the traditional Chinese medicine, β-elemene (ELE), on E-cadherin expression, cell migration and invasion in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. MCF-7 cells were treated with 50 and 100 µg/ml ELE. E-cadherin mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. E-cadherin protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. Cell motility was measured by a Transwell assay. ELE increased both the protein and mRNA levels of E-cadherin, accompanied by decreased cell migration and invasion. Further analysis demonstrated that ELE upregulated estrogen receptor‑α (ERα) and metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3), and decreased the nuclear transcription factor Snail. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that ELE decreases cell migration and invasion by upregulating E-cadherin expression via controlling the ERα/MTA3/Snail signaling pathway. PMID:23732279

  3. The Restorative Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver Leaf Extract on Vascular Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Hosoo, Shingo; Koyama, Masahiro; Kato, Mai; Hirata, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Yasuyo; Yamasaki, Hiroo; Wada, Atsunori; Wada, Keiji; Nishibe, Sansei; Nakamura, Kozo

    2015-01-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaf is a traditional Chinese antihypertensive and antidiabetic medicine. We examined the effects of chronic Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) administration on artery function and morphology in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). ELE was orally administered via normal diet ad libitum to six-week-old male SHRs at a concentration of 5% for seven weeks. Acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation, sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced endothelium-independent relaxation, plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels, and media thickness were assessed. ELE significantly improved ACh-induced aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation but did not affect SNP-induced endothelium-independent relaxation in the SHRs, as compared to the animals receiving normal diet. Plasma NO levels and media thickness were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the ELE-treated SHRs. Therefore, long-term ELE administration may effectively improve vascular function by increasing plasma NO levels and bioavailability, and by preventing vascular hypertrophy in the SHR aorta. PMID:26690110

  4. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

  5. ``Learning to Research'' in a Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study on the Effectiveness of a Socio-constructivist Learning Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Alonso, C.; Fernández-Pampillón, A.; de-Miguel, E.; Pita, G.

    Learning is the basis for research and lifelong training. The implementation of virtual environments for developing this competency requires the use of effective learning models. In this study we present an experiment in positive learning from the virtual campus of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). In order to carry it out we have used E-Ling, an e-learning environment that has been developed with an innovative didactic design based on a socio-constructivist learning approach. E-Ling has been used since 2006 to train future teachers and researchers in “learning to research”. Some of the results of this experiment have been statistically analysed in order to compare them with other learning models. From the obtained results we have concluded that E-Ling is a more productive proposal for developing competences in learning to research.

  6. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

  7. Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Loevey, Katalin Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor; Szabo, Eva; Orosz, Zsolt; Sulyok, Zoltan; Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p{sub WBI/HDR-BT} = 0.26; p{sub WBI/ELE} = 0.11; p{sub ELE/HDR-BT} = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT.

  8. Evolution of the Astronomy Concepts Along Basic Education Cycle. (Breton Title: Evolução dos Conceitos de Astronomia no Decorrer da Educação Básica.) La Evolución de los Conceptos de Astronomía Durante la Educación Básica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darroz, Luiz Marcelo; da Rosa, Cleci Werner; Becker da Rosa, Álvaro; Samudio Pèrez, Carlos Ariel

    2014-07-01

    learning of astronomy in basic education. Embora a astronomia seja considerada uma das ciências mais antigas da humanidade e ainda que a compreensão de seus conceitos tenha trazido enormes avanços para a Ciência e, consequentemente, para a sociedade, observa-se que uma parcela significativa de pessoas encontra-se à margem desses conhecimentos. De acordo com os Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica, cabe à escola a difusão dos conceitos cientificamente corretos, entre eles os relacionados à área de astronomia. Pertinente a essa questão, apresenta-se uma pesquisa realizada com 140 estudantes do nono ano do ensino fundamental e com 120 estudantes da terceira série do ensino médio de quatro escolas da região de Passo Fundo/RS. Buscou-se averiguar, por meio de um questionário composto de questões abertas e de múltipla escolha, o conhecimento desse grupo de estudantes acerca de termos e fenômenos astronômicos básicos e, também, verificar se o índice de acertos cresce à medida que eles avançam nas diferentes e gradativas séries dos ensinos fundamental e médio. De modo geral, os resultados apresentados demonstram que o ensino de astronomia na educação básica enfrenta deficiências. Das 20 questões investigadas, em 17 os índices de acertos são semelhantes nas respostas dadas por estudantes de nível fundamental e médio, revelando que muitas concepções equivocadas permanecem ao longo da educação básica. Isso evidencia que tais temas não são - ou são pouco - abordados durante esses dois níveis de escolarização. Assim, conclui-se que a discussão dos conceitos relacionados com a astronomia deve receber maior ênfase na abordagem dos diferentes conteúdos, sendo necessária uma ação nacional em prol do seu ensino. Acredita-se que essa ação nacional deve estar apoiada em um pilar triplo de atores coletivos: comunidade científica, comunidade astronômica semiprofissional e comunidade escolar. Por fim, esse pilar seria

  9. The Implications of Orthographic Intraference for the Teaching and Description of ESL: The Educated Nigerian English Examples (Implicaciones de la Intraferencia Ortográfica para la Enseñanza y Descripción del Inglés como Segunda Lengua: Ejemplos Inglés Nigeriano Formal)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekundayo, Omowumi Steve Bode

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines orthographic intraference and its implications for teaching and describing English as a second language (ESL). Orthographic intraference is used here to denote instances of single word spelling, acronyms, mix up of homophones, homonyms and compound word spelling arising not from interference but from orthographic rules and…

  10. The Effect of Autism Spectrum Disorders, Down Syndrome, Specific Learning Disorders and Hyperactivity and Attention Deficits on the Student-Teacher Relationship (Incidencia de Trastornos del Espectro Autista, Síndrome Down, Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje, y el TDAH en la Relación Alumno-Profesor)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prino, Laura Elvira; Pasta, Tiziana; Gastaldi, Francesca Giovanna Maria; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the clear relevance of the Student-teacher relationship, studies have rarely encompassed subjects with special education needs. Our study focused on the differences perceived by teachers in their relationships with these students. Method: We described the results obtained with different groups of children with special…

  11. Thinking Allowed: Managing Innovation in English Language Education--A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In Waters (2009), the author attempted to capture the "state of the art" in theorising, practice, and research activity about the management of innovation in English language education (ELE). In this article, he reprises a number of areas in that review, to identify where the field would benefit from further enquiry about how to…

  12. EVALUATING THE EXTENT AND RELATIVE RISK OF AQUATIC STRESSORS IN WADEABLE STREAMS THROUGHOUT THE U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic stressors such as toxic chemicals, excess sediment, and non-native species threaten the biointegrity of stream ecosystems. The relative importance of a stressor depends both on the number of streams in which it is elevated, and on the severity of its effect when it is ele...

  13. Improving Electrical Engineering Education at the American University of Sharjah through Continuous Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Nashash, Hasan; Khaliq, Abdul; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Al-Assaf, Yousef; Assaleh, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Rached; El-Tarhuni, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The electrical engineering (ELE) program at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) is designed to fulfill the ABET criteria. Several assessment tools are used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the level of achievement of the program's educational objectives and outcomes. These tools include alumni, employer, and graduate advisor…

  14. Process for selecting NEAMS applications for access to Idaho National Laboratory high performance computing resources

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Pernice

    2010-09-01

    INL has agreed to provide participants in the Nuclear Energy Advanced Mod- eling and Simulation (NEAMS) program with access to its high performance computing (HPC) resources under sponsorship of the Enabling Computational Technologies (ECT) program element. This report documents the process used to select applications and the software stack in place at INL.

  15. The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced…

  16. Decontamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables with cold plasma technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  17. The B-hordein prolamin family of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spectrum of B-hordein prolamins and genes in the single barley cultivar Barke is described from an in silico analysis of 1452 B-hordein ESTs and available genomic DNA. Eleven unique B-hordein proteins are derived from EST contigs. Ten contigs encode apparent full-length B-hordeins and the ele...

  18. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  19. MARKAL SCENARIO ANALYSES OF TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS FOR THE ELECTRIC SECTOR: THE IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report provides a general overview of EPA’s national MARKAL database and energy systems model and compares various scenarios to a business as usual baseline scenario. Under baseline assumptions, total electricity use increases 1.3% annually until 2030. Annual growth in ele...

  20. OVERVIEW OF THE EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PARTICULATE TECHNOLOGY R AND D PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of a number of key projects in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) particulate research and development program having applicability to industry. For electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it gives results of work on large-diameter discharge ele...

  1. OIL FLY ASH AND VANADIUM DIMINISH NRAMP-2MRNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capacity of Nramp2 to transport iron and its ubiquitous expression make it a likely candidate for transferrin-independent uptake of iron in peripheral tissues. Airway epithelial cells increase both mRNA and expression of that isoform of Nramp-2 without an iron response ele...

  2. Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate the level of a degree validly and reliably still…

  3. Evaluation of pyrosequencing for assembly of plasmids carrying IS elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Highly parallel pyrosequencing (PS) is an efficient means to generate sequence data, but read lengths of current instruments are limited to average 450 bases, and library construction involves random fragmentation of the sample. Thus, assembly of sequences containing long repetitive ele...

  4. 77 FR 11591 - Certain Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters and Products Containing Same, Investigations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ...., of Melville, New York (``Leviton''). 75 FR 62420 (Oct. 8, 2010). The complaint and amended complaint... approve or disapprove the Commission's action. See Presidential Memorandum of July 21, 2005, 70 FR 43251..., China (``ELE''); Orbit Industries, Inc., of Los Angeles, California (``Orbit''); American Electric...

  5. Comparison of functional biochemical, and morphometric alterations in the lungs of four rat strains and hamsters following repeated intratracheal instillation of crocidolite asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four rat strains and hamsters were exposed to 0.7mg crocidolite asbestos/g lung once/wk for 3weeks by intratracheal instillation (IT). Pulmonary function, biochemistry, and morphometry were evaluated at 3 and 6-months after IT. Each rat strain, but not the hamster, exhibited ele...

  6. Evaluation of a mass flow sensor at a gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a system to optimize the cotton ginning process, a custom-built mass flow sensor was evaluated at USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit at Stoneville, Mississippi. The mass flow sensor was fabricated based on the principle of the sensor patented by Thomasson and Sui. The optical and ele...

  7. Eucommia ulmoides extracts prevent the formation of advanced glycation end products.

    PubMed

    Sugawa, Hikari; Ohno, Rei-Ichi; Shirakawa, Jun-Ichi; Nakajima, Akari; Kanagawa, Amane; Hirata, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Moroishi, Narumi; Nagai, Mime; Nagai, Ryoji

    2016-06-15

    Proteins non-enzymatically react with reducing sugars to form advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), resulting in the induction of protein denaturation. Because the levels of AGE increase with age and are elevated in age-related diseases, such as diabetes and atherosclerosis, the intake of compound(s) that inhibit the formation of AGEs by daily meal may represent a potential strategy for preventing age-related diseases. In this study, we measured the inhibitory effects of several Eucommia ulmoides extracts on the formation of AGEs, N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and N(ω)-(carboxymethyl)arginine (CMA). Although a crude extract obtained from E. ulmoides bark is widely used as herbal medicine, E. ulmoides leaf extract (ELE) inhibited CML and CMA formation more effectively during the incubation of gelatin with ribose. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of compounds present in ELE on CML and CMA formation were studied. As a result, isoquercetin showed the strongest inhibitory effect of all the tested ELE components. These results indicate that the oral intake of ELE may inhibit the formation of AGEs, thereby ameliorating age-related diseases. PMID:27080730

  8. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at the City of Okanogan, WA - Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the City of Okanogan, WA facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Filtronics’ FH-13 Ele...

  9. The Great Outdoors and Beyond: Common Threads in Leadership Training on Land, in the Air, and in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Cheryl; Phipps, Maurice

    For over 7 years, the Wilderness Education Association (WEA) and three universities have been using a systematic approach to leadership training in the outdoors: the experiential leadership education (ELE) method. The effectiveness of this approach was investigated by an aerospace expert interested in leadership training for isolated groups. A…

  10. A Cross-Cultural Study of Online Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Chang; Valcke, Martin; Schellens, Tammy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether there is a cultural gap in student perceptions of online collaborative learning and to investigate to what extent student perceptions, motivation, and learning strategies change over time due to the actual involvement in a collaborative e-learning environment (ELE).…

  11. Development and Current Status of the Theory of Communist Upbringing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1989-01-01

    Excerpts chapter five from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Examines general problems, objectives, principles, and methods of the Soviet pedagogical theory of upbringing. Notes research and theories of key Soviet educators in the 1970s and 1980s. (CH)

  12. Development and Status of Basic Problems of Didactics (Theory of Education and Instruction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1989-01-01

    Excerpts chapter five from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Defines didactics from a Marxist-Leninist perspective, identifying principles and problems in content, methods, and organization of instruction. Reviews teachers' participation in research and development of Soviet pedagogy. (CH)

  13. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Li, Yinghua; Zhang, Yang; Song, Jincheng; Wang, Qimin; Zheng, Luping; Liu, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE), an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). We found that ELE (40 µg/ml ) blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1), potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer. PMID:23516540

  14. The Long-Term Effectiveness of English Language Instruction at Japanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uematsu, Shigeo

    2010-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the effect of English Learning in the Elementary School (ELES) on both English language skills and affective variables. The participants were 145 public junior high school students in Grades 7 and 8; 72 participants received English language instruction once a week in the local public elementary schools in…

  15. The OPAL Project: Open source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure has been developed to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1) Overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost and technology); 2) Preliminary research, acquisition and familiarisation with all available ELE software packages; 3) Assessment of these 30+ software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4) Loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data. Keywords: OPAL, displacement-based, DBELA, earthquake loss estimation, earthquake loss assessment, open source, HAZUS

  16. Development of the Theory of Upbring and Instruction in the Period of Completing the Social Reconstruction of the National Economy and the Building of Socialism in the USSR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Chapter three ("Development of the Theory of Upbringing and Instruction in the Period of Completing the Socialist Reconstruction of the National Economy and the Building of Socialism in the USSR) from Ele Monoszon's "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy" is excerpted. Examines the issue of Communist child socialization practices as…

  17. Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software (OPAL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, J. E.

    2011-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure was created to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1. overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost, and technology); 2. preliminary research, acquisition, and familiarisation for available ELE software packages; 3. assessment of these software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4. loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw = 7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment, Crowley et al., 2006), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States, FEMA, USA, 2003) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach, Lindholm et al., 2007) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic, and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data.

  18. A TELL English Course to Meet the Needs of a Multilevel BA in ELT Group: What Was Wrong?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes Fierro, María del Carmen; Delgado Alvarado, Natanael

    2015-01-01

    A Technology Enhanced Language Learning (TELL) course was designed to meet the needs of a multilevel first-semester group of students of the BA in English Language Teaching (ELT) taught at the School of Languages of the Juarez University of the State of Durango (ELE-UJED), Mexico. Amongst the relevant needs, students were to reach a CEFR B1.1…

  19. The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monoszon, Ele Isaevich

    1988-01-01

    Reproduces chapter 1 ("The Great October Socialist Revolution and the Initial Stage of the Establishment of Soviet Pedagogy") from Ele Isaench Monoszon's 1987 book, "The Establishment and Development of Soviet Pedagogy." Traces early history of Soviet Union. Reviews foundations of Soviet educational system, highlighting influences of Vladimir…

  20. Cold Plasma as a nonthermal food processing technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens has prompted research into novel interventions. Cold plasma is a nonthermal food processing technology which uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes. This flexible sanitizing method uses ele...

  1. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets.

    PubMed

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05). After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05). The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05). In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp. PMID:26480323

  2. Hands-On Teaching and Entrepreneurship Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silveira, Marcos Azevedo; da Silva, Mauro Schwanke; Kelber, Christian R.; de Freitas, Manuel R.

    This paper presents the experiment being conducted in the Electric Circuits II course (ELE1103) at PUC-Rio's Electrical Engineering Department since March 1997. This experiment was held in both the fall and the spring semesters of 1997. The basis for the experiment was concurrent teaching methodology, to which the principles of entrepreneurship…

  3. Permeability barriers to embryo cryopreservation of Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to cryopreserve the embryos of the pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Previously developed dipteran cryopreservation protocols were not directly adaptable to use with the embryos of this lepidopteran species. Physiochemical and ele...

  4. Essays on Eclipses, Transits and Occultations as Teaching Tools in the Introductory Astronomy College Course. (Spanish Title: Ensayos sobre Eclipses, Tránsitos y Ocultaciones Como Herramientas de Enseñanza en el Curso Universitario Introductorio a la Astronomía.) Ensaios sobre Eclipses, Trânsitos e Ocultações Como Ferramentas de Ensino em um Curso Universitário Introdutório de Astromomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dcruz, Noella L.

    2014-07-01

    estudiantes que escribieran dos ensayos cortos de tres que se proponían. Los ensayos contenían partes descriptivas y conceptuales. Los mismos estaban destinados a servir como herramientas de enseñanza. 62% de los 106 ensayos de 55 estudiantes obtuvo grados A, B o C. 21% de los 47 encuestados que respondieron al cuestionario posterior consideró que los ensayos aumentaron su interés por la astronomía. 49% de los encuestados consideró que los ensayos no eran educacionalmente útiles y que no deben ser propuestos de nuevo. Las respuestas escritas más comunes a nuestra encuesta indicaran que los estudiantes necesitan más orientación y una mejor preparación en la redacción de ensayos exitosos. Dado que los estudiantes encontraron las piezas conceptuales de los ensayos difíciles, en el futuro vamos a ofrecer actividades pertinentes antes de los plazos de redacción para ayudar a los estudiantes a crear ensayos de mayor calidad. Nós ocasionalmente incluímos projetos em nosso curso universitário introdutório centrado no aluno para permitir aos estudantes que pertencem às carreiras não científicas explorar alguns conceitos astronômicos em mais detalhes do que o normal. Tais projetos também enfatizam eventos astronômicos em curso ou futuros. Esperamos que os alunos se sintam mais interessados na astronomia através de projetos ligados a eventos astronômicos. No termo de Primavera de 2012 (EUA), propomos ensaios curtos focados em eclipses, trânsitos e ocultações para promover o raro trânsito de Vênus que ocorreu no dia 5 de junho de 2012. Pedimos aos alunos que escrevessem dois ensaios curtos dentre três que foram propostos. Os ensaios continham partes descritivas e conceituais. Eles foram feitos para servir como ferramentas de ensino. 62% de 106 ensaios de 55 alunos ganhou graus A, B ou C. 21% dos 47 entrevistados que responderam ao levantamento posterior sentiu que os ensaios aumentaram seu interesse na astronomia. 49% dos inquiridos consideraram que os

  5. Conversations with Marcgrave: the Origin of Modern Astronomy in the Southern Hemisphere (Spanish Title: Conversando con Marcgrave: El Origen de la Astronomía Moderna en el Hemisferio Sur) Conversando Com Marcgrave: a Origem da Moderna Astronomia no Hemisfério Sul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, Alexandre; Araújo, Fábio

    2005-12-01

    primer observatorio astronómico del hemisferio y autor de las primeras observaciones astronómicas sistemáticas utilizando telescopios de este lado del mundo. Nuestra "conversación" con Marcgrave es imaginada en el marco del Recife antiguo, lugar donde él vivió durante el período de Mauricio de Nassau, y reune algunos colegas profesores apasionados por la enseñanza de la Astronomía. La historia es contada, de esta forma, dentro de un clima ameno y hasta un poco divertido, si bien las informaciones históricas y conceptuales contenidas en ella están basadas en fuentes bibliográficas confiables, debidamente referenciadas al final del texto. Estas fuentes van desde la obra original de este científico, en la cual aparece su relato sobre la observación de un eclipse solar en Recife, pasando por obras clásicas respecto de él mismo, como la del profesor Juliano Moreira, hasta fuentes mucho más recientes como el influyente trabajo del profesor John North. Otros textos importantes referidos al período de la colonización holandesa en el Brasil, tales como las obras clásicas de Charles Boxer, Bouman y Boogaart entre otros, son también utilizados en la construcción de esta dramatización pedagógica que se refiere a un interesante capítulo de la Historia de la Astronomía. O ano de 2004 assinala os 400 anos do nascimento do conde Maurício de Nassau, um importante personagem da história do Brasil. O presente texto está relacionado com o período do domínio holandês em Pernambuco. O artigo tenta resgatar o começo do estudo da Astronomia no hemisfério Sul. Para tal, idealizamos uma dramatização de uma entrevista fictícia com o astrônomo alemão Georg Marcgrave, construtor do primeiro observatório astronômico deste hemisfério e autor das primeiras observações astronômicas sistemáticas com o uso de telescópios neste lado do mundo. Nossa "conversa" com Marcgrave é idealizada no cenário do Recife antigo, local em que ele viveu no período de Maur

  6. Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

    2003-08-01

    O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Ser

  7. 26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...

  8. 26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...

  9. 26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7611-1 - Questions and answers relating to church tax inquiries and examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... regarding, among other things, withholding responsibilities for income tax or FICA (social security) tax... the church; (2) compliance with income tax or FICA (social security) tax withholding responsibilities... exemption or for unrelated business income (for instance, assessments of social security or other...

  11. Practical Astronomical Activities during Daytime. (Spanish Title: Actividades Astronómicas Prácticas Diurnas.) Atividades Astronômicas Práticas Diurnas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Eric

    2009-12-01

    aulas. Se a Astronomia ia ser introduzida, então era preciso encontrar uma forma de resolver essas dificuldades. Nosso grupo, trabalhando com professores e alunos numa abordagem construtivista, encontrou que os princípios da Astronomia podem ser descobertos durante o dia, enquanto os alunos estão na escola. Trabalhando de forma cooperativa os alunos mediram e registraram observações de suas próprias sombras causadas pelos movimentos da estrela mais próxima, o Sol, e nosso planeta Terra. Devido ao fato de os alunos se envolverem muito pessoalmente nas atividades, eles ficaram muito mais interessados nos resultados do estudo. A Astronomia passou a ser um desafio para o professor e seus alunos quando aplicaram suas experiências diurnas à observação noturna desde suas casas, relatada depois em sala de aula.

  12. Electrostatic Similarities between Protein and Small Molecule Ligands Facilitate the Design of Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kam Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the underlying principles in drug discovery is that a biologically active compound is complimentary in shape and molecular recognition features to its receptor. This principle infers that molecules binding to the same receptor may share some common features. Here, we have investigated whether the electrostatic similarity can be used for the discovery of small molecule protein-protein interaction inhibitors (SMPPIIs). We have developed a method that can be used to evaluate the similarity of electrostatic potentials between small molecules and known protein ligands. This method was implemented in a software called EleKit. Analyses of all available (at the time of research) SMPPII structures indicate that SMPPIIs bear some similarities of electrostatic potential with the ligand proteins of the same receptor. This is especially true for the more polar SMPPIIs. Retrospective analysis of several successful SMPPIIs has shown the applicability of EleKit in the design of new SMPPIIs. PMID:24130741

  13. The Effects of Using a Ramp and Elevator to Load and Unload Trailers on the Behavior and Physiology of Piglets

    PubMed Central

    McGlone, John; Sapkota, Avi

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport is a routine practice in the modern swine industry. Loading the pigs into trailers can be a novel and stressful experience for the animals. This study compared behaviors and physiological variables during and after loading using a ramp or elevator to determine which method is the least stressful to the pigs. Loading pigs by ramp appears to cause more stress than loading by elevator. Abstract Transport is an inevitable process in the modern U.S. swine industry. The loading process is a novel and potentially stressful experience. This study uses behavior, heart rate and leukocyte counts to compare stress one hour before, during and after loading via ramp or elevator. Piglets were held in a home pen (control (CON)), walked up and down an aisle (handled (HAN)), or walked to a truck and loaded via elevator (ELE) or ramp (RAM). Sitting, feeding and blood parameters did not show a significant treatment by time effect (p > 0.05). Standing behavior did not differ between CON and HAN piglets nor between RAM and ELE piglets (p > 0.05); however, CON and HAN piglets stood more than RAM and ELE piglets during treatment (p < 0.05). After treatment, drinking behavior was increased in RAM piglets (p < 0.05). The heart rate of ELE piglets decreased 6.3% after treatment; whereas the heart rate of RAM piglets remained elevated 2.4% (p < 0.05). In terms of heart rate, loading by elevator appears to be less stressful than loading by ramp. PMID:26480323

  14. Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Cyrus

    2013-03-01

    American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

  15. Sub-chronic safety evaluation of the ethanol extract of Aralia elata leaves in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Li, Fengjin; He, Xiaoli; Niu, Wenying; Feng, Yuenan; Bian, Jingqi; Kuang, Haixue; Xiao, Hongbin

    2016-08-01

    Aralia elata Seem. (A. elata) is a traditional Chinese medicine to treat some diseases. This investigation aims to evaluate the pharmaceutical safety of the ethanol extract of A. elata leaves, namely ethanol leaves extract (ELE), in Beagle dogs. In sub-chronic oral toxicity study, dogs were treated with the ELE at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 12 weeks and followed by 4 weeks recovery period. During experimental period, clinical signs, mortality, body temperature, food consumption and body weight were recorded. Analysis of electrocardiogram, urinalysis, ophthalmoscopy, hematology, serum biochemistry, organ weights and histopathology were performed. The results showed that both food consumption and body weight significantly decreased in high-dose group. Treatment-related side effects and mortality were observed in high-dose female dogs. Some parameters showed significant alterations in electrocardiogram, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and relative organ weights. These alterations were not related to dose or consistent across gender, which were ascribed to incidental and biological variability. The findings in this study indicated that the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of the ELE was 100 mg/kg in dogs and provided a vital reference for selecting a safe application dosage for human consumption. PMID:27156779

  16. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432

  17. Erysipelas-like erythema of familial Mediterranean fever syndrome: a case report with emphasis on histopathologic diagnostic clues.

    PubMed

    Kolivras, Athanassios; Provost, Philippe; Thompson, Curtis T

    2013-06-01

    We report histopathological findings in a case of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) syndrome with an erysipelas-like erythema (ELE). ELE is the only pathognomic cutaneous manifestation of FMF. ELE is characterized by well-demarcated, tender, erythematous and infiltrated plaques recurring on the same site and resolving spontaneously within 48-72 h. FMF is a monogenic autoinflammatory syndrome highlighted by recurrent fever associated with polyserositis involving mainly the peritoneum, synovium and pleura. FMF results from a mutation of the MEFV gene, which encodes for pyrin, leading to Il-1β activation and promoting neutrophil migration into the dermis. Histopathological findings in our case showed a sparse superficial perivascular and interstitial lymphocytic infiltrate admixed with some neutrophils, no eosinophils and mild papillary dermal edema. Venules and lymphatics were dilated, though no vasculitis was identified. Neutrophils are the most common cutaneous marker of autoinflammation, and cutaneous manifestations of monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes are represented by the spectrum of aseptic neutrophilic dermatoses. Neutrophils in the presence of recurrent fever and in the correct clinical context of recurrent erysipelas in the same site are a diagnostic clue for FMF. PMID:23521609

  18. Germs and Hygiene - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) Cover Your Cough English Cubrase quando tossir - português ( ...

  19. Common Cold - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... 繁體中文) French (français) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Portuguese (português) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Chinese - ... PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Portuguese (português) Cover Your Cough English Cubrase quando tossir - português ( ...

  20. Common Infant and Newborn Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... 한국어 (Korean) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Portuguese (português) When Should I Call My Baby's Doctor? Quando ...

  1. A proposed contents astronomy for basic education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2014-08-01

    quatro anos, nos quais, aparecem timidamente alguns conteúdos de Astronomia. Para o Ensino Médio, as propostas curriculares do Paraná e de Santa Catarina parecem que se repetem, apresentando apenas o conteúdo Gravitação Universal, na primeira série do Ensino Médio, já a proposta curricular do Rio Grande do Sul, traz uma sequência que é proposta nos PCN (Brasil, 1998; 1999; 2002), na qual aparece o tema em questão, porém, em todos os anos, em todas as propostas, não há um detalhamento do que, de como trabalhar os conteúdos. O detalhamento facilita a prática pedagógica, pois, conteúdos simples como as Estações do Ano, Fases da Lua, sequer são citados nas propostas curriculares pesquisadas. Outro aspecto observado é que os conteúdos de um modo geral não trazem uma sequência e não primam por partir do entorno do aluno, daquilo que ele conhece para estruturar novos conceitos. Tais aspectos dificultam o fazer pedagógico, pois, por ser uma região com características culturais semelhantes, era esperado que as propostas fossem mais próximas, o! que facilitaria em muito, por exemplo, transferências dentro de um mesmo estado ou interestaduais. Pautando-se no que foi observado, na falta de especificidade dos conteúdos, clareza, sequência dos conteúdos e propostas de trabalho é proposto uma sequência de conteúdos de Astronomia, com materiais e recursos, pois, como apontado por Langhi e Nardi (2009), é necessário fornecer além da informação, do conteúdo, o como fazer. Tal proposta não visa estabelecer-se como regra, mas como suporte ao professor para facilitar sua prática pedagógica e tornar o trabalho com Astronomia presente nas escolas brasileiras. Bardin, L. Análise de conteúdo. Tradução Luís Antero Reto, Augusto Pinheiro. São Paulo: Edições 70, 2011. 279 p. Langhi, R; Nardi, R. Ensino da astronomia no Brasil: educação formal, informal, não-formal e divulgação científica. Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física, v. 31, n

  2. 29 CFR 1650.110 - Implementation of salary offset.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... installment deductions will bear a reasonable relationship to the size of the debt and the employee's ability... deductions will be: Retirement and FICA; Medicare; Federal income taxes; health benefits; group...

  3. An in vitro evaluation of the accuracy of four electronic apex locators using stainless-steel and nickel-titanium hand files

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Vinutha; Manjunath, Mysore Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the accuracy of working length (WL) determination of four electronic apex locators (EALs), namely, Root ZX (RZX), Elements diagnostic unit and apex locator (ELE), SybronEndo Mini Apex locator (MINI) and Propex pixi (PIXI) using Stainless steel (SS) and nickel-titanium (NiTi) hand files. The null hypothesis was that there was no difference between canal length determination by SS and NiTi files of 4 EALs. Materials and Methods Sixty extracted, single rooted human teeth were decoronated and the canal orifice flared. The actual length (AL) was assessed visually, and the teeth were embedded in an alginate model. The electronic length (EL) measurements were recorded with all four EALs using SS and NiTi files at '0.5' reading on display. The differences between the AL and EL were compared. Results The results obtained with each EAL with SS and NiTi files were compared with AL. A paired sample t test showed that there was a statistical significant difference between EAL readings with SS and NiTi files for RZX and MINI (p < 0.05). The accuracy of RZX, ELE, MINI and PIXI within ± 0.5 mm of AL with SS/NiTi files were 93.3%/70%, 90%/91.7%, 95%/68.3%, and 83.3%/83.3%, respectively. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that Root ZX was statistically more accurate with NiTi files compared to SS files, while MINI was statistically more accurate with SS files compared to NiTi files. ELE and PIXI were not affected by the alloy type of the file used to determine WL. PMID:26877985

  4. Extended ellipse-line-ellipse trajectory for long-object cone-beam imaging with a mounted C-arm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhicong; Lauritsch, Günter; Dennerlein, Frank; Mao, Yanfei; Hornegger, Joachim; Noo, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Recent reports show that three-dimensional cone-beam (CB) imaging with a floor-mounted (or ceiling-mounted) C-arm system has become a valuable tool in interventional radiology. Currently, a circular short scan is used for data acquisition, which inevitably yields CB artifacts and a short coverage in the direction of the patient table. To overcome these two limitations, a more sophisticated data acquisition geometry is needed. This geometry should be complete in terms of Tuy’s condition and should allow continuous scanning, while being compatible with the mechanical constraints of mounted C-arm systems. Additionally, the geometry should allow accurate image reconstruction from truncated data. One way to ensure such a feature is to adopt a trajectory that provides full R-line coverage within the field-of-view (FOV). An R-line is any segment of line that connects two points on a source trajectory, and the R-line coverage is the set of points that belong to an R-line. In this work, we propose a novel geometry called the extended ellipse-line-ellipse (ELE) for long-object imaging with a mounted C-arm system. This trajectory is built from modules consisting of two elliptical arcs connected by a line. We demonstrate that the extended ELE can be configured in many ways so that full R-line coverage is guaranteed. Both tight and relaxed parametric settings are presented. All results are supported by extensive mathematical proofs provided in appendices. Our findings make the extended ELE trajectory attractive for axially-extended FOV imaging in interventional radiology.

  5. Extended ellipse-line-ellipse trajectory for long-object cone-beam imaging with a mounted C-arm system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhicong; Lauritsch, Günter; Dennerlein, Frank; Mao, Yanfei; Hornegger, Joachim; Noo, Frédéric

    2016-02-21

    Recent reports show that three-dimensional cone-beam (CB) imaging with a floor-mounted (or ceiling-mounted) C-arm system has become a valuable tool in interventional radiology. Currently, a circular short scan is used for data acquisition, which inevitably yields CB artifacts and a short coverage in the direction of the patient table. To overcome these two limitations, a more sophisticated data acquisition geometry is needed. This geometry should be complete in terms of Tuy's condition and should allow continuous scanning, while being compatible with the mechanical constraints of mounted C-arm systems. Additionally, the geometry should allow accurate image reconstruction from truncated data. One way to ensure such a feature is to adopt a trajectory that provides full R-line coverage within the field-of-view (FOV). An R-line is any segment of line that connects two points on a source trajectory, and the R-line coverage is the set of points that belong to an R-line. In this work, we propose a novel geometry called the extended ellipse-line-ellipse (ELE) for long-object imaging with a mounted C-arm system. This trajectory is built from modules consisting of two elliptical arcs connected by a line. We demonstrate that the extended ELE can be configured in many ways so that full R-line coverage is guaranteed. Both tight and relaxed parametric settings are presented. All results are supported by extensive mathematical proofs provided in appendices. Our findings make the extended ELE trajectory attractive for axially-extended FOV imaging in interventional radiology. PMID:26854687

  6. TEM Study of SAFARI-2000 Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buseck, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our research was to obtain data on the chemical and physical properties of individual aerosol particles from biomass smoke plume s in southern Africa and from air masses in the region that are affec ted by the smoke. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and ele ctron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and field-emission electron microscopy (FESEM) to study aerosol particles from several smoke and haz e samples and from a set of cloud samples.

  7. Maternal separation alters serotonergic and HPA axis gene expression independent of separation duration in mice.

    PubMed

    Own, Lawrence S; Iqbal, Rimsha; Patel, Paresh D

    2013-06-17

    Adverse early life experiences (aELEs), such as child abuse, neglect, or trauma, increase lifetime vulnerability for mental illness. In this study, aELEs were modeled in c57bl/6 mice using the maternal separation (MS) paradigm, in which pups were separated for 180 min/day (MS180), 15 min/day (MS15), or left undisturbed (AFR) from postnatal day 2-14. As adults, pups that experienced MS15 or MS180 demonstrated decreases in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 and serotonin transporter mRNA in the dorsal raphe dorsalis and ventralis, and increases in glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. To investigate factors underlying shared expression between MS conditions, dam on-nest time and DNA methylation at the TPH2 promoter and 5' UTR were assessed. Post-reunion on-nest time increased as a function of separation duration, potentially serving as a mitigating factor underlying similar expression between MS conditions. TPH2 DNA methylation remained unchanged, suggesting changes in TPH2 mRNA are not mediated by changes in DNA methylation of this region. The shared pattern of expression between MS15 and MS180 conditions suggests a species- or strain- specific response to MS unique to c57bl/6 mice. PMID:23548594

  8. Engineering the Controlled Assembly of Filamentous Injectisomes in E. coli K-12 for Protein Translocation into Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Gallego, David; Álvarez, Beatriz; Fernández, Luis Ángel

    2015-09-18

    Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems (T3SS) assemble large needle-like protein complexes in the bacterial envelope, called injectisomes, for translocation of protein effectors into host cells. The application of these "molecular syringes" for the injection of proteins into mammalian cells is hindered by their structural and genomic complexity, requiring multiple polypeptides encoded along with effectors in various transcriptional units (TUs) with intricate regulation. In this work, we have rationally designed the controlled expression of the filamentous injectisomes found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in the nonpathogenic strain E. coli K-12. All structural components of EPEC injectisomes, encoded in a genomic island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), were engineered in five TUs (eLEEs) excluding effectors, promoters and transcriptional regulators. These eLEEs were placed under the control of the IPTG-inducible promoter Ptac and integrated into specific chromosomal sites of E. coli K-12 using a marker-less strategy. The resulting strain, named synthetic injector E. coli (SIEC), assembles filamentous injectisomes similar to those in EPEC. SIEC injectisomes form pores in the host plasma membrane and are able to translocate T3-substrate proteins (e.g., translocated intimin receptor, Tir) into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells reproducing the phenotypes of intimate attachment and polymerization of actin-pedestals elicited by EPEC bacteria. Hence, SIEC strain allows the controlled expression of functional filamentous injectisomes for efficient translocation of proteins with T3S-signals into mammalian cells. PMID:26017572

  9. Properties of the ellipse-line-ellipse trajectory with asymmetrical variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zijia; Noo, Frédéric; Maier, Andreas; Lauritsch, Guenter

    2016-03-01

    Three-dimensional cone-beam (CB) imaging using a multi-axis floor-mounted (or ceiling-mounted) C-arm system has become an important tool in interventional radiology. This success motivates new developments to improve image quality. One direction in which advancement is sought is the data acquisition geometry and related CB artifacts. Currently, data acquisition is performed using the circular short-scan trajectory, which yields limited axial coverage and also provides incomplete data for accurate reconstruction. To improve the image quality, as well as to increase the coverage in the longitudinal direction of the patient, we recently introduced the ellipse- line-ellipse trajectory and showed that this trajectory provides full R-line coverage within the field-of-view, which is a key property for accurate reconstruction from truncated data. An R-line is any segment of line that connects two source positions. Here, we examine how the application of asymmetrical variations to the definition of the ELE trajectory impacts the R-line coverage. This question is significant to understand how much flexibility can be used in the implementation of the ELE trajectory, particularly to adapt the scan to patient anatomy and imaging task of interest. Two types of asymmetrical variations, called axial and angular variations, are investigated.

  10. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  11. Nuevas oportunidades de inmunoterapia dirigida

    Cancer.gov

    Un equipo de investigadores del NCI ha informado que varios tipos de cánceres gastrointestinales tienen mutaciones específicas al tumor que pueden ser reconocidas por el sistema inmunitario, lo que ofrece una posible oportunidad terapéutica para pacientes

  12. Capacitación de la fuerza laboral

    Cancer.gov

    El NCI es una organización gubernamental que capacita a la próxima generación de investigadores del cáncer en universidades e instituciones de todo el país y proporciona financiación para investigación científica.

  13. 45 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.2 Definitions. In this part... agreement. Department means the Department of Health and Human Services, its Staff Divisions, Operating... States Code); properly withheld taxes, FICA, Medicare; health and life insurance premiums; and...

  14. 45 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.2 Definitions. In this part... agreement. Department means the Department of Health and Human Services, its Staff Divisions, Operating... States Code); properly withheld taxes, FICA, Medicare; health and life insurance premiums; and...

  15. 45 CFR 33.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION SALARY OFFSET § 33.2 Definitions. In this part... agreement. Department means the Department of Health and Human Services, its Staff Divisions, Operating... States Code); properly withheld taxes, FICA, Medicare; health and life insurance premiums; and...

  16. 26 CFR 1.61-22 - Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Definition of Gross Income, Adjusted Gross Income, and Taxable Income § 1.61-22 Taxation of split-dollar life insurance arrangements. (a) Scope—(1) In... purposes of the income tax, the gift tax, the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA), the...

  17. 20 CFR 422.520 - Forms related to maintenance of earnings records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... records. 422.520 Section 422.520 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND... following forms are used by the Social Security Administration and by the public in connection with the... to request an employer identification number under the FICA.) SS-5—Application for a Social...

  18. 78 FR 40830 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8316

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... an F, J, or M Type Visa. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before September 6, 2013 to... Alien on an F, J, or M Type Visa. OMB Number: 1545-1862. Form Number: 8316. Abstract: Certain foreign... complete Form 8316 to verify that they are entitled to a refund of the FICA, that the employer has not...

  19. 75 FR 28325 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8316

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... an F, J, or M Type Visa. DATES: Written comments should be received on or before July 19, 2010 to be... Nonresident Alien on an F, J, or M Type Visa. OMB Number: 1545-1862. Form Number: 8316. Abstract: Certain... their employer must complete Form 8316 to verify that they are entitled to a refund of the FICA,...

  20. Terapias dirigidas contra el cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que trata de los fármacos que impiden el crecimiento y la diseminación del cáncer al interferir en las moléculas específicas que participan en la carcinogénesis y el crecimiento de tumores.

  1. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... earnings, we use wages, compensation, self-employment income, and deemed military wage credits (see §§ 404... expected to have worked in employment or self-employment covered by social security. (Your earnings before... security and remuneration for covered employment in excess of that which is subject to FICA...

  2. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... earnings, we use wages, compensation, self-employment income, and deemed military wage credits (see §§ 404... expected to have worked in employment or self-employment covered by social security. (Your earnings before... security and remuneration for covered employment in excess of that which is subject to FICA...

  3. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... earnings, we use wages, compensation, self-employment income, and deemed military wage credits (see §§ 404... expected to have worked in employment or self-employment covered by social security. (Your earnings before... security and remuneration for covered employment in excess of that which is subject to FICA...

  4. 45 CFR 2521.45 - What are the limitations on the Federal government's share of program costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... include the living allowance required under § 2522.240(b)(1), FICA, unemployment insurance (if required... Federal share of the living allowance may not exceed 85 percent of the minimum living allowance required... corps described in § 2522.240(b)(2)(i), you may not use Corporation funds for the living allowance....

  5. Tipos de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Lista alfabética de todos los tipos de cáncer con enlaces a enfermedades específicas e información general sobre tratamiento, cuidados de apoyo, exámenes de detección, prevención, estudios clínicos y otros temas.

  6. 48 CFR 1852.243-72 - Equitable adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and costs; direct labor hours and rates for each trade; the associated FICA, FUTA, SUTA, and Workmen's... than its own forces — — 10 To first tier subcontractor on work performed by its subcontractors — — 10 To Contractor and/or subcontractors on work performed with their own forces 10 10 — (c) Not more...

  7. Capacitación del personal y de los pacientes en torno a los cuidados terminales

    Cancer.gov

    Artículo sobre programas innovadores de base científica para ayudar a médicos y pacientes a hablar sobre la transición de un tratamiento activo para el cáncer a los cuidados en la etapa final de la vida.

  8. El NCI inicia un estudio para evaluar la utilidad de la secuenciación genética para mejorar los resu

    Cancer.gov

    El Instituto Nacional del Cáncer (NCI) lanzará este mes un estudio clínico piloto denominado M-PACT con la finalidad de evaluar si el tratamiento asignado según mutaciones genéticas específicas puede brindar beneficios a pacientes con tumores sólidos meta

  9. A simple approach to estimate earthquake magnitude from the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, S.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    In order for Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) to be effective, the rapid determination of magnitude (M) is important. At present, there are no methods which can accurately determine M even for extremely large events (ELE) for EEW, although a number of the methods have been suggested. In order to solve the problem, we use a simple approach derived from the fact that the time difference (Top) from the onset of the body wave to the arrival time of the peak acceleration amplitude of the body wave scales with M. To test this approach, we use 15,172 accelerograms of regional earthquakes (most of them are M4-7 events) from the K-NET, as the first step. Top is defined by analyzing the S-wave in this step. The S-onsets are calculated by adding the theoretical S-P times to the P-onsets which are manually picked. As the result, it is confirmed that logTop has high correlation with Mw, especially for the higher frequency band (> 2Hz). The RMS of residuals between Mw and M estimated in this step is less than 0.5. In case of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, M is estimated to be 9.01 at 150 seconds after the initiation of the event.To increase the number of the ELE data, we add the teleseismic high frequency P-wave records to the analysis, as the second step. According to the result of various back-projection analyses, we consider the teleseismic P-waves to contain information on the entire rupture process. The BHZ channel data of the Global Seismographic Network for 24 events are used in this step. 2-4Hz data from the stations in the epicentral distance range of 30-85 degrees are used following the method of Hara [2007]. All P-onsets are manually picked. Top obtained from the teleseimic data show good correlation with Mw, complementing the one obtained from the regional data. We conclude that the proposed approach is quite useful for estimating reliable M for EEW, even for the ELE.

  10. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    ção Diversos fatores como potencial de produção do solo, modo de aplicação do fertilizante dentre outro fatores afetam a resposta da batateira á aplicação de fertilizantes (Refschneider 1987.). Depreende- se pois que no estabelecimento de um nivel ideal de fertilização as variáveis planta, solo e condições climaticas devem ser visualizadas como um sistema pouco provável de ser homogeneo mesmo em nivel de fazenda. Como tal, generalizações a respeito de doses ou niveis de fertlização são difíceis de serem feitas, recomendações exigem julgamento hábil por parte do fazendeiro ou do tecnico responsavel pela cultura (Márton 2001a., 2001b.). Este julgamento será mais preciso conhecendo- se pontos que serão rápidamente discutidos a seguir. A taxa de absorção de nutrientes é governada pela concentração externa ou suprimento de nutrientes pelo solo e a demanda do nutriente criada pelo desenvolvimento e funcinamento normal dos diversos órgãos das plantas. O nivel de nutrientes na solução do solo deve ser suficiamente alto para que suas taxas de absorção não sejam limitantes ao crescimento. Por outro lado, não deve ser demasiado para causar excessiva absorção de outros nutrientes. Forte associação existe entre a absorção de nutrientes e o desenvolvimento da planta. De maneira geral, a fase de rapido desenvolvimento da cultura é acompanhada por um grande aumento na absorção de nutrientes com a taxa de absorção declinado quando a taxa de crescimento diminuiu. Normalmente todos os fertilizantes potássicos e fosfatados são adicionados ao solo na época do plantio. O nitrogênio normalmente é parcelado. Cerca de 2 por 3 do nível recomendado é colocado no sulco de plantio e o restante adicionado por ocasião da amontoa. É uma prática tradicinal e com pouco suporte experimental no condiõces brasileiras. Espera -se que a aplicação parcelada do nitrogênio e mesmo do potássio possem ser benéficas quando houver chuva excessiva ou irriga

  11. Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.

    2007-05-01

    Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (μ), mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), total atomic cross-section (σ_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (σ_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of γ-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive γ-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of μ/ρ and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

  12. In memory of Al Cameron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, John; Truran, James W.

    Al Cameron, who died recently (October 3, 2005) at 80, was one of the giants in astrophysics. His insights were profound and his interests were wide-ranging. Originally trained as a nuclear physicist, he made major contributions in a number of fields, including nuclear reactions in stars, nucleosynthesis, the abundances of the elements in the Solar System, and the origin of the Solar System and the Moon. In 1957, Cameron and, independently, Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler and Hoyle, wrote seminal papers on nuclear astrophysics. Most of our current ideas concerning ele- ment formation in stars have followed from those two pioneering and historical works. Al also made many contributions in the field of Solar System physics. Particularly noteworthy in this regard was Cameron's work on the formation of the Moon. Al was also a good friend and mentor of young people. Al Cameron will be missed by many in the community both for his scientific contributions and for his friendship.

  13. METHOD OF FABRICATING A URANIUM-ZIRCONIUM HYDRIDE REACTOR CORE

    DOEpatents

    Weeks, I.F.; Goeddel, W.V.

    1960-03-22

    A method is described of evenly dispersing uranlum metal in a zirconium hydride moderator to produce a fuel element for nuclear reactors. According to the invention enriched uranium hydride and zirconium hydride powders of 200 mesh particle size are thoroughly admixed to form a mixture containing 0.1 to 3% by weight of U/sup 235/ hydride. The mixed powders are placed in a die and pressed at 100 tons per square inch at room temperature. The resultant compacts are heated in a vacuum to 300 deg C, whereby the uranium hydride deoomposes into uranium metal and hydrogen gas. The escaping hydrogen gas forms a porous matrix of zirconium hydride, with uramum metal evenly dispersed therethrough. The advantage of the invention is that the porosity and uranium distribution of the final fuel element can be more closely determined and controlled than was possible using prior methods of producing such fuel ele- ments.

  14. Contactin 1 as a potential biomarker promotes cell proliferation and invasion in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Kaiyuan; Xu, Dong; Yang, Chen; Wang, Liping; Pan, Weiyun; Zheng, Chuanming; Fan, Linyin

    2015-01-01

    Contactin 1 (CNTN1) as a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily plays important role in the development of nervous system. Recent studies find that elevated CNTN1 can promote the metastasis of cancer. However, the expression and function of CNTN1 in thyroid cancer are still unknown. Here, we firstly find CNTN1 is a new gene which can be regulated by RET/PTC3 (Ret proto-oncogene and Ret-activating protein ELE1) rearrangement gene and the protein level of CNTN1 is increasing in thyroid cancer. Besides this change is positively associated with the TNM stage and tumor size. Moreover, we confirm that knockdown of CNTN1 significantly inhibits the tumor proliferation, invasiveness and represses the expression of cyclin D1 (CCND1). In conclusion, CNTN1 will be a poteintial diagnosis biomarker and therapy target for thyroid cancer. PMID:26722434

  15. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

  16. End-of-life experiences: reaching out for compassion, communication, and connection-meaning of deathbed visions and coincidences.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Peter; Brayne, Sue

    2011-02-01

    A recent study shows that the greatest fear for many Britons is to die alone. More than half the complaints received by the UK National Health Service (NHS) concern end-of-life care, with an emphasis on spiritual matters. Much has been written on the spiritual needs of the dying, but many doctors and nurses still find this a difficult area to approach. They lack the confidence and/or training to recognize or discuss spiritual aspects of death and dying or to affirm the spiritual needs of the dying person. Our end-of-life experience (ELE) research suggests that deathbed visions (DVs) and deathbed coincidences (DCs) are not uncommon, and that the dying process appears to involve an instinctive need for spiritual connection and meaning, requiring compassionate understanding and respect from those who provide end-of-life care. PMID:20801918

  17. The freely localized microwave discharge in air in the focused beam of the electromagnetic energy

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, A.F.; Kuzovnikov, A.A.; Shibkov, V.M.

    1995-12-31

    The successfull use of the microwave discharge in many applications make it necessary to research the physics of a new kind of discharge - the electrodeless microwave discharge in the focused beam, in the free space and to search for ways to optimize this discharge parameters. The breakdown was performed in a discharge chamber at approximately free space conditions: R/{lambda}{much_gt}1, where R = 1 m is the discharge chamber`s dimension, {lambda} = 2 {divided_by} 10 cm is the wavelength of the microwave radiation. The focused electromagnetic beam was formed by a trumped-lens antenna. The electric field E{le}6 kV/cm, the density of energy flow S{le}10{sup 5} W/cm{sup 2}, the wave is linearity polarized. The microwave pulse duration could be changed from 1 {mu}s to 1 ms. The gas pressure (nitrogen, air) is varied from 1 to 760 torr.

  18. Sensitivity of Air-sea Exchange In A Regional Scale Coupled Ice/ocean/atmosphere Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrum, C.; Hübner, U.; Jacob, D.; Podzun, R.

    The sub-systems ice, ocean and atmosphere are coupled on the global as well as the regional scale. However, regional coupled modeling is only in the beginning, full cou- pled models which are able to describe the interaction on the regional scale and the feedback mechanism are rare at the moment. For the North Sea and the Baltic Sea such a coupled model has been developed and exemplary integrated over a full seasonal cy- cle. By comparison of different regionalization studies the impact of the regional at- mospheric modeling and coupling on the air sea fluxes have been investigated. It was shown that the regionalization as well as the coupling show strong influence on the air/sea fluxes and thus on the oceanic conditions. Further problems in regional mod- eling like the description of storm track variability and its influence on the regional ocean model were identified.

  19. Aleph Field Solver Challenge Problem Results Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, Russell; Moore, Stan Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Aleph models continuum electrostatic and steady and transient thermal fields using a finite-element method. Much work has gone into expanding the core solver capability to support enriched mod- eling consisting of multiple interacting fields, special boundary conditions and two-way interfacial coupling with particles modeled using Aleph's complementary particle-in-cell capability. This report provides quantitative evidence for correct implementation of Aleph's field solver via order- of-convergence assessments on a collection of problems of increasing complexity. It is intended to provide Aleph with a pedigree and to establish a basis for confidence in results for more challeng- ing problems important to Sandia's mission that Aleph was specifically designed to address.

  20. Soaking RNAi in Bombyx mori BmN4-SID1 cells arrests cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Mon, Hiroaki; Li, Zhiqing; Kobayashi, Isao; Tomita, Shuichiro; Lee, JaeMan; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sequence-specific gene silencing. Previously, the BmN4-SID1 cell expressing Caenorhabditis ele gans SID-1 was established, in which soaking RNAi could induce effective gene silencing. To establish its utility, 6 cell cycle progression related cDNAs, CDK1, MYC, MYB, RNRS, CDT1, and GEMININ, were isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and their expressions were further silenced by soaking RNAi in the BmN4-SID1 cells. The cell cycle progression analysis using flow cytometer demonstrated that the small amount of double stranded RNA was enough to arrest cell cycle progression at the specific cell phases. These data suggest that RNAi in the BmN4-SID1 cells can be used as a powerful tool for loss-of-function analysis of B. mori genes. PMID:24773378

  1. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan). PMID:26502582

  2. [Binding of 1-substituted carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carbolines with DNA: Molecular dynamics simulation and MM-GBSA analysis].

    PubMed

    Sargolzaei, M; Afshar, M; Jorabchi, M N

    2016-01-01

    Molecular Mechanics-Generalized Born-Solvent Accessibility free energy calculations were used to analyse DNA binding affinity of 1-substituted carbazolyl-3,4-dihydro-β-carboline molecules. In this study, DNA structure with sequence of d(CGATCG)2 was used for simulations. 15 ns molecular dynamics simulations of the studied complexes were performed. The calculated free energy was compared with experimental antitumor activity (IC(50)). The predicted free energies decreased with the increase of IC(50) values. It was shown that molecules 1-6 bind to DNA via intercalation mode, while molecules 7-9 bind through groove binding mode. Also, it was found that the vdW energy term (ΔE(vdW)) and the non-polar desolvation energy (ΔG(SA)) are the favorable terms for binding energy, whereas net electrostatic energies (ΔE(ele) + ΔG(GB)) and conformational entropy energy (TΔS) are unfavorable ones. PMID:27239858

  3. Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Work, T M; Rameyer, R A

    1997-08-01

    We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific. PMID:9267418

  4. An entangled-light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Salter, C L; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

    2010-06-01

    An optical quantum computer, powerful enough to solve problems so far intractable using conventional digital logic, requires a large number of entangled photons. At present, entangled-light sources are optically driven with lasers, which are impractical for quantum computing owing to the bulk and complexity of the optics required for large-scale applications. Parametric down-conversion is the most widely used source of entangled light, and has been used to implement non-destructive quantum logic gates. However, these sources are Poissonian and probabilistically emit zero or multiple entangled photon pairs in most cycles, fundamentally limiting the success probability of quantum computational operations. These complications can be overcome by using an electrically driven on-demand source of entangled photon pairs, but so far such a source has not been produced. Here we report the realization of an electrically driven source of entangled photon pairs, consisting of a quantum dot embedded in a semiconductor light-emitting diode (LED) structure. We show that the device emits entangled photon pairs under d.c. and a.c. injection, the latter achieving an entanglement fidelity of up to 0.82. Entangled light with such high fidelity is sufficient for application in quantum relays, in core components of quantum computing such as teleportation, and in entanglement swapping. The a.c. operation of the entangled-light-emitting diode (ELED) indicates its potential function as an on-demand source without the need for a complicated laser driving system; consequently, the ELED is at present the best source on which to base future scalable quantum information applications. PMID:20520709

  5. Engineering the Controlled Assembly of Filamentous Injectisomes in E. coli K-12 for Protein Translocation into Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens containing type III protein secretion systems (T3SS) assemble large needle-like protein complexes in the bacterial envelope, called injectisomes, for translocation of protein effectors into host cells. The application of these “molecular syringes” for the injection of proteins into mammalian cells is hindered by their structural and genomic complexity, requiring multiple polypeptides encoded along with effectors in various transcriptional units (TUs) with intricate regulation. In this work, we have rationally designed the controlled expression of the filamentous injectisomes found in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) in the nonpathogenic strain E. coli K-12. All structural components of EPEC injectisomes, encoded in a genomic island called the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), were engineered in five TUs (eLEEs) excluding effectors, promoters and transcriptional regulators. These eLEEs were placed under the control of the IPTG-inducible promoter Ptac and integrated into specific chromosomal sites of E. coli K-12 using a marker-less strategy. The resulting strain, named synthetic injector E. coli (SIEC), assembles filamentous injectisomes similar to those in EPEC. SIEC injectisomes form pores in the host plasma membrane and are able to translocate T3-substrate proteins (e.g., translocated intimin receptor, Tir) into the cytoplasm of HeLa cells reproducing the phenotypes of intimate attachment and polymerization of actin-pedestals elicited by EPEC bacteria. Hence, SIEC strain allows the controlled expression of functional filamentous injectisomes for efficient translocation of proteins with T3S-signals into mammalian cells. PMID:26017572

  6. Changes in C-N metabolism under elevated CO2 and temperature in Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.): an adaptation strategy under climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Seth, Chandra Shekhar; Misra, Virendra

    2014-11-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the possible role of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism in adaptation of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) growing under ambient (370 ± 15 ppm) and elevated CO2 (700 ± 15 ppm), and jointly in elevated CO2 and temperature (30/22 °C for day/night). The key enzymes responsible for C-N metabolism were studied in different samples of Brassica juncea L. collected from ambient (AMB), elevated (ELE) and ELExT growth conditions. Total percent amount of C and N in leaves were particularly estimated to establish a clear understanding of aforesaid metabolism in plant adaptation. Furthermore, key morphological and physiological parameters such as plant height, leaf area index, dry biomass, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration, total protein and chlorophyll contents were also studied in relation to C/N metabolism. The results indicated that the C-metabolizing enzymes, such as (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme, NADP-malic enzyme and citrate synthase) and the N-metabolizing enzymes, such as (aspartate amino transferase, glutamine synthetase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase) showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher activities along with the aforesaid physiological and biochemical parameters in order of ELE > ELExT > AMB growth conditions. This is also evident by significant (P < 0.05) increase in percent contents of C and N in leaves as per said order. These findings suggested that improved performance of C-N metabolism could be a possible approach for CO2 assimilation and adaptation in Brassica juncea L. against elevated CO2 and temperature prevailing in climate change scenarios. PMID:25246072

  7. Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhães, N. S.

    2003-08-01

    Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nêutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formação do buraco negro, o espaço-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbações que se propagam na forma de radiação gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiação gravitacional, durante este estágio, aproxima-se a uma senóide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal é conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrização são muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observá-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste teórico ajudou-nos a criar estratégias de detecção de sinais imersos no ruído instrumental. Calculamos a relação sinal-ruído como uma função da frequência, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg terá sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofísicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

  8. Space distribution of EEG responses to hanoi-moving visual and auditory stimulation with Fourier Independent Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Wang, Yi; Bin, Guangyu; Huang, Xiaoshan; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Gang; Lv, Yanwei; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai; Ma, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The relationship between EEG source signals and action-related visual and auditory stimulation is still not well-understood. The objective of this study was to identify EEG source signals and their associated action-related visual and auditory responses, especially independent components of EEG. Methods: A hand-moving-Hanoi video paradigm was used to study neural correlates of the action-related visual and auditory information processing determined by mu rhythm (8–12 Hz) in 16 healthy young subjects. Independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to identify separate EEG sources, and further computed in the frequency domain by applying-Fourier transform ICA (F-ICA). Results: F-ICA found more sensory stimuli-related independent components located within the sensorimotor region than ICA did. The total number of independent components of interest from F-ICA was 768, twice that of 384 from traditional time-domain ICA (p < 0.05). In the sensory-motor region C3 or C4, the total source signals intensity distribution values from all 14 subjects was 23.00 (Mean 1.64 ± 1.17) from F-ICA; which was more than the 10.5 (Mean 0.75 ± 0.62) from traditional time-domain ICA (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the intensity distribution of source signals in the C3 or C4 region was statistically significant between the ICA and F-ICA groups (strong 50 vs. 92%; weak 50 vs. 8% retrospectively; p < 0.05). In the Pz region, the total source signal intensity distribution from F-ICA was 12.50 (Mean 0.89 ± 0.53); although exceeding that of traditional time-domain ICA 8.20 (Mean 0.59 ± 0.48), the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that mu rhythm was sensitive to detection of the cognitive expression, which could be reflected by the function in the parietal lobe sensory-motor region. The results of this study could potentially be applied into early diagnosis for those with visual and hearing

  9. DFT calculations, spectroscopy and antioxidant activity studies on (E)-2-nitro-4-[(phenylimino)methyl]phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Ersin; Alaşalvar, Can; Gökçe, Halil; Güder, Aytaç; Albayrak, Çiğdem; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Alpaslan, Gökhan; Dilek, Nefise

    2015-02-01

    We have reported synthesis and characterization of (E)-2-nitro-4-[(phenylimino)methyl]phenol by using X-ray crystallographic method, FT-IR and UV-vis spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT). Optimized geometry and vibrational frequencies of the title compound in the ground state have been computed by using B3LYP with the 6-311G+(d,p) basis set. HOMO-LUMO energy gap, Non-linear optical properties and NBO analysis of the compound are performed at B3LYP/6-311G+(d,p) level. Additionally, as remarkable properties, antioxidant activity of the title compound (CMPD) has been determined by using different antioxidant test methods i.e. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPSA), free radical scavenging (FRSA) and ferrous ion chelating activities (FICA). When compared with standards (BHA, BHT, and α-tocopherol), we have concluded that CPMD has effective FRAP, HPSA, FRSA and FICA.

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Acaban de cumplirse 20 años del estreno de la película "Toy Story", primera de la factoría Disney Pixar y que marcaría un hito en la animación cinematográfica. Con esa frase ("To infinity… and eyond") el protagonista, Buzz Lightyear iniciaba su tarea, su reto, su misión…. PMID:27019233

  11. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J; Fernández Soto, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    La detección de la desnutrición hospitalaria continúa de plena actualidad en la literatura médica y, a pesar de que desde hace dos décadas dejó de ser un tema novedoso, constituye un elemento recurrente en la bibliografía y motivo de abordajes monográficos en congresos y reuniones científicas. PMID:27513480

  12. [Overgeneral autobiographical memory in depressive disorders].

    PubMed

    Dutra, Tarcísio Gomes; Kurtinaitis, Laila da Camara Lima; Cantilino, Amaury; Vasconcelos, Maria Carolina Souto de; Hazin, Izabel; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to review studies focusing on the relationship between overgeneral autobiographical memory and depressive disorders. Such characteristic has attracted attention because of its relationship with a poor ability to solve problems and to imagine the future, as well as with the maintenance and a poor prognosis of depression. Data were collected through a systematic search on LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and IBECS databases, and also on the health sciences records of Portal de Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), a Brazilian journal database, focusing on articles published between 2000 and 2010. The following keywords were used: memória autobiográfica, supergeneralização da memória autobiográfica, and memória autobiográfica e depressão in Portuguese; and autobiographical memory, overgeneral autobiographical memory, and autobiographical memory and depression in English. Following application of exclusion criteria, a total of 27 studies were reviewed. Overgeneral autobiographical memory has been investigated in several depressive disorders. However, further longitudinal studies are required to confirm the relevant role of this cognitive characteristic in anamnesis and in the treatment of mood disorders. PMID:25922925

  13. A Reappraising of Cosmography: the Interface Between Astronomical and Geographic Studies. (Breton Title: Releitura do Conceito de Cosmografia: a Interface Entre os Estudos Astronômicos e Geográficos.) Una Relectura del Concepto de Cosmografía: la Interfase Entre los Estudios Astronómicos y Geográficos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "Cosmography" is in disuse since the 80s of the last century, but the astronomical themes previously discussed in the school subjects of Geography and Cosmography remain in current textbooks. The use of term "Cosmography" was rescued in this research, and the study of its re-signification prompted the appearance of the term Geographic Cosmography. The Geographic Cosmography is a field of studies of the Geography, whose set of knowledge and skills is predominantly scholar. It studies the interface between terrestrial and celestial knowledge, and assigns a geographic significance to them. It examines human and natural relationships with Sidereal Space and its consequences for society and nature. O conceito de "Cosmografia" está em desuso desde os anos 80 do século XX, mas os temas astronômicos anteriormente abordados nas disciplinas escolares de Cosmografia e de Geografia permanecem nos atuais livros didáticos. O uso do termo "Cosmografia" foi resgatado nesta pesquisa e o estudo de sua ressignificação proporcionou o surgimento do termo Cosmografia Geográfica. A Cosmografia Geográfica é um campo de estudos da Geografia, cujo conjunto de conhecimentos e habilidades é predominantemente escolar. Estuda a interface entre os conhecimentos terrestres e os celestes e lhes atribui significância geográfica. Analisa as relações humanas e naturais com o Espaço Sideral e suas consequências para a sociedade e a natureza.

    Aunque el concepto de "Cosmografía" no se usa desde la década de los '80 del siglo pasado, los temas astronómicos que se enseñaban anteriormente en las asignaturas escolares de Cosmografía y de Geografía permanecen en los actuales libros didácticos. El uso del término "Cosmografía" fue rescatado en esta investigación y el estudio de su resignificación proporcionó el surgimiento del término Cosmografía Geográfica. La Cosmografía Geográfica es un campo de estudio de la Geografía, donde

  14. Na Cauda do Cometa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  15. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-03-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  16. Anomalous diffusion for bed load transport with a physically-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, N.; Singh, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Wu, B.

    2013-12-01

    Diffusion of bed load particles shows both normal and anomalous behavior for different spatial-temporal scales. Understanding and quantifying these different types of diffusion is important not only for the development of theoretical models of particle transport but also for practical purposes, e.g., river management. Here we extend a recently proposed physically-based model of particle transport by Fan et al. [2013] to further develop an Episodic Langevin equation (ELE) for individual particle motion which reproduces the episodic movement (start and stop) of sediment particles. Using the proposed ELE we simulate particle movements for a large number of uniform size particles, incorporating different probability distribution functions (PDFs) of particle waiting time. For exponential PDFs of waiting times, particles reveal ballistic motion in short time scales and turn to normal diffusion at long time scales. The PDF of simulated particle travel distances also shows a change in its shape from exponential to Gamma to Gaussian with a change in timescale implying different diffusion scaling regimes. For power-law PDF (with power - μ) of waiting times, the asymptotic behavior of particles at long time scales reveals both super-diffusion and sub-diffusion, however, only very heavy tailed waiting times (i.e. 1.0 < μ < 1.5) could result in sub-diffusion. We suggest that the contrast between our results and previous studies (for e.g., studies based on fractional advection-diffusion models of thin/heavy tailed particle hops and waiting times) results could be due the assumption in those studies that the hops are achieved instantaneously, but in reality, particles achieve their hops within finite times (as we simulate here) instead of instantaneously, even if the hop times are much shorter than waiting times. In summary, this study stresses on the need to rethink the alternative models to the previous models, such as, fractional advection-diffusion equations, for studying

  17. Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

    1993-01-01

    A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an

  18. Developments in HF equipment and systems mobile and portable terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Q. C.

    1986-03-01

    Before the advent of satellite platforms, sophisticated high frequency (HF) propagation and system research promised improved capability during disturbed ionospheric propagation conditions. However, satellite relays captured the imaginations and pocketbooks of the communications community in the mid-1960s. Consequently, extant HF systems aged while satellite systems were implemented. During peacetime, satellite systems transmit quality low data rate communications and navigation aids to mobile users, but there is now renewed interest in the low cost and survivability attributes of HF radio. At this time, when old HF prime systems need replacement for logistical reasons, the need for low cost communications that can survive jamming, nuclear effects, and space warfare is not satisfied. The HF renaissance is the response to this challenge. Logistical replacement procurements that provide new capabilities are redressing the attrition of vacuum-tube radio equipment over the last decade. Procuring organizations typically compile specifications comprising state-of-the-art and new capabilities offered by competing vendors. Integrated circuits, which include microprocessors, synthesizer ele ments, and other evolving components, have led to new circuit architectures. The first of the following three sections describes: Receivers; Transceivers and Antenna Couplers; Antenna Kits; and Audio Channel Peripherals.

  19. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    2015-02-22

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  20. Role of direct electron-phonon coupling across metal-semiconductor interfaces in thermal transport via molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Keng-Hua; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-07-21

    Motivated by significant interest in metal-semiconductor and metal-insulator interfaces and superlattices for energy conversion applications, we developed a molecular dynamics-based model that captures the thermal transport role of conduction electrons in metals and heat transport across these types of interface. Key features of our model, denoted eleDID (electronic version of dynamics with implicit degrees of freedom), are the natural description of interfaces and free surfaces and the ability to control the spatial extent of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling. Non-local e-ph coupling enables the energy of conduction electrons to be transferred directly to the semiconductor/insulator phonons (as opposed to having to first couple to the phonons in the metal). We characterize the effect of the spatial e-ph coupling range on interface resistance by simulating heat transport through a metal-semiconductor interface to mimic the conditions of ultrafast laser heating experiments. Direct energy transfer from the conduction electrons to the semiconductor phonons not only decreases interfacial resistance but also increases the ballistic transport behavior in the semiconductor layer. These results provide new insight for experiments designed to characterize e-ph coupling and thermal transport at the metal-semiconductor/insulator interfaces.

  1. Wrought cobalt- base superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klarstrom, D. L.

    1993-08-01

    Wrought cobalt-base superalloys are used extensively in gas turbine engines because of their excellent high-temperature creep and fatigue strengths and resistance to hot corrosion attack. In addition, the unique character of the oxide scales that form on some of the alloys provides outstanding resistance to high-temperature sliding wear. This article provides a review of the evolutionary development of wrought cobalt-base alloys in terms of alloy design and physical metallurgy. The topics include solid-so-lution strengthening, carbide precipitation characteristics, and attempts to introduce age hardening. The use of PHACOMP to enhance thermal stability characteristics and the incorporation of rare-earth ele-ments to improve oxidation resistance is also reviewed and discussed. The further development of cobalt-base superalloys has been severely hampered by past political events, which have accentuated the strategic vulnerability of cobalt as a base or as an alloying element. Consequently, alternative alloys have been developed that use little or no cobalt. One such alternative, Haynes® 230TMalloy, is discussed briefly.

  2. Verification and Validation of the k-kL Turbulence Model in FUN3D and CFL3D Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdol-Hamid, Khaled S.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the k-kL turbulence model using multiple computational uid dy- namics (CFD) codes is reported herein. The k-kL model is a two-equation turbulence model based on Abdol-Hamid's closure and Menter's modi cation to Rotta's two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable transport equation can be formed from the turbulent length scale L, and the turbulent kinetic energy k. Rotta's equation is well suited for term-by-term mod- eling and displays useful features compared to other two-equation models. An important di erence is that this formulation leads to the inclusion of higher-order velocity derivatives in the source terms of the scale equations. This can enhance the ability of the Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solvers to simulate unsteady ows. The present report documents the formulation of the model as implemented in the CFD codes Fun3D and CFL3D. Methodology, veri cation and validation examples are shown. Attached and sepa- rated ow cases are documented and compared with experimental data. The results show generally very good comparisons with canonical and experimental data, as well as matching results code-to-code. The results from this formulation are similar or better than results using the SST turbulence model.

  3. Potential of The Object Modeling System For Development and Application of Decision Support Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, P.; David, O.

    For future-proof development and implementation of Decision Support Systems flex- ible software tools assisting the developers as well as the users are needed. With the Object Mod-eling System (OMS), which was developed in a joint approach by the USGS (Denver, Col.), the USDA (Ft. Collins, Col.) and the Friedrich-Schiller- University (Jena, Germany) such a tool has become available. By its object oriented and modular design the OMS provides a system independent framework for model as well as DSS development and application. Addi-tionally different views for devel- opers, modellers or operational users can be defined provid-ing each group with only that functionality they need for their daily work. Besides the core components for sys- tems development and application a GIS interface for spatial queries and analyses is currently under development. The hydrological model PRMS and the Root Zone Wa- ter Quality Model RZWQM have al-ready been integrated into the OMS and can be used for prognostic simulations of quantitative and qualitative modelling of the water balance. The integration of other models and the ge-neric development of new com- ponents and process modules will be carried out continuously. In the presentation the OMS will be introduced and its potential for future-proof development and application of DSS will be demonstrated.

  4. Thomson scattering measurements in the RFX reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Bassan, M.; Bilato, R.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Sardella, A.

    1997-01-01

    The first systematic measurements of the electron temperature (T{sub e}) spatial profile have been obtained in the reversed field pinch experiment RFX with a single pulse Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic. Scattered light from a ruby laser pulse (E{le}15 J, {Delta}t=30 ns) is collected through three objectives from 10 positions along a diameter in the plasma equatorial plane, with a spatial resolution of 2.5 cm. Plasma discharges with current in the range 700{endash}900 kA have been investigated finding evidence of a quite flat T{sub e} profile. Data dispersion significantly greater than experimental uncertainties provides an indication of remarkable plasma fluctuations. Results are in good agreement with T{sub e} measurements from other single chord spectroscopic diagnostics (SiLi detector and SXR double filter), showing a reliable operation down to an electron density n{sub e}=3{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3}. Integration of this apparatus with a ND:YLF laser system for multipulse Thomson scattering measurements, sharing the same input optics, is under way. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. New therapeutic approach to heart failure due to myocardial infarction based on targeting growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor

    PubMed Central

    Schally, Andrew V.; Takeuchi, Lauro M.; Popovics, Petra; Jaszberenyi, Miklos; Vidaurre, Irving; Zarandi, Marta; Cai, Ren-Zhi; Block, Norman L.; Hare, Joshua M.; Rick, Ferenc G.

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) agonists are cardioprotective following myocardial infarction (MI). Here, our aim was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo activities of highly potent new GHRH agonists, and elucidate their mechanisms of action in promoting cardiac repair. Methods and Results H9c2 cells were cultured in serum-free medium, mimicking nutritional deprivation. GHRH agonists decreased calcium influx and significantly improved cell survival. Rats with cardiac infarction were treated with GHRH agonists or placebo for four weeks. MI size was reduced by selected GHRH agonists (JI-38, MR-356, MR-409); this accompanied an increased number of cardiac c-kit+ cells, cellular mitotic divisions, and vascular density. One week post-MI, MR-409 significantly reduced plasma levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α compared to placebo. Gene expression studies revealed favorable outcomes of MR-409 treatment partially result from inhibitory activity on pro-apoptotic molecules and pro-fibrotic systems, and by elevation of bone morphogenetic proteins. Conclusions Treatment with GHRH agonists appears to reduce the inflammatory responses post-MI and may consequently improve mechanisms of healing and cardiac remod eling by regulating pathways involved in fibrosis, apoptosis and cardiac repair. Patients with cardiac dysfunction could benefit from treatment with novel GHRH agonists. PMID:25797248

  6. Collisionless Weibel Shocks and Electron Acceleration in Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Cai, Dongsheng; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Lembége, Bertrand

    2015-09-01

    A study of collisionless external shocks in gamma-ray bursts is presented. The shock structure, electromagnetic field, and process of electron acceleration are assessed by performing a self-consistent 3D particle-in-cell simulation. In accordance with hydrodynamic shock systems, the shock consists of a reverse shock (RS) and forward shock separated by a contact discontinuity. The development and structure are controlled by the ion Weibel instability. The ion filaments are sources of strong transverse electromagnetic fields at both sides of the double shock structure over a length of 30-100 ion skin depths. Electrons are heated up to a maximum energy {ɛ }{ele}≈ \\sqrt{{ɛ }{{b}}}, where ɛ is the energy normalized to the total incoming energy. Jet electrons are trapped in the RS transition region due to the presence of an ambipolar electric field and reflection by the strong transverse magnetic fields in the shocked region. In a process similar to shock surfing acceleration for ions, electrons experience drift motion and acceleration by ion filament transverse electric fields in the plane perpendicular to the shock propagation direction. Ultimately, accelerated jet electrons are convected back into the upstream.

  7. A Non-conventional Watershed Partitioning Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menduni, Giovanni; Pagani, Alessandro; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Rossso, Renzo

    The extraction of the river network from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) plays a fundamental role in modelling spatially distributed hydrological processes. This ex- ercise deals with a new two-step procedure based on the preliminary identification of an Ideal Drainage Network (IDN) from contour lines trough a variable mesh size, and the further extraction of the Actual Drainage Network (AND) from the IDN using land morphology. The steepest downslope lines search is used to identify individual channels, which are further merged into a network path draining to a given node of the IDN. The contributing area, peaks and saddles are determined by means of steepest upslope lines search. The basin area is thus partitioned into physically based finite ele- ments enclosed by irregular polygons. Different methods, i.e. the constant and variable threshold area method, the contour line curvature method, and a topologic method de- scending from the Hortonian ordering scheme are used to extract the Actual Drainage Network (ADN) from the IDN. Accordingly, using of the contour line curvature is shown to provide the most appropriate method from comparison with field surveys.

  8. Current Status of MPPE (Mercury Plasma Particle Experiment) on BepiColombo/MMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Hirahara, Masafumi; Barabash, Stas; Delcourt, Dominique; André, Nicolas; Takashima, Takeshi; Asamura, Kazushi

    2015-04-01

    Mercury's plasma/particle environment has gradually become clear thanks to the new observations made by MESSENGER spacecraft orbiting around Mercury. However, it is also true that many questions will be left unsolved. In order to elucidate the detailed plasma structure and dynamics around Mercury, an orbiter BepiColombo MMO (Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter) is going to be launched in 2016 as a joint mission between ESA and ISAS/JAXA. Mercury Plasma/Particle Experiment (MPPE) is a comprehensive instrument package for plasma, high-energy particle and energetic neutral atom measurements. It consists of 7 sensors: two Mercury Electron Analyzers (MEA1 and MEA2), Mercury Ion Analyzer (MIA), Mass Spectrum Analyzer (MSA), High Energy Particle instrument for electron (HEP-ele), High Energy Particle instrument for ion (HEP-ion), and Energetic Neutrals Analyzer (ENA). Currently, the MPPE sensors are on the MMO spacecraft under system integration test at ISAS/JAXA (Institute of Space and Astronautical Science / Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Evaluation of the sensor calibration data and the final check of the onboard processing software are being made in order to realize the flawless future plasma/particle observations around Mercury.

  9. A hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine coolant passage design program (RECOP) for fluid-cooled thrust chambers and nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers is critical to the operation and safety of a rocket engine system. Designing a coolant passage is a complex thermal and hydraulic problem requiring an accurate understanding of the heat transfer between the combustion gas and the coolant. Every major rocket engine company has invested in the development of thrust chamber computer design and analysis tools; two examples are Rocketdyne's REGEN code and Aerojet's ELES program. In an effort to augment current design capabilities for government and industry, the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing a computer model to design coolant passages for advanced regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The RECOP code incorporates state-of-the-art correlations, numerical techniques and design methods, certainly minimum requirements for generating optimum designs of future space chemical engines. A preliminary version of the RECOP model was recently completed and code validation work is in progress. This paper introduces major features of RECOP and compares the analysis to design points for the first test case engine; the Pratt & Whitney RL10A-3-3A thrust chamber.

  10. Ontology-Based Data Integration between Clinical and Research Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mate, Sebastian; Köpcke, Felix; Toddenroth, Dennis; Martin, Marcus; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Data from the electronic medical record comprise numerous structured but uncoded ele-ments, which are not linked to standard terminologies. Reuse of such data for secondary research purposes has gained in importance recently. However, the identification of rele-vant data elements and the creation of database jobs for extraction, transformation and loading (ETL) are challenging: With current methods such as data warehousing, it is not feasible to efficiently maintain and reuse semantically complex data extraction and trans-formation routines. We present an ontology-supported approach to overcome this challenge by making use of abstraction: Instead of defining ETL procedures at the database level, we use ontologies to organize and describe the medical concepts of both the source system and the target system. Instead of using unique, specifically developed SQL statements or ETL jobs, we define declarative transformation rules within ontologies and illustrate how these constructs can then be used to automatically generate SQL code to perform the desired ETL procedures. This demonstrates how a suitable level of abstraction may not only aid the interpretation of clinical data, but can also foster the reutilization of methods for un-locking it. PMID:25588043

  11. Cross sections for electron scattering by atomic potassium

    SciTech Connect

    Msezane, A.Z.; Awuah, P.; Hiamang, S. Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 ); Allotey, F.K.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Electron elastic and collisional excitation cross sections from the ground state of potassium are calculated using the noniterative integral-equation method of Henry, Rountree, and Smith (Comput. Phys. Commun. 23, 233 (1981)) in the electron energy range 4{le}{ital E}{le}200 eV. Configuration-interaction target wave functions that take account of correlation and polarization effects are used to represent the ground state and the six lowest excited states 4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 5{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}, 3{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, 5{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, 4{ital d} {sup 2}{ital D}, and 6{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}. Elastic and discrete excitation cross sections are obtained in a seven-state close-coupling (7CC) approximation. The 7CC elastic and excitation cross sections are compared and contrasted. Near threshold the elastic cross section dominates the resonance, 4{ital s} {sup 2}{ital S}{r arrow}4{ital p} {sup 2}{ital P}{degree}, and the sum of the other remaining excitation cross sections. Comparison of our total cross sections with some available experimental and theoretical data is also effected. The discrepancy between the recent measurement of the total cross section by Kwan {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 44, 1620 (1991)) on the one hand and other measurements near threshold on the other hand is explained.

  12. Instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz em Raios Cometários

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, O. T.; Shigueoka, H.; Voelzke, M. R.

    1995-08-01

    Raios cometários são estruturas finas e longas da cauda de cometas do Tipo I (ou de plasma). Como eles apresentam simetria cilíndrica, admitem modelos MHD simples. Este trabalho explora essa possibilidade, apresentando um estudo sistemático da estabilidade e das oscilações de raios cometários na aproximação de plasma homogêneo. O critério de estabilidade, combinado com dados observacionais de perturbações (ondas, hélices, rupturas etc), constitui um importante diagnóstico da velocidade do plasma cometário em relação ao vento solar circundante, contribuindo assim para esclarecer questões fundamentais, tais como, o papel da instabilidade de Kelvin-Helmholtz na aceleração do plasma cometário, a propagação, conversão de modos e amortecimento de certas ondas do espectro MHD nos raios cometários. Os resultados deste estudo nortearão a análise de um grande número de imagens do Cometa Halley arquivadas em CD-ROM pela equipe dos fenômenos de grande escala do International Halley W!

  13. IR CMOS: near infrared enhanced digital imaging (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pralle, Martin U.; Carey, James E.; Joy, Thomas; Vineis, Chris J.; Palsule, Chintamani

    2015-08-01

    SiOnyx has demonstrated imaging at light levels below 1 mLux (moonless starlight) at video frame rates with a 720P CMOS image sensor in a compact, low latency camera. Low light imaging is enabled by the combination of enhanced quantum efficiency in the near infrared together with state of the art low noise image sensor design. The quantum efficiency enhancements are achieved by applying Black Silicon, SiOnyx's proprietary ultrafast laser semiconductor processing technology. In the near infrared, silicon's native indirect bandgap results in low absorption coefficients and long absorption lengths. The Black Silicon nanostructured layer fundamentally disrupts this paradigm by enhancing the absorption of light within a thin pixel layer making 5 microns of silicon equivalent to over 300 microns of standard silicon. This results in a demonstrate 10 fold improvements in near infrared sensitivity over incumbent imaging technology while maintaining complete compatibility with standard CMOS image sensor process flows. Applications include surveillance, nightvision, and 1064nm laser see spot. Imaging performance metrics will be discussed. Demonstrated performance characteristics: Pixel size : 5.6 and 10 um Array size: 720P/1.3Mpix Frame rate: 60 Hz Read noise: 2 ele/pixel Spectral sensitivity: 400 to 1200 nm (with 10x QE at 1064nm) Daytime imaging: color (Bayer pattern) Nighttime imaging: moonless starlight conditions 1064nm laser imaging: daytime imaging out to 2Km

  14. Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine as an Acceptor toward Fast-Switching Green Donor-Acceptor-Type Electrochromic Polymer with Low Bandgap.

    PubMed

    Ming, Shouli; Zhen, Shijie; Lin, Kaiwen; Zhao, Li; Xu, Jingkun; Lu, Baoyang

    2015-06-01

    Thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine (PT), an important analog of benzothiadiazole (BT), has most recently been explored as a novel electron acceptor. It exhibits more electron-accepting ability and other unique properties and potential advantages over BT, thus inspiring us to investigate PT-based donor-acceptor-type (D-A) conjugated polymer in electrochromics. Herein, PT was employed for the rational design of novel donor-acceptor-type systems to yield a neutral green electrochromic polymer poly(4,7-di(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-[1,2,5] thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine) (PEPTE). PEPTE revealed a lower bandgap (Eg,ele=0.85 eV, Eg,opt=1.12 eV) than its BT analog and also favorable redox activity and stability. Furthermore, electrochromic kinetic studies demonstrated that PEPTE displayed higher coloration efficiency than BT analog, good optical memory, and very fast switching time (0.3 s at all three wavelengths), indicating that PT would probably be a promising choice for developing novel neutral green electrochromic polymers by matching with various donor units. PMID:25955881

  15. Understanding the drug resistance mechanism of hepatitis C virus NS5B to PF-00868554 due to mutations of the 423 site: a computational study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Pingzu; Xue, Weiwei; Shen, Yulin; Jin, Nengzhi; Liu, Huanxiang

    2014-04-01

    NS5B, a hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that plays a key role in viral replication, is an important target in the discovery of antiviral agents. PF-00868554 is a potent non-nucleoside inhibitor (NNI) that binds to the Thumb II allosteric pocket of NS5B polymerase and has shown significant promise in phase II clinical trials. Unfortunately, several PF-00868554 resistant mutants have been identified. M423 variants were the most common NS5B mutations that occurred after PF-00868554 monotherapy. In this study, we used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, binding free energy calculations and free energy decomposition to explore the drug resistance mechanism of HCV to PF-00868554 resulting from three representative mutations (M423T/V/I) in NS5B polymerase. Free energy decomposition analysis reveals that the loss of binding affinity mainly comes from the reduction of both van der Waals (ΔE(vdw)) and electrostatic interaction contributions in the gas phase (ΔE(ele)). Further structural analysis indicates that the location of PF-00868554 and the binding mode changed due to mutation of the residue at the 423 site of NS5B polymerase from methionine to threonine, isoleucine or valine, which further resulted in the loss of binding ability of PF-00868554 to NS5B polymerase. The obtained computational results will have important value for the rational design of novel non-nucleoside inhibitors targeting HCV NS5B polymerase. PMID:24452008

  16. Annealing study of a bistable defect in proton-implanted n-type 4H-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, H. Kortegaard; Martin, D. M.; Lévêque, P.; Hallén, A.; Svensson, B. G.

    2003-12-01

    The thermal stability and annealing kinetics of a bistable defect, recently reported by Martin (Master Thesis, KTH/ELE/FTE/2003-1) employing deep level transient spectroscopy and labelled the M-centre, has been studied using n-type epitaxially grown 4H-SiC layers implanted with 2.5 MeV protons to a dose of 1×1012 cm-2. One configuration of the bistable defect leads to two levels in the band gap, 0.42 eV (M1) and 0.7-0.8 eV (M3) below the conduction band edge (EC), and another leads to one level (M2) at EC-0.7 eV. The defect can be switched back and forth between the two configurations by varying the applied bias and the sample temperature. Isochronal and isothermal annealing shows that the defect anneals out between 310°C and 370°C with a first-order kinetics process. The origin of the defect is not known but it is implantation-induced and a low-order complex.

  17. High Time Resolution Studies of Binary X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    1996-05-01

    The work for this project was substantially more than anticipated, and involved recreating an analysis system for all the HEAO A-1 scanning data which had been converted to the ELE format. As a result of this work, a complete software analysis package was first created at Sonoma State University using Fortran, that can extract the data for any given X-ray source, and produce light curves from the scanning data. A second complete software analysis package was also created, this time in IDL, which can also display all the data in a timely manner, allowing data screening without the generation of hardcopy plots. The creation of the software systems was not the original goal of the project; rather this was a necessary result when the NRL computers became inoperable due to old age and could not be used to support the project, as originally planned. There were 6 sources originally proposed for analysis: SMC X-1, A0538-66, LMC X-1, LMC X-3, (these 3 sources are all located in the Large Magellanic Cloud region), 4UO115+63 and 4U1626-67. Results on these sources are summarized.

  18. Ellipse-line-ellipse source trajectory and its R-line coverage for long-object cone-beam imaging with a C-arm system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Z.; Noo, F.; Lauritsch, G.; Dennerlein, F.; Hornegger, J.

    2012-03-01

    Over the last decade, significant progress has been made in terms of treatment of diseases using minimallyinvasive procedures. This progress was facilitated through multiple refinements of the imaging capabilities of C-arm systems in the interventional room, and more sophisticated procedures may become feasible by further refining the performance of these systems. Our primary focus is to eliminate two strong limitations of the current circular cone-beam imaging approach: cone-beam artifacts and limited extent of the volume covered in the direction of the patient bed. To solve this problem, we seek a source trajectory that (i) is complete in terms of Tuy's condition, (ii) can be periodically-repeated without discontinuities to allow long-object imaging, (iii) is practical, and (iv) offers full R-line coverage (an R-line is a line that connects any two source positions). A trajectory that satisfies all of our constraint is the Arc-Extended-Line-Arc(AELA) trajectory. Unfortunately, this trajectory does not allow smooth, continuous scanning at reasonable dose. In this work, we propose a new data acquisition geometry: the Ellipse-Line-Ellipse (ELE) trajectory. This geometry satisfies all of our constraints along with the attractive feature that smooth, continuous scanning at reasonable dose is enabled.

  19. Vibrational energy flow between modes by dynamic mode coupling in THIATS J-aggregates.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Daisuke; Nakata, Kazuaki; Tokunaga, Eiji; Okamura, Kotaro; Du, Juan; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2013-11-14

    We performed ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of J-aggregates of 3,3'-disulfopropyl-5,5'-dichloro-9-ethyl thiacarbocyanine triethylammonium (THIATS), one of the most typical cyanine dyes, and detected excited molecular vibrations, using a sub-10 fs pulse laser. The time-resolved two-dimensional difference absorption (ΔA) spectra are observed between -314 and 1267 fs. By performing the Fourier transform and spectrogram analysis, vibrational modes in THIATS are observed at 285, 485, 555, 824, and 1633 cm(-1) and there was a modulation of the vibrational frequencies around 1633 cm(-1) which depend on the delay time, respectively. By the analysis of the modulation, energy flow is found to take place from other modes to the 1633 cm(-1) mode through the low frequency mode with ∼50 cm(-1). Also, by fitting the real-time traces of ΔA with the sum of two exponential functions and a constant term, the average lifetimes of three electronically excited states were found to be τ1 = 52 ± 5 fs and τ2 = 540 ± 78 fs. By performing single-exponential fitting around the stationary absorption peak at 1.990 eV, in the negative time range, the electronic dephasing time, T2(ele), is determined to be 18.30 fs. PMID:24111914

  20. Numerical Simulation of Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flowmeters by a Direct Approach.

    PubMed

    Luca, Adrian; Marchiano, Regis; Chassaing, Jean-Camille

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the development of a computational code for the numerical simulation of wave propagation through domains with a complex geometry consisting in both solids and moving fluids. The emphasis is on the numerical simulation of ultrasonic flowmeters (UFMs) by modeling the wave propagation in solids with the equations of linear elasticity (ELE) and in fluids with the linearized Euler equations (LEEs). This approach requires high performance computing because of the high number of degrees of freedom and the long propagation distances. Therefore, the numerical method should be chosen with care. In order to minimize the numerical dissipation which may occur in this kind of configuration, the numerical method employed here is the nodal discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. Also, this method is well suited for parallel computing. To speed up the code, almost all the computational stages have been implemented to run on graphical processing unit (GPU) by using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming model from NVIDIA. This approach has been validated and then used for the two-dimensional simulation of gas UFMs. The large contrast of acoustic impedance characteristic to gas UFMs makes their simulation a real challenge. PMID:27019484

  1. Influence of Finite Element Software on Energy Release Rates Computed Using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald; Goetze, Dirk; Ransom, Jonathon (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    Strain energy release rates were computed along straight delamination fronts of Double Cantilever Beam, End-Notched Flexure and Single Leg Bending specimens using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). Th e results were based on finite element analyses using ABAQUS# and ANSYS# and were calculated from the finite element results using the same post-processing routine to assure a consistent procedure. Mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from post-processing finite elem ent results were in good agreement for all element types used and all specimens modeled. Compared to previous studies, the models made of s olid twenty-node hexahedral elements and solid eight-node incompatible mode elements yielded excellent results. For both codes, models made of standard brick elements and elements with reduced integration did not correctly capture the distribution of the energy release rate acr oss the width of the specimens for the models chosen. The results suggested that element types with similar formulation yield matching results independent of the finite element software used. For comparison, m ixed-mode strain energy release rates were also calculated within ABAQUS#/Standard using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on. For all specimens mod eled, mixed-mode strain energy release rates obtained from ABAQUS# finite element results using post-processing were almost identical to re sults calculated using the VCCT for ABAQUS# add on.

  2. Modeling crop production on the soil-like substrate in CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskiy, Vadim; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

    Use of plants and soils in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is accompanied by mod-eling of nutrient dynamics and gas exchange to analyze data and plan the experiments. In this connection a mathematical model, based on a deterministic differential equation framework, was developed. Our simulations were validated by comparing their predictions with the results obtained during the laboratory experiments with wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The components of the model were the atmospheric carbon dioxide, humus, mineral nitrogen, microbial biomass and extracellular enzymes of SLS as well as the foliage, stems, roots, grains, straw and root exudates of wheat. Impact of photoperiod, daily photosynthetic photon flux, atmospheric volume, carbon and nitrogen content of SLS, decom-position rate of SLS organic matter on the crop production was simulated. When available SLS nitrogen content was sufficient and circulating carbon mass of BLSS was constant, the increase of light intensity from the certain level provoked the decrease of plant harvest index. Decompo-sition rate of SLS organic matter could be increased under nitrogen limiting conditions owing to active synthesis of extracellular microbial enzymes. Possible applications of the modeling for the improvement of plant growing in BLSS are discussed. Keywords: wheat, soil-like substrate, modeling, nitrogen

  3. Unified first law and the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in the FRW universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming

    2007-03-15

    In this paper we revisit the relation between the Friedmann equations and the first law of thermodynamics. We find that the unified first law first proposed by Hayward to treat the outertrapping horizon of a dynamical black hole can be used to the apparent horizon (a kind of inner trapping horizon in the context of the FRW cosmology) of the FRW universe. We discuss three kinds of gravity theorties: Einstein theory, Lovelock thoery, and scalar-tensor theory. In Einstein theory, the first law of thermodynamics is always satisfied on the apparent horizon. In Lovelock theory, treating the higher derivative terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor, we find that this method can give the same entropy formula for the apparent horizon as that of black hole horizon. This implies that the Clausius relation holds for the Lovelock theory. In scalar-tensor gravity, we find, by using the same procedure, the Clausius relation no longer holds. This indicates that the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in the scalar-tensor gravity corresponds to a system of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We show this point by using the method developed recently by Eling et al. for dealing with the f(R) gravity.

  4. A possible method for the characterization of amorphous slags: Recovery of refractory metal oxides from tin slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Allain, E.; Meyer-Joly, M.-Ch.; Malau, K.

    1992-06-01

    As X-ray, neutron scattering, and vibrational spectroscopy are not useful for amorphous solids characterization, microprobe analysis is used in determining the composition of these materials. The correlation coefficient matrix between the slag’s elements is obtained by a simple computer program which is commercially available. This matrix is employed for the constitution of the neighborhood of an element, which may be called the “pseudo-structure” (PS). The proposed method is a statistical view of the probable associations between the elements. It gives an insight into the amorphous solids' structure. The lixiviation of tin slags in order to recover the refractory metals they contain is used to illustrate the importance of the PS. A multistage acid-basic (AB) leaching leads to the dissolution of the matrix composed of Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, Si, ... oxides and the concentration of refractory metal oxides in the residues. The optimum tantalum and niobium recovery rates are 93 and 78 pct, respectively. The results of this research indicate that the leaching of the amorphous tin slag is a structure-sensitive operation. However, one may emphasize that the PS of amorphous solids is a simplification of the real neighborhood of ele-ments. It may be considered as a complement to other methods of investigation of the amorphous solids and may facilitate the hydrometallurgical process planning.

  5. [Milk and dairy products: evidence and recommendations in health and disease].

    PubMed

    Milke-García, María Del Pilar; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    El presente suplemento tiene como propósito mostrar el contexto y una guía clínica sobre el consumo y papel de la leche de vaca en la alimentación. El contenido considera el papel de la leche y productos lácteos en diferentes estados fisiológicos, etapas de vida y patologías. Se basa en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y está dirigido a profesionales de la salud de diferentes especialidades. PMID:27603880

  6. Exoneración legal de enlace externo | Smokefree Español

    Cancer.gov

    Esta notificación gráfica significa que usted esta dejando el sitio en la red de Smokefree.gov y yendo a un sitio en red que no es del gobierno federal. Este sitio externo en la red provee información adicional que es consistente con el propósito buscado de los sitios de la red de Smokefree.gov. Smokefree.gov no puede garantizar la certeza de un sitio en la red que no es del gobierno federal.

  7. [The diffusion of the human evolution in Spain and the JAE (1907-1939)].

    PubMed

    Pelayo, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    During the first decades of the 20th century important findings of hominids fossil remains were made, enlarging the knowledge on Human Evolution. This period runs parallel to the activity of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (JAE), an institution that helped to spread the new paleontological facts in Spain by providing funds for further studies and research, by the foundation of the Comisión de Investigaciones Paleontológicas y Prehistóricas (CIPP) and the promotion of publications on Human Paleontology. PMID:19845070

  8. [Travels and memory: the sciences in Spain before and after the Civil War].

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2007-01-01

    This essay revisits the influence of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios (JAE), the effect in the trajectory of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas of JAE grants and scholarships policy for Spanish young graduates to study abroad. It proposes grantee's travel as a source of knowledge and its practices. It develops the argument that institutional memory, as that of ideas, is not blurred by either a civil war or a dictatorship, repressive as it was. It also suggests genealogy of scientific practices and training during the 20th century in Spain. PMID:19847964

  9. The Botanic Mission to Mozambique (1942-1948): contributions to knowledge of the medicinal flora of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Conde, Patrícia; Figueira, Rui; Saraiva, Susana; Catarino, Luís; Romeiras, Maria; Duarte, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the historical and scientific findings of the Botanic Mission to Mozambique (1942-1948) under the Tropical Botanic Garden of the Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, in Lisbon, highlighting the collectors' field notes with the aim of identifying the traditional medicinal uses of Mozambican flora. Having collated information on 71 taxa (70 species and one genus), the medicinal usage of 34 species presumably not yet reported in Mozambique was identified, including five whose therapeutic use still had not yet been described in the African continent. Overall, 58 uses presumably not yet reported in Mozambique were recorded. PMID:25055327

  10. Sistemas de cúmulos globulares extragalácticos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describen las características de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares asociados a galaxias elípticas en una variedad de medios y, en particular, aquellas vinculadas con la distribución espacial, frecuencia específica y composición química. Esta discusión se hace dentro de un conjunto de esquemas orientados a explicar las primeras fases de la formación de las galaxias dominantes en cúmulos y del rol de los sistemas de cúmulos globulares en esos procesos.

  11. Sitios de interés astronómico en el Noroeste Argentino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recabarren, P.; Muriel, H.; Mosconi, M.; García Lambas, D.; Sarazin, M.; Giovanelli, R.

    Se presenta la distribución geográfica de nubosidad en la región comprendida entre las latitudes 23o y 28o Sur, y las longitudes 66o y 69o Oeste, obtenida a partir del análisis de imágenes GOES, tomadas durante los años 1999 al 2002 inclusive. Del análisis de esta información, se revelan como de gran interés las áreas circundantes a los Salares de Antofalla y de Arizaro, en la región de la Puna, en las provincias de Catamarca y Salta. Se hacen comentarios sobre sitios explorados en estas regiones y sobre las posibilidades de asentamientos de grandes facilidades astronómicas en la región. Se complementa la presentación con información tectónica, topográfica y logística de relevante importancia y, finalmente, se discute sobre la selección de emplazamientos para dos estaciones meteorológicas automáticas de la Universidad de Cornell, en las áreas mencionadas.

  12. El Proyecto Gémini: informe actualizado y técnica de observación

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahade, J.; Lapasset, E.; Levato, H.

    Se describirá la situación actual en lo que se refiere al desarrollo del Proyecto Gémini en cuanto a su estructura, faz constructiva y programación general. Se informará sobre los planes a desarrollar en el tiempo de verificación científica y puesta a punto del instrumental, a partir de la primera imagen que se obtenga con el telescopio Gemini Norte. Se presentará, además, el plan operativo para observar con los telescopios Gemini tal cual está concebido hasta la fecha, describiéndose el proceso desde el mismo momento en que un investigador decide presentar una propuesta para observar con uno de los telescopios, hasta el archivo y derechos de propiedad sobre los datos. Se decribe también el ``soft" denominado Observing Tool (OT) que es clave en la planificación científica de Gemini y que puede ser utilizado ``off-line" en cualquier PC con un entorno windows.

  13. Geographic range size and extinction risk assessment in nomadic species

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Claire A; Tulloch, Ayesha; Hammill, Edd; Possingham, Hugh P; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    planning. Tamaño de Extensión Geográfica y Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción en Especies Nómadas Resumen El tamaño de extensión geográfica se conceptualiza frecuentemente como un atributo fijo de las especies y se trata como tal para los propósitos de cuantificación de riesgo de extinción; se asume que las especies que ocupan extensiones geográficas más pequeñas tienen un riesgo de extinción más alto, cuando todo lo demás es igual. Sin embargo, muchas especies son móviles y sus movimientos varían desde migraciones de ida y vuelta relativamente predecibles hasta movimientos irregulares complejos, como los que muestran las especies nómadas. Estos movimientos pueden llevar a expansiones sustanciales temporales y a una reducción de las extensiones geográficas, todo esto con el potencial de llegar a niveles que pueden presentar un riesgo de extinción. Al enlazar los datos de presencia con las condiciones ambientales al momento de la observación de las especies nómadas pudimos modelar las distribuciones dinámicas de 43 especies de aves de zonas áridas a lo largo de la isla de Australia durante cada mes a lo largo de once años y calculamos el tamaño de extensión mínima y el alcance de las fluctuaciones en el tamaño de extensión geográfica a partir de estos modelos. Hubo una enorme variabilidad en la distribución espacial pronosticada a lo largo del tiempo: diez especies variaron en el tamaño de extensión geográfica por más de una orden de magnitud y dos especies variaron por más de dos órdenes de magnitud. Durante situaciones de condiciones ambientales pobres, varias especies que actualmente no se encuentran clasificadas como amenazadas a nivel global redujeron sus extensiones a áreas muy pequeñas, esto a pesar de su gran tamaño de extensión geográfica normal. Este hallazgo genera preguntas sobre lo idóneo de las evaluaciones convencionales del riesgo de extinción con base en el tamaño estático de extensión geográfica (p. ej

  14. Um Projeto de Intervenção nos Espaços de Exposições do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, D. S.; Amaral, L. H.; de Araújo, C. F., Jr.; Matsuura, O. T.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2005-08-01

    Cada vez mais a humanidade, em sua imensa maioria, está alheia às próprias conquistas. A insatisfação com esta realidade tem levado muitos pesquisadores, instituições, empresas e governos a procurar formas alternativas de acompanhar e transmitir todo este acervo científico cultural à sociedade, buscando a melhoria da qualidade da divulgação científica e contribuindo para o processo de cultura e alfabetização científica. Não há tempo nem espaço nos limitados planos curriculares do ensino médio e mesmo nos programas de ensino que propiciem a cultura científica e o acompanhamento do vertiginoso progresso científico e tecnológico atual. Neste sentido, a educação formal escolar precisa ser complementada ou acrescida de uma educação informal, extra-escolar, que possa oferecer à sociedade o que a escola não pode oferecer. A interação do público com museus, feiras de ciências, planetários, exposições científicas e/ou culturais é de grande importância para a aquisição e difusão de conhecimentos relacionados ao mundo científico. Reconhecidamente como um modelo de alfabetização científica esses ambientes promovem uma interação social capaz de propiciar de forma efetiva uma melhor relação ensino-aprendizagem com o público. Partindo desta realidade a Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul e a Escola Municipal de Astronomia (EMA) vêm desenvolvendo um projeto de intervenção no espaço em torno do Planetário do Parque do Ibirapuera com o objetivo de se implantar um ambiente de aprendizagem motivador e desafiador que promova a popularização de conteúdos relacionados à astronomia, astrofísica e cosmologia. Busca-se, também, a aproximação e interação do público com exposições que estão sendo implementadas no planetário. Considerando que se trata de um projeto de mestrado em fase inicial o objetivo do presente trabalho é apresentar a concepção básica e os critérios que estão sendo utilizados do ponto de vista pedag

  15. Duodenum inclusion in alimentary transit for preventing or correcting nutritional deficiencies resulting from Roux-en-y gastric bypass in obesity treatment.

    PubMed

    Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and metabolic complications can develop after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) when there is an exaggerated response to the anatomical and functional changes or when there is inadequate nutritional supplementation. Severe malnutrition is rare, but deficiencies of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and thiamin, metabolic bone disease and gallstones are common after RYGB. Shortage of vitamin B12, iron, calcium and also cholelithiasis are caused at least partially by excluding the duodenum and proximal jejunum from food transit. We designed a new procedure, with the maintenance of the duodenum and proximal jejunum in the gastrointestinal transit through interposition of jejunal loop, as a primary operation to prevent such deficiencies or as corrective surgery for severe malnutrition after RYGB with failure in responding to conservative treatment. Complicações nutricionais e metabólicas podem se desenvolver após a derivação gástrica em Y de Roux (DGYR) quando há uma resposta exagerada às mudanças anatômicas e funcionais ou quando há suplementação nutricional inadequada. A desnutrição grave é rara, mas deficiências de vitamina B12, ferro, cálcio e tiamina, doença óssea metabólica e cálculos biliares são comuns após a DGYR. Dessas deficiências mencionadas, a de vitamina B12, de ferro, de cálcio e também a colelitíase, são causadas, ao menos parcialmente, pela exclusão do duodeno e jejuno proximal. Um novo procedimento com a manutenção do duodeno e do jejuno proximal no trânsito gastrointestinal, mediante interposição de alça jejunal, foi idealizado como operação primária para prevenir essas deficiências ou como cirurgia corretiva de desnutrição grave após DGYR com falha na resposta a exaustivas tentativas de tratamento conservador. PMID:27275596

  16. Astronomy in Science Textbooks: An Analysis of Pnld 2008. (Spanish Title: Astronomía en los Libros de Ciencia: un Análisis del Pnld 2008.) Astronomia Nos Livros Didáticos de Ciências: Uma Análise do Pnld 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, Patrícia; Quintanilha Vaz de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The importance of the textbooks in classrooms is revealed when studies are pointing that these pedagogical sources are, most of the times, the only source used by the elementary school teachers when preparing their Science lessons. When we analyzed the Astronomy contents in the textbooks approved by the Brazilian Textbook Program 2008 and which, in theory, are the best available in the Brazilian editorial market, we examined some categories in the 2008 Textbook Guide. This research characterizes the frequency of Astronomical contents appearing in the texts, in the pictures, and in the hands-on activities. Additionally, it describes some misconceptions and presents additional information on the collections. La importancia de los libros de texto en las aulas se pone de manifiesto cuando los estudios indican que este recurso educativo es a menudo la única fuente de consulta utilizada por el profesor de ciencias de la escuela primaria para preparar sus lecciones. Cuando analizamos el contenido presente en los libros de texto de astronomía aprobados por el Programa Nacional de Libros de Texto de 2008 y que, en teoría, son los mejores libros disponibles en el mercado editorial brasileño, buscamos examinar algunas categorías que figuran en los libros de texto de la Guía de Libros Didácticos de 2008. El estudio caracteriza la frecuencia del contenido de Astronomía en el texto, en las figuras, y en las actividades de experimentación. También describe algunos errores conceptuales y presenta un conjunto de información adicional sobre las colecciones. A importância dos livros didáticos nas salas de aula revela-se quando estudos apontam que este recurso pedagógico é, muitas vezes, a única fonte de consulta utilizada pelo professor de Ciências do ensino fundamental para a preparação de suas aulas. Quando analisamos os conteúdos de Astronomia presentes nos livros didáticos aprovados no Programa Nacional do Livro Didático de 2008 e que, teoricamente, são os

  17. Ensino de Astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2008-09-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto a Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos, 40 na turma A, 40 na turma B e 39 na turma C. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar uma interferência nas classes envolvidas utilizando metodologias diferentes sendo elas: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho as mesmas turmas da fase inicial orientadas pelo mesmo professor responderam novamente ao questionário proposto para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores resultados, sendo os iniciais comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%,turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando claramente uma absorção de conhecimentos. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas você acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente.Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, foi a mais significativa.

  18. Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-03-01

    O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente

  19. ANÁLISE DA INSERÇÃO DOS TEMAS DE HUMANIDADES E ÉTICA, COM METODOLOGIA DE APRENDIZAGEM BASEADA EM PROBLEMAS, EM CURRICULO MÉDICO INTEGRADO EM ESCOLA PÚBLICA NO DISTRITO FEDERAL, BRASIL

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-α=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-α=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-α=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato. PMID:20396594

  20. Hierarchical scale dependence associated with the extension of the nonlinear feedback loop in a seven-dimensional Lorenz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we construct a seven-dimensional Lorenz model (7DLM) to discuss the impact of an extended nonlinear feedback loop on solutions' stability and illustrate the hierarchical scale dependence of chaotic solutions. Compared to the 5DLM, the 7DLM includes two additional high wavenumber modes that are selected based on an analysis of the nonlinear temperature advection term, a Jacobian term (J(ψ, θ)), where, ψ and θ represent the streamfunction and temperature perturbations, respectively. Fourier modes that represent temperature in the 7DLM can be categorized into three major scales as the primary (the largest scale), secondary, and tertiary (the smallest scale) modes. Further extension of the nonlinear feedback loop within the 7DLM can provide negative nonlinear feedback to stabilize solutions, thus leading to a much larger critical value for the Rayleigh parameter (rc ˜ 116.9) for the onset of chaos, as compared to an rc of 42.9 for the 5DLM as well as an rc of 24.74 for the 3DLM. The rc is determined by an analysis of ensemble Lyapunov exponents (eLEs) with a Prandtl number (σ) of 10. To examine the dependence of rc on the value of the Prandtl number, a linear stability analysis is performed near the nontrivial critical point using a wide range of the Rayleigh parameter (40 ≤ r ≤ 195) and the Prandtl number (5 ≤ σ ≤ 25). Then an eLE analysis is conducted using selected values of the Prandtl number. The linear stability analysis is done by solving for the analytical solutions of the critical points, by linearizing the 7DLM with respect to the analytical solutions, and by calculating the eigenvalues of the linearized system. Within the range of (5 ≤ σ ≤ 25), the 7DLM requires a larger rc for the onset of chaos than the 5DLM. In addition to the negative nonlinear feedback illustrated and emulated by the quasi-equilibrium state solutions for high wavenumber modes, the 7DLM reveals the hierarchical scale dependence of chaotic solutions. For

  1. Aggregation Kinetics for IgG1-Based Monoclonal Antibody Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Singla, A; Bansal, R; Joshi, Varsha; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) as a class of therapeutic molecules are finding an increasing demand in the biotechnology industry for the treatment of diseases like cancer and multiple sclerosis. A key challenge associated to successful commercialization of mAbs is that from the various physical and chemical instabilities that are inherent to these molecules. Out of all probable instabilities, aggregation of mAbs has been a major problem that has been associated with a change in the protein structure and is a hurdle in various upstream and downstream processes. It can stimulate immune response causing protein misfolding having deleterious and harmful effects inside a cell. Also, the extra cost incurred to remove aggregated mAbs from the rest of the batch is huge. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a major technique for characterizing aggregation in mAbs where change in the aggregates' size over time is estimated. The current project is an attempt to understand the rate and mechanism of formation of higher order oligomers when subjected to different environmental conditions such as buffer type, temperature, pH, and salt concentration. The results will be useful in avoiding the product exposure to conditions that can induce aggregation during upstream, downstream, and storage process. Extended Lumry-Eyring model (ELE), Lumry-Eyring Native Polymerization model (LENP), and Finke-Watzky model (F-W) have been employed in this work to fit the aggregation experimental data and results are compared to find the best fit model for mAb aggregation to connect the theoretical dots with the reality. PMID:26902302

  2. Recovery of copper and water from copper-electroplating wastewater by the combination process of electrolysis and electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Changsheng; Liu, Yanyan; Bi, Jingjing; Xu, Huizhen; Ahmed, Abou-Shady

    2011-05-30

    In this paper, a laboratory-scale process which combined electrolysis (EL) and electrodialysis (ED) was developed to treat copper-containing wastewater. The feasibility of such process for copper recovery as well as water reuse was determined. Effects of three operating parameters, voltage, initial Cu(2+) concentration and water flux on the recovery of copper and water were investigated and optimized. The results showed that about 82% of copper could be recovered from high concentration wastewater (HCW, >400mg/L) by EL, at the optimal conditions of voltage 2.5 V/cm and water flux 4 L/h; while 50% of diluted water could be recycled from low concentration wastewater (LCW, <200mg/L) by ED, at the optimal conditions of voltage 40 V and water flux 4 L/h. However, because of the limitation of energy consumption (EC), LCW for EL and HCW for ED could not be treated effectively, and the effluent water of EL and concentrated water of ED should be further treated before discharged. Therefore, the combination process of EL and ED was developed to realize the recovery of copper and water simultaneously from both HCW and LCW. The results of the EL-ED process showed that almost 99.5% of copper and 100% of water could be recovered, with the energy consumption of EL ≈ 3 kW h/kg and ED ≈ 2 kW h/m(3). According to SEM and EDX analysis, the purity of recovered copper was as high as 97.9%. PMID:21466914

  3. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  4. Molecular genetics of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas after irradiation: high prevalence of RET rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Rabes, H M; Klugbauer, S

    1998-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have revealed a connection between thyroid carcinogenesis and a history of radiation. The molecular mechanisms involved are not well understood. It has been claimed that RAS, p53 or GSP mutations and RET or TRK rearrangements might play a role in adult thyroid tumors. In childhood, the thyroid gland is particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation. The reactor accident in Chernobyl provided a unique chance to study molecular genetic aberrations in a cohort of children who developed papillary thyroid carcinomas after a short latency time after exposure to high doses of radioactive iodine isotopes. According to the concepts of molecular genetic epidemiology, exposure to a specific type of irradiation might result in a typical molecular lesion. Childhood papillary thyroid tumors after Chernobyl exhibit a high prevalence of RET rearrangement as almost the only molecular alteration. The majority showed RET/PTC3 (i.e., ELE/RET rearrangements), including several subtypes. Less frequently, RET/PTC1 (i.e., H4/RET rearrangements), and a novel type (RET/PTC5, i.e., RFG5/RET) were observed. Proof of reciprocal transcripts suggests that a balanced intrachromosomal inversion leads to this rearrangement. Breakpoint analyses revealed short homologous nucleotide stretches at the fusion points. In all types of rearrangement, the RET tyrosine kinase domain becomes controlled by 5' fused regulatory sequences of ubiquitously expressed genes that display coiled-coil regions with dimerization potential. Oncogenic activation of RET is apparently due to ligand-independent constitutive ectopic RET tyrosine kinase activity. The analysis of this cohort of children with radiation-induced thyroid tumors after Chernobyl provides insights into typical molecular aberrations in relation to a specific mode of environmental exposure and may serve as a paradigm for molecular genetic epidemiology. PMID:10027005

  5. Perceived economic situation, but not education level, is associated with disability prevalence in the Spanish elderly: observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to ascertain if the subjective perception of the economic situation of a household is associated with the prevalence of disability in old age, net of education level. Subjective economic perception is less non-response biased. Knowing if the self-perceived economic situation is related to disability over and above education level has important implications both for understanding the mechanisms that lead to disability and for selecting policies to reduce it. Methods This is a transversal study based on the pilot of the ELES survey, which is a representative survey of non-institutionalised Spaniards aged 50 and over. Only individuals whose job income levels were fixed before becoming disabled were selected to avoid the main source of reverse causality. Disability was defined as having difficulty in carrying out any of 12 activities of daily living. Education level, difficulty in making ends meet, self-perceived relative economic position of the household, age, gender, psychological disposition, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were introduced as independent variables in binary logistic models. Results The working sample is made up of 704 individuals of aged 60 and over. The subjective household economic situation, measured in two different ways, is strongly and consistently related with the prevalence of disability net of age, gender, education level and psychological disposition. After adjusting for age and gender, education level is no longer associated with disability. However, having economic difficulties has the same effect on disability prevalence as being 10 years older, or being a woman instead of a man. Conclusions As the economic situation of the elderly is much easier to improve than their formal education, our findings support feasible interventions which could lead to a reduction in the prevalence of disability. PMID:24886113

  6. APIFLAME v1.0: high-resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Anav, A.; Viovy, N.; Maignan, F.; Wooster, M.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a new model for the calculation of daily, high-resolution (up to 1 km) fire emissions, developed in the framework of the APIFLAME (Analysis and Prediction of the Impact of Fires on Air quality ModEling) project. The methodology relies on the classical approach, multiplying the burned area by the fuel load consumed and the emission factors specific to the vegetation burned. Emissions can be calculated on any user-specified domain, horizontal grid, and list of trace gases and aerosols, providing input information on the burned area (location, extent), and emission factors of the targeted species are available. The applicability to high spatial resolutions and the flexibility to different input data (including vegetation classifications) and domains are the main strength of the proposed algorithm. The modification of the default values and databases proposed does not require any change in the core of the model. The code may be used for the calculation of global or regional inventories. However, it has been developed and tested more specifically for Europe and the Mediterranean area. A regional analysis of fire activity and the resulting emissions in this region is provided. The burning season extends from June to October in most regions, with generally small but frequent fires in eastern Europe, western Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, and large events in the Mediterranean area. The resulting emissions represent a significant fraction of the total yearly emissions (on average amounting to ~ 30% of anthropogenic emissions for PM2.5, ~ 20% for CO). The uncertainty regarding the daily carbon emissions is estimated at ~ 100% based on an ensemble analysis. Considering the large uncertainties regarding emission factors, the potential error on the emissions for the various pollutants is even larger. Comparisons with other widely used emission inventories show good correlations but discrepancies of a factor of 2-4 in the amplitude of the emissions, our results

  7. APIFLAME v1.0: high resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Anav, A.; Viovy, N.; Maignan, F.; Wooster, M.

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes a new model for the calculation of daily, high-resolution (up to 1 km) fire emissions, developed in the framework of the APIFLAME project (Analysis and Prediction of the Impact of Fires on Air quality ModEling). The methodology relies on the classical approach, multiplying the burned area by the fuel load and the emission factors specific to the vegetation burned. Emissions can be calculated on any user-specified domain, horizontal grid, and list of trace gases and aerosols, providing input information on the burned area (location, extent) and emission factors of the targeted species are available. The strength of the proposed algorithm is its high resolution and its flexibility in terms of domain and input data (including the vegetation classification). The modification of the default values and databases proposed does not require changes in the core of the model. The code may be used for the calculation of global or regional inventories. However, it has been developed and tested more specifically for Europe and the Mediterranean area. In this region, the burning season extends from June to October in most regions, with generally small but frequent fires in Eastern Europe, Western Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, and large events in the Mediterranean area. The resulting emissions represents a significant fraction of the total yearly emissions (on average amounting to ~30% of anthropogenic emissions for PM2.5, ~20% for CO). The uncertainty on the daily carbon emissions was estimated to ~100% based on an ensemble analysis. Considering the large uncertainties on emission factors, the potential error on the emissions for the various pollutants is even larger. Comparisons to other widely used emission inventories shows good correlations but discrepancies of a factor of 2-4 on the amplitude of the emissions, our results being generally on the higher end.

  8. The two-dimensional structure of radiative divertor plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Cuthbertson, J.W.; Doyle, E.J.; Evans, T.E.; Garbet, P.; Harvey, R.W.; Hill, D.N.; Hyatt, A.W.; Isler, R.C.; Jackson, G.; James, R.A.; Jong, R.; Klepper, C.C.; Lasnier, C.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; Meyer, W.H.; Moyer, R.A.; Nilson, D.G.; Petrie, T.W.; Porter, G.D.; Rhodes, T.L.; Schaffer, M.J.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Thomas, D.M.; Tugarinov, S.; Wade, M.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.; Wood, R.D.

    1997-05-01

    Recent measurements of the two-dimensional (2-D) spatial profiles of divertor plasma density, temperature, and emissivity in the DIII-D tokamak [J. Luxon {ital et al.}, in {ital Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion} (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), p. 159] under highly radiating conditions are presented. Data are obtained using a divertor Thomson scattering system and other diagnostics optimized for measuring the high electron densities and low temperatures in these detached divertor plasmas (n{sub e}{le}10{sup 21}m{sup {minus}3}, 0.5eV{le}T{sub e}). D{sub 2} gas injection in the divertor increases the plasma radiation and lowers T{sub e} to less than 2 eV in most of the divertor volume. Modeling shows that this temperature is low enough to allow ion{endash}neutral collisions, charge exchange, and volume recombination to play significant roles in reducing the plasma pressure along the magnetic separatrix by a factor of 3{endash}5, consistent with the measurements. Absolutely calibrated vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy and 2-D images of impurity emission show that carbon radiation near the X-point, and deuterium radiation near the target plates contribute to the reduction in T{sub e}. Uniformity of radiated power (P{sub rad}) (within a factor of 2) along the outer divertor leg, with peak heat flux on the divertor target reduced fourfold, was obtained. A comparison with 2-D fluid simulations shows good agreement when physical sputtering and an {ital ad hoc} chemical sputtering source (0.5{percent}) from the private flux region surface are used. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento de Abell 586 com GMOS - o estado dinâmico de um aglomerado de galáxias com arcos gravitacionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cypriano, E. S.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Kneib, J.-P.; Campusano, L.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho é apresentado um estudo do conteúdo de massa do aglomerado de galáxias A586 (z = 0.171) bem como sua distribuição espacial. Isso foi feito a partir de dados de espectroscopia multi-objeto e imageamento obtidos com o instrumento GMOS acoplado ao telescópio Gemini-Norte. A massa desse aglomerado foi estudada a partir da posição dos seus arcos gravitacionais (lentes fortes), da medida estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes fracas) e através da dispersão de velocidades de uma amostra de cerca de 30 galáxias pertencentes ao aglomerado (teorema do virial). Os dois primeiros métodos não dependem do estado dinâmico do aglomerado, enquanto que o terceiro sim. Desse modo, comparando seus resultados pode-se estimar o grau de relaxamento desse sistema. Dados de raios X presentes na literatura também serão incluídos nessa análise. Nossos resultados preliminares a partir das técnicas de lentes fracas, mostram que, supondo que a distribuição de massa desse aglomerado seja a de uma esfera isotérmica, espera-se que ele apresente uma dispersão de velocidades de 1330+/-78 km s-1, em contradicao com medidas similares feitas por Dahle et al. 2002 que encontram valores tão altos quanto 1680 km s-1. Já o estudo dinâmico resultou numa dispersão de velocidades de ~950 km s-1.

  10. [Multiplexing mapping of human cDNAs]. Final report, September 1, 1991--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Using PCR with automated product analysis, 329 human brain cDNA sequences have been assigned to individual human chromosomes. Primers were designed from single-pass cDNA sequences expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Primers were used in PCR reactions with DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates, often with multiplexing. Many ESTs mapped match sequence database records. To evaluate of these matches, the position of the primers relative to the matching region (In), the BLAST scores and the Poisson probability values of the EST/sequence record match were determined. In cases where the gene product was stringently identified by the sequence match had already been mapped, the gene locus determined by EST was consistent with the previous position which strongly supports the validity of assigning unknown genes to human chromosomes based on the EST sequence matches. In the present cases mapping the ESTs to a chromosome can also be considered to have mapped the known gene product: rolipram-sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase, chromosome 1; protein phosphatase 2A{beta}, chromosome 4; alpha-catenin, chromosome 5; the ELE1 oncogene, chromosome 10q11.2 or q2.1-q23; MXII protein, chromosome l0q24-qter; ribosomal protein L18a homologue, chromosome 14; ribosomal protein L3, chromosome 17; and moesin, Xp11-cen. There were also ESTs mapped that were closely related to non-human sequence records. These matches therefore can be considered to identify human counterparts of known gene products, or members of known gene families. Examples of these include membrane proteins, translation-associated proteins, structural proteins, and enzymes. These data then demonstrate that single pass sequence information is sufficient to design PCR primers useful for assigning cDNA sequences to human chromosomes. When the EST sequence matches previous sequence database records, the chromosome assignments of the EST can be used to make preliminary assignments of the human gene to a chromosome.

  11. Experimental study of electrostatic discharges of spacecraft solar array protective coatings under radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanshin, Rashid; Novikov, Lev

    Action of charged particles on low-conductive dielectrics causes formation of areas with a high charge density inside; their fields may give rise to development of electrostatic discharge between the charged area and the surface of the dielectric. Discharge channels are growing due to breakdown of dielectric and formation of a conducting phase. Generation of the channels is a complex stochastic process accompanied by such physical and chemical processes as ionization, gas formation, heating, and so on, which cause formation of conducting phase in a glass. That is why no quantitative theory describing formation of conductive channels has been formulated yet. The study of electrostatic discharges in dielectrics under radiation is essential both from a scientific point of view and for the solution of applied problems. In particular, interaction of a spacecraft with ambient plasma causes accumulation of electric charges on its surface producing, as a consequence, electric potential between the spacecraft surface and the plasma. For example, potentials on the surface of satellites operating on a geostationary orbit reach up to 20 kV. Elec-trostatic discharges caused by such potentials can produce not only the considerable electromag-netic interference, but also lead to the destruction of hardware components and structural ele-ments. Electrostatic charging due to electrons from the Earth’s radiation belts causes degradation of solar arrays as a result of surface and internal electrostatic discharges. In the work, surface of K-208 spacecraft solar array protective coatings irradiated by 20 and 40 keV electrons and protons has studied using by AFM methods. Traces of electrostatic dis-charges at different radiation flux densities were analyzed.

  12. Standardization of CPUE for Chilean jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) from Chinese trawl fleets in the high seas of the Southeast Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Zou, Xiaorong; Chen, Xinjun; Zhou, Yinqi; Zhang, Min

    2013-09-01

    The generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM) were applied to the standardization of catch per unit effort (CPUE) for Chilean jack mackerel from Chinese factory trawl fishing fleets in the Southeast Pacific Ocean from 2001 to 2010 by removing the operational, environmental, spatial and temporal impacts. A total of 9 factors were selected to build the GLM and GAM, i.e., Year, Month, Vessel, La Niña and El Niño events (ELE), Latitude, Longitude, Sea surface temperature (SST), SST anomaly (SSTA), Nino3.4 index and an interaction term between Longitude and Latitude. The first 5 factors were significant components in the GLM, which in combination explained 27.34% of the total variance in nominal CPUE. In the stepwise GAM, all factors explained 30.78% of the total variance, with Month, Year and Vessel as the main factors influencing CPUE. The higher CPUE occurred during the period April to July at a SST range of 12-15°C and a SSTA range of 0.2-1.0°C. The CPUE was significantly higher in normal years compared with that in La Niña and El Niño years. The abundance of Chilean jack mackerel declined during 2001 and 2010, with an increase in 2007. This work provided the relative abundance index of Chilean jack mackerel for stock assessment by standardizing catch and effort data of Chinese trawl fisheries and examined the influence of temporal, spatial, environmental and fisheries operational factors on Chilean jack mackerel CPUE.

  13. Diagnostic strategy of the W7-X stellarator (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Brakel, R.; Endler, M.; Geist, T.; Grigull, P.; Hofmann, J.V.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Ringler, H.; Teubel, A.; Wagner, F.; Weller, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X experiment is a concept test for properties of reactor relevant plasmas in advanced stellarators. Prominent features include a modular superconducting coil assembly, a five-fold toroidal symmetry, and a helical magnetic axis. Due to the optimization process, W7-X is characterized by a vacuum magnetic field configuration with smooth magnetic surfaces, improved magnetic field configuration with smooth magnetic surfaces, improved equilibrium properties with a weak dependence of rotational transform and shear on the plasma pressure {beta}, good magneto-hydrodynamic stability properties due to magnetic well stabilization, reduced neoclassical transport losses and negligible bootstrap current in the long mean-free-path regime, good collisionless {alpha}-particle confinement in an equivalent reactor, and, as a technical aspect, good feasibility of the superconducting modular coils. W7-X will be heated by continuous electron cyclotron resonance heating and pulsed neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The envisaged parameters are T{sub e}{le}10 keV, T{sub i}{le}6 keV central densities {le}3{times}10{sup 20} m{sup -3} with an averaged {l_angle}{beta}{r_angle}{le}5%. Despite the complicated geometrical structure, all basic diagnostics are compatible with W7-X. Diagnostic methods and applications in a stellarator are not different from those in tokamaks. But, special efforts are being made to equip the experiment with those diagnostics necessary to measure the quantities directly related with the optimization of the machine: verification of the predicted magnetic topology and characterization of the configuration throughout the entire parameter range, identification of equilibrium and stability, and determination of confinement properties. The article describes the strategy developed which assures that the detailed measurement needs of the W7-X experimental program can be met. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Diagnostic strategy of the W7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Brakel, R.; Endler, M.; Geist, T.; Grigull, P.; Hofmann, J.V.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Ringler, H.; Teubel, A.; Wagner, F.; Weller, A.

    1997-02-01

    The Wendelstein 7-X experiment is a concept test for properties of reactor relevant plasmas in advanced stellarators. Prominent features include a modular superconducting coil assembly, a fivefold toroidal symmetry, and a helical magnetic axis. Due to the optimization process, W7-X is characterized by a vacuum magnetic field configuration with smooth magnetic surfaces, improved equilibrium properties with a weak dependence of rotational transform and shear on the plasma pressure {beta}, good magneto-hydrodynamic stability properties due to magnetic well stabilization, reduced neoclassical transport losses and negligible bootstrap current in the long mean-free-path regime, good collisionless {alpha}-particle confinement in an equivalent reactor, and, as a technical aspect, good feasibility of the superconducting modular coils. W7-X will be heated by continuous electron cyclotron resonance heating and pulsed neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The envisaged parameters are {ital T{sub e}}{le}10 keV, {ital T{sub i}}{le}6 keV central densities {le}3{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} with an averaged {l_angle}{beta}{r_angle}{le}5{percent}. Despite the complicated geometrical structure, all basic diagnostics are compatible with W7-X. Generally, diagnostic methods and applications in a stellarator are not different from those in tokamaks. However, special efforts are being made to equip the experiment with those diagnostics necessary to measure the quantities directly related with the optimization of the machine: the verification of the predicted magnetic topology and characterization of the configuration throughout the entire parameter range, the identification of equilibrium and stability, and the determination of the confinement properties. The article describes the strategy developed which assures that the detailed measurement needs of the W7-X experimental program can be met. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by two genistein derivatives: kinetic analysis, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiansong; Wu, Ping; Yang, Ranyao; Gao, Li; Li, Chao; Wang, Dongmei; Wu, Song; Liu, Ai-Lin; Du, Guan-Hua

    2014-12-01

    In this study two genistein derivatives (G1 and G2) are reported as inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and differences in the inhibition of AChE are described. Although they differ in structure by a single methyl group, the inhibitory effect of G1 (IC50=264 nmol/L) on AChE was 80 times stronger than that of G2 (IC50=21,210 nmol/L). Enzyme-kinetic analysis, molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to better understand the molecular basis for this difference. The results obtained by kinetic analysis demonstrated that G1 can interact with both the catalytic active site and peripheral anionic site of AChE. The predicted binding free energies of two complexes calculated by the molecular mechanics/generalized born surface area (MM/GBSA) method were consistent with the experimental data. The analysis of the individual energy terms suggested that a difference between the net electrostatic contributions (ΔE ele+ΔG GB) was responsible for the binding affinities of these two inhibitors. Additionally, analysis of the molecular mechanics and MM/GBSA free energy decomposition revealed that the difference between G1 and G2 originated from interactions with Tyr124, Glu292, Val294 and Phe338 of AChE. In conclusion, the results reveal significant differences at the molecular level in the mechanism of inhibition of AChE by these structurally related compounds. PMID:26579414

  16. Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Andre, M.; Blomberg, L. G.; Lundin, R.; Marklund, G. T.; Rathsman, P.; von Scheele, F.; Wahlund, J.-E.

    Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS) S. Barabash (1), M. André (2), L. G. Blomberg (3), R. Lundin (1),G. T. Marklund (3), P. Rathsman (4), F. von Schéele (4), J.-E. Wahlund (2) (1) Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden (stas@irf.se) (2) Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala, Sweden (3) Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Space and Plasma Physics , Stockholm, Sweden (4) Swedish Space Corporation, Solna, Sweden Mars Orbiting Plasma Surveyor (MOPS) is a microsatellite mission focused on studies of the near - Mars environment and the planet - solar wind interaction. The recent findings by the ESA Mars Express mission further highlighted the complexity of the processes taking place at the planet resulting from the solar wind interaction that strongly affect the planet's atmosphere. However, despite many previous Martian missions carrying different types of space plasma experiments, a comprehensive investigation including simultaneous measurements of particles, fields, and waves has never been performed. We propose a spinning spacecraft of a mass of 50-80 kg with a 10 kg payload which can "hitchhike" on another platform until Mars orbit insertion and then be released into a suitable orbit. The spacecraft design is based on the experience gained in very successful Swedish space plasma missions, Viking, Freja, Astrid -1, and Astrid - 2. In the present mission design, the MOPS spacecraft is equipped with its own 1m high gain antenna for direct communication with the Earth. The payload includes a wave experiment with wire booms, magnetometer with a rigid boom, electron and ion energy spectrometers and an ion mass analyser. An energetic neutral atom imager and an UV photometer may complete the core payload.

  17. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    of an additional 96 ha (238 acres). The park is probably best known for the pu'uhonua (place of refuge) native Hawaiian cultural site. In addition to the pu'uhonua, the park contains palace grounds, royal fishponds, burial sites, prehistoric trails, a royal canoe landing area, stone house platforms and associated temple structures. A massive basalt rock wall (300 m long, 3 m high, and 5 m wide) separates the pu'uhonua from the areas used by Hawaiian royalty and other grounds. Honaunau Bay is a popular marine resource area adjacent to the park. The seaward-sloping lands of PUHO lie at the base of Mauna Loa volcano, which forms a bench of low-lying pahoehoe lava flows at Pu'uhonua Point. The park coastline is approximately 1.6 km long and is mostly rocky with the exception of a small artificially nourished beach at Keone'ele Cove at the northern boundary next to Honaunau Bay. The park is bounded to the south by Ki'ilae Bay and includes the coastal portions of three Hawaiian land divisions (ahupua'a): Honaunau, Keokea, and Ki'ilae. The western boundary is the high tide mark. The waters of Keone'ele Cove, the ancient royal canoe landing at PUHO, while not formally under NPS jurisdiction, are managed by the park under an agreement with the State of Hawai'i. This small embayment is a known haven for sea turtles, which are often found sunning themselves on the nearshore volcanic platform. Impacts to this area include frequent visits by scuba divers and snorkelers to Honaunau Bay and a small boat ramp located just to the north of Keone'ele Cove. There is an accompanying report that presents the results of benthic habitat mapping of the offshore waters for PUHO (Cochran and others, 2006b; linked below). They mapped from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m, where the shelf drops off to a sand-covered bottom. PUHO park boundaries extend only to the mean high-tide level; however, landscape impacts created by development around the park are of concern to

  18. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  19. A atuação do Observatório Nacional registrada nos relatórios ministeriais 1889 a 1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, T.

    2003-08-01

    O período republicano até 1930 foi marcante na história do Observatório Nacional. Diversas reformas levaram a instituição a três ministérios diferentes e mudaram a ênfase do seu trabalho. A tão aguardada mudança para uma nova sede, em São Cristóvão, em 1920, não foi suficiente para que a instituição acompanhasse o ritmo tomado pela astronomia no mundo e se firmasse como ambiente de pesquisa. Uma análise simplificada poderia caracterizar um período de produção científica insignificante, dado o distanciamento da instituição dos novos rumos da astrofísica e da rápida inovação dos instrumentos, além do pequeno volume de publicações. Era uma época em que ainda não existiam os mecanismos formais de apoio e avaliação da atividade científica. Esse trabalho procura identificar a real atividade do Observatório no conteúdo dos Relatórios Ministeriais que, ao final de cada ano, apresentava as atividades, sucessos e problemas enfrentados pela instituição. Questões como instrumental e recursos humanos necessários; entraves burocráticos e financeiros; e articulações com outros observatórios se complementaram entre si ao longo desses anos para definir o perfil institucional e alguns aspectos fundamentais para a construção da astronomia no país. É possível concluir que a ênfase em serviços geográficos e de meteorologia, ao lado da inadequação dos instrumentos e do local, quase fizeram desaparecer a pesquisa em astronomia. Porém, vale destacar a sobrevivência de alguns trabalhos, como, por exemplo, variação de latitude e observação de estrelas duplas que mantiveram importante intercâmbio com outros grupos de pesquisa, demonstrando o constante esforço dos astrônomos e das diretorias em defesa da atividade científica.

  20. Astronomy Teaching and Teachers Continuing Education: the Interdisciplinarity during a Total Lunar Eclipse. (Spanish Title: Enseñanza de la Astronomía y la Formación Continua de Profesores: la Interdisciplinariedad Durante un Eclipse Total de Luna.) Educação EM Astronomia E Formação Continuada de Professores: a Interdisciplinaridade Durante um Eclipse Lunar TOTAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langhi, Rodolfo

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes how 67 teachers from 23 cities, could awaken, in students, the scientific interest, using a natural astronomical phenomenon: a total lunar eclipse. Before and after of eclipse, meetings for continuing education were characterized by interdisciplinarity of astronomy and the importance of these observations. Working groups were formed by teachers and students, who organized the survey data, mobilizing the people in their cities. The results point ways about how to provide the scientific culture and the motivation to learn science in students, using approaches between the following communities: scientific, amateur and school. En este artículo se describe cómo 67 profesores de 23 ciudades, despertó el interés científico en los estudiantes mediante un fenómeno astronómico: un eclipse total de Luna. Antes y después del eclipse, reuniones para la formación continua se centraron en la interdisciplinariedad de la astronomía, y la importancia de las observaciones de este tipo de fenómeno. Profesores y estudiantes formaron grupos de trabajo para investigar datos durante el eclipse, con el participación de la comunidad en sus ciudades. Los resultados apuntan a las opciones que conducen a la cultura científica y la motivación para aprender la ciencia, utilizando las relaciones de los siguientes grupos: científicos, aficionados y la escuela. Este texto relata como 67 professores, provenientes de 23 cidades, puderam despertar, nos alunos, o interesse científico utilizando um fenômeno natural astronômico: um eclipse lunar total. O evento foi precedido e procedido por encontros de formação continuada, onde se caracterizou a interdisciplinaridade da astronomia e a importância das observações de fenômenos como estes. Grupos de trabalho foram formados por professores e alunos, que se organizaram para o levantamento conjunto de dados durante o fenômeno, além do envolvimento da comunidade em suas respectivas cidades. Os resultados apontam

  1. Um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, G. B.; Jafelice, L. C.

    2003-08-01

    Há uma enorme carência de materiais didático-pedagógicos em astronomia para professores do ensino médio, sobretudo materiais que explorem também aspectos humanísticos. A origem do Universo é um bom exemplo desta constatação central. Embora tal origem teve explicações culturais diversas, os professores não têm informações sobre isso e muito menos material que trabalhe diferentes visões de mundo e treinamento que os capacite a abordá-las devidamente. Conseqüentemente o ensino de astronomia costuma ser tecnicista e dissociado do aspecto humano que alimenta o grande interesse e curiosidade que esses temas despertam. Aqui apresentamos propostas visando contribuir para reverter esse quadro e trabalhamos distintas visões de Universo: espontâneas, autóctones e científicas. Desenvolvemos práticas, materiais instrucionais e textos para viabilizar a adoção de um enfoque antropológico para o ensino de astronomia no nível médio, no qual as culturas humanística e científica sejam integradas de uma maneira contextualizada e eficaz para aquele ensino. Estas propostas foram aplicadas em um curso de treinamento para professores da rede pública de diferentes disciplinas. A receptividade dos professores à abordagem proposta e os resultados alcançados foram muito estimulantes. Destes, destacamos: produção de roteiros de atividades; desenvolvimento de práticas didático-pedagógicas específicas (e.g., encenação de mitos; dança primordial guarani; "criação" de constelações e interpretações pluriculturais; etc.); e sugestões concretas para a efetiva realização de um ensino interdisciplinar contextualizado, onde questões cosmogônicas servem de mote para iniciar tal ensino. Discutimos estes resultados e como o enfoque adotado pode instrumentalizar os professores para leituras de mundo que incluem naturalmente aspectos culturais, sociais e históricos associados aos temas estudados. (PPGECNM/UFRN; PRONEX/FINEP; NUPA/USP; Temáticos/FAPESP)

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Villa-González, Emilio; Rodríguez-López, Carlos; Barranco-Ruiz, Yaira; Cabezas-Arévalo, Luis Fabián; Chillón, Palma

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: analizar la concordancia de dos métodos de medición (Google MapsTM vs. Sistema de Información Geográfica) para la determinación de la distancia desde el domicilio familiar hasta el colegio.Métodos: un total de 542 escolares de entre 8-11 años de edad (media = 9,36 ± 0,6) del sur de España participaron en el estudio, facilitando la dirección de su domicilio familiar. La distancia desde el domicilio familiar al colegio se calculó mediante la utilización de dos programas diferentes:Google MapsTM y Sistema de Información Geográfica (GIS) en ruta y en línea recta. La asociación entre ambos métodos fue analizada utilizando la correlación de Spearman y el grado de acuerdo a través del coeficiente de correlación intraclase (ICC), así como el método Bland Altman.Resultados: la correlación entre ambos métodos de medición propuestos fue muy significativa (r = 0,966, p < 0,001; r = 0,984, p < 0,001; y r = 0,954, p < 0,001, respectivamente), y la concordancia fue excelente (ICC = 0,96, p < 0,001; ICC = 0,92, p < 0,001; ICC = 0,97, p < 0,001).Conclusiones: los métodos de medición estudiados podrían ser utilizados en función de las necesidades de la investigación, al presentar ambos una alta concordancia. Sin embargo, se recomienda la utilización del Sistema de Información Geográfica en ruta si se cuenta con medios yfinanciación, por tratarse de un método constatado en fiabilidad y validez. PMID:27513510

  3. Spatial Distribution of Regular and Chaotic Orbits in a Model Elliptical Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzzio, J. C.; Carpintero, D. D.; Wachlin, F. C.

    2004-05-01

    We created a model elliptical galaxy through the cold collapse of 100,000 particles using a quadrupolar N-body code. The potential was then freezed and smoothed and 3,472 orbits, selected at random, were investigated using two different methods: 1) Lyapunov exponents; 2) The frequency analysis of Carpintero and Aguilar (1998, MNRAS 298, 1). The results of both methods are compared and the spatial distributions of the different kinds of orbits are presented. Chaotic orbits with only one and with two non-zero Lyapunov exponents are shown to have different spatial distributions, the former behaving in a way more akin to that of regular orbits. This work was supported by grants from the Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP) and from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET).

  4. Status of Women in Physics in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sancho, M. Pilar; Chevalier, Margarita; Yzuel, Maria J.; Carreras, Carmen

    2009-04-01

    We present activities of the group, Spanish Women in Physics, during the past three years. We describe measures adopted by the Spanish government to attain gender equality and discuss the status of women in the scientific field. Finally, we present statistical data updated from the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2005. The percentage of women at various staff levels at universities and at the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) remains constant (approximately 32%). At CSIC, however, an increase in the number of available posts has led to an increase in the number of women in top positions. The most remarkable finding from Spanish universities is that 50% of women were hired at the new professorial category of "PhD contract."

  5. Pismis 20: One or two clusters?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Vega, E. I.; Marraco, H. G.

    2003-09-01

    We present UBVRI polarimetric observations of stars in the direction of the open cluster Pismis 20 and WR 67. It is found that the observed members segregate polarimetrically into two groups, with different associated mean Pmax (4.31 and 6.08% respectively). Although in the literature these stars are considered as members of the same cluster, the polarized light from these groups clearly differs. There are two possible explanations: very efficient polarizing dust particles exists between certain members of the cluster; or else Pismis 20 is composed of different groupings superimposed along the line of sight. WR 67 belongs to the group more affected by the dust. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  6. On the type locality of Sorubim trigonocephalus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian Massaharu; Neuhaus, Emanuel Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Sorubim trigonocephalus was described in 1920 by Alípio de Miranda Ribeiro, based on a single specimen collected in a locality identified as "Porto Velho", during the "Comissão das Linhas Telegráficas Estratégicas de Mato Grosso ao Amazonas" (more commonly known as Rondon Commission). Given that the type locality is Porto Velho, the species has been referred to the Madeira River basin (Lundberg & Littmann, 2003; Littmann, 2007; Eschmeyer et al., 2016). Nevertheless, after its description, no additional specimens were collected in the Madeira basin despite several ichthyological expeditions undertaken to the area (Santos, 1996; Camargo & Giarrizzo, 2007; Rapp Py-Daniel et al., 2007; Perin et al., 2007; Pedroza et al., 2012; Casatti et al., 2013; Queiroz et al., 2013a), some of them including region of Porto Velho (Fowler, 1913; Araújo et al., 2009; Torrente-Vilara et al., 2011; Queiroz et al., 2013b). PMID:27470724

  7. Status of women in physics in Spain in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sancho, M. P.; Carreras, C.; Chevalier, M.; Campabadal, F.; Yzuel, M. J.

    2013-03-01

    We present statistical data updated from the 2008 IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. Despite several gender equality measures adopted by the Spanish government, updated data exhibit the same trend: the percentage of women at the staff levels in the universities and at the Spanish High Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas; CSIC) remains approximately constant at about 33%. At the universities, the progress of women is slow. However, at the CSIC, both an increase in the number of available posts and the work of the Commission of Women and Science helped to increase the number of women in its top positions, although the net proportion among women and men did not change significantly. We describe the activities carried out by the Women in Physics group of the Spanish Physical Society.

  8. Non university sources of science in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2016-05-01

    The following ideas are widely accepted in Chile with respect to scientific activity: is carried out mainly in universities and science is considered a naturally university activity, that was developed in a period of more than 150 years by isolated individual efforts, c) it was transformed into an institutionalized activity at the universities after the university reform movement at the end of the 1960 decade, d) the activity is finally institutionalized in the country with the creation of the “Comisión Nacional de Investigatión Científica y Tecnológica, CONICYT (National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research) in 1967. This work presents preliminary findings showing that there are other institutional initiatives, different to the efforts from universities and directly dependent of the Chilean Government, in order to produce science and technology in Chile. This governmental initiatives start at the beginning of the Republic of Chile circa of 1810.

  9. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-01

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.). PMID:27602667

  10. INCLUSIÓN DE LA ÉTICA Y BIOÉTICA EN LA FORMACIÓN DE PRE Y POSGRADO DEL CIRUJANO-DENTISTA EN PERÚ

    PubMed Central

    Rupaya, Carmen Rosa García

    2009-01-01

    Se revisan aspectos de la inclusión de la ética y bioética en la formación de pre y posgrado del cirujano-dentista en Perú. Desde el punto de vista de la formación del docente, se analiza la presencia de normatividad ética en la investigación científica que genera la universidad, así como los conocimientos y actitudes vinculados con la ética y bioética en la formación del odontólogo. Se concluye que es un compromiso fomentar un cambio de paradigma, a través de un movimiento masivo que involucre los ámbitos familiar, profesional y académico, con el n de integrar la reflexión ética en nuestro diario proceder. PMID:19946384

  11. [The Revista Médica de Chile in a science library in the Internet].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-02-01

    Medical journals published in non-English languages face a handicap: their worldwide readership and citation are reduced in comparison to journals published in English. This handicap is worse for small journals edited in developing countries, regardless of whether they publish original research articles including abstracts in English. To facilitate the international diffusion of selected Chilean scientific journals, the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica" enforced the program "SciELO Chile" with a web site in Internet (www.scielo.cl) including the full text of articles published in recent issues. Revista Médica de Chile is the first Chilean medical journal that appears in this web site, sponsored by the National Library of Medicine, Washington D.C. We expect that this web site will give a favorable input to authors of articles published in our journal. PMID:11351462

  12. Eight years of bioethics

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Exebio, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta la experiencia que significó el paso por el Programa Internacional de Formación en Ética de la investigación biomédica y psicosocial del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios en Bioética de la Universidad de Chile (2003–2004) y algunas reflexiones respecto de la integración de lo aprendido en mi posterior labor en comités de ética y programas académicos de ética de investigación. Asimismo, en la elaboración de regulaciones que permitan una mejor evaluación ética y científica. PMID:23172984

  13. El Planetario Móvil de la Municipalidad de la ciudad de Córdoba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, F. E.; Campos, M.; Goldes, G. V.; Carranza, G. J.; Romero, R.; Juri, H. O.

    Se describen las características y operatoria del nuevo Planetario Móvil. Se trata de un equipamiento de propiedad de la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Córdoba que es operado por personal y en el predio de la Universidad, en virtud de un convenio suscripto entre ambas instituciones. El planetario consta de una cúpula inflable y de un proyector con programas alternativos que incluyen temas de astronomía, geografía, biología y medio ambiente, entre otros. En la actualidad opera en las instalaciones del Pabellón Argentina de la Ciudad Universitaria y recibe delegaciones escolares de todo el territorio provincial. El Planetario Móvil es parte de un proyecto más amplio de divulgación científica en el cual interactúan la Universidad y el Municipio.

  14. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    López Cortés, R; Marín Fernández, B; Hueso Montoro, C; Escalada Hernández, P; Sanz Aznarez, A C; Rodríguez Gutiérrez, C

    2016-01-01

                Fundamento. Determinar la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn y colitis ulcerosa, así como evaluar las diferencias en función del sexo, tipo de enfermedad y otras variables sociodemográficas.            Método. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal en 100 pacientes atendidos en el servicio de Digestivo del Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra. Se empleó un cuestionario con variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, además del Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-32, en su versión adaptada al castellano, para medir la calidad de vida.            Resultados. La media de la puntuación total del cuestionario de calidad vida es de 166 puntos (D.T.=40,06) sobre un máximo de 232. Se han hallado diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del tipo de enfermedad (p=0,005) y el sexo (p=0,001).            Conclusiones. Las personas con enfermedad de Crohn o sexo femenino perciben peor calidad de vida relacionada con la salud respecto a pacientes con colitis ulcerosa u hombres.            Palabras clave. Enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal. Colitis ulcerosa. Enfermedad de Crohn. Calidad de vida. PMID:27125619

  15. Explicación de las disparidades raciales en la salud neonatal en Brasil*

    PubMed Central

    Nyarko, Kwame A.; López-Camelo, Jorge; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Wehby, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Buscamos cuantificar la manera en que los efectos socioeconómicos, demográficos, geográficos y de atención de salud explican las disparidades raciales en las tasas de bajo peso al nacer y prematuridad en Brasil. Métodos. Utilizamos una muestra de 8 949 niños nacidos entre 1995 y el 2009 en 15 ciudades y 7 provincias de Brasil. Nos centramos en las disparidades en la prevalencia de bajo peso al nacer (< 2 500 g) y prematuridad (< 37 semanas de gestación) en recién nacidos de ascendencia solo africana o mezclada con otras ascendencias y de ascendencia solo europea. Usamos un modelo de descomposición para cuantificar la contribución de los factores conceptualmente pertinentes a esas disparidades. Resultados. El modelo permitió explicar entre 45% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto al bajo peso al nacer y entre 64% y 94% de las disparidades en cuanto a la prematuridad entre los grupos de ascendencia africana y de ascendencia europea. Las diferencias en el uso de atención prenatal y en la ubicación geográfica fueron los factores más importantes, seguidos por las diferencias socioeconómicas. El modelo permitió explicar la mayoría de las disparidades en los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana mezclada y parte de las disparidades en los de ascendencia solo africana. Conclusiones. En las políticas públicas para mejorar la salud infantil se deben abordar las diferencias en cuanto a la atención prenatal y la ubicación geográfica a fin de reducir las disparidades en materia de salud entre los recién nacidos de ascendencia africana y los de ascendencia europea en Brasil.

  16. Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identificação do modelo de máximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considerações metodológicas

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, André Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondízio, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais é um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do número de estudos que utilizam análises multivariadas baseadas em lógica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminação do método Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empíricos brasileiros da área de ciências sociais e saúde, questões relativas à identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parâmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 não foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevância de se obterem parâmetros únicos e estáveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento empírico para localizar um modelo de máximo global (MG) com parâmetros estáveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG não incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitação é contornada por meio da utilização de uma estatística de ponderação – Máximo Global Ponderado (MGP) – semelhante ao coeficiente de variação. Esse indicador busca não penalizar de forma desproporcional situações nas quais os desvios médios, apesar de diferentes de zero, são muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidências de que o localizador MGP reduz a distância do modelo identificado à real estrutura latente dos dados em análise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador não ponderado, MG. PMID:23293402

  17. Eventos de Desconexao na Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Fahr, H. J.

    2001-08-01

    Observacoes cometárias e de vento solar sao comparadas com o propósito de determinar-se as condicoes do vento solar associadas aos eventos de desconexao (DEs) observados em caudas de plasma cometárias. Os dados cometários sao provenientes do The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. A análise visual sistemática das imagens do atlas revelou, entre outras estruturas morfológicas, 47 DEs ao longo da cauda de plasma do P/Halley. Estes 47 DEs registrados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram a descoberta de 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o tempo em que as desconexoes iniciaram foi calculado. Os dados do vento solar sao provenientes de medidas feitas in situ pela sonda espacial IMP-8, as quais foram usadas para elaborar a variacao da velocidade do vento solar, densidade e pressao dinâmica durante o intervalo analisado. O presente trabalho compara as atuais teorias conflitantes, baseadas nos mecanismos de formacao, com o intuito de explicar o fenômeno cíclico dos DEs, ou seja, os efeitos de producao iônica, os efeitos de pressao e os efeitos de reconexao magnética sao analisados. Para cada uma das 19 origens de DEs comparou-se a densidade com a respectiva velocidade do vento solar com o intuito de determinar-se uma possível correlacao entre estas origens e os efeitos de pressao dinâmica. Quando da ocorrência de 6 origens de DEs o IMP-8 nao realizou medidas, nos outros 13 casos 10 origens (77%) mostraram uma anticorrelacao entre velocidade e densidade e apenas 3 (23%) revelaram uma tendência similar entre velocidade e densidade. Portanto, a análise inicial demonstra uma fraca correlacao entre as origens dos DEs e os efeitos de pressao.

  18. Uma grade de perfis teóricos para estrelas massivas em transição

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, C. M. P.; Machado, M. A.

    2003-08-01

    Na XXVIII Reunião Anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (2002) apresentamos uma grade de perfis calculados de acordo com os pontos da trajetória evolutiva de metalicidade solar, Z = 0.02 e taxa de perda de massa () padrão, para estrelas com massa inicial de 25, 40, 60, 85 e 120 massas solares. Estes perfis foram calculados com o auxílio de um código numérico adequado para descrever os ventos de objetos massivos, supondo simetria esférica, estacionaridade e homogeneidade. No presente trabalho, apresentamos a complementação da grade com os perfis teóricos relativos às trajetórias de Z = 0.02 com taxa de perda de massa dobrada em relação a padrão (2´), e de metalicidade Z = 0.008. Para cada ponto das três trajetórias obtemos os perfis teóricos de Ha, Hb, Hg e Hd, e como esperado eles se apresentam em pura emissão, pura absorção ou em P-Cygni. Para valores de taxa de perda de massa muito baixos (~10-7) não há formação de linhas, o que é visto nos primeiros pontos em todas as trajetórias. Em geral, para um mesmo ponto a componente de emissão diminui e a absorção aumenta de Ha para Hd. É verificado que as trajetórias com Z = 0.02 e padrão possuem menos circuitos (loops) do que as com metalicidade Z = 0.02 e 2´ padrão, e seus perfis são, em geral, menos intensos. Em relação a trajetória de Z = 0.008, verifica-se menos circuitos e maior variação em luminosidade, e seus perfis mostram-se em, algumas trajetórias, mais intensos. Verificamos também que, pontos distintos em uma mesma trajetória, apresentam perfis diferentes para valores similares de luminosidade e temperatura efetiva. Sendo assim, uma grade de perfis teóricos parece ser útil para fornecer uma informação preliminar sobre o estágio evolutivo de uma estrela massiva.

  19. A new release of the mean orbital motion theory, and a new tool provided by CNES for long term analysis of disposal orbits and re-entry predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleflie, Florent; Wailliez, Sébastien; Portmann, Christophe; Gilles, M.; Vienne, Alain; Berthier, J.; Valk, St; Hautesserres, Denis; Martin, Thierry; Fraysse, Hubert

    To perform an orbit modelling accurate enough to provide a good estimate of the lifetime of a satellite, or to ensure the stability of a disposal orbit through centuries, we built a new orbit propagator based on the theory of mean orbital motion. It is named SECS-SD2 , for Simplified and Extended CODIOR Software -Space Debris Dedicated . The CODIOR software propagates numerically averaged equations of motion, with a typical integration step size on the order of a few hours, and was originally written in classical orbital elements. The so-called Space Debris -dedicated version is written in orbital elements suitable for orbits with small eccentricities and inclinations, so as to characterize the main dynamic properties of the motion within the LEO, MEO, and GEO regions. The orbital modelling accounts for the very first terms of the geopotential, the perturbations induced by the luni-solar attraction, the solar radiation pressure, and the atmospheric drag (using classical models). The new software was designed so as to ensure short computation times, even over periods of decades or centuries. This paper aims first at describing and validating the main functionalities of the software: we explain how the simplified averaged equations of motion were built, we show how we get sim-plified luni-solar ephemerides without using any huge file for orbit propagations over centuries, and we show how we averaged and simulated the solar flux. We show as well how we expressed short periodic terms to be added to the mean equations of motion, in order to get orbital ele-ments comparable to those deduced from the classical numerical integration of the oscultating equations of motion. The second part of the paper sheds light on some dynamical properties of space debris flying in the LEO and GEO regions, which were obtained from the new software. Knowing that each satellite in the LEO region is now supposed to re-enter the atmosphere within a period of 25 years, we estimated in various

  20. Dose calculation for hypofractionated volumetric-modulated arc therapy: approximating continuous arc delivery and tongue-and-groove modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Tang, Grace; Zhang, Pengpeng; Hunt, Margie; Lim, Seng B; LoSasso, Thomas; Mageras, Gig

    2016-01-01

     Hypofractionated treatments generally increase the complexity of a treatment plan due to the more stringent constraints of normal tissues and target coverage. As a result, treatment plans contain more modulated MLC motions that may require extra efforts for accurate dose calculation. This study explores methods to minimize the differences between in-house dose calculation and actual delivery of hypofractionated volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT), by focusing on arc approximation and tongue-and-groove (TG) modeling. For dose calculation, the continuous delivery arc is typically approximated by a series of static beams with an angular spacing of 2°. This causes significant error when there is large MLC movement from one beam to the next. While increasing the number of beams will minimize the dose error, calculation time will increase significantly. We propose a solution by inserting two additional apertures at each of the beam angle for dose calculation. These additional apertures were interpolated at two-thirds' degree before and after each beam. Effectively, there were a total of three MLC apertures at each beam angle, and the weighted average fluence from the three apertures was used for calculation. Because the number of beams was kept the same, calculation time was only increased by about 6%-8%. For a lung plan, areas of high local dose differences (> 4%) between film measurement and calculation with one aperture were significantly reduced in calculation with three apertures. Ion chamber measure-ment also showed similar results, where improvements were seen with calculations using additional apertures. Dose calculation accuracy was further improved for TG modeling by developing a sampling method for beam fluence matrix. Single ele-ment point sampling for fluence transmitted through MLC was used for our fluence matrix with 1 mm resolution. For Varian HDMLC, grid alignment can cause fluence sampling error. To correct this, transmission volume averaging was

  1. A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppe, P. C. R.; Martin, V. A. F.; de Medeiros, N. G. F.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2003-08-01

    Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que houve a percolação do fluido. Reformulando o modelo acima, podemos escrever um código particularmente adaptado para simulações em Galáxias, onde iremos supor que os canais formam um reticulado, e que cada sítio da rede representa um poro que será interpretado como uma região ativa de formação estelar. Para cada elo teremos um pequeno canal ligando dois sítios vizinhos, que poderá, após um tempo "t", induzir ou não a formação de uma região ativa no poro vizinho. Para simular a passagem desta região ativa através dos poros, diremos que um elo está aberto com probabilidade p e fechado com probabilidade 1-p. Dessa forma, passamos a imaginar configurações de elos abertos e fechados, onde cada configuração ocorre com uma certa probabilidade, dada por p|A|(1-p)|F|, onde |A| é o número de elos abertos e |F| o número de elos fechados da configuração. A expressão anterior só tem importância física se |A| e |F| forem ambos finitos, pois, caso contrário, a probabilidade de ocorrência de uma dada configuração será sempre nula. Neste trabalho, foram considerados dados cinemáticos publicados na literatura bem como aqueles obtidos pelos autores a partir de observações fotométricas realizadas no Observatório de Las Campanãs, em 1994, para a Galáxia Anelada Peculiar HRG 03401. Mostraremos que para certos valores de p, situados entre 0,5 e 0,6, os clusters assim formados irão simular, de maneira coerente, o referido objeto.

  2. Photodissociation of ketene: CH{sub 2}CO {yields} CH{sub 2}(a{sup 1}A{sub 1}) + CO(v=1) rates and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, E.A.

    1996-12-01

    The rotational energy release in the dissociation of ketene (CH{sub 2}CO) along its singlet potential energy surface is observed and compared with several statistical and dynamical theories. Rotational distributions for the product, CO(X{sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1), are measured from the threshold for production of CH{sub 2}(a {sup 1}A{sub 1}) (0,0,0) + CO(X{sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1) to 1720 cm{sup -1} above. Near threshold (E{le} 200 cm{sup -1} over threshold), phase space theory (PST) matches the observed distributions. At 357 and 490 cm{sup -1}, PST constrained by the measured state distributions of the methylene fragment, provides a good fit to these CO(v=1) rotational distributions. For E > 490 cm{sup -1}, the constrained PST matches the average rotational energy observed but predicts distributions which are broader than observed. This contrasts to the rotational distributions of the {sup 1}CH{sub 2} fragment which become shifted to lower rotational states than PST as energy increases from 200 cm{sup -1} above threshold. Dynamical models, the impulsive model and Franck-Condon mapping, do not account for the product rotational state distributions. The CO(v=1) rotational distributions for E > 200 cm{sup -1} contain no measurable product from triplet channel fragmentation. Therefore, they can be compared with the previously determined CO(v=0) rotational distributions in order to partition the CO(v=0) yield between singlet and triplet channels and recalculate the singlet yield. This new yield is found to be at the upper limits of the range previously reported. Rate constants and quantum yields have been determined for the photodissociation of ketene to produce CH{sub 2}(a {sup 1}A{sub 1}) (0,0,0) + CO(X {sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1). At 57, 110, 200, 357, and 490 cm{sup -1} above this product threshold, vibrational branching ratios for the singlet products were measured and compared to phase space theory (PST), separate statistical ensembles (SSE), and variational RRKM (var. RRKM).

  3. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  4. Espectroscopia infravermelha de núcleos ativos de galáxias: resultados adicionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ardila, A.; Viegas, S.; Pastoria, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados parciais de um levantamento espectroscópico na região do infravermelho próximo (NIR) realizado em 30 núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN), incluindo vários objetos selecionados do catálogo PG com z de até 0.55. O objetivo é estudar a natureza do contínuo observado e as condições físicas do gas emissor. Todas as fontes de tipo 1 apresentam uma mudança na inclinação do contínuo na região de 1.2mm, associada ao término da contribuição do contínuo emitido pelo AGN e ao início da contribuição do contínuo emitido pela poeira quente atribuída ao tórus que rodeia a fonte central. O índice espectral associado à segunda contribuição varia apreciavelmente de objeto para objeto. Este resultado é comparado com distribuições espectrais de energia preditas por modelos de toroides para testar a validez do modelo unificado. A partir das linhas de FeII observado nos espectros deriva-se, pela primeira vez nessa região espectral, um template empírico de FeII para estudar a intensidade e a origem dessa emissão. A intensidade do FeII é estudada em conjunto com aquela da região visível e comparada às predições de modelos teóricos que incluem fluorescência de Lya, excitação colisional e auto-fluorescência como mecanismos dominantes de exitação. Encontra-se que os dois primeiros processos dominam na formação do espectro de FeII observado. Indicadores de avermelhamento, entre eles Brg/Pab, Pab/Pag, Pab/Pad e [FeII] 1.257/1.644 mm são utilizados para mapear a distribuição de poeira nas regiões emissoras de linhas. Encontra-se valores de extinção Av~3 associados ao último indicador e valores significativamente menores (Av~1.5) para os restantes, o que sugere que o [FeII] se forma em uma região separada da maior parte do gás emissor de linhas estreitas.

  5. Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

    2009-01-01

    An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken

  6. Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionova, Natalia

    Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy

  7. Challenges towards the elimination of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Simo, Gustave; Mbida Mbida, Jean Arthur; Ebo'o Eyenga, Vincent; Asonganyi, Tazoacha; Njiokou, Flobert; Grébaut, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The sleeping sickness focus of Campo lies along the Atlantic coast and extends along the Ntem River, which constitutes the Cameroonian and Equatorial Guinean border. It is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. Investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. From 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this focus and five tsetse species including Glossina palpalis palpalis, G. pallicera, G. nigrofusca, G. tabaniformis and G. caliginea were identified. The analysis of blood meals of these flies showed that they feed on human, pig, goat, sheep, and wild animals such as antelope, duiker, wild pig, turtle and snake. The percentage of blood meals taken on these hosts varies according to sampling periods. For instance, 6.8% of blood meals from pig were reported in 2004 and 22% in 2008. This variation is subjected to considerable evolutions because the Campo HAT focus is submitted to socio-economic mutations including the reopening of a new wood company, the construction of autonomous port at "Kribi" as well as the dam at "Memve ele". These activities will bring more that 3000 inhabitants around Campo and induce the deforestation for the implementation of farmlands as well as breeding of domestic animals. Such mutations have impacts on the transmission and the epidemiology of sleeping sickness due to the modification of the fauna composition, the nutritional behavior of tsetse, the zoophilic/anthropophilic index. To achieve the elimination goal in the sleeping sickness focus of Campo, we report in this paper the current epidemiological situation of the disease, the research findings of the last decades notably on the population genetics of trypanosomes, the modifications of nutritional behavior of tsetse, the prevalence of T. b. gambiense in humans, domestic and wild animals. An overview

  8. Use of serum levels of proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α in chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Vanis, Nenad; Mehmedović, Amila; Mesihović, Rusmir

    2015-03-01

    significance is indicated as follows: 1. Age, 2. history of receiv- ing transfusions, 3. ALT 4. AST, 5. MELD score (negative), 6. Child-Pugh score (negative). IL-1α was significantly ele- vated in inflammatory conditions of pronounced activity (PCR positive hepatitis). IL-1α may have important role as marker of both inflammation and hepatic injury, particularly in the course of hepatitis C. Results suggest that inflammatory and immune parameters, analyzed together can significantly contribute to the understanding and predicting of chronic liver damage. PMID:26040073

  9. Aquisição de Estreptococos Mutans e Desenvolvimento de Cárie Dental em Primogênitos

    PubMed Central

    NOCE, Erica; RUBIRA, Cassia Maria Fischer; da Silva ROSA, Odila Pereira; da SILVA, Salete Moura Bonifácio; BRETZ, Walter Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo Avaliar o momento de aquisição de estreptococos mutans (EM), desenvolvimento de cárie dental e as variáveis a eles associadas no decorrer de 23 meses, em primogênitos de famílias de baixo nível socioeconômico, desde os sete meses de idade. Método A amostra foi selecionada com base em mães densamente colonizadas por EM, incluindo todos os membros de 14 famílias que conviviam na mesma casa. Foram envolvidos no estudo 14 mães, pais e primogênitos e 8 parentes, na maioria avós. Exames clínicos e radiográficos iniciais determinaram os índices de cárie e condição periodontal dos adultos. Contagens de EM foram feitas em todos os adultos nas duas primeiras visitas. Nas crianças foram avaliados os níveis de EM, o número de dentes e de cáries, em quatro visitas. Resultados A prevalência de EM nos adultos foi alta, estando ausente em apenas um dos pais. EM foram detectados em 1, 2, 3 e 10 crianças, respectivamente nas visitas #1, 2, 3 e 4. A cárie dental foi detectada em apenas três crianças na última visita (aos 30 meses de idade), as quais apresentaram escores de EM significantemente maiores que as crianças sem cárie, na mesma visita. Conclusão Exclusivamente a condição social de baixa renda e mães densamente colonizadas por EM não são sinônimo de colonização precoce e alta atividade de cárie em crianças cuidadas em casa. O desenvolvimento de cárie está significantemente associado a escores elevados de EM nas crianças. PMID:22022218

  10. Surfaces, scales, and synthesis: Scientific reasoning at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bursten, Julia R.

    Philosophers interested in scientific methodology have focused largely on physics, biology, and cognitive science. They have paid considerably less attention to sciences such as chemistry and nanoscience, where not only are the subjects distinct, but the very aims differ: chemistry and nanoscience center around synthesis. Methods associated with synthesis do not fit well with description, explanation, and prediction that so dominate aims in philosophers paradigm sciences. In order to synthesize a substance or material, scientists need different kinds of information than they need to predict, explain, or describe. Consequently, they need different kinds of models and theories. Specifically, chemists need additional models of how reactions will proceed. In practice, this means chemists must model surface structure and behavior, because reactions occur on the surfaces of materials. Physics, and by extension much of philosophy of science, ignores the structure and behavior of surfaces, modeling surfaces only as boundary conditions with virtually no influence on material behavior. Such boundary conditions are not seen as part of the physical laws that govern material behavior, so little consideration has been given to their roles in improving scientists understanding of materials and aiding synthesis. But especially for theories that are used in synthesis, such neglect can lead to catastrophic modeling failures. In fact, as one moves down toward the nanoscale, the very concept of a material surface changes, with the consequence that nanomaterials behave differently than macroscopic materials made up of the same ele-ments. They conduct electricity differently, they appear differently colored, and they can play different roles in chemical reactions. This dissertation develops new philosophical tools to deal with these changes and give an account of theory and model use in the synthetic sciences. Particularly, it addresses the question of how models of materials at the

  11. Uncertainty Principle and Elementary Wavelet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliznetsov, M.

    motion that is known as shock waves. The ele- mentary wavelet and elastic pulse radiated by the spherical source of seismic waves in an ideal elastic medium have the same spectral characteristic. Planck's radiation law for electric waves is also characterized by the equality of relative width of the spec- trum in regard to the center frequency to 1 and does not conflict with the introduced concept of elementary wavelet.

  12. The Meanings of Astronomical Observation: An Analysis on the Basis of Relationship with Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Los Sentidos de la Observación Astronómica: un Análisis sobre la Base de la Relación con el Saber.) Os Sentidos da Observação Astronômica: Uma Análise com Base na Relação com o Saber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alberto Eduardo; de Mello Arruda, Sergio; Meneghello Passos, Marinez; Vinicius Domenes Zapparoli, Ferdinando

    2010-12-01

    This article presents results of a research which aimed to understand the meanings that people construct for astronomical observation. The subjects, students and school teachers, initially received some instruction on how to view astronomical objects through the telescope. After the observation was realized, they were interviewed. The data analysis allowed the creation of 12 categories, later interpreted on the basis of relationship with knowledge (relation to the world, with himself and with others), as presented by Bernard Charlot. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que tuvo como objetivo comprender los sentidos que las personas construyen para la observación astronómica. Los sujetos, los estudiantes y maestros de escuela, recibieron inicialmente algunas instrucciones sobre cómo ver los objetos astronómicos a través del telescopio. Al término de la observación, fueron entrevistados. El análisis de datos permitió la creación de 12 categorías que más tarde fueron interpretadas sobre la base de la relación con el conocimiento (relación con el mundo, consigo mismo y con los demás), tal como presentado por Bernard Charlot. Este artigo apresenta resultados de uma pesquisa que objetivou entender quais os sentidos que as pessoas constroem para a observação astronômica. Os sujeitos da pesquisa, estudantes e professores do ensino médio, receberam inicialmente alguma instrução sobre como visualizar os objetos astronômicos através do telescópio. Após a realização da observação, eles foram entrevistados. A análise dos dados permitiu a elaboração de 12 categorias que foram posteriormente interpretadas com base nas relações com o saber (relação com o mundo, consigo mesmo e com o outro), conforme apresentadas por Bernard Charlot.

  13. Identificação de variáveis cataclísmicas eruptivas na direção do bojo galáctico e Nuvens de Magalhães usando dados do OGLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

    2003-08-01

    Na década de 90 iniciaram-se vários programas para a pesquisa de matéria escura na Galáxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratégia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande número de estrelas (dezenas de milhões) tão freqüentemente quanto possí vel e por longos perí odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemática de observação, além de descobrir inúmeras lentes gravitacionais, é também muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variáveis. De fato, inúmeras novas variáveis de vários tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereços http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variáveis cataclí smicas eruptivas (novas clássicas, novas recorrentes e novas anãs) são objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razão, devem ter sido detectadas em grande número nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade nós procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variáveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variação de brilho como critério principal. Este critério forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direção da Grande Nuvem de Magalhães, 1162 na direção da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhães e o restante na direção do Bojo Galáctico. A análise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupções com as características acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clássicas e 33 novas anãs. Além disso, pode-se mencionar a identificação de candidatas a outros tipos de variáveis como: estrelas simbióticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae

  14. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    D-dímero são frequentemente aumentada em pacientes com fibrilação atrial (FA) em comparação com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipocalemia desempenha um papel em várias doenças cardiovasculares, mas pouco se sabe sobre a associação com FA. Objetivo: As concentrações de D-dímero encontram-se frequentemente aumentadas em pacientes com FA, quando comparados com indivíduos em ritmo sinusal. A hipopotassemia desempenha um papel importante nas doenças cardiovasculares, porém, pouco é conhecido sobre sua associação com a FA. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a correlação entre os níveis séricos de D-dímero e potássio na FA aguda (FAA). Métodos: Para investigar a existência de uma potencial correlação entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero em pacientes com FAA, realizamos uma revisão retrospectiva de dados clínicos e laboratoriais relacionados a todas as visitas ao departamento de emergência devido à FAA, no ano de 2013. Resultados: Entre os 271 pacientes com FAA, aqueles com hipopotassemia (n = 98) mostraram aumento significativo nos níveis de D-dímero, quando comparados com pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0,004). A taxa de pacientes com níveis de D-dímero excedendo o valor limiar de diagnóstico foi maior no grupo de pacientes com hipopotassemia, quando comparado com o grupo de pacientes com concentrações normais de potássio (26,5% versus 16,2%; p = 0,029). Detectamos uma correlação inversa e altamente significativa entre os níveis séricos de potássio e D-dímero (r = -0,21; p < 0,001), até mesmo após ajuste para idade e sexo (coeficiente beta -94,8; p = 0,001). O risco relativo de um valor positivo de D-dímero estar relacionado à hipopotassemia foi de 1,64 (95% CI, 1,02 to 2,63; p = 0,040). A correlação permaneceu estatisticamente significativa em pacientes livres de medicamentos hipertensivos (r = -0,25; p = 0,018), porém não nos pacientes em tratamento

  15. Learning about the Sky from the Environment: An Experience Working Along One Year with Students of Elementary Education. (Spanish Title: Aprendiendo sobre EL Cielo Desde el Entorno: Una Experiencia Trabajando Durante un Año Junto a Estudiantes del Primario.) Aprendendo sobre o Céu a Partir do Entorno: Uma Experiência de Trabalho ao Longo de um Ano com Alunos de Ensino Fundamental

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhini, Marcos Daniel; Gomide, Hanny Angeles

    2014-12-01

    percepción limitada que los estudiantes tienen de su alrededor la cual, sin embargo, se expandió debido a las actividades llevadas a cabo, sobre todo en relación con la Luna. Trabajar con medidas sistemáticas revela el manejo cuidadoso de los datos para que sean comprensibles para los estudiantes, así como el trabajo con las sombras para que comprendan primero como se forman estas para después trabajarlas en Astronomía. Por último, llegamos a la conclusión de que el proceso desarrollado consistió en una etapa inicial de una obra que debe ser profundizado en los años posteriores de la formación de estos estudiantes. Projeto de pesquisa desenvolvido com 95 alunos do 6º ano do Ensino Fundamental de uma escola pública estadual de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Foi um trabalho contínuo, de fevereiro a dezembro de 2013, o qual levou os alunos a participarem de atividades de observação do entorno, dentre ele, o céu, analisando as mudanças ocorridas. Focamos no estudo das variações de temperaturas, chuvas, duração do dia, variações do tamanho das sombras e mudanças nos aspectos da Lua. Nosso foco de análise centrou-se em discutir os conhecimentos que os referidos alunos tinham acerca dos temas indicados no início e ao término da implementação da proposta. Os resultados mostraram a percepção limitada que os estudantes possuem de seu entorno, todavia, ampliada em função das atividades desenvolvidas, principalmente no que se refere à Lua. O trabalho com medidas sistemáticas revela o cuidado no tratamento dos dados para que eles se tornem compreensíveis aos alunos, assim como o trabalho com as sombras sinaliza para que os alunos primeiramente compreendam como as sombras são formadas para depois trabalhar isso em Astronomia. Por fim, concluímos que o processo vivido constituiu-se em uma etapa inicial de um trabalho que deve ser estimulado para os anos subsequentes da formação desses alunos.

  16. H2 Imaging of Three Proto-Planetary and Young Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Kevin; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, Sun

    2004-12-01

    High-resolution (0.15") 2.12 μm H2 and narrowband K images have been obtained of one cool proto-planetary nebula, IRAS 20028+3910, and two hot proto-planetary/young planetary nebulae, IRAS 19306+1407 and IRAS 22023+5249. The observations were made with an adaptive optics system and near-infrared imager on the Gemini North 8 m telescope. All three nebulae are seen to be extended, and in two and possibly all three of them H2 is found to be emitting from bipolar lobes. In IRAS 19306+1407, H2 emission is seen arising from a ring close to the star and from the edges of emerging bipolar lobes. In IRAS 20028+3910, one bright lobe and a very faint second lobe are seen in the H2 and K-band images, similar to the published visible images, but in the H2 and K-band images a faint filament appears to connect the two lobes. The central star is not seen in IRAS 20028+3910, indicating that the nebula is optically thick even at 2 μm, which is unusual. The images suggest that extended H2 emission is often the manifestation of fast-slow wind interactions in the bipolar lobes. The paper is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory with the Adaptive Optics System Hokupa'a/QUIRC, developed and operated by the University of Hawaii Adaptive Optics Group, with support from the National Science Foundation. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT; Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica (CNPq; Brazil), and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET; Argentina).

  17. Insertion of Astronomy as a High School Subject. (Spanish Title: Inserción de Astronomia Como Materia del Ciclo Secundario.) Inserção da Astronomia Como Disciplina Curricular do Ensino Médio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Claudio André C. M.; Santa Rita, Josué R.

    2008-12-01

    Astronomy is considered among the first sciences that man dominated, however, the basic skills for the construction of knowledge, relatively to the contents "Earth and the Universe" are not being developed properly for the majority of students concluding the high school level. The students are concluding this teaching cycle without proper knowledge of several subjects in the area of Astronomy, which are mandatory in the national Curricular National Parameters (PCN). Because of this discrepancy, this work stresses the need of the incorporation of a specific subject of Astronomy in the high school, in order to reduce the gap between what is taught and which should be taught. La Astronomía es considerada una de las primeras ciencias que el hombre dominó. Sin embargo, las habilidades básicas para la construcción del conocimento, relativo al eje temático "Tierra y Universo", no vienen siendo trabajadas adecuadamente con la mayoría de los alumnos que concluyen el ciclo escolar medio. Los alumnos están concluyendo este nivel de enseñanza sin conocimentos de varios temas en el área de Astronomía, que son obligatorios según los Parámetros Curriculares Nacionales (PCN). En virtud de esta discrepancia, este trabajo enfatiza la necesidad de incorporar una disciplina específica de Astronomía em el ciclo medio, em pro de la reducción de las distorsiones entre lo que es enseñado y lo que se debe enseñar. A Astronomia é considerada uma das primeiras ciências que o homem dominou, porém as competências básicas para a construção do conhecimento, relativo ao eixo temático "Terra e Universo", não vêm sendo trabalhadas a contento com a maioria dos alunos que concluem o ensino médio. Os alunos estão concluindo este nível de ensino sem conhecimento de vários temas na área de Astronomia, que são obrigatórios nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN). Em virtude desta discrepância, este trabalho vem evidenciar a necessidade da incorporação de uma

  18. PREFACE: XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serquis, Adriana; Balseiro, Carlos; Bolcatto, Pablo

    2009-07-01

    This volume contains selected papers which have been presented at the XIX Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics (SLAFES XIX) held at Puerto Iguazú, Argentina, from 5--10 October 2008. The conference, covering all areas of Solid State Physics, is one of the most important and traditional meetings in Physics in our region. The Latin American Symposium on Solid State Physics is a forum where researchers and students from Latin America as well as leading scientists from other parts of the world get together to exchange information, strengthen collaborations and identify new challenges in Solid State Physics. This successful series of meetings has been organised in eight different countries, the last three held in Mérida, Venezuela (2002), La Habana, Cuba (2004) and Puebla, México (2006). Following the trends of previous events, SLAFES XIX included seven plenary talks, eighteen invited talks and contributions, and 28 oral and 255 poster presentations, covering mostly the latest experimental and theoretical advances in Nanophysics, Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Spintronics, Magnetism, New Materials, Superconductivity, Surfaces and Interfaces, Low-Dimensional Systems, Materials Preparation and Characterization, Theory and Computing Simulations of Materials among other topics. The group of scientists participating had come from Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, France, Spain, Switzerland and the USA We are indebted to all participants for their enthusiasm and contributions and to the members of the International Advisory Commitees. We also wish to thank to the rest of the Organizing Committee: Gustavo Lozano, Ana María Llois, Laura Steren and Edith Goldberg and very specially to Javier Schmidt, Gustavo Ruano, Marcelo Romero, Lucila Cristina and Juan Carlos Moreno for their invaluable assistance during the event. Finally we gratefully aknowledge the financial support the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET

  19. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Molina Garrido, María José

    2016-01-01

    Cada vez es mayor el número de ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acuden a las consultas de Oncología Médica. El proceso del envejecimiento y la gran variabilidad existente en la población geriátrica implican que, para hacer un abordaje adecuado del paciente, se deba considerar la edad fisiológica del anciano, y no su edad biológica. Para ello, es preciso hacer una evaluación somera, específica e individualizada a cada uno de los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer que acudan a nuestra consulta. La valoración geriátrica integral (VGI) es la herramienta clave que permite evaluarlos de forma adecuada, e incluso orienta la toma de decisiones "personalizada" en los ancianos con diagnóstico de cáncer. Dado que la VGI consume mucho tiempo en la consulta diaria, se están desarrollando distintas herramientas de cribado que permitan acortar la atención al paciente, al seleccionar aquellos ancianos que deban someterse a una VGI y aquellos en los que esta no sea necesaria. Se han publicado distintos modelos de VGI en la Oncogeriatría y se han desarrollado distintas herramientas de cribado de fragilidad; los más conocidos son el cuestionario Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) y el cuestionario G-8. En este artículo se hace una revisión acerca de la evidencia científica existente en cuanto a la atención y valoración del anciano oncológico, así como los distintos parámetros de los que se disponen para la toma de decisiones definitiva. Dichos datos reflejan el papel de la Oncogeriatría como la vía para ofrecer una atención global óptima a este grupo poblacional. PMID:27269217

  20. Differentiation between human ClC-2 and CFTR Cl- channels with pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Cuppoletti, John; Chakrabarti, Jayati; Tewari, Kirti P; Malinowska, Danuta H

    2014-09-01

    It has been difficult to separate/identify the roles of ClC-2 and CFTR in Cl(-) transport studies. Using pharmacological agents, we aimed to differentiate functionally between ClC-2 and CFTR Cl(-) channel currents. Effects of CFTR inhibitor 172 (CFTRinh172), N-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-N'-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)urea (DASU-02), and methadone were examined by whole cell patch clamp on Cl(-) currents in recombinant human ClC-2/human embryonic kidney 293 (ClC-2/HEK293) cells stably transformed with Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (hClC-2/293EBNA) and human CFTR/HEK293 (hCFTR/HEK293) cells and by short-circuit current (Isc) measurements in T84 cells. Lubiprostone and forskolin-IBMX were used as activators. CFTRinh172 inhibited forskolin-IBMX-stimulated recombinant human CFTR (hCFTR) and lubiprostone-stimulated recombinant human ClC-2 (hClC-2) Cl(-) currents in a concentration-dependent manner equipotently. DASU-02 inhibited forskolin-IBMX-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hCFTR/HEK293 cells, but not lubiprostone-stimulated Cl(-) currents in hClC-2/293EBNA cells. In T84 cells with basolateral nystatin or 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), lubiprostone-stimulated and forskolin-IBMX-cyclosporin A (FICA)-stimulated Isc components were observed. CFTRinh172 inhibited major portions of both components. DASU-02 had no effect on lubiprostone-stimulated Isc but partially inhibited FICA-stimulated Isc. T84 cells in which ClC-2 or CFTR was knocked down using siRNAs were constructed. T84 ClC-2 knockdown cells did not respond to lubiprostone but did respond to forskolin-IBMX in a methadone-insensitive, DASU-02-sensitive manner, indicating CFTR function. T84 CFTR knockdown cells responded separately to lubiprostone and forskolin-IBMX in a methadone-sensitive and DASU-02-insensitive manner, indicating ClC-2 function. Low lubiprostone concentrations activated ClC-2, but not CFTR, and both channels were activated by forskolin-IBMX but have different inhibitor sensitivities. Methadone, but

  1. Oral health in the agenda of priorities in public health.

    PubMed

    Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Bastos, João Luiz; Frazão, Paulo; Narvai, Paulo Capel; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2016-08-01

    This study describes the scientific production on oral health diffused in Revista de Saúde Pública, in the 50 years of its publication. A narrative review study was carried out using PubMed, as it is the search database that indexes all issues of the journal. From 1967 to 2015, 162 manuscripts specifically focused on oral health themes were published. This theme was present in all volumes of the journal, with increasing participation over the years. Dental caries was the most studied theme, constantly present in the journal since its first issue. Periodontal disease, fluorosis, malocclusions, and other themes emerged even before the decline of dental caries indicators. Oral health policy is the most recurring theme in the last two decades. Revista de Saúde Pública has been an important vehicle for dissemination, communication, and reflection on oral health, contributing in a relevant way to the technical-scientific interaction between professionals in this field. RESUMO Este estudo descreve a produção científica sobre saúde bucal veiculada na Revista de Saúde Pública, nos cinquenta anos de sua publicação. Foi realizado estudo de revisão narrativa, utilizando o PubMed como mecanismo de busca que indexa todos os fascículos da revista. De 1967 a 2015, foram publicados 162 manuscritos com foco específico em temas de saúde bucal. Essa temática esteve presente em todos os volumes da revista, com participação crescente ao longo dos anos. Cárie dentária foi o tema mais estudado, marcando presença constante na revista desde seu primeiro fascículo. Doença periodontal, fluorose, oclusopatias e outros temas emergiram antes mesmo do declínio dos indicadores de cárie. Políticas de saúde bucal é o tema mais recorrente nas duas últimas décadas. A Revista de Saúde Pública tem sido importante veículo de divulgação, comunicação e reflexão sobre saúde bucal, contribuindo de modo relevante para a interação técnico-científica entre os

  2. Estudio de la formación de galaxias espirales en un modelo de agregación jerárquica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tissera, P.; Saiz, A.; Dominguez-Tenreiro, R.

    El estudio de formación de galaxias espirales ha llevado al desarrollo de numerosos modelos teóricos (e.g. White & Rees 1978). En la actualidad, el modelo más aceptado predice la formación de una galaxia espiral a partir del colapso disipativo del gas en el pozo de potencial de un halo oscuro, conservando su momento angular específco (Fall & Efstathiou 1980). En los últimos años, ha sido posible realizar simulaciones numéricas hidrodinámicas, las cuales describen la evolución conjunta de la materia oscura y los bariones. Estos experimentos han señalado la dificultad de formar estructuras discoidales con propiedades consistentes con las observaciones, en modelos de agregación jerárquica. El problema principal se origina en la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de la componente disipativa, durante el proceso de ensamblaje de los objetos, a través de la fusión de subestructura (Navarro & Steinmetz 1997). Estos experimentos no incluían procesos de formación estelar. En este trabajo, se expondrán resultados de simulaciones hidrodinámicas cosmológicas, incluyendo formación estelar (Tissera et al 1997), donde ha sido posible reproducir objetos discoidales con contrapartida observacional. El elemento fundamental ha sido la formación de bulbos estelares, los cuales han evitado la pérdida catastrófica de momento angular de los bariones. Se encontró que los discos exponenciales puramente gaseosos son altamente inestables y suceptibles de generar barras, responsables de la pérdida de momento angular y la caída violenta del gas hacia la región central. Estas inestabilidades son fácilmente inducidas durante interacciones y fusiones con objetos vecinos (Barnes & Hernquist 1996). Un bulbo estelar (o un objeto masivo y compacto) estabiliza el disco ante perturbaciones externas, asegurándole un potencial simétrico (Sellwood & Moore 1998, Van der Bosch 1998). En este caso, el gas en el disco no pierde completamente su momento angular intr

  3. The Teaching of Astronomy in Uruguay. (Spanish Title: La Enseñanza de la Astronomía en Uruguay.) O Ensino da Astronomia no Uruguai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintos Ganón, Reina; Fernández, Julio Angel

    2008-07-01

    We present in this work the development of astronomy in Uruguay since the colony times up to the present, stressing in particular those aspects related to the formal as well as informal teaching of astronomy. The first antecedents of astronomical studies in our country go back to the beginnings of the XVIIIth century related to the scientific expeditions from Europe coming to our shores. The teaching of astronomy was generalized at the high school level as soon as the end of the XIXth century, while itsintroduction at the university level happened much later, around the middle of the last century. We analyze the current situation of this subject, its problems, and some measures to strengthen its development. Se presenta en este trabajo el desarrollo de la astronomía en el Uruguay desde la época colonial hasta el presente, destacando en particular los aspectos vinculados a su enseñanza tanto formal como informal. Los primeros antecedentes de estudios astronómicos datan de la época colonial relacionados con las expediciones científicas del Viejo Mundo que llegaban a nuestras costas. La enseñanza de la Astronomía se generalizó en el ámbito de los estudios secundarios ya a fines del siglo XIX, mientras que en la Universidad su arribo fue mucho más tardío, a mediados del siglo pasado. Se analiza la situación actual de esta disciplina, sus problemas, y algunas medidas para fortalecer su desarrollo. Apresentamos, neste trabalho, o desenvolvimento da Astronomia no Uruguai desde a época colonial até o presente, destacando em particular os aspectos vinculados ao seu ensino tanto formal quanto informal. Os primeiros antecedentes de estudos astronômicos em nosso país datam da época colonial relacionados com as expedições científicas do Velho Mundo que chegavam às nossas costas. O ensino da Astronomia se generalizou no âmbito dos estudos secundários já no final do século XIX, enquanto que sua introdução na universidade foi muito mais tardia, em

  4. El círculo meridiano automático de San Fernando - San Juan. Sus primeros pasos en el hemisferio sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamaci, C. C.; Muiños, J. L.; Gallego, M.; Pérez, J. A.; Marmolejo, L.; Navarro, J. L.; Sedeño, J.; Vallejos, M.; Belizón, F.

    Se informa sobre el estado actual del Círculo Meridiano Automático de San Fernando-San Juan. El instrumento (Grubb-Parson, de 178mm de abertura y 2665 mm de distancia focal) es gemelo del que se encuentra en las Islas Canarias, y fue instalado durante los meses de julio y agosto de 1996 en la estación astronómica ``Dr. C.U.Cesco" (El Leoncito, Barreal), a unos 200 km de distancia de la ciudad de San Juan, merced a un Convenio de Cooperación Científica, firmado en 1994 entre el ROA (España) y el OAFA (Argentina). En la actualidad se está llevando a cabo un programa de prueba cuyos resultados preliminares muestran que el telescopio está en buenas condiciones para observar estrellas de hasta magnitud aproximada 14.5, con buenos errores de observación (<0.12" en ascensión recta y declinación).

  5. Dating star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud by means of integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Dutra, C. M.

    2002-10-01

    In this study flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the range (3600-6800) Å are presented for 16 concentrated star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), approximately half of which constitute unstudied objects. We have estimated ages and foreground interstellar reddening values from the comparison of the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known parameters. Most of the sample clusters are young blue clusters (6-50 Myr), while L 28, NGC 643 and L 114 are found to be intermediate-age clusters (1-6 Gyr). One well known SMC cluster (NGC 416) was observed for comparison purposes. The sample includes clusters in the surroundings and main body of the SMC, and the derived foreground reddening values are in the range 0.00 <= E(B-V) <= 0.15. The present data also make up a cluster spectral library at SMC metallicity. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  6. Central stars of planetary nebulae: New spectral classifications and catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-02-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probable known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We undertook a spectroscopic survey of central stars of PNe at low resolution and compiled a large list of central stars for which information was dispersed in the literature. Methods: We observed 45 PNs using the 2.15 m telescope at Casleo, Argentina. Results: We present a catalogue of 492 confirmed and probable CSPN and provide a preliminary spectral classification for 45 central star of PNe. This revises previous values of the proportion of CSPN with atmospheres poor in hydrogen in at least 30% of cases and provide statistical information that allows us to infer the origin of H-poor stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.

  7. Central stars of planetary nebulae. II. New OB-type and emission-line stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.

    2011-07-01

    Context. There are more than 3000 confirmed and probably known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe), but central star spectroscopic information is available for only 13% of them. Aims: We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of the central stars in PNe to identify their spectral types. Methods: We performed spectroscopic observations at low resolution with the 2-m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. Results: We present the spectra of 46 central stars of PNe, most of them are OB-type and emission-line stars. Based on data collected at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina.The reduced spectra (FITS files) are available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/531/A172

  8. Near infrared photometric and optical spectroscopic study of 22 low mass star clusters embedded in nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Among the star clusters in the Galaxy, those embedded in nebulae represent the youngest group, which has only recently been explored. The analysis of a sample of 22 candidate embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII environments is presented. Methods: We employed optical spectroscopic observations of stars in the directions of the clusters carried out at CASLEO (Argentina) together with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS catalogue. Our analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour diagrams and on theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field star contamination by carrying out a statistical subtraction. Results: The studied objects have the characteristics of low mass systems. We derive their fundamental parameters. Most of the cluster ages are younger than 2 Myr. The studied embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII region complexes do not have stars of spectral types earlier than B. The total stellar masses locked in the clusters are in the range 20-220 M⊙. They are found to be gravitationally unstable and are expected to dissolve in a timescale of a few Myr. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  9. Photometric and spectroscopic study of low mass embedded star clusters in reflection nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the candidate embedded stellar systems in the reflection nebulae vdBH-RN 26, vdBH-RN} 38, vdBH-RN} 53a, GGD 20, ESO 95-RN 18 and NGC 6595 is presented. Optical spectroscopic data from CASLEO (Argentina) in conjunction with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue were employed. The analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams together with theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field population affecting the analysis by carrying out a statistical subtraction. The fundamental parameters for the stellar systems were derived. The resulting ages are in the range 1-4 Myr and the objects are dominated by pre-main sequence stars. The observed masses locked in the clusters are less than 25 M⊙. The studied systems have no stars of spectral types earlier than B, indicating that star clusters do not necessarily evolve through an HII region phase. The relatively small locked mass combined with the fact that they are not numerous in catalogues suggests that these low mass clusters are not important donors of stars to the field populations. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  10. New cases of unusual polarimetric behavior in asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Mesa, V.; Cellino, A.; Bendjoya, P.; Peñaloza, L.; Lovos, F.

    2008-04-01

    Aims: Results of different polarimetric campaigns at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina are presented. The aim of these campaigns was to search for objects exhibiting anomalous polarimetric properties, similar to those shown by the Ld-class asteroid (234) Barbara, among members of the same or similar taxonomic classes. Methods: The data have been obtained with Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The campaigns began in 2005, and we found four new asteroids with Barbara-like polarimetric properties: the L-class objects (172) Baucis, (236) Honoria and (980) Anacostia, and the K-class asteroid (679) Pax. The polarimetric properties of the phase-polarization curves of these objects may be produced by a mixture of high- and low-albedo particles in their regolith as a result of the fragmentation of a substrate that is spectrally analog to the CO3/CV3 chondrites. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  11. The Aquarius Superclusters. II. Spectroscopic and Photometric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caretta, César A.; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.

    2004-12-01

    We present spectroscopic and photometric data for 920 galaxies selected in 68 fields of the Aquarius Cluster Catalog. Typically, the 15 brightest candidate members with magnitudes in the range 16ficas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  12. New variable stars in open clusters. I. Methods and results for 20 open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Zwintz, K.; Maitzen, H. M.; Pintado, O. I.; Rode-Paunzen, M.

    2004-04-01

    We present high precision CCD photometry of 1791 objects in 20 open clusters with an age of 10 Myr to 1 Gyr. These observations were performed within the Δ a photometric system which is primarily used to detect chemically peculiar stars of the upper main sequence. Time bases range from 30 min up to 60 days with data from several nights. We describe the time series analysis reaching a detection limit of down to 0.006 mag for apparent variability. In total, we have detected 35 variable objects of which four are not members of their corresponding clusters. The variables cover the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, hence they are interesting targets for follow-up observations. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under the agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan; ESO-La Silla and UTSO-Las Campanas.

  13. Polarimetric observations of Hungaria asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Lazzaro, D.; Benavidez, P.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:We present the results of a polarimetric program at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aim of this campaign is to estimate the polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to the Hungaria dynamical group. Methods: The data were obtained with the Casprof polarimeter at the 2.15 m telescope. The Casprof polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. The campaign began in 2000, and data on a sample of 24 members of the Hungaria group were obtained. We use the slope - albedo or P_min - albedo relationships to get polarimetric albedos for 18 of these objects. Results: Only two Xe-type objects, 434 Hungaria and 3447 Burkhalter, shown a polarimetric behavior compatible with a high albedo object. The A-type asteroid 1600 Vyssotsky has a polarimetric behavior similar to what was observed by Fornasier et al. (2006) for 863 Benkolea, and four objects show P_min values consistent with dark surfaces. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  14. CCD photometric search for peculiar stars in open clusters. V. NGC 2099, NGC 3114, NGC 6204, NGC 6705 and NGC 6756

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Pintado, O. I.; Maitzen, H. M.

    2003-12-01

    We have investigated 1008 objects in the area of five intermediate age open clusters (NGC 2099, NGC 3114, NGC 6204, NGC 6705 and NGC 6756) via the narrow band Δ a-system. The detection limit for photometric peculiarity is very low (always less than 0.009 mag) due to the high number of individual frames used (193 in total). We have detected six peculiar objects in NGC 6705 and NGC 6756 from which one in the latter is almost certainly an unreddened late type foreground star. The remaining five stars are probably cluster members and bona fide chemically peculiar objects (two are łambda Bootis type candidates). Furthermore, we have investigated NGC 3114, a cluster for which already photoelectric Δ a-measurements exist. A comparison of the CCD and photoelectric values shows very good agreement. Again, the high capability of our CCD Δ a-photometric system to sort out true peculiar objects together with additional measurements from broad or intermediate band photometry is demonstrated. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under the agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan; ESO-La Silla, UTSO-Las Campanas and L. Figl Observatory, Mt. Schöpfl (Austria). Figure 1 and Table 2 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  15. Spectroscopic Binaries and Kinematic Membership in the Open Cluster NGC 3532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Jorge Federico; Lapasset, Emilio

    2002-06-01

    We report spectroscopic observations for bright stars in the open cluster NGC 3532 up to 1 mag below the turnoff point. We compute radial velocities by cross-correlations and determine spectral types and rotational velocities. Using 21 stars identified as certain members, we derive a mean cluster velocity of +3.4+/-0.3 km s-1. From radial velocities and angular distances to the cluster center, we compute membership probabilities for all but two stars that are radial velocity variables. Only one out of 34 program stars is a clear kinematic nonmember. Three spectroscopic binaries and three additional possible radial velocity variables are detected among the 23 stars measured more than once. We report the star HD 96609 as a double-lined spectroscopic binary. Using the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique TODCOR developed by Zucker & Mazeh, we derive the radial velocity curves for both components and obtain the orbital parameters with errors of 0.3% and 0.7% for the projected orbital semiaxis and masses, respectively. This system is composed of two main-sequence stars in a circular orbit, with a period of 8.19 days. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  16. Ruprecht 3: An old star cluster remnant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavani, D. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2003-02-01

    2MASS J and H photometry and integrated spectroscopy are employed to study the nature of the poorly populated compact concentration of stars Ruprecht 3, which was previously catalogued as an open cluster. The integrated spectrum remarkably resembles that of a moderately metal-rich globular cluster. The distribution of the object stars in the colour-magnitude diagram is compatible with that of a 1.5 +/- 0.5 Gyr open cluster or older, depending on whether the bluer stars are interpreted as turnoff stars or blue stragglers, respectively. We derive for the object a distance from the Sun dsun = 0.72 +0.04-0.03 kpc and a colour excess E(B-V) = 0.04. Although a globular cluster remnant cannot be ruled out, the integrated spectrum resemblance to that of a globular cluster probably reflects a stochastic effect owing to the few brighter stars. The structural and photometric properties of Ruprecht 3 are compatible with what would be expected for an intermediate-age open cluster remnant. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  17. Patterns of evolution of research strands in the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y. C.; Parthasarathy, S.

    2005-03-01

    première contribution dans leur domaine et qui ont beaucoup influencé la recherche sont en général les plus cités. Il semble que la diminution de l'importance d'un domaine de recherche est aussi reflétée par le nombre de citations. Le modèle des citations des quelques articles classiques montre que l'activité dans le domaine ainsi que l'impact sur les articles suivantes déclinent progressivement pendant le temps ce qui présente une analogie avec les idées de Kuhn sur la science normale et révolutionnaire. Le résultat de l'étude renforce une fois de plus l'importance d'être un pionnier dans un domaine, en faisant avancer la recherche dans le domaine respectif, en adoptant des stratégies qui peuvent créer des percées majeures dans la recherche. Este artículo examina los temas de impacto e innovación en la investigación de las aguas subterráneas, mediante el uso de datos bibliométricos y del análisis de las referencias bibliográficas. El análisis se basó en 3120 artículos de la revista Water Resources Research, con el contenido completo y sus datos de referencias bibliográficas obtenidos de la Red de Ciencia ISI. La investigación se diseñó para desarrollar un entendimiento mayor de la forma en que la cantidad de citas bibliográficas puede ser interpretada por los científicos. No es sorprendente que los artículos más citados, parecen ser los pioneros en el campo, siendo artículos que divergen significativamente de lo que se ha hecho anteriormente, los cuales son efectivos creando de manera similar otros artículos "seguidores". Los artículos que son contribuciones iniciales en una línea de investigación nueva, la cual es de alta influencia, serán en promedio citados muy frecuentemente. Sin embargo, la importancia de una línea de investigación, de acuerdo a su medida por las veces que es citada, parece disminuir con el tiempo. Las tendencias en cuanto a hacer citas bibliográficas de algunos artículos clásicos, muestran que la

  18. The Gaia scientific exploitation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.

    2015-05-01

    On July 2014 the Gaia satellite, placed at L2 since January 2014, finished their commissioning phase and started collecting high accurate scientific data. New and more realistic estimations of the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic accuracy expected after five years mission operation (2014-2019) have been recently published in the Gaia Science Performance Web page. Here we present the coordination efforts and the activities being conducted through the two GREAT (Gaia Research for European Astronomy Training) European Networks, the GREAT-ESF, a programme supported by the European Science Foundation (2010-2015), and the GREAT-ITN network, from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (2011-2015). The main research theme of these networks is to unravel the origin and history of our home galaxy. Emphasis is placed on the research projects being conducted by the Spanish Researchers through these networks, well coordinated by the Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia (REG network, with more than 140 participants). Members of the REG play an important role on the collection of complementary spectroscopic data from ground based telescopes, on the development of new tools for an optimal scientific exploitation of Gaia data and on the preparation task to create the Gaia archive.

  19. Católicos, fidelidade conjugal e AIDS: entre a cruz da doutrina moral e as espadas do cotidiano sexual dos adeptos1

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Luis Felipe; de Aquino, Francisca Luciana; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Oliveira, Cinthia; Parker, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Neste artigo discutimos a visão da Igreja Católica sobre sexualidade na interface com a epidemia do HIV/AIDS. Nossa reflexão está embasada em pesquisa etnográfica que envolveu dois meses de observação participante do cotidiano de católicos de um bairro popular da Região Metropolitana do Recife, além de contar com entrevistas a onze dos leigos engajados nos serviços religiosos da igreja do bairro e a oito sacerdotes que realizam seus trabalhos religiosos em outras localidades. Nelas abordamos diferentes temáticas relacionadas ao enfrentamento da epidemia da AIDS. Nesse contexto, conjugalidade e fidelidade se afiguram como importantes analisadores de como aqueles lidam com a epidemia, em uma variedade de re-descrições práticas e de re-interpretações conceptuais das assertivas do discurso moral religioso – ainda que, muitos impasses permaneçam em aberto em termos das prerrogativas da Igreja e seus possíveis rebatimentos na saúde sexual dos adeptos. PMID:21765650

  20. Implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) Model in Spain: an example of a collaboration between Canarian universities and the department of education of the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Juan E; Rodríguez, Cristina; Crespo, Patricia; González, Desirée; Artiles, Ceferino; Alfonso, Miguel

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of second tier intervention at-risk readers within the context of a Response to Intervention approach. The study was conducted in the Canary Islands (Spain), directed by research team ¨Dificultades de Aprendizaje, Psicolingüística y Nuevas Tecnologías¨ (DEA&NT) from University of La Laguna, and supported by the Government of the Canary Islands. A sample of 1.123 Spanish children from fourteen schools districts were given the Spanish adaptation of The Hong Kong Specific Learning Difficulties Behavior Checklist and children who scored at or above the 75th percentile on the test were classified as "at risk" for early reading difficulties. Half of the students were randomly assigned to a project-based intervention condition where they received small group supplementary intervention for 30 minutes daily using the Prevención de las Dificultades Específicas de Aprendizaje (PREDEA) curriculum from mid to late December and continued until mid June. The other half received whatever remedial services were available at their schools. Results indicated that children who received the PREDEA curriculum had higher scores on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Test (EGRA) on initial sound identification, listening comprehension, letter sound knowledge and oral reading fluency compared to the control group. PMID:21044535

  1. Epilog: Cajal's unique and legitimated school.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Juan; De Carlos, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal is recognized as the founder of modern neuroscience, his discoveries representing the fundamental pillars of our current understanding of the nervous system. As Cajal's career spanned a critical period in Spanish history, he witnessed strong social demands for progress in culture, education, and science. Indeed, the life of Santiago Ramón y Cajal can be considered to reflect the gradual development of Spanish science from the last third of the 19th century. Cajal promoted a national movement that had important consequences for Spanish science, mainly triggered by the creation of the "Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas," an instrument he established to enrich scientific research and that was later to bear such abundant fruit. The school generated by Cajal profited from this development, through which all Cajal's disciples received fellowships to train in laboratories across Europe. Unfortunately, the Spanish Civil War disrupted this revitalization of Spanish science and provoked the diaspora of many Spanish scientists. However, a political impulse, mostly following this spirit, was resumed in Spain during the eighties that successfully led to a renaissance in Spanish science. PMID:25071463

  2. Towards the first open repository in gamma-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Reichardt, I.; Rico, J.

    2011-11-01

    The MAGIC Telescopes produce around 300 TBytes of raw data per year that arepre-processed on-site at the Observatory Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, andthen transferred to the MAGIC Data Center at Barcelona, for storage,processing and internal data access by MAGIC users. MAGIC Data Center issupported by Institut de Física d'Altes Energies (IFAE), UniversidadComplutense de Madrid (UCM), Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) andUniversitat Autónoma de Barcelona (UAB), and hosted by Port d'Informació Científica (PIC), Barcelona. We discuss here the possibilities that the MAGICData Center offers for the data handling, as well as the undergoingmodifications aimed at further improvement of its performance. In addition, wediscuss the accessibility of the MAGIC data to the wide scientificcommunity. Aside from providing all its published data in a format widelyaccepted by the astronomical community (FITS), the MAGIC collaboration iscurrently in the process of adapting these data to the standards required bythe International Virtual Observatory. This will put MAGIC published results on the international network of astronomical data and make them available to the whole scientific community.

  3. FORMATION OF INTRACYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM OF MYCOBACTERIA RELATED TO CELL DIVISION

    PubMed Central

    Imaeda, Tamotsu; Ogura, Mituo

    1963-01-01

    Imaeda, Tamotsu (Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Caracas, Venezuela) and Mitua Ogura. Formation of intracytoplasmic membrane system of mycobacteria related to cell division. J. Bacteriol. 85:150–163. 1963.—Mycobacterium leprae, M. lepraemurium, and a Mycobacterium sp. were observed with an electron microscope. In these bacilli, the three-dimensional structure of the intracytoplasmic membrane system consists of tubular infoldings of the invaginated plasma membrane. The moderately dense substance, presumably representing the cell-wall precursor, is found in the membranous system, especially in the rapid growth phase of mycobacteria. This system always shows an intimate relationship with cell division. A low-density zone, probably corresponding to the low-density substance which coats the cell wall, appears in the connecting regions of the system and in the longitudinal portion of the cell wall. These zones extend centripetally, and the separation of the cell wall occurs after the two zones meet. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the intracytoplasmic membrane system may produce cell-wall material during cell division of mycobacteria. Images PMID:13956365

  4. Confieso que Divulgo. Reflexiones y Experiencias de una Astrofísica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Hidalgo, I.

    Este artículo presenta algunas reflexiones en torno a la popularización de la Ciencia, desarrolladas a lo largo de mi trayectoria profesional, un camino inacabado desde la intuición al oficio. Tras revisar las señas de identidad de la divulgación científica, se exponen ideas, experiencias y recursos, cribados por la práctica y su posterior análisis crítico. Se destacan las actividades relacionadas con la Astronomía, que se cuentan entre las más espectaculares y gratificantes. Confessions of a popularizer: This paper presents some author's thoughts about scientific outreach, developed along her professional path, an unfinished way from intuition to trade. First, identity signs of outreach are revised; then, ideas, experiences and resources, sifted by practice and further critical analysis, are reviewed. Activities related to Astronomy, being one of the most spectacular and rewarding, are remarked 1

  5. PubMed

    Alarcón, Cristian; Bourgois, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Salud Colectiva convocó a un diálogo entre Philippe Bourgois y Cristian Alarcón. El antropólogo y el cronista ofrecen aquí una excursión al backstage de dos libros innovadores, polémicos y desafiantes. En busca de respeto, de Bourgois, recientemente publicado en español, construye un relato sobre la trama cotidiana de los vendedores de crack en Harlem, Nueva York. Si me querés, quereme transa, de Alarcón, ingresa en el universo de los traficantes de cocaína y "pasta base" en Buenos Aires. En ambos, vemos la forma en que tanto la investigación periodística como la etnográfica devienen un proceso de aprendizaje, totalmente despojado de la sober-bia del descubridor en territorios extraños. Alarcón y Bourgois tuvieron que transformarse ellos mismos, aprender un habitus que les era completamente ajeno, para poder construir relaciones afectivas con traficantes ("transas" y puertorriqueños vendedores de crack). Esos afectos aparecen posicionados como condición de posibilidad del tipo de investigación cualitativa que ellos defienden. PMID:21776248

  6. Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. Highway infrastructure report

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-02-01

    In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE`s development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE`s Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade.

  7. Accomplishments of Aquarius: NASA's first global Sea Surface Salinity Mission: a review of the technical findings to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Amit

    2014-10-01

    Launched 10 June 2011, the NASA's Aquarius instrument onboard the Argentine built and managed Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC-D) has been tirelessly observing the open oceans, confirming and adding new knowledge to the not so vast measured records of our Earth's global oceans. This paper reviews the data collected over the last 3 years, it's findings, challenges and future work that is at hand for the sleepless oceanographers, hydrologists and climate scientists. Although routine data is being collected, a snapshot is presented from almost 3-years of flawless operations showing new discoveries and possibilities of lot more in the future. Repetitive calibration and validation of measurements from Aquarius continue together with comparison of the data to the existing array of Argo temperature/salinity profiling floats, measurements from the recent Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) in-situ experiment and research, and to the data collected from the European Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. This all aids in the optimization of computer model functions to improve the basic understanding of the water cycle over the oceans and its ties to climate. The Aquarius mission operations team also has been tweaking and optimizing algorithms, reprocessing data as needed, and producing salinity movies that has never been seen before. A brief overview of the accomplishments, technical findings to date will be covered in this paper.

  8. Eduardo Primo Yúfera, founder of Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos and pioneer on food science and technology research in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Gascón, M; Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Gandía-Balaguer, A

    2011-12-01

    Eduardo Primo Yúfera was the founder and director of the Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos (IATA, 1957-1974) until he was appointed president of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC). His aim to publicize food science led him to create the Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos in 1961, the forerunner of this journal, Food Science and Technology International, which he directed until 1977. Of his scientific output, 50% has been published in this journal. He is considered to be the promoter and exponent of Food Science and Technology and Chemical Ecology in Spain as well as the instigator of the country's innovation model (R&D and innovation). In his work, he was able to combine basic research excellence and socially relevant applied research to move both science and society forward. He was an example and inspiration to many colleagues and followers. The aim of this study is to highlight the influence and importance of Primo Yúfera in the formation, development and consolidation of the journal Revista de Agroquímica y Tecnología de Alimentos, and to appraise his scientific contribution to this journal. PMID:22049157

  9. Los Años de la Crisis: an examination of change in differential infant mortality risk within Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frank, R; Finch, Brian Karl

    2004-08-01

    The main aim of the present analysis is to test the possibility that the period of economic hardship characterizing Mexico over the decade 1986-1996 has negatively influenced infant health outcomes. Data on births from two installments of the Encuesta Nacional de la Dinámica Demográfica, a nationally representative demographic survey, are used to determine whether a reduction in mortality differentials has paralleled the overall drop in the national infant mortality rate. The findings indicate that the decrease observed in the overall infant mortality rate has been matched by decreases in several disparities at the same time that it has been marred by increases in others. The data support the possibility that where you live has become an increasingly salient factor in determining the odds of infant mortality. High parity, low education and unemployment status have also become more salient factors in predicting post neonatal infant mortality risk in the more recent period as compared to the earlier period. As Mexico's infant mortality rate begins to stabilize in the near future, this research highlights the need to re-focus our research efforts on the causes and consequences of differential mortality trends. PMID:15177838

  10. Correction and Validation of Total Ozone Data Series From An Antarctic Multichannel Filter Radiometer Solar UV Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, C.; Redondas, A.; Cuevas, E.; Lakkala, K.; Taalas, P.

    The Antarctic Network of the MAR-Project (Measurement of Antarctic Radiance for monitoring the ozone layer) is the result of a co-operation among the Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM, Spain), Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, Spain), the Instituto Antártico Argentino - Dirección Nacional del Antártico (IAA/DNA), the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), and the Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC, Argentina). This network consists on three NILU-UV6 multichannel filter radiometers installed at the Argentinean Antarctic bases of Vicecomodoro Marambio and Belgrano II, and at the CADIC in Ushuaia, respectively. These instruments measure at five UV channels (305, 3120, 320, 340 and 380 nm) and PAR (400 - 700 nm). Quality control and quality assurance systems of the network give us information for irradiance correction. Quality control is based on the 2-week lamp tests performed at each station, and provides quantitative information about the stability of each instrument. Quality assurance, which is performed twice a year by the FMI, lies in inter-comparisons between the travelling reference instrument and the station instruments. These intercomparisons provide calibration coefficients for each channel. Ozone can be derived from the NILU-UV6 instruments using the 305 nm / 320 nm ratio. Ozone data series before and after irradiance correction are compared against independent ozone measurements from the TOMS, the Dobson and the UV-VIS instruments at the Ushuaia station.

  11. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. II. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos α/β en acciones genómicas y no-genómicas del endotelio uterino *

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El embarazo está marcado por cambios y adaptaciones cardiovasculares que son importantes para el crecimiento y mantenimiento de la placenta y el feto. Durante este periodo, las adaptaciones vasculares uterinas manifiestan cambios clasificados como de corto o largo plazo los cuales están relacionados con adaptaciones vasodilatadoras, angiogénicas o de remodelación. El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-α y RE-β, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsables por facilitar el incremento dramático en el fluido sanguíneo uterino necesario durante el embarazo. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la base estructural para la diversidad y selectividad funcional de los REs por el estrógeno, el papel de los REs sobre los efectos genómicos y no-genómicos en células endoteliales de arterias uterinas (CEAU). Estos temas integran el conocimiento científico sobre la regulación molecular de CEAU para mantener el incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113751

  12. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  13. Narrating the narco world: a dialogue with Cristian Alarcón and Philippe Bourgois

    PubMed Central

    Alarcón, Cristian; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Salud Colectiva convocó a un diálogo entre Philippe Bourgois y Cristian Alarcón. El antropólogo y el cronista ofrecen aquí una excursión al backstage de dos libros innovadores, polémicos y desafiantes. En busca de respeto, de Bourgois, recientemente publicado en español, construye un relato sobre la trama cotidiana de los vendedores de crack en Harlem, Nueva York. Si me querés, quereme transa, de Alarcón, ingresa en el universo de los traficantes de cocaína y “pasta base” en Buenos Aires. En ambos, vemos la forma en que tanto la investigación periodística como la etnográfica devienen un proceso de aprendizaje, totalmente despojado de la sober-bia del descubridor en territorios extraños. Alarcón y Bourgois tuvieron que transformarse ellos mismos, aprender un habitus que les era completamente ajeno, para poder construir relaciones afectivas con traficantes (“transas” y puertorriqueños vendedores de crack). Esos afectos aparecen posicionados como condición de posibilidad del tipo de investigación cualitativa que ellos defienden. PMID:21776248

  14. Múltiples estados de desorden en el etanol sólido

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Perea, R.

    El diagrama de fases del etanol por debajo de los 169 K será presentado. Se mostrará que el etanol puede solidificarse en tres fases con diversos niveles de desorden,(como un vidrio(G), como un vidrio orientacional (OG) y como un cristal de fase rotora (RP)) además de en una fase totalmente cristalina. Las estructuras de estas tres fases serán presentadas tal y como se deducen a partir de diversas medidas de difracción de neutrones al igual que las proporciones de los isómeros de dicho material en las fases desordenadas y se compararán con los resultados de la fase cristalina y del líquido superenfriado. Igualmente diversas medidas sobre su dinámica serán presentadas, tanto de dispersión de neutrones, como de capacidad calorífica y de medidas dieléctricas y comparadas con modelos teóricos y simulaciones para tratar de explicar los procesos de relajación observados y las transiciones entre las diversas fases.

  15. Funciones de partición atómicas: Fuentes confiables de datos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, D. C.; Milone, L. A.

    Se llevó a cabo una revisión minuciosa del cálculo de funciones de partición atómicas de átomos livianos, en estados neutro y una vez ionizados, partiendo del Hidrógeno y llegando al Sodio, incluyendo también al K I y el Ca II. Al respecto, se realizó una investigación exhaustiva de referencias bibliográficas existentes hasta el presente, las cuales fueron cotejadas con cálculos propios llevados a cabo mediante el procedimiento de depresión del contínuo (0.001 a 0.5 eV). Nuestros resultados muestran un muy buen acuerdo con las expresiones interpolatorias de Traving et al (1966), al presente, la referencia más completa en cuanto a especies atómicas consideradas. Puntualizamos, además, ciertas deficiencias de estas relaciones de ajuste para decrementos del potencial de ionización altos (Δ χ >= 0.5) eV).

  16. Interaction and cooperative effort among scientific societies. Twelve years of COSCE.

    PubMed

    Martín, Nazario; Andradas, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of knowledge and technology in recent decades has brought profound changes in science policy, not only in the countries but also in the supranational organizations. It has been necessary, therefore, to adapt the scientific institutions to new models in order to achieve a greater and better communication between them and the political counterparts responsible for defining the general framework of relations between science and society. The Federationon of Scientific Societies of Spain (COSCE, Confederación de Sociedades Científicas de España) was founded in October 2003 to respond to the urgent need to interact with the political institutions and foster a better orientation in the process of making decisions about the science policy. Currently COSCE consists of over 70 Spanish scientific societies and more than 40,000 scientists. During its twelve years of active life, COSCE has developed an intense work of awareness of the real situation of science in Spain by launching several initiatives (some of which have joined other organizations) or by joining initiatives proposed from other groups related to science both at the Spanish level and at the European and non-European scenarios. [Int Microbiol 18(4): 245-251 (2015)]. PMID:27611677

  17. Predicciones Sísmológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño Guarape, Luis Alberto

    2004-05-01

    El trabajo prctende orientar las discusiones. reflexiones y posibles investigaciones sobre la predicción sismológica. inicialmente muestra una síntesis teórica del problema de la predicción científica. estableciendo diferencias entre predicción y pronóstico. Los sistemas en las geocicncias esencialmente son no lineales, lo cual requiere en el caso particular, un acercamiento al problema del caos en geofisica y aclaraciones sobre el problema inverso en sismologóa. Cuál es la opinión de los sismólogos internacionales y nacionales sobre la predicción de los terremotos? Dentro de esta discusión se muestran algunos resultados de laboratorio y campo sobre potenciales eléctricos y otros parámetros geofisicos que se vienen logrando en Colombia. Los resultados no se concluyentes aún y por lo tanto las conclusiones son abiertas.

  18. The Mexican Seismic Network (Red Sísmica Mexicana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdes-Gonzales, C. M.; Arreola-Manzano, J.; Castelan-Pescina, G.; Alonso-Rivera, P.; Saldivar-Rangel, M. A.; Rodriguez-Arteaga, O. O.; Lopez-Lena-Villasana, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mexican Seismic Network (Red Sísmica Mexicana) was created to give sufficient information and opportune to make decisions in order to mitigate seismic and tsunami risk. This was a Mexican government initiative headed by CENAPRED (National Disaster Prevention Center) who made an effort to integrated academic institutions and civil agencies to work together through a collaboration agreement. This network is supported by Universidad National Autónoma de México (UNAM) and its seismic networks (Broad Band and Strong Motion), the Centro de Instrumentación y Registro Sismico (CIRES) with its Earthquake Early Warning System that covers the Guerrero Gap and Oaxaca earthquakes, The Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada (CICESE) with the support of its expertise in tsunami observation and the Secretaria de Marina (SEMAR) to monitor the sea level and operate the Mexican Tsunami Warning Center. The institutions involved in this scope have the compromise to interchange and share the data and advice to the Civil Protection authorities.

  19. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  20. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  1. Actividad funcional cerebral en estado de reposo: REDES EN CONEXIÓN

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Alvarez-Segura, Mar; de la Iglesia-Vayá, Maria; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El análisis de la conectividad funcional mediante resonancia magnética funcional (RMf) puede llevarse a cabo durante la realización de una tarea, la percepción de un estímulo o en estado de reposo. Estos análisis han demostrado su fiabilidad y reproducibilidad con diferentes enfoques (matemáticos, estadísticos, físicos) para seleccionar los vóxeles activados. El estudio de la señal de baja frecuencia en la actividad cerebral a través del contraste BOLD en estado de reposo ha revelado patrones de actividad cortical sincronizados, permitiendo describir la arquitectura funcional intrínseca del cerebro humano. La comunidad científica internacional dispone de recursos compartidos que contribuirán mediante este análisis de RMf en estado de reposo a la obtención de diagnósticos y tratamientos más precisos y avanzados en el campo de las neurociencias. PMID:21365601

  2. Inorganic pigment study of the San Pedro Gonzalez Telmo Sibyls using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Cristina; Custo, Graciela; Barrio, Néstor; Burucúa, José; Boeykens, Susana; Marte, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the study carried out on a series of oil paintings on canvas from the eighteenth century that were restored at Centro de Producción e Investigación en Restauración y Conservación Artística y Bibliográfica - Tarea (CEIRCAB-Tarea), Buenos Aires, Argentina: the San Pedro González Telmo Sibyls. Experimental study was undertaken to identify inorganic pigments and the technique used in their confection; and, in this way, try to add information about their local origin. Therefore special emphasis was put to infer technologies used in the manufacturing of these paintings. Elemental analysis was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) and complemented by optical and polarized light microscopy. Microsampling was carefully done over areas of the paintings which were damaged and where a small additional loss will not be noticed. This investigation has shown that a variety of pigments were used, namely earth pigments (red and yellow ochres), white lead, vermilion, etc., and they were used either pure or in mixtures. This characterization helped conservators in their decisions regarding a better understanding of the deterioration processes. In addition, this research about the material composition allowed the art historians and restorers the possibility to obtain information about where, when or by whom The San Pedro González Telmo Sibyls may have been painted.

  3. The Astronomy Club of Araranguá: Educating Science Teachers as Science Communicators. (Breton Title: Clube de Astronomia de AraranguÁ: a Formação de Professores de Ciências Como Divulgadores Científicos. ) Club de Astronomía de Araranguá: la Formación del Profesorado Como Comunicadores de la Ciencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasio, Felipe; Allain, Olivier; Antunes Rodrigues, Adriano

    2013-07-01

    The study reported in this work takes place since 2009 at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina, Campus Araranguá. Our main goal is to help form teachers, training undergraduate students in Natural Sciences with specialization in Physics as science communicators, as well as to promote actions of broader scientific popularization in the region of the town of Araranguá through an Astronomy Club called CA2. Among the actions of scientific popularization that the students promote are: video production, radio broadcasts, lectures, nightly observations, preparation and exhibition of posters, physics teaching for children, continuing education activities for teachers and regular physics teaching using Astronomy as a theme. The Club's teacher education and scientific dissemination work is based on the Theory of Meaningful Learning, always trying to reach the student's predisposition to learn and produce potentially meaningful material, the two essential conditions for meaningful learning to occur. O estudo que este trabalho relata ocorre desde 2009 no Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de Santa Catarina, campus Araranguá. Nele procura-se formar divulgadores científicos durante a formação inicial de docentes do curso de Licenciatura em Ciências da Natureza com habilitação em Física, além de promover ações de divulgação científica para o público geral da região da cidade de Araranguá por meio de um Clube de Astronomia chamado CA² (Clube de Astronomia de Araranguá). Entre as ações de divulgação científica que os licenciandos promovem estão: produção de vídeos, programas de rádio, palestras, observações noturnas, confecção e exposição de pôsteres, ensino de física para crianças, formação continuada de professores em atividades e ensino de Física regular utilizando a Astronomia como tema gerador. O trabalho de formação docente e divulgação científica do Clube fundamenta

  4. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    management outcomes. El Efecto de la Evidencia Científica sobre las Decisiones de Manejo de Quienes Practican la Conservación Resumen Una justificación mayor de la investigación en el manejo ambiental es que ayuda a quienes lo practican, aunque estudios previos muestran que rara vez se usa para informar sus decisiones. Probamos si quienes practican la conservación enfocada en el manejo de aves estaban dispuestos a usar una sinopsis de literatura científica relevante para informar sus decisiones de manejo. Esto permitió que examináramos si el uso limitado de información científica en el manejo se debe a una falta de acceso a la literatura científica o si se debe a que quienes practican la conservación no están interesados o no son capaces de incorporar la investigación a sus decisiones. En encuestas en línea les preguntamos a 92 practicantes de la conservación, la mayoría de Australia, Nueva Zelanda y el Reino Unido, que nos proporcionaran opiniones sobre 28 técnicas de manejo que podrían aplicarse para reducir la depredación de aves. Les pedimos sus opiniones antes y después de darles un resumen de la literatura sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones. Calificamos la efectividad general y la certidumbre de la evidencia para cada intervención por medio de un proceso de extracción por expertos – el método Delphi. Usamos las calificaciones de la efectividad para evaluar el nivel de entendimiento y de percatación de la literatura de quienes practican la conservación. En promedio, cada participante de la encuesta cambió su probabilidad de usar 45.7% de las intervenciones después de leer la sinopsis de la evidencia. Fue más probable que implementaran intervenciones efectivas y evitar acciones poco efectivas, lo que sugiere que sus estrategias de manejo futuras puedan ser más exitosas que las de práctica actual. Los practicantes con mayor experiencia tuvieron una menor probabilidad de cambia

  5. Aparición del cometa Hale - BOPP C / 1995-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arquiola, A.

    El Cometa Hale - Bopp fue observado a partir de la 10ma. magnitud con el telescopio de 300mm de abertura a f/6.5. En esas primeras observaciones desde luego no hubo mucho detalle. A su vez las posiciones del cometa para nuestro hemisferio no fueron favorables, solamente asomó por el horizonte N.O. para nuestra latitud cuando se alejaba de la Tierra. Se registró la observación visualmente con binoculares 10 x 50, y fotográficamente con un Telezoom de 210mm a f/4,5 con película 400 ASA color. Todas las imágenes fueron procesadas y digitalizadas a fin de obtener las diferentes escalas de brillo. El aspecto que presentó para nuestra posición geográfica fue discreta ya que tuvo su máximo brillo cuando era visible desde el hemisferio norte. Presentó la clásica cola de polvo curva, y con su aspecto casi estelar, destacándose entre la luminosidad del crepúsculo. Instrumentos Utilizados: Telezoom de 210mm a f/4.5, Telescopio refractor de 80mm a f/15, Binocular 10 x 50

  6. Patterns of evolution of research strands in the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, F. W.; Fang, Y. C.; Parthasarathy, S.

    2005-03-01

    première contribution dans leur domaine et qui ont beaucoup influencé la recherche sont en général les plus cités. Il semble que la diminution de l'importance d'un domaine de recherche est aussi reflétée par le nombre de citations. Le modèle des citations des quelques articles classiques montre que l'activité dans le domaine ainsi que l'impact sur les articles suivantes déclinent progressivement pendant le temps ce qui présente une analogie avec les idées de Kuhn sur la science normale et révolutionnaire. Le résultat de l'étude renforce une fois de plus l'importance d'être un pionnier dans un domaine, en faisant avancer la recherche dans le domaine respectif, en adoptant des stratégies qui peuvent créer des percées majeures dans la recherche. Este artículo examina los temas de impacto e innovación en la investigación de las aguas subterráneas, mediante el uso de datos bibliométricos y del análisis de las referencias bibliográficas. El análisis se basó en 3120 artículos de la revista Water Resources Research, con el contenido completo y sus datos de referencias bibliográficas obtenidos de la Red de Ciencia ISI. La investigación se diseñó para desarrollar un entendimiento mayor de la forma en que la cantidad de citas bibliográficas puede ser interpretada por los científicos. No es sorprendente que los artículos más citados, parecen ser los pioneros en el campo, siendo artículos que divergen significativamente de lo que se ha hecho anteriormente, los cuales son efectivos creando de manera similar otros artículos "seguidores". Los artículos que son contribuciones iniciales en una línea de investigación nueva, la cual es de alta influencia, serán en promedio citados muy frecuentemente. Sin embargo, la importancia de una línea de investigación, de acuerdo a su medida por las veces que es citada, parece disminuir con el tiempo. Las tendencias en cuanto a hacer citas bibliográficas de algunos artículos clásicos, muestran que la

  7. Epilog: Cajal’s unique and legitimated school

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Juan; De Carlos, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    Santiago Ramón y Cajal is recognized as the founder of modern neuroscience, his discoveries representing the fundamental pillars of our current understanding of the nervous system. As Cajal’s career spanned a critical period in Spanish history, he witnessed strong social demands for progress in culture, education, and science. Indeed, the life of Santiago Ramón y Cajal can be considered to reflect the gradual development of Spanish science from the last third of the 19th century. Cajal promoted a national movement that had important consequences for Spanish science, mainly triggered by the creation of the “Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas,” an instrument he established to enrich scientific research and that was later to bear such abundant fruit. The school generated by Cajal profited from this development, through which all Cajal’s disciples received fellowships to train in laboratories across Europe. Unfortunately, the Spanish Civil War disrupted this revitalization of Spanish science and provoked the diaspora of many Spanish scientists. However, a political impulse, mostly following this spirit, was resumed in Spain during the eighties that successfully led to a renaissance in Spanish science. PMID:25071463

  8. Camões e a cosmogonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

  9. Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

  10. Estudo exaustivo e sistemático de erros nas provas da olimpíada brasileira de astronomia - resultados preliminares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, F. S.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.

    2003-08-01

    A Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia (OBA) contou, em sua quinta edição, com a participação de mais de 60 mil alunos dos ensinos fundamental e médio de praticamente todo o território nacional. Uma das formas de controle que a sua coordenação nacional possui sobre a correção, levada a cabo pelos professores que as aplicaram, é a do envio, por parte destes professores, das 10 melhores provas de cada um dos três níveis nos quais a Olimpíada é realizada. Assim, e dado ao caráter discursivo das provas da Olimpíada, a sua coordenação nacional dispõe de um vasto acervo sobre as concepções, certas ou erradas, dos alunos que dela participaram. Este conjunto de dados jamais fora explorado até o presente trabalho que pretende ser, neste sentido, inaugural. Nas provas dos níveis I e II da V OBA, que abrangem todo o conjunto do ensino fundamental, uma das questões versava sobre a noção que os alunos tinham sobre como os habitantes da Terra situam-se sobre sua superfície. Fizemos um estudo sistemático das respostas a esta questão. Primeiramente, todas as modalidades de erros foram levantadas; em seguida, realizamos uma distribuição por idade tanto do índice de acerto como da ocorrência e da distribuição de cada erro. Como resultado, obtivemos que, em ambos os níveis: 1) as concepções errôneas não se apresentam distribuídas aleatoriamente; 2) há uma concentração no tipo de erro apresentado; 3) há uma tendência de progressivo acerto com relação à idade quando os dados são considerados em termos nacionais; 4) esta tendência nacional é fraca ou mesmo não é verificada em alguns dos estados com maior patamar de acerto.

  11. Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiação dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

    2003-08-01

    O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg está sendo projetado e construído pelo grupo Gráviton. Sua construção está ocorrendo no Laboratório de Estado Sólido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de São Paulo, na cidade de São Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esférica de cobre-alumínio, com 65 cm de diâmetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficácia desse sistema, entretanto, só poderá ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecânico de altíssima sensibilidade acoplado à massa ressonante. Neste momento, não só este sistema de isolamento vibracional será posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiação que transporta os sinais de microondas até os transdutores e destes para a pré-amplificação. Apesar dessa fiação ter sido projetada para não apresentar nenhum contato com a superfície esférica da antena, de maneira a não haver nenhuma transmissão de ruído vibracional do laboratório para esta, deve-se minimizar o ruído microfônico produzido nessa fiação por oscilações mecânicas, uma vez que ela não utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual não terá nenhuma ressonância mecânica na faixa de freqüências de interesse para detecção (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibrações nessa faixa não serão amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Através de simulações feitas neste programa, determinamos os parâmetros geométricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior região espectral de interesse livre de ressonâncias.

  12. Simulação de ejeções de massa coronal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M. A.; Silva, A. V. R.

    2003-08-01

    Ejeções de massa coronal (EMC) são bolhas gigantes de gás permeadas por campos magnéticos que são ejetadas do Sol durante um período de várias horas. Caso estas ejeções atinjam a Terra, geralmente, causam uma série de distúrbios às comunicações de longa distância e navegação, além de danos a satélites e transformadores. Portanto, é desejável que sejamos capazes de prever quando estas ejeções atingirão a Terra. Para tanto, é necessário um bom entendimento dos mecanismos causadores das ejeções e, principalmente, de como se dá a propagação das EMC e sua interação com o vento solar que permeia o meio interplanetário. Nesse sentido foi desenvolvido um programa computacional para resolver as equações MHD (Magneto-Hidro-Dinâmica) que regem a evolução das EMC. Primeiramente foram estabelecidas as condições necessárias para descrever o vento solar, no estado estacionário, que permeia todo o meio interplanetário. Num primeiro momento, resolveu-se o sistema de equações para o caso do vento isotérmico, conhecida como a solução de Parker, a fim de testarmos o modelo. Então, foi considerado o caso do vento solar com temperatura variável no meio interplanetário. Este resultado foi utilizado como a base de nosso sistema em seu instante inicial. Posteriormente foram feitas as considerações necessárias para descrever a propagação da Ejeção de Massa Coronal. As EMC foram simuladas como um aumento de densidade e temperatura local na coroa solar. A órbita e a posição da Terra foram incluídas no sistema. Os dados gerados possibilitaram uma análise da evolução da EMC pelo meio interplanetário até encontrar-se com a Terra. Os perfis de densidade e temperatura a 1 Unidade Astronômica são comparados com os dados de satélites reportados na literatura.

  13. A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

  14. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  15. Alterações Induzidas Pelo Exercício no Número, Função e Morfologia de Monócitos de Ratos

    PubMed Central

    GUERESCHI, MARCIA G.; PRESTES, JONATO; DONATTO, FELIPE F.; DIAS, RODRIGO; FROLLINI, ANELENA B.; FERREIRA, CLÍLTON KO.; CAVAGLIERI, CLAUDIA R.; PALANCH, ADRIANNE C.

    2008-01-01

    O propósito desse estudo foi verificar as alterações histofisiológicas em monócitos e macrófagos induzidas por curtos períodos de exercícios. Ratos Wistar (idade = 2 meses, peso corporal = 200g) foram divididos em sete grupos (n=6 cada): controle sedentário (C), grupos exercitados (natação) na intensidade leve por 5 (5L), 10 (10L) e 15 minutos (15L), e grupos exercitados em intensidade moderada por 5 (5M), 10 (10M) e 15 minutes (15M). Na intensidade moderada os animais carregaram uma carga de 5% do peso corporal dos mesmos em seus respectivos dorsos. Os monócitos sangüíneos foram avaliados quanto à quantidade e morfologia e os macrófagos peritoneais foram analisados quanto à quantidade e atividade fagocitária. Os dados foram analisados usando ANOVA e Tukey’s post hoc test (p ≤ 0,05). Os grupos de intensidade leve e 5M apresentaram aumento nos níveis dos monócitos quando comparados com o controle. Foi observado aumento na área celular dos monócitos para os grupos 5L, 10L, 5M e 10M; a área nuclear aumentou para os grupos 10L, 5M e 10M em comparação com o controle. Houve aumento nos macrófagos peritoneais para os grupos 15L, 10M, 15M e diminuição no grupo 5M. A capacidade fagocitária dos macrófagos aumentou nos grupos de intensidade leve e para o grupo 10M. O exercício realizado por curtos períodos modulou o número e função dos macrófagos, assim como o número e morfologia dos monócitos, sendo tais alterações dependentes da intensidade. A soma das respostas agudas observadas nesse estudo pode exercer um efeito protetor contra doenças, podendo ser utilizada para a melhora da saúde e qualidade de vida.

  16. Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

    2003-08-01

    A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

  17. On Ensino da Astronomia no Ensino Médio sob Diferentes Abordagens Metodológicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Albrecht, Evonir

    2011-12-01

    O presente trabalho, sobre a intervenção de metodologias de ensino, foi desenvolvido na Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, na cidade de Caraguatatuba - SP, em três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, perfazendo um total de 119 educandos, entre 16 e 19 anos. Antes de iniciar-se a intervenção, um questionário de vinte perguntas objetivas e dissertativas foi desenvolvido, aplicado pelo professor da classe, que ministrou as aulas correspondentes. Este questionário foi o mesmo em todas as três classes com o objetivo de diagnosticar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos sobre Astronomia. Começando a intervenção nas turmas, o professor envolvido usou três diferentes metodologias de ensino: (A) em forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos alunos, nos quais o professor fazia apenas as intervenções necessárias, (B) na forma tradicional, com a ajuda de multimídia para o desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) a tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. No final do trabalho os alunos responderam o mesmo questionário novamente, de modo que os três métodos utilizados puderam ser comparados. Os resultados apresentados após a intervenção foram melhores que os resultados iniciais indicando a ocorrência de uma aprendizagem significativa. Quando os estudantes foram inicialmente questionados sobre quantos planetas existem no nosso sistema solar, a classe A obteve 39% de respostas certas, a classe B 48% e a classe C 46%, mas após o desenvolvimento das atividades, as classes obtiveram respectivamente 94%, 97 % e 90% de aproveitamento. No término do bimestre, foi sugerido aos educandos que elaborassem uma história em quadrinhos, a qual serviu para averiguar se os conceitos inicialmente observados foram alterados e se novos foram agregados. A análise das histórias foi dividida em três partes: Criatividade; Temas abordados; Emprego correto dos conceitos estudados. Ao final quatorze histórias foram confeccionadas. O aprendizado

  18. Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in the elderly: a fatal triad?

    PubMed

    Monami, Matteo; Aleffi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    paradosso potrebbe essere spiegato dal fatto che spesso, in passato, per ottenere un miglioramento glicometabolico si sono utilizzati farmaci ipoglicemizzanti in grado di aumentare il rischio ipoglicemico, la variabilità glicemica ed il peso corporeo. In conclusione, il miglioramento del compenso glicemico, specie nel paziente anziano, dovrebbe essere ottenuto, quando possibile, con farmaci a basso rischio ipoglicemico e non inducenti aumenti di peso, per evitare gli effetti negativi di ipoglicemie e eccessive fluttuazioni della glicemia che di per sé costituiscono dei fattori di rischio cardiovascolari al pari dell'iperglicemia. In questo articolo, si esplorerà l'ipotesi che iperglicemia, ipoglicemia e variabilità glicemica costituiscano una triade fatale in grado di aumentare morbilità e mortalità nei pazienti affetti da diabete mellito. PMID:27374040

  19. Uma análise do fenômeno “alternância de línguas” na fala de bilíngues intermodais (Libras e Português)

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Aline Nunes; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2013-01-01

    Um interessante fenômeno lingüístico presente nas interações das pessoas bilíngues é a alternância de línguas. Neste trabalho, estamos investigando a alternância entre a língua portuguesa oral e a língua de sinais brasileira – Libras, numa mesma cadeia enunciativa, com o objetivo de identificar e analisar o uso dessa alternância na fala de uma criança e de um adulto (ambos ouvintes, filhos de pais surdos), interagindo em uma situação de bilinguismo intermodal, com interlocutores surdos e ouvintes. A alternância de línguas, nesse caso, ocorre quando se para de falar em português e se alterna para sinalizar. O presente trabalho se caracteriza como um estudo inicial, com análise qualitativa de dados. Fazem parte do nosso corpus nove sessões de interações em Libras e em português oral, gravadas em vídeo, que fazem parte do Projeto Desenvolvimento Bilíngue Bimodal da UFSC. Os dados revelam que as características da alternância de línguas pelo adulto e pela criança parecem ter semelhanças e diferenças. O sujeito adulto parece ter feito um uso da alternância mais preocupado com o curso da interação. A criança, por sua vez, não parece tê-la usado com propósitos pragmáticos específicos. Quanto à extensão das alternâncias, pode-se perceber que tanto a criança quanto o adulto utilizaram enunciados maiores do que uma única palavra isolada. O papel dos interlocutores parece ter sido decisivo nas interações aqui investigadas – especialmente nas do adulto, já que a criança ainda está em processo de tomada de consciência do papel do interlocutor na interação. PMID:24379831

  20. Excitação e fotoabsorção de moléculas interestelares no ultra violeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Souza, G. B.; Turci, C. C.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo dos processos de excitação, fotoabsorção e ionização molecular nas nuvens interestelar, permite a análise dos processos químicos, como a formação e destruição de moléculas, até mesmo daquelas que dão origem à vida. Acredita-se que as moléculas como CS2, NH3, CO2 e N2O estão presentes nas nuvens onde são formadas as estrelas e seus sistemas planetários. Estas moléculas são congeladas na superfície de objetos densos, como aqueles encontrados na Nuvem de Oort do nosso Sistema Solar. Quando esses objetos (cometas) desprendem-se dessa região, aproximam-se do Sol, sofrem a interação da radição Ultra Violeta (UV), passam à fase gasosa e são bombardeados por íons e elétrons presentes nos ventos solares. Obtivemos os espectros de fotoabsorção do CS2, NH3 e N2O na faixa do UV, convertendo espectros de Perda de Energia de Elétrons, medidos no menor ângulo de espalhamento e na energia de impacto de 1000 eV. Destes espectros determinamos os valores de força de oscilador (f) e de seção de choque absolutas na faixa de 500 a 2000 Å. Para tal, estudamos e comparamos dois diferentes métodos de conversão. Neste trabalho também geramos muitos dados moleculares como, valores absolutos de seção de choque elástica em função do ângulo de espalhamento e a distribuição de força do oscilador generalizada (df/dE) em função da energia de excitação para diversos ângulos de espalhamento. Comparando nossos espectros de fotoabsorção com o espectro da atmosfera de Júpiter, obtido pelo Telescópio Espacial Hubble, logo após o impacto do cometa Shoemaker-Levy 9, confirmamos a presença do CS2 e da amônia.

  1. Desenvolvimento das câmeras de raios-X duros do satélite MIRAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Mejía, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

    2003-08-01

    O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) é um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satélite astronômico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratégia básica da missão será observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a região central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galáctico e realizar estudos espectroscópicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes através de imagens com resolução de ~6'. Isso proporcionará uma cobertura inédita do "espaço de descobertas" através da detecção, localização, identificação e estudo detalhado de fenômenos imprevisíveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rápidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emissão persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas câmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que irão operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistirá de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resolução espacial e 370 cm2 de área total, e de uma máscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A máscara terá dimensões de 315 cm ´ 275 cm e será montada a 700 cm de distância dos detectores. Com essa configuração as CXDs terão 6' de resolução angular e, quando colocadas a um ângulo de 29° entre si, as duas câmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39° ´ 6°12' e um campo total de 76° ´ 44°. Serão apresentadas simulações de observações da região do plano Galáctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

  2. A Study on the Timing Technology of Digital Satellite TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, K. X.

    2013-03-01

    the model to predict the digital TV signal transmission delay can make the user’s receiver obtain the real-time timing information, and can resist the timing information errors caused by the delay jitter of the transmitter devices and the TV signal transmission links within a certain range, so that the user’s receiver can obtain more accurate timing information. In this paper, a differential measurement method of TV signal transmission delay is proposed which provides the necessary data for TV signal transmission delay mod-eling. Then, the fitting model is obtained according to the analysis of the delay variation factors. Finally, the optimal time-lengths of the observation data and forecasting data used to obtain the fitting model in theory are calculated by verifying the simulation data. (4) The insertion method of the timing information is determined, and the timinginformation signal frame format is designed based on the objective conditions of insertion devices. Such a transmission format can ensure that the users could obtain the correct timing information quickly after turning on the receiver. (5) A program of timing system through digital satellite TV is designed. The connection relations of subsystems, divided according to different functions, and the data interfaces are clearly defined. After analyzing the experimental environment of Jiangsu TV station, which is the project partner, we determine the transmission links and TV signal collection points. Through analyzing the experimental data, it is proved that the timing programis practicable, the key approaches are correct, and the timing principle is accurate.

  3. Application of Three-Dimensional Models for the Teaching of Time Zones. (Breton Title: Aplicação de Modelos Tridimensionais Para o Ensino de Fusos Horários.) Aplicación de Modelos Tridimensionales Para la Enseñanza de Husos Horarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo Sobreira, Paulo Henrique

    2012-07-01

    There are several interesting astronomical topics that must be addressed in the High School and Elementary/Middle School in the disciplines of Geography and of Sciences. Among them, the topic of time zones which is one of the most important to understand the correlation of the Earth's rotation and its implications on daily activities of citizens in local scale, regional and global scales which involve problems of time differences. For the teaching of time zones in the lessons of Geography, for example, there are bi-dimensional representations of thematic maps of world time zones, textbooks and atlas. It happens that teachers face some difficulties to permit its students to view three-dimensionally this astronomical phenomenon from the textbooks available in schools. The aim of this paper is to present two proposals with low-cost materials, which allow the preparation of three-dimensional models for the teaching of time zones. Há vários temas astronômicos interessantes que devem ser trabalhados nos Ensinos Médio e Fundamental, nas disciplinas de Geografia e de Ciências. Entre eles, o tema dos fusos horários que é um dos mais importantes para se correlacionar a rotação da Terra e suas implicações nas atividades cotidianas dos cidadãos em escala local, regional e global, que envolvem problemas de diferenças horárias. Para o ensino dos fusos horários nas aulas de Geografia, por exemplo, há representações bidimensionais de mapas temáticos de fusos horários mundiais, nos livros didáticos e nos atlas. Ocorre que os professores enfrentam algumas dificuldades para possibilitar aos seus alunos a visão tridimensional deste fenômeno astronômico, a partir dos materiais didáticos disponíveis nas escolas. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar duas propostas para a confecção de materiais de baixo custo, que possibilitem a elaboração de modelos tridimensionais para o ensino dos fusos horários. Hay algunos temas astronómicos interesantes que se

  4. The Successful Implementation of NASA Orbital Debris Requirements for the Retirement of TDRS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirczak, Walter; Staich, Steve; Vaught, Lynn; Zaleski, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    TDRS-1 was decommissioned on October 28th 2009 following more than 26 years of operation. The Grand Old Dame of the TDRSS constellation wa s launched aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Shuttle Challenger ( STS-6) in April 1983. TDRS-1 survived a malfunction of the Inertial Upper Stage eventually utilizing its own propulsion system to success fully reach its assigned station in geosynchronous orbit. The anomalo us beginning of the TDRS-1 mission was not without lasting consequenc es as the primary reaction control system (A-side) was completely di sabled with an apparent propellant leak and the secondary system (B-s ide) suffered damage to its negative roll thruster rendering the thru ster inoperable. Following decommissioning the challenge to completin g a successful TDRS-1 end-of-mission (EOM) was the implementation of the stringent orbital debris requirements of NPR 8715.6 with a parti ally functioning spacecraft not originally designed to meet those req uirements. The TDRS-1 EOM had three key goals: 1) removal of the spac ecraft from geosynchronous orbit; 2) depletion of the remaining prope llant; and 3) passivation of all other sources of energy storage or generation. The TDRS-1 EOM approach was one of minimizing risks while accomplishing the goals above. The orbit raising portion of EOM was accomplished using deltavelocity operations already proven during pre vious stationchanging maneuvers. The propellant depletion approach wa s necessarily more aggressive as over 20 hours of burn time was requ ired to deplete the remaining fuel. A novel approach utilizing a spin ning, thrusting, passively controlled spacecraft configuration was ut ilized to achieve reasonable burn durations that met schedule constra ints. This nonstandard configuration required careful analysis of ele ctrical, thermal, and communication subsystems. The configuration wa s thoroughly simulated prior to the start of operations and carefully characterized during the initial spin period and

  5. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  6. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  7. Disorder Effects in Charge Transport and Spin Response of Topological Insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lukas Zhonghua

    controlling the beam fluence we could tune bulk conductivity from p- (hole-like) to n-type (ele

  8. Education Through Aerospace Components. (Spanish Title: Educación Através de Elementos Aeroespaciales.) Educação Através de Elementos Aeroespaciais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa Loureda, Oswaldo; Sobral de Araújo, Jéssyca B.

    2008-12-01

    tal, dispõe-se de diversos métodos e meios que vêm implantar idéias em prol do avanço do povo brasileiro nos aspectos pedagógicos, psicológicos e culturais. Alfabetizar é um ato que exige muito cuidado e responsabilidade; o comportamento e desempenho de um indivíduo na sociedade é resultado da maneira com que ele foi instruído. Contudo, a área de exatas exige especial atenção, pois os conhecimentos adquiridos são imprescindíveis para o desenvolvimento pessoal do individuo, assim como para o futuro tecnológico do País. Como meio alternativo ou complementar de ensino é sugerido o uso de elementos aeroespaciais, devido ao fato de comportar uma vasta quantidade e qualidade de disciplinas envolvidas respectivamente com competências de grande importância para sua vida profissional futura. Uma nova Corrida acontece, porém dessa vez a meta não é a Lua e sim o conhecimento.

  9. PREFACE: 14th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilbao, Luis; Minotti, Fernando; Kelly, Hector

    2012-06-01

    , Venezuela Leopoldo Soto, Chile Michael Tendler, Sweden Carlos Varandas, Portugal Henry Riascos, Colombia Ivan Vargas-Blanco, Costa Rica Local Organizing Committee Luis Bilbao (Chairman) Fernando Minotti (Vice-Chairman) Luis Bernal, UNMDP Alejandro Clausse, PLADEMA-CNEA Graciela Gnavi, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Fausto Gratton, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Diana Grondona, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Héctor Kelly, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Adriana Márquez, INFIP, CONICET-UBA María Milanese, UNCPBA César Moreno, INFIP, CONICET-UBA Sponsors Instituto de Física del Plasma (INFIP) Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (ANPCyT) Centro Latino-Americano de Física (CLAF) Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMP) Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (UNICEN) Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Buenos Aires (ANCBA) Conference poster

  10. A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.

    2006-08-01

    O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam

  11. Seventy-One Important Questions for the Conservation of Marine Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    PARSONS, E C M; FAVARO, BRETT; AGUIRRE, A ALONSO; BAUER, AMY L; BLIGHT, LOUISE K; CIGLIANO, JOHN A; COLEMAN, MELINDA A; CÔTÉ, ISABELLE M; DRAHEIM, MEGAN; FLETCHER, STEPHEN; FOLEY, MELISSA M; JEFFERSON, REBECCA; JONES, MIRANDA C; KELAHER, BRENDAN P; LUNDQUIST, CAROLYN J; MCCARTHY, JULIE-BETH; NELSON, ANNE; PATTERSON, KATHERYN; WALSH, LESLIE; WRIGHT, ANDREW J; SUTHERLAND, WILLIAM J

    2014-01-01

    participantes se incluyeron a individuos de la docencia, el gobierno y organizaciones no-gubernamentales, con una amplia experiencia que atraviesa disciplinas, ecosistemas marinos y países que varían en el nivel de desarrollo. Los contribuyentes de los campos de la ciencia, la conservación, la industria y el gobierno, presentaron preguntas a nuestros talleres, las cuales separamos en una lista de preguntas de investigación prioritarias. Por medio de este proceso, identificamos 71 preguntas clave. Las agrupamos en ocho categorías temáticas, cada una perteneciente a un componente amplio de la conservación marina: pesquerías, cambio climático, otras amenazas antropogénicas, ecosistemas, ciudadanía marina, política, consideraciones sociales y culturales, y la iniciativa científica. Nuestras preguntas se dirigen a muchas cuestiones que son específicas de la conservación marina, y servirán como una ruta a seguir para patrocinadores e investigadores que busquen desarrollar programas que puedan beneficiar ampliamente a la conservación marina. PMID:24779474

  12. A causa das estações do ano: modelos mentais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Campos, J. A. S.; de Araujo, J. F. S.

    2003-08-01

    A década de 70 do século passado foi marcada pelo estudo das concepções alternativas que os alunos trazem para a sala de aula. A identificação destas concepções foi o ponto de partida para promover a mudança conceitual, onde as pré-concepções seriam trocadas pelas concepções científicas. Na década seguinte, surgiram muitas propostas de estratégias educacionais para facilitar esta troca, na sua maioria baseadas na idéia do conflito cognitivo, proposta por Piaget. Entretanto, os resultados pouco animadores conduziram à percepção de que a mudança conceitual é um processo mais complexo. Pelas idéias da Ciência Cognitiva, a mudança conceitual é uma mudança progressiva dos modelos mentais que o aluno tem sobre o mundo físico, através de enriquecimento e revisão. A causa das Estações do Ano é um tópico sobre o qual a maioria dos estudantes apresenta concepções alternativas. Os autores fizeram um levantamento sobre as pré-concepções encontradas em trabalhos sobre o tema (16 referências), procurando encontrar elementos comuns que indicassem a presença de modelos mentais específicos. As pré-concepções encontradas na literatura foram obtidas usando-se diversas metodologias (desde entrevistas clínicas até questionários de múltipla escolha) e envolvendo alunos e professores de diferentes regiões geográficas. A partir de uma análise aprofundada de cada trabalho, e utilizando-se a técnica das Redes Sistêmicas, chegou-se a conclusão que as diversas pré-concepções identificadas (em torno de 50), poderiam ser representadas por 6 modelos mentais, onde a explicação da causa das estações do ano tem um mecanismo causal responsável. Os mecanismos causais identificados foram: a dependência da distância, a dependência da orientação, a dependência conjunta da distância e orientação, a dependência da obstrução, a dependência da velocidade e a dependência da inclinação dos raios solares. Foram ainda identificadas

  13. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Cuerda, Cristina; Álvarez, Julia; Ramos, Primitivo; Abánades, Juan Carlos; García-de-Lorenzo, Abelardo; Gil, Pedro; De-la-Cruz, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la desnutrición relacionada con la enfermedad (DRE) es un problema sociosanitario frecuente que afecta preferentemente a los mayores de 65 años, que aumenta la morbimortalidad y disminuye la calidad de vida.  Objetivo: estudiar la prevalencia de DRE en mayores de 65 años en diferentes centros sociosanitarios del Servicio Regional de Bienestar Social de la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: estudio transversal en 33 centros sociosanitarios de Madrid (6 centros de atención primaria [AP], 9 centros de mayores [CM], 9 hospitales [H] y 9 residencias [R]) seleccionados mediante muestreo polietápico. Las variables estudiadas fueron edad, sexo, nivel de dependencia según la escala de incapacidad de la Cruz Roja, motivo de ingreso y enfermedad de base, hábitat (urbano-periurbano-rural) y distribución geográfica (norte centro-sur). Como herramienta de cribado nutricional se utilizó el Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-cribaje) en todos los centros. En los pacientes con cribado positivo (en riesgo-desnutrición) se realizó el MNA-evaluación. El estudio estadístico se realizó con el paquete SSS 21.0 e incluyó estadística descriptiva, test de Chi-cuadrado y prueba exacta de Fisher, ANOVA de un factor, Kruskal-Wallis y análisis de regresión logística (RL) binaria univariante y multivariante. Se consideró significación estadística p < 0,05. Resultados: se reclutaron 1.103 sujetos (275 AP, 278 CM, 281 H, 269 R), edad media de 79,5 ± 8,4 años (41,2% varones, 58,8% mujeres). Los sujetos procedentes de H y R tuvieron un mayor grado de incapacidad (p < 0,001). La prevalencia global de DRE fue del 10%, encontrándose un 23,3% en riesgo de desnutrición, con diferencias entre los cuatro tipos de centros sociosanitarios (p < 0,001). El análisis univariante de RL mostró diferencia significativas en la prevalencia de desnutrición según la edad, sexo, grado de dependencia, tipo de centro sociosanitario, hábitat y zona geográfica. Sin embargo, en el

  14. Sky Observation with the Use of the Software Stellarium for Teaching Astronomy in Classes of Youth and Adult Education. (Spanish Title: Observación del Cielo con la Utilización del Software Stellarium en Las Clases de Educación de Jóvenes y Adultos.) Observação do Céu Aliada À Utilização do Software Stellarium no Ensino de Astronomia em Turmas de Educação de Jovens e Adultos (EJA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira Bernardes, Adriana

    2010-12-01

    en las ciencias, o sea, elaborar y desarrollar un plan de alfabetización científica. Se describe en detalle este plan, las actividades realizadas y los resultados obtenidos hasta el presente. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar um projeto desenvolvido através de parceria entre o Clube de Astronomia de Itaocara Marcos Pontes (CAIMP) e o Colégio Estadual Jaime Queiroz de Souza, ambos localizados na cidade de Itaocara, no Noroeste Fluminense, no sentido de divulgar junto às turmas de EJA (Ensino de Jovens e Adultos) a disciplina Astronomia. Conhecendo o caráter interdisciplinar da Astronomia, desenvolvemos este trabalho para motivar o aprendizado de Ciências junto a alunos de EJA do Ensino Médio que cursam as disciplinas Química, Física e Biologia. Inicialmente, realizamos na escola pesquisa sobre o conhecimento prévio de Astronomia da turma de EJA, observando que é escasso o conhecimento de conceitos básicos do tema, muitos dos quais deveriam ser assimilados através do conteúdo da disciplina Física. Com esses dados, foi possível elaborar várias atividades que possibilitassem um maior envolvimento dos estudantes com a Ciência, realizando dentro da escola um trabalho de alfabetização científica, cujas atividades serão apresentadas neste artigo.

  15. Análise Temporal da Coma de CO+ no Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, Th.

    1995-08-01

    Observações fotográficas e fotoelétricas da coma de gás ionizado do cometa P/Halley a nível de CO+ em 4250 angstroms fizeram parte do programa de Monitoramento do Halley desenvolvido pela Universidade de Bochum (Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum) na Alemanha, realizado de 17 de fevereiro a 17 de abril de 1986 no European Southern Observatory (ESO) em La Silla (Chile). Nesta faixa espectral é possível observar a contínua formação, bem como o movimento e expansão das estruturas de plasma. Para observar a morfologia destas estruturas foram analisadas 32 placas fotográficas de CO+ (placas de vidro) do cometa P/Halley. Tais placas possuem um campo de visão de 28,6 por 28,6 graus sendo obtidas entre 29 de março e 17 de abril de 1986 com tempos de exposição entre 20 e 120 minutos. Todas as placas foram digitadas com o auxílio de um microdensitômetro PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) do Instituto Astronómico da Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet em Muenster, Alemanha (um pixel = 25 por 25 micrômetros correspondendo aproximadamente a 46,88 por 46,88 segundos de arco). Após a digitação os dados foram reduzidos à intensidades relativas, sendo que os posssíveis de calibração também foram reduzidos à intensidades absolutas, expressas em termos de densidade colunar utilizando-se dos sistemas de tratamento de imagens MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) e IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). Com o auxílio do método de teta mínimo de Stellingwerf (Stellingwerf, 1978) obteve-se um período de 2,22 +/- 0,09 dias a partir da análise de estruturas na coma de plasma através da subtração de imagens subsequentes. Este método foi comparado com o método de Fourier. Provavelmente exista um segundo ciclo com período aproximado de 3,6 dias. A idéia de subtrair imagens subsequentes é devido ao fato de que os efeitos de rotação são apenas 10% dos fenômenos de distribuição gasosa. Portanto as

  16. PREFACE: TNT 2004: Trends in Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Antonio; Serena, Pedro A.; Saenz, Juan Jose; Welland, Mark; Reifenberger, Ron

    2005-05-01

    were awarded. We would like to thank all the participants for their assistance, as well as the authors for their written contributions. TNT2004 is the successful consequence of a coordinated effort from several institutions: PHANTOMS Foundation, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad SEK, Universidad de Salamanca, CMP Científica, University of Cambridge/IRC, NIMS, Nanotechnology Research Institute (NRI), University of Purdue, Georgia Institute of Technology and IEEE. In addition, we are indebted to the following institutions, companies and government agencies for their help and financial support: PHANTOMS Network/European Commission (IST/FET Program), NASA, Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Motorola, IoP, iNANO, NSERC/CRSNG (Nano Innovation Platform), Junta de Castilla y León, Donostia International Physics Center, Sociedad de Microscopía Española (SME), Nanonet, Wiley-VCH, Raith GmbH, The European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), The Office of Naval Research International Field Office (ONRIFO), World Scientific and Imperial College Press, Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Parque Científico de Barcelona and Parque Científico de Madrid. We would also like to thank the following companies for their participation: NanoTec, Raith GmbH, Scientec, BFI Optilas, Schaefer, Interface Ltd, World Scientific and Imperial College Press and Institute of Physics Publishing. We invite readers of this special issue to join us at the next `Trends in Nanotechnology' conference, which will take place at Oviedo (Spain) in 2005, (http://www.tnt2005.org).

  17. Earth and Heavens: Two Separate Universes? (Spanish Title: Tierra y Cielos: ¿Dos Universos Separados?) Terra e Céus: Dois Universos Separados?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrascosa, Jaime; Gil-Pérez, Daniel; Solbes, Jordi; Vilches, Amparo

    2005-12-01

    The study of gravitation constitutes an exceptional occasion to show the richness and complexity of science and technology, contemplating, among other things: the problematic situations which are at the heart of the scientific knowledge, the difficulties encountered in the construction of knowledge and, especially, the necessity of overcoming "common-sense evidence" that proclaimed the existence of an insurmountable barrier between Earth and Heavens, hindering scientific development during many centuries. In this paper we present a program of activities to orient the study of Gravitation atUpperHigh School, favoring students' participation in the reconstruction of this first scientific revolution and giving them the opportunity to see the importance of Astronomy both in the history of science and today. El estudio de la gravitación constituye una ocasión excepcional para mostrar la ciencia y la tecnología en toda su riqueza y complejidad, considerando, entre otros aspectos:

  18. Las situaciones problemáticas relevantes que llevaron a la construcción de los conocimientos,
  19. las dificultades de todo tipo con las que hubo que enfrentarse y, muy en particular,
  20. la necesidad de superar las "evidencias de sentido común" que establecían una supuesta barrera infranqueable entre la Tierray los Cielos y que obstaculizaron durante siglos el desarrollo científico.
  21. En este trabajo presentamos un programa de actividades para el estudio de la gravitación en la secundaria superior, orientado a favorecer la participación de los estudiantes, en alguna medida, en la reconstrucción de este proceso que constituyó la denominada primera gran revolución científica y asomándonos al estudio de una de las ciencias más antiguas, la Astronomía, que hoy sigue despertando gran interés. O estudo da gravitação constitui uma ocasião excepcional para mostrar a ciência e a tecnologia em toda sua riqueza e

  22. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids⋆. III. Results for 33 X-type objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañada-Assandri, M.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    2012-06-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows the simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data of a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 33 X-type objects are presented, several of them are being polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we found polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for different groups among this taxonomic class and that there are objects with very different albedo in the sub-classes of the X taxonomic complex. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/542/A11

  23. The spectroscopic binary system Gl 375. I. Orbital parameters and chromospheric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, R. F.; González, J. F.; Cincunegui, C.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:We study the spectroscopic binary system Gl 375 to characterise its orbit and the spectral types and chromospheric activity levels of the components. Methods: We employed medium-resolution echelle spectra obtained at the 2.15 m telescope at the Argentinian observatory CASLEO and photometric observations obtained from the ASAS database. Results: We have separated the composite spectra into those corresponding to both components. The separated spectra allow us to confirm that the spectral types of both components are similar (dMe3.5) and to obtain precise measurements of the orbital period (P = 1.87844 days), minimum masses (M_1 sin3 i = 0.35 {M}_⊙ and M_2 sin3 i =0.33 {M}_⊙), and other orbital parameters. The photometric observations exhibit a sinusoidal variation with the same period as the orbital period. We interpreted this as signs of active regions carried along with rotation in a tidally synchronised system, and studied the evolution of the amplitude of the modulation on longer timescales. Together with the mean magnitude, the modulation exhibits a roughly cyclic variation with a period of around 800 days. This periodicity is also found in the flux of the Ca II K lines of both components, which seem to be in phase. Conclusions: The periodic changes in the three observables are interpreted as a sign of a stellar activity cycle. Both components appear to be in phase, which implies that they are magnetically connected. The measured cycle of ≈2.2 years (≈800 days) is consistent with previous determinations of activity cycles in similar stars. The authors are visiting astronomers of the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  24. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. II. Results for 58 B- and C-type objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 58 B- and C-type objects are presented, most of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A115

  1. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. I. Results for fifty seven S-, L-, and K-type objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2011-05-01

    Aims: We present the first results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties, similar to those shown by the asteroid (234) Barbara. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows the simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results of 57 S-, L-, and K-type objects are presented, most of them are being polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Furthermore, we also find two candidates, (397) Vienna and (458) Hercynia, that could have a phase-polarization curve with a large inversion angle. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?j/A+A/529/A86

  2. Polarimetry of M-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.

    2007-03-01

    Aims:Results of a polarimetric program at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (Casleo), San Juan, Argentina are presented. The aim of this campaign is to estimate the polarimetric properties of asteroids belonging to the X taxonomic class. In this paper results of the campaign for M-type objects are presented. Methods: The data have been obtained with Casprof and Torino polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The Casprof polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation and the Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in the U-, B-, V-, R-, and I-bands. Results: The campaign began in 2000, and data on a sample of 26 M-type asteroids were obtained. Most of these objects were polarimetricaly observed for the first time. Combining these data with those available in the literature, an estimate of the polarimetric parameters and albedo for 12 objects is presented. Furthermore, the data show that asteroids 21 Lutetia and 77 Frigga have a large inversion angle and 441 Bathilde a deep polarization minimum, implying a controversial taxonomic classification as M-type for these objects. Also, the polarimetric parameters estimated for the M-type asteroids showing in their spectra the 3 μm band and classified as W-type by Rivkin et al. (1995, Icarus, 117, 90; 2000, ApJ, 145, 351) could be different from those without that feature. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  3. Spectroscopic survey of post-AGB star candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims:Our goal is to establish the true nature of post-AGB star candidates and to identify new post-AGB stars. Methods: We used low resolution optical spectroscopy and we compared the spectra of the candidate post-AGB stars with those of stars in the library specta available in the literature and with spectra of "standard" post-AGB stars, and direct imaging in narrow-band filters. Results: Spectra were obtained for 16 objects: 14 objects have not been observed previously and 2 objects are already known post-AGB stars used as "standards" for identification. From the spectra we identify: six new post-AGB stars with spectral types between G5 and F5, two H ii regions the morphology of which is revealed in the direct images for the first time, a G giant with infrared emission, a young stellar object, a probable post-AGB star with emission lines and three objects for which the classification is still unclear. As a whole, our results provide new, reliable identifications for 10 objects among listed post-AGB star candidates. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), and at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada, which is operated by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas through the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Granada, Spain). Appendices A-D are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. CCD photometric search for peculiar stars in open clusters. IV. Collinder 272, Pismis 20, Lyng\\aa 14, NGC 6396 and NGC 6611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunzen, E.; Pintado, O. I.; Maitzen, H. M.

    2002-12-01

    The time scale on which chemical peculiarity in upper main sequence stars begins is unknown. Results from the Hipparcos measurements indicate that the classical chemically peculiar (CP) stars occupy the whole area from the zero age main sequence to the terminal age main sequence (Gómez et al. \\cite{Gom98}). However, Hubrig et al. (\\cite{Hub00}) reported that the magnetic fields appear only in stars that have already completed at least approximately 30% of their main sequence life time. Previous observations in the very young Orion OB1 and Scorpio-Centaurus associations (Joncas & Borra 1981; Borra et al. 1982) reveal a percentage of chemically peculiar stars that is significantly smaller (less than 5%) than that of the galactic field (up to 25%). This already indicates that the phenomenon needs at least several 106 yr to appear. Since no further observations have been published since then, we have observed the five very young (1 Myr <= age <= 25 Myr) open clusters Collinder 272, Pismis 20, Lyng\\aa 14, NGC 6396 and NGC 6611. Photometry from 250 CCD frames in the three filter Delta a-system results in very low detection limits (0.008 to 0.015 mag). We find no single photometrically chemically peculiar candidate in approximately 460 observed cluster members in the five program clusters. From the number of observed objects we deduce upper limits between 0.6% and 2.4% for the incidence of CP stars for the four observed aggregates. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under the agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan; ESO-La Silla and UTSO-Las Campanas.

  5. The GRB 030329 host: a blue low metallicity subluminous galaxy with intense star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorosabel, J.; Pérez-Ramírez, D.; Sollerman, J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Jóhannesson, G.; Guziy, S.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Björnsson, G.; Sokolov, V. V.; Fatkhullin, T. A.; Nilsson, K.

    2005-12-01

    We present broad band photometry and spectroscopic observations of the host galaxy of GRB 030329. Analysis of the spectral emission lines shows that the host is likely a low metallicity galaxy (Z˜0.004). The spectral energy distribution (SED) constructed with the photometric points has been fitted using synthetic and observational templates. The best SED fit is obtained with a starburst template with an age of 150 Myr and an extinction Av ˜ 0.6. We find that the GRB 030329 host galaxy is a subluminous galaxy (L ˜ 0.016 Lstar) with a stellar mass of ≳ 108 M⊙. Three independent diagnostics, based on the restframe UV continuum, the [O II], and the Balmer emission lines, provide a consistent unextinguished star formation rate of ˜ 0.6 M⊙ yr-1, implying a high unextinguished specific star formation rate ( 34 M⊙ yr-1 (L/Lstar)-1). We estimate that the unextinguished specific star formation rate of the GRB 030329 host is higher than 93.5% of the galaxies at a similar redshift. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Based on data taken at the 2.2-m and 3.5-m telescopes of the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán de Calar Alto, operated by the Max Planck institute of Heidelberg and Centro Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. The spectral observations were obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal (Chile), under the Director's Discretionary Time programme 271.D-5006(A).

  6. On the calibration of the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutra, C. M.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.; Barbuy, B.

    2003-09-01

    In this work we study the spectral properties (3600-6800 Å) of the nuclear region of early-type galaxies at low (|b|<25deg), intermediate (including surroundings of the Magellanic Clouds) and high (South Polar Cap) Galactic latitudes. We determine the E(B-V) reddening values of the galaxies by matching their continuum distribution with respect to those of reddening-free spectral galaxy templates with similar stellar populations. We also compare the spectroscopic reddening value of each galaxy with that derived from 100 mu m dust emission (E(B-V)FIR) in its line of sight, and we find that there is agreement up to E(B-V)=0.25. Beyond this limit E(B-V)FIR values are higher. Taking into account the data up to E(B-V) ~ 0.7, we derive a calibration factor of 0.016 between the spectroscopic E(B-V) values and Schlegel et al.'s (\\cite{Schlegel1998}) opacities. By combining this result with an AK extinction map built within ten degrees of the Galactic centre using Bulge giants as probes (Dutra et al. \\cite{Dutra2003}), we extended the calibration of dust emission reddening maps to low Galactic latitudes down to |b|=4deg and E(B-V)= 1.6 (AV ~ 5). According to this new calibration, a multiplicative factor of ~0.75 must be applied to the COBE/IRAS dust emission reddening maps. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Pata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  7. Discovery of a [WO] central star in the planetary nebula Th 2-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidmann, W. A.; Gamen, R.; Díaz, R. J.; Niemela, V. S.

    2008-09-01

    Context: About 2500 planetary nebulae are known in our Galaxy but only 224 have central stars with reported spectral types in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae (Acker et al. 1992; Acker et al. 1996). Aims: We have started an observational program aiming to increase the number of PN central stars with spectral classification. Methods: By means of spectroscopy and high resolution imaging, we identify the position and true nature of the central star. We carried out low resolution spectroscopic observations at CASLEO telescope, complemented with medium resolution spectroscopy performed at Gemini South and Magellan telescopes. Results: As a first outcome of this survey, we present for the first time the spectra of the central star of the PN Th 2-A. These spectra show emission lines of ionized C and O, typical in Wolf-Rayet stars. Conclusions: We identify the position of that central star, which is not the brightest one of the visual central pair. We classify it as of type [WO 3]pec, which is consistent with the high excitation and dynamical age of the nebula. Based on data collected at (i) the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina y Universidades Nacionales de La Plata, Córdoba y San Juan, Argentina; (ii) the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile; (iii) the 8 m Gemini South Telescope, Chile.

  8. Spectroscopic orbits of two short-period early-type binaries using two-dimensional cross-correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.

    2003-06-01

    We apply the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique TODCOR to derive spectroscopic orbits for the two B-type double-lined spectroscopic binaries HD 66066A and HD 315031, previously mentioned as blue straggler candidates of the open clusters NGC 2516 and NGC 6530, respectively. Reliable radial velocities for both components are measured even for orbital phases for which the separation between the spectral lines are about 0.5 times the quadratic sum of the full-width at half-maximum of the lines. Both binaries have circular orbits and the orbital periods are 1.67 and 1.38 days for HD 66066A and HD 315031, respectively. We calculate minimum masses with errors of 3-5% and obtain the projected radii from the line widths. We derive absolute stellar parameters which are consistent with the age and distance of the clusters. Both binary systems are formed by main-sequence stars and it is expected that they will experience mass-transfer between their components before the end of the core H-burning stage. HD 315031 is likely a triple system as suggested by the variation of the center-of-mass velocity. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  9. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. IV. New results from the first epoch of the CASLEO survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cellino, A.; Bendjoya, Ph.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained using the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 1995, and until 2012 data on a large sample of asteroids were obtained. We here present and analyze the unpublished results for 129 asteroids of different taxonomic types, 56 which were polarimetrically observed for the first time. We find that the asteroids (402) Chloe and (729) Watsonia are Barbarians, and asteroid (269) Justitia shows a phase - polarization curve that seems to have a small inversion angle. Data obtained in UBVRI colors allow us to sketch an analysis of the wavelength dependence of the degree of linear polarization for 31 asteroids, in spite of some large error bars in some cases. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/569/A122

  10. Redshift-Distance Survey of Early-Type Galaxies. I. The ENEARc Cluster Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, M.; Alonso, M. V.; da Costa, L. N.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Wegner, G.; Pellegrini, P. S.; Rité, C.; Maia, M. A. G.

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents data on the ENEARc subsample of the larger ENEAR survey of nearby early-type galaxies. The ENEARc galaxies belong to clusters and were specifically chosen to be used for the construction of a Dn-σ template. The ENEARc sample includes new measurements of spectroscopic and photometric parameters (redshift, velocity dispersion, line index Mg2, and the angular diameter dn), as well as data from the literature. New spectroscopic data are given for 229 cluster early-type galaxies, and new photometry is presented for 348 objects. Repeat and overlap observations with external data sets are used to construct a final merged catalog consisting of 640 early-type galaxies in 28 clusters. Objective criteria, based on catalogs of groups of galaxies derived from complete redshift surveys of the nearby universe, are used to assign galaxies to clusters. In a companion paper, these data are used to construct the template Dn-σ distance relation for early-type galaxies, which has been used to estimate galaxy distances and derive peculiar velocities for the ENEAR all-sky sample. Based on observations at Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan; Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, National Optical Astronomical Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; the European Southern Observatory (ESO), partially under the ESO-ON agreement; the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory; the Observatório do Pico dos Dias, operated by the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica and the MDM Observatory at Kitt Peak.

  11. The ARGO Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozameh, C. N.

    El proyecto µARGO propone el desarrollo, construcción y operación del Observatorio Espacial de Rayos Gamma, que operará en una órbita terrestre. Este observatorio constará de un telescopio con capacidad de medir simultáneamente dirección de incidencia y polarización de rayos Gamma en dos rangos de energía: 50 KeV - 3 MeV y 10 MeV - 1 GeV. Para ello se usarán detectores de silicio de última generación y microelectrónica adaptada a la configuración. La masa total en órbita del observatorio estará en el orden de los 60 - 100 kg. dependiendo de la geometría adoptada lo que permitirá minimizar costos de desarrollo y construcción, sin perder por ello calidad en su misión científica. ? Desde el punto de vista energético μARGO cubrirá el rango cubierto por COMPTEL y EGRET del CGRO, duplicando como mínimo la resolución angular de ambos con una reducción de peso de dos órdenes de magnitud. En adición, μARGO podr´ medir la polarización incidente de los rayos energéticos. Si bien existen otros dos proyectos en marcha (GLAST y AGILE) para reemplazar EGRET que serán lanzados antes que μARGO, estos proyectos no están diseñados para medir polarización ni tampoco cubren el rango mas bajo de energía arriba mencionado.

  12. Detección automática de NEOs en imágenes CCD utilizando la transformada de Hough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruétalo, M.; Tancredi, G.

    El interés y la dedicación por los objetos que se acercan a la órbita de la Tierra (NEOs) ha aumentado considerablemente en los últimos años, tanto que se han iniciado varias campañas de búsqueda sistemática para aumentar la población identificada de éstos. El uso de placas fotográficas e identificación visual está siendo sustituído, progresivamente, por el uso de cámaras CCD y paquetes de detección automática de los objetos en las imágenes digitales. Una parte muy importante para la implementación exitosa de un programa automatizado de detección de este tipo es el desarrollo de algoritmos capaces de identificar objetos de baja relación señal-ruido y con requerimientos computacionales no elevados. En el presente trabajo proponemos la utilización de la transformada de Hough (utilizada en algunas áreas de visión artificial) para detectar automáticamente trazas, aproximadamente rectilíneas y de baja relación señal-ruido, en imágenes CCD. Desarrollamos una primera implementación de un algoritmo basado en ésta y lo probamos con una serie de imágenes reales conteniendo trazas con picos de señales de entre ~1 σ y ~3 σ por encima del nivel del ruido de fondo. El algoritmo detecta, sin inconvenientes, la mayoría de los casos y en tiempos razonablemente adecuados.

  13. Preliminary Observations of the Mantle Transition Zone Beneath South America from Non-Plane Wave Stacking of P-to-S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida Goetze, B.; Yu, Y.; Liu, K. H.; Gao, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    We performed a P-to-S receiver function (RF) study of the Mantle Transition Zone (MTZ) beneath South America. The dataset is a combination of all the available broadband seismic stations data of South America stored in three datacenters (IRIS, Universidade de São Paulo, and Rede Sismográfica Brasileira). RF stacking is made using the CCP method, with a nonplane wavefront assumption. RFs from 20803 teleseismic events generated 1861 stacked traces, with at least 4 RFs in 2 degrees radius. The results allow the identification of three major domains with distinct structure. The first domain, along the Cordillera has the 410 km discontinuity (D410) unusually deeper than normal, ~425 km depth, and reduced MTZ thickness, ~235 km. In the central portion of the continent, where the Nazca plate is believed to reach the MTZ, we find an area of about 10 degrees wide with the 660 km discontinuity (D660) depressed to ~675 km depth, and the MTZ is thicker, ~260 km. Lastly, the third domain occurs in the northeast of Brazil, where beneath the Archean cratons it was observed a very shallow D660 (~645 km) and thin MTZ (~235 km). The first domain indicates hotter than normal temperatures around the D410, most likely extending into the upper mantle, and might reflect an upwelling of a convection system behind the subducted plate. The second domain indicates colder than normal temperatures in the D660, and can be related to the emplacement of slab material above this discontinuity. In the third domain, the craton related environment, where colder and less altered lithosphere occurs, two hypotheses are offered to explain the shallow D660 and thin MTZ. Hot material is ascending from the lower mantle as part of the convective system related to the nearby mid-ocean ridge, or the Archean lithosphere acts as a refractory layer, not allowing heat to escape from the lower mantle upwards and being laterally dispersed by the MTZ.

  14. Alfabetización astronómica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tignanelli, H.

    A fines de 1991, en una revista de educación en ciencias, José L. Sérsic reflexionaba acerca de los problemas que enfrentaría la enseñanza de los conocimientos astronómicos en nuestro país, en los umbrales del Siglo XXI. Entonces postulaba como un objetivo mínimo, que los jóvenes deberían mostrar signos claros de que se hallan astronómicamente alfabetizados. Era el año en que se realizaba por primera vez una Asamblea General de I.A.U. en Buenos Aires, una oportunidad de singulares características para la comunidad astronómica local y, simultáneamente el comienzo de un cambio radical en la estructura del sistema educativo argentino. ?`Contempla ese cambio el objetivo que postulara Sérsic? ?`Estamos en condiciones de afirmar que estamos en camino de lograrlo? ?`Con qué parámetros?. Presentamos aquí un panorama general sobre algunas de las acciones realizadas en función de alcanzar esa alfabetización científica, analizando exclusivamente la actividad de enseñanza hasta el nivel universitario, sin detenernos en el mismo, ya que lo consideramos una instancia superior e independiente de aquella alfabetización. Tampoco nos referiremos a la tarea de difusión, divulgación o popularización de la Astronomía, ya que su condición de asistemática y subjetiva no es evaluable en términos de la formación integral de un individuo.

  15. Developing a Crustal and Upper Mantle Velocity Model for the Brazilian Northeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julia, J.; Nascimento, R.

    2013-05-01

    Development of 3D models for the earth's crust and upper mantle is important for accurately predicting travel times for regional phases and to improve seismic event location. The Brazilian Northeast is a tectonically active area within stable South America and displays one of the highest levels of seismicity in Brazil, with earthquake swarms containing events up to mb 5.2. Since 2011, seismic activity is routinely monitored through the Rede Sismográfica do Nordeste (RSisNE), a permanent network supported by the national oil company PETROBRAS and consisting of 15 broadband stations with an average spacing of ~200 km. Accurate event locations are required to correctly characterize and identify seismogenic areas in the region and assess seismic hazard. Yet, no 3D model of crustal thickness and crustal and upper mantle velocity variation exists. The first step in developing such models is to refine crustal thickness and depths to major seismic velocity boundaries in the crust and improve on seismic velocity estimates for the upper mantle and crustal layers. We present recent results in crustal and uppermost mantle structure in NE Brazil that will contribute to the development of a 3D model of velocity variation. Our approach has consisted of: (i) computing receiver functions to obtain point estimates of crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratio and (ii) jointly inverting receiver functions and surface-wave dispersion velocities from an independent tomography study to obtain S-velocity profiles at each station. This approach has been used at all the broadband stations of the monitoring network plus 15 temporary, short-period stations that reduced the inter-station spacing to ~100 km. We expect our contributions will provide the basis to produce full 3D velocity models for the Brazilian Northeast and help determine accurate locations for seismic events in the region.

  16. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Muros, José Joaquín; Briones, Mercedes; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Bouzas, Paula R; Giménez, Rafael; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Guatemala ha estado experimentando una transición en sus estilos de vida. Mientras que la desnutrición crónica sigue siendo prevalente, se ha experimentado un aumento sustancial de los casos de obesidad. Objetivo: proporcionar información actualizada sobre las nuevas tendencias en cuanto al estado nutricional en Guatemala. Métodos: se diseñó un estudio transversal con una muestra de 392 niños y adolescentes (5-18 años) seleccionados de manera aleatoria. El muestreo fue estratificado según su ubicación geográfica (rural y urbana), sexo y edad. Resultados: alrededor del 62% de la muestra urbana presentó problemas de sobrepeso y un 13,8 de obesidad. Entre los participantes urbanos, la prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad fue mayor en el grupo de 11-14 años. El grupo urbano presentó una mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso/obesidad que el grupo rural para todos los grupos de edad (excepto en el grupo de 15-18 años que presentó unos índices de obesidad ligeramente más elevados en el grupo rural). Se observó una mayor prevalencia de retraso en el crecimiento en el grupo rural, excepto para el grupo de edad de 15-18 años. La prevalencia de bajo peso fue significativamente mayor en el grupo rural (25% vs. 1,2%) así como la prevalencia del delgadez, excepto para el grupo de edad de 5-10 años. Conclusión: la alta prevalencia de bajo peso y la de sobrepeso/obesidad coexisten en los niños y adolescentes en Guatemala. PMID:27238797

  17. OV-Wav: um novo pacote para análise multiescalar em astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D. N. E.; Rabaça, C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Wavelets e outras formas de análise multiescalar têm sido amplamente empregadas em diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo reconhecidamente superiores a técnicas mais tradicionais, como as análises de Fourier e de Gabor, em certas aplicações. Embora a teoria dos wavelets tenha começado a ser elaborada há quase trinta anos, seu impacto no estudo de imagens astronômicas tem sido pequeno até bem recentemente. Apresentamos um conjunto de programas desenvolvidos ao longo dos últimos três anos no Observatório do Valongo/UFRJ que possibilitam aplicar essa poderosa ferramenta a problemas comuns em astronomia, como a remoção de ruído, a detecção hierárquica de fontes e a modelagem de objetos com perfis de brilho arbitrários em condições não ideais. Este pacote, desenvolvido para execução em plataforma IDL, teve sua primeira versão concluída recentemente e está sendo disponibilizado à comunidade científica de forma aberta. Mostramos também resultados de testes controlados ao quais submetemos os programas, com a sua aplicação a imagens artificiais, com resultados satisfatórios. Algumas aplicações astrofísicas foram estudadas com o uso do pacote, em caráter experimental, incluindo a análise da componente de luz difusa em grupos compactos de galáxias de Hickson e o estudo de subestruturas de nebulosas planetárias no espaço multiescalar.

  18. Reaching and abandoning the furthest ice extent during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Wirsig, Christian; Zasadni, Jerzy; Hippe, Kristina; Christl, Marcus; Akçar, Naki; Schluechter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the European Alps (late Würm) local ice caps and extensive ice fields in the high Alps fed huge outlet glaciers that occupied the main valleys and extended onto the forelands as piedmont lobes. Records from numerous sites suggest advance of glaciers beyond the mountain front by around 30 ka (Ivy-Ochs 2015 and references therein). Reaching of the maximum extent occurred by about 27-26 ka, as exemplified by dates from the Rhein glacier area (Keller and Krayss, 2005). Abandonment of the outermost moraines at sites north and south of the Alps was underway by about 24 ka. In the high Alps, systems of transection glaciers with transfluences over many of the Alpine passes dominated, for example, at Grimsel Pass in the Central Alps (Switzerland). 10Be exposure ages of 23 ± 1 ka for glacially sculpted bedrock located just a few meters below the LGM trimline in the Haslital near Grimsel Pass suggest a pulse of ice surface lowering at about the same time that the foreland moraines were being abandoned (Wirsig et al., 2016). Widespread ice surface lowering in the high Alps was underway by no later than 18 ka. Thereafter, glaciers oscillated at stillstand and minor re-advance positions on the northern forelands for several thousand years forming the LGM stadial moraines. Final recession back within the mountain front took place by 19-18 ka. Recalculation to a common basis of all published 10Be exposure dates for boulders situated on LGM moraines suggests a strong degree of synchrony for the timing of onset of ice decay both north and south of the Alps. Ivy-Ochs, S., 2015, Cuadernos de investigación geográfica 41: 295-315. Keller, O., Krayss, E., 2005, Vierteljahrschr. Naturforsch. Gesell. Zürich 150: 69-85. Wirsig, C. et al., 2016, J. Quat. Sci. 31: 46-59.

  19. Feasibility and impact of Creciendo Sanos, a clinic-based pilot intervention to prevent obesity among preschool children in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mexico has the highest adult overweight and obesity prevalence in the Americas; 23.8% of children <5 years old are at risk for overweight and 9.7% are already overweight or obese. Creciendo Sanos was a pilot intervention to prevent obesity among preschoolers in Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) clinics. Methods We randomized 4 IMSS primary care clinics to either 6 weekly educational sessions promoting healthful nutrition and physical activity or usual care. We recruited 306 parent-child pairs: 168 intervention, 138 usual care. Children were 2-5 years old with WHO body mass index (BMI) z-score 0-3. We measured children’s height and weight and parents reported children’s diet and physical activity at baseline and 3 and 6-month follow-up. We analyzed behavioral and BMI outcomes with generalized mixed models incorporating multiple imputation for missing values. Results 93 (55%) intervention and 96 (70%) usual care families completed 3 and 6-month follow-up. At 3 months, intervention v. usual care children increased vegetables by 6.3 servings/week (95% CI, 1.8, 10.8). In stratified analyses, intervention participants with high program adherence (5-6 sessions) decreased snacks and screen time and increased vegetables v. usual care. No further effects on behavioral outcomes or BMI were observed. Transportation time and expenses were barriers to adherence. 90% of parents who completed the post-intervention survey were satisfied with the program. Conclusions Although satisfaction was high among participants, barriers to participation and retention included transportation cost and time. In intention to treat analyses, we found intervention effects on vegetable intake, but not other behaviors or BMI. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01539070. Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del IMSS: 2009-785-120. PMID:24649831

  20. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1984.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1986-07-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $21,560 in 1984, up by 2.7% over the 1983 figure after accounting for the 4.3% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($27,460) increased between 1983 and 1984 by 2.9%; 3) taxes absorbed about 22% of the total money income received by households; 4) households paid an average of $6400 in taxes in 1984, about $20 higher than paid in 1983; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1984 in the Northeast, South, and West regions; 6) in 1984, 64% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study; and 7) the percentage of income paid in taxes ranged from 10% in households with incomes less than $10,000 to 28% in households with incomes of $50,000 or more. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $513 billion in 1984. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on base without families; and 3) returns of decedents. PMID:12280649

  1. Inauguração do Telescópio SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, João

    2004-04-01

    A comunidade astronômica brasileira de há muito almeja ter a sua disposição um instrumento científico com o qual possa fazer pesquisa de vanguarda e manter a competitividade científica a nível internacional. Hoje este sonho se torna uma realidade. O Brasil tem tido uma política de pesquisa e de pós-graduação bem sucedida. Estamos formando 7000 doutores por ano e produzimos 1,5% da ciência mundial. Nosso desafio, hoje, é associar a esta capacidade de gerar conhecimento também a capacidade de usar o conhecimento em beneficio da sociedade. A Astronomia não é exceção. Temos 7 programas de pós-graduação em nível de doutorado e 11 em nível de mestrado. O telescópio SOAR será o principal instrumento que sustentará estes programas nas próximas décadas. A inauguração do telescópio SOAR simboliza de forma concreta e decidida o apoio do MCT, do CNPq e da FAPESP para o financiamento à pesquisa básica em nosso país. O Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, criado a cerca de 20 anos pelo CNPq, a par do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, são até hoje, os únicos laboratórios nacionais do Brasil e ambos voltados basicamente ao avanço do conhecimento. Os vinte anos de existência do LNA foram decisivos para a estruturação da comunidade astronômica no Brasil e para a construção das parcerias como o SOAR.

  2. The history of the parathyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Toneto, Marcelo Garcia; Prill, Shandi; Debon, Leticia Manoel; Furlan, Fernando Zucuni; Steffen, Nedio

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a review of the major aspects of progression of knowledge about the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism. Through literature review, we analyzed articles on the history of the evolution of anatomical, physiological, pathological and surgical knowledge of the parathyroid glands. Because of their unique anatomical features, the parathyroid glands were the last of the endocrine glands to be discovered, which greatly hindered proper treatment until the first decades of the twentieth century. Technological developments in the last 30 years greatly facilitated the location of the glands and hyperparathyroidism surgery. However, an experienced and dedicated surgeon is still essential to the excellence of treatment. RESUMO Os autores fizeram uma revisão dos principais aspectos históricos da progressão do conhecimento sobre o tratamento cirúrgico do hiperparatireoidismo. Por meio de revisão bibliográfica, foram analisados artigos selecionados sobre a história da evolução do conhecimento anatômico, fisiológico, patológico e cirúrgico das glândulas paratireoides. Devido às suas características anatômicas peculiares, as paratireoides foram as últimas das glândulas endócrinas a serem descobertas, o que dificultou sobremaneira seu tratamento adequado até as primeiras décadas do Século XX. A evolução tecnológica ocorrida nos últimos 30 anos facilitou sobremaneira a localização das glândulas e a cirurgia do hiperparatireoidismo. Contudo, um cirurgião experiente e dedicado ao tratamento dessa enfermidade ainda é fundamental para a excelência do tratamento. PMID:27556546

  3. Discriminação de núcleos primários no Observatório Auger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiba, A. K. O.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2003-08-01

    A identidade das partículas, com energias E > 10EeV, que geram chuveiros atmosféricos extensivos (CAE) na atmosfera terrestre é um incógnita. Existem diferenças sutis, mas apreciáveis entre chuveiros gerados por fótons e por núcleos, como temos demonstrado em trabalho recente. Porém entre os núcleos, as diferenças são tão sutis, que a baixa estatística e incertezas experimentais têm limitado fortemente sua diferenciação até o presente. Tal discriminação precede qualquer aplicação astrofísica mas sofisticada de raios cósmicos de ultra-alta energia. Apresentamos aqui os resultados do desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico para a análise de CAEs com aplicação específica ao Experimento Pierre Auger. Redes neurais, combinadas com simulações numéricas detalhadas de CAEs e dos dois tipos diferentes de detectores (Cherenkov em água e de fluorescência atmosférica) presentes no experimento são empregados na análise. Mostraremos a capacidade dos métodos de diagnóstico desenvolvidos, para a discriminação de diversas distribuições hipotéticas de massa-anergia.

  4. Protocol for studying cough frequency in people with pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Bravard, Marjory A; Tracey, Brian H; López, José W; Comina, German; Zimic, Mirko; Coronel, Jorge; O'Neill Lee, Gwenyth; Caviedes, Luz; Luis Cabrera, Jose; Salas, Antonio; Ticona, Eduardo; Kirwan, Daniela E; Friedland, Jon S; Evans, Carlton A; Moore, David A; Gilman, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cough is a key symptom of tuberculosis (TB) as well as the main cause of transmission. However, a recent literature review found that cough frequency (number of coughs per hour) in patients with TB has only been studied once, in 1969. The main aim of this study is to describe cough frequency patterns before and after the start of TB treatment and to determine baseline factors that affect cough frequency in these patients. Secondarily, we will evaluate the correlation between cough frequency and TB microbiological resolution. Methods This study will select participants with culture confirmed TB from 2 tertiary hospitals in Lima, Peru. We estimated that a sample size of 107 patients was sufficient to detect clinically significant changes in cough frequency. Participants will initially be evaluated through questionnaires, radiology, microscopic observation drug susceptibility broth TB-culture, auramine smear microscopy and cough recordings. This cohort will be followed for the initial 60 days of anti-TB treatment, and throughout the study several microbiological samples as well as 24 h recordings will be collected. We will describe the variability of cough episodes and determine its association with baseline laboratory parameters of pulmonary TB. In addition, we will analyse the reduction of cough frequency in predicting TB cure, adjusted for potential confounders. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the ethics committees at each participating hospital in Lima, Peru, Asociación Benéfica PRISMA in Lima, Peru, the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA. We aim to publish and disseminate our findings in peer-reviewed journals. We also expect to create and maintain an online repository for TB cough sounds as well as the statistical analysis employed. PMID:27105713

  5. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  6. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  7. Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Macy, J. P.; Callegary, J. B.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    In March and April 2014, an unprecedented experiment released over 100x106 cubic meters (81,000 acre-feet) of water from Morelos Dam into the normally-dry lower Colorado River below Yuma, Arizona, USA. More than half of the water released from Morelos Dam infiltrated within the limitrophe reach, a 32-km stretch between the Northern U.S.-Mexico International Boundary and the Southern International Boundary, a distance of just 32 river-kilometers. To characterize the spatial and temporal extent of infiltration, scientists from the US Geological Survey, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California carried out several geophysical surveys. Frequency-domain electromagnetic transects throughout the limitrophe reach showed that the subsurface comprised exclusively sandy material, with little finer-grained material to impede or otherwise influence infiltration. Direct current resistivity clearly imaged the rising water table near the stream channel. Both techniques provide valuable parameterization and calibration information for a surface-water/groundwater interaction model currently in development. Time-lapse gravity data were collected at 25 stations to expand the monitoring well network and provide storage-coefficient information for the groundwater model. Despite difficult field conditions, precise measurements of large gravity changes showed that changes in groundwater storage in the upper reach of the study area, where groundwater levels were highest, were constrained to the near vicinity of the river channel. Downstream near the Southern International Boundary, however, groundwater storage increased substantially over a large area, expanding into the regional aquifer that supplies irrigation water to surrounding agriculture.

  8. 49 Mathoura Road: Geoffrey Kaye's Center of Excellence for the Australian Society of Anaesthetists.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Matthew L; Waisel, David B

    2016-06-01

    Geoffrey Kaye, M.B.B.S. (1903 to 1986), was a prominent Australian anesthetist, researcher, and educator who envisioned that anesthesia practice in Australia would be comparable to European and American anesthesia practice during the 1940s and 1950s. Kaye's close relationship with Francis Hoeffer McMechan, M.D., F.I.C.A. (1879 to 1939), which began when Kaye left a favorable impression on McMechan at a meeting of the Australasian Medical Congress in 1929, eventually led Kaye to establish an educational center for the Australian Society of Anaesthetists at 49 Mathoura Road, Toorak, Melbourne, Australia, in 1951. The center served as the "Scientific Headquarters" and the Australian Society of Anaesthetists' official headquarters from 1951 to 1955. Although anesthesia's recognition as a specialty was at the heart of the center, Kaye hoped that this "experiment in medical education"-equipped with a library, museum, laboratory, workshop, darkroom, and meeting space-would "bring anaesthetists of all lands together" in Australia. The lack of member participation in Kaye's center, however, led Kaye to dissolve the center by 1955. Previous research has documented the history of Kaye's center from correspondence between Kaye and influential American anesthesiologist Paul M. Wood, M.D. (1894 to 1953), from 1939 to 1955. Through letters Kaye sent to American anesthesiologist Paul M. Wood, M.D. (1894 to 1963), the authors see Kaye's detailed plans, design, and intent for the center at 49 Mathoura Road. Comparisons of Kaye's letters to Wood during the 1950s with his letters to Gwenifer Wilson, M.D., M.B.B.S. (1916 to 1988), during the 1980s illustrate a change in Kaye's perceptions regarding the failure of the center. PMID:26950707

  9. Regulación del flujo sanguíneo uterino. I. Funciones de estrógeno y receptores estrogénicos α/β en el endotelio vascular uterino durante el embarazo

    PubMed Central

    Mayra, Pastore R.; Rosalina, Villalón L.; López, Gladys; Iruretagoyena, Jesús; Magness, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Resumen El estrógeno y los receptores estrogénicos clásicos (REs), RE-α y RE-β, han demostrado ser parcialmente responsable por las adaptaciones endoteliales uterinas durante el embarazo al corto y largo plazo. Las diferencias moleculares y estructurales, junto con los diferentes efectos causados por estos receptores en las células y los tejidos, sugieren que su función varía dependiendo de la manera en la cual el estrógeno se comunica con sus receptores. En ésta revisión bibliográfica se discuten la función del estrógeno y sus receptores clásicos en las adaptaciones cardiovasculares durante el embarazo y la expresión de los Res in vivo e in vitro en el endotelio de la arteria uterina durante el ciclo ovárico y el embarazo, a la vez comparado con la expresión en endotelio arterial de tejidos reproductivos y no reproductivos. Estos temas integran el conocimiento actual de este amplio campo científico con interpretaciones e hipótesis diversas relacionadas con los efectos estrogénicos mediados bien sea por uno o los dos REs. Esta revisión también incluye la relación con las adaptaciones vasodilatadoras y angiogénicas requeridas para modular el dramático incremento fisiológico en la perfusión útero-placentaria observada durante un embarazo normal. PMID:26113750

  10. Neurobiología del autismo y TDAH mediante técnicas de neuroimagen: divergencias y convergencias

    PubMed Central

    Proal, Erika; Olvera, Jorge González; Blancas, Aurea S.; Chalita, Pablo J.; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2013-01-01

    En el área clínica algunos síntomas del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH), se presentan en los pacientes con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA). Se ha demostrado que existen alteraciones en circuitos cerebrales que impactan en fallas cognitivas y de comportamiento específicas de cada uno de estos trastornos. Sin embargo, han sido poco estudiados los correlatos cerebrales que hay detrás tanto de las similitudes como de las diferencias sintomatológicas. En la presente revisión se analizaron los estudios meta-analíticos existentes estructurales y funcionales en TDAH y TEA. Por un lado, se observaron convergencias en circuitos como el dorsal atencional, de funciones ejecutivas, visual, somatomotor y circuito de activación por defecto. Estas similitudes posiblemente explican las manifestaciones comórbidas entre los trastornos como la falla en la integración de información, motricidad fina y procesos atencionales específicos. Por otro lado, específicamente en el TDAH se observan déficits en el circuito de recompensa y ventral atencional, sistemas involucrados en la medición de efectos de reforzamiento y monitoreo atencional. En TEA los circuitos más afectados fueron los implicados en procesos de cognición social y lenguaje. En conclusión, existen correlatos neuronales en TEA que explican las manifestaciones clínicas tanto convergentes como divergentes presentes en TDAH. PMID:23897144

  11. Gravity waves above the Andes detected from GPS radio occultation temperature profiles: Jet mechanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A.; Alexander, P.; Llamedo, P.; Menéndez, C.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

    2006-12-01

    A significant wave activity (WA) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, mainly during winter, was detected at midlatitudes in the southern hemisphere (30-40S) above the Andes Range, from an analysis of Global Positioning System Radio Occultation (GPS RO) temperature profiles retrieved by CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) and SAC-C (Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas-C) Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites, between May 2001 and February 2006. The possible main gravity wave sources in this region are: i) orographic forcing, ii) geostrophic adjustment and iii) deep convection. The available vertical resolution of GPS RO soundings does not rule out any of these alternatives. Based on satellite imaginary, the WA enhancements cannot be attributed to deep convection events. Inertia-gravity waves (IGWs) could be generated after a geostrophic adjustment process, following a perturbation of the zonal jet situated above the Andes Mountains by mountain waves (MWs). The monthly WA intensity follows the zonal wind velocity strength according to its seasonal variability at jet altitudes. As the GPS-LEO lines of sight are roughly meridionally aligned and the morphology of the Andes at middle latitudes is predominantly north-south, it was possible to detect MWs as well as IGWs from GPS RO temperature profiles. This characteristic does not apply for other mountain range alignments. From the analysis of a numerical simulation at the time and location of a single RO event with very strong WA, two main modes of oscillation with horizontal wavelength around 40 and 200 km were identified. The first one is attributed to a MW and the second one to an IGW.

  12. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses.

    PubMed

    Tadini, Amanda Maria; Pantano, Glaucia; de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Fontaine, Barbara; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro; Moreira, Altair Benedito; Bisinoti, Márcia Cristina

    2015-02-15

    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande-BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. PMID:25460956

  13. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  14. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  15. Demographic evidence of illegal harvesting of an endangered asian turtle.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Karraker, Nancy E; Hau, Billy C H

    2013-12-01

    Harvesting pressure on Asian freshwater turtles is severe, and dramatic population declines of these turtles are being driven by unsustainable collection for food markets, pet trade, and traditional Chinese medicine. Populations of big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum) have declined substantially across its distribution, particularly in China, because of overcollection. To understand the effects of chronic harvesting pressure on big-headed turtle populations, we examined the effects of illegal harvesting on the demography of populations in Hong Kong, where some populations still exist. We used mark-recapture methods to compare demographic characteristics between sites with harvesting histories and one site in a fully protected area. Sites with a history of illegal turtle harvesting were characterized by the absence of large adults and skewed ratios of juveniles to adults, which may have negative implications for the long-term viability of populations. These sites also had lower densities of adults and smaller adult body sizes than the protected site. Given that populations throughout most of the species' range are heavily harvested and individuals are increasingly difficult to find in mainland China, the illegal collection of turtles from populations in Hong Kong may increase over time. Long-term monitoring of populations is essential to track effects of illegal collection, and increased patrolling is needed to help control illegal harvesting of populations, particularly in national parks. Because few, if any, other completely protected populations remain in the region, our data on an unharvested population of big-headed turtles serve as an important reference for assessing the negative consequences of harvesting on populations of stream turtles. Evidencia Demográfica de la Captura Ilegal de una Tortuga Asiática en Peligro. PMID:23869813

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Raúl; Garnacho-Castaño, Manuel Vicente; Maté-Muñoz, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    La fuerza influye directamente en el estado de salud y en la capacidad de fitness, motivo por el que el entrenamiento contra resistencias o resistance training (RT) se incluye dentro de aquellos programas de ejercicio encaminados a mejorar la salud y calidad de vida. Debido a que muchasenfermedades cursan con alteración de la masa y funcionalidad muscular y a que el RT es la principal modalidad de ejercicio encaminada a mejorar la función muscular, el objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica ha sido exponer las evidencias actuales sobre las adaptaciones delRT, así como su posible aplicación en patologías como la obesidad, diabetes, dislipemia, hipertensión, cáncer, Parkinson, esclerosis múltiple o fibromialgia. El RT en estas enfermedades puede aumentar los niveles de masa muscular, disminuyendo los niveles de masa grasa, los nivelesde ácidos grasos en sangre y la glucemia, incrementando la sensibilidad a la insulina, y disminuyendo los niveles de citokinas inflamatorias. El RT, además, mejora el gasto cardiaco y la funcionalidad endotelial, regulando la tensión arterial e incrementando el consumo de oxígeno. Las ganancias de fuerza muscular mejoran la funcionalidad y la calidad de vida, especialmente en población con una afectación neuromuscular grave, como pudieran ser los enfermos de esclerosis múltiple, fibromialgia o Parkinson. Por ello, el RT debe ser incorporado como parte del tratamiento en las personas que presentan determinado tipo de patologías. PMID:27513511

  17. Tornillos: Pieces of a Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, M.; Seidl, D.

    2001-12-01

    In the past decade several of the ash eruptions at Galeras volcano (Colombia) have been preceded by tornillos. These unusual seismic events of unknown origin have screw-like profiles on seismograms and can last up to several minutes. Since 1997, a joint project between the Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR) and the Instituto de Investigación e Información Geocientífica, Minero-Ambiental y Nuclear (INGEOMINAS) has supplemented the shortperiod network of the Observatorio Vulcanológico de Pasto with four broadband, three-component seismometer stations, continuous fumarole gas chemistry measurments, electromagnetic sensors, an infrasound sensor and weather observations in the hopes to learn more about the physical or chemical process which generates tornillos and their significance in the sequence leading to ash explosions. The events of a suite of tornillos which occurred at Galeras Volcano between 08 December 1999 and 11 February 2000 were recorded well at the crater rim broadband stations, ANG and ACH. They appear to be more complex than many of the tornillos recorded previously. They are multichromatic, having narrow spectral peaks at up to 9 frequencies. Some peaks last throughout the entire tornillo, others only contribute to the turn-on transient. We compare polarization, frequency, amplitudes and decay measured from this suite of tornillos in each frequency band at the stations ANG and ACH. They indicate a single source location for all these tornillos. While other parameters correlate well at both stations, the amplitude of the 1.9 Hz peak is nearly twice as large at ACH than at ANG. This may indicate a distinct radiation pattern at this frequency. While none of these observations gives us a clear picture of the source process of tornillos, they provide additional puzzle pieces we can add those collected from other measurements.

  18. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Mauro-Martin, Ismael San; De la Calle-de la Rosa, Licia; Sanz-Rojo, Sara; Garicano-Vilar, Elena; Ciudad-Cabañas, María José; Collado-Yurrita, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las enfermedades cardiovasculares (EC) constituyen la principal causa de muerte a nivel mundial. La etiología es multifactorial, pueden influir diversos factores como la dieta, los hábitos de vida, el nivel de ejercicio físico o la carga genética. El gran número de genes implicados, así como sus diversas variantes, pueden influir sobre el riesgo de padecer enfermedades cardiovasculares por medio de distintas vías.Objetivo: determinar la relación existente entre diferentes polimorfismos genéticos y el riesgo individual de EC en población infantil y adulta.Métodos: se llevó a cabo una búsqueda bibliográfica utilizando la base de datos PubMed. La búsqueda se limitó a un periodo de diez años y a metaanálisis realizados en humanos.Resultados: se establece relación entre el riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular y los siguientes polimorfismos genéticos: cromosoma 9p21, apolipoproteína A5, apolipoproteínas E2, E3 y E4, gen PPARG o PPARϒ, genes implicados en el metabolismo lipídico, gen MTHFR, citocromo P450, factor V de coagulación o factor de Leiden (FVL) y gen VKORC.Conclusiones: Se han identificado un gran número de genes relacionados con la enfermedad cardiovascular. La carga genética puede influir de manera directa o indirecta sobre el riesgo cardiovascular, modificando factores de riesgo para enfermedad cardiovascular o actuando sobre la medicación empleada para tratarla. PMID:27019250

  19. Land-use induced dynamics of C, N and P in mountain soils of South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamer, U.; Potthast, K.; Makeschin, F.

    2009-04-01

    The mountain rainforest region in South Ecuador is characterised by sites subjected to forest clearing by slash burn for pasture production. Repeated burning of pastures is a common management practice in South Ecuador. With ongoing pasture age bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) outcompetes the pasture grass (Setaria sphacelata), pastures are abandoned and a vegetation succession develops. Along a land-use gradient (natural forest, young and old pasture, abandoned pasture with successional vegetation) the dynamics of C, N and P in the mountain soils were investigated. The study sites were located close to the "Estacion Científica San Francisco", about halfway between the province capitals Loja and Zamora, in the Cordillera Real, an eastern range of the South Ecuadorian Andes at about 2000 m above sea level. The mean annual air temperature is 15.3°C with an average annual rainfall of 2176 mm. The land-use change induced an increase of total P in the top soil (0-30 cm) of young and old pastures. An increase in SOC stocks in the top soil of the old pasture was combined with an increase in the proportion of NaOH extractable organic P. In the young pasture soil the mineralization of SOC and the amounts of microbial biomass C, N and P were highest. In 0-5 cm depth gross N mineralization and gross NH4 consumption rates were significantly higher in the young pasture compared to forest and abandoned pasture. Thus, the initial increase in microbial activity after forest to pasture conversion seems to slow down with increasing pasture age. Burning on the abandoned pasture site induced a short-term and short-lived increase in gross N mineralization rates. First results indicate that the land-use induced changes in mineralization rates were connected with changes in the microbial community structure.

  20. Contribution of Systematic Reviews to Management Decisions

    PubMed Central

    COOK, CARLY N; POSSINGHAM, HUGH P; FULLER, RICHARD A

    2014-01-01

    Decisiones de Manejo Resumen Las revisiones sistemáticas resumen integralmente la evidencia sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones de conservación. Investigamos la contribución de las decisiones de manejo hechas por este creciente cuerpo de literatura. Identificamos 43 revisiones sistemáticas de evidencia de conservación, 23 de las cuales hicieron algunas conclusiones concretas relevantes al manejo. La mayoría de las revisiones se dirigían a intervenciones de conservación relevantes a las decisiones políticas; sólo el 35% consideraba intervenciones de manejo sobre-la-causa prácticas. La mayoría de las revisiones cubrieron solo una pequeña fracción de la amplitud geográfica y taxonómica a la que buscaban dirigirse (mediana = 13% de los países relevantes y 16% de los taxones relevantes). La probabilidad de que las revisiones tuvieran por lo menos algunas implicaciones para el manejo tendió a incrementar conforme la cobertura geográfica incrementaba y a declinar conforme aumentaba la amplitud taxonómica. Estos resultados sugieren que la amplitud de una revisión taxonómica requiere de una consideración cuidadosa. Las revisiones identificaron una media de 312 estudios primarios relevantes pero excluyeron 88% de estos por deficiencias en el diseño o fallas para coincidir con otros criterios de inclusión. Las revisiones resumieron en promedio 248 juegos de datos y 112 años de actividad de investigación, pero la probabilidad de que sus resultados tuvieran por lo menos algunas implicaciones para el manejo no incrementaron mientras la cantidad de investigación primaria resumida aumentaba. En algunos casos, las conclusiones fueron elusivas a pesar de la inclusión de cientos de conjuntos de datos y años de actividad de investigación acumulada. Las revisiones sistemáticas son una parte importante del juego de herramientas en la toma de decisiones de conservación, aunque consideramos que los beneficios de las revisiones sistemáticas podrían ser

  1. High School Students' Previous Knowledge about the Stars. (Spanish Title: Conocimientos Previos de Estudiantes de Secundaria Acerca de Las Estrellas.) O Conhecimento Prévio de Alunos do Ensino Médio sobre as Estrelas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iachel, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    reconocen que una estrella es formada por una masa de gas; varios conocimientos previos parten de aspectos puramente visuales; por otro lado, los estudiantes no tienen el hábito de observar la naturaleza detalladamente, entre otros problemas. Vemos esta investigación como una probable fuente de referencia en la que los profesores de ciencias pueden reconocer la importancia del conocimiento previo, y la forma como interfieren con su práctica de enseñanza, además de la adquisición de recursos para la planificación de sus clases. Com base em leituras de artigos relacionados ao ensino de Astronomia publicados no Brasil, verificou-se a inexistência de investigações sobre o conhecimento prévio de estudantes acerca das características físicas das estrelas, fato que nos motivou a desenvolver a pesquisa apresentada. Os conhecimentos prévios de 125 estudantes do primeiro ano do ensino médio constituíram os dados do estudo, os quais foram inferidos através da análise das respostas cedidas em questionários impressos (Apêndice A). A partir da análise de conteúdo dessas respostas tornou-se possível realizar algumas inferências como, por exemplo: vários estudantes possuem dificuldade em elaborar um modelo explicativo sobre o funcionamento de uma estrela; são poucos os que dizem que as estrelas possuem certo tempo de existência; alguns alunos as imaginam com pontas; poucos reconhecem que uma estrela é formada por uma massa de gás; vários conhecimentos prévios partem de aspectos meramente visuais; ainda assim, os estudantes não possuem o hábito de observar a natureza mais detalhadamente, entre outras. Vemos essa pesquisa como uma provável fonte de consulta na qual os professores de ciências poderão, além de reconhecer a importância dos conhecimentos prévios para o ensino e como eles interferem em sua prática, adquirir subsídios para o planejamento de suas aulas.

  2. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  3. The Practice of Research of a Basic Education Teacher Involving Mental Models of the Phases of the Moon and Eclipses. (Spanish Title: La Práctica de Investigación de un Maestro de Educación BÁsica con El Uso de los Modelos Mentales de Las Fases de la Luna Y Eclipses.) A Prática de Pesquisa de um Professor do Ensino Fundamental Envolvendo Modelos Mentais de Fases da Lua e Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessôa Queiroz, Glória; Jubitipan Borges de Sousa, Carlos; Auxiliadora Delgado Machado, Maria

    2009-12-01

    docente. La formación de grupos interinstitucionales para la planificación de la acción y la investigación ha resultado productiva para el trabajo de construcción de conocimiento de apoyo a los procesos educativos en la escuela, mientras que la universidad enriquece su colección de experiencias validadas, considerando los resultados de la educación inicial y continua de maestros. La participación activa del maestro en un grupo de investigación en la universidad lo llevó a reflexiones sobre los posibles caminos didácticos que pueden ser descriptos, analizados y comunicados a los demás docentes. La construcción de una pedagogía propia, que tuvo en cuenta los modelos mentales de los estudiantes sobre los temas básicos de astronomía, y los cambios desarrollados a partir de las lecciones que enseñó, trajeron consecuencias de largo alcance sobre la pedagogía adoptada por el maestro, que ahora incorpora una nueva visión de la ciencia y formas alternativas al diálogo con los estudiantes, los componentes esenciales para un investigador en Educaciónen Ciencias. A inclusão do professor da escola básica no universo da pesquisa é questão controvertida e em pleno debate no meio acadêmico. A oportunidade de trabalho coletivo que incorporou professores de uma escola municipal no Rio de Janeiro a um grupo de ensino de Física da universidade nos possibilitou vislumbrar a ressignificação da função de um professor de Ciências (co-autor deste trabalho) por ele próprio, agora passando a incluir a pesquisa sobre a construção de conhecimento pelos alunos em sua prática como docente. A formação de grupos interinstitucionais para o planejamento de ações e de pesquisas tem-se mostrado produtiva para um trabalho de construção de conhecimentos a fim de subsidiar processos educativos na escola, ao mesmo tempo em que a universidade enriquece seu acervo de experiências validadas criticamente, podendo considerar seus resultados na formação inicial e

  4. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Higuera Pulgar, Isabel; Bretón Lesmes, Irene; Carrascal Fabián, María Luisa; Prieto García, Alicia; Menchén Viso, Luis; Nogales Rincón, Óscar; Iglesias Hernández, Natalia Covadonga; Issasa Rodríguez, Leire; García Peris, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la esofagitis eosinofílica (EEo) es una enfermedad inmunoalérgica crónica emergente en adultos. Surge como respuesta disfuncional frente a los antígenos de los alimentos y se caracteriza por síntomas recurrentes de disfunción esofágica e inflamación. El tratamiento farmacológico y dietético se basa en su patogénesis y debe ser individualizado. Uno de los posibles abordajes dietéticos se basa en la eliminación empírica de alimentos que con mayor frecuencia causan EEo.Objetivo: evaluar la ingesta dietética de los pacientes con EEo que siguen la dieta de exclusión de los seis grupos de alimentos (DESGA) y conocer sus posibles carencias nutricionales.Métodos: estudio transversal descriptivo en un grupo de pacientes con EEo que inició tratamiento con DESGA durante el periodo de marzo de 2013 hasta marzo de 2015. Se evaluó la ingesta mediante registro de 72 horas. Se compararon los resultados con las referencias para población adulta sana española (23). Para el análisis estadístico se usaron los test de Mann-Whitney, Krhuskall-Wallis y Chi-cuadrado. Significación p < 0,05.Resultados: se incluyeron en el estudio 14 pacientes. En algunos de ellos, la ingesta dietética siguiendo DESGA fue deficitaria en energía, proteínas y fibra. Tampoco consiguieron cubrir las ingestas de micronutrientes de calcio, zinc, magnesio, ácido fólico, niacina y vitaminas B2 y D, teniendo en cuenta edad y sexo, el 60% de la muestra.Conclusiones: el abordaje terapéutico mediante DESGA, teniendo en cuenta las características de la dieta, debe acompañarse de una evaluación periódica del estado nutricional, que incluya micronutrientes y una pauta de suplementación específica. PMID:27571662

  5. Observational constraints for the circumstellar disk of the B[e] star CPD-52 9243

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cidale, L. S.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Andruchow, I.; Arias, M. L.; Kraus, M.; Chesneau, O.; Kanaan, S.; Curé, M.; de Wit, W. J.; Muratore, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    interferometric data are necessary to determine a possible binary nature of the star. Based on observations taken with: 1) Telescopes at Paranal ESO Observatory under the program 085.D-0454 and 385.D-0513A; 2) Gemini South/Phoenix instrument, science program GS-2010A-Q-41; 3) J. Sahade Telescope at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  6. Integrated spectral properties of 22 small angular diameter galactic open clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Bica, E.

    2007-10-01

    Aims:Flux-calibrated integrated spectra of a sample of 22 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter are presented. With one exception (ESO 429-SC2), all objects have Galactic longitudes in the range 208° < l < 33°. The spectra cover the range ≈3600-6800 Å, with a resolution of ≈14 Å. The properties of the present cluster sample are compared with those of well-studied clusters located in two 90° sectors, centred at l = 257° and l = 347°. The dissolution rate of Galactic open clusters in these two sectors is examined. Methods: Using the equivalent widths of the Balmer lines and comparing line intensities and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties, we derive both foreground reddening values and ages. Thus, we provide information independent of that determined through colour-magnitude diagrams. Results: The derived E(B-V) values for the whole sample vary from 0.0 in ESO 445-SC74 to 1.90 in Pismis 24, while the ages range from ~3 Myr (NGC 6604 and BH 151) to ~3.5 Gyr (Ruprecht 2). For six clusters (Dolidze 34, ESO 429-SC2, ESO 445-SC74, Ruprecht 2, BH 151 and Hogg 9) the foreground E(B-V) colour excesses and ages are determined for the first time. The results obtained for the remaining clusters show, in general terms, good agreement with previous photometric results. Conclusions: The age and reddening distributions of the present sample match those of known clusters in the two selected Galactic sectors. The present results would favour a major dissolution rate of star clusters in these two sectors. Two new solar-metallicity templates are defined corresponding to the age groups of (4-5) Myr and 30 Myr among those of Piatti et al. (2002, MNRAS, 335, 233). The Piatti et al. templates of 20 Myr and (3-4) Gyr are here redefined. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y T

  7. Polarimetry of an intermediate-age open cluster: NGC 5617

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, A. M.; Feinstein, C.; Vergne, M. M.; Martínez, R. E.; Vega, E. I.

    2010-04-01

    Aims: We present polarimetric observations in the UBVRI bands of 72 stars located in the direction of the medium age open cluster NGC 5617. Our intention is to use polarimetry as a tool in membership identification, by building on previous investigations intended mainly to determine the cluster's general characteristics rather than provide membership suitable for studies such as stellar content and metallicity, as well as study the characteristics of the dust lying between the Sun and the cluster. Methods: The obsevations were carried out using the five-channel photopolarimeter of the Torino Astronomical Observatory attached to the 2.15 m telescope at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO; Argentina). Results: We are able to add 32 stars to the list of members of NGC 5617, and review the situation for others listed in the literature. In particular, we find that five blue straggler stars in the region of the cluster are located behind the same dust as the member stars are and we confirm the membership of two red giants. The proposed polarimetric memberships are compared with those derived by photometric and kinematical methods, with excellent results. Among the observed stars, we identify 10 with intrinsic polarization in their light. NGC 5617 can be polarimetrically characterized with Pmax = 4.40 % and θv = 73.1 deg. The spread in polarization values for the stars observed in the direction of the cluster seems to be caused by the uneven distribution of dust in front of the cluster's face. Finally, we find that in the direction of the cluster, the interstellar medium is apparently free of dust, from the Sun's position up to the Carina-Sagittarius arm, where NGC 5617 seems to be located at its farthest border. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  8. CCD photometric search for peculiar stars in open clusters. VIII. King 21, NGC 3293, NGC 5999, NGC 6802, NGC 6830, Ruprecht 44, Ruprecht 115, and Ruprecht 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Maitzen, H. M.; Pintado, O. I.; Claret, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Iliev, I. Kh.; Casanova, V.

    2007-02-01

    Context: We continue our survey of magnetic chemically peculiar (CP2) stars in galactic open clusters to shed more light on their origin and evolution. Aims: To study the group of CP2 stars, it is essential to find these objects in different galactic environments and at a wide range of evolutionary stages. The knowledge of open cluster ages and metallicities can help for finding a correlation between these parameters and the (non-)presence of peculiarities, which has to be taken into account in stellar evolution models. Methods: The intermediate band Δ a photometric system samples the depth of the 5200 Å flux depression by comparing the flux at the centre with the adjacent regions with bandwidths of 110 Å to 230 Å. It is capable of detecting magnetic CP2 and CP4 stars with high efficiency, but also the groups of (metal-weak) λ Bootis and classical Be/shell stars can be successfully investigated. In addition, it allows the age, reddening, and distance modulus to be determined with appropriate accuracy by fitting isochrones. Results: From the 1677 observed members of the eight open clusters, one Ae and twenty-five CP2 stars were identified. Furthermore nineteen deviating stars are designated as questionable for several reasons. The estimated age, reddening, and distance for the programme clusters were compared with published values of the literature and discussed in this context. Conclusions: .The current paper shows that CP2 stars are continuously present in very young (7 Myr) to intermediate age (500 Myr) open clusters at distances greater than 2 kpc from the Sun. Based on observations at CASLEO, CTIO (Proposal 2003A-0057), and OSN. The Observatorio de Sierra Nevada is operated by the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas through the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (Granada, Spain). Photometric data are only avaialable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb

  9. The chemically peculiar double-lined spectroscopic binary HD 90264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Torres, A. F.; Cidale, L. S.

    2010-10-01

    Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.

  10. Polarimetry in the Outskirts of NGC 6611

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsatti, Ana M.; Vega, E. Irene; Marraco, Hugo G.

    2006-11-01

    We present new polarimetric UBVRI observations of 25 stars in the direction of the halo of NGC 6611, the rich stellar open cluster embedded in an ionized hydrogen complex (M16). Our plan is to characterize the interstellar material (ISM) associated with halo stars in order to make a comparison with the ISM dusty core characteristics that resulted from a previous investigation by the same authors. Of the halo stars, 47% (8 out of 17) show indications of intrinsic polarization in their light, similar to what was found for core stars (50%). We have identified the presence of nearby dust clouds located on the Local arm that produce a mean polarization of about 1%; a value λmax=0.61+/-0.07 μm, which is slightly larger than that of the average ISM; and a mean direction of the polarization vectors of θV=81.9d+/-1.8d. The ISM associated with the halo region has λmax similar to the general interstellar medium (0.55+/-0.07 μm). The observed polarizations show a gradual increase from halo (Pmax=1.93%+/-0.3%) to core (Pmax=3.19%+/-0.63%). Position angles of the e-vector for both groups are generally similar, but there exists a slight difference in mean direction between them that is within the errors. We have also found that the halo stars are possibly represented by Whittet & van Breda's relationship, while in the cluster's core the dust does not fulfill the above-mentioned relationship. As a conclusion, we cannot find any clear difference between core and halo dust characteristics, with the exception of λmax, which may suggest a change in dust size. Based on observations obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  11. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain) is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA) server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas) (SIGPAC) enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images) of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms) were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality) according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data). The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100% of EPER

  12. Use of black vulture (Coragyps atratus) in complementary and alternative therapies for cancer in Colombia: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Coragyps atratus has been used as a traditional therapy for patients with cancer, the scientific literature does not contain enough information on how this therapy is used or the mechanisms that explain this therapeutic practice. Objectives To understand the methods of use and the reasons given by patients and caregivers for the use of Coragyps atratus in cancer treatment. Methods This study used a qualitative design based on twenty in-depth interviews of patients with cancer or caregivers of patients with the disease. The analysis of the text was based on an inductive thematic approach. Results Resistance to disease and immune enhancement are properties attributed to Coragyps atratus when used for cancer treatment. The most recommended method of use is fresh blood ingestion, and the associated mechanism of action is transfer of immune factors to the individual who consumes it. Conclusions Use of Coragyps atratus as a treatment for cancer is a popular alternative therapy in Colombia. More studies are needed to understand the clinical effects of this intervention in cancer patients. Spanish abstract Introducción Aunque Coragyps atratus se usa tradicionalmente como terapia para pacientes con cáncer, no existe suficiente información en la literatura científica sobre su forma de utilización ni sobre los mecanismos explicativos que subyacen a esta práctica terapéutica. Objetivos Conocer métodos de utilización y mecanismos explicativos dados por los pacientes y cuidadores de pacientes sobre el uso de Coragyps atratus en el tratamiento del cáncer. Materiales y métodos Diseño cualitativo basado en veinte entrevistas en profundidad de pacientes con cáncer o cuidadores de pacientes con esta enfermedad. Análisis de texto basado en enfoque temático inductivo. Resultados Al Coragyps atratus se le atribuyen propiedades de resistencia y fortalecimiento del sistema inmune de personas enfermas de cáncer. La forma de utilización mas común es la

  13. After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.

    PubMed

    Nelson, C T

    1985-06-01

    This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on

  14. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Perales-García, Aránzazu; Estévez-Martínez, Isabel; Urrialde, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la hidratación se define como el aporte de agua proveniente de alimentos y bebidas. Su estudio constituye desde hace unos años un área en sí misma dentro de la nutrición, que ha supuesto que en 2010 la European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) aprobara las recomendaciones de ingesta de agua; pero el estudio del estado de hidratación implica un elevado nivel metodológico que presenta ciertos desafíos. Objetivo: ofrecer una visión general de los principales problemas metodológicos en estudios sobre el estado de hidratación. Material y métodos: revisión de la bibliografía científica existente. Resultados: los principales problemas metodológicos presentes son: selección de la muestra (ámbito de investigación y diseño muestral), selección del método de evaluación del estado de hidratación (técnicas de dilución, impedancia bioeléctrica, indicadores plasmáticos y urinarios, cambios en la composición corporal, pérdidas de agua y síntomas clínicos), selección del método de valoración de la ingesta de agua (biomarcadores, cuestionarios, programas informáticos, uso de smartphones, registro 24 h, historia dietética y frecuencia de consumo de alimentos), así como sus principales fuentes dietéticas. Conclusiones: el estado de hidratación debe ser entendido como un modelo rutinario, de frecuencia diaria y variable en función de la edad, sexo, actividad física y condiciones ambientales; por todo ello es de especial importancia un correcto diseño metodológico capaz de recoger estos matices. PMID:27571857

  15. Chromospheric activity and rotation of FGK stars in the solar vicinity. An estimation of the radial velocity jitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Maldonado, J.; Montes, D.; Eiroa, C.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-09-01

    to estimate the expected RV jitter for the active stars in the sample. Based on observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Spain) and the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Istituto Nazionale de Astrofisica Italiano (INAF), in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos. This research has been supported by the Programa de Acceso a Infraestructuras Científicas y Tecnológicas Singulares (ICTS).Tables A1 to A4 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/520/A79

  16. The Geological Trace Of The 1932 Tsunamis In The Tropical Jalisco-Colima Coast, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Blecher, L.; Goff, J. R.; Corona, N.; Chague-Goff, C.; Lagos, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Aguilar, B.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Machain-Castillo, M. L.; Rangel, V.; Zawadzki, A.; Jacobsen, G.

    2013-05-01

    tsunami. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 1337-1352. NHESS-2011-369. Corona Morales N. y M.T. Ramírez-Herrera. (2012b) Técnicas histórico-etnográficas en la reconstrucción y caracterización de tsunamis: El ejemplo del gran tsunami del 22 de junio de 1932, en las costas del Pacífico Mexicano. Revista de Geografía Norte Grande. 53, 107-122. Valdivia O. L., Castillo A. M.R., Estrada T. M. (2012). Tsunamis en Jalisco, Geocalli, Cuadernos De Geografía, Universidad de Guadalajara. Año 13, No. 25, 103p.

  17. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    resultado del embarazo, es necesaria una mayor evidencia científica para establecer el reemplazo de hierro y ácido fólico con un suplemento de micronutrientes múltiple. PMID:27571855

  18. O Universo das Sociedades Numa Perspectiva Relativa: Exercícios de Etnoastronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Érika Akel; Pessoa Martins, Karla; Maciel Araujo, Lidiane; Sauma Filho, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This work developed at the Planetarium of Pará employing workshops designed for visitor schools (public, private, specials groups), promotes the popularization of the Ethnoastronomy with the aim of diffusing values based on a cultural diversity tolerance and the need of harmonic interplay between people and environment. Using stories and debates, the relationship between humans and the Cosmos is traced from antiquity until today, with the help of slides as a didactic resource. Thus, many conceptions about the origin of the Universe are shown; as well as some constellations created along the History, ending with the present scientific manner of know and explain the World. We then demonstrate the links between space, time and culture with the Cosmos vision. The need to think the World within a plural context to create respect for other different persons is emphasized. Este trabalho, desenvolvido no Planetário do Pará através de oficinas com escolas visitantes (públicas, privadas e grupos especiais), promove a popularização da Etnoastronomia, com o objetivo de difundir valores pautados na tolerância à diversidade cultural e na necessidade da convivência harmônica entre o ser humano e o meio ambiente. Através da contação de histórias e promoção de debate, é tratada a relação dos humanos com o céu desde a antiguidade até os dias atuais, tendo como apoio didático o uso de slides. Assim, são mostradas diversas concepções de origem do Universo; algumas constelações criadas no decorrer da História; e a atual forma científica de conhecer e explicar o mundo. Demonstrando-se, então, a interligação entre espaço, tempo e cultura com a visão do Cosmo. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de se pensar o mundo numa perspectiva relativa ou plural, de forma a propiciar o respeito ao ser diferente.

  19. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Quevedo, Roberto; Fernandes, Paulo; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Padrón, Eleazar; Padilla, Germán; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio; Alfama, Vera

    2015-04-01

    ., Heleno da Silva, S. I. N., and Fonseca, J. F. B. D.: A past giant lateral collapse and present-day flank instability of Fogo, Cape Verde Islands, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 94, 191-218, 1999. Ribeiro, O.: A ilha do Fogo e as suas erupções, 12a edição, Memórias, Série Geográfica, J. Inv. Ultramar, 1960.

  20. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Ortega Anta, Rosa M; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Perea Sánchez, José Miguel; Cuadrado Soto, Esther; López Sobaler, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: la hipertensión arterial es un problema sanitario frecuente y con repercusiones sanitarias graves, infradiagnosticado y modulado por los hábitos alimentarios, estilo de vida e ingesta de diversos nutrientes, por lo que analizar los datos más recientes sobre la implicación de la nutrición en la prevención y control de la hipertensión es el objeto de la presente revisión.Métodos: búsqueda bibliográfica en relación con el tema.Resultados: aunque las pautas más conocidas y seguidas son la restricción en la ingesta de sodio, el control de peso y la moderación en el consumo de alcohol, la mejora de la dieta (aumento en el consumo de cereales, verduras, frutas...) y la actividad física parecen tener un gran impacto en el control de las cifras de presión arterial (PA). Asimismo, un menor consumo de grasa saturada (con aumento de ácidos grasos monoinsaturados y omega-3), el aporte adecuado de calcio, magnesio, proteínas, vitamina D y fibra, y la mejora de la capacidad antioxidante de la dieta pueden tener gran importancia en la lucha contra el problema de la hipertensión. Teniendo en cuenta que la dieta media española no alcanza los aportes aconsejados para muchos de los nutrientes mencionados como favorables en el control de la PA, una aproximación de la dieta al ideal teórico puede ser de gran ayuda en la lucha contra este problema, que tiene gran impacto sanitario.Conclusiones: mejorar la alimentación, aumentando el consumo de verduras, legumbres, cereales integrales, pescado… puede tener un mayor beneficio en el control de la presión arterial que el seguimiento de pautas restrictivas más extendidas en la práctica. PMID:27571866

  1. Detecção inesperada de efeitos de lentes fracas em grupos de galáxias pouco luminosos em raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, R.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Sodrã©, L., Jr.; Lima Neto, G. B.; Cypriano, E. S.; Lengruber, L. L.; Cuevas, H.; Ramirez, A.

    2003-08-01

    Obtivemos, como parte do programa de verificação científica do GMOS Sul, imagens profundas de três grupos de galáxias: G97 e G102 (z~0,4) e G124 (z = 0,17). Esses alvos foram selecionados a partir do catálogo de fontes extensas de Vikhlinin (1998), por terem luminosidades em raios X menores que 3´1043 ergs s-1, valor cerca de uma ou duas ordens de grandeza inferior ao de aglomerados de galáxias. O objetivo primário dessas observações é o estudo da evolução de galáxias em grupos. Grupos são ambientes menos densos que aglomerados, contêm a grande maioria das galáxias do Universo mas que, até o momento, foram estudados detalhadamente apenas no Universo local (z~0). Com esses dados efetuamos uma análise estatística da distorção na forma das galáxias de fundo (lentes gravitacionais fracas) como forma de inferir o conteúdo e a distribuição de massa nesses grupos apesar de que, em princípio, esse efeito não deveria ser detectado uma vez que os critérios de seleção adotados previlegiam sistemas de baixa massa. De fato, para G124 obtivemos apenas um limite superior para sua massa que é compatível com sua luminosidade em raios X. De modo contrário e surpreendente, os objetos G102 e G097, aparentam ter massas que resultariam em dispersões de velocidade maiores que 1000 km s-1, muito maiores do que se espera para grupos de galáxias. Com efeito, para G097 obtivemos, a partir de dados do satélite XMM, uma estimativa para a temperatura do gás intragrupo de kT = 2,6 keV, que é tipica de sistemas com dispersões de velocidade de ~ 600 km s-1, bem característica de grupos. Essas contradições aparentes entre lentes fracas e raios X podem ser explicadas de dois modos: i) a massa obtida por lentes estaria sobreestimada devido à superposição de estruturas massivas ao longo da linha de visada ou ii) a temperatura do gás do meio intra-grupo reflete o potencial gravitacional de estruturas menores que estariam se fundindo para formar uma

  2. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baena González, Marta; Molina Recio, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la disfagia es un síntoma que se refiere a la dificultad para mover el bolo alimentario desde la boca al estómago. A pesar de su relevancia y de la gravedad de sus posibles complicaciones, es poco conocida y estudiada. La prevalencia de la disfagia orofaríngea en enfermosde alzhéimer es de un 84% y puede originar complicaciones de gran trascendencia clínica como consecuencia de las alteraciones en la eficacia de la deglución, y en la seguridad de la misma.Objetivo: conocer el estado actual del conocimiento en relación al abordaje de la disfagia en enfermos de alzhéimer, localizando aquellos factores que permitan un diagnóstico precoz que facilite la prevención de complicaciones y la elección de la pauta de actuación más adecuada.Metodología: revisión sistemática. Estudios publicados entre 2005 y 2014 en inglés y castellano. Bases de datos: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo y Dialnet. Términos MeSH empleados: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, modified y texture food.Resultados: el diagnóstico en los pacientes de alzhéimer se realiza mediante métodos clínicos y exploraciones complementarias como la videofluoroscopia, considerada como el estándar para el estudio de la disfagia orofaríngea, ya que permite identificar entre 1/3 y 1/4 de los pacientes que presentan aspiraciones silentes no diagnosticables clínicamente. Existen estrategias terapéuticas que incluyen cambios en el volumen y viscosidad del bolo, cambios posturales, maniobras deglutorias, procedimientos de rehabilitación y técnicas de incremento sensorial que han demostrado su eficacia, pero se trata de una labor compleja que exige un abordaje multidisciplinar para un correctodiagnóstico y tratamiento.Conclusiones: existe una escasa evidencia científica en el abordaje de la disfagia y un gran desconocimiento en cuanto a la alimentación de los enfermos de alzhéimer. Esta patología necesita una intervención multidisciplinar en la cual las medidas

  3. Macroclumping as solution of the discrepancy between Hα and P v mass loss diagnostics for O-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šurlan, B.; Hamann, W.-R.; Aret, A.; Kubát, J.; Oskinova, L. M.; Torres, A. F.

    2013-11-01

    observations collected with the Perek 2-m Telescope of the Ondřejov Observatory, Czech Republic.Based on observations taken at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), operated under an agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, the Secretaría de Ciencia y Tecnología de la Nación, and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Tendências de teses e dissertações sobre ensino de astronomia no Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, P. S.; Megid Neto, J.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa do tipo estado da arte sobre teses e dissertações defendidas no Brasil e relativas ao ensino de Astronomia. Teve por objetivo identificar essa produção e conhecer as principais tendências da pesquisa nesse campo. O procedimento inicial consistiu de um levantamento bibliográfico junto ao Centro de Documentação em Ensino de Ciências (CEDOC) da Faculdade de Educação da UNICAMP e ao Banco de Teses da CAPES disponível na Internet. Foram localizadas 13 dissertações de mestrado e 3 teses de doutorado, as quais foram estudadas em função dos seguintes aspectos: instituição, ano de defesa, nível escolar abrangido no estudo, foco temático do estudo e gênero de trabalho acadêmico. Deste conjunto de pesquisas, 13 (81,3%) delas foram defendidas a partir da segunda metade dos anos 90, indicando uma preocupação mais recente com temas relativos ao ensino de Astronomia no conjunto da produção acadêmica em programas de pós-graduação no Brasil. Verificou-se que 43,7% dos trabalhos foram produzidas na USP e 18,8% na UNICAMP. Quanto ao nível escolar abrangido nos estudos, predominaram os estudos direcionados ao Ensino Fundamental de 5a a 8a séries (62,5%). No que diz respeito ao foco temático das pesquisas, as principais tendências voltaram-se: 56,3% para Conteúdo e Método; 43,8% para Concepções do Professor; 37,5% para Currículo e Programas; 37,5% para Recursos Didáticos. Quanto ao gênero de trabalho acadêmico, verificou-se que 43,8% são de Pesquisa Experimental e 31,3% de Pesquisa de Análise de Conteúdo. Estudos de revisão bibliográfica como este visam colaborar com a divulgação ampla da produção acadêmica em determinada área, traçando algumas de suas tendências. Ao mesmo tempo possibilita, a partir de investigações decorrentes, apontar as suas contribuições para o ensino e sinalizar com necessidades a serem supridas por futuras pesquisas.

  5. Usina de ciências: um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, V. A. F.; Poppe, P. C. R.; Orrico, A. C. P.; Pereira, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Entendemos que o Ensino de Astronomia é especialmente apropriado para motivar os alunos e aprofundar conteúdos em diversas áreas do conhecimento, pois envolve temas ligados à Física, Matemática, Química, Computação, Tratamento de Imagens e Instrumentação de Alta Precisão, além daqueles pertinentes as áreas de Geografia, História e Antropologia. Contudo, apesar do caráter interdisciplinar que esta ciência possui, a realidade atual é que a maioria dos professores em sala de aula não foram devidamente capacitados, durante o período de formação acadêmica, para ministrar conteúdos de Astronomia nos atuais Ensinos Fundamental e Médio. Neste trabalho, discutiremos de maneira ampla, num primeiro momento, a realidade do atual ensino de ciências praticado no Estado da Bahia, apontando por dependência administrativa, o crescimento e a redução do número de escolas, da taxa de analfabetismo por faixa etária, da escolarização, do atendimento, da aprovação, reprovação e abandono, de equipamentos e laboratórios e o grau de formação dos nossos atuais professores em pleno exercício de atividade docente. Num segundo momento, discutiremos o papel do Observatório Astronômico Antares/UEFS dentro desse contexto, ou seja, suas ações implementadas ao longo dos últimos anos e em particular, o recente projeto de extensão Ensino e Difusão de Astronomia, financiado pela Fundação Vitae, que procura traduzir no lúdico, no brincar de ciências, um espaço pedagógico para aprendizagens múltiplas. Neste, o papel do professor multiplicador associado ao laboratório de kits didáticos, de fácil construção e manipulação (alguns dos quais serão mostrados), perfazem os principais veículos para o desenvolvimento de conhecimentos, atitudes, habilidades e valores que preparam os nossos alunos para a carreira técnico-científica e para sua participação crítica e criativa na Sociedade.

  6. Analysis of Brazilian data for seismic hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, S.; Assumpção, M.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic hazard analysis in Brazil is going to be re-assessed in the framework of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project. Since the last worldwide Global Seismic Hazard Analysis Project (GSHAP) there has been no specific study in this field in Brazil. Brazil is a stable continental region and is characterized by a low seismic activity. In this particular type of regions, seismic hazard assessment is a very hard task due to the limited amount of data available regarding the seismic sources, earthquake catalogue, or ground-motion amplitudes, and the uncertainties associated are very large. This study focuses on recorded data in South-East Brazil where broadband stations are installed, belonging to two networks: the network managed by the seismology group at the IAG-USP in São Paulo which exists since about 20 years, and the network managed by the Observatorio Nacional in Rio de Janeiro which has just been set up. The two networks are now integrated into the national network RSB (Rede Sismográfica Brasileira) which will also include stations from the rest of Brazil currently in installation by the Universities of Brasilia and Natal. There are a couple of events with magnitude greater than 3 recorded at these very sensitive stations, usually at rather large distances. At first sight these data may appear meaningless in the context of seismic hazard but they can help to improve different parts involved in the process. The analysis of the S-wave Fourier spectra can help to better resolve source, path and site effects in Brazil. For instance moment magnitudes can be computed from the flat part of the Fourier spectra. These magnitudes are of utmost importance in order to build an homogeneous catalogue in terms of moment magnitude. At the moment only body wave magnitude (or some equivalent scale) are determined routinely for the events in Brazil. Attenuation and site effect, especially the high-frequency attenuation known as the kappa effect will also help to

  7. A software to digital image processing to be used in the voxel phantom development.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J W; Lima, F R A

    2009-01-01

    , this is saved as a JPEG file in the Windows default; when it involves an image stack, the output binary file is denominated SGI (Simulações Gráficas Interativas (Interactive Graphic Simulations), an acronym already used in other publications of the GDN/CNPq. PMID:20003807

  8. Expenditure patterns of older Americans, 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Sudipto

    2012-02-01

    PRE- AND POSTRETIREMENT EXPENSES: Before retirement, people pay FICA taxes, incur work-related expenses, and set aside money for retirement. But after retirement, most people have different financial obligations, and, as a result, retirees may still be able to maintain their level of preretirement well-being with very different income levels. Studying income, expenditures, and wealth-holding patterns together provides a more complete idea of how people are doing in terms of being able to afford retirement than arbitrary estimates such as income replacement ratios. UNIQUE DATA: This Issue Brief examines the expenditure patterns of the older section of the population. It uses data from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), a supplement to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, contains detailed expenditure data on 32 categories, and follows the same group of individuals over eight years In addition, the income and wealth data available in the HRS are used to establish the financial standing of older households. DECLINING EXPENSES: Household expenses steadily decline with age. With the age 65 expenditure as a benchmark, household expenditure falls by 19 percent by age 75, 34 percent by age 85, and 52 percent by age 95. HOME EXPENSES: Home and home-related expenses remain the single largest spending category for older Americans. On average, those over age 50 spend around 40-45 percent of their budget on home and home-related items. RISING HEALTH CARE EXPENSES: Health-related expenses are the second-largest component in the budget of older Americans. It is the only component which steadily increases with age. Health care expenses capture around 10 percent of the budget for those between 50-64, but increase to about 20 percent for those age 85 and over. DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: Singles, blacks, and high school dropouts do not have a sound financial standing in retirement. Their

  9. Using Multi-Isotope Tracer Methods to Understand the Sources of Nitrate in Aerosols, Fog and River Water in Podocarpus National Forest, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. A.; Dominguez, G.; Fabian, P.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2008-12-01

    The eastern slopes of the Andean rainforests of Ecuador possess some of the highest plant biodiversity found on the planet; however, these ecosystems are in jeopardy because region is experiences one of the highest deforestation rates in South America. This rainforest characterized by high acidity and low nutrient soils and experiences natural process which are both destabilizing and stabilizing to biodiversity rendering this a unique, though sensitive environment. There is increased concern that anthropogenic activities especially biomass burning are affecting the rainforests and could lead to higher extinction rates, changes in the biodiversity and far reaching effects on the global troposphere. Measurements of nitrate and sulfate in rain and fog water have shown periods of elevated concentrations in the Podocarpus National Park near Loja, Ecuador. These high episodes contribute to annual deposition rates that are comparable to polluted regions of North America and Europe. Significant anthropogenic sources such as large scale industry or a major city, near this forest are lacking. It is believed that the majority of the nitrate and sulfate pollution is due to the large amount of biomass burning during the dry season in the Amazon Basin. In recent years it has been shown that large amount of dust is transported across the Atlantic from Africa which reaches South America. Concentration measurements do not elucidate the source of high nitrate and sulfate pollution; however, by measuring all three stable isotopes of oxygen in nitrate and sulfate from fog and river water provides a new way to examine the impacts of biomass burning on the region. By using stable isotope techniques atmospheric nitrate and sulfate can be resolved from terrestrial sources. This provides a unique way to trace the contributions from the biomass burning and farming sources. Current research at the field station, Estación Científica San Francisco in the Podocarpus National Forest monitors

  10. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Daponte Codina, A; Bolivar Muñoz, J; Sánchez-Cantalejo, E; Mateo-Rodríguez, I; Babio, G; Romo-Avilés, N; Rosell-Ortiz, F; Grupo de Estudio de Género Y Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, G

    2016-01-01

     RESUMEN              Fundamento. Identificar factores asociados a la demora prehospitalaria en personas que han tenido un síndrome coronario agudo             Método. Se estudiaron mediante encuesta pacientes ingresados por síndrome coronario agudo en los 33 hospitales públicos andaluces, obteniéndose información sobre diferentes tipos de variables: socio-demográficas, contextuales, clínicas, percepción, actuaciones, y transporte. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística multivariante para calcular las odds ratio para la demora.             Resultados. De los 1.416 pacientes en total, más de la mitad tuvieron una demora superior a la hora. Se asocia a la distancia al hospital y al medio de transporte: cuando el evento ocurre en la misma ciudad del hospital, utilizar medios propios aumenta la demora, odds ratio= 1,51 (1,02-2,23);  si la distancia es entre 1-25 kilómetros, no hay una diferencia entre medios propios y ambulancia, odds ratio = 1,41 y odds ratio = 1,43 respectivamente; y cuando supera los25 kilómetros la ambulancia implica mayor demora, odds ratio = 3,13 y odds ratio = 2,20 respectivamente. Además, la sintomatología típica reduce la demora entre los hombres, pero la aumenta entre las mujeres. Asimismo, no darle importancia, esperar a la resolución de los síntomas, buscar atención sanitaria diferente a urgencias hospitalarias o al 061, tener antecedentes, encontrarse fuera de la vivienda habitual, y tener ingresos menores de 1.500 euros aumentan la demora. Tener síntomas respiratorios la reduce.             Conclusiones. La demora prehospitalaria no se ajusta a las recomendaciones sanitarias, asociándose al  entorno físico y social, a factores clínicos, y de percepción y actitudinales de los sujetos.              Palabras clave. Síndrome coronario agudo. Demora prehospitalaria. Género. Servicios de emergencias sanitarias. Desigualdades. PMID:27125609

  11. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    , L.; Matos; M. J.; Machado, M.; Sobreiro, M. J.; Peres, M.; Martins, N.; Bonito, N.; Henriques, P. & Sobreiro, S., 2007. Mármores e Calcários Ornamentais de Portugal. INETI (National Institute of Engineering, Technology and Innovation), ISBN 978-972-676-204-1. 383. Lopes, L., Carrilho Lopes, J. C., CABRAL, J. P. & Sarantopoulos, P. (2000) - Caracterização Petrográfica dos Monumentos Romanos de Évora. Revista "Cidade de Évora", II Série, N°4. 129-142. Silva, Z. C. (2007) - O Lioz Português de lastro. De navio a arte na Bahia, Edições Afrontamento, Porto, ISBN 978-972-36-0924-0, 156.

  12. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series were selected from the manuscripts submitted to the XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications (FLUIDOS2010), which was held in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, 3-5 November 2010. FLUIDOS takes place every two years, usually in November, with the aim of gathering together researchers from all areas of the Physics of Fluids, to update themselves on the latest technical developments and applications, share knowledge and stimulate new ideas. This 11th meeting continues the successful experience of the previous ones which were held in different Argentinian cities. For the first time, the meeting was celebrated in Uruguay, more specifically, in the peaceful town of Colonia del Sacramento, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The conference presented an outstanding program of papers covering the most recent advances in Physics of Fluids in the following areas: General Fluid Dynamics General and non-Newtonian Flows Magnetohydrodynamics Electrohydrodynamics and Plasmas Hydraulics, Thermohydraulics and Multiple Phase Flows A website with full details of the conference program, abstracts and other information can be found at http://fluidos2010.fisica.edu.uy. We would like to thank all the participants, especially those who contributed with talks, posters and manuscripts, for making FLUDOS2010 such a successful conference. Our thanks also go to our colleagues for their support and encouragement, particularly in the refereeing of papers. We would like to acknowledge additional financial support from Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (Uruguay) and the Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Our thanks are extended to the local government of Colonia del Sacramento. The next FLUIDOS conference will be held in November 2013, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We

  13. Kinematics of an oblique deformation front using paleomagnetic data; the Altomira-Loranca structures (Iberian Chain, Central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcarcel, M.

    2013-05-01

    Manoel Valcárcel1, 5, Ruth Soto2, Elisabet Beamud3, Belén Oliva-Urcia4 and Josep Anton Muñoz5 1 IGME, Departamento de Investigación y Prospección Geocientífica. C/ La Calera, 1, 28760 Tres Cantos; m.valcarcel@igme.es 2 IGME, Unidad de Zaragoza, C/ Manuel Lasala 44, 9 B, 50006 Zaragoza, Spain 3 Lab. Paleomagnetisme (CCiT UB-CSIC). ICT "Jaume Almera", Solé i Sabarís, s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain. 4 IPE-CSIC, Avda. Montañana 1005, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain 5 Grup Geodinàmica i Anàlisi de Conques, Universitat de Barcelona, Zona Universitària Pedralbes, 08028 Barcelona, Spain The Altomira and Loranca structures consist of a fold-and-thrust system detached on Triassic evaporites. They are oriented N-S to NNE-SSW and NNW-SSE at its northern and southern end, respectively, forming a subtle arc, oblique with respect to the general NW-SE trend of the Iberian Chain. The aim of this work is to characterize with paleomagnetic data the kinematic evolution of the the Altomira Range, located at the southwestern deformation front of the Iberian Chain, and of the structures within its associated piggy-back basin, the Loranca basin. This approach will also give clues regarding the primary and/or secondary origin of these structures to better characterize them in further studies (3D reconstruction and restoration, fault pattern). A total of 180 samples were obtained from 19 sites in Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene rocks (including clays, fine sandstones and limestones). They were analyzed by means of stepwise thermal demagnetization and subsequent measurement of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Although fold tests are not statistically significant, a primary origin of the magnetization is deduced by samples showing either normal or reverse polarity after bedding correction of the calculated characteristic components. Declinations of the site mean directions appear scattered after bedding correction suggesting differential vertical-axis rotations. Sites located at the

  14. Analisis de Alteraciones EN la Imagen Debidas a Descolimacion de un Telescopio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Galan, M. J.

    1987-05-01

    Podemos considerar, en términos generales, que los espejos de un telescopio tienen una calidad óptica intrínseca, entendiendo por ésta la que se ha obtenido como resultado, fundamentalmente, de la destreza del personal del Taller Optico, que considerará terminadas las superficies ópticas cuando éstas satisfagan los requisitos de diseño y las pruebas de evaluación pertinentes. Debemos esperar que, una vez instalados los espejos en el telescopio, no se altere esta calidad de la óptica por un funcionamiento inadecuado de partes mecánicas del mismo. En los últimos años, en la medida que los problemas de infraestructuratura de nuestros Observatorios se han ido resolviendo, se ha hecho más patente la necesidad de llevar a la instrumentación existente al máximo de su potencial y parte esencial de ésta la conforman los mismos te lescopios. Mejorar la calidad óptica de las imágenes obtenidas con ellos ha hecho que sea prioritario el realizar una investigación más sistemática de sus características. Este trabajo ha tenido como objetivo primordial el usar un programa de diseño óptico, en el caso particular del telescopio UNAM212, con el fin de calcular y obtener gráficamente los diagramas de manchas de imagenes en foco y extrafocales, tanto con la óptica perfectamente alineada como descolimándola (mediante pequenos giros y descentramientos de los espejos). De esta manera, se hizo una evaluación de los efectos que estas alteraciones simuladas producirían en las imágenes focales y extra focales para así poder compararlas con las que realmente se han observado. Asimismo, se ha buscado información bibliográfica, en particular sobre los efectos de giros y descentramientos en las imágenes extrafocales, en lo que se ref iere a la falta de concentricidad de los círculos que forman la "dona" y a la distribución de intensidad luminosa en la misma. De ésta, l futuro un proceso que, haciendo uso de los detectores bidimensionales, nos permita Ilevar a

  15. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  16. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Baladia, Eduard; Frutos Pérez-Surio, Alberto; Martínez-Rodríguez, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Objetivos: dar a conocer las recomendaciones relacionadas con la Nutrición Humana y Dietética (NHyD) de la Guía de Práctica Clínica para el manejo de la enfermedad de Parkinson del Sistema Nacional de Salud (GPC-EP/SNS) y favorecer su difusión e implementación en la práctica. El objetivo secundario es presentar la implicación de los profesionales de la NHyD en la elaboración de la guía.Material y métodos: siguiendo el Manual Metodológico de Elaboración de Guías de Práctica Clínica en el Sistema Nacional de Salud, se formularon las preguntas clínicas, se realizó una búsqueda sistemática para cada pregunta en bases de datos (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, CRD, LILACS, IBECS y ClinicalTrials), se definieron los criterios de elegibilidad, al menos dos investigadores seleccionaron los estudios, se realizó lectura crítica de la literatura se resumió en tablas de síntesis de evidencia y se establecieron las recomendaciones.Resultados: se propusieron 14 preguntas relacionadas directamente con NHyD-Parkinson, de las cuales solamente 3 pudieron incluirse. Se formuló una pregunta relacionada con la terapia de logopedia aplicada en personas con EP que presentan problemas de deglución, tratamiento donde se imbrican los profesionales de la NHyD. De 642 artículos localizados, únicamente 2 pudieron ser incluidos para contestar las correspondientes preguntas. De las evidencias halladas, se derivaron 11 recomendaciones directa o indirectamente relacionados con la NHyD.Conclusiones: la implicación de profesionales sanitarios en equipos multidisciplinares mejora el resultado final de las guías y la atención sanitaria de los pacientes. Es necesario que los profesionales sanitarios de la NHyD (los/las dietistas-nutricionistas) se impliquen en iniciativas basadas en la mejor evidencia científica disponible y que formen parte de los equipos de trabajo multidisciplinares. PMID:27513514

  17. Presentación del estudio “Links” de hombres que tienes sexo con hombres en Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ávila, María M; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Pando, María A.; Barreda, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Estudios previos en Buenos Aires reportaron altas prevalencias de HIV entre HSH, con valores que oscilan entre 9 y 14% durante casi 10 años de continuo testeo. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue la evaluación de factores relacionados al comportamiento de alto riesgo para transmisión del HIV entre HSH entre los que se incluyen el conocimiento y factores emocionales, socioculturales y ambientales. Por otro lado se realizó la estimación de prevalencia e incidencia de HIV utilizando RDS (Respondent Driven Sampling), así como la presencia de otras infecciones de transmisión sexual. Por último se evaluaron los hábitos de testeo para HIV indagando que factores facilitan o impiden su realización. El estudio constó de dos fases, en primer lugar una fase cualitativa y posteriormente una fase cuantitativa con una duración total de 4 años y medio. Durante la fase cualitativa se realizaron 44 entrevistas individuales en profundidad, 8 grupos focales y 10 observaciones etnográficas (hoteles, baños públicos (“teteras”), cines pornográficos, fiestas privadas, dark rooms y discotecas). Durante la fase cuantitativa del estudio se realizó el reclutamiento de 500 participantes que provinieron de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, así como del Gran Buenos Aires. El reclutamiento se comenzó con 16 participantes llamados semillas. Se realizó el diagnóstico de infección por HIV, hepatitis B y C (HBV y HCV), Treponema pallidum, Virus Papiloma Humano (HPV) y Chlamidias. La colaboración establecida entre los grupos de trabajo enfocados en áreas diversas posibilitó el abordaje conjunto de nuevas estrategias de investigación antes no exploradas en nuestro país. Los resultados más relevantes de esta investigación serán progresivamente publicados en sucesivos números de Actualizaciones en SIDA. PMID:25264397

  18. Cirugía transnasal endoscópica para tumores de hipófisis

    PubMed Central

    Ajler, Pablo; Hem, Santiago; Goldschmidt, Ezequiel; Landriel, Federico; Campero, Alvaro; Yampolsky, Claudio; Carrizo, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Exponer la técnica utilizada y los resultados obtenidos en los primeros 52 pacientes portadores de tumores hipofisarios tratados por la vía endoscópica transnasal en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un análisis retrospectivo de 52 cirugías endoscópicas transnasales utilizadas en el tratamiento de tumores hipofisários. Las mismas fueron realizadas en el Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires durante el período junio del 2011 a junio del 2012. Se analizaron las características demográficas de los pacientes, la patología de base y la morbimortalidad asociada a la cirugía. Resultados: La edad media de los pacientes fue de 41,52 años con un rango de 18-79. La distribución fue similar entre hombres y mujeres. Las patologías más frecuentes fueron: adenomas no funcionantes (40.4%), tumores productores de GH/Acromegalia (25%) y tumores productores de ACTH/Enfermedad de Cushing (23.1%). Aproximadamente el 70 % correspondieron a macroadenomas. Sólo un paciente presentó complicaciones. No se registro ningún óbito. Conclusión: Si bien podremos objetivar fehacientemente resultados más concluyentes en futuros trabajos, podemos decir a priori que, en la endoscopía el detalle anatómico es claramente superior al microscópico y que la posibilidad de la introducción del endoscopio en la silla turca permite la visualización directa de remanentes tumorales, de sitios de fístula y como así también de la glándula normal, ventajas que potencialmente podrían permitir obtener mejores resultados quirúrgicos, en términos de control de la enfermedad y tasa de complicaciones. PMID:23596553

  19. Preparación de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos para hacer frente a los desastres naturales: encuesta a escala nacional*

    PubMed Central

    Al-rousan, Tala M.; Rubenstein, Linda M.; Wallace, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Nos propusimos determinar el grado de preparación frente a los desastres naturales de los adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos y evaluar los factores que pueden afectar negativamente la salud y la seguridad durante este tipo de incidentes. Métodos. Obtuvimos una muestra de adultos de 50 años en adelante (n = 1 304) de la encuesta del 2010 del Estudio de la Salud y la Jubilación (HRS por su sigla en inglés). La encuesta recogió datos sobre las características demográficas generales, el estado de discapacidad o las limitaciones funcionales, y también sobre factores y comportamientos relacionados con la preparación frente a los desastres. Calculamos una puntuación global de preparación mediante indicadores individuales a fin de evaluar el grado de preparación general. Resultados. La media de la edad de los participantes (n = 1 304) fue de 70 años (desviación estándar [DE] = 9,3). Solo 34,3% informaron que habían participado en un programa formativo o que habían leído materiales sobre la preparación para los desastres. Casi 15% indicaron que usaban dispositivos médicos eléctricos que podían correr riesgo de no funcionar si se interrumpiera el suministro eléctrico. La puntuación de preparación indicó que la edad más avanzada, la discapacidad física y el menor nivel de escolaridad y de ingresos se asociaban independiente y significativamente a un grado de preparación general inferior. Conclusiones. A pesar de la mayor vulnerabilidad ante los desastres y del número cada vez mayor de adultos mayores en los Estados Unidos, muchos de los problemas sustanciales que encontramos son remediables y requieren atención en los sectores de la sociedad dedicados a la atención clínica, a la salud pública y al manejo de situaciones de emergencia.

  20. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048