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Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from the commercial facilities. In support of the development of the CRWMS, OCRWM sponsored the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project. The objective of this project was to assess the capability of each commercial facility to handle various spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. The project was conducted in two phases. During Phase I, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the data base for the project was created. During Phase II, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the data base was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed.

Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States); Pope, R.B. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project report  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from commercial facilities. The objective of the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project was to assess the capability of each commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) storage facility, at which SNF is stored, to handle various SNF shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to present and analyze the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. During Phase 1, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the database for the project was created. During Phase 2, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the database was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed. Each assessment of cask-handling capability contains three parts: the current capability of the facility (planning base); the potential enhanced capability if revisions were made to the facility licensing and/or administrative controls; and the potential enhanced capability if limited physical modifications were made to the facility. The main conclusion derived from the planning base assessments is that the current facility capabilities will not allow handling of any of the FICA Casks at 49 of the 122 facilities evaluated. However, consideration of potential revisions and/or modifications showed that all but one of the 49 facilities could be adapted to handle at least one of the FICA Casks. For this to be possible, facility licensing, administrative controls, and/or physical aspects of the facility would need to be modified.

Pope, R.B. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); MacDonald, R.R. [ed.] [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System, Vienna, VA (United States); Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)



41 CFR 301-11.503 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part...503 Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this...



41 CFR 301-11.603 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this part...603 Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any reimbursement under this...



76 FR 70057 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons...



76 FR 71259 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons...



76 FR 76037 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Service 26 CFR Part 301 [TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning persons...



A low profile 916 MHz F-inverted compact antenna (FICA) for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel low profile F-inverted compact antenna (FICA) is presented. A prototype dielectric loaded FICA has been built and measured through the communication range of custom-integrated application-specific WSN elements at 916 MHz. The design is low profile, small volume and is suitable for WSN. The results presented in this paper indicate a promising potential for the effective

Bo Yang; Felice Vanin; Chung-Ching Shen; Xi Shao; Quirino Balzano; N. GoIdsman; Christopher Davis



76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TD 9554] RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions...members), 3127 (concerning members of religious faiths), and 3306(c)(5) (concerning...FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members to certain entities...



76 FR 67384 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...31 and 301 [REG-136565-09] RIN 1545-BJ06 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions To Disregard Entities...for employers and their employees where both are members of religious faiths opposed to participation in Social Security Act...



GPs' views concerning spirituality and the use of the FICA tool in palliative care in Flanders: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background According to recent recommendations, healthcare professionals in palliative care should be able to perform a spiritual history-taking. Previous findings suggest that the FICA tool is feasible for the clinical assessment of spirituality. However, little is known about the views of GPs on the use of this tool. Aim To provide a solid overview of the views of Flemish GPs concerning spirituality and the use of the FICA tool for spiritual history-taking in palliative care. Design and setting Qualitative interview study in Flanders, Belgium. Method Twenty-three GPs participated in a semi-structured interview. The interviews were analysed by thematic analysis, which includes line-by-line coding and the generation of descriptive and analytical themes. Results The interviewees stated that they would keep in mind the questions of the FICA tool while having a spiritual conversation, but not use them as a checklist. The content of the tool was generally appreciated as relevant, however, many GPs found the tool too structured and prescribed, and that it limited their spontaneity. They suggested rephrasing the questions into spoken language. The perceived barriers during spiritual conversations included feelings of discomfort and fear, and the lack of time and specific training. Factors that facilitated spiritual conversations included the patients’ acceptance of their diagnosis, a trusting relationship, and respect for the patients’ beliefs. Conclusion A palliative care process with attention focused on the patient’s spirituality was generally perceived as a tough but rewarding experience. The study concludes that the FICA tool could be a feasible instrument for the clinical assessment of spirituality, provided that certain substantive and linguistic adjustments are made. Additional research is needed to find the most suitable model for spiritual history-taking, in response to the specific needs of GPs.

Vermandere, Mieke; Choi, Yoo-Na; De Brabandere, Heleen; Decouttere, Ruth; De Meyere, Evelien; Gheysens, Elien; Nickmans, Brecht; Schoutteten, Melanie; Seghers, Lynn; Truijens, Joachim; Vandenberghe, Stien; Van de Wiele, Sofie; Van Oevelen, Laure-Anne; Aertgeerts, Bert




Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introducción El tema de esta comunicación tiene su origen en motivos muy prácticos. Primero, las necesidades comunicativas en el aula de ELE, y segundo, el carác- ter silencioso de los finlandeses. Las personas que provienen de diferentes culturas reaccionan de modo muy variado en las situaciones comunicativas. En la comunicación intercultural, donde personas pertenecientes a diferentes culturas se relacionan,

Tiina-Leena Salo


ElePhant--an anatomical electronic phantom as simulation-system for otologic surgery.  


This paper describes the ElePhant (Electronic Phantom)-an anatomical correct simulation system based on 3D rapid prototyping models for the otologic intervention "Mastoidectomy". The anatomical structures of the head are created with plaster as base material using 3D-printing as rapid prototyping technology (RPT). Structures at risk, represented by electrically conductible material and fiber optics, are realized as an electric circuit and can be detected during the simulation of the surgical procedure. An accuracy study of 15 identical RPT-models compared to the 3D reconstructed CT-dataset of the patient showed that the mean accuracy is lower than the reconstructed CT layer thickness of 0.5 mm. An evaluation study of the ElePhant-system for "Mastoidectomy" was performed by 7 ENT-surgeons. The mean value of the study questionnaire (evaluation range from -2 (not at all) to +2 (very good)) was +1.2. The results showed that the ElePhant can simulate "Mastoidectomy" realistically. It is especially suitable for the simulation of the correct representation and position of the anatomical structures, realistic operation setting, and realistic milling properties of the bone structure. Furthermore it is applicable for training of surgeons. PMID:17945837

Grunert, R; Strauss, G; Moeckel, H; Hofer, M; Poessneck, A; Fickweiler, U; Thalheim, M; Schmiedel, R; Jannin, P; Schulz, T; Oeken, J; Dietz, A; Korb, W



Allelotype Analysis in Osteosarcomas: Frequent Alíele Loss on 3q 13q 17p and ISq1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We have investigated the involvement of tumor suppressor genes in the genesis of osteosarcoma,by analyzing alíele losses at polymorphic loci in tumor tissues. Genotypes of DNA from primary osteosarcoma tissue and corresponding normal cells from 37 patients were analyzed at 58 polymorphic,loci representing each autosomal chromosome,arm ex cept 5p and 20q. Alíele losses were found at polymorphic loci on

Toshikazu Yamaguchi; Junya Toguchida; Takao Yamamuro; Yoshihiko Kotoura; Norihiko Takada; Noriyoshi Kawaguchi; Yasuhiko Kaneko; Yusuke Nakamura; Masao S. Sasaki; kanj Ishizaki


Comparison among the Consumption Structures of Different Income Groups of Urban Residents in Guangxi Based on ELES Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the household consumption data of urban residents in Guangxi Statistical Yearbook in the year 2009, the ELES (Extended Linear Expenditure System) is used to analyze the consumption structure, the propensity to consume, and the consumer flexibility of urban residents in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China in the year 2008. Result shows that urban residents in Guangxi has

Zhi-cheng Han; Xiao-xiang Li; Zhi-xian Li



Lifelines Episode 25: EleComm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking on the "collection" tab in the left hand column. You've heard the word telecomm? In this episode, we are going to coin a new word: elecomm, shorthand for elephant communication. Caitlin OÃÂConnell-Rodwell is a Stanford University professor and the author of The Elephant's Secret Sense, published by the University of Chicago Press. Dr. OÃÂConnell-Rodwell discovered that elephant vocalizations travel through the ground, sometimes for great distances. Other elephants pick up these seismic communications and understand them. There are links to videos of three of Dr. OÃÂConnell-RodwellÃÂs elephant communication experiments on her website, or by clicking here, here and here. (Begins at 2:44) From the Buzz in Physiology (Begins at 1:13): Divers who held their breath for several minutes had elevated levels of S100B (a protein found after cell injury) in their bloodstream, which suggests that holding one's breath for a long time disrupts the blood-brain barrier. However, the appearance of the protein was transient and leaves open the question of whether lengthy breath holding can damage the brain over the long term, according to the Lund University researchers. And drinking beetroot juice boosts stamina and could help you exercise for up to 16% longer, according to a study from the University of Exeter. The study shows how the nitrate contained in the juice leads to a reduction in oxygen uptake, making exercise less tiring.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell (Stanford University)




Microsoft Academic Search

Through this text I intend to broach our everyday body, and its future perspectives, as a cultural production with distinct historical itineraries; a provisional result of diverse discourses and product of a sofisticated corporal technology. Also, I try to put in question how the phisical education, supported by a utilitarian and essentialist vision, has been helping to build our anatomies

Alex Branco Fraga


Quando la contaminazione da Ogm è \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

L’introduzione, nella disciplina comunitaria sull’etichettatura di alimenti e mangimi GM, di una eccezione per il caso in cui vi sia una presenza di materiale Ogm nell’alimento o nel mangime entro lo 0,9% è all’origine delle regole di coesistenza fra produzioni transgeniche, convenzionali e biologiche. Nel momento in cui le Regioni italiane si apprestano ad introdurre siffatte regole è necessario un

Eleonora Sirsi



And Then - Recycling. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Lewis Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. There are seven concepts in this unit on recycling which is designed for grade five and six students. Each concept has one lesson that is comprised of several activities. Several suggested extra activities have been added to further the…

Lewis, Dave


Exponential Explosions! Today.... Tomorrow.... ? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Jensen Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for junior high school mathematics classes and emphasizes applications of exponents to problems of population growth and pollution. The nine lessons are designed for about eleven school days. Each lesson includes the concept…

Jensen, Melanie


Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

Schmidt, Linda


Natural or Organic Foods? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Schmidt Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for secondary students in home economics classes. The content of the units focuses on natural and organic foods, characteristics of the foods, and uses of the foods. The seven lessons in this unit are designed to last over a…

Schmidt, Linda


26 CFR 31.6302-1 - Deposit rules for taxes under the Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and withheld income...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a Sunday, and January 16, 2012, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Birthday, is a...Because Monday, January 17, 2011, is Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Birthday, a legal...Effective/applicability date. Paragraphs (c), (d) Examples 1 through 5,...



Food: The Challenge to Manage. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Roush Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit is designed for students at the senior high level who have a basic knowledge of nutrition, some experience in menu planning, and who are ready to put this knowledge of nutrition to work in selecting foods to attain maximum nutrition with…

Roush, Judy


ELeRS: A Framework For Scoping E-Learning Research In Healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, e-learning has tremendously increased the opportunities for different approaches to learning for both individuals and groups, made possible via ICT. Increasingly, universities and institutions are harnessing the capabilities of e-learning and other innovative technological systems to facilitate the education and training of healthcare providers, students, patients\\/clients, and the public at large. Equally, the continuing education of practicing

Lesley Pek Wee Land; Pradeep Ray; Eilean Watson



Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y character?sticas sociodemogr?ficas en la poblaci?n Latina  

PubMed Central

El interés por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnóstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramáticos en el curso clínico del trastorno psicótico tales como: mayores recaídas, re-hospitalizaciones, síntomas más severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsicótico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideación suicida, así como alteraciones en otras áreas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimización, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnóstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnóstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, así como sus características sociodemográficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando énfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnóstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la población latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demográficos, clínicos y otras características de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnóstico permitiría mejorar los métodos para la detección y adecuada valoración del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia.

Jimenez-Castro, Lorena; Raventos-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael



Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities.

Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man



Ever Stop to Think Man's Survival Is Dependent on His Use of Food Resources? [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Nelson Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for senior high school students who have a basic knowledge of nutrition and some experience in menu planning. The five lessons provide experiences in selecting, preparing, and storing foods to attain maximum nutrition with a…

Nelson, Judy


De Lope de Vega a Sven Svensson: un taller de teatro en el aula de E\\/LE  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introducción: objetivos El objetivo de este seminario es introducir el mundo del teatro -desde diferen- tes perspectivas- en la enseñanza del español a extranjeros. Este género es habi- tualmente considerado el patito feo en la didáctica de las segundas lenguas, ya que los enseñantes han mostrado, en general, mayor predilección por el cuento, la novela e incluso la poesía

Gaspar J. Cuesta


Un mod\\\\`ele non-lin\\\\'eaire de prolif\\\\'eration cellulaire : extinction des cellules et invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses a nonlinear age-maturity structured system which arises as a model of the blood cellular production in the bone marrow. The resulting model is a nonlinear first-order partial differential equation in which there is a distributed temporal delay and a retardation in the maturation variable. We prove that uniqueness of solutions depends only on small maturity cells (stem

Mostafa Adimyet; Fabien Crauste



Frequent Somatic Imbalance of Marker Alíeles for Chromosome 1 in Human Primary Breast Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of heterozygosity at particular chromosomal loci in the tumor cell, as evidenced by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, has been taken as a hallmark of the presence of tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies of breast carcinoma have suggested that such genes might be located on the short as well as on the long arm of chromosome 1. We report

Peter Devilee; Alfons Bardoel; Tim Kievits; Nel Kuipers-Dijkshoorn; Peter L. Pearson; Cees J. Cornelisse



El Instituto de Nutrici?n de Centro Am?rica y Panam?: Servicios de Informaci?n Cient?fica en Una Regi?n en V?a de Desarrollo *  

PubMed Central

Pioneering scientific information in underdeveloped areas poses several problems, such as (1) lack of understanding on the part of key functionaries as to the why, what, and when of information services; (2) lack of trained personnel to assume the responsibility for such services; (3) lack of economic resources; and (4) lack of information pertaining to available bibliographical sources in the particular area or region. The Bibliographic and Documentation Service of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) provides, in addition to the customary services, technical assistance for the organization or reorganization of biomedical libraries and makes INCAP library materials available to member countries, either by loan or photocopy. Although the program was designed for the member countries, INCAP tries to make its services available to other Latin American nations, Africa, and Asia, where similar nutritional problems are being studied.

Flores, Raquel; Corado, Adelina; Giron, Arturo



Wild-Type p53 Suppresses Growth of Human Prostate Cancer Cells Containing Mutant p53 Alíeles1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence supporting a broad role for the inactivation of the p53 gene in human tumorigenesis has been provided by studies showing that the p53 gene is mutated in many human cancers. In this study, we report on the mutational status of the p53 gene in prostate cancer cells and provide functional evidence that the wild-type p53 gene may have a

William B. Isaacs; Bob S. Carter; Charles M. Ewing



El papel de la motivación y las actitudes en el aprendizaje de ELE en un contexto de enseñanza formal para adultos alemanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives the results of research that aims to address the role of affective variables motivation and attitudes in learning Spanish as a foreign language (E \\/ LE) in formal school context. This study is in the field of acquisition of Spanish as a foreign language for German adult learners. We opted for a methodology that adapts to the

Luz Emilia; Minera Reyna


Identification of Multiple Breast Cancers of Multicentric Origin by Histológica! Observations and Distribution of Alíele Loss on Chromosome 16q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer is often detected as multiple lesions clinically and\\/or histopathologically. To examine if the origin of such lesions can be iden tified objectively by comparison of their loss of heterozygosity (LOH) patterns, LOH on chromosome 16q was analyzed in a total of 60 cases of multiple breast cancer by Southern blot analysis. Based on continuity among tumors and satellite

Hitoshi Tsuda; Seismi Hirohashi




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Some studies carried out by the french Electricit e de France company on the failure process of metallic components showed that the expected date of failure largely exceeds their period of use. In the case of failure before this date, we wish to know how the physical model is contraticted. A bayesian model mixing knowledge on the physical variables

G. Bouchard; G. Celeux; F Billy; F. Josse


O Quinto Impossível - ou quando Deus é impossível e a impossibilidade do ofício do teólogo THE FIFTH IMPOSSIBLE - OR WHEN GOD IS IMPOSSIBLE AND THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF THE TEOLOGIST'S OFFICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to reflect upon the question of religion in the modern and post-modern ages, establishing possible connections with the East, and with the medieval age, taking care to ask what it means to experience God in the post-modern age. In the contemporary world, it must be acknowledged that each and every criti- cism of the



Money laundering control: the South African model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlines the Financial Intelligence Centre Act (FICA) 38 of 2001, which completes the broad legislative framework for money laundering in South Africa. Describes the functions of the Financial Intelligence Centre, including its liaison with the South African Revenue Service, and the Money Laundering Advisory Council; both of these bodies were established by FICA. Reviews the existing legislation such as the

Louis de Koker



77 FR 24206 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...40 240 (Attachment C). computer programmers. ELE Case Study Protocol Key informants 120 1 1 120 (Attachment D1). (ELE states-- state- and local-levels). Non-ELE Case Study Protocol Key informants 90 1 1 90 (Attachment...



Gradientes de abundâncias em galáxias espirais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gradientes de abundâncias obtidos através de observações de regiões H II têm um papel importante no estudo de formação e evolução de galáxias espirais. Determinações diretas de abundâncias somente são obtidas quando linhas de emissão sensíveis à temperatura eletrônica (e.g., [O III]l4363) são detectadas. Infelizmente estas linhas são fracas ou não observadas em regiões H II de baixa excitação. Nestes casos métodos empíricos são utilizados para estimar as abundâncias químicas. Entretanto, diferentes métodos têm produzido diferentes estimativas de gradientes de abundâncias. Neste trabalho, nós construímos modelos de fotoionização com o objetivo de descrever diagramas de diagnósticos construídos com dados publicados de algumas galáxias espirais normais e barradas. Comparações entre nossas estimativas de abundâncias e de outros métodos mostram que quando não há acordo entre eles, nossos modelos superestimam as abundâncias de O/H e N/H por um fator de 0.3 dex em relação a estimativas diretas de abundâncias, e por fator de 0.2 dex em relação a outros métodos empíricos. A origem da produção de nitrogênio nas galáxias estudadas é discutida.

Dors, O. L.., Jr.; Copetti, M. V. F.



Suppression of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and amelioration of lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by polyphenolic compounds in Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucalyptus leaf extract (ELE) is rich in hydrolyzable tannins. We examined the effects of ELE and its constituents on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice. Mice fed a diet supplemented with 1% ELE were intraperitoneally administered LPS. Six hours later, the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were significantly lower in the ELE-supplemented mice than in the

Keiichiro Sugimoto; Sayaka Sakamoto; Kazuya Nakagawa; Shuichi Hayashi; Naoki Harada; Ryoichi Yamaji; Yoshihisa Nakano; Hiroshi Inui



77 FR 5253 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...40 240 (Attachment C). computer programmers. ELE Case Study Protocol Key informants 120 1 1 120 (Attachment D1...states-- state--and local--levels). Non-ELE Case Study Protocol Key informants 90 1 1 90 (Attachment...



Total Diet Study - Element Data File Revision History  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Market Baskets for 2005: Initial version: TDS Ele O 2005.txt and TDS Ele Q 2005.txt (February 2008). ... Market Baskets for 1997: Fields restructured. ... More results from


Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity

Yuko Horii; Mamoru Tanida; Jiao Shen; Tetsuya Hirata; Naomi Kawamura; Atsunori Wada; Katsuya Nagai



Earnings and Employment Data for Workers Covered Under Social Security and Medicare, by State and County, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Insurance and Self-Employment Contribution Acts (FICA and SECA) require the withholding of taxes from wages of employed persons and the net earnings of most self-employed persons for the Social Security and Medicare programs. In 2003, earnings...



Earnings and Employment Data for Workers Covered Under Social Security and Medicare, by State and County, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal Insurance and Self-Employment Contribution Acts (FICA and SECA) require the withholding of taxes from wages of employed persons and the net earnings of most self-employed persons for the Social Security and Medicare programs. In 2008, earnings...



CARACTERÍSTICAS TECNOLÓGICAS DE F ARINHAS DE ARROZ PRÉ- GELATINIZADAS OBTIDAS POR EXTRUSÃO TERMOPLÁSTICA Technological properties of pre-gelatinized rice flour obtained by thermoplastic extrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

o C e a 50 o C foram maiores quando temperatura e umidade estavam em extremos opostos. O IAA foi menor quando se usaram baixas temperaturas e maiores teores de umidades; no entanto, o ISA, quando analisado pela MRS, não apresentou influência da temperatura e umidade, mas quando analisado pela ACP, foi maior quando as temperaturas estavam entre 120 -

Maria Teresa Pedrosa; Silva Clerici; Ahmed Attia El-Dash


Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira



Transferable Antibiotic Resistance Elements in Haemophilus influenzae Share a Common Evolutionary Origin with a Diverse Family of Syntenic Genomic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transferable antibiotic resistance in Haemophilus influenzae was first detected in the early 1970s. After this, resistance spread rapidly worldwide and was shown to be transferred by a large 40- to 60-kb conjugative ele- ment. Bioinformatics analysis of the complete sequence of a typical H. influenzae conjugative resistance ele- ment, ICEHin1056, revealed the shared evolutionary origin of this element. ICEHin1056 has

Zaini Mohd-Zain; Sarah L. Turner; Ana M. Cerdeno-Tarraga; Andrew K. Lilley; Thomas J. Inzana; A. Jane Duncan; Rosalind M. Harding; Derek W. Hood; Timothy E. Peto; Derrick W. Crook



Extraction of control signals from a mixture of source activity in the peripheral nerve.  


Extracting physiological signals to control external devices such as prosthetics is a field of research that offers great hope for patients suffering from disabilities. In this paper, we present an algorithm for isolating control signals from peripheral nerve cuff recordings. The algorithm is able to extract individual control signals from a mixture of source signal activity while maximizing SNR and minimizing cross-talk between the control signals. Based on fast independent component analysis FICA and an adaptation of Champagne, the proposed algorithm is tested against previously published results obtained using beamforming techniques in an acute preparation of rabbits. Preliminary results demonstrate an improvement in performance. PMID:23366549

Tang, Y; Wodlinger, B; Durand, D M



Study of Turbine-Generator Shaft Parameters from the Viewpoint of Subsynchronous Resonance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of susceptibility to subsynchronous resonance (SSR) problems in turbine generators as function of shaft, network and load characteristics is the subject of this report. The evaluation of susceptibility was done through calculations of ele...

F. P. de Mello K. Q. Chang L. N . Hannett J. W. Feltes J. M. Undrill



1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa/chijo chosa hokokusho. 3. Mizuwaketoge nanbu chiiki. (Survey for promotion of geothermal development in fiscal 1991/ground survey report. 3. Area south to Mizuwaketoge pass).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to elucidate geothermal reservoir structures, two kinds of electric exploration were carried out using wells drilled in the area south to the Mizuwaketoge Pass. The current flowing potential method flows a current into a geothermal reservoir (ele...



From the History of Soviet Radiochemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article presents the history of the separation of the first Soviet produced plutonium, which was obtained under the general direction of Igor Vasil'yevich Kurchatov and Vitaliy Grigor'yevich Khlopin. The physical measurements and identification of ele...

V. M. Vdovenko B. V. Kurchatov



Leveraging Genomics Software to Improve Proteomics Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rigorous data analysis techniques are essential in quantifying the differential expression of proteins in biological samples of interest. Statistical methods from the microarray literature were applied to the analysis of two-dimensional difference gel ele...

I. K. Fodor D. O. Nelson



Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system design description addresses tire tempered water (TTV) system and the tempered water cooling (TWC) system. The discussion that follows will be limited to these systems. The system design description, when used in conjunction with the other ele...

J. J. Irwin



New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (Quarterly Report for March 31, 2006 to June 30, 2006).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500 800 degrees C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode - electrolyte interfaces and efficient ele...

A. J. Jacobson



Sensitivity and Behavioral Reaction of Sharks to Electric Stimuli (And Recording of Brain Activity with Chronic Implanted Electrodes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sharks, mainly lemon sharks (Negaprion brevirostris), were studied to find out their sensitivity to electric stimuli. The Lorenzini ampulla, a skin sensory receptor found in elasmobranch fishes, can sense temperature variations, water displacement, or ele...

E. Agalides



Methodology for Selecting an Electromagnetic Gun System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis proposes a methodology for selecting an electromagnetic launcher (EML) based upon mission requirements and available technology. The intent of the study is twofold. First, it reviews electromagnetic launcher applications, the principles of ele...

K. E. Reinhard



Blood Compatibility of Circulatory Assist Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated approach has been undertaken to develop methods which will predict the thrombogenicity of implanted cardiovascular prostheses. The approach consists of (1) physical characterization of biomaterials under study; (2) assessment of cellular ele...

D. N. Fass K. E. Holley M. K. Dewanjee P. Didisheim V. Fuster



Blood Compatibility of Circulatory Assist Devices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated approach has been undertaken to develop methods which will predict the thrombogenicity of implanted cardiovascular prostheses. The approach consists of (1) physical characterization of biomaterials under study; (2) assessment of cellular ele...

P. Didisheim M. K. Dewanjee D. N. Fass V. Fuster K. E. Holley



Military Geodesy and Geospace Science Unit Four.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This lecture course provides a full-year introduction to Military Geodesy and Geospace Science. Throughout the presentation a military perspective is maintained which links Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy (MC&G) issues with modern defense requirements. Ele...

W. G. Heller A. R. LeSchack



Military Geodesy and Geospace Science. Unit Three.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This lecture course provides a full-year introduction to Military Geodesy and Geospace Science. Throughout the presentation a military perspective is maintained which links Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy (MC&G) issues with modern defense requirements. Ele...

W. G. Heller A. R. LeSchack



Spain Develops Alkaromatic Perchlorocarbons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on perchlorinated alkylaromatic compounds is very briefly discussed. The recent synthesis of a polymeric polyradical has enlarged the possible applications of these free radicals, which are active in electonic transfer processes. Their use as ele...

M. Ballester



Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. Updated April 2, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g., ele...

J. D. Moteff



Study of Flutter Related Computational Procedures for Minimum Weight Structural Sizing of Advanced Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a study of the development of flutter modules applicable to automated structural design of advanced aircraft configurations, such as a supersonic transport, are presented. Automated structural design is restricted to automated sizing of the ele...

R. F. Oconnell H. J. Hassig N. A. Radovcich



Anodization of Aluminum Using a Malonic Acid Electrolyte.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of a malonic acid electrolyte for anodic oxidation of aluminum was evaluated. Various concentrations and anodization parameters were studied to determine a method of forming an oxide layer similar to that formed in an ethanol/tartrate electrolyte. Ele...

D. E. Peterson



Building an Effective Research Collaboration Between the Center for Public Policy at Temple University and the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this project was to develop a collaborative research partnership between Temple University's Center for Public Policy (CPP) and Pennsylvania Department of Corrections (DOC), with a demonstration research project that included three main ele...

W. N. Welsh



An Inexpensive, Removable Circuit-Board Encapsulant: This packaging technique is rapidly applied and can replace conventional hard potting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A method of encapsulating wlectronic circuit-board assemblies with low-density, foamed silicone rubber particles has been developed. They are environmentally and ele...



Preparation and Characterisation of Metallic Thin Films for Electroluminescent Devices Based on Porous Silicon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For porous silicon (PS) electroluminescent (EL) devices, metallisation is a key process. The state of the art of the main preparation methods of thin metallic films used in PS EL devices is described. Experimental results concerning the structural and ele...

I. Kleps A. Angelescu M. Miu



Nitrogen Dioxide Measurement Method Characterization at the GRI Conventional Research House. Topical Report, August-September 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments were conducted to measure NO2 concentrations using three types of instruments: (1) Chemiluminescent NO/NOx analyzer (EPA reference method), (2) Chemiluminiscent NO2 analyzer using luminol solution, and (3) Electrochemical NO2 analyzer. The ele...

R. L. Hedrick F. Rasouli E. K. Krug G. Pudlo



Electroreduction in Aqueous Media, Saturation of Polycyclic Aromatics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The preparative cathodic reduction of anthracene and phenanthrene was investigated aiming at obtaining Birch-type products in aqueous solutions. Following previous reports, reductions were carried out using mercury pool cathodes and tetrabutylammonium ele...

E. Kariv-Miller R. I. Pacut



A Seminar on Marketing The Occupational Alcoholism Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New and improved strategies involving concepts and programs were directed toward the prevention and treatment of alcoholism. The Occupational Alcoholism Program (OAP) was selected as the primary target for the concentrated marketing analysis. Five key ele...



Optical Probing of Low-Pressure Solution Grown GaN Crystal Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The structural and optical properties of self-nucleated crystals grown by a near atmospheric pressure solution growth method are presented. High- resolution room temperature Raman scattering studies demonstrate that stress- free crystals with low free-ele...

B. N. Feigelson J. G. Tischler J. J. Freitas N. Y. Garces



Astrophysics in a Nutshell: From the Telescope to the Sputnik.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress in astrophysics due to the introduction of new methods of observation is reviewed. The Copernican revolution was more due to the introduction of the telescope than to the heliocentric model invented 2000 yr earlier. The decisive importance of ele...

H. Alfven C. Faelthammar



Electrolytic Production of Calcium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines developed an alternative electrochemical process for the production of calcium metal. The current industrial practice is costly, complex, and inefficient. The Bureau method involves electrowinning of a calcium-tin alloy followed by ele...

J. J. Lukasko J. E. Murphy



2000 Dollar Electric Powertrain Option-1 Program. Final technical report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the tasks accomplished as part of Northrop Grumman's TRP $2000 Electric Powertrain Option-1 program. Northrop Grumman has strived to achieve technology advances and development considered as high priority to the success of future ele...



Design of the Escar Injection Beam Line.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design features of the elements of the ESCAR (Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring) injection beam line are described. The junction of the proton transport system with the ESCAR injection straight section requires the design of mechanical ele...

J. Tanabe J. Staples R. Yourd



Analytic Determination of the Activation of Essential and Toxic Trace Elements in Biological Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A neutron activation-analysis technique for the multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of this procedure comprise radiochemical and also instrumental analytic techniques. After radiochemical separation 34 ele...

R. Schelenz



Electrochemical control of brightener in acid copper sulfate plating solutions. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrochemical methods have been evaluated that attempt the indirect measurement of the effective concentration of a brighter additive in acid copper sulfate plating baths. The procedures all employed electrodeposition of copper on a platinum working ele...

M. J. Bronson M. D. Hawley



Electrophysical Properties of Certain Hemioxanines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Conclusions: (1) Investigated were the electrophysical properties of a series of hemioxanines, for which it is possible in the role of specific intraionoid structure with the presence of conjugation between charged atoms. (2) Temperature dependence of ele...

V. P. Parini E. L. Frankevich M. V. Deichmeister



Officer/Employee List - Atryn  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... J. Snoy; Timothy Lee; Craig E Zinderman; Ele Ibarra-Pratt; Ghanshyam Gupta; Jessica Kim; Patricia Holobaugh; Alan Williams; Robert Wise; Joseph ... More results from


Forsoeg vedr. elbesparelser i boligsektoren - 1. aar. (Experiment concerned with saving electricity within the housing sector - 1st year).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1500 householders that do not use electricity for heating have been involved in this experiment. Some read their meters themselves every month and in other cases the electricity consumption was registered on the radials that supplied the users. Danish ele...

C. Kofod A. K. Hansen



Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Levels on Auditory Sensitivity and Frequency Tuning as Measured by the Stimulus Frequency Otoacoustic Emission Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Exposure to hazardous noise results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity within the cochlea that causes damage to the outer hair cells, the result is noise-induced, sensorineural hearing loss. Evoked otoacoustic emissions (EOAEs) are an ele...

D. Fothergill J. A. Lapsley Miller K. S. Wolgemuth L. M. Hughes



Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation of an Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus (AAEA) was designed, developed, assembled, and preliminarily tested. The AAEA was demonstrated to be a feasible apparatus for automatically acquiring, displaying, and storing (and eventually analyzing) ele...

M. Bier P. A. Bartels



Where's the Remote Control. It's Time for Virtual Justice: A Proposal to Amend the Rules of Court-Martial to Allow for Testimony by Video Teleconference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sixth Amendment Confrontation Clause has evolved and undergone significant change since its inception in early Roman history.' This evolution continues today as a result of technological advances in communications that have improved our ability to ele...

P. A. Harris



On the monomial birational maps of the projective space  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the group structure of monomial Cremona transformations. It follows that every ele- ment of this group is a product of quadratic monomial transformations, and geometric descriptions in terms of fans.

Gérard Gonzalez-Sprinberg; Ivan Pan



An Evaluation Framework for Grid-based Learning Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ELeGI project+ aims to define new models of human learning, enabling ubiquitous and collaborative learning, by merging experiential, personalised and contextualised approaches. An advanced service-oriented Grid based software architecture for learning has been defined and implemented by the consortium, using a number of different educational applications. The ELeGI evaluation framework was developed to help manage the overall set of

Colin Allison; Tim Storer; Stuart D. J. Purdie; Rosa Michaelson



Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.  


Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes. PMID:20580657

Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya



Brief exposure to cycloheximide prior to electrical activation improves in vitro blastocyst development of porcine parthenogenetic and reconstructed embryos.  


To investigate the effects of cycloheximide exposure before electrical activation of in vitro-matured porcine oocytes on the subsequent development of parthenogenetic embryos, cumulus-free mature oocytes were exposed to NCSU-23 medium containing cycloheximide (10 microg/mL) for 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min, activated by electrical pulse treatment (1.5 kV/cm, 100 micros) and then cultured in PZM-3 for 7 days. To evaluate the effects of cycloheximide on the activation of nuclear transfer embryos, reconstructed embryos were electrically activated by two DC pulses (1.2 kV/cm, 30 micros) before or after exposure to cycloheximide. The reconstructed embryos were allocated into four groups: electrical pulse treatment alone (Ele); exposure to cycloheximide for 10 min followed by electrical activation (CHX+Ele); electrical activation followed by exposure to cycloheximide for 6h (Ele+CHX); exposure to cycloheximide for 10 min, followed by electrical activation and a further exposure to cycloheximide for 6h (CHX+Ele+CHX). The activated reconstructed embryos were cultured in PZM-3 for 6 days. Oocytes treated with 10 min exposure to cycloheximide followed by electrical activation had a significantly higher percentage of blastocyst formation compared to control oocytes and oocytes exposed for > or =30 min. In the reconstructed embryos, the blastocyst development rates of embryos exposed to cycloheximide (CHX+Ele, Ele+CHX and CHX+Ele+CHX) were significantly higher than those of the control group (Ele). Among the cycloheximide-treated groups, the CHX+Ele group had increased development rate and total blastocyst cell number, though these values were not significantly different from those observed in the other cycloheximide-treated groups. To evaluate the quality of NT embryos treated with cycloheximide, apoptosis in blastocysts was analyzed by TUNEL assay. The 10 min exposure to cycloheximide prior to electrical activation significantly reduced cell death compared with longer exposure to cycloheximide after electrical fusion. In conclusion, brief exposure to cycloheximide prior to electrical activation may increase the subsequent blastocyst development rates in porcine parthenogenetic and reconstructed embryos. PMID:17604096

Naruse, K; Quan, Y S; Kim, B C; Lee, J H; Park, C S; Jin, D I



``Learning to Research'' in a Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study on the Effectiveness of a Socio-constructivist Learning Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning is the basis for research and lifelong training. The implementation of virtual environments for developing this competency requires the use of effective learning models. In this study we present an experiment in positive learning from the virtual campus of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). In order to carry it out we have used E-Ling, an e-learning environment that has been developed with an innovative didactic design based on a socio-constructivist learning approach. E-Ling has been used since 2006 to train future teachers and researchers in “learning to research”. Some of the results of this experiment have been statistically analysed in order to compare them with other learning models. From the obtained results we have concluded that E-Ling is a more productive proposal for developing competences in learning to research.

López-Alonso, C.; Fernández-Pampillón, A.; de-Miguel, E.; Pita, G.


Solanum paniculatum L. leaf and fruit extracts: assessment of modulation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by micronucleus test in mice.  


Solanum paniculatum L. is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Savanna region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Previous studies with S. paniculatum ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) or ethanolic fruit extract (EFE) demonstrated that they have no genotoxic activity meant either in the micronucleus test in mice or in the phage induction SOS Inductest in bacterial strains; however, cytotoxicity was demonstrated in both tests. Because of the spread use of this plant as a therapeutic resource and food, the present study aimed at evaluating the modulator effects of S. paniculatum ELE or EFE against mitomycin C (MMC) using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. This short-term test was used to detect the acute effects of responsive erythropoiesis after 24- and 48-hour exposure periods. Swiss-Webster mice were orally treated with three different concentrations (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg) of ELE or EFE simultaneously with a single dose of MMC (4 mg/kg i.p.). Antigenotoxicity was evaluated using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCEs), whereas anticytotoxicity was assessed by the polychromatic/normochromatic erythrocyte ratio. Our results demonstrated that neither the ELE nor EFE of S. paniculatum protected cells against the cytotoxic action of MMC. Nevertheless, the present study showed the antimutagenic effect of ELE after a 24-hour treatment (reduction in the frequencies of MNPCEs after a 48-hour treatment with ELE can be due to toxicity) and no antimutagenic action of the EFE treatment against the aneugenic and/or clastogenic activities of MMC. PMID:20950193

Vieira, Pabline Marinho; Paula, José Realino; Chen-Chen, Lee



Effects of chemical activation and season on birth efficiency of cloned pigs.  


The effects of chemical activation on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were studied by investigating the developmental process from porcine oocyte activation to birth of cloned pigs. Three different activation methods were used: (i) Electroporation (Ele); (ii) Ele followed by incubation with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP); and (iii) Ele followed by a treatment with cycloheximide (CHX). In experiment 1, the rates of cleavage, developmental rates and cell number of porcine parthenogenetic (PA) embryos were investigated in the three treatment groups. In experiment 2, NT embryos produced by the three different activation treatments were compared for the rates of cleavage, development and cell number. Finally, the effects of Ele and Ele+CHX activation methods on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were compared. The activated oocytes treated by combination activation generally showed a higher (P<0.05) blastocyst rate and produced more expanded blastocysts than oocytes activated with Ele. The rates of cleavage and total cell number of parthenotes were not significantly different. Parthenogenetic embryos activated with 6-DMAP developed into blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages at a significantly (P<0.05) higher rate than those treated with Ele, but the developmental capability was dramatically decreased in NT embryos. With the CHX activation method, the NT embryo blastocyst rate was substantially (P<0.05) increased although the production of expanded blastocysts was not significantly different from that by the other two methods. The birth rate of cloned pigs increased in the CHX group, though the rate was not significantly different from Ele. The effects of season on developmental rate of the porcine PA embryos and birth rate of cloned pigs were also examined in our study. Porcine oocytes collected in the spring had higher developmental capabilities than those collected in the winter. However, no difference in birth rate of the cloned pigs was found between the oocytes collected in the two seasons. The results obtained from PA and NT embryos, following different activation methods, were inconsistent, suggesting that activation mechanisms are dissimilar in PA and NT embryos. Although the chemical activation in our study leads to an elevation of the blastocyst rate, it does not improve the oocyte's molecular programming and so does not significantly improve the efficiency of producing cloned pig births. PMID:19641871

Ma, YuFang; Li, Yan; Wei, HengXi; Li, QiuYan; Fang, Rui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Kun; Xue, Kai; Lou, YanKun; Dai, YunPing; Lian, LinSheng; Li, Ning




Microsoft Academic Search

toplumunda bulunan, de?i?ik unvan ve statülere sahip, sosyal tipleri ve sosyal gruplari bazi tutum ve davrani?lariyla ele?tirdi?i görülmü?tür. ?airin, bu eserinde saydi?i ve sosyal davrani?larini gösterip ele?tirdi?i ki?iler ve gruplar: toplumun yönetici ve zengin grubunu olu?turan, sosyal, siyasî ve ekonomik yönden statü ve üstünlük kazanmi?, havas-has, ayan, pa?a, bey ve hâce unvanlari ile anilan zengin zümre; bir varli?a sahip olamayan,

Zülfi Güler


The Environmental Impact of Cavnicului Valley Tailing Dams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the Maramure? County, Cavnicului Valley there exist three tailing ponds belonging to the Cavnic Mining Company from C.N.M.P.N.\\u000a REMIN Baia Mare: Vr?nicioara, M?l?ini and Plopi?-R?chi?ele. This paper presents an analysis of the tailing ponds from a physical\\u000a and chemical stability point of view. The conclusion is that the tailing ponds of Vr?nicioara and Plopi?-R?chi?ele constitute\\u000a stability from a sliding

I. Bud; S. Duma; I. Denu?; I. Ta?cu



The spiritual assessment.  


More than 80 percent of Americans perceive religion as important. Issues of belief can affect the health care encounter, and patients may wish to discuss spirituality with their physician. Many physicians report barriers to broaching the subject of spirituality, including lack of time and experience, difficulty identifying patients who want to discuss spirituality, and the belief that addressing spiritual concerns is not a physician's responsibility. Spiritual assessment tools such as the FICA, the HOPE questions, and the Open Invite provide efficient means of eliciting patients' thoughts on this topic. The spiritual assessment allows physicians to support patients by stressing empathetic listening, documenting spiritual preferences for future visits, incorporating the precepts of patients' faith traditions into treatment plans, and encouraging patients to use the resources of their spiritual traditions and communities for overall wellness. Conducting the spiritual assessment also may help strengthen the physician-patient relationship and offer physicians opportunities for personal renewal, resiliency, and growth. PMID:23062046

Saguil, Aaron; Phelps, Karen




Microsoft Academic Search

Os imigrantes estabelecidos num país cuja língua não é a mesma de sua terra de origem enfrentam singulares problemas quando crianças, enquanto gerações posteriores a assimilam e precisam fazer frente às questões de identidade pessoal e cultural. A situação coloca desafios ainda mais complexos, quando a cultura dominante no país anfitrião subestima a língua materna do imigrante. Este artigo analisa

Lourdes C. Rovira



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Pensar as ditaduras militares nos países do hoje denominado Cone Sul nos remete a relatos sobre manifestações, sequestros, prisões, torturas e mortes. Ao observar a atuação de mulheres e as relações de gênero que perpassam essas décadas, podemos ver seus corpos como campos simbólicos dentro da resistência, armada ou não; ambiguamente, eles representam também territórios a se defender. Partindo

Ana Maria Veiga


Manutenção da independência em idosos saudáveis: fórmula para um envelhecimento bem sucedido  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 realizou um interessante estudo na cidade de São Paulo que avaliou a expectativa de vida de homens e mulheres e os anos vividos com e sem incapacidade funcional. Ele chegou à conclusão que apesar da expectativa de vida das mulheres ser superior ao dos homens, elas apresentam maior proporção de anos vividos com incapacidade funcional. Chegar aos 90 anos,

Camargos MCS


The Logic of Reciprocity: Trust, Collective Action, and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Logic of Collective Action has for decades supplied the logic of public policy analysis. In this pioneering application of public choice theory, Mancur Olson ele gantly punctured the premise -- shared by a diverse variety of political theories -- that individuals can be expected to act consistently with the interest of the groups to which they belong. Absent externally

Dan M. Kahan



Understandable models Of music collections based on exhaustive feature generation with temporal statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data mining in large collections of polyphonic music has re- cently received increasing interest by companies along with the advent of commercial online distribution of music. Im- portant applications include the categorization of songs into genres and the recommendation of songs according to musi- cal similarity and the customer's musical preferences. Mod- eling genre or timbre of polyphonic music is

Fabian Moerchen; Ingo Mierswa; Alfred Ultsch



From a Direct Solver To a Parallel Iterative Solver in 3-d fOrming Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial simulation code FORGE3, devoted to three- dimensional forming applications, has been equipped with a robust iterative solver. Using an implicit approach, this code carries out the large deformations of viscoplastic incompressible materials with unilateral contact condi tions. It is based on a mixed-velocity\\/pressure finite ele ment method using tetrahedral unstructured meshes. Central to the Newton iterations dealing with

Thierry Coupez; Stéphane Marie



A Rede Interartística Música-Cinema-Arte Seqüencial- Literatura em The Adventures of Lucky Pierre  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO : Este trabalho examina o romance hiperficcional The Adven- tures of Lucky Pierre, de Robert Coover, como território interartístico no qual a escala musical serve de ponto de partida\\/fuga para o entrecruza- mento de linguagens, convenções e materialidades de outros campos ar- tísticos. Entre eles, o cinema, a arte seqüencial dos quadrinhos e a lite- ratura. A série de

Isabella Vieira de Bem


Measuring the Quality of the Natural Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes recent research efforts in the study of perceived quality of the natural environ- ment. Much of the research to date has focused on the assessment of perceived quality using mathematical mod- eling methods based on classical psychophysics. Signifi- cantly less research has focused on the theoretical under- standing of human perception and evaluation of natural environments. Drawing


Beyond the Pioneer Days! Where is Reception Research Going?1 Cross-Fertilization of Paradigms: A Synthesizing Approach to Qualitative Audience Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 1997 a poster campaign was launched in all commuter train stations in the Greater Co- penhagen area to inform people that it was possible to take a bicycle on the trains. The dominant ele- ment of the poster is a big photograph of a young man, tonsured and wearing a leather jacket, and with a pleased



Abnormalities in Nitric Oxide and Its Derivatives in Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: A cellular prooxidant state promotes cells to neoplastic growth, in part because of modification of proteins and their func- tions. Reactive nitrogen species formed from nitric oxide (NO) or its metabolites, can lead to protein tyrosine nitration, which is ele- vated in lung cancer. Objective: To determine the alteration in these NO derivatives and the role they may play

Fares A. Masri; Suzy A. A. Comhair; Thomas Koeck; Weiling Xu; Allison Janocha; Sudakshina Ghosh; Raed A. Dweik; Joseph Golish; Michael Kinter; Dennis J. Stuehr; Serpil C. Erzurum; Kulwant S. Aulak



Adaptive speech recognition with evolving connectionist systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a novel approach towards building adaptive speech recogni- tion systems based on the evolving connectionist systems paradigm (ECoS). The simple evolving connectionist systems are the minimalist implementation of the ECoS. They can accommodate new input data and new classes through local ele- ment tuning. New connections and neurons are created during the adaptive learning process of the

Akbar Ghobakhlou; Michael J. Watts; Nikola K. Kasabov



Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila moira and osa genes by the DREF pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA replication-related element binding factor (DREF) plays an important role in regulation of cell proliferation in Drosophila, binding to DRE and activating transcription of genes carrying this ele- ment in their promoter regions. Overexpression of DREF in eye imaginal discs induces a rough eye phenotype in adults, which can be suppressed by half dose reduction of the osa or

Kumi Nakamura; H. Ida; Masamitsu Yamaguchi



The Strain-Space Consistent Tangent Operator and Return Mapping Algorithm for Constitutive Modeling of Confined Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consistent tangent operators with return mapping algorithms in computational me- chanics have been recognized to provide accurate and efficient integration for constitutive mod- eling. Unlike other studies formulated in stress space, the present consistent tangent operator and return mapping scheme have been derived in strain space for hydrostatic-sensitive and nonlinear bounding surface plasticity, particularly the Drucker-Prager criterion with isotropic hardening

Yi-Ming Lan; Elisa D. Sotelino; Wai-Fah Chen



Agent-Based Modeling: A New Approach for Theory Building in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and mod- eling techniques most commonly used in social psychol- ogy are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alter- native approach

Eliot R. Smith; Frederica R. Conrey



Agent-based modeling: A revolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

tually to occur, and the potential of ABM is to be realized, these steps will need to be taken. The most fundamental reason for the enthusiasm for ABM is the dissatisfaction with the restrictions imposed by alterna- tive modeling formalisms. The most widely used alternatives are systems of differential equations and statistical mod- eling. Both of these competing tools have

Steven C. Bankes



NAEP Validity Studies: Implications of Electronic Technology for the NAEP Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to review major options NAEP faces regarding introduction of technology into the assessment and to review priorities that can guide this introduction. The focus needs to be on how computer-administered NAEP assessments and ele...



The connection between structural oxides and their tendency to glass formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readers of this journal have repeatedly asked questions dealing with the tendency of materials to form glasses. A number of these questions are answered below in an article by T. A. Sidorov, Candidate of Physicomathemati cal Science, Member of the Institute of Ele- mentoorganicComp ounds of the Academy of Sciences, USSR, Every macroscopic property of a material, including the tendency

T. A. Sidorov



Microelectronic Arrays for Cell-Based Functional Genomics/ High Throughput Phenotyping by Electrokinetic Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrochemical apparatus 1 permits electric-field-assisted fluidic assembly of objects 2 on a patterned silicon substrate 11 by means of electrical addressing. Charged objects 2 such as beads and live cells are moved electrokinetically, like as in ele...

C. Barlow M. Ozkan S. Esener S. N. Bhata



ParticiPação dos Pais na tomada de decisões no atendimento odontológico de seus filhos PaRent' S ROle On the deCiSiOn taking Of theiR ChildRen' S dental tReatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumo Introdução: Segundo o Código de Ética Odontológica, é considerada infração o atendimento de pacientes infantis sem o consentimento dos pais ou responsáveis, salvo em situações de urgência. No tratamento odontopediátrico, é indispensável o esclarecimento dos pais em relação aos procedimentos a que seus filhos serão submetidos, as opções de tratamento existentes e seus custos, para que eles possam emitir

Monique Santos Machado; Helen Cristhiane; Muller Nagano; Juliana Yassue; Barbosa da Silva; Vera Lúcia Bosco


Modeling Growth and Bacteriocin Production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 in Response to Temperature and pH Values Used for Sourdough Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sourdough fermentation is a cereal fermentation performed in a variety of technologies based on wheat or rye flour as the raw material (14). Type II doughs are used to produce bakery preproducts that are souring supplements or aroma carriers. The fermentations of these doughs are characterized by ele- vated temperatures (up to 37°C), shorter fermentation times (15 to 20 h),

Winy Messens; Patricia Neysens; Wim Vansieleghem; Johan Vanderhoeven; Luc De Vuyst



Impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification on thermal tolerance of the spider crab Hyas araneus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Future scenarios for the oceans project combined developments of CO2 accumulation and global warming and their impact on marine ecosystems. The synergistic impact of both factors was addressed by studying the effect of ele- vated CO2 concentrations on thermal tolerance of the cold- eurythermal spider crab Hyas araneus from the population around Helgoland. Here ambient temperatures character- ize the southernmost

K. Walther; F. J. Sartoris; C. Bock; H. O. Pörtner



Evaluation of a mass flow sensor at a gin  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of a system to optimize the cotton ginning process, a custom-built mass flow sensor was evaluated at USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit at Stoneville, Mississippi. The mass flow sensor was fabricated based on the principle of the sensor patented by Thomasson and Sui. The optical and ele...


Efficient Motion Planning Strategies for Large-Scale Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop a suite of motion planning strategies suitable for large- scale sensor networks. These solve the problem of reconfigur ing the network to a new shape while minimizing either the total distance traveled by the nodes or the maximum distance trav- eled by any node. Three network paradigms are investigated: centralized, computationally dis- tributed, and decentralized.

Jason C. Derenick; Christopher R. Mansley; John R. Spletzer



Internet traffic modeling by means of Hidden Markov Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a Hidden Markov Model for Internet traffic sources at packet level, jointly analyzing Inter Packet Time and Packet Size. We give an analytical basis and the mathematical details regarding the model, and we test the flexibility of the proposed mod- eling approach with real traffic traces related to common Internet services with strong dif- ferences

Alberto Dainotti; Antonio Pescapè; Pierluigi Salvo Rossi; Francesco Palmieri; Giorgio Ventre



Report on Work Performed Up to 22 December 1971 on the Pneumatic Platform . Compte Rendu des Travaux Effectues sur la Table a Air au 22DECEMBRE 1971.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recently obtained second hand satellite control simulator is described, and improvements to the system are discussed. They include design of a device for measuring the oscillation frequency of the satellite mock-up, design of a solar sensor with its ele...

G. Bauzil G. Vialaret




EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic stressors such as toxic chemicals, excess sediment, and non-native species threaten the biointegrity of stream ecosystems. The relative importance of a stressor depends both on the number of streams in which it is elevated, and on the severity of its effect when it is ele...


High-performance biocomputing for simulating the spread of contagion over large contact networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important biological problems can be mod- eled as contagion diffusion processes over interaction networks. This paper shows how the EpiSimdemics interaction-based sim- ulation system can be applied to the general contagion diffusion problem. Two specific problems, computational epidemiology and human immune system modeling, are given as examples. We then show how the graphics processing unit (GPU) within each compute

Keith R. Bisset; Ashwin M. Aji; Madhav V. Marathe; Wu-chun Feng



Changes in Pigmentation in Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Response to Color of Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In laboratory experiments, coloration of larvae of two species of anopheline mosquitoes was modified significantly by color of the rearing background. Larvae of Anuph- eles albimanw Wiedemann. Anopheles quadrimacula~us Say, C&x quinquefasciutu Say, Culex safinurius Coquillett, Aedes uegypti (L.). and Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann were reared in darkness and on either black. white, or green backgrounds, illuminated by either fluorescent lighting



Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Availability in a Biosolids-Amended Piedmont Soil Years after Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

ted the calculation of allowable pollutant concentration in biosolids for each trace element (USEPA, 1993). The Concerns over the possible increase in phytoavailability of bio- solids-applied trace metals to plants have been raised based on the Part 503 rule permits application of biosolids' trace ele- assumption that decomposition of applied organic matter would in- ments to agricultural land until the

Beshr F. Sukkariyah; Gregory Evanylo; Lucian Zelazny; Rufus L. Chaney



Rationalization of Shape and Related Stress Distribution in Posterior Teeth: A Finite Element Study Using Nonlinear Contact Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considered the loading configuration of intact teeth by using finite ele- ment analyses to rationalize the clinical and biologic advantage inherent to posteri- or tooth shape. The biomechanical behavior of opposing molars was investigated in consideration of different loadcases simulating working, nonworking, and vertical closing micromotions starting in a position close to maximum intercuspation. The resulting stress distribution

Pascal Magne; Med Dent; Urs C. Belser


Usage of tilt-in-space, recline, and elevation seating functions in natural environment of wheelchair users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the usage of powered seating functions, including tilt-in-space, backrest recline, and seat ele- vation, among a group of wheelchair users during their typical daily activities. Twelve individuals who used a power wheel- chair with seating functions participated in the study. They drove their own wheelchair and used the seating functions as needed in their community environment for

Dan Ding; Elizabeth Leister; Rory A. Cooper; Rosemarie Cooper; Shirley G. Fitzgerald; Michael L. Boninger



N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine, a mitochondrial antioxidant, protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from iron overload: relevance to macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual impairment in the elderly in developed countries. AMD patients have ele- vated levels of iron within the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), which may lead to oxidative damage to mitochon- dria, disruption of retinal metabolism, and vision impair- ment or loss. As a possible model for iron-induced AMD, we investigated

Ludmila A. Voloboueva; David W. Killilea; Hani Atamna; Bruce N. Ames



Pheromones and Animal Behaviour: Communication by Smell and Taste by Tristram D. Wyatt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tristram D. Wyatt's scholarly text intricately details ubiquitous chemical communication among animals from a diverse range of species. The Asian ele- phant shares a component of its female sex pheromone with140 species of moth. Thus, evolutionary theory provides the backdrop for an interdisciplinary approach to chemical communication that includes information from neurobiological, hor- monal, behavioral and ecological research. The book's

James V. Kohl


Lyndon Words and Transition Matrices between Elementary, Homogeneous and Monomial Symmetric Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let h, e ,a ndm denote the homogeneous symmetric function, the elementary symmetric function and the monomial symmetric function associated with the par- tition respectively. We give combinatorial interpretations for the coecients that arise in expanding m in terms of homogeneous symmetric functions and the ele- mentary symmetric functions. Such coecients are interpreted in terms of certain classes of bi-brick

Andrius Kulikauskas; Jeffrey B. Remmel



Alternative splicing of Alu exons--two arms are better than one  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alus, primate-specific retroelements, are the most abundant repetitive elements in the human genome. They are composed of two related but distinct monomers, left and right arms. Intronic Alu ele- ments may acquire mutations that generate func- tional splice sites, a process called exonization. Most exonizations occur in right arms of antisense Alu elements, and are alternatively spliced. Here we show

Nurit Gal-Mark; Schraga Schwartz; Gil Ast




Microsoft Academic Search

The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence mod- eling. The diculties are increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statisti- cal theory of




Microsoft Academic Search

The dissipation rate transport equation remains the most uncertain part of turbulence mod- eling. The difficulties are increased when external agencies like rotation prevent straightforward dimensional analysis from determining the correct form of the modelled equation. In this work, the dissipation rate transport equation and subgrid scale models for rotating turbulence are derived from an analytical statisti- cal theory of




The memory-enhancing effects of Euphoria longan fruit extract in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyThe fruit of Euphoria longan (Lour.) Steud. (Sapindaceae) is sweet and edible. Dried Euphoria longan fruit is prescribed as a tonic and for the treatment of forgetfulness, insomnia, or palpitations caused by fright in traditional Chinese medicine. The effects of aqueous extract of Euphoria longan fruit (ELE) on learning and memory and their underlying mechanisms were investigated.

Se Jin Park; Dong Hyun Park; Dong Hyun Kim; Seungjoo Lee; Byung Hoon Yoon; Won Yong Jung; Kyung Tae Lee; Jae Hoon Cheong; Jong Hoon Ryu



Efetividade da reabilitação pulmonar como tratamento coadjuvante da doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Introdução: O paciente portador de DPOC diminui sua atividade física global devido a piora progressiva da função pulmonar como conseqüência de qualquer forma de esforço físico por ele realizado. A reabilitação pulmonar (RP) é utilizada nos EUA e Europa como alternativa terapêutica no tratamento da DPOC. Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade do programa de RP como tratamento coadjuvante da DPOC.




Is Estradiol a Genotoxic Mutagenic Carcinogen?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural hormone 17b-estradiol (E2) induces tumors in var- ious organs of rats, mice, and hamsters. In humans, slightly ele- vated circulating estrogen levels caused either by increased en- dogenous hormone production or by therapeutic doses of estrogen medications increase breast or uterine cancer risk. Several epige- netic mechanisms of tumor induction by this hormone have been proposed based on




Data on the Velocity Slip and Temperature Jump Coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling microfluidics it is necessary to calculate gas flows through micropumps, microvalves and other ele- ments. A heat transfer through a gas in microscales must be also known for modeling of microsystems. Since the size of microsystems is close to the molecular mean free path, the gas rarefaction must be taken into account. If the Knudsen number is moderately small

Felix Sharipov



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The kinematic wave model for the overland flow was coupled with one-dimensional modules for vertical water and solute transport into new model STIR (Solute Transport with Infiltration and Runoff) to simulate surface and subsurface transport of manure-borne pathogens. Finite difference and finite ele...


Dual-Powered Gas Turbine/Electric (GT/E) Commuter Rail Cars: Test, Evaluation and Economics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dual powered gas turbine/electric (GT/E) multiple-unit trains function as electric-powered multiple-unit (EMU) trains on railroad lines where wayside electric power is provided, and as high performance turbine-powered trains over trackage which is not ele...

D. Raskin C. Stark L. T. Klauder



Evaluation of Depression in HIV\\/AIDS Patients Refering to Behavioral Counselling Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV\\/AIDS because of its transmission methods has cultural, social and psychiatric impacts on pa- tients especially in Islamic countries. We investig ated depression frequency in an Iranian referral ce nter for HIV\\/AIDS patients. All patients attending the couns eling centre of Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2006 and 2007 who agreed to participate were enrolled. Depre ssion was measured by Beck

Hamid Emadi Khochak; Mahtab Noorifard; Amir Hosein Kashi; Mehdi Arbabi; Parasto Kheirandish; Banafshe Moradmand Badie; Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad


Validity of specifically applied rare earth elements and compartmental models for estimating flux of undigested plant tissue residues through the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The validity of using rare earth ele- ments as flow markers of undigested residues was eval- uated by comparing mean gastrointestinal residence time (GMRT) of rare earths specifically applied to cot- tonseed hulls (CSH) to that of the indigestible fiber of CSH. Feces were collected from five lambs fed a mineral supplemented diet of CSH containing 52 g CP\\/kg DM

W. C. Ellis; M. J. Wylie; J. H. Matis



A remarkable new species of small falcon from the Quaternary of Cuba (Aves: Falconidae: Falco)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enigmatic small falcon. Falco kurochkini, new species, is de- scribed from postcranial bones from several Quaternary sites in western and central Cuba. It was approximately intermediate in size between F. sparverius and F. columbarius but had proportionately longer and more slender leg ele- ments than any living species of Falco. It is hypothesized that F. kurochkini may have been

William Suárez; Storrs L. Olson



Evaluation of pyrosequencing for assembly of plasmids carrying IS elements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Highly parallel pyrosequencing (PS) is an efficient means to generate sequence data, but read lengths of current instruments are limited to average 450 bases, and library construction involves random fragmentation of the sample. Thus, assembly of sequences containing long repetitive ele...


Composition and Electrical Property Relationships in Polycrystalline Inorganic Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this program is to establish the defect chemistry of compounds whose applicability depends on the types and amounts of ionic and electronic defects. Attention was focused in this project on LiNbO3, a material being studied for a variety of ele...

D. M. Smyth



International Stem Cell Tourism and the Need for Effective Regulation: Part I: Stem Cell Tourism in Russia and India: Clinical Research, Innovative Treatment, or Unproven Hype?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persons with serious and disabling medical conditions have trav- eled abroad in search of stem cell treatments in recent years. However, weak or nonexistent oversight systems in some countries provide insufficient patient protections against unproven stem cell treatments, raising concerns about expo- sure to harm and exploitation. The present article, the first of two, describes and analyzes stem cell tourism

Cynthia B. Cohen; Peter J. Cohen



A Universal Framework for Regulatory Element Discovery across All Genomes and Data Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Deciphering the noncoding regulatory genome has proved a formidable challenge. Despite the wealth of available gene expression data, there currently exists no broadly applicable method for characterizing the regulatory ele- ments that shape the rich underlying dynamics. We present a general framework for detecting such regulatory DNA and RNA motifs that relies on directly assessing the mutual information between

Olivier Elemento; Noam Slonim; Saeed Tavazoie



Study of absorber materials usable on microstrip and their attribute improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for improving properties of ab- sorber materials usable on a microstrip transmission line is proposed. Improvement is obtained by using a metallic sheets and changing a distribution of electric field along the absorber. Suitability of these absorbers as sliding load ele- ments is discussed as well. Experimental verification of pro- posed modification has been done and comparison

Milan Prihoda; Ondrej Moravek; Karel Hoffmann



On a Folk Theory of Society: Children, Evolution, and Mental Representations of Social Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representing and reasoning about the social universe is a major task for the young child, one that almost certainly involves specialized knowledge structures. Individuals in interaction are fundamental elements of sociality, and, unsurprisingly, evolution has prepared children with special-purpose mechanisms for drawing attention to and processing information about persons. Social aggregates are also fundamental ele - ments of human sociality,

Lawrence A. Hirschfeld



Compact Antennas with Reduced Mutual Coupling for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

rinted sinusoidal monopoles are a type of meander line antennas, with smooth curve structure and enhanced perfor- mance, suitable for build- ing compact multi-ele- ment antennas (MEAs). The antennas described here were designed at 2-3 GHz to meet the size and bandwidth con- straints of multimedia sensor networks. Their performance was characterized in terms of electrical size, bandwidth, and broadband

Constantine G. Kakoyiannis; Penelope Gika; Philip Constantinou



Alaska Placer Mining Metals Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thirty-one placer mine sites were visited by EPA and State personnel during August 1997 as the first phase of a study of the occurrence of metals in surface water above and below mines, and in effluent. Field measurements were made of temperature, pH, ele...



Discrete fairing and variational subdivision for freeform surface design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The representation of freeform surfaces by sufficiently refi ned polygonal meshes has become common in many geometric mod- eling applications where complicated objects have to be handled. While working with triangle meshes is flexible and efficient, there are difficulties arising prominently from the lack of infinit esimal smoothness and the prohibitive complexity of highly detailed 3D- models. In this paper

Leif P. Kobbelt; Max Planck



Computer Simulation of the Responses of Human Motoneurons to Composite 1A EPSPS: Effects of Background Firing Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jones, Kelvin E. and Parveen Bawa. Computer simulation of the dependent ionic channels, the resistive and capacitive ele- responses of human motoneurons to composite 1A EPSPS: effects ments of the membrane, and the ionic concentration inside of background firing rate. J. Neurophysiol. 77: 405 - 420, 1997. and outside the cell. None of these factors can be assessed Two compartmental



Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Scholastic Achievement: A Model of Mediation via Academic Enablers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the influence of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on student academic achievement in read- ing and in mathematics in a sample of 146 first- through fourth-grade students, 103 of which were identified as having ADHD and academic problems in reading and\\/or math. A theoretical model was examined using structural equation mod- eling wherein student

Robert J. Volpe; George J. DuPaul; James C. DiPerna



Effect of Uncontrolled Diabetes on Plasma Ghrelin Concentrations and Ghrelin-Induced Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma levels of the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, decrease rapidly on nutrient ingestion and yet are paradoxically ele- vated in rats with hyperphagia induced by streptozotocin- induced diabetes (STZ-DM). In the current work, we investi- gated the mechanisms underlying the relationships among uncontrolled diabetes, food intake, and plasma ghrelin con- centrations in an effort to clarify whether increased ghrelin signaling contributes




The Very High Speed Transit System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Very High Speed Transit or 'VHST' concept was put forward some years ago in response to the search for a pollution-free transport method that could operate at speeds competitive with aircraft. The general principles are relatively straightforward: Ele...

R. M. Salter



Defining health catchment areas in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia: an example demonstrating the utility of geographi- cal information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tool, based on a geographical information system (GIS) approach, has been developed for the location and organization of public health care centers in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The potential of GIS for visualizing and mod- eling available information on health-care has been utilized to produce a \\

Abdulkader A. Murad



Crown openness as influenced by tree and site characteristics for yellow birch, sugar maple, and eastern hemlock  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crown openness (CO) of mature trees influences light transmission within the forest canopy. However, in mod- eling, this variable is often considered constant within species, and its potential regional variability is ignored. The objec- tive of this study was to evaluate if CO values of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.), sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis

Marie-Lou Lefrançois; Marilou Beaudet; Christian Messier



Content Mapping Techniques for Qualitative and Semiqualitative Analysis with the Electron Microbeam Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content mapping of small surface areas with the electron microbeam probe can be used to quickly obtain very effectively both qualitative and quantitative information. An automatic content mapping device is available with the Hitachi Perkin-Elmer XMA-S Ele...

J. S. Solomon W. L. Baun




Microsoft Academic Search

The taxonomic history, distribution, bionomics, systematics, and vector control strategies for the Anoph- eles sundaicus complex are reviewed in relation to malaria epidemiology. The lack of data on the bionomics, insecticide resistance, and vector capacity, as well as the general lack of surveillance and monitoring of potential vector populations, make the development of targeted control measures problematic. It will be




Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Elevation of Nm23-H1 Metastasis Suppressor Expression in Hormone Receptor - Negative Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Reestablishment of metastasis suppressor gene expression may constitute a therapeutic strategy for high- risk breast cancer patients. We previously showed that medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin that has been tested as treatment for advanced breast cancer, ele- vates expression of the Nm23-H1 metastasis suppressor gene in hormone receptor - negative metastatic human breast carcinoma cell lines in vitro via

Diane Palmieri; Douglas O. Halverson; Christine E. Horak; Massimiliano Salerno; Jennifer Johnson; W. Douglas Figg; Melinda Hollingshead; Stephen Hursting; David Berrigan; Seth M. Steinberg; Maria J. Merino; Patricia S. Steeg


ISOCAM images of the 'elephant trunks' in M 16?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used ISOCAM to obtain images of the 'ele- phant trunks' in the M 16 'Eagle nebula' in the two broadband filters LW2 (5 8.5 m) and LW3 (12 18 m). These pillars are clearly seen in both our filters, their emission has a colour temperature in the range 250 320 K. We have also detected bright extended emission

L. Pilbratt; Bruno Altieri; Joris A. D. L. Blommaert; C. V. Malcolm Fridlund; Jan A. Tauber; Martin F. Kessler


Plants used as phytomedicines in sleep disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo A ansiedade e os diferentes graus de distúrbio do sono atingem grande parte da população, representando assim demandas importantes para o uso de fitoterápicos. Entre eles, estão disponíveis evidências para a utilização dos os extratos de camomila, valeriana, passiflora, kava-kava e melissa. Há os que apresentam atividade hipnótica e sedativa, outros em que é observada uma diminuição significativa em

Débora P Veloso; Paula Guidini; Raffael M Comério; Ary G Silva


Effect of Ammonium-supplemented Seawater on Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activities in Host Tissue and Zooxanthellae of Pocillopora damicornis and on Ammonium Uptake Rates of the Zooxanthellae 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host glutamine synthetase activity decreases in Pocillopora dami­ cornis (Linnaeus) following exposure of the coral to seawater containing ele­ vated ammonium (20 jlM). Zooxanthellae isolated from these corals exhibited lower ammonium uptake capacity and glutamine synthetase activity compared with those from the control corals. Ammonium concentration of the sur­ rounding seawater had no effect on the NADPH-dependent glutamate dehy­ drogenase



Applications of Ecological Niche Modeling for Species Delimitation: A Review and Empirical Evaluation Using Day Geckos (Phelsuma) from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the systematic utility of ecological niche modeling is generally well known (e.g., concerning the recog- nition and discovery of areas of endemism for biogeographic analyses), there has been little discussion of applications concerning species delimitation, and to date, no empirical evaluation has been conducted. However, ecological niche mod- eling can provide compelling evidence for allopatry between populations, and can




Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of inbreeding depression, as well as the opportunity costs of inbreeding avoidance, determine whether and which mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance evolve. In African ele- phants, sex-biased dispersal does not lead to the complete separation of male and female relatives, and so individuals may experience selection to recognize kin and avoid inbreed- ing. However, because estrous females are rare




Amorphous Powders of Al-Hf Prepared by Mechanical Alloying.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We synthesized amorphous Al sub 50 Hf sub 50 alloy powder by mechanically alloying an equimolar mixture of crystalline powders of Al and Hf using hexane as a dispersant. We characterized the powder as a function of mechanical-alloying time by scanning ele...

R. B. Schwarz J. W. Hannigan H. Sheinberg T. Tiainen




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O presente artigo busca refletir sobre a freqüente insatisfação observada nas salas de aula e sobre o que é possível fazer para reverter esse quadro. Ele apresenta uma análise da realidade vivida pelo Ensino Fundamental do Colégio Estadual Pedro Viriato Parigot de Souza, Município de Marialva - PR, no ano de 2008, considerando que a situação não é muito

Irene Liesemberg Souto Maior



The Great Outdoors and Beyond: Common Threads in Leadership Training on Land, in the Air, and in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For over 7 years, the Wilderness Education Association (WEA) and three universities have been using a systematic approach to leadership training in the outdoors: the experiential leadership education (ELE) method. The effectiveness of this approach was investigated by an aerospace expert interested in leadership training for isolated groups. A…

Irwin, Cheryl; Phipps, Maurice


Frequent Loss of Heterozygosity on Chromosomes Iq, 5q, and 17p in Human Gastric Carcinomas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, loss or inactivation of genes at specific chromosomal loci has been considered to be one of the important mechanisms during the development of human tumors. In order to identify tumor suppressor genes for gastric carcinoma, we performed restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis on 48 human gastric carcinomas. Alíele losses were investigated for 14 specific loci on chromosomes 1, 5,

Toshiaki Sano; Tetsuhiro Tsujino; Kazuhiro Yoshida; Yusuke Nakamura; Goro Kajiyama; Eiichi Tahar; Minami-ku Kasumi


Electrochemical Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of NiCr20'4 and CoCr20'4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a Bureau of Mines investigation into the standard Gibbs energies of formation Delta Gf, for NiCr2O4 (nickel chromite) and CoCr2O4 (cobalt chromite). High temperature galvanic cells employing stabilized ZrO2 (zirconia) as the solid ele...

S. C. Schaefer



The luminosity constraint on solar neutrino fluxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specific linear combination of the total solar neutrino fluxes must equal the measured solar photon luminosity if nuclear fusion reactions among light ele- ments are responsible for solar energy generation. This luminosity constraint, previously used in a limited form in testing the no neutrino oscillation hypoth- esis, is derived in a generality that includes all of the relevant solar

John N. Bahcall


Face modeling for recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

D Human face models have been widely used in appli- cations such as facial animation, video compressiodcoding, augmented reality, head tracking, facial expression recogni- tion, human action recognition, and face recognition. Mod- eling human faces provides a potential solution to identi- fying faces with variations in illumination, pose, and facial expression. We propose a method of modeling human faces based

Rein-lien Hsu; Anil K. Jain



Formation of collodial Ag precipitates in fused silica by MeV ion implantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formation of Ag nanoclusters in fused silica by MeV ion implantation has been studied. Size and size distributions of nanoclusters depend on dose. These nanoclusters give rise to strong absorption at the surface plasmon wavelength. Implantation at ele...

C. W. White D. S. Zhou R. A. Zuhr R. H. Magruder



Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software (OPAL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure was created to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1. overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost, and technology); 2. preliminary research, acquisition, and familiarisation for available ELE software packages; 3. assessment of these software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4. loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw = 7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment, Crowley et al., 2006), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States, FEMA, USA, 2003) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach, Lindholm et al., 2007) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic, and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data.

Daniell, J. E.



The OPAL Project: Open source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure has been developed to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1) Overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost and technology); 2) Preliminary research, acquisition and familiarisation with all available ELE software packages; 3) Assessment of these 30+ software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4) Loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data. Keywords: OPAL, displacement-based, DBELA, earthquake loss estimation, earthquake loss assessment, open source, HAZUS

Daniell, James



Analysis of a Bonded Joint in a Composite Tube Subjected to Torsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress state in the bonded joint region of a laminated composite tube subjected to torsional and hygrothermal loadings is analyzed. A finite ele ment solution technique is utilized. The composite can be modeled ply-by-ply, and the adhesive as a separate elastic layer. All six stress components are pre sent in a generally orthotropic material subjected to torsion, and the

Stanley R. Graves; Donald F. Adams



Duty Cycle Aware Application Design using FPGAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duty cycle is the proportion of time a device is active. Therefore, based on the duty cycle specification, applica- tion (implemented using the device) execution can be mod- eled as alternate active and inactive phases. For FPGAs, during inactive phases, energy is dissipated due to leakage current and clock signal distribution. If the duration of the inactive phases is significantly

Sumit Mohanty; Viktor K. Prasanna



Satellite and Radar Analysis of Mesoscale Features in the Tropics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tropical convection in the Florida, Cuba and upper Bahamas areas are studied using once-daily ESSA 5 and 7 satellite cloud mosaics during the period 14 June to 22 October 1968. The approach utilizes cloud cover information which are tabulated for each ele...

H. P. Gerrish



Multiobjective optimization and evolutionary algorithms for the application mapping problem in multiprocessor system-on-chip design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sesame is a software framework which aims at developing a mod- eling and simulation environment for the efficient design space explo- ration of heterogeneous embedded systems. Since Sesame recognizes separate application and architecture models within a single system simulation, it needs an explicit mapping step to relate these models for co-simulation. The design trade-offs during the mapping stage, namely the

Cagkan Erbas; Selin Cerav-erbas; Andy D. Pimentel



Adaptive Distributed Metamodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulating and optimizing complex physical systems is known to be a task of considerable time and computational complexity. As a result, metamod- eling techniques for the efficient exploration of the design space have become standard practice since they reduce the number of simulations needed. How- ever, conventionally such metamodels are constructed sequentially in a one-shot manner, without exploiting inherent parallelism.

Dirk Gorissen; Karel Crombecq; Wouter Hendrickx; Tom Dhaene



Multidimensional Data Modeling for Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging area of business process intelligence attempts to enhance the analytical capabilities of business process management systems by employing data warehousing and mining technologies. This paper presents an approach to re-engineering the business process mod- eling in conformity with the multidimensional data model. Since the business process and the multidimensional model are driven by rather di! erent objectives and

Svetlana Mansmann; Thomas Neumuth; Marc H. Scholl



Verification of analog\\/mixed-signal circuits using labeled hybrid petri nets  

Microsoft Academic Search

System on a chip design results in the integration of digi- tal, analog, and mixed-signal circuits on the same substrate which further complicates the already dicult validation problem. This paper presents a new model, labeled hybrid Petri nets (LHPNs), that is developed to be capable of mod- eling such a heterogeneous set of components. This paper also describes a compiler

Scott Little; Nicholas Seegmiller; David Walter; Chris J. Myers; Tomohiro Yoneda



Analysis of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase families of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests functional diversification of chromatin modification among multicellular eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence similarity and profile searching tools were used to analyze the genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis ele- gans and Drosophila melanogaster for genes encoding three families of histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins and three families of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) proteins. Plants, animals and fungi were found to have a single member of each of three subfamilies

Ritu Pandey; Andreas Muller; Carolyn A. Napoli; David A. Selinger; Craig S. Pikaard; Eric J. Richards; Judith Bender; David W. Mount; Richard A. Jorgensen



A theophylline responsive riboswitch based on helix slipping controls gene expression in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riboswitches are newly discovered regulatory ele- ments which control a wide set of basic metabolic pathways. They consist solely of RNA, sense their ligand in a preformed binding pocket and perform a conformational switch in response to ligand binding resulting in altered gene expression. We have utilized the enormous potential of RNA for mol- ecular sensing and conformational changes to

Beatrix Suess; Barbara Fink; Christian Berens; Regis Stentz; Wolfgang Hillen



United States Security Policy in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter how friendly or well intentioned the ele...

S. R. Nichols H. J. Wiarda



Caracteristicas do consumo de energia eletrica numa destilaria de aguardente. (Characteristics of the electric power consumption in a rum distillery).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present work was carried out to study the aspects related to the consumption of electric power by Destilaria Indiana Botucatu, State of Sao Paulo - Brazil, during the harvest 1982/83 and 1983/84. The studies were carried out for comparison between ele...

C. R. Assumpcao



Discovering Information Behavior in Sense Making: II. The Social  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, the second of three, used the methods of ble impacts of several different research views on infor- ethnography of communication to explore the social ele- mation behavior in relation to other aspects of people's ments of information behavior in sense making of partici- lives. Part I ( Solomon, 1997a ) provides an overview of pants in the annual

Paul Solomon



Emergent Management Morality: Explaining Corporate Corruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

s the twentieth century closed out and a new one dawned, a great wave of corporate scandals swept across the United States. They brought financial ruin and bank- ruptcy to leading firms, led to widespread employee lay- offs, decimated workers' pensions, wiped out untold millions of dollars of shareholders' investments, shook investors' confidence, and greatly ele- vated public mistrust of

William C. Frederick



Electroactive Polymers for Smart Skin Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This program investigated the micro structure-properties relationship in the newly discovered high performance electroactive polymers: high energy irradiated P(VDF-TrFE) copolymers and P(VDF-TrFE) based terpolymers. The uniqueness of this class of new ele...

Q. Zhang



The role of educational practice and the control of Hansens disease in the municipality of Ariquemes, state of Rondônia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar o papel das ações educativas em saúde específicas para hanseníase em relação aos fatores que influenciam o usuário a buscar o serviço, bem como a forma com que ele adquiriu o conhecimento sobre hanseníase. A população deste estudo foi constituída por casos novos de hanseníase do município de Ariquemes, Rondônia, do primeiro semestre

Sônia Carvalho de Santana; Emília Sayuri Ueda; Pieter A. M. Schreuder; Márcia Gomide


Bayesian Inference on Multiscale Models for Poisson Intensity Estimation: Applications to Photon-Limited Image Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an improved statistical model for an- alyzing Poisson processes, with applications to photon-limited imaging. We build on previous work, adopting a multiscale representation of the Poisson process in which the ratios of the underlying Poisson intensities (rates) in adjacent scales are mod- eled as mixtures of conjugate parametric distributions. Our main contributions include: 1) a rigorous and robust

Stamatios Lefkimmiatis; Petros Maragos; George Papandreou



Efficient Learning of Relational Object Class Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an efficient method for learning part-based object class models. The models include location and scale relations between parts, as well as part appearance. Mod- els are learnt from raw object and background images, rep- resented as an unordered set of features extracted using an interest point detector. The object class is generatively mod- eled using a simple Bayesian

Aharon Bar-hillel; Daphna Weinshall



Cell to Cell Communication in Response to Mechanical Stress via Bilateral Release of Atp and Utp in Polarized Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway epithelia are positioned at the inter- face between the body and the environment, and gener- ate complex signaling responses to inhaled toxins and other stresses. Luminal mechanical stimulation of air- way epithelial cells produces a propagating wave of ele- vated intracellular Ca 2 1 that coordinates components of the integrated epithelial stress response. In polarized airway epithelia, this response

László Homolya; Thomas H. Steinberg; Richard C. Boucher



Climate change as a threat to tourism in the Alps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switzerland's economy depends heavily on tourism. For many alpine areas in the coun- try, winter tourism is the most important source of income, and snow-reliability is one of the key ele- ments of the offers made by tourism in the Alps. The financial viability of winter tourism, however, depends on sufficient snow conditions. The lack of snow at the end

Hans Elsasser; Rolf Bürki



PBPK Modeling of the Percutaneous Absorption of Perchloroethylene from a Soil Matrix in Rats and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a widely used volatile organic chemi- cal. Exposures to PCE are primarily through inhalation and dermal contact. The dermal absorption of PCE from a soil matrix was compared in rats and humans using real-time MS\\/MS exhaled breath technology and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) mod- eling. Studies with rats were performed to compare the effects of loading volume,

Torka S. Poet; Karl K. Weitz; Richard A. Gies; Jeffrey A. Edwards; Karla D. Thrall; Richard A. Corley; Hanafi Tanojo; Xiaoying Hui; Howard I. Maibach; Ronald C. Wester



Goal-directed feature learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a subset of available sensory information is useful for decision making. Classical models of the brain's sensory system, such as generative models, consider all ele- ments of the sensory stimuli. However, only the action-relevant components of stimuli need to reach the motor control and decision making structures in the brain. To learn these action- relevant stimuli, the part of

Cornelius Weber; Jochen Triesch



Mechanisms of bioprosthetic heart valve failure: Fatigue causes collagen denaturation and glycosaminoglycan loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioprosthetic heart valve (BPHV) degeneration, characterized by extracellular matrix deterioration, remod- eling, and calcification, is an important clinical problem ac- counting for thousands of surgeries annually. Here we re- port for the first time, in a series of in vitro accelerated fa- tigue studies (5-500 million cycles) with glutaraldehyde fixed porcine aortic valve bioprostheses, that the mechanical function of cardiac

Narendra Vyavahare; Matthew Ogle; Frederick J. Schoen; Robert Zand; D. Claire Gloeckner; Michael Sacks; Robert J. Levy



Scaling ozone responses of forest trees to the ecosystem level in a changing climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many uncertainties remain regarding how climate change will alter the structure and function of forest ecosystems. At the Aspen FACE experiment in northern Wisconsin, we are attempting to understand how an aspen\\/birch\\/maple forest ecosystem responds to long-term exposure to ele- vated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ), alone and in combination, from establishment onward. We examine

D. F. Karnosky; K. S. Pregitzer; D. R. Zar; M. E. Kubiske; G. R. Hendrey; D. Weinstein; M. Nosal; K. E. Percy



Long Life Stable Zinc Electrode for Alkaline Secondary Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of curing temperature on the performance of Teflonated zinc oxide was continued. Results of 30% D.D., 60% D.D. and charge rates of both .3 and .6C, show that the curing temperature should be no higher than 300C, and probably closer to 275C. Ele...

J. Goodkin



Their Turn to Teach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As all educators realize at some point in their careers, the best way to learn something is to teach it. This is also an excellent way to demonstrate a sound understanding of a topic. So, when the authors' physics students spent time teaching at local ele

Moffat, Ann G.; Schmidt, Ryan




Microsoft Academic Search

Three types of ecological events (crushing, walking and running) have been considered. Their acoustic properties have been mod- eled following the physics-based approach. Starting from an ex- isting physically-based impact model, we superimposed to it the dynamic and temporal stochastic characteristics governing crush- ing events. The resulting model was triggered by control rules realizing typical walking and running time patterns.

Federico Fontana; Roberto Bresin



Tracking juvenile fish movement and nursery contribution within arid coastal embayments via otolith microchemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasingly common approach for examining the movement of fish involves ele- mental fingerprinting, which exploits variation in the chemical composition of otoliths induced by environmental gradients. We assessed the elemental signatures of recently deposited material in the otoliths of juvenile California halibut Paralichthys californicus collected from different zones along the main axis of coastal embayments of southern California, USA,

F. Joel Fodrie; Sharon Z. Herzka



E-Bomb: The Key Element of the Contemporary Military-Technical Revolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The contemporary military rivalry is driven mostly by the ongoing military technical revolution. In particular the weapons used on the future battlefield will play an important role in military affairs. Which weapons can play a key role in the future. Ele...

N. Ertekin



Effective Bayesian Inference for Stochastic Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a stochastic version of a general pur- pose functional programming language as a method of mod- eling stochastic processes. The language contains random choices, conditional statements, structured values, defined functions, and recursion. By imagining an experiment in which the program is \\

Daphne Koller; David A. Mcallester; Avi Pfeffer



Web Navigation Prediction Using Multiple Evidence Combination and Domain Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Web can be applied effectively in many important applications, 5 such as web search, latency reduction, and personalization sys- 6 tems. Such application has traditional tradeoffs between mod- 7 eling complexity and prediction accuracy. In this paper, we 8 study several hybrid models that combine different classification 9 techniques, namely, Markov models, artificial neural networks 10 (ANNs), and the

Mamoun A. Awad; Latifur R. Khan



Numerical Solution of Stochastic Differential Equations in Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an introduction and survey of numerical solution meth- ods for stochastic differential equations. The solutions will be continuous stochastic processes that represent diffusive dynamics, a common modeling assumption for fi- nancial systems. We include a review of fundamental concepts, a description of ele- mentary numerical methods and the concepts of convergence and order for stochastic differential equation

Timothy Sauer


Modeling and Simulation for Mission Operations Work System Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAARTEN SIERHUIS is a senior research scientist at the Research Institute for Ad- vanced Computer Science (RIACS is an institute of the Universities Space Research Association at NASA's Ames Research Center), where he manages the Brahms project on modeling and simulating work practice. His research interests are multiagent mod- eling languages and their application to the development of human-centered systems.

Maarten Sierhuis; William J. Clancey; Chin Seah; Jay P. Trimble; Michael H. Sims



An Effi cient Extension of Elevation Maps for Outdoor Terrain Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Elevation maps are a popular data structure for representing the environment of a mobile robot operating outdoors or on not-flat surfaces. Ele vation maps store in each cell of a discrete grid the height of the surface the corresponding pl ace in the environment. The use of this 2 1 2 -dimensional representation, however, is disadvantageous when it is

Patrick Pfaff; Wolfram Burgard


Using neural networks for relational learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relational learners need to be able to handle the information contained in a set of related tuples. Most current relational learners are biased either towards the use of aggregate functions that summarize that set, or towards checking the existence of specic kinds of ele- ments in that set. Learning patterns that contain a combination of both is a challen- ging

Hendrik Blockeel; Werner Uwents



Climatic Atlas of the Arctic Seas 2004: Part 1. Database of the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas - Oceanography and Marine Biology. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 58.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Atlas presents primary data on meteorology, oceanography, and hydrobiology from the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas, which were collected by scientists from different countries during the period 1810-2001. The data format that we use in the ele...

A. Braunstein A. Buzan A. Zuyev G. Matishov L. Pavlova N. Adrov O. Fadyakin O. Katamusko S. Timofeev V. Golubev



Imide/Graphite Composite Degradation Mechanism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of the Phase I research undertaken by Foster-Miller, Inc. to establish at the molecular level, the mechanism of degradation of composites employing bismaleimide (BMI) resins when in contact with a corroding metal in an ele...

M. Druy J. Gassner M. Groleau R. Kovar P. Wilson



Hamiltonian lattice dynamical systems form a special but important class of models in the phys- ical sciences. They arise naturally in the study of crystals in solid state physics, as many-particle models for statistical mechanics, as spatial discretisations of partial dierential  

Microsoft Academic Search

equations, mod- eling coupled oscillators in engineering problems and even as idealized DNA molecules in biology. The behavior of such systems can be highly complicated and little of it is well understood. This proposal aims at obtaining a number of new and rigorous results for Hamiltonian lattice systems. A lattice dynamical system can be thought of as a large configuration

Bob Rink



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Objetiva-se neste estudo refletir sobre os sentidos que o mito de João Grilo - bastante difundido no sertão nordestino - assume no imaginário dos sujeitos\\/atores que, direta ou indiretamente, com ele se identificam, perpetuando-o ao longo dos tempos. Aos que detém o poder e\\/ou são abastados, o mito - ao denunciar seus vícios - representa uma ameaça, apontando para

André Adriano Brun


Projected ecosystem impact of the Prairie Heating and CO 2 Enrichment experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • The Prairie Heating and CO 2 Enrichment (PHACE) experiment has been initiated at a site in southern Wyoming (USA) to simulate the impact of warming and ele- vated atmospheric CO 2 on ecosystem dynamics for semiarid grassland ecosystems. •T he DAYCENT ecosystem model was parametrized to simulate the impact of elevated CO 2 at the open-top chamber (OTC)

William J. Parton; Jack A. Morgan; Guiming Wang; Stephen Del Grosso



Department of Computer Science, UTSA Technical Report: CS-TR-2008-016 MultiPath Planning for Mobile Element to Prolong the Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile elements, which can traverse the deployment area and convey the observed data from static sensor nodes to a base station, have been introduced for ener gy efficient data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). However, most existing solutions o nly plan a single path for the mobile ele- ment, which may lead to quick energy depletion for the sensornodes

Dakai Zhu; Yifeng Guo; Ali Saman Tosun


Stable isotope composition of plants and peat from Arctic mire and geothermal area in Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stable hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen isotope compositions and ele? ments ratios are presented for peat and plant samples (liverworts, mosses, sedge, willow, grass) from two contrasting ecosystems in Iceland: Arctic mire at the northwest coast (Drangajökull) and a geothermal area (Kerlingarfjöll). In a peat core from the Arctic mire excellent correlation between different pairs of elements H?C, H?N and

Grzegorz SKRZYPEK; Debajyoti PAUL; UTSA Circle



A probabilistic approach to unit selection for corpus-based speech synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel statistical approach to corpus-based speech synthesis. Unit selection is directed by probabilistic models for F0 contour, duration, and spectral char- acteristics of the synthesis units. The F0 targets for units are modeled by statistical additive models, and duration targets are modeled by regression trees. Spectral targets for a unit is mod- eled by

Shinsuke Sakai; Han Shu



Design and Modeling of a 3-D Magnetic Actuator for Magnetic Microbead Manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation, mod- eling, and analyses of a hexapole magnetic actuator that is capable of 3-D manipulation of a magnetic microbead. The magnetic actu- ator employs six sharp-tipped magnetic poles placed in hexapole configuration, six actuating coils, and a magnetic yoke. The mag- netic poles concentrate the magnetic flux generated by the coils to the workspace,

Zhipeng Zhang; Chia-Hsiang Menq



Aesthetics in Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses the important role that aesthetics may play in software engineering. We begin with an exploration of the practical importance of ele- gance for both the designers and users of software systems, and argue that it pro- motes software that is technically superior and a pleasure to use. Second, be- cause of the abstract and formal character of

Bruce J. MacLennan


Dentate Granule Cell Neurogenesis Is Increased by Seizures and Contributes to Aberrant Network Reorganization in the Adult Rat Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dentate granule cell layer of the rodent hippocampal formation has the distinctive property of ongoing neurogen- esis that continues throughout adult life. In both human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent models of limbic epilepsy, this same neuronal population undergoes extensive remod- eling, including reorganization of mossy fibers, dispersion of the granule cell layer, and the appearance of granule cells

Jack M. Parent; Timothy W. Yu; Rebecca T. Leibowitz; Daniel H. Geschwind; Robert S. Sloviter; Daniel H. Lowenstein



Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a project carried out at one University in New Zealand aimed at supporting students in their self-directed language learning with the help of an Electronic Learning Environment (ELE). The programme was designed for use in the University's Self-Access Centre and contains a number of features that support learners at different stages in their self- directed learning process.

Hayo Reinders


Graphical Definition of In-Place Transformations in the Eclipse Modeling Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Eclipse Modeling Framework (EMF) provides a mod- eling and code generation framework for Eclipse applications based on structured data models. Although EMF provides basic operations for modifying EMF based models, a framework for graphical definition of rule-based modification of EMF models is still missing. In this paper we present a framework for in-place EMF model transformation based on graph

Enrico Biermann; Karsten Ehrig; Christian Köhler; Günter Kuhns; Gabriele Taentzer; Eduard Weiss



Esteróides anabolizantes no esporte  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Os hormônios esteróides anabólicos androgênicos (EAA) compreendem a testosterona e seus derivados. Eles são pro- duzidos nos testículos e no córtex adrenal, e promovem as características sexuais secundárias associadas à masculi- nidade. Na medicina, os EAA são utilizados geralmente no tratamento de sarcopenias, do hipogonadismo, do câncer de mama e da osteoporose. Nos esportes, são utilizados para o aumento

Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva; Ricardo Danielski; Mauro Antônio Czepielewski



High Technology Military Postal Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mail to military personnel overseas is delivered essentially in the same way it was during World War I. The use of electronic mail has been growing in private industry and the United States Postal Service recently began an international application of ele...

W. E. Duey



Technology exploration for graphene nanoribbon FETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene nanoribbon FETs (GNRFETs) are promising devices for beyond-CMOS nanoelectronics because of their excellent carrier transport properties and potential for large scale processing and fabrication. This paper combines atomistic quantum transport mod- eling with circuit simulation to perform technology exploration for GNRFET circuits. A quantitative study of the effects of variations and defects on the performance and reliability of GNRFET

Mihir R. Choudhury; Youngki Yoon; Jing Guo; Kartik Mohanram



Improving Electrical Engineering Education at the American University of Sharjah through Continuous Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The electrical engineering (ELE) program at the American University of Sharjah (AUS) is designed to fulfill the ABET criteria. Several assessment tools are used to qualitatively and quantitatively measure the level of achievement of the program's educational objectives and outcomes. These tools include alumni, employer, and graduate advisor…

Al-Nashash, Hasan; Khaliq, Abdul; Qaddoumi, Nasser; Al-Assaf, Yousef; Assaleh, Khaled; Dhaouadi, Rached; El-Tarhuni, Mohamed



Pathogenicity islands: a molecular toolbox for bacterial virulence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are distinct genetic ele- ments on the chromosomes of a large number of bacterial pathogens. PAIs encode various virulence factors and are normally absent from non-pathogenic strains of the same or closely related species. PAIs are considered to be a subclass of genomic islands that are acquired by horizontal gene transfer via transduction, conjugation and transformation,

Ohad Gal-Mor; B. Brett Finlay



Development of an Untuned Cavity as a High Effective Temperature Microwave Calibration Source.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the development and characterization of an untuned cavity as a microwave source of high effective radiometric temperature. The source is intended for use in the calibration of the Fabry-Perot spectrometers forming part of the ECE (Ele...

P. B. Whibberley P. G. Quincey J. R. Birch D. V. Bartlett



Comparison of functional biochemical, and morphometric alterations in the lungs of four rat strains and hamsters following repeated intratracheal instillation of crocidolite asbestos  

EPA Science Inventory

Four rat strains and hamsters were exposed to 0.7mg crocidolite asbestos/g lung once/wk for 3weeks by intratracheal instillation (IT). Pulmonary function, biochemistry, and morphometry were evaluated at 3 and 6-months after IT. Each rat strain, but not the hamster, exhibited ele...



Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the microanalysis of protein, obtained from isolated tissue ele- ments, in the range of 500 pug-500 mug. The method entails solubilization of cellular pro- tein with phosphoric acid and heat after extraction of acid-soluble compounds, lipids, and RNA. A procedure for the extraction and recovery of cellular RNA by the use of 40% tri- chloroacetic




Elastic properties of external cortical bone in the craniofacial skeleton of the rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of elastic properties and of their variation in the cortical bone of the craniofacial skeleton is indispensable for creating accurate finite-ele- ment models to explore the biomechanics and adaptation of the skull in primates. In this study, we measured elas- tic properties of the external cortex of the rhesus mon- key craniofacial skeleton, using an ultrasonic technique. Twenty-eight cylindrical

Qian Wang; Paul C. Dechow



Encapsulation Studies and Planar Device Fabrication in Gallium Arsenide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low temperature photoluminescence and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) are used to study SIO2 and Si3N4 as encapsulants for high temperature annealing of GaAs. These encapsulants are used in the fabrication of planar diodes in GaAs, and the resulting ele...

M. J. Helix



The ENCODE Project at UC Santa Cruz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is to identify all functional ele- ments in the human genome. The pilot phase is for comparison of existing methods and for the devel- opment of new methods to rigorously analyze a defined 1% of the human genome sequence. Experimental datasets are focused on the origin of replication, DNase I

Daryl J. Thomas; Kate R. Rosenbloom; Hiram Clawson; Angie S. Hinrichs; Heather Trumbower; Brian J. Raney; Donna Karolchik; Galt P. Barber; Rachel A. Harte; Jennifer Hillman-jackson; Robert M. Kuhn; Brooke L. Rhead; Kayla E. Smith; Archana Thakkapallayil; Ann S. Zweig; David Haussler; W. James Kent



Protocols for Processes: Programming in the Large for Open Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling and enactment of business processes is being recog- nized as key to modern information management. The expansion of Web services has increased the attention given to processes, be- cause processes are how services are composed and put to good use. However, current approaches are inadequate for e xibly mod- eling and enacting processes. These approaches take a logically

Munindar P. Singh; Amit K. Chopra; Nirmit Desai; Ashok U. Mallya



Medida de Calor Espec´ ifico e Lei de Resfriamento de Newton: Um Refinamento na An ´ alise dos Dados Experimentais (Measurement of Specific Heat and Newton's Law of Cooling: A Refinement in the Analysis of the Experimental Data)  

Microsoft Academic Search

opria func ¸ ˜ ao que descreve a lei de resfriamento aos dados possibilitou a comparac ¸ ˜ ao imediata dos parˆ ametros obtidos experimentalmente com aqueles previstos pela teoria, e ha uma grande concordancia entre eles. A aplicac ¸ ˜ ao deste refinamento na determinac ¸ ˜ ao do calor espec´ ifico do alum´ inio indica que tal procedi-

Wilton Pereira da Silva; W. Precker




EPA Science Inventory

The paper gives an overview of a number of key projects in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) particulate research and development program having applicability to industry. For electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it gives results of work on large-diameter discharge ele...



Microsoft Academic Search

The fossil record of conodonts may be among the best of any group of organisms, but it is biased nonethe- less. Pre- and syndepositional biases, including predation and scavenging of carcasses, current activity, reworking and bioturbation, cause loss, redistribution and breakage of ele- ments. These biases may be exacerbated by the way in which rocks are collected and treated in



El consumo de los hogares colombianos, 2006-2007: Estimación de sistemas de demanda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using household data from the 2006 Income and Expenditure survey, we provide a new estimation of demand systems for Colombia. We estimate three different specifications of demand systems, namely, the Linear Expenditure System (LES), the Extended Linear Expenditure System (ELES) and the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). We also calculate expenditure, income and price elasticities for different groups of goods.

Darwin Cortés; Jorge Eduardo Pérez



A teoria da percolação aplicada às galáxias aneladas peculiares  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formulado no final da década de 50, o modelo de percolação concentra-se em descrever o meio poroso, que será visto neste trabalho como uma rede de canais aleatórios, por onde escoa um fluido determinístico. Se o número de canais for suficientemente grande, então eles estarão ligados e o meio se tornará permeável à passagem do fluido. Neste caso, dizemos que

P. C. R. Poppe; V. A. F. Martin; N. G. F. de Medeiros; M. Faúndez-Abans; M. Oliveira-Abans



Uma nova versão da escala de autoconceito: Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS-2)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. É apresentada a adaptação portuguesa da escala americana Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS-2), recentemente revista e publicada em versão reduzida (Piers & Hertzberg, 2002). São referenciados os estudos que, entre nós, têm vindo a ser realizados com a versão adaptada em anterior estudo (Veiga, 1989), bem como os novos elementos por eles trazidos. São apresentadas as propriedades psicométricas da

Feliciano H. Veiga



B for bureaucracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bureaucracy pattern is a recurring design theme used to implement hierarchical object structures which allow interaction with every level of the hierarchy and maintain their inner con- sistency themselves. It is a composite pattern which is based on the Composite, Mediator, Chain of Responsibility and Observer pattern. Composite patterns require new presentation and mod- eling techniques since their complexity

Howard Wolinsky



Ciguatera poisoning: an unwelcome vacation experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A married couple in their late 50s trav- eled to Costa Rica on vacation. They both dined frequently on lo- cal fish. While in the coun - try, they developed nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, with up to 10 bowel movements per day. These symptoms were followed by tingling of the extremi - ties and a sensation of \\

F. David



Band Systems of Alkali Vapors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of band edges of the molecules, Na2, K2, NaK, NaCs, LiK, LiRb, LiCs, and NaRb are arranged in edge schemes. The vibrational quanta of the base terms and the upper terms can be approximately determined. Viewpoints are produced for interpreting ele...

W. Weizel M. Kulp



Bayesian Matrix Factorization with Side Information and Dirichlet Process Mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix factorization is a fundamental technique in machine learning that is applicable to collaborative filtering, informa- tion retrieval and many other areas. In collaborative filtering and many other tasks, the objective is to fill in missing ele- ments of a sparse data matrix. One of the biggest challenges in this case is filling in a column or row of the

Ian Porteous; Arthur Asuncion; Max Welling



Permeability barriers to embryo cryopreservation of Pectinophora gossypiella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The aim of this study was to develop a method to cryopreserve the embryos of the pink bollworm moth, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders). Previously developed dipteran cryopreservation protocols were not directly adaptable to use with the embryos of this lepidopteran species. Physiochemical and ele...


Retroelements and Genetic Instability in Breast Cancer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LINEl is a mammalian retroelement that contributes to genomic instability. The full extent of LINE-i mobility in somatic tissues and tumors is not known. L1 expression is extremely low in differentiated cells except for testis, but it is significantly ele...

V. P. Belancio P. L. Deininger




Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the disch arge, ele ctrical conductivity, cationic content, and isotopic composition of glac ier-river water indicate that drainage of the lake dammed at the margin of the glacier Austre Okstindb reen, Okstindan, Norway, is prec eded by disru ption of the glacier'S drain age system (s). Annual studies over a period of 12 years have demonstrated that intense




Finite Domain Constraint Solver Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an abstract framework for learning a finite domain constraint solver mod­ eled by a set of operators enforcing a consistency. The behavior of the consistency to be learned is taken as the set of examples on which the learn­ ing process is applied. The best possible expres­ sion of this operator in a given language

Arnaud Lallouet; Thi-bich-hanh Dao; Andrei Legtchenko; Abdelali Ed-dbali



A risk minimization framework for information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a probabilistic information retrieval framework in which the retrieval problem is formally treated as a statistical decision problem. In this framework, queries and documents are modeled using statistical language models, user preferences are mod- eled through loss functions, and retrieval is cast as a risk minimization proble m. We discuss how this framework can unify existing retrieval

Chengxiang Zhai; John D. Lafferty



Distinguishing features from outliers in automatic Kriging-based filtering of MBES data: a comparative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi beam echo sounding is the state of the art way for surveying sea bottoms. The ele- vation of the sea ?oor is obtained strip wise by measuring the time it takes for sound signals, emitted simultaneously in difierent directions, to travel to the sea bottom and back. In this paper we compare various ways of flltering erroneous soundings from

Peter Bottelier; Christian Briese; Natasha Hennis; Roderik Lindenbergh; Norbert Pfeifer


Advancement of High Temperature Protective Coatings for Columbium Alloys (II).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the program was (a) to advance and optimize the Cr-Ti-Si coating process for laboratory scale and pilot scale coating furnaces, (b) to determine the protective reliability of the Cr-Ti-Si coating, and (c) to investigate the effects of ele...

D. B. Warmuth J. D. Gadd R. A. Jefferys



Türkiye'de ve Yükselen Piyasa Ekonomilerinde Is Çevrimleri (Business Cycles in Turkey and in Emerging Market Economies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is çevrimlerinin tanim ve özelliklerinin arastirilmasi modern makroekonomi kuraminda önemli bir yer tutmaktadir. Bu çalismamizda Türkiye’de ve yükselen piyasa ekonomilerinde is çevrimlerinin gerek ampirik gerekse teorik yönden ele alip ilk olarak tarih ve süre araliklarinin belirlenmesi için kullanilan yöntemleri ve Türkiye açisindan uygulamalarini inceleyecegiz. Ikincisi, Türkiye gibi diger yükselen piyasa ekonomilerinde yasanan is çevrimlerinin ayirtedici özelliklerini (stylized facts) ve kaynaklarini

Sumru Altug



Common Infant and Newborn Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Vietnamese ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (português) When Should I Call My Baby's Doctor? Quando ...


Common Cold - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  


... ????) French (français) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Portuguese (português) Russian (???????) Spanish (español) Tagalog (Tagalog) Vietnamese (Tiê?ng ... Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Portuguese (português) Cover Your Cough English Cubrase quando tossir - português ( ...


Fluorine speciation analysis using reverse phase liquid chromatography coupled off-line to continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (CS-MAS): identification and quantification of novel fluorinated organic compounds in environmental and biological samples.  


Driven by increasing demand for the monitoring of industrial perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), the identification of novel fluorine containing compounds (FOCs) and the tracking of organofluorine drugs and their degradation products, there is a clear need for sensitive, fluorine-specific detection of unknown FOCs. Here we report the first ever direct fluorine-specific (speciation) method; capable of individually detecting untargeted FOCs in environmental and biological samples through the application of continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (CS-MAS) using a commercial CS-AAS. Two model FOCs (2,4,6, trifluorobenzoic acid (TFBA) and 5-fluoroindol-5-carboxylic acid (FICA)) were used, achieving fluorine-specific detection across a range of 0.1 to 300 ng/mL fluorine, corresponding to a limit of detection of 4 pg F and 5.26 nM for both compounds. Both TFBA and FICA showed a similar response to CS-MAS detection, potentially enabling the quantification of fluorine content in novel FOCs without having molecular standards available. This paper also reports the use of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled off-line with CS-MAS for the identification of single organofluorines in a mixture of FOCs via fraction collection. The linear range of both FOCs was determined to be from 1 to 500 ng/mL. The limits of detection of those species were just above 1 ng/mL (100 pg) and can therefore compete with targeted analytical methods such as ESI-MS. Finally, as a proof of principle the analysis of a fluoride-containing groundwater sample from Ghana demonstrated that this method can be used in the detection of novel FOCs, with identification achieved through parallel ESI-MS. Coupled HPLC-CS-MAS/ESI-MS is the first analytical methodology capable of selectively detecting and identifying novel FOCs, making possible the quantification of all fluorine containing compounds in one sample. This is the necessary analytical requirement to perform fluoronomics. PMID:22686502

Qin, Zhiwei; McNee, David; Gleisner, Heike; Raab, Andrea; Kyeremeh, Kwaku; Jaspars, Marcel; Krupp, Eva; Deng, Hai; Feldmann, Jörg



Electrostatic Similarities between Protein and Small Molecule Ligands Facilitate the Design of Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

One of the underlying principles in drug discovery is that a biologically active compound is complimentary in shape and molecular recognition features to its receptor. This principle infers that molecules binding to the same receptor may share some common features. Here, we have investigated whether the electrostatic similarity can be used for the discovery of small molecule protein-protein interaction inhibitors (SMPPIIs). We have developed a method that can be used to evaluate the similarity of electrostatic potentials between small molecules and known protein ligands. This method was implemented in a software called EleKit. Analyses of all available (at the time of research) SMPPII structures indicate that SMPPIIs bear some similarities of electrostatic potential with the ligand proteins of the same receptor. This is especially true for the more polar SMPPIIs. Retrospective analysis of several successful SMPPIIs has shown the applicability of EleKit in the design of new SMPPIIs.

Zhang, Kam Y. J.



Screening for vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in older persons1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vitamin B-12 deficiency is usually accompanied by elevated concentrations of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Folate deficiency also results in ele- vated tHcy. Measurement of these metabolites can be used to screen for functional vitamin B-12 or folate deficiency. Objective: We assessed the prevalence of vitamin B-12 and folate deficiency in a population-based study (n =

Robert Clarke; Helga Refsum; Jacqueline Birks; John Grimley Evans; Carole Johnston; Paul Sherliker; Joern Schneede; Joseph McPartlin; Ebba Nexo; John M Scott


Enhancing leptin response by preventing SH2-containing phosphatase 2 interaction with Ob receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leptin is an adipocyte-derived cytokine that regulates food intake and body weight via interaction with its Ob receptor (ObR). Serum leptin levels are chronically ele- vated in obese humans, suggesting that obesity may be asso- ciated with leptin resistance and the inability to generate an adequate ObR response. Evidence suggests that transcrip- tional activation of target genes by STAT3 (signal




An Entamoeba histolytica LINE\\/SINE Pair Inserts at Common Target Sites Cleaved by the Restriction Enzyme-Like LINE-Encoded Endonuclease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-long-terminal-repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons (also called long interspersed repetitive ele- ments (LINEs)) are among the oldest retroelements. Here we describe the properties of such an element from a primitive protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, that infects the human gut. This 4.8-kb element, called EhLINE1, is present in about 140 copies dispersed throughout the genome. The element belongs to the R4 clade

Prabhat K. Mandal; Anindya Bagchi; Alok Bhattacharya; Sudha Bhattacharya




Microsoft Academic Search

Yapisal baki? açisi içerisinde, kisa öykünün dil ö?retiminde etkin bir biçimde ele alinabilmesi için kisa öykülerin anlati yapilari grafik göstergelerle (graphic organizers) görsel olarak ö?rencilere sunulabilir. Bartlett (1932), Propp (1970), Levi-Strauss ( 1976) temelde anlati yapisi üzerine ara?tirmalar yapmi?lardir. Rumelhart (1975) bilgiyi öykü sözdizimi ?eklinde düzenleyerek, sebeb sonuç il?kisi üzerinde yo?unla?mi?tir. 1977'de Mandler ve Johnson öykü sözdizimini, öykü unsurlari arasindaki

Nuray Alagözlü


Weighted fair bandwidth sharing using SCALE technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is not enough work on the Internet weighted fair bandwidth sharing without per-flow management, especially when both UDP and TCP flows of different RTTs and d ifferent bandwidth targets coexist. This paper contains two contributions: 1) A mechanism called SCALE-WFS, Scalable Core with Aggregation Level l abEling - Weighted Fair bandwidth-Sharing, is presented to achieve near-optimal Max-Min weighted

Haifeng Zhu; Aimin Sang; San-qi Li



Weighted fairness guarantee for scalable DiffServ assured forwarding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new mechanism of weighted fair bandwidth sharing for differentiated services (DiffServ) assured forwarding (AF) services. The mechanism is named SCALE-WFS, i.e. Scalable Core with Aggregation Level labEling-Weighted Fair bandwidth-Sharing. It aims to achieve near-optimal max-min weighted fairness without per-flow management at core routers. Through extensive simulation and simple analysis, we show its advantages over the current

Aimin Sang; Haifeng Zhu; San-qi Li



Electrochemical behaviour of microbes on orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to investigate the ele c- trochemical behaviour of orthodontic wires in artificial saliva with and without bacteria. Four factors were considered to characterize the bacteria present in the saliva, viz. urban and rural groups of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The results showed that among the heterotrophic bacterial isolates, Gram-positive species dominated over the Gram-negative

S. Maruthamuthu; A. Rajasekar; S. Sathiyanarayanan; N. Muthukumar; N. Palaniswamy


A commercial application of survivable network design: ITP\\/INPLANS CCS network topology analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ITP\\/INPLANS' CCS Network Topology An- alyzer is a Bellcore product which performs au- tomated design of cost effective survivable CCS (Common Channel Signaling) networks, with sur- vivability meaning that certain path-connectivity is preserved under limited failures of network ele- ments. The algorithmic core of this product con- sists of suitable extensions of primal-dual approx- imation schemes for Steiner network

Milena Mihail; David Shallcross; Nate Dean; Marco Mostrel



Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (mu), mass attenuation coefficient (mu\\/rho), total atomic cross-section (sigma_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (sigma_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of

R. H. Kadam; S. T. Alone; G. K. Bichile; K. M. Jadhav



On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-Specific Ontologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we flrstly introduce an approach to the mod- eling of a domain-speciflc ontology for use in connection with a given document collection. Secondly, we present a methodology for deriving conceptual similarity from the domain-speciflc ontology. Adopted for ontology representation is a speciflc lattice-based concept algebraic lan- guage by which ontologies are inherently generative. The modeling of a

Troels Andreasen; Henrik Bulskov; Rasmus Knappe



Clonal Genomic Alterations in Glioma Malignancy Stages1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of constitutional and tumor genotypes at chromosomal loci defined by restriction fragment length alíeles has proven useful in determining the genomic position and tissue specificity of recessive mutations that predispose to cancer (Hansen, M. F., and Cavenee, W. K. Cancer Res., 47:5518-5527,1987). Here we have applied this approach to 53 unrelated patients with glial tumors of varying histológica!malig nancy

C. David James; Elisabeth Carlbom; Jan P. Dumanski; Marc Hansen; Magnus Nordenskjold; V. Peter Collins; Webster K. Cavenee


Transfer of Tn5385, a Composite, Multiresistance Chromosomal Element from Enterococcus faecalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tn5385 is a ca. 65-kb element integrated into the chromosomes of clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains CH19 and CH116. It confers resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, mercuric chloride, streptomycin, tetracycline- minocycline, and penicillin via b-lactamase production. Tn5385 is a composite structure containing regions previously found in staphylococcal and enterococcal plasmids. Several transposons and transposon-like ele- ments within Tn5385 have been identified, including




Topology of Type II REases revisited; structural classes and the common conserved core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are deoxyribonucleases that cleave DNA sequences with remarkable specificity. Type II REases are highly divergent in sequence as well as in topology, i.e. the connectivity of secondary structure ele- ments. A widely held assumption is that a structural core of five b-strands flanked by two a-helices is common to these enzymes. We introduce a sys-

Masha Y. Niv; Daniel R. Ripoll; Jorge A. Vila; Adam Liwo; Eva S. Vanamee; Aneel K. Aggarwal; Harel Weinstein; Harold A. Scheraga



Cloning and Characterization of the Choline Acetyltransferase Structural Gene (chaI) from C. elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have cloned the cha-1 gene from Caenorhabditis ele- gans using the method of transposon tagging. cha-1 is the structural gene for ChAT, the enzyme that synthesizes ACh. Sequence analysis of cDNAs predicts a protein of 71.5 kDa; comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with ChAT sequences from other species confirms that cha-7 encodes ChAT. Comparison of cDNA and

Aixa Alfonso; Kiely Grundahl; John R. McManus; James B. Rand



Mutations in the Essential Spindle Checkpoint Gene bub1 Cause Chromosome Missegregation and Fail to Block Apoptosis in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized the Drosophila mi- totic checkpoint control protein Bub1 and obtained mutations in the bub1 gene. Drosophila Bub1 localizes strongly to the centromere\\/kinetochore of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes that have not yet reached the metaphase plate. Animals homozygous for P - ele- ment-induced, near-null mutations of bub1 die during late larval\\/pupal stages due to severe mitotic abnormal- ities

Joydeep Basu; Hassan Bousbaa; Elsa Logarinho; ZeXiao Li; Byron C. Williams; Carla Lopes; Claudio E. Sunkel; Michael L. Goldberg



Systematic Acquisiton of Audio Classes for Elevator Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a systematic framework for arriving at audio classes for detection of crimes in ele- vators. We use our time series analysis framework proposed in5 to low-level features extracted from the audio of an elevator surveillance content to perform an inlier\\/outlier based temporal seg- mentation. Since suspicious events in elevators are outliers in a background of usual events, such

Regunathan Radhakrishnan; Ajay Divakaran; Paris Smaragdis



Semantic Web in the Context Broker Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes a new architecture that ex- ploits Semantic Web technologies for supporting perva- sive context-aware systems. This architecture called Con- text Broker Architecture (CoBrA) differs from other archi- tectures in using the Web Ontology Language OWL for mod- eling ontologies of context and for supporting context rea- soning. Central to our architecture is a broker agent that maintains

Harry Chen; Timothy W. Finin; Anupam Joshi



M\\/G\\/1Type Markov Processes: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

M\\/G\\/1-type processes are commonly encountered when mod- eling modern complex computer and communication systems. In this tutorial, we present a detailed survey of existing solution methods for M\\/G\\/1-type processes, focusing on the matrix-analytic methodology. From rst principles and using simple examples, we derive the funda- mental matrix-analytic results and lay out recent advances. Finally, we give an overview of an

Alma Riska; Evgenia Smirni



SMg Does Not Change Inversely to S-FFA During Acute Stress Situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparently divergent changes in serum magnesium (S-Mg) and serum free fatty acids (S-FFA) in stress situations associated with ele vated levels of circulating adrenaline were studied experimentally in 12 healthy volunteers, who were each given three adrenaline infusions (0.05 ?g\\/kg bw\\/min over one hundred twenty minutes). Before the adrena line infusions the volunteers were treated for three days with

Ole Hansen; Bengt W. Johansson



Maximum Entropy Markov Models for Information Extraction and Segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a powerful probabilistic tool for modeling sequential data, and have been applied with success to many text-relatedtasks, suchas part-of-speechtagging, text segmentation and information extraction. In these cases, the observations are usually mod- eled as multinomial distributions over a discrete vocabulary, and the HMM parameters are set to maximize the likelihood of the observations. This paper

Andrew Mccallum; Dayne Freitag; Fernando C. N. Pereira



ALIX-CHMP4 interactions in the human ESCRT pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESCRT pathway facilitates membrane fission events during enveloped virus budding, multivesicular body formation, and cy- tokinesis. To promote HIV budding and cytokinesis, the ALIX protein must bind and recruit CHMP4 subunits of the ESCRT-III complex, which in turn participate in essential membrane remod- eling functions. Here, we report that the Bro1 domain of ALIX binds specifically to C-terminal residues

John McCullough; Robert D. Fisher; Frank G. Whitby; Wesley I. Sundquist; Christopher P. Hill



Myeloneuropathy from Nitrous Oxide Abuse: Unusually High Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine Levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 23-year-old patient developed diffuse paresthesias and sensory loss. He had mildly reduced serum vitamin B12 (B12) concentration with unusually high levels of methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine and no evidence of B12 malabsorption. Following parenteral B12 administration, his neurological deficit promptly resolved and B12 and MMA levels normalized, but ele- vated levels of homocysteine persisted. One year later, he

Andrew J. Waclawik; Christopher C. Luzzio; Katalin Juhasz-Pocsine; Valerie Hamilton


Conceptual Modeling for the Probability of Raid Annihilation (PRA) Testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. Navy enterprise methodology has been established for consistent ship self defense operational test and evaluation (OT&E) across all ship classes. A cornerstone of the Navy T&E Enterprise is the Probability of Raid Annihilation (PRA) Testbed. The Navy PRA Testbed implements HLA federated simulations of ship combat system ele- ments against independent, reactive threat raids in a common environment

Sarah Trbovich; Shala Malone


Structure model for kassite, CaTirOo(OH)t Prrrn G. Srr.r  

Microsoft Academic Search

and alloys, some of which contain noble and rare-earth Kassite is a rare mineral that contains common ele- metals. Our attention was drawn to the kassite grains ments in simple proportions. In spite of this chemical because they gave energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra simplicity, the literature describing kassite is confused. with a CalTi peak-height ratio of 1:2 rather than the

Glen Osmond


Down-Regulation of Endometrial Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 and -7 Expression in Vitro and Therapeutic Regression of Experimental Endometriosis in Vivo by a Novel Nonsteroidal Progesterone Receptor Agonist, Tanaproget  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context:Endometriosis,thegrowthofendometrialtissueoutsidethe uterus, is principally an estrogen-dependent disease. In contrast, exposure to progesterone during pregnancy or therapeutically has been shown to provide benefit to some women with this disease. However, recent research suggests that the presence of endometriosis impairs the capacity of the eutopic endometrium to respond to en- dogenous progesterone. Objective: Reduced progesterone responsiveness results in an ele- vated endometrial

Kaylon L. Bruner-Tran; Zhiming Zhang; Esther Eisenberg; Richard C. Winneker; Kevin G. Osteen


Topic-based language models using EM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel statistical language model to capture topic-related long-range dependencies. Topics are mod- eled in a latent variable framework in which we also derive an EM algorithm to perform a topic factor decomposition based on a segmented training corpus. The topic model is combined with a standard language model to be used for on-line word

Daniel Gildea; Thomas Hofmann



Ancestral Multipartite Units in Light-Responsive Plant Promoters Have Structural Features Correlating with Specific Phototransduction Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation of plant gene transcription by light is mediated by multipartite cis-regulatory units. Previous attempts to identify structural features that are common to all light-responsive ele- ments (LREs) have been unsuccessful. To address the question of what is needed to confer photoresponsiveness to a promoter, the upstream sequences from more than 110 light-regulated plant genes were analyzed by a new,

Cerardo R. Argüello-Astorga; Luis R. Herrera-Estrella




Microsoft Academic Search

ÖZET: Bu çalõ?mada, okul öncesi ö ?retmen adaylarõnõn çevreyi koruma konusunda ne kadar bilinçli olduklarõ, çevrenin korunmasõna yönelik davranõ?lar ve bu davranõ?lara etki eden deikenler ele alõnmõ?tõr. Ayrõca bu ö ?retmen adaylarõnõn çevrenin korunmasõna yönelik bilgilerinin ve çevreninin korunmasõna yönelik olumlu tutumlarõnõn, çevrenin korumasõna yönelik davranõ?lar üzerine etkili olup olmadõklarõ aratõrõlmõ? ve tutarsõzlõklar ortaya konulmaya çalõ?õlmõ?tõr. Okul öncesi eitimde nasõl





Microsoft Academic Search

ÖZET: Bu çalõ?mada, okul öncesi eitim kurumlarõnda ö ?retmen olarak çalõ?an personelin çevre bilinci düzeyleri ele alõnmõ?tõr. Çevreyi korumaya yönelik bilgilerinde, tutumlarõnda ve davranõ?larõnda görülen eksikliklerinin kaynaklarõ aratõrõlmõ? ve bu eksikliklerin nasõl giderilecei ortaya konmutur. Çalõ?mada veri toplama aracõ olarak tutum, bilgi ve davranõ? ölçei kullanõlmõ?tõr. Çalõ?manõn örneklemini farklõ anaokullarõnda görev yapan 145 ö ?retmen oluturmutur. Ayrõca okul öncesi eitim

Sinan ERTEN; Põnar ÖZDEMR; Tülin GÜLER


A Polymorphism in CYP17 and Endometrial Cancer Risk1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among women, the A2 allele of CYP17 has been associated with ele- vated levels of endogenous steroid hormones; however, it does not seem to be a strong independent risk factor for breast cancer. We assessed the association between the A2 allele of CYP17 and invasive endometrial cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort (cases:

Christopher A. Haiman; Susan E. Hankinson; Graham A. Colditz; David J. Hunter; Immaculata De Vivo



Efficient Modeling of Power\\/Ground Planes Using Delay-Extraction-Based Transmission Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an efficient approach for mod- eling irregular shaped power distribution networks (PDN) in high-speed packages. The proposed methodology is based on discretization of the plane into an orthogonal grid of transmission line segments. Using a delay-extraction-based model for each line segment, a compact circuit model is achieved where the size of the circuit matrices depend only on

Sourajeet Roy; Anestis Dounavis



Kinematic Design of a Novel 3DOF Compliant Parallel Manipulator for Nanomanipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new three-degree-of-freedom (3-DOF) compli- ant parallel manipulator (CPM) has been proposed for 3-D nanomanipulation in this paper. The system is constructed by a proper selection of components, and analyzed via the established pseudo-rigid-body model, based upon which the kinematic mod- elings are performed, and the CPM workspace is determined in view of the physical constraints. One of the advantages

Yangmin Li; Qingsong Xu



Landscape Cover-Type Modeling Using a MultiScene Thematic Mapper Mosaic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscape ecological applications of remotely sensed data are needed over increasingly larger areas and at finer spatial scales. Within the framework of the National Biological Ser- vice Gap Analysis program, 36 Utah cover types were mod- eled from a state-wide Landsat TM mosaic created from 24 scenes at 30-metre resolution (219,883 sq km). The state was subset into three ecoregions

Collin G. Homer; R. Douglas Ramsey; Thomas C. Edwards; Allan Falconer


Modulation of Mouse and Human Phenobarbital-Responsive Enhancer Module by Nuclear Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates mouse and human CYP2B genes through binding to the direct re- peat-4 (DR4) motifs present in the phenobarbital-responsive enhancer module (PBREM). The preference of PBREM ele- ments for nuclear receptors and the extent of cross-talk be- tween CAR and other nuclear receptors are currently unknown. Our transient transfection and DNA binding experiments indi- cate




Abnormalities in Structure and Expression of the Retinoblastoma Gene in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines and Xenografts in Nude Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The putative retinoblastoma gene (Rb) is a tumor suppressor gene which is believed to cause retinoblastomas when both alíeles are inacti vated, leading to lack of the encoded M, 110,000-116,000 phosphopro- tein. Inactivation of the Kb gene has also been found in several other tumor types, including small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Absence of the 4.7 kilobase mRNA has been

Kare Rygaard; George D. Sorenson; Olive S. Pettengill; Charles C. Cate; Mogens Spang-Thomsen



Airway Epithelium Stimulates Smooth Muscle Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication between the airway epithelium and stroma is evident during embryogenesis, and both epithelial shedding and increased smooth muscle proliferation are features of airway remod- eling. Hence, we hypothesized that after injury the airway epithe- lium could modulate airway smooth muscle proliferation. Fully differentiated primary normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells at an air-liquid interface were co-cultured with serum-deprived normal

Nikita K. Malavia; Christopher B. Raub; Sari B. Mahon; Matthew Brenner; Reynold A. Panettieri; Steven C. George


High Feed Intake Increases Liver Blood Flow and Metabolism of Progesterone and Estradiol17? in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased liver blood flow (LBF) resulting from ele- vated feed intake in lactating dairy cows may increase steroid metabolism. Continuous infusion of bromo- sulphthalein (BSP; specifically metabolized in liver) was used to measure LBF. Similarly, progesterone (P4) andestradiol-17?(E2)wereadministeredbycontinuous infusion. Circulating concentrations at steady state were used to calculate the metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of BSP, P4, and E2. Experiment 1:

S. Sangsritavong; D. K. Combs; R. Sartori; L. E. Armentano; M. C. Wiltbank



Anisotropic Hydrodynamic Parameters of Regenerator Materials Suitable for Miniature Cryocoolers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Recent successful CFD models,of cryocooler systems have shown,that such models,can pro- vide very useful performance predictions for cryocoolers. For miniature cryocoolers, CFD model- ing is likely the best technique available as models,developed,for larger systems may,not accurately represent phenomena,which become,important as the device scale is reduced. Accurate CFD mod- eling of Stirling and pulse tube refrigerators requires realistic closure relations,

T. j. Conrad; E. c. Landrum; S. m. Ghiaasiaan; C. s. Kirkconnell; T. crittenden; S. Yorish


Hand it over or set it down: A user study of object delivery with an assistive mobile manipulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delivering an object to a user would be a generally useful capability for service robots. Within this paper, we look at this capability in the context of assistive object retrieval for motor-impaired users. We first describe a behavior-based system that enables our mobile robot EL-E to autonomously deliver an object to a motor-impaired user. We then present our evaluation of

Young Sang Choi; Tiffany Chen; Advait Jain; Cressel Anderson; Jonathan D. Glass; Charles C. Kemp



Sources of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid in the brain of HIV1-infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the sources of quinolinic acid, a neurotoxic tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolite, in the brain and blood of HIV- infected patients and retrovirus-infected macaques. In brain, quinolinic acid concentrations in HIV-infected patients were elevated byú300-fold to concentrations that exceeded cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by 8.9-fold. There were no significant correlations between ele- vated serum quinolinic acid levels with those in



The Role of Kupffer Cell Activation and Viral Gene Expression in Early Liver Toxicity after Infusion of Recombinant Adenovirus Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic application of first-generation adenovirus induces pathogenic effects in the liver. To begin unrav- eling the mechanisms underlying early liver toxicity after adenovirus infusion, particularly the role of mac- rophage activation and expression of viral genes in transduced target cells, first-generation adenovirus or adenovirus vectors that lacked most early and late gene expression were administered to C3H\\/HeJ mice after transient





Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of skin-friction drag in a channel flow by trav- eling wave-like surface heating\\/cooling is investigated by means of linear analysis and direct numerical simulation. The linear analysis reveals that a downstream traveling wave can reduce the skin-friction drag. Due to non-quadrature between the streamwise and the wall-normal velocity distur- bances induced by the buoyancy force, non-zero Reynolds shear stress

Hiroya Mamori; Koji Fukagata; Shinnosuke Obi


HCI as an engineering discipline : to be or not to be!?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges in the emerging interdisciplinary field of human-computer interaction (HCI) is the specification of a research line that can enable the development of validated design knowledge with a predictive power for the design of interactive systems. Based on the three different ele- ments in the design of interactive systems: (1) human being(s), (2) technical artefact(s), and

G. W. Matthias Rauterberg




Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy-based eradication programs are aimed at stopping transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti by its obligatory mosquito vector. This study compares one year post-treatment W. bancrofti infection rates of Anoph- eles punctulatus, the main vector of lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea, using traditional dissection techniques and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based ELISA of a parasite-specific Ssp I repeat. A total of



Electron probe micro analyser chemical zircon ages of the Khetri granitoids, Rajasthan, India: Records of widespread late Palaeoproterozoic extension-related magmatism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of gra nitoid plutons were emplaced in the northernmost entity of the Aravalli craton, the Khetri Copper Belt (KCB). We report here Th-U-Pb ele ctron probe micro analyser chemical ages for zircon and monazite from two granitoid plutons of the north KCB, the Biharipur and Dabla. Zircons occurring in the granitoids depict well-developed magmatic zoning and are chronologically

Parampreet Kaur; Naveen Chaudhri; S. Biju-Sekhar; K. Yokoyama


Low Serum Levels of Free and Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa Are Not Associated with Increased IGF-Binding Protein3 Proteolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are GH resistant, with ele- vated GH levels and low serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). IGF-I action is modulated by IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs), and a variety of catabolic states has been characterized by the presence of increased IGFBP-3 proteolysis. The present study was performed to examine the levels of free IGFs



Decreased hydraulic conductance in plants at elevated carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work indicated that long-term exposure to ele- vated carbon dioxide levels can reduce hydraulic conduc- tance in some species, but the basis of the response was not determined. In this study, hydraulic conductance was measured at concentrations of both 350 and 700 cm3 nT3 carbon dioxide for plants grown at both concentrations, to determine the reversibility of the response.

J. A. Bunce; L. H. Ziska



Modeling of time in discrete-event simulation of systems-on-chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's consumer electronics industry uses modeling and simulation to cope with the com- plexity and time-to-market challenges of designing high-tech devices. In such context, Transaction-Level Modeling (TLM) is a widely spread modeling ap- proach often used in conjunction with the IEEE standard SystemC discrete-event simulator. In this paper, we present a novel approach to mod- eling time that distinguishes between

Giovanni Funchal; Matthieu Moy



Bragg grating sensing instrument using a tunable Fabry-Pérot filter to detect wavelength variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-Bragg-grating sensing system, demodulated with the use of a tunable Fabry-Pérot filter to detect the associated wavelength variation has been developed. To show the practicality of the system, a low cost ELED (with an output of 0957-0233\\/9\\/4\\/007\\/img11 at 0957-0233\\/9\\/4\\/007\\/img12) was used as the light source, incorporating readily available Bragg gratings centred around this wavelength. The relevant parameters considered in

Y. N. Ning; A. Meldrum; W. J. Shi; B. T. Meggitt; A. W. Palmer; K. T. V. Grattan; L. Li



E-LEARNING AND INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS What teachers can learn from Neil Postman  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-learning in the academic field of international relations is popular, but developing good didactic scenarios and learning materials is tricky. This paper argues that teachers should assess the usefulness of human-to-computer interaction, avoid a deterioration of language through e-learning, and distinguish between superfluous and valuable multimedia ele- ments. Moreover, they should choose the right amount of learning material, provide shared

Cornelius Friesendorf


Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP)-1a and SREBP-2 are linked to the MAP-kinase cascade  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic sterol regulatory cis element ( sre -1) in the LDL receptor promoter mediates sterol regulatory ele- ment binding protein (SREBP)-binding and the effects of insulin and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). To eluci- date whether SREBP-1a and SREBP-2 play a direct role in insulin and PDGF action, stable cell lines of HepG2 defi- cient in either SREBP-1 or

Jörg Kotzka; Dirk Müller-Wieland; Gunther Roth; Lorena Kremer; Martina Munck; Sandra Schürmann; Birgit Knebel; Wilhelm Krone


Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Su?larinin Klinik Önemi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Özet: Esas olarak nozokomiyal bir patojen olan S. maltophilia, siklikla eri?kinlerin orofarinkslerinden, balgamlarindan ve içinde ya?adi?imiz birçok ortamdan izole edilen bir bakteridir. Bu bakterinin neden oldu?u klinik tablolar içerisinde en sik üriner sistem ve yara infeksiyonlari gözlenir. Bazi kaynaklarda firsatçi Pseudomonas'lar içerisinde ele alinip incelenen bu bakteri, esas olarak nozokomiyal infeksiyonlardaki rolü ile dikkati çekmektedir. Antibiyotiklere dirençli olmasi di?er bir

Dilek Dülger



Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a connection between the Picard group of a ring with local units T and the Picard group of the unital overring End(TT). Using this connection, we show that the three groups Pic (R), Pic (FM (R)), and Pic (RFM(R)) are isomorphic for any unital ring R.F urthermore, each ele- ment of Pic (RFM(R)) arises from an automorphism of



Beehive fence deters crop-raiding elephants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown that African elephants Loxodonta africana will avoid African honeybees Apis mellifera scutel- lata. Here we present results from a pilot study conducted to evaluate the concept of using beehives to mitigate ele- phant crop depredation. In Laikipia, Kenya, we deployed a 90-m fence-line of nine inter-connected hives, all empty, on two exposed sides of a square

Lucy E. King; Anna Lawrence; Iain Douglas-Hamilton; Fritz Vollrath



High-Speed $W$ Band Integrated Photonic Transmitter for Radio-Over-Fiber Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-speed -band integrated photonic trans- mitter is demonstrated. The presented integrated photonic transmitter is essentially developed with a near-ballistic uni-trav- eling-carrier photodiode integrated with a broadband front end through the flip-chip assembling technique. Technically, compared to our previous design, a -band bandpass filter is exploited to significantly increase the transmitter IF modulation bandwidth. The demonstrated integrated photonic transmitter has

Nan-Wei Chen; Hsuan-Ju Tsai; Fon-Ming Kuo; Jin-Wei Shi



Modeling Yield of Carbon-Nanotube\\/Silicon-Nanowire FET-Based Nanoarray Architecture with h-hot Addressing Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

With molecular-scale materials, devices and fabrication techniques recently begin developed, high-density computing systems in nanometer domain emerge. An array-based nanoarchitecture has been recently proposed based on nanowires such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and silicon nanowires (SiNWs). High-density nanoarray-based systems consisting of nanometer-scale ele- ments are likely to have many imperfections; thus, defect-tolerance is considered as one of the most significant

Shanrui Zhang; Minsu Choi



The Drosophila Bruno paralogue Bru3 specifically binds the EDEN translational repression element  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported in our previous work that the EDEN- dependent translational repression of maternal mRNAs was conserved between Drosophila and Xenopus .I nXenopus, this repression is achieved through the binding of EDEN to the Bruno-like factor, EDEN-BP. We show in the present work that the Drosophila Bruno paralogue, the 45 kDa Bru-3 protein (p45), binds specifically to the EDEN ele-

Jerome Delaunay; Nader Ezzeddine; Gilles Labesse; Christophe Terzian; Michele Capri; Ounissa Ait-Ahmed



Topology of SREBP Cleavage-activating Protein, a Polytopic Membrane Protein with a Sterol-sensing Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NH2-terminal fragments of sterol regulatory ele- ment-binding proteins (SREBPs) are released from en- doplasmic reticulum membranes by proteases whose ac- tivities depend upon SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP), a polytopic endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein. The activity of SCAP is inhibited by sterols, which appear to interact with the polytopic membrane domain of SCAP. Here, we use protease pro- tection and

Axel Nohturfft; Michael S. Brown; Joseph L. Goldstein



Multisource self-calibration for sensor arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Calibration of a sensor array is more involved if the antennas have direction dependent gains and multiple calibrator sources are simultaneously present. We study this case for a sensor arraywitharbitrarygeometrybutidenticalelements,i.e.,elements with the same direction dependent gain pattern. A weighted alter- nating least squares (WALS) algorithm is derived that iteratively solves for the direction independent complex gains of the array ele-

Stefan J. Wijnholds; Alle-Jan van der Veen



Study of a Kindred With Partial Deficiency of Red Cell 2,3-D iphosphoglycerate M utase (2,3-DPGM) and Compensated Hemolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kindred with partial deficiency of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase (2,3- DPGM) was studied. The propositus pre- sented with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, normal hemoglobin (15.8 g\\/dI), and ele- vated reticulocyte count (4.6%). The red cell 5tCr survival was decreased (rVi 16 days). Incubated osmotic fragility was nor- mal; autohemolysis was increased and corrected with glucose and ATP. The P50 was 18.5

Susan F. Travis; James Garvin; Jean Atwater; Patricia Gillmer



Effects of Flooding Regime and Seedling Treatment on Early Survival and Growth of Nuttall Oak  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of flooding on survival and growth of three differ- ent types of Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckl.) seedlings were observed at the end of third and fifth growing seasons at Yazoo National Wildlife Refuge, Mississippi, U.S.A. Three types of seedlings were planted in January 1995 in a split-plot design, with four replications at each of two ele- vations on

Virginia R. Burkett; Rassa O. Draugelis-Dale; Hans M. Williams; Stephen H. Schoenholtz



A fi social ?i nesocial online. Explorarea comportamentului agresiv online al copiilor ?i adolescen?ilor (cyber-bullying) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acest studiu î?i propune s? exploreze problema incipient? a agresivit??ii online (cyber- bullying) în rândul adolescen?ilor români,cu accent pe diferen?ierea tipurilor de agresivitate în rela?ie cu utilizarea instrumentelor de socializare (mesagerie instant ?i re?ele sociale), monitorizare parental? ?i anumi?i factori psihosociali. Rezultatele sugereaz? leg?turi moderate cu utilizarea instrumentelor de socializare (SNS ?i IM) ?i cu monitorizarea parental? offline. Nu s-au

Monica Barbovschi


Inhibiting S100B Restores p53 Levels in Primary Malignant Melanoma Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

S100 calcium-binding proteins such as S100B are ele- vated in primary malignant melanoma and are used as markers for this and numerous other cancers. Wild-type p53 protein levels are relatively low in these cancer cells (i.e. when compared with cells without S100B) but are elevated when RNA antisense to S100B is introduced. This result implicates S100B in the down-regulation of

Jing Lin; Qingyuan Yang; Zhe Yan; Joseph Markowitz; Paul T. Wilder; France Carrier; David J. Weber



Maternal-fetal status of copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in insulin-dependent diabetic pregnancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The objective was to assess the sta- tus of essential trace elements such as copper, iron, molybdenum, selenium and zinc in insulin-dependent diabetic pregnancies at term and to compare the data with a control group. Fetal-maternal ratios of the ele- ments and copper:zinc ratio were also computed in the control and study populations. Methodology: Samples from maternal vein, umbilical

Eyad Al-Saleh; Moorkath Nandakumaran; Majed Al-Shammari; Maasoumah Makhseed; Teena Sadan; Assem Harouny



A high-resolution data set of surface climate over global land areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the construction of a 10' latitude\\/longitude data set of mean monthly sur- face climate over global land areas, excluding Antarctica. The climatology includes 8 climate ele- ments —precipitation, wet-day frequency, temperature, diurnal temperature range, relative humid- ity, sunshine duration, ground frost frequency and windspeed—and was interpolated from a data set of station means for the period centred on

Mark New; David Lister; Mike Hulme; Ian Makin



Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.  


The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan



Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project. Highway infrastructure report  

SciTech Connect

In addition to arranging for storage and disposal of radioactive waste, the US Department of Energy (DOE) must develop a safe and efficient transportation system in order to deliver the material that has accumulated at various sites throughout the country. The ability to transport radioactive waste safely has been demonstrated during the past 20 years: DOE has made over 2,000 shipments of spent fuel and other wastes without any fatalities or environmental damage related to the radioactive nature of the cargo. To guarantee the efficiency of the transportation system, DOE must determine the optimal combination of rail transport (which allows greater payloads but requires special facilities) and truck transport Utilizing trucks, in turn, calls for decisions as to when to use legal weight trucks or, if feasible, overweight trucks for fewer but larger shipments. As part of the transportation system, the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) study contributes to DOE`s development of transportation plans for specific facilities. This study evaluates the ability of different facilities to receive, load and ship the special casks in which radioactive materials will be housed during transport In addition, the DOE`s Near-Site Transportation Infrastructure (NSTI) study (forthcoming) will evaluate the rail, road and barge access to 76 reactor sites from which DOE is obligated to begin accepting spent fuel in 1998. The NSTI study will also assess the existing capabilities of each transportation mode and route, including the potential for upgrade.

Sattler, L.R.



Formal and informal spiritual assessment.  


Spirituality is increasingly recognized as an essential element of health. A novel model of interprofessional spiritual care was developed by a national consensus conference of experts in spiritual care and palliative care. Integral to this model is a spiritual screening, history or assessment as part of the routine history of patients. Spiritual screening can be done by a clinician on an intake into a hospital setting. Clinicians who make diagnosis and assessments and plans, and make referrals to appropriate experts do spiritual histories. In spiritual care, board certified chaplains, spiritual directors and pastoral counselors are the typical spiritual care referrals. Board certified chaplain do a spiritual assessment that is a more detailed assessment of religious and spiritual beliefs and how those impact care or patient's healthcare decision-making. There are several screening and history tools. One history tool named FICA, was developed by a group of primary care physicians and recently validated at study at the City of Hope. This tool is widely used in a variety of clinical settings in the US and Canada. The spiritual history tools allow the clinician the opportunity to diagnose spiritual distress or identify patients' spiritual resources of strength and then integrate that information into the clinical treatment or care plan. PMID:20590350

Puchalski, Christina Maria




Microsoft Academic Search

Özet Rekreasyon, katilanin gönüllü olarak seçti?i ve bo? zamanini de?erlendirdi?i etkinlikleri kapsar. Bu etkinlikler, müzikal u?ra?ilar, sportif etkinlikler, oyunlar, sanatsal etkinlikler, hüner gerektiren etkinlikler, do?a etkinlikleri, sosyal ve kültürel etkinlikler olarak genel ba?liklar altinda toplanabilir. Rekreasyon kapsamindaki bu etkinliklerin, ortam de?i?ikli?i gerçekle?tirilerek yapilmasi gere?i ve zorunlulu?u vardir. Dolayisiyla, bu çali?mada, birbirini tamamlayan ve birlikte ele alinmasi gereken iki kavram olan

Mehmet Cihan YAVUZ


Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD\\u000a pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (µ), mass attenuation coefficient (µ\\/?), total atomic cross-section (?\\u000a tot), total electronic cross-section (?\\u000a ele) and the effective atomic number (Z\\u000a eff) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe2O4).

R H Kadam; S T Alone; G K Bichile; K M Jadhav



ETS-Core Binding Factor: a Common Composite Motif in Antigen Receptor Gene Enhancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tripartite domain of the murine immunoglobulin m heavy-chain enhancer contains the mA and mB ele- ments that bind ETS proteins and the mE3 element that binds leucine zipper-containing basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-zip) factors. Analysis of the corresponding region of the human m enhancer revealed high conservation of the mA and mB motifs but a striking absence of the mE3 element.




Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

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PREFACE: Loops 11: Non-Perturbative / Background Independent Quantum Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Loops 11 The international conference LOOPS'11 took place in Madrid from the 23-28 May 2011. It was hosted by the Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM), which belongs to the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient?ficas (CSIC). Like previous editions of the LOOPS meetings, it dealt with a wealth of state-of-the-art topics on Quantum Gravity, with special emphasis on non-perturbative background-independent approaches to spacetime quantization. The main topics addressed at the conference ranged from the foundations of Quantum Gravity to its phenomenological aspects. They encompassed different approaches to Loop Quantum Gravity and Cosmology, Polymer Quantization, Quantum Field Theory, Black Holes, and discrete approaches such as Dynamical Triangulations, amongst others. In addition, this edition celebrated the 25th anniversary of the introduction of the now well-known Ashtekar variables and the Wednesday morning session was devoted to this silver jubilee. The structure of the conference was designed to reflect the current state and future prospects of research on the different topics mentioned above. Plenary lectures that provided general background and the 'big picture' took place during the mornings, and the more specialised talks were distributed in parallel sessions during the evenings. To be more specific, Monday evening was devoted to Shape Dynamics and Phenomenology Derived from Quantum Gravity in Parallel Session A, and to Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams in Parallel Session B. Tuesday's three Parallel Sessions dealt with Black Hole Physics and Dynamical Triangulations (Session A), the continuation of Monday's session on Covariant Loop Quantum Gravity and Spin foams (Session B) and Foundations of Quantum Gravity (Session C). Finally, Thursday and Friday evenings were devoted to Loop Quantum Cosmology (Session A) and to Hamiltonian Loop Quantum Gravity (Session B). The result of the conference was very satisfactory and enlightening. Not only was it a showroom for the research currently being carried out by many groups throughout the world, but there was also a permanent look towards the future. During these days, the CSIC Campus witnessed many scientific conversations triggered by the interaction amongst the people and groups that participated in LOOPS'11 Madrid and which, in many cases, will crystallise into new results and advances in the field. The conference would not have been possible without the generous help of a number of national and international institutions. The organizers would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación), the Spanish Research Council, CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient?ficas), The BBVA Foundation (Fundación BBVA), The CONSOLIDER-CPAN project, the Spanish Society for Gravitation and Relativity (SEGRE), The Universidad Carlos III of Madrid (UC3M), and the European Science Foundation (ESF). The ESF, through the Quantum Gravity and Quantum Geometry network, provided full support for a number of young participants that have contributed to these proceedings: Dario Benedetti (Albert Einstein Institute, Potsdam, Germany), Norbert Bodendorfer (Institute for Theoretical Physics III, FAU Erlangen Nürnberg, Germany), Mariam Bouhmadi López (CENTRA, Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrof?sica, Lisbon), Timothy Budd (Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands), Miguel Campiglia (Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, Penn State University, USA), Gianluca Delfino (School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK), Maite Dupuis (Institute for Theoretical Physics III, FAU Erlangen Nürnberg, Germany), Micha? Dziendzikowski (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, Poland), Muxin Han (Centre de Physique Théorique de Luminy, Marseille, France), Philipp Höhn (Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands), Jacek Puchta (Centre de Physique Théorique de Luminy, Marseille, France), James Ryan (Albe

Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Barbero G, J. Fernando; Garay, Luis J.; Villaseñor, Eduardo J. S.; Olmedo, Javier



Spiritual background and its association with the medical decision of, DNR at terminal life stages.  


In recent years personal and clinical dilemmas relating to terminally ill patient-care medical, decisions have increased significantly. Although understanding the patient's medical, nursing and, social background is important, a comprehensive appraisal essential for treating the "whole patient" is, incomplete without a spirituality assessment. Religious beliefs and practices affect medical and health, care decisions and require recognition as a dynamic in coping with suffering, loss, life, and death. Taking a spiritual background obtains information that is meaningful to the patient's life and may, influence the medical decision-making relating to health. A study was undertaken to determine, whether assessing the spiritual background influences medical decisions-making regarding the use of, DNR. The target population was 46 family-member caregivers of non-communicative patients in the Herzog, Hospital Skilled Nursing ward located in Jerusalem. The spiritual assessment questionnaire was the, acronym FICA (faith, importance, community and addressing). Two-thirds of the families were opposed to a determination utilizing do not resuscitate (DNR). Multivariate, analysis of the findings found that only religious affiliation was statistically significant (p=0.003). The doctors recommend DNR in 67% of the cases while the family caregiver accepted this decision in, only 33% of the cases. The hypothesis was verified. People who are perceived as being religious or as being greatly influenced, by faith/spirituality opposed the recommendation implementing DNR. Obtaining a spiritual background assists the physician to understand the patient or family spirituality, facilitates sensitivity to value frameworks and preferences in making medical and health-related, decisions. PMID:24029615

Jaul, Efraim; Zabari, Yonit; Brodsky, Jenny



After-tax money income estimates of households: 1984.  


This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $21,560 in 1984, up by 2.7% over the 1983 figure after accounting for the 4.3% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($27,460) increased between 1983 and 1984 by 2.9%; 3) taxes absorbed about 22% of the total money income received by households; 4) households paid an average of $6400 in taxes in 1984, about $20 higher than paid in 1983; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1984 in the Northeast, South, and West regions; 6) in 1984, 64% of households with incomes below the poverty level paid 1 or more of the types of taxes covered in this study; and 7) the percentage of income paid in taxes ranged from 10% in households with incomes less than $10,000 to 28% in households with incomes of $50,000 or more. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $513 billion in 1984. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on base without families; and 3) returns of decedents. PMID:12280649

Nelson, C T



Total salivary IgA, serum C3c and IgA in obese school children.  


Studies of the immunologic function in adult obese humans and experimental models indicate that excess adiposity is associated with impairments in host defense mechanisms. The aim of this work was to analyze the secretory and humoral immune system in obese children (n = 105, 55 boys, 50 girls ), between 6 and 13 years of age. Samples of non-stimulated saliva and whole blood were collected from fasting patients. Total salivary IgA (IgAsal), serum C3 complement (C3c) and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) were determined by quantitative radial immunodifussion on agar gel layers ( Diffu-plate, Biocienti;fica SA ). Results, expressed as mg/dl, were compared to laboratory reference values from healthy children of either sex in the same range of age that belong to the same socioeconomic class (n = 60). Data (Mean +/- 1 SD) of the whole population were: IgAsal: 11.4 +/- 4.8 vs 14.8 +/- 6.9; C3c: 190.7 +/- 53.1 vs 126.3 +/- 45.5; IgA: 194.5 +/- 101.5 vs 157.2 +/- 19.9. Data distribution showed higher frecuencies near the zone of the highest reference values for serum C3c; when results of IgA and IgAsal were expressed as percentage of the mean reference value, 51% and 48.6% of the whole studied population presented data lower than 100% and 75% respectively. These results show a compromised secretory immune system without incidence of clinical symptoms and infections, whereas humoral immunity might not be profoundly affected. PMID:12231424

Pallaro, Anabel; Barbeito, Susana; Taberner, Patricia; Marino, Patricia; Franchello, Alejandra; Strasnoy, Irene; Ramos, Olga; Slobodianik, Nora



Perfil da automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade de uma cidade do sul do Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Introdução: A automedicação tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas e assume uma importância maior quando é realizada por idosos, pois geralmente representam um grupo polimedicado. Objetivo: Avaliar a automedicação em idosos participantes de grupos da terceira idade localizados em uma cidade do sul do Brasil. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo transversal baseado em entrevistas com idosos participantes de grupos

Edézio Antunes Cascaes; Maria Luiza Falchetti; Dayani Galato


Predição de Aspectos da Emoção Constatada em Música por Descritores Cognitivos Musicais  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. O estudo de cognição musical normalmente se utiliza de modelos computacionais para calcular aspectos específicos da percepção e interpretação da informação musical. Estes modelos são chamados na literatura de descritores acústicos quando calculam características musicais, na forma de series temporais, diretamente de arquivos de áudio. Chamamos de descritores cognitivos musicais (DCM) aos descritores acústicos que calculam aspectos contextuais da

Jose Fornari


Comparação da Infiltração Marginal na Obturação Retrógra- da Comparation of the Marginal Infiltration in the Retrograde Obtu- ration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key-words Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar, comparativamente, a capacidade seladora do cimento de N-Rickert, quando inserido em dois preparos cavitários apicais distintos, tendo sido utilizado como substância evidenciadora da infiltração o corante Azul de Metileno a 2%. Foram utilizados 60 Incisivos Superiores, oriundos do Banco de dentes da Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco, conforme aprovação do comitê de

Fernanda Braga Gomes; Diógenes Ferreira Alves; Roberto Alves dos Santos




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O prolapso retal é um transtorno da estática do reto e se manifesta pela invaginação oculta ou visível, quando há saída de segmento variável do reto pelo ânus. Trata-se de uma anomalia relativamente incomum, incapacitante e de etiologia pouco conhecida, para que concorre uma multiplicidade de fatores de diferentes patogenias. É mais freqüente na mulher idosa, com pico acima


Sonolência excessiva Excessive daytime sleepiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Resumo Resumo Resumo Resumo A sonolência é uma função biológica, definida como uma probabilidade aumentada para dormir. Já a sonolência excessiva (SE), ou hipersonia, refere-se a uma propensão aumentada ao sono com uma compulsão subjetiva para dormir, tirar cochilos involuntários e ataques de sono, quando o sono é inapropriado. As principais causas de sonolência excessiva são a privação crônica

Lia Rita; Azeredo Bittencourt; Rogério Santos Silva; Ruth Ferreira Santos; Maria Laura Nogueira Pires; Marco Túlio de Mello



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Apesar da temática das espécies exóticas invasoras ser recente no meio científico, e praticamente desconhecida pela sociedade, a invasão biológica desencadeada por elas é a segunda maior causa de perda da biodiversidade no planeta. Quando introduzidas em novos ambientes, elas adaptam-se e ocupam agressivamente o espaço de espécies nativas, produzindo desequilíbrios muitas vezes irreversíveis. Este estudo procurou avaliar o

Christopher Thomas Blum; Marília Borgo; André Cesar; Furlaneto Sampaio



Análise de Alergia e Rinite em Escolares por meio da Shell Orion Data Mining Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A análise de dados, que compreende a busca de conhecimento, pode tornar-se complexa e exaustiva quando é realizada a partir de um enorme volume de dados. Uma maneira eficaz e inteligente de analisar esses dados pode ser realizada por meio do processo de Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD), que reúne vários passos e tarefas para a descoberta de

Merisandra Côrtes de Mattos; Diana Colombo Pelegrin; Diego Paz Casagrande


Comparação entre o desempenho motor de homens e mulheres em séries múltiplas de exercícios com pesos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A magnitude das respostas neuromusculares, metabólicas e morfológicas de homens e mulheres parece ser bastante diferen- ciada até mesmo quando esses sujeitos são submetidos a proto- colos de exercícios com pesos semelhantes. Todavia, as diferen- ças no desempenho motor entre homens e mulheres têm sido relatadas predominantemente em protocolos baseados em con- trações isométricas e isocinéticas. Assim, o objetivo

Emanuel Péricles Salvador; Edilson Serpeloni Cyrino; André Luiz Demantova Gurjão; Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias; Fábio Yuzo Nakamura; Arli Ramos de Oliveira



Efeito do gradiente de martensita induzida por deformação sobre o fenômeno de delayed cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o fenômeno de Delayed Cracking em aços inoxidáveis austeníticos quando foram severamente deformados em operações de estampagem. Durante a conformação, a austenita destes aços se transformou em martensita e a fração volumétrica desta fase apresentou variação em relação à altura da parede do copo e à composição química dos aços. O cobre

Marta Ribeiro dos Santos; Hélio José Batista Alves; Robson Guimarães Lopes; Berenice Mendonça Gonzalez



Simulazione della propagazione di difetti a fatica mediante il modello di zona coesiva  

Microsoft Academic Search

RIASSUNTO. Le giunzioni incollate guadagnano sempre più mercato, nel campo delle costruzioni in genere, dove è necessario un alleggerimento delle strutture. Nel caso di geometrie di giunto semplici il dimensionamento avviene attraverso relazioni analitiche che restituiscono il valore massimo delle tensioni, il quale deve essere inferiore al limite di utilizzo dell'adesivo stesso. Quando le geometrie sono complesse l'approccio analitico diventa

A. Pirondi; F. Moroni


Hemorragia intracraniana na gravidez e puerpério: experiência com quinze casos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A hemorragia intracraniana que acontece na gravidez é um fenômeno raro, porém, apresenta mortalidade e morbidades elevadas. Analisamos 15 pacientes com hemorragia intracraniana que ocorreu durante a gravidez ou puerpério. Em cinco casos a hemorragia decorria da ruptura de aneurisma, em 6, de malformação. A mortalidade materna foi 20%, e a fetal 33%. Quando a causa do sangramento

Jose Carlos Lynch; Ricardo Andrade; Celestino Pereira



Adubação verde como alternativa agroecológica para recuperação da fertilidade do solo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recuperação da fertilidade do solo, especialmente do nutriente fósforo (P) tem custo bastante elevado, principalmente quando utilizadas fontes de adubos solúveis. Portanto, é necessário encontrar alternativas de menor custo para recuperação da fertilidade-P. O objetivo desse trabalho foi de avaliar o potencial de produtividade de fi tomassa de espécies de adubos verdes de verão e de inverno submetidas a

Cristiano André Pott; Marcelo Marques; Lopes Müller; Patrick Batista Bertelli


AvAliAção de pulpotomiAs utilizAndo Formocresol, Hidróxido de cálcio e AgregAdo trióxido minerAl (mtA) em molAres decíduos Eval Uati On Of PUlPOt Omy in PRimaRy m OlaRS USing fORmOCRESOl, CalCiUm Hyd ROxid E and minERal tRiO xidE aggREgatE (mta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumo Introdução: A técnica de pulpotomia envolve a amputação da porção coronária da polpa dentária infectada, preservando-se a vitalidade e função do remanescente pulpar radicular. Quando corretamente indicada, mantém o dente decíduo até a sua época natural de esfoliação, preservando suas funções. Métodos: Este estudo avalia através de observações clínicas e radiográficas, a resposta pulpar de dentes decíduos humanos submetidos

Ana Beatriz; Silveira Moretti; Vivien Thiemy Sakai; Thais Marchini Oliveira; Marina Lourdes; Calvo Fracasso; Adriano Hoshi; Maria Aparecida; Moreira Machado; Ruy Cesar; Camargo Abdo


Tumores experimentais do sistema nervoso central: padronização de modelo em roedores utilizando a linhagem 9L  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Grande variedade de modelos experimentais foram estabelecidos em neuro-oncologia durante as últimas décadas, a fim de estudar a biologia tumoral e a eficiciência de novas drogas e novos tratamentos em gliomas malignos humanos. Embora estes modelos estejam bem caracterizados e sejam facilmente reproduzíveis e aplicáveis, há limitações quanto ao seu uso e à resposta obtida, principalmente quando utilizados

Custódio Michailowsky; Flavio Key Niura; Ângela C. do Valle; Shigueko Sonohara; Thales D'Alessandro Meneguin; Ana Maria C. Tsanaclis



Prognóstico audiológico tardio relacionado à meningite em lactentes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Introdução: Déficit auditivo tem sido considerado uma das principais manifestações tardias das meningites, sobretudo quando esta ocorre nos dois primeiros anos de vida. No país, poucos são os estudos relatando a evolução de crianças acometidas por meningite e a percentagem e gravidade dos transtornos auditivos e seqüelas neurológicas após a alta hospitalar. Objetivo: Caracterizar as principais seqüelas auditivas

Luzia Poliana Anjos; Fernanda Queirós; Maria Cecília Pereira; Marcela Brandão; Ailton Melo; Rita Lucena




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: RESUMO: Um dos momentos mais críticos no ciclo vital familiar é a chegada dos filhos, quando novos papéis e dinâmicas familiares necessitam ser estabelecidos. A mulher torna-se mãe e a vivência desse processo sob o contexto da prematuridade e dos cuidados intensivos sofre importantes interferên- cias. O presente estudo teve como objetivo apontar aspectos a serem

Monika Wernet; Margareth Ângelo



Microsoft Academic Search

1 faz dela em suas reuniões. A oração é repetida ao fi nal de todos os encontros do grupo de forma ritualizada, quando os integrantes da irmandade, de mãos dadas, a proferem juntos. Pode-se dizer que a oração, naquelas condições de produção, a partir de um discurso previamente conhecido (ela não é de autoria do Grupo) e sendo enunciada pelos

Luciane Thomé Schröder



Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A detecção de marcadores moleculares em plantas de amendoim cultivado tem oferecido contribuição restrita, devido ao alto grau de homogeneidade genética verificada entre os genótipos intraespecíficos. Quando submetidos a mudanças fisiológicas, contudo, os padrões obtidos são de grande contribuição nos estudos elucidativos do comportamento e da fisiologia da planta durante seu desenvolvimento ontogenético. O presente trabalho teve como



Ritrovato per migliorare la qualità della traduzione automatica basato sulla teoria correlazionale del pensiero  

Microsoft Academic Search

In questo articolo l'autore descrive un ritrovato per migliorare la qualità della traduzione automatica i- deato da Silvio Ceccato e basato sulla sua teoria correlazionale del pensiero. Basandosi su esso Ceccato e i suoi collaboratori si dedicarono al problema della traduzione automatica dal 1959 al 1966, compien- do ricerche di tipo quasi esclusivamente teorico. Il progetto fu interrotto quando la

Giulio Benedetti




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Diante da grande necessidade de se projetar máquinas e implementos agrícolas cada vez mais automatizadas, uma forte tendência atual é o desenvolvimento de robôs móveis e veículos autônomos para área agrícola. Estes robôs e veículos, implementados com as mesmas tecnologias existentes em máquinas agrícolas, desempenham tarefas específicas com grande eficiência, originado ganhos de operação quando comparados a utilização de



La canzone delle maree  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a La marea oceanica, l’innalzamento e l’abbassamento delle acque che si ripete due volte al giorno lungo le nostre coste, è\\u000a sempre stato parte della nostra vita sin da quando le popolazioni hanno cominciato a vivere sul mare. La marea appare in letteratura\\u000a (per esempio nel famoso verso “Le flux les apporta, le reflux les remporte” — Corneille, Le Cid, 1636)

Anthony Phillips


Calcul Symbolique Lié á la Croissance de la Résolvante  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sunto  Si definisce un’algebra, che puó essere utile considerare nello studio di un operatore su uno spazio di Banach (o di un elemento\\u000a di un’algebra di Banach) quando si conosca la funzione ? (s) = 1\\/¦|(a ? s)?1¦|, o si abbiano sufficienti informazioni sull’andamento di questa funzione. Questa algebra puó essere descritta sia come\\u000a completamento di un’algebra di frazioni razionali (paragrafo

Lucien Waelbroeck



Perché l’IPCC e Al Gore hanno vinto il Premio Nobel 2007 per la pace?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Se analizziamo gli ultimi Premi Nobel per la Pace osserviamo una attenzione crescente e forte ai temi ambientali, temi che\\u000a fino al qualche anno fa sarebbero stati difficilmente associati alla pace. Da quando nel 1901 sono stati assegnati i primi\\u000a premi (a Henry Dunant, fondatore della Croce Rossa Internazionale, e a Frédéric Passy, fondatore della prima associazione\\u000a francese per la

Gallo Giorgio


La seconda vita di Polimorfus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le nuvole basse riflettevano ?aurora quando Polimorfus ricominciò a vivere. Il frastuono delle onde era già cessato e a centinaia\\u000a le oche selvatiche si erano radunate su u?altura. Più giù, il mare sfiorava ?erba e rauchi gabbiani zigzagavano fra i cespugli\\u000a ?erica. Anche il vento si era ormai placato e tutto sembrava meravigliosamente calmo. Solo a tratti un refolo piegava

Luca Sciortino


La seconda vita di Polimorfus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le nuvole basse riflettevano ?aurora quando Polimorfus ricominciò a vivere. Il frastuono delle ondeera già cessato e a centinaia\\u000a le oche selvatiche si erano radunate su un’altura. Più giù, il mare sfiorava ?erba e rauchi gabbiani zigzagavano fra i cespugli\\u000a ?erica. Anche il vento si era ormai placato e tutto sembrava meravigliosamente calmo. Solo a tratti un refolo piegava le

Luca Sciortino


On the efficient use of regression-in-ratio estimator in simple random sampling Sull'uso efficiente dello stimatore regressione-in-rapporto nel campionamento casuale semplice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto: Al fine di stimare la media incognita di una variabile oggetto di studio quando si dispone di due variabili ausiliarie correlate a quella di indagine, il metodo di stima della regressione viene impiegato congiuntamente a quello del rapporto per definire, nel cam- pionamento casuale semplice senza reimmissione, lo stimatore regressione-in-rapporto. Dopo averne ricavato l'espressione della distorsione e dell'errore quadratico

Pier Francesco Perri


Il teletrasporto nella fantascienza  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a La gente del tempo di Leonardo da Vinci probabilmente lo prese per matto quando, nel 1486, sperimentava la possibilità del\\u000a volo umano dopo aver fatto studi approfonditi sul volo degli uccelli e aver suggerito dei prototipi di ali umane. Eppure poco\\u000a più di quattrocento anni dopo, nel 1903, un aliante con due eliche e un motore a benzina ideato e

Leonardo Castellani; Giulia Alice Fornaro


Diagnosi delle catene di maitra e teoria dei semigruppi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduzione-Sommario  Sotto la etichetta di «Diagnosi di circuiti digitali» sono in genere accomunati problemi di interesse e complessità differente. In ordine crescente di difficoltà, diagnosticare un circuito digitale può significare stabilire se il circnito in oggetto funziona come richiesto, oppure localizzare i punti dove è eventualmente guasto, oppure identificarne e la natura e la posizione dei guasti.Quando si faccia riferimento a

G. Fantauzzi



Tentativo per una teoria semiclassica dei processi multipli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Riassunto  La teoria diHeitler, che prevede la creazione di mesoni nell'urto protone-protone, conduce per le sezioni d'urto relative a tale processo a valori\\u000a eccessivamente elevati. Questo è sostanzialmente dovuto al fatto che nella sua teoria la probabilità di emissione di un mesone,\\u000a quando il parametro d'urto è molto piccolo, risulta maggiore di uno. Interpretando invece, secondo un suggerimento diBethe, questa probabilità

E. Clementel; N. Dallaporta



Expenditure patterns of older Americans, 2001-2009.  


PRE- AND POSTRETIREMENT EXPENSES: Before retirement, people pay FICA taxes, incur work-related expenses, and set aside money for retirement. But after retirement, most people have different financial obligations, and, as a result, retirees may still be able to maintain their level of preretirement well-being with very different income levels. Studying income, expenditures, and wealth-holding patterns together provides a more complete idea of how people are doing in terms of being able to afford retirement than arbitrary estimates such as income replacement ratios. UNIQUE DATA: This Issue Brief examines the expenditure patterns of the older section of the population. It uses data from the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), a supplement to the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), conducted by the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, contains detailed expenditure data on 32 categories, and follows the same group of individuals over eight years In addition, the income and wealth data available in the HRS are used to establish the financial standing of older households. DECLINING EXPENSES: Household expenses steadily decline with age. With the age 65 expenditure as a benchmark, household expenditure falls by 19 percent by age 75, 34 percent by age 85, and 52 percent by age 95. HOME EXPENSES: Home and home-related expenses remain the single largest spending category for older Americans. On average, those over age 50 spend around 40-45 percent of their budget on home and home-related items. RISING HEALTH CARE EXPENSES: Health-related expenses are the second-largest component in the budget of older Americans. It is the only component which steadily increases with age. Health care expenses capture around 10 percent of the budget for those between 50-64, but increase to about 20 percent for those age 85 and over. DEMOGRAPHIC GROUPS: Singles, blacks, and high school dropouts do not have a sound financial standing in retirement. Their expenditures exceed their income and they hold very little financial wealth. The bottom income quartile, which includes mostly these demographic groups, has the weakest financial standing in retirement. LONG-TERM CARE and PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE: Long-term care and some form of private health insurance coverage have a significant effect on increased spending by older households. PMID:22397080

Banerjee, Sudipto



After-tax money income estimates of households: 1983.  


This report provides an improved measure of year to year changes in household purchasing power and of differences in purchasing power between subgroups of the US population. 4 types of taxes are simulated and subsequently deducted from the total money income received by households in order to estimate after tax income: 1) federal individual income taxes; 2) state individual income taxes; 3) FICA and Federal retirement payroll taxes; and 4) property taxes on owner occupied housing. Results show that: 1) mean household income after taxes was $20,000 in 1983, up by 2.4% over the 1982 figure after accounting for the 3.2% rise in consumer prices; 2) this mean household income before taxes ($25,400) increased between 1982 and 1983 by 1.2%; 3) taxes absorbed about 21% of the total money income received by households, down slightly from 22% in 1982; 4) households paid an average of $5890 in taxes in 1983, about $170 lower than paid in 1982; 5) the mean after tax income of households increased in 1983 in the Northeast, South, and West regions, but in the Midwest region no significant increase was observed; 6) married couples with children recorded a real increase of 2.6% in mean after tax income, yet married couples without children had after tax incomes that were 3.3% higher in 1983; and 7) the mean income after taxes for households with a householder age 65 years and over showed no significant increase in 1983. The payment of the 4 types of taxes simulated in this study reduced the income available to households by about $463 billion in 1983. 92% of US households paid 1 or more of the taxes covered in this study in 1983. The combination of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) tax return statistics with the March Current Population Survey (CPS) income data may affect these estimates to a small degree because the IRS returns include these units which are not contained in the CPS universe: 1) prior year delinquent returns; 2) returns of Armed Forces members living overseas or on base without families; and 3) returns of decedents. PMID:12314091

Nelson, C T



Measurement of atomic number and mass attenuation coefficient in magnesium ferrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pure magnesium ferrite sample was prepared by standard ceramic technique and characterized by X-ray diffraction method. XRD pattern revealed that the sample possess single-phase cubic spinel structure. The linear attenuation coefficient (?), mass attenuation coefficient (?/?), total atomic cross-section (?_{tot}), total electronic cross-section (?_{ele}) and the effective atomic number (Z_{eff}) were calculated for pure magnesium ferrite (MgFe_{2}O_{4}). The values of ?-ray mass attenuation coefficient were obtained using a NaI energy selective scintillation counter with radioactive ?-ray sources having energy 0.36, 0.511, 0.662, 1.17 and 1.28 MeV. The experimentally obtained values of ?/? and Z_{eff} agreed fairly well with those obtained theoretically.

Kadam, R. H.; Alone, S. T.; Bichile, G. K.; Jadhav, K. M.



Can Babesia infections be used as a model for cerebral malaria?  


Infections with certain species of Plasmodium and Babesia induce, among other symptoms, cerebral pathology. The finding of heavily parasitized cerebral capillaries upon postmortem examination has led to the assumption that blockage of capillaries with infected red blood cells caused the cerebral symptoms and subsequent death. As this type of cerebrovascular pathology is found both in humans dying from malaria and in cattle dying from babesiosis, the latter could possibly be used as an animal model for the study of human cerebral malaria. However, before such a model system is adopted, the experimental data concerning cerebral pathology of babesiosis needs critical evaluation. Here, Theo Schetters and Wijnand Eling review the pathological mechanisms in cerebral babesiosis and relate these to cerebral malaria. Finally, they discuss the use of animal model systems for specific aspects of the pathological picture. PMID:10557150

Schetters, T P; Eling, W M



Effects of Tropospheric Spatio-Temporal Correlated Noise on the Analysis of Space Geodetic Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard VLBI analysis models measurement noise as purely thermal errors mod- eled according to uncorrelated Gaussian distributions. As the price of recording bits steadily decreases, thermal errors will soon no longer dominate. It is therefore expected that troposphere and instrumenta- tion/clock errors will increasingly become more dominant. Given that both of these errors have correlated spectra, properly modeling the error distributions will become more relevant for optimal analysis. This paper will discuss the advantages of including the correlations between tropospheric delays using a Kolmogorov spectrum and the frozen flow model pioneered by Treuhaft and Lanyi. We will show examples of applying these correlated noise spectra to the weighting of VLBI data analysis.

Romero-Wolf, A.; Jacobs, Christopher S.


The geochemistry of deepwater particulate matter over the hydrothermal field at 9°d50' N (the East Pacific Rise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of geochemical studies of particulate matter in the water mass over the hydrothermal field at 9°50' N on the East Pacific Rise are presented. The particulate matter was tested in background waters, in the buoyant plume, and in the near-bottom waters. The contents of Si, Al, P, Corg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ag, and Hg were determined. No definite correlations were found between the ele-ments in the background waters. Many of the chemical elements correlated with Fe and associated with its oxyhydroxides in the buoyant plume. In the near-bottom waters, microelements are associated with Fe, Zn, and Cu (probably, to their sulfides formed under fluid mixing with seawater). The matter precipitated in a sed-imentation trap was similar to the near-bottom particulate matter in the elemental composition.

Lukashin, V. N.; Demina, L. L.; Gordeev, V. V.; Gordeev, V. Yu.





A method is described of evenly dispersing uranlum metal in a zirconium hydride moderator to produce a fuel element for nuclear reactors. According to the invention enriched uranium hydride and zirconium hydride powders of 200 mesh particle size are thoroughly admixed to form a mixture containing 0.1 to 3% by weight of U/sup 235/ hydride. The mixed powders are placed in a die and pressed at 100 tons per square inch at room temperature. The resultant compacts are heated in a vacuum to 300 deg C, whereby the uranium hydride deoomposes into uranium metal and hydrogen gas. The escaping hydrogen gas forms a porous matrix of zirconium hydride, with uramum metal evenly dispersed therethrough. The advantage of the invention is that the porosity and uranium distribution of the final fuel element can be more closely determined and controlled than was possible using prior methods of producing such fuel ele- ments.

Weeks, I.F.; Goeddel, W.V.



Residential water demand model under block rate pricing: A case study of Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cities, the inconsistency between water supply and water demand has become a critical problem because of deteriorating water shortage and increasing water demand. Uniform price of residential water cannot promote the efficient water allocation. In China, block water price will be put into practice in the future, but the outcome of such regulation measure is unpredictable without theory support. In this paper, the residential water is classified by the volume of water usage based on economic rules and block water is considered as different kinds of goods. A model based on extended linear expenditure system (ELES) is constructed to simulate the relationship between block water price and water demand, which provide theoretical support for the decision-makers. Finally, the proposed model is used to simulate residential water demand under block rate pricing in Beijing.

Chen, H.; Yang, Z. F.



Description and epizootiology of Babesia poelea n. sp. in brown boobies (Sula leucogaster (Boddaert)) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe a new species of piroplasm from brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) on Sand Island, Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, central Pacific. Mean parasitemia in adults and chicks was less than 1%, with the parasitemia in chicks significantly greater than in adults. There was no significant relation between the age of chicks and the degree of parasitemia. Parasitized red cells and red cell nuclei were significantly smaller than those of unparasitized cells, and infected birds appeared clinically normal. Prevalence of the parasite in chicks (54%) was significantly greater than in adults (13%), and the geographic distribution of parasitized chicks was skewed toward the eastern end of Sand Island. On the basis of morphologic characteristics, we named it Babesia poelea. The specific name is a concatenation of the Hawaiian names for dark (po'ele) and booby ('a). This is the second documentation of an endemic avian hemoparasite in seabirds from the central Pacific.

Work, T. M.; Rameyer, R. A.



Improved limit on charge conservation derived from {sup 71}Ga solar neutrino experiments  

SciTech Connect

The reported counting rates of the SAGE and GALLEX solar neutrino detectors have been used to establish an improved limit on the charge-nonconserving decay {sup 71}Ga{r_arrow}{sup 71}Ge+neutrals. The 1{sigma} lower limit on the lifetime against such decays is 3.5{times}10{sup 26} yr. This result can be used to establish a 1{sigma} upper limit on the ratio of the charge-nonconserving to the normal weak interaction decay width of the neutron, {Gamma}({ital n}{r_arrow}{ital p}+{nu}{sub {ital e}}+{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}})/{Gamma} ({ital n}{r_arrow}{ital p}+{ital e}{sup {minus}}+{bar {nu}}{sub {ital e}}){le}8{times}10{sup {minus}27}. This result represents by far the most stringent limit yet derived for charge-nonconserving decays involving baryons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Norman, E.B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bahcall, J.N. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Goldhaber, M. [Physics Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)



Immunochemical characterisation of tachykinin immunoreactivity in the nervous system of the garden snail, Helix aspersa.  


1. Circumoesophageal ganglia and foot muscle of the garden snail, Helix aspersa, were subjected to immunocytochemistry using antisera to the tachykinins, substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA), kassinin (KAS) and eledoisin (ELE). 2. Immunoreactivity in neuronal somata and fibres was detected only with the SP antiserum. 3. SP and NKA radioimmunoassays were performed on extracts of circumoesophageal ganglia. In common with immunocytochemistry, immunoreactivity was only detected with the SP antiserum. 4. Gel permeation chromatography of extracts resolved a single peak of immunoreactivity eluting slightly later than synthetic mammalian SP. Reverse-phase HPLC of immunoreactive fractions resolved two immunoreactive peptides representing oxidised and reduced forms of a single peptide. 5. These data suggest that the nervous system of H. aspersa contains a single tachykinin with C-terminal structural characteristics similar to mammalian SP. PMID:1280545

Leung, P S; Shaw, C; Johnston, C F; Irvine, G B



Tachykinin receptors mediating airway marcomolecular secretion  

SciTech Connect

Three tachykinin receptor types, termed NK1, NK2, and NK3, can be distinguished by the relative potency of various peptides in eliciting tissue responses. Airway macromolecular secretion is stimulated by the tachykinin substance P (SP). The purposes of this study were to determine the tachykinin receptor subtype responsible for this stimulation, and to examine the possible involvement of other neurotransmitters in mediating this effect. Ferret tracheal explants maintained in organ culture were labeled with {sup 3}H-glucosamine, a precursor of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMWG) which are released by airway secretory cells. Secretion of labeled HMWG then was determined in the absence and presence of the tachykinins SP, neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), physalaemin (PHY), and eledoisin (ELE). To evaluate the possible contribution of other mediators, tachykinin stimulation was examined in the presence of several receptor blockers.

Gentry, S.E. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))



Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin



Na Cauda do Cometa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

Voelzke, M. R.




PubMed Central

Objetivo Realizar uma análise da inserção da ética e humanidades no currículo do Curso de Medicina da Escola Superior em Ciências da Saúde - ESCS, escola pública do Distrito Federal, Brasil, de forma a contribuir com o processo de gestão curricular. Metodologia O Estudo é de coorte e documental. Foram pesquisados 37 termos relacionados à ética e 36 referentes à humanização nos objetivos educacionais e conteúdo dos módulos temáticos, habilidades e atitudes e interação ensino-serviço-comunidade, de 1a a 4a série e no programa do internato no currículo (ano 2006) e no projeto pedagógico do Curso de Medicina (2001). Resultados Maior inserção da humanização, ética e bioética na 1a e 2a série, quando comparado à inserção na 3a e 4a série e no internato, (IC95%-?=0,034, pvalue=0,007). Unidade de habilidades e atitudes: freqüência das 3 temáticas no currículo da 1a a 4a séries (IC95%-?=0,026, pvalue=0,013). Quando comparada a inserção entre o internato e as quatro primeiras séries, observa-se que nestas a inserção da temática humanização é superior (IC95%-?=0,042, pvalue=0,029). Conclusão O currículo desenvolvido no ano de 2006 na ESCS apresentou correlação com o projeto pedagógico do curso e contemplou a temática de forma abrangente, em todas as séries e internato.

Novaes, Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi; Novaes, Luiz Carlos Garcez; Guilhem, Dirce; Lolas, Fernando; Silveira, Carla; Guiotti, Murilo



Captura de satélites durante a formação de Júpiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O planeta Jupiter apresenta um grande número de satélites irregulares. As características das órbitas destes objetos indicam que os mesmos não teriam se formado ao redor do planeta que se encontram. As teorias existentes são de que estes objetos teriam se formado em uma região distante do planeta e sua evolução dinâmica os teria levado a uma captura gravitacional pelo planeta. Tendo em vista que o processo de captura gravitacional sem efeitos dissipativos não produz uma captura permanente, estudamos o processo de captura durante o estágio de formação do planeta. Realizamos simulações numéricas para os casos de satélites prógrados e retrógrados que inicialmente se encontram ao redor de Jupiter com sua massa atual e então, evoluimos a integração voltando no tempo de modo que o planeta sofra uma redução em sua massa (de 100% para 10% de sua massa atual) e verificamos o instante em que o satélites escapa do planeta (quando sua energia do problema de dois corpos se torna positiva). Assim, analisando o problema inverso no tempo, obtivemos em qual estágio de formação de Jupiter aquele hipotético satélite teria sido capturado. Os resultados mostram que os satélites retrógrados são capturados assim que entram na região delimitada pela esfera de Hill do planeta, enquanto que os satélites prógrados só são capturados quando entram numa região bem mais próxima ao planeta, uma fração da esfera de Hill.

Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.; Yokoyama, T.



Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime: The role of gravitational dissipation  

SciTech Connect

In [T. Jacobson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1260 (1995).] it was shown that the Einstein equation can be derived as a local constitutive equation for an equilibrium spacetime thermodynamics. More recently, in the attempt to extend the same approach to the case of f(R) theories of gravity, it was found that a nonequilibrium setting is indeed required in order to fully describe both this theory as well as classical general relativity (GR) [C. Eling, R. Guedens, and T. Jacobson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 121301 (2006).]. Here, elaborating on this point, we show that the dissipative character leading to nonequilibrium spacetime thermodynamics is actually related--both in GR as well as in f(R) gravity--to nonlocal heat fluxes associated with the purely gravitational/internal degrees of freedom of the theory. In particular, in the case of GR we show that the internal entropy production term is identical to the so-called tidal heating term of Hartle-Hawking. Similarly, for the case of f(R) gravity, we show that dissipative effects can be associated with the generalization of this term plus a scalar contribution whose presence is clearly justified within the scalar-tensor representation of the theory. Finally, we show that the allowed gravitational degrees of freedom can be fixed by the kinematics of the local spacetime causal structure, through the specific equivalence principle formulation. In this sense, the thermodynamical description seems to go beyond Einstein's theory as an intrinsic property of gravitation.

Chirco, G.; Liberati, S. [SISSA, Via Beirut 2, 34151 Trieste, Italy and INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)



VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria



Potential of The Object Modeling System For Development and Application of Decision Support Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For future-proof development and implementation of Decision Support Systems flex- ible software tools assisting the developers as well as the users are needed. With the Object Mod-eling System (OMS), which was developed in a joint approach by the USGS (Denver, Col.), the USDA (Ft. Collins, Col.) and the Friedrich-Schiller- University (Jena, Germany) such a tool has become available. By its object oriented and modular design the OMS provides a system independent framework for model as well as DSS development and application. Addi-tionally different views for devel- opers, modellers or operational users can be defined provid-ing each group with only that functionality they need for their daily work. Besides the core components for sys- tems development and application a GIS interface for spatial queries and analyses is currently under development. The hydrological model PRMS and the Root Zone Wa- ter Quality Model RZWQM have al-ready been integrated into the OMS and can be used for prognostic simulations of quantitative and qualitative modelling of the water balance. The integration of other models and the ge-neric development of new com- ponents and process modules will be carried out continuously. In the presentation the OMS will be introduced and its potential for future-proof development and application of DSS will be demonstrated.

Krause, P.; David, O.


A Non-conventional Watershed Partitioning Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of the river network from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) plays a fundamental role in modelling spatially distributed hydrological processes. This ex- ercise deals with a new two-step procedure based on the preliminary identification of an Ideal Drainage Network (IDN) from contour lines trough a variable mesh size, and the further extraction of the Actual Drainage Network (AND) from the IDN using land morphology. The steepest downslope lines search is used to identify individual channels, which are further merged into a network path draining to a given node of the IDN. The contributing area, peaks and saddles are determined by means of steepest upslope lines search. The basin area is thus partitioned into physically based finite ele- ments enclosed by irregular polygons. Different methods, i.e. the constant and variable threshold area method, the contour line curvature method, and a topologic method de- scending from the Hortonian ordering scheme are used to extract the Actual Drainage Network (ADN) from the IDN. Accordingly, using of the contour line curvature is shown to provide the most appropriate method from comparison with field surveys.

Menduni, Giovanni; Pagani, Alessandro; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Rossso, Renzo


Thermodynamic laws for generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first law and the generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics for the generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling are studied in the spatially homogeneous, isotropic FRW universe. The research results show that the field equations of the generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling can be cast to the form of the first law of thermodynamics with the so-called the entropy production terms dS¯ and the GSL can be given by considering the FRW universe filled only with ordinary matter enclosed by the dynamical apparent horizon with the Hawking temperature. Furthermore, as a concrete example, by utilizing the GSL the constraints on the gravitational model with f1(R)=R+?Rl and f2(R)=Rm are also discussed. It is worth noting these results given by us are quite general and can degenerate to the ones in Einstein's general relativity and pure f(R) gravity with non-coupling and non-minimal coupling as special cases. Comparing with the case of Einstein's general relativity, the appearance of the entropy production term dS¯ in the first law of thermodynamics demonstrates that the horizon thermodynamics is non-equilibrium one for generalized f(R) gravity with curvature-matter coupling, which is consistent with the arguments given in Akbar and Cai (2007) [13] and Eling et al. (2006) [18].

Wu, Ya-Bo; Zhao, Yue-Yue; Cai, Rong-Gen; Lu, Jian-Bo; Lu, Jun-Wang; Gao, Xiao-Jing



Parametric study of a high-average-power XeCl laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide-aperture, x-ray preionized discharge pumped XeCl laser is described. The laser head is included in a gas circulation loop. The x-ray generator is made of a secondary emission electron gun. The x-ray pulse duration is 400 ns (FWHM). The laser energy (EL) and the average power are given as a function of various parameters: charging voltage (Vc), buffer gas pressure (PL), total capacitance (CT), the interelectrode distance (d), and the repetition rate. The laser discharge is driven by a classical LC-inversion circuit. The stored energy (ES) in the capacitor bank is CTxVc2/2 and the efficiency is defined by EL/ES. Up to a repetition rate of 50 Hz, the laser energy per pulse remains almost constant, with low fluctuations. The best efficiency, for different pressures, is obtained for the same Vc/PLxd value. The optimal buffer gas pressure decreases with an increase of the total capacitance. More than 4.5 J per pulse, single shot, have been extracted from a 40 X 5.8 X 4 cm3 discharge (efficiency equals 1%). At a lower laser energy level (2.5 J), the maximum efficiency reaches 2.5%. An average output power of 175 W has been obtained. With this device, good preliminary results on Kr/F2/Ne mixture are given.

Godard, Bruno; Estocq, Emmanuel; Joulain, Franck; Murer, Pierre; Stehle, Marc X.; Bonnet, Jean C.; Pigache, Daniel R.



Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.  


Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan



Spectral-luminosity relation within individual Fermi gamma rays bursts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the spectra of all long gamma ray bursts (GRBs) of known redshift detected by the Fermi satellite untill the end of July 2009. Their fluxes and fluences are large enough to allow a time dependent study of their spectral characteristics in the 8 keV-1 MeV energy range. We find that the peak energy Epeak of their EL(E) spectrum correlates with the luminosity in a remarkably tight way within individual bursts. This time-resolved Epeak - Liso correlation is very similar for all the considered bursts and has a slope and normalisation similar to the analogous Epeak - Liso correlation defined by the time-integrated spectra of different bursts detected by several different satellites. For a few of the considered GRBs, we could also study the behaviour of the Epeak - Liso correlation during the rising and decaying phases of individual pulses within each burst, finding no differences. Our results indicate the presence of a similar physical mechanism, operating for the duration of different GRBs, tightly linking the burst luminosity with the peak energy of the spectrum emitted at different times. Such a physical mechanism is the same during the rise and decay phase of individual pulses composing a GRB. While calling for a robust physical interpretation, these results strongly indicate that the Epeak - Liso spectral energy correlation found considering the time-integrated spectra of different bursts is real and not the result of instrumental selection effects.

Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.



Pressure-driven sound turbulence in a high-. beta. plasma  

SciTech Connect

In a large laboratory plasma (1 m diam{times}2 m, {ital n}{sub {ital e}}{le}10{sup 12} cm{sup {minus}3}, {beta}{sub 0}{approx equal}15 G, {beta}{sub {ital e}}={ital nkT}{sub {ital e}}/({beta}{sub 0}{sup 2}/2{mu}{sub 0}){approx equal}0.5), strong density fluctuations ({delta}{ital n}/{ital n}{approx equal}50%) near the lower hybrid frequency ({omega}{sub {ital c}{ital e}}{omega}{sub {ital c}{ital i}}){sup 1/2} are identified as cross-field sound waves ({ital k}{sub {perpendicular}}{much gt}{ital k}{sub {parallel}}, {omega}/{ital k}{sub {perpendicular}}{approx equal}{ital c}{sub {ital s}}) driven unstable by the electron diamagnetic drift {bold v}{sub {ital d}}={del}{ital p}{times}{bold B}/{ital ne}{beta}{sup 2}, {ital v}{sub {ital d}}{gt}{ital c}{sub {ital s}}. Wave steepening and refraction saturate the instability. Wave-enhanced transport but insignificant particle acceleration are observed.

Stenzel, R.L. (Department of Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (USA))



Unified first law and the thermodynamics of the apparent horizon in the FRW universe  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we revisit the relation between the Friedmann equations and the first law of thermodynamics. We find that the unified first law first proposed by Hayward to treat the outertrapping horizon of a dynamical black hole can be used to the apparent horizon (a kind of inner trapping horizon in the context of the FRW cosmology) of the FRW universe. We discuss three kinds of gravity theorties: Einstein theory, Lovelock thoery, and scalar-tensor theory. In Einstein theory, the first law of thermodynamics is always satisfied on the apparent horizon. In Lovelock theory, treating the higher derivative terms as an effective energy-momentum tensor, we find that this method can give the same entropy formula for the apparent horizon as that of black hole horizon. This implies that the Clausius relation holds for the Lovelock theory. In scalar-tensor gravity, we find, by using the same procedure, the Clausius relation no longer holds. This indicates that the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in the scalar-tensor gravity corresponds to a system of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We show this point by using the method developed recently by Eling et al. for dealing with the f(R) gravity.

Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China) and Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China)



Molecular dynamics simulations of a set of isoniazid derivatives bound to InhA, the enoyl-acp reductase from M. tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ligand-receptor molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were carried out for a set of hydrazides bound to the enoyl-acp reductase from M. tuberculosis, InhA (PDB entry code 1zid). The hypothesized active conformations resulting from a previous receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR analysis and related optimum model/alignment were used in this study. The molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) protocol employed 500000 steps for each ligand-receptor complex, the step size was 0.001 ps (1 fs), and the simulation temperature was 310 K, the same temperature used in the biological assay. An output trajectory file was saved every 20 simulation steps, resulting in 25,000 conformations. The hydration shell model was used to calculate the solvation energy of the lowest-energy conformation obtained from each MDS. Structural parameters as well as binding energy contributions were considered in this analysis. The thermodynamic descriptors ELE1,4, ELtors, ELvdW, ELel, and ELel+Hb appear to be more relevant to the biological activity. These findings can be meaningful for developing QSAR studies and for designing new antituberculosis agents.

Pasqualoto, Kerly F. M.; Ferreira, Márcia M. C.; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo A.; Hopfinger, Anton J.


Modeling crop production on the soil-like substrate in CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of plants and soils in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is accompanied by mod-eling of nutrient dynamics and gas exchange to analyze data and plan the experiments. In this connection a mathematical model, based on a deterministic differential equation framework, was developed. Our simulations were validated by comparing their predictions with the results obtained during the laboratory experiments with wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The components of the model were the atmospheric carbon dioxide, humus, mineral nitrogen, microbial biomass and extracellular enzymes of SLS as well as the foliage, stems, roots, grains, straw and root exudates of wheat. Impact of photoperiod, daily photosynthetic photon flux, atmospheric volume, carbon and nitrogen content of SLS, decom-position rate of SLS organic matter on the crop production was simulated. When available SLS nitrogen content was sufficient and circulating carbon mass of BLSS was constant, the increase of light intensity from the certain level provoked the decrease of plant harvest index. Decompo-sition rate of SLS organic matter could be increased under nitrogen limiting conditions owing to active synthesis of extracellular microbial enzymes. Possible applications of the modeling for the improvement of plant growing in BLSS are discussed. Keywords: wheat, soil-like substrate, modeling, nitrogen

Polonskiy, Vadim; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir


Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.



Ensino de Astronomia no Ensino Médio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto a Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos, 40 na turma A, 40 na turma B e 39 na turma C. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questões dissertativas e objetivas para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar uma interferência nas classes envolvidas utilizando metodologias diferentes sendo elas: a tradicional, onde o professor é um repassador de informações, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda também de forma tradicional, porém com auxílio de multimídia para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenções necessárias. Ao final do trabalho as mesmas turmas da fase inicial orientadas pelo mesmo professor responderam novamente ao questionário proposto para diagnosticar dentre as três metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores resultados, sendo os iniciais comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%,turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando claramente uma absorção de conhecimentos. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas você acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente.Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, foi a mais significativa.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.



Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Médio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho de intervenção foi realizado junto à Escola Estadual Colònia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com très turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionário de vinte questíes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas très turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prévios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de intervenção nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervençíes necessárias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxílio de multimídias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionário inicial para diagnosticar dentre as très metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaçíes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, após a intervenção os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avanço significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu índice e a turma C evoluiu, porém não tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas vocè acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, após o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxílio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra conclusão muito importante é que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente recomendado, este não é ensinado, nem no Ensino Fundamental, nem no Ensino Médio.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.



[Multiplexing mapping of human cDNAs]. Final report, September 1, 1991--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Using PCR with automated product analysis, 329 human brain cDNA sequences have been assigned to individual human chromosomes. Primers were designed from single-pass cDNA sequences expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Primers were used in PCR reactions with DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates, often with multiplexing. Many ESTs mapped match sequence database records. To evaluate of these matches, the position of the primers relative to the matching region (In), the BLAST scores and the Poisson probability values of the EST/sequence record match were determined. In cases where the gene product was stringently identified by the sequence match had already been mapped, the gene locus determined by EST was consistent with the previous position which strongly supports the validity of assigning unknown genes to human chromosomes based on the EST sequence matches. In the present cases mapping the ESTs to a chromosome can also be considered to have mapped the known gene product: rolipram-sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase, chromosome 1; protein phosphatase 2A{beta}, chromosome 4; alpha-catenin, chromosome 5; the ELE1 oncogene, chromosome 10q11.2 or q2.1-q23; MXII protein, chromosome l0q24-qter; ribosomal protein L18a homologue, chromosome 14; ribosomal protein L3, chromosome 17; and moesin, Xp11-cen. There were also ESTs mapped that were closely related to non-human sequence records. These matches therefore can be considered to identify human counterparts of known gene products, or members of known gene families. Examples of these include membrane proteins, translation-associated proteins, structural proteins, and enzymes. These data then demonstrate that single pass sequence information is sufficient to design PCR primers useful for assigning cDNA sequences to human chromosomes. When the EST sequence matches previous sequence database records, the chromosome assignments of the EST can be used to make preliminary assignments of the human gene to a chromosome.

Not Available



Presence and absence of excited state intramolecular charge transfer with the six isomers of dicyano-N,N-dimethylaniline and dicyano-(N-methyl-N-isopropyl)aniline.  


The excited state behavior of the six m,n-dicyano-N,N-dimethylanilines (mnDCDMA) and m,n-dicyano-(N-methyl-N-isopropyl)anilines (mnDCMIA) is discussed as a function of solvent polarity and temperature. The dicyano moiety in these electron donor (D)/acceptor (A) molecules has a considerably larger electron affinity than the benzonitrile subgroup in 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN). Nevertheless, the fluorescence spectra of the mnDCDMAs and mnDCMIAs in n-hexane all consist of a single emission originating from the locally excited (LE) state, indicating that a reaction from LE to an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state does not take place. The calculated energies E(ICT), obtained by employing the reduction potential of the dicyanobenzene subgroups and the oxidation potential of the amino substituents trimethylamine (N(Me)(3)) and isopropyldimethylamine (iPrNMe(2)), are lower than E(LE). The absence of an LE ? ICT reaction therefore makes clear that the D and A units in the dicyanoanilines are not electronically decoupled. In the polar solvent acetonitrile (MeCN), dual (LE + ICT) fluorescence is found with 24DCDMA and 34DCDMA, as well as with 24DCMIA, 25DCMIA, and 34DCMIA. For all other mnDCDMAs and mnDCMIAs, only LE emission is observed in MeCN. The ICT/LE fluorescence quantum yield ratio ?'(ICT)/?(LE) in MeCN at 25 °C is larger for 24DCDMA (1.2) than for 34DCDMA (0.35). The replacement of methyl by isopropyl in the amino substituent leads to a considerable increase of ?'(ICT)/?(LE), 8.8 for 24DCMIA and 1.4 for 34DCMIA, showing that the LE ? ICT equilibrium has shifted further toward ICT. The appearance of an ICT reaction with the 2,4- and 3,4-dicyanoanilines is caused by a relatively small energy gap ?E(S(1),S(2)) between the two lowest excited singlet states as compared with the other m,n-dicyanoanilines, in accordance with the PICT model. The observation that the ICT reaction is more efficient for 24DCMIA and 34DCMIA than for their mnDCDMA counterparts is mainly caused by the fact that iPrNMe(2) is a better electron donor than N(Me)(3): E(D/D(+)) = 0.84 against 1.05 V vs SCE. That ICT also occurs with 25DCMIA, notwithstanding its large ?E(S(1),S(2)), is due to the substantial amino twist angle ? = 42.6°, which leads to partial electronic decoupling of the D and A subgroups. The dipole moments ?(e)(ICT) range between 18 D for 34DCMIA and 12 D for 25DCMIA, larger than the corresponding ?(e)(LE) of 16 and 11 D. The difference between ?(e)(ICT) and ?(e)(LE) is smaller than with DMABN (17 and 10 D) because of the noncollinear arrangement of the amino and cyano substituents (different dipole moment directions). The dicyanoanilines that do not undergo ICT, have LE dipole moments between 9 and 16 D. From plots of ln(?'(ICT)/?(LE)) vs 1000/T, the (rather small) ICT reaction enthalpies ?H could be measured in MeCN: 5.4 kJ/mol (24DCDMA), 4.7 kJ/mol (24DCMIA), and 3.9 kJ/mol (34DCMIA). With the mnDCDMAs and mnDCMIAs only showing LE emission, the fluorescence decays are single exponential, whereas for those undergoing an LE ? ICT reaction the LE and ICT picosecond fluorescence decays are double exponential. In MeCN at 25 °C, the decay times ?(2) have values between 1.8 ps for 24DCMIA and 4.6 ps for 34DCMIA at 25 °C. Longer times are observed at lower temperatures. Arrhenius plots of the forward and backward ICT rate constants k(a) and k(d) of 25DCMIA in tetrahydrofuran, obtained from the LE and ICT fluorescence decays, give the activation energies E(a) = 4.5 kJ/mol and E(d) = 11.9 kJ/mol, i.e., ?H = -7.4 kJ/mol. From femtosecond transient absorption spectra of 24DCDMA and 34DCDMA at 22 °C, ICT reaction times ?(2) = 1/(k(a) + k(d)) of 1.8 and 3.1 ps are determined. By combining these results with the data for the fluorescence decays and ?'(ICT)/?(LE), the values k(a) = 49 × 10(10) s(-1) (24DCDMA) and k(a) = 23 × 10(10) s(-1) (34DCDMA) are calculated. An LE and ICT excited state absorption is present even at a pump/probe delay time of 100 ps, showing that an LE ? ICT equilibrium is establish

Galievsky, Victor A; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara; Mayer, Peter; Zachariasse, Klaas A



Photodissociation of ketene: CH{sub 2}CO {yields} CH{sub 2}(a{sup 1}A{sub 1}) + CO(v=1) rates and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The rotational energy release in the dissociation of ketene (CH{sub 2}CO) along its singlet potential energy surface is observed and compared with several statistical and dynamical theories. Rotational distributions for the product, CO(X{sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1), are measured from the threshold for production of CH{sub 2}(a {sup 1}A{sub 1}) (0,0,0) + CO(X{sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1) to 1720 cm{sup -1} above. Near threshold (E{le} 200 cm{sup -1} over threshold), phase space theory (PST) matches the observed distributions. At 357 and 490 cm{sup -1}, PST constrained by the measured state distributions of the methylene fragment, provides a good fit to these CO(v=1) rotational distributions. For E > 490 cm{sup -1}, the constrained PST matches the average rotational energy observed but predicts distributions which are broader than observed. This contrasts to the rotational distributions of the {sup 1}CH{sub 2} fragment which become shifted to lower rotational states than PST as energy increases from 200 cm{sup -1} above threshold. Dynamical models, the impulsive model and Franck-Condon mapping, do not account for the product rotational state distributions. The CO(v=1) rotational distributions for E > 200 cm{sup -1} contain no measurable product from triplet channel fragmentation. Therefore, they can be compared with the previously determined CO(v=0) rotational distributions in order to partition the CO(v=0) yield between singlet and triplet channels and recalculate the singlet yield. This new yield is found to be at the upper limits of the range previously reported. Rate constants and quantum yields have been determined for the photodissociation of ketene to produce CH{sub 2}(a {sup 1}A{sub 1}) (0,0,0) + CO(X {sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1). At 57, 110, 200, 357, and 490 cm{sup -1} above this product threshold, vibrational branching ratios for the singlet products were measured and compared to phase space theory (PST), separate statistical ensembles (SSE), and variational RRKM (var. RRKM).

Wade, E.A.



Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

Rodionova, Natalia


KREEPy lunar meteorite Dhofar 287A: A new lunar mare basalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dhofar 287 (Dho 287) is a new lunar meteorite, found in Oman on January 14, 2001. The main portion of this meteorite (Dho 287A) consists of a mare basalt, while a smaller portion of breccia (Dho 287B) is attached on the side. Dho 287A is only the fourth crystalline mare basalt meteorite found on Earth to date and is the subject of the present study. The basalt consists mainly of phenocrysts of olivine and pyroxene set in a finer-grained matrix, which is composed of elongated pyroxene and plagioclase crystals radiating from a common nucleii. The majority of olivine and pyroxene grains are zoned, from core to rim, in terms of Fe and Mg. Accessory minerals include ilmenite, chromite, ulvaspinel, troilite, and FeNi metal. Chromite is invariably mantled by ulvaspinel. This rock is unusually rich in late-stage mesostasis, composed largely of fayalite, Si-K-Ba-rich glass, fluorapatite, and whitlockite. In texture and mineralogy, Dho 287A is a low-Ti mare basalt, with similarities to Apollo 12 (A-12) and Apollo 15 (A-15) basalts. However, all plagioclase is now present as maskelynite, and its composition is atypical for known low-Ti mare basalts. The Fe to Mn ratios of olivine and pyroxene, the presence of FeNi metal, and the bulk-rock oxygen isotopic ratios, along with several other petrological features, are evidence for the lunar origin for this meteorite. Whole-rock composition further confirms the similarity of Dho 287A with A-12 and A-15 sam- ples but requires possible KREEP assimilation to account for its rare-earth-element (REE) contents. Cooling-rate estimates, based on Fo zonation in olivine, yield values of 0.2­0.8 deg C/hr for the lava, typical for the center of a 10­20 m thick flow. The recalculated major-element concentrations, after removing 10­15% modal olivine, are comparable to typical A-15 mare basalts. Crystallization mod- eling of the recalculated Dho 287A bulk-composition yields a reasonable fit between predicted and observed mineral abundances and compositions.

Anand, M.; Taylor, L. A.; Misra, K. C.; Demidova, S. I.; Nazarov, M. A.



Intramolecular charge transfer with crystal violet lactone in acetonitrile as a function of temperature: reaction is not solvent-controlled.  


Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) with crystal violet lactone (CVL) in the excited singlet state takes place in solvents more polar than n-hexane, such as ethyl acetate, tetrahydrofuran, and acetonitrile (MeCN). In these solvents, the fluorescence spectrum of CVL consists of two emission bands, from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state. The dominant deactivation channel of the lowest excited singlet state is internal conversion, as the quantum yields of fluorescence (0.007) and intersystem crossing (0.015) in MeCN at 25 °C are very small. CVL is a weakly coupled electron donor/acceptor (D/A) molecule, similar to an exciplex (1)(A(-)D(+)). A solvatochromic treatment of the LE and ICT emission maxima results in the dipole moments ?e(LE) = 17 D and ?e(ICT) = 33 D, much larger than those previously reported. This discrepancy is attributed to different Onsager radii and spectral fluorimeter calibration. The LE and ICT fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN are double exponential. As determined by global analysis, the LE and ICT decays at 25 °C have the times ?2 = 9.2 ps and ?1 = 1180 ps, with an amplitude ratio of 35.3 for LE. From these parameters, the rate constants ka = 106 × 10(9) s(-1) and kd = 3.0 × 10(9) s(-1) of the forward and backward reaction in the LE ? ICT equilibrium are calculated, resulting in a free enthalpy difference ?G of -8.9 kJ/mol. The amplitude ratio of the ICT fluorescence decay equals -1.0, which signifies that the ICT state is not prepared by light absorption in the S0 ground state, but originates exclusively from the directly excited LE precursor. From the temperature dependence of the fluorescence decays of CVL in MeCN (-45 to 75 °C), activation energies Ea = 3.9 kJ/mol (LE ? ICT) and Ed = 23.6 kJ/mol (ICT ? LE) are obtained, giving an enthalpy difference ?H (= Ea - Ed) of -19.7 kJ/mol, and an entropy difference ?S = -35.5 J mol(-1) K(-1). These data show that the ICT reaction of CVL in MeCN is not barrierless. The ICT reaction time of 9.2 ps is much longer than the mean solvent relaxation time of MeCN (0.26 ps), indicating, in contrast with earlier reports in the literature, that the reaction is not solvent controlled. This conclusion is supported by the observation of double exponential LE and ICT fluorescence with the same decay times. PMID:23865629

Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Zachariasse, Klaas A



A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.



A new release of the mean orbital motion theory, and a new tool provided by CNES for long term analysis of disposal orbits and re-entry predictions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To perform an orbit modelling accurate enough to provide a good estimate of the lifetime of a satellite, or to ensure the stability of a disposal orbit through centuries, we built a new orbit propagator based on the theory of mean orbital motion. It is named SECS-SD2 , for Simplified and Extended CODIOR Software -Space Debris Dedicated . The CODIOR software propagates numerically averaged equations of motion, with a typical integration step size on the order of a few hours, and was originally written in classical orbital elements. The so-called Space Debris -dedicated version is written in orbital elements suitable for orbits with small eccentricities and inclinations, so as to characterize the main dynamic properties of the motion within the LEO, MEO, and GEO regions. The orbital modelling accounts for the very first terms of the geopotential, the perturbations induced by the luni-solar attraction, the solar radiation pressure, and the atmospheric drag (using classical models). The new software was designed so as to ensure short computation times, even over periods of decades or centuries. This paper aims first at describing and validating the main functionalities of the software: we explain how the simplified averaged equations of motion were built, we show how we get sim-plified luni-solar ephemerides without using any huge file for orbit propagations over centuries, and we show how we averaged and simulated the solar flux. We show as well how we expressed short periodic terms to be added to the mean equations of motion, in order to get orbital ele-ments comparable to those deduced from the classical numerical integration of the oscultating equations of motion. The second part of the paper sheds light on some dynamical properties of space debris flying in the LEO and GEO regions, which were obtained from the new software. Knowing that each satellite in the LEO region is now supposed to re-enter the atmosphere within a period of 25 years, we estimated in various dynamical configurations the lifetime of LEO objects depending on their initial conditions of motion, on the solar flux models applied through decades, and on the atmospheric density models and also the satellite area-to-mass ratio. In the GEO region, we investigated the dynamical reasons that can cause space debris re-entering the GEO-protected region after the passivation of a disposal spacecraft.

Deleflie, Florent; Wailliez, Sébastien; Portmann, Christophe; Gilles, M.; Vienne, Alain; Berthier, J.; Valk, St; Hautesserres, Denis; Martin, Thierry; Fraysse, Hubert


Assessment of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens collected from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis  

PubMed Central

Background RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent molecular changes in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). So far, 15 main RET/PTC rearrangements have been described, among which RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the most common in PTC - especially in radiation-induced tumours. RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 are the result of intrachromosomal paracentric inversions in chromosome 10, where RET and the activating genes (H4 and ELE1, respectively) are located. Recently, RET/PTC rearrangements have been shown not only in PTC but also in benign thyroid lesions, including Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). The aim of study was an assessment of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods Thyroid aspirates, eligible for the study, were obtained from 26 patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). Each aspirate was smeared for conventional cytology, while its remaining part was immediately washed out of the needle. The cells, obtained from the needle, were used in further investigation. Total RNA from FNAB was extracted by use of an RNeasy Micro Kit, based on modified Chomczynski and Sacchi's method and reverse transcription (RT-PCR) was done. Quantitative evaluation of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements by real-time PCR was performed by an ABI PRISM® 7500 Sequence Detection System. In the study, PTC tissues with known RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements served as a reference standard (calibrator), while ?-actin gene was used as endogenous control. Results Amplification reactions were done in triplicate for each examined sample. No RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements were found in the examined samples. Conclusions Our results indicate that RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 rearrangements in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, if any, are rather rare events and further investigations should be conducted in order to determine molecular changes, connecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis with PTC.



Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.



Sobre o uso das séries de Puiseux em mecanica celeste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho é apresentada uma demonstração do uso dos diferentes desenvolvimentos em séries para as equações de perturbação em Mecânica Celeste no marco Hamiltoniano. Em trabalhos clássicos como os de Poincaré (Poincaré, 1893) por exemplo, já esta planteado o uso de potências não inteiras no pequeno parâmetro, o que evidencia a não analiticidade das funções quando uma ressonância ocorre. Nestes trabalhos os desenvolvimentos são na raíz quadrada da massa de Júpiter (o pequeno parâmetro). Mais recentemente (Ferraz-Mello, 1985) outros tipos de desenvolvimentos foram aplicados modificando substancialmente as ordens de grandeza e a velocidade de convergência das séries. Com esta abordagem, os desenvolvimentos foram expressados em termos da raíz cúbica do pequeno parâmetro. Neste trabalho apresentamos um enfoque geral, onde os diferentes tipos de desenvolvimentos em séries de Puiseux (Valiron, 1950) são obtidos a partir da aplicação de Teorema de Preparação de Weierstrass (Goursat, 1916) considerando a equação de Hamilton-Jacobi como uma equação algébrica. Os resultados são aplicados ao problema restrito dos três corpos em ressonância de primeira ordem e, dependendo da grandeza da excentricidade do asteróide em relação à de Júpiter, obtemos os diferentes desenvolvimentos, em raíz quadrada ou raíz cúbica da massa de Júpiter.

Miloni, O. I.



Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.



Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.



O efeito do achatamento nos pontos de equilíbrio e na dinâmica de sistemas coorbitais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho analisamos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos e na configuração de órbitas girino-ferradura. Enfatizamos os sistemas coorbitais de satélites de Saturno, pois se encontram em relativa proximidade com o planeta, em que o efeito do achatamento se torna mais evidente. O estudo é dividido em três etapas independentes. Na primeira fase analisamos as equações de movimento do problema restrito de três corpos considerando o efeito do achatamento, e através do balanceamento de forças buscamos a nova configuração dos pontos de equilíbrio lagrangianos. Concluímos, nesta etapa, que os pontos de equilíbrio estáveis apresentam um pequeno deslocamento definido pelo parâmetro de achatamento, não podendo ser mais representados por triângulos eqüiláteros. Aplicamos este resultado aos satélites coorbitais de Tetis e Dione, encontrando as posições de equilíbrio levemente deslocadas em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Na segunda fase visamos o sistema Saturno-Jano-Epimeteu, que por se tratar de um sistema de massas comparáveis, optamos por desenvolver as equações de Yoder et al (Icarus 53, pág 431-443, 1983), que permitem determinar os pontos de equilíbrio e a amplitude de oscilação angular das órbitas girino-ferradura para o problema não-restrito de três corpos, porém, no nosso estudo consideramos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nestas equações. Encontramos que a distância angular entre satélites, quando em posição de equilíbrio estável, diminui quanto maior for o parâmetro de achatamento do corpo principal. Além disso, a órbita de transição girino-ferradura possui largura angular menor em relação ao caso sem achatamento. Por fim, realizamos integrações numéricas para os casos reais de coorbitais de Saturno comparando com os resultados analíticos. Nestas integrações simulamos diversas órbitas girino-ferradura com diferentes parâmetros de achatamento, utilizando condições iniciais corrigidas para a presença do achatamento.

Mourão, D. C.; Winter, O. C.; Yokoyama, T.



Camões e a cosmogonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Os Lusíadas, escrito por Luis de Camões em 1572, é um poema épico renascentista e a visão Cosmogônica do autor é apresentada, principalmente, no último canto do poema, quando Tétis mostra ao Gama a Máquina do Mundo. A Cosmogonia de Camões neste poema reflete uma visão de uma época de transição, que ainda não incorporou os elementos da revolução Copernicana. É uma visão Grego- Ptolomaica e também medieval. O poeta guia-se pela tradução e notas feita por Pedro Nunes, inventor do Nonio, do Tratado da Esfera "De Sphaera" do Astrônomo Inglês John Holywood, mais conhecido pelo nome latinizado de Johannes Sacrobosco. Outra provável fonte de Camões, de acordo com Luciano Antonio Pereira da Silva em Astronomia de os Lusíadas, é o "Theoricae novae Planetarum" (1460) do astrólogo Alemão Jorge Purbáquio (1423 - 1461). A Astronomia de Os Lusíadas representa a ciência do tempo de Camões. Camões nunca emprega a palavra constelação e seu catálogo é bastante completo. A Máquina do Mundo tem a Terra no centro. Em redor, em círculos concêntricos, a lua (Diana), Mercúrio, Vênus, o Sol (Febo), Marte, Júpiter e Saturno. Envolvendo estes astros tem o firmamento seguido pelo "Céu Áqueo" ou cristalino, depois o 1o Móbil, esfera que arrasta todas as outras consigo. Este trabalho, multidisciplinar, serve tanto para ensinar aos alunos da Física como das Ciências Humanas, a concepção de mundo do renascimento de uma forma belamente poética em versos decassílabos Este trabalho também ajuda na apreciação do maior clássico da língua portuguesa e mostra como as Ciências e as artes, em geral, estão correlacionadas e refletem a visão de mundo da época em que foi produzida.

Costa, J. M.



A distribuição de velocidades na linha de visada em galáxias barradas vistas de face  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Com o objetivo de realizar um estudo cinemático da componente vertical de barras em galáxias, obtivemos espectros de fenda longa de alta razão S/N ao longo dos eixos maior e menor de 14 galáxias barradas vistas de face, nos telescópios de 1.52m do ESO em La Silla, Chile, e de 2.3m do Steward Observatory em Kitt Peak, Arizona. Estes dados nos permitiram determinar a distribuição de velocidades das estrelas ao longo do eixo vertical das barras e discos destes sistemas, tanto no centro como em pontos que distam cerca de 5 e 20 segundos de arco do núcleo, correspondendo a distâncias de cerca de 0.7 e 2.8 kpc, respectivamente. Desta forma, a variação radial da distribuição de velocidades também pôde ser avaliada. Este tipo de análise tem raros exemplos na literatura por ser caro em termos de tempo de telescópio. Entretanto, é de fácil justificativa, considerando que traz novas informações que podem ser utilizadas para aperfeiçoar modelos teóricos acerca da formação e evolução de galáxias. Um algoritmo por nós desenvolvido foi utilizado para obter as distribuições de velocidades como Gaussianas generalizadas (polinômios de Gauss-Hermite), o que traz um ingrediente a mais neste tipo de estudo que, tradicionalmente, se utiliza de Gaussianas puras, uma hipótese nem sempre razoável. Apresentaremos os resultados deste trabalho, que incluem um diagnóstico para a identificação de barras recém formadas, e testes para o modelo isotérmico de discos. Mostraremos que: (i) a escolha das estrelas padrão em velocidade, e dos parâmetros da Gaussiana, deve ser muito bem justificada já que tem influência significativa nos resultados; (ii) muitas galáxias apresentam uma depressão na dispersão de velocidades na região central, que pode estar associada a um disco interno; e (iii) a dispersão de velocidades é constante ao longo da barra, nos eixos maior e menor, mas cai substancialmente quando se passa da barra para o disco.

Gadotti, D. A.; de Souza, R. E.



Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general theory of relativity was developed by Einstein a century ago. Since then, it has become the standard theory of gravity, especially important to the fields of fundamental astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and experimental gravitational physics. Today, the application of general relativity is also essential for many practical purposes involving astrometry, navigation, geodesy, and time synchronization. Numerous experiments have successfully tested general relativity to a remarkable level of precision. Exploring relativistic gravity in the solar system now involves a variety of high-accuracy techniques, for example, very long baseline radio interferometry, pulsar timing, spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary radio ranging, lunar laser ranging, the global positioning system (GPS), torsion balances and atomic clocks. Over the last few decades, various groups within the International Astronomical Union have been active in exploring the application of the general theory of relativity to the modeling and interpretation of high-accuracy astronomical observations in the solar system and beyond. A Working Group on Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry was formed in 1994 to define and implement a relativistic theory of reference frames and time scales. This task was successfully completed with the adoption of a series of resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models by the 24th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Manchester, UK, in 2000. However, these resolutions only form a framework for the practical application of relativity theory, and there have been continuing questions on the details of the proper application of relativity theory to many common astronomical problems. To ensure that these questions are properly addressed, the 26th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Prague in August 2006, established the IAU Commission 52, "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy". The general scientific goals of the new commission are to: * clarify the geometrical and dynamical concepts of fundamental astronomy within a relativistic framework, * provide adequate mathematical and physical formulations to be used in fundamental astronomy, * deepen the understanding of relativity among astronomers and students of astronomy, and * promote research needed to accomplish these tasks. The present book is intended to make a theoretical contribution to the efforts undertaken by this commission. The first three chapters of the book review the foundations of celestial mechanics as well as those of special and general relativity. Subsequent chapters discuss the theoretical and experimental principles of applied relativity in the solar system. The book is written for graduate students and researchers working in the area of gravitational physics and its applications inmodern astronomy. Chapters 1 to 3 were written by Michael Efroimsky and Sergei Kopeikin, Chapters 4 to 8 by Sergei Kopeikin, and Chapter 9 by George Kaplan. Sergei Kopeikin also edited the overall text. It hardly needs to be said that Newtonian celestial mechanics is a very broad area. In Chapter 1, we have concentrated on derivation of the basic equations, on explanation of the perturbed two-body problem in terms of osculating and nonosculating elements, and on discussion of the gauge freedom in the six-dimensional configuration space of the orbital parameters. The gauge freedom of the configuration space has many similarities to the gauge freedom of solutions of the Einstein field equations in general theory of relativity. It makes an important element of the Newtonian theory of gravity, which is often ignored in the books on classic celestial mechanics. Special relativity is discussed in Chapter 2. While our treatment is in many aspects similar to the other books on special relativity, we have carefully emphasised the explanation of the Lorentz and Poincaré transformations, and the appropriate transformation properties of geometric objects like vectors and tensors, for example, the velocity, acceleration, force, ele

Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George



O Ensino da Astronomia no Ensino Médio sob Diferentes Abordagens Metodológicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho, sobre a intervenção de metodologias de ensino, foi desenvolvido na Escola Estadual Colônia dos Pescadores, na cidade de Caraguatatuba - SP, em três turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Médio, perfazendo um total de 119 educandos, entre 16 e 19 anos. Antes de iniciar-se a intervenção, um questionário de vinte perguntas objetivas e dissertativas foi desenvolvido, aplicado pelo professor da classe, que ministrou as aulas correspondentes. Este questionário foi o mesmo em todas as três classes com o objetivo de diagnosticar o conhecimento prévio dos alunos sobre Astronomia. Começando a intervenção nas turmas, o professor envolvido usou três diferentes metodologias de ensino: (A) em forma de seminários, elaborados e apresentados pelos alunos, nos quais o professor fazia apenas as intervenções necessárias, (B) na forma tradicional, com a ajuda de multimídia para o desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) a tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. No final do trabalho os alunos responderam o mesmo questionário novamente, de modo que os três métodos utilizados puderam ser comparados. Os resultados apresentados após a intervenção foram melhores que os resultados iniciais indicando a ocorrência de uma aprendizagem significativa. Quando os estudantes foram inicialmente questionados sobre quantos planetas existem no nosso sistema solar, a classe A obteve 39% de respostas certas, a classe B 48% e a classe C 46%, mas após o desenvolvimento das atividades, as classes obtiveram respectivamente 94%, 97 % e 90% de aproveitamento. No término do bimestre, foi sugerido aos educandos que elaborassem uma história em quadrinhos, a qual serviu para averiguar se os conceitos inicialmente observados foram alterados e se novos foram agregados. A análise das histórias foi dividida em três partes: Criatividade; Temas abordados; Emprego correto dos conceitos estudados. Ao final quatorze histórias foram confeccionadas. O aprendizado foi tão significativo que os alunos produzira m histórias em quadrinhos, com informações muito ricas. Outro dado muito importante é que, apesar da Astronomia ser um tema amplamente recomendado, não é ensinado nem em escolas de ensino fundamental nem no ensino médio.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Albrecht, Evonir



Observações das explosões cósmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satélite HETE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) é o primeiro satélite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das explosões cósmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lançado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentação capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV até raios gama e localizá-las com precisão de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizações das ECRGs detectadas são disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet através de uma rede de estações de recepção ao longo do equador. A participação brasileira nesse projeto se dá através da montagem e operação de uma estação de recepção em Natal, RN, e da participação na equipe científica da missão. Neste trabalho são apresentados resultados da observação pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emissão de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A explosão, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente óptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da explosão nove minutos após o evento, e observações realizadas após 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absorção de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado até o momento e suas observações em vários comprimentos de onda têm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s após o início do evento. A duração do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa explosão não tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", já que o transiente óptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R»19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e já estava mais fraco do que R»23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrência do burst. Serão discutidas as implicações desse resultado nos modelos de afterglows de ECRGs.

Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.



Cognitive performance of neuromyelitis optica patients: comparison with multiple sclerosis.  


The aim of the present research was to investigate cognitive pattern of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to compare it with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' performance. Methods: Fourteen NMO, 14 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 14 healthy control patients participated in the investigation. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated with the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery for MS; Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Digit Span; and Semantic Fluency. Results: Fifty-seven percent of NMO patients and 42.85% of the MS ones had abnormal performance in at least two cognitive tests. The NMO Group showed abnormal performance in verbal fluency, verbal and visual memories, with greater attention deficits. NMO patients outperformed healthy control in the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). However, no difference was found between NMO and RRMS patients. Conclusions: The NMO Group showed more dysfunction in attention and verbal fluencies than in verbal and visual memories. When compared with the MS patients, a similar dysfunction pattern was found. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o padrão cognitivo de pacientes com neuromielite óptica (NMO) e compará-lo com o desempenho de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM). Métodos: Quatorze pacientes com NMO, 14 com esclerose múltipla recorrente remitente (EMRR) e 14 participantes do Controle saudáveis participaram da presente investigação. As funções neuropsicológicas foram avaliadas com a Bateria Breve de Testes Neuropsicológicos de Rao, Teste Símbolo Digit e a Fluência Semântica. Resultados: Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes com NMO e 42,85% daqueles com EM apresentaram desempenho anormal em pelo menos dois testes cognitivos. O Grupo NMO apresentarou desempenho anormal na fluência verbal e nas memórias visual e verbal, com maiores déficits de atenção. Pacientes com NMO superaram os controles saudáveis em PASAT. No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença entre os pacientes com NMO e aqueles com EMRR. Conclusões: O Grupo NMO mostrou mais disfunção nas fluências de atenção e verbais do que nas memórias verbal e visual. Quando comparados com os pacientes com EM, um padrão de disfunção semelhante foi encontrado. PMID:23828523

Vanotti, Sandra; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Eizaguirre, Barbara; Melamud, Luciana; Rey, Raúl; Villa, Andrés



Trace-element deposition in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela Shelf, under sulfate-reducing conditions; a history of the local hydrography and global climate, 20 ka to the present  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sediment core from the Cariaco Basin on the Venezu-elan continental shelf, which recovered sediment that has been dated back to 20 ka (thousand years ago), was examined for its major-element-oxide and trace-element composition. Cad-mium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn) can be partitioned between a siliciclastic, terrigenous-derived fraction and two seawater-derived fractions. The two marine fractions are (1) a biogenic fraction represented by nutrient trace elements taken up mostly in the photic zone by phytoplankton, and (2) a hydrogenous fraction that has been derived from bottom water via adsorption and precipitation reactions. This suite of trace elements contrasts with a second suite of trace ele-ments?barium (Ba), cobalt (Co), gallium (Ga), lithium (Li), the rare-earth elements, thorium (Th), yttrium (Y), and several of the major-element oxides?that has had solely a terrigenous source. The partitioning scheme, coupled with bulk sediment accumulation rates measured by others, allows us to determine the accumulation rate of trace elements in each of the three sediment fractions and of the fractions themselves. The current export of organic matter from the photic zone, redox conditions and advection of bottom water, and flux of terrigenous debris into the basin can be used to calculate independently trace-element depositional rates. The calcu-lated rates show excellent agreement with the measured rates of the surface sediment. This agreement supports a model of trace-element accumulation rates in the subsurface sediment that gives a 20-kyr history of upwelling into the photic zone (that is, primary productivity), bottom-water advection and redox, and provenance. Correspondence of extrema in the geo-chemical signals with global changes in sea level and climate demonstrates the high degree to which the basin hydrography and provenance have responded to the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic regimes of the last 20 kyr. The accumulation rate of the marine fraction of Mo increased abruptly at about 14.8 ka (calendar years), from less than 0.5 ?g cm-2 yr-1 to greater than 4 ?g cm-2 yr-1. Its accu-mulation rate remained high but variable until 8.6 ka, when it decreased sharply to 1 ?g cm-2 yr-1. It continued to decrease to 4.0 ka, to its lowest value for the past 15 kyr, before gradu-ally increasing to the present. Between 14.8 ka and 8.6 ka, its accumulation rate exhibited strong maxima at 14.4, 13.0, and 9.9 ka. The oldest maximum corresponds to melt-water pulse IA into the Gulf of Mexico. A relative minimum, centered at about 11.1 ka, corresponds to melt-water pulse IB; a strong maximum occurs in the immediately overlying sediment. The maximum at 13.0 ka corresponds to onset of the Younger Dryas cold event. This pattern to the accumulation rate of Mo (and V) can be interpreted in terms of its deposition from bottom water of the basin, the hydrogenous fraction, under SO42- -reducing conditions, during times of intense bottom-water advection 14.8 ka to 11.1 ka and significantly less intense bottom-water advection 11 ka to the present. The accumulation rate of Cd shows a pattern that is only slightly different from that of Mo, although its deposition was determined largely by the rain rate of organic matter into the bottom water, a biogenic fraction whose deposition was driven by upwelling of nutrient-enriched water into the photic zone. Its accumulation exhibits only moderately high rates, on aver-age, during both melt-water pulses. Its highest rate, and that of upwelling, occurred during the Younger Dryas, and again following melt-water pulse IB. The marine fractions of Cu, Ni, and Zn also have a strong biogenic signal. The siliciclastic ter-rigenous debris, however, represents the dominant source, and host, of Cu, Ni, and Zn. All four trace elements have a consid-erably weaker hydrogenous signal than biogenic signal. Accumulation rates of the terr

Piper, David Z.; Dean, Walter E.



The clinician's role in the diagnosis of breast disease  

PubMed Central

Until 20 or 30 years ago, the diagnosis and treatment of breast disease was managed exclusively by the surgeon. This situation has changed to some extent as a result of recent technological advances, and clinicians’ contributions to the diagnostic work-up and/or treatment of these cases can begin at any time. If they are the first physician to see the patient after the examination and formulation of a diagnostic hypothesis, they will almost always have to order a panel of imaging/instrumental examinations that is appropriate for the type of lesion suspected, the patient’s age, and other factors; if they intervene at the end of the diagnostic work-up, it will be their job to arrive at a conclusion based on all of the data collected. The clinical examination includes various steps – history taking and inspection and palpation of the breasts – each of which is essential and requires the use of appropriate methods and techniques. The diagnostic capacity of the examination will depend largely on the consistency of the breasts, but it is influenced even more strongly by the doctor–patient relationship. Physicians must know their patient well, listen to and understand what she is saying, explain their own findings and verify that the explanations have been understood, and they must be convincing. Clinicians must also be able to assess the results of imaging studies (rather than relying solely on the radiologist’s report), and this requires interaction with other specialists. The days are over when a clinician or radiologist or sonographer worked alone, certain that his/her examination method was sufficient in itself: today, teamwork is essential. But this also means that each member of the team must be extremely competent in his/her own sector and be aware of the other team members’ limitations and expectations. The clinical examination remains central to the process since it is the basis for selecting appropriate treatment. Sommario Da quando si conosce la patologia mammaria la diagnosi e la terapia di tale patologia sono state a totale appannaggio del chirurgo, situazione che è proseguita fino a qualche decennio fa. Il recente progresso tecnologico ha modificato, in parte, questa situazione e il clinico può entrare nel percorso diagnostico o terapeutico in qualsiasi momento. Se è il primo coinvolto, dopo l’esame e dopo un’ipotesi diagnostica, dovrà, quasi sempre, orientarsi verso indagini strumentali in relazione al sospetto, all’età della paziente ecc., se è l’ultimo anello deve arrivare a una conclusione mettendo insieme tutte le informazioni. L’esame clinico è composto di varie fasi: anamnesi, ispezione, palpazione, ognuna essenziale. Ogni singola fase va affrontata con metodo e tecnica appropriata. La capacità diagnostica dell’esame clinico è influenzata dalla costituzione della mammella, ma ancor di più è condizionata da uno stretto rapporto tra paziente e medico che deve conoscere molto la paziente che gli sta davanti e che non solo deve “visitare”, ma capire, spiegare, accertarsi che si abbia capito, convincere. È inoltre indispensabile che il clinico sia in grado di esaminare le indagini strumentali e non limitarsi a leggere i referti, quindi interagire con gli altri specialisti. L’epoca del clinico o del radiologo o dell’ecografista che lavora da solo credendo che il proprio esame sia sufficiente o sganciato da altri contesti è finita da tempo, tutti hanno bisogno di tutti. È però vero che ciascuno deve essere estremamente competente nel suo settore e deve conoscere i limiti e le aspettative di chi collabora in altre specialità, come rimane valida la regola che la clinica resta comunque il momento centrale, non fosse altro perché poi deve affrontare la terapia.

Poma, S.; Longo, A.