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1

Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) summary report  

SciTech Connect

The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is responsible for developing the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) to accept spent nuclear fuel from the commercial facilities. In support of the development of the CRWMS, OCRWM sponsored the Facility Interface Capability Assessment (FICA) project. The objective of this project was to assess the capability of each commercial facility to handle various spent nuclear fuel shipping casks. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the facility assessments completed within the FICA project. The project was conducted in two phases. During Phase I, the data items required to complete the facility assessments were identified and the data base for the project was created. During Phase II, visits were made to 122 facilities on 76 sites to collect data and information, the data base was updated, and assessments of the cask-handling capabilities at each facility were performed.

Viebrock, J.M.; Mote, N. [Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States); Pope, R.B. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-05-01

2

76 FR 67363 - Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded Entities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 1545-BJ07 Extending Religious and Family Member FICA and FUTA Exceptions to Disregarded...concerning individuals who work for certain family members), 3127 (concerning members...extend the FICA and FUTA exceptions for family members and religious sect members...

2011-11-01

3

ElePhant--an anatomical electronic phantom as simulation-system for otologic surgery.  

PubMed

This paper describes the ElePhant (Electronic Phantom)-an anatomical correct simulation system based on 3D rapid prototyping models for the otologic intervention "Mastoidectomy". The anatomical structures of the head are created with plaster as base material using 3D-printing as rapid prototyping technology (RPT). Structures at risk, represented by electrically conductible material and fiber optics, are realized as an electric circuit and can be detected during the simulation of the surgical procedure. An accuracy study of 15 identical RPT-models compared to the 3D reconstructed CT-dataset of the patient showed that the mean accuracy is lower than the reconstructed CT layer thickness of 0.5 mm. An evaluation study of the ElePhant-system for "Mastoidectomy" was performed by 7 ENT-surgeons. The mean value of the study questionnaire (evaluation range from -2 (not at all) to +2 (very good)) was +1.2. The results showed that the ElePhant can simulate "Mastoidectomy" realistically. It is especially suitable for the simulation of the correct representation and position of the anatomical structures, realistic operation setting, and realistic milling properties of the bone structure. Furthermore it is applicable for training of surgeons. PMID:17945837

Grunert, R; Strauss, G; Moeckel, H; Hofer, M; Poessneck, A; Fickweiler, U; Thalheim, M; Schmiedel, R; Jannin, P; Schulz, T; Oeken, J; Dietz, A; Korb, W

2006-01-01

4

Allelotype Analysis in Osteosarcomas: Frequent Alíele Loss on 3q 13q 17p and ISq1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We have investigated the involvement of tumor suppressor genes in the genesis of osteosarcoma,by analyzing alíele losses at polymorphic loci in tumor tissues. Genotypes of DNA from primary osteosarcoma tissue and corresponding normal cells from 37 patients were analyzed at 58 polymorphic,loci representing each autosomal chromosome,arm ex cept 5p and 20q. Alíele losses were found at polymorphic loci on

Toshikazu Yamaguchi; Junya Toguchida; Takao Yamamuro; Yoshihiko Kotoura; Norihiko Takada; Noriyoshi Kawaguchi; Yasuhiko Kaneko; Yusuke Nakamura; Masao S. Sasaki; kanj Ishizaki

5

Allelotype of Breast Cancer: Cumulative Alíele Losses Promote Tumor Progression in Primary Breast Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alíele loss on a specific chromosome has implied the existence of a tumor suppressor gene such as the p53 gene and the Rl

Takaaki Sato; Akira Tanigami; Kazuhiro Yamakawa; Futoshi Akiyama; Coi Sakamoto; Yusuke Nakamura

1990-01-01

6

EleFantastic Bingo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This game allows students to learn new science vocabulary and relevant facts about elephants. This bingo game is a valuable curriculum resource for any teacher who is teaching about elephants or other endangered animals. Directions for play, calling cards (six to a page), and play cards (four to a page), are included. (ASK)

Rule, Audrey C.

7

Comparison of the Breakpoint Regions of ELE1 and RET Genes Involved in the Generation of RET\\/PTC3 Oncogene in Sporadic and in Radiation-Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RET\\/PTC3 oncogene is an activated form of the RET protooncogene, which is frequently rearranged in papillary thyroid carcinoma. RET\\/PTC3 results from a structural rearrangement between the ELE1 and the RET genes, and it has been observed in both sporadic and radiation-associated post-Chernobyl tumors. To understand the molecular basis that predisposes RET and ELE1 genes to be recurrent targets of

Italia Bongarzone; Marta G. Butti; Laura Fugazzola; Furio Pacini; Aldo Pinchera; Tatiana V. Vorontsova; Eugene P. Demidchik; Marco A. Pierotti

1997-01-01

8

Lifelines Episode 25: EleComm  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a free audio podcast from the American Physiological Society. Discussion questions, related research, and other teaching resources are available by clicking on the "collection" tab in the left hand column. You've heard the word telecomm? In this episode, we are going to coin a new word: elecomm, shorthand for elephant communication. Caitlin OConnell-Rodwell is a Stanford University professor and the author of The Elephant's Secret Sense, published by the University of Chicago Press. Dr. OConnell-Rodwell discovered that elephant vocalizations travel through the ground, sometimes for great distances. Other elephants pick up these seismic communications and understand them. There are links to videos of three of Dr. OConnell-Rodwells elephant communication experiments on her website, www.utopiascientific.org or by clicking here, here and here. (Begins at 2:44) From the Buzz in Physiology (Begins at 1:13): Divers who held their breath for several minutes had elevated levels of S100B (a protein found after cell injury) in their bloodstream, which suggests that holding one's breath for a long time disrupts the blood-brain barrier. However, the appearance of the protein was transient and leaves open the question of whether lengthy breath holding can damage the brain over the long term, according to the Lund University researchers. And drinking beetroot juice boosts stamina and could help you exercise for up to 16% longer, according to a study from the University of Exeter. The study shows how the nitrate contained in the juice leads to a reduction in oxygen uptake, making exercise less tiring.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office); Caitlin O'Connell-Rodwell (Stanford University)

2009-09-08

9

Your Nose Knows. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Meaney Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit is designed for kindergarten pupils, but could be used effectively with primary pupils. The six lessons use the sense of smell to investigate various aspects of the earth, seasons, animals, and commercial use of fragrances. Each lesson

Meaney, Marie

10

Archaeology/Ecology. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Muccilli Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was written for seventh-grade students in anthropology. The six lessons and suggested activities will take from 15 to 30 days to complete. Each lesson includes the concept of the lesson, materials needed, notes to the teacher,

Muccilli, Kathie

11

41 CFR 301-11.503 - Are Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) and Medicare deductions included in any...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...included in any reimbursement under this part? 301-11.503 Section 301-11.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 11-PER DIEM EXPENSES Income Tax Reimbursement...

2013-07-01

12

You Are What You Eat. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Campbell Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The unit for elementary students in intermediate grades is concerned with nutrition, basic food groups, food production careers, future trends in food production and population growth, and ecology. The unit of 18 lessons is to be used over a six

Campbell, Marsha

13

Eco-Kids Fly Off to the Forests. [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Bell Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. This unit was designed for use with fourth-grade students; it focuses on three forest biomes. Each of the biomes has characteristics of its own. The unit includes eight lessons, as well as additional activities. The unit, which incorporates

Bell, Loretta

14

Software Fault Tolerance in a Clustered Architecture: Techniques and Reliability Mod17 eling  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractSystem architectures based ,on a ,cluster of computers,have gained substantial attention recently. In a clustered system, complex software-intensive applications can be built with commercial hardware, operating systems, and application software to achieve high system availability and data integrity, while performance and cost penalties are greatly reduced ,by the ,use of separate ,error detection hardware,and dedicated software fault tolerance routines. Within

M. Lyu; V. Mendiratta

1999-01-01

15

...About This Problem of Air Pollution... . [Project ECOLogy ELE Pak, Wright Pak].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of units for environmental education developed by the Highline Public Schools. The lessons in this unit are designed to help students discover causes, effects, and results of air pollution through involvement in various activities; it is recommended for intermediate grade elementary school pupils. The unit can be used

Wright, Jan

16

Esquizofrenia y trastorno en el consumo de sustancias: prevalencia y character?sticas sociodemogr?ficas en la poblaci?n Latina  

PubMed Central

El inters por comprender la co-morbilidad de la esquizofrenia y el trastorno en el uso de sustancias, ha aumentado debido al incremento de este diagnstico, a los efectos negativos observados en el sujeto y a los costos en los servicios de salud. Este trastorno dual puede tener efectos dramticos en el curso clnico del trastorno psictico tales como: mayores recadas, re-hospitalizaciones, sntomas ms severos, no adherencia al tratamiento antipsictico, cambios marcados del humor, aumento en el grado de hostilidad e ideacin suicida, as como alteraciones en otras reas del funcionamiento incluyendo violencia, victimizacin, indigencia y problemas legales. La literatura proveniente en particular de Estados Unidos y Europa sugiere que el rango de prevalencia para este diagnstico puede oscilar entre el 10% hasta el 70%. En este estudio, revisamos la prevalencia del diagnstico dual de esquizofrenia y trastorno en el uso sustancias, as como sus caractersticas sociodemogrficas, con base en la literatura disponible alrededor del mundo dando nfasis en la poblacion latina. A pesar de que este diagnstico es ampliamente aceptado, se conoce poco sobre su prevalencia en la poblacin latina, sobre los factores ambientales, demogrficos, clnicos y otras caractersticas de estos individuos. Un mejor conocimiento sobre este diagnstico permitira mejorar los mtodos para la deteccin y adecuada valoracin del trastorno en el uso de sustancias en personas con trastornos metales severos como la esquizofrenia.

Jimenez-Castro, Lorena; Raventos-Vorst, Henriette; Escamilla, Michael

2012-01-01

17

The collection and database of Birds of Angola hosted at IICT (Instituto de Investiga??o Cient?fica Tropical), Lisboa, Portugal  

PubMed Central

Abstract The bird collection of the Instituto de Investigao Cienttica Tropical (Lisbon, Portugal) holds 5598 preserved specimens (skins), mainly from Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, So Tom and Principe, and Cape Verde. The subset collection from Angola includes 1560 specimens, which were taxonomically revised and georeferenced for the publication of this data paper. The collection contains a total of 522 taxa, including 161 species and 361 subspecies. Two species are classified by the IUCN Red List as Endangered - the wattled crane (Grus carunculata) and the Gabela bush-shrike (Laniarius amboimensis) - and two are classified as vulnerable - African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) and the white-headed vulture (Trigonoceps occipitalis). The temporal span of the database ranges between 1943 and 1979, but 32% are from years 19581959, and 25% from years 19681969. The spatial coverage of the collection is uneven, with 2/3 of the records representing only four of the eighteen provinces of the country, namely Hula, Moxico, Namibe and Cuanza Sul. It adds, however, valuable information for the Hula area of the Angolan Scarp, which is probably a biodiversity hotspot of global conservation priority. Furthermore, this georeferenced database adds invaluable bird information to the GBIF network, for one of the countries with highest but less known biodiversity in Africa.

Monteiro, Miguel; Reino, Luis; Beja, Pedro; Mills, Michael Stuart Lyne; Bastos-Silveira, Cristiane; Ramos, Manuela; Rodrigues, Diana; Neves, Isabel Queiros; Consciencia, Susana; Figueira, Rui

2014-01-01

18

In un batter d'occhio... quando per parlare basta una palpebra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lo sguardo rivolto verso l'alto per comunicare un assenso, le palpebre semi chiuse per esprimere un no, la mente lucida ed acuta imprigionata in un corpo che non risponde ai suoi comandi, una tabella di carta con 21 lettere gialle e verdi e Gabriele diventa \\

Anno Accademico

2004-01-01

19

Accumulations of heavy metals in roadside soils close to zhaling, eling and nam co lakes in the tibetan plateau.  

PubMed

Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities. PMID:23749055

Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

2013-06-01

20

Accumulations of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soils Close to Zhaling, Eling and Nam Co Lakes in the Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

Concentrations of four typical heavy metals (Cu; Zn; Cd and Pb) in roadside soils close to three lakes in the Tibetan Plateau were investigated in this study. The hierarchical tree-based regression method was applied to classify concentrations of the heavy metals and analyze their potential influencing factors. It was found that the Tibetan Plateau meadow soils with higher content of sand lead to higher concentrations of Cu; Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cd and Pb increase with road traffic volume; and for the road segments with higher traffic volume; the Cd and Pb concentrations significantly decrease with the roadside distance. Additionally; the concentrations of Zn and Pb increase as the altitude of sampling site increases. Furthermore; the Hakanson potential ecological risk index method was used to assess the contamination degree of the heavy metals for the study regions. The results show that accumulations of Cu; Zn and Pb in roadside soils remain an unpolluted level at all sites. However; the Cd indices in the regions with higher traffic volume have reached a strong potential ecological risk level; and some spots with peak concentrations have even been severely polluted due to traffic activities.

Yan, Xuedong; Zhang, Fan; Gao, Dan; Zeng, Chen; Xiang, Wang; Zhang, Man

2013-01-01

21

26 CFR 31.3507-1 - Advance payments of earned income credit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...employee FICA taxes is not entitled...payments of the earned income credit. Moreover...and FICA taxes, see paragraph...describing the earned income credit advance...of advance earned income credit amount as...and FICA taxes...

2013-04-01

22

El Instituto de Nutrici?n de Centro Am?rica y Panam?: Servicios de Informaci?n Cient?fica en Una Regi?n en V?a de Desarrollo *  

PubMed Central

Pioneering scientific information in underdeveloped areas poses several problems, such as (1) lack of understanding on the part of key functionaries as to the why, what, and when of information services; (2) lack of trained personnel to assume the responsibility for such services; (3) lack of economic resources; and (4) lack of information pertaining to available bibliographical sources in the particular area or region. The Bibliographic and Documentation Service of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) provides, in addition to the customary services, technical assistance for the organization or reorganization of biomedical libraries and makes INCAP library materials available to member countries, either by loan or photocopy. Although the program was designed for the member countries, INCAP tries to make its services available to other Latin American nations, Africa, and Asia, where similar nutritional problems are being studied.

Flores, Raquel; Corado, Adelina; Giron, Arturo

1964-01-01

23

A Temperature Sensitive Topoisomerase II AlíeleConfers Temperature Dependent Drug Resistance on Amsacrine and Etoposide: A Genetic System for Determining the Targets of Topoisomerase II Inhibitors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a simple system for determining the specific con tribution of topoisomerase II targeting to the cytotoxic activity of a drug. We have constructed yeast strains that are permeable to anti-topoi- somerase II drugs, carry a DNA repair mutation, rot\\/52, and also have a temperature sensitive topoisomerase II mutation, top2-l. Strains carrying the top2-l mutation have nearly normal

J. L. Nitiss; Y. Hsiung

24

Managing Innovation in English Language Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation in English language education (ELE) has become a major "growth area" in recent years. At the same time, an ELE innovation management literature has also developed, based on insights from innovation theory and their application, both from outside and within ELE, and concerned with attempting to critically evaluate and inform ELE

Waters, Alan

2009-01-01

25

EEsoF MICAD and ACADEMY macro files for coplanar waveguide and finite ground plan coplanar waveguide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A collection of macro files is presented which when appended to either the EEsoF MICAD.ELE or EEsoF ACADEMY.ELE file permits the layout of coplanar waveguide and finite ground plane coplanar waveguide circuits.

Ponchak, George E.

1995-01-01

26

Sobre a largura da ltima superfcie de espalhamento  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matria estava em equilbrio trmico com a radiao. Com a expanso a temperatura da radiao cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, comeando a recombinao dos prtons e eltrons em Hidrognio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinao). Ao final da recombinao, os ftons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princpio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmolgico. Esses ftons nos alcanam hoje como a radiao csmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfcie esfrica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela a distncia que ele viajou desde seu ltimo espalhamento na poca da recombinao. Naturalmente, esse processo no ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existncia de uma largura no espao dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmolgico especfico e dos processos fsicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vcuo L(t), criao de matria, quintessncia e gs de Chaplygin - sobre a ltima superfcie de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a funo visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fton ter tido seu ltimo espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vcuo, existe uma forte dependncia da funo visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos podero ser testados atravs da anlise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que esto atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.

2003-08-01

27

78 FR 6056 - Designation of Payor as Agent To Perform Acts Required of an Employer  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...required of employers with respect to chapters 21 (FICA tax), 22 (RRTA tax), and 24 (federal...compensation as defined for purposes of Chapter 22 (RRTA tax) of the Code. The...compensation has for purposes of chapter 22. This section is not...

2013-01-29

28

AVALIAO DAS DEMANDAS E OFERTAS HDRICAS NA BACIA DO RIO SO FRANCISCO USANDO MODELO DE REDE DE FLUXO  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Estima-se, atualmente, que existam no Brasil cerca de trs milhes de hectares irrigados e algo em torno de 355.000 hectares de rea irrigada na bacia do rio So Francisco. Sendo a irrigao considerada um uso consuntivo, grande parte da gua empregada fica indisponvel para a produo de energia e demais usos. O abastecimento humano, a dessedentao animal e o

Alan Vaz Lopes; Marcos Airton de Sousa Freitas

29

ALGO NOVO NO MUNDO EMPRESARIAL: DO TURBILHO DE DADOS AO REQUINTE DA INTELIGNCIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO 1. INTRODUO Na Sociedade do Conhecimento, as organizaes precisam aprender a administrar sua inteligncia empresarial. Esta pode representar um importante diferencial em relao aos concorrentes, e, dessa forma, no deve ser desprezada ou subestimada. No mundo atual, altamente competitivo, as organizaes precisam estar atentas concorrncia, sob pena de perder espao no mercado. Desse modo, fica cada vez mais

Simone Bastos Paiva; Edward de Bono

2002-01-01

30

Effect of a trivalent vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis lymphocyte subpopulations, antibody production, and neutrophil phagocytosis.  

PubMed

The effect of a novel bovine mastitis trivalent vaccine, containing Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5 (T5), 8 (T8), and 336 (T336), on lymphocyte subpopulations, antibody production, and neutrophil phagocytosis was evaluated. Twenty pregnant heifers were immunized with either the trivalent alone, trivalent emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FICA), trivalent in aluminum hydroxide, or adjuvant only (FICA). Immunization was done 30 d before the expected calving date followed by 2 boosts in a 2-week interval. Compared to FICA, serum antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2 were significantly increased in all the vaccinated groups before parturition and sustained until 3 wk postpartum. In comparison with the trivalent alone, formulation with either adjuvant enhanced production of IgG2, but not IgG1. Immune sera, which contained the highest amount of antibodies, slightly increased neutrophil phagocytosis to the 3 serotypes of killed S. aureus, but most of the differences were not significant due to large variation between the cows. The percentage of CD4+ lymphocyte was significantly higher in vaccinated groups than that of FICA 4 wk after the primary immunization. In comparison with FICA, cows inoculated with trivalent vaccine and adjuvants had an increased percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes at 2 time points, 2 wk before and after calving. Our results indicated that the whole cell trivalent vaccine, with or without adjuvants, is able to elicit antibody responses specific to the 3 capsular polysaccharide antigens. The increase of T8-specific IgG2 was more noticeable when the vaccine was emulsified with adjuvants. PMID:15745217

Lee, Jai-Wei; O'Brien, Celia N; Guidry, Albert J; Paape, Max J; Shafer-Weaver, Kimberley A; Zhao, X

2005-01-01

31

Effect of a trivalent vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis lymphocyte subpopulations, antibody production, and neutrophil phagocytosis  

PubMed Central

Abstract The effect of a novel bovine mastitis trivalent vaccine, containing Staphylococcus aureus capsular polysaccharide type 5 (T5), 8 (T8), and 336 (T336), on lymphocyte subpopulations, antibody production, and neutrophil phagocytosis was evaluated. Twenty pregnant heifers were immunized with either the trivalent alone, trivalent emulsified in Freunds incomplete adjuvant (FICA), trivalent in aluminum hydroxide, or adjuvant only (FICA). Immunization was done 30 d before the expected calving date followed by 2 boosts in a 2-week interval. Compared to FICA, serum antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2 were significantly increased in all the vaccinated groups before parturition and sustained until 3 wk postpartum. In comparison with the trivalent alone, formulation with either adjuvant enhanced production of IgG2, but not IgG1. Immune sera, which contained the highest amount of antibodies, slightly increased neutrophil phagocytosis to the 3 serotypes of killed S. aureus, but most of the differences were not significant due to large variation between the cows. The percentage of CD4+ lymphocyte was significantly higher in vaccinated groups than that of FICA 4 wk after the primary immunization. In comparison with FICA, cows inoculated with trivalent vaccine and adjuvants had an increased percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes at 2 time points, 2 wk before and after calving. Our results indicated that the whole cell trivalent vaccine, with or without adjuvants, is able to elicit antibody responses specific to the 3 capsular polysaccharide antigens. The increase of T8-specific IgG2 was more noticeable when the vaccine was emulsified with adjuvants.

2005-01-01

32

Anlise dos Conceitos Astronmicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A razo para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educao Bsica (EB) no lidam com conceitos relacionados astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como de conhecimento geral a astronomia um dos contedos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de So Paulo, mas um fato, que vrios pesquisadores apontam, a existncia de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propsito de minimizar algumas dessas deficincias foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilizao de questionrios pr e ps pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extenso Universitria para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mau, Ribeiro Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de So Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepes alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem aps o curso, adotando-se como referncia, para a anlise dos resultados, os dicionrios de Lngua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopdico de Astronomia e Astronutica (MOUR?O, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questes foram aplicadas antes e aps o curso, assim pode-se verificar aps a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstcio, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrncia das estaes do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrncia do equincio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteride, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

2011-12-01

33

A collaborative evaluation of a rapid, sem i - a u toma ted id e n t if i ca t i o n system for gram-negative bacilli: the Quantum It BID  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The recently -introduced semi-au toma ted bacterial iden ti fica tion sys tem, the Quantum I1 BID, is designed to identify fermentative and non-fermentative gram- negative bacilli in 4-5 h. The system was evaluated independently by the two participating laboratories. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was determined by testing 181 strains in each laboratory and found to be 97.8%. A further 893

M. STEVENS; C. HENRICHSEN; M. SMITH

1986-01-01

34

Decreased cortisol awakening response after early loss experience.  

PubMed

Early loss experience (ELE) due to death or separation is a major risk factor for the development of several psychiatric and physical disorders in adulthood. Few studies have focused on the effects of ELE on neuroendocrine systems, which might mediate this risk in part. The goal of this study was to evaluate salivary cortisol responses to awakening in individuals with and without ELE. A total of 95 healthy college students (29 men, 66 women) completed a questionnaire on ELE and were instructed to collect saliva immediately after awakening and 30 min later. Fifty-five of the 95 subjects reported having experienced the separation or divorce of their parents and/or the death of a close relative before the age of 14 years. Subjects with such ELE exhibited decreased salivary cortisol responses to awakening compared to subjects without ELE (net increase: 4.78 nmol/l versus 9.83 nmol/l; t93 = 2.88, p = 0.005). The effect was most pronounced in individuals who experienced multiple types of ELE, while there were no sex differences. In conclusion, ELE appears to be associated with decreased salivary cortisol responses to awakening. Low cortisol awakening responses are believed to reflect altered dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, possibly conferring risk for certain stress-related disorders. PMID:15808926

Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Heim, Christine

2005-07-01

35

Human-Robot Interaction Studies for Autonomous Mobile Manipulation for the Motor Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing an autonomous mobile assistive robot named El-E to help individuals with severe motor impair- ments by performing various object manipulation tasks such as fetching, transporting, placing, and delivering. El-E can autonomously approach a location specified by the user through an interface such as a standard laser pointer and pick up a nearby object. The initial target user

Young Sang Choi; Cressel Anderson; Travis Deyle; Charles C. Kemp

36

Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication for Finite Element Method Matrices on FPGAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an architecture and an implementa- tion of an FPGA-based sparse matrix-vector multi- plier (SMVM) for use in the iterative solution of large, sparse systems of equations arising from Finite Ele- ment Method (FEM) applications. The architecture is based on a pipelined linear array of processing ele- ments (PEs). A hardware-oriented matrix \\

Yousef El-kurdi; Warren J. Gross; Dennis Giannacopoulos

2006-01-01

37

Activity Guide: An Approach to Scripting Inquiry Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there has been a growing interest in Exploratory Learning Environments (ELEs) in which learning occurs through guided exploration and problem solving (1). The characteristics of learning with ELEs can be seen to share a number of common issues with inquiry learning, in which students design and carry out investigations in order to acquire knowledge about the domain under investigation

Paul Mulholland; Trevor Collins; Mark Gaved; Michael Wright; Mike Sharples; Chris Greenhalgh; Cindy Kerawalla; Eileen Scanlon; Karen Littleton

38

?-elemene reverses the drug resistance of lung cancer A549/DDP cells via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.  

PubMed

?-elemene (?-ELE) is a new anticancer drug extracted from Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe and has been widely used to treat malignant tumors. Recent studies have demonstrated that ?-ELE reverses the drug resistance of tumor cells. To explore the possible mechanisms of action of ?-ELE, we investigated its effects on cisplatin-resistant human lung adenocarcinoma A549/DDP cells. The effects of ?-ELE on the growth of A549/DDP cells in vitro were determined by MTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by fluorescence microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. Mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed using JC-1 fluorescence probe and laser confocal scanning microscopy, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate staining and flow cytometry. Cytosolic glutathione content was determined using GSH kits. The expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, procaspase-3 and the Bcl-2 family proteins was assessed by western blotting. The results demonstrated that ?-ELE inhibited the proliferation of A549/DDP cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, ?-ELE enhanced the sensitivity of A549/DDP cells to cisplatin and reversed the drug resistance of A549/DDP cells. Consistent with a role in activating apoptosis, ?-ELE decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, increased intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration and decreased the cytoplasmic glutathione levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combination of ?-ELE and cisplatin enhanced the protein expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3 and Bad, and reduced protein levels of Bcl-2 and procaspase-3 in the A549/DDP lung cancer cells. These results define a pathway of procaspase?3-?-ELE function that involves decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to apoptosis triggered by the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and the modulation of apoptosis-related genes. The reversal of drug resistance of the A549/DDP cell line by ?-ELE may be derived from its effect in inducing apoptosis. PMID:24627125

Yao, Cheng-Cai; Tu, Yuan-Rong; Jiang, Jie; Ye, Sheng-Fang; Du, Hao-Xin; Zhang, Yi

2014-05-01

39

A Seminar on Marketing The Occupational Alcoholism Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New and improved strategies involving concepts and programs were directed toward the prevention and treatment of alcoholism. The Occupational Alcoholism Program (OAP) was selected as the primary target for the concentrated marketing analysis. Five key ele...

1975-01-01

40

Comparison of the Picosecond Characteristics of Silicon and Silicon-on-Sapphire Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodiodes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The picosecond characteristics of silicon-based metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) diodes with submicrometer finger spacing and width were studied. Diodes made on both bulk silicon and silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrates were measured by a subpicosecond ele...

C. C. Wang S. Alexandrou D. Jacobs-Perkins T. Y. Hsiang

1994-01-01

41

Study of Flutter Related Computational Procedures for Minimum Weight Structural Sizing of Advanced Aircraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a study of the development of flutter modules applicable to automated structural design of advanced aircraft configurations, such as a supersonic transport, are presented. Automated structural design is restricted to automated sizing of the ele...

R. F. Oconnell H. J. Hassig N. A. Radovcich

1976-01-01

42

Nonlinear Control Techniques for Dynamical Systems with Uncertain Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report explores various approaches of controlling nonlinear incertain dynamical systems. Several models representing different types of nonlinearities in such systems are considered. In particular, the Duffing oscillator and a system coupled to an ele...

R. G. Ghanem M. I. Bujakov

1996-01-01

43

New Cathode Material for High Energy-Density Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation of semiconductor cathode materials for organic-electrolyte batteries was continued, with emphasis on the development of higher-rate porous plates containing n-type cadmium fluoride as the active ingredient. The problem of maintaining ele...

M. M. Nicholson

1974-01-01

44

Electrolytic Production of Calcium Metal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines developed an alternative electrochemical process for the production of calcium metal. The current industrial practice is costly, complex, and inefficient. The Bureau method involves electrowinning of a calcium-tin alloy followed by ele...

J. J. Lukasko J. E. Murphy

1990-01-01

45

Theory of Sliding Charge Density Waves and Related Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dc dynamics of models of incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) conductivity was reduced to a purely static problem. The dc characteristics of the incommensurate chain have been determined. A microscopic understanding of differences in nonlinear ele...

L. Sneddon

1984-01-01

46

Free Radical Production from the Interaction of 2-Chloroethyl Vesicants (Mustard Gas) with Pyridine Nucleotide-Driven Flavoprotein Electron Transport Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The biochemical sequelae to chloroethyl mustard exposure correspond very well to toxic processes initiated by free radicals. Additionally, mustard solutions contain spontaneously formed cyclic onium ions which produce carbon free radicals when reduced ele...

A. A. Brimfield, A. G. Siraki, A. M. Mancebo, J. J. Jiang, R. P. Mason

2009-01-01

47

Preventive Maintenance Guides for Select Hospital Equipment. Volume 3. Mechanical/Electromechanical Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Parallel bars; Shoulder wheels; Cervical traction apparatus; Cervical traction tables; Podiatry treatment/examination chairs; Electric beds; Dental operating units; Dental treatment/examination chairs; Operating room tables; Mechanical beds; Ele...

1974-01-01

48

Reaction Rates in the Phenomenological Adiabatic Excited State Electron Transfer Theory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The recently described phenomenological model strongly adiabatic electron transfer (et) in the lowest excited state S1 of donor/acceptor molecules has been developed in more detail. The model has been generalized to include simultaneously two types of ele...

G. C. Walker K. Tominaga P. F. Barbara T. Fonseca T. J. Kang

1991-01-01

49

Young and Senior Science and Engineering Faculty, 1974: Support, Research Participation, and Tenure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an analysis of the data collected in the spring of 1974 from heads of 1,366 doctorate-level departments in the following 15 science and engineering fields: biochemistry, biology, botany, chemical engineering, chemistry, economics, ele...

C. H. Dickens

1974-01-01

50

Study of Impact Response of Electrified Organic Matrix Composites (Preprint).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existing experimental evidence suggests that organic matrix composites sustain less impact damage when an electric field is applied. The intricate interaction of an electrical field and mechanical load is governed by coupling of the mechanical and ele...

R. L. Sierakowski I. Y. Telichev O. I. Zhupanska

2006-01-01

51

Design, Development, Test, and Evaluation of an Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus (AAEA) was designed, developed, assembled, and preliminarily tested. The AAEA was demonstrated to be a feasible apparatus for automatically acquiring, displaying, and storing (and eventually analyzing) ele...

M. Bier P. A. Bartels

1977-01-01

52

Electrification of Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Physical and applied aspects of the electrification of space vehicles and natural celestial objects are discussed, the factors resulting in electrification of spacecraft are analyzed, and methods of investigating various phenomena associated with this ele...

A. I. Akishin L. S. Novikov

1985-01-01

53

Presidential Transition. Challenges and Opportunities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Transition Act is to promote the orderly transfer of executive power during presidential transitions. Of course, no one expected the extraordinary events that have unfolded over the last several weeks. No matter how the presidential ele...

D. M. Walker

2000-01-01

54

Rethinking Logistics Organization of the Marine Expeditionary Force: A MAGTF Solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the aftermath of Operation Iraqi Freedom I, the Marine Corps decided to reorganize and re-name the Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) to address perceived logistics shortcomings in the Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF). The Combat Service Support Ele...

K. G. Collins

2007-01-01

55

Vehicle Classification Systems Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several methods of classifying vehicles employing mechanical-electrical and television-video tape systems were field tested and evaluated to determine their state of development and possible future use in highway data collection activities. Mechanical-ele...

M. M. Alexander R. Threlkeld J. Williams

1975-01-01

56

Methodology for Selecting an Electromagnetic Gun System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis proposes a methodology for selecting an electromagnetic launcher (EML) based upon mission requirements and available technology. The intent of the study is twofold. First, it reviews electromagnetic launcher applications, the principles of ele...

K. E. Reinhard

1992-01-01

57

Numerical and Symbolic Algorithms for Application Specific Signal Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Our research under the RASSP program focussed on the development of new signal processing algorithms to exploit the advantages and opportunities of rapid prototyping for signal processing systems. Our work was carried out in the Research Laboratory of Ele...

A. V. Oppenheim

1998-01-01

58

77 FR 71008 - Guidance for Industry: Enforcement Policy Concerning Rotational Warning Plans for Smokeless...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rotational Warning Plans for Smokeless Tobacco Products; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY...Rotational Warning Plans for Smokeless Tobacco Products,'' that was announced in the...CONTACT: Ele Ibarra-Pratt, Center for Tobacco Products, Office of Compliance and...

2012-11-28

59

Manportable Thermoelectric Generator.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the design, fabrication, and test of the 120 Watt Manportable Thermoelectric Generator (exploratory development model). This portable device is comprised of five functional subsystems: thermoelectric converter, liquid fuel burner, ele...

K. Magnuson E. Pitcher P. Stroom

1974-01-01

60

1991 nendo chinetsu kaihatsu sokushin chosa/chijo chosa hokokusho. 3. Mizuwaketoge nanbu chiiki. (Survey for promotion of geothermal development in fiscal 1991/ground survey report. 3. Area south to Mizuwaketoge pass).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to elucidate geothermal reservoir structures, two kinds of electric exploration were carried out using wells drilled in the area south to the Mizuwaketoge Pass. The current flowing potential method flows a current into a geothermal reservoir (ele...

1993-01-01

61

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility tempered water and tempered water cooling system design description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system design description addresses tire tempered water (TTV) system and the tempered water cooling (TWC) system. The discussion that follows will be limited to these systems. The system design description, when used in conjunction with the other ele...

J. J. Irwin

1998-01-01

62

New Cathode Materials for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (Quarterly Report for March 31, 2006 to June 30, 2006).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Operation of SOFCs at intermediate temperatures (500 800 degrees C) requires new combinations of electrolyte and electrode materials that will provide both rapid ion transport across the electrolyte and electrode - electrolyte interfaces and efficient ele...

A. J. Jacobson

2006-01-01

63

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. Updated November 12, 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g., ele...

J. D. Moteff

2009-01-01

64

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g., ele...

J. D. Moteff

2008-01-01

65

Development of a Low Cost Electrochemical CO Monitor Based on Stripping Voltammetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quantitative measurement of atmospheric carbon monoxide was demonstrated using an electrochemical method based on stripping voltammetry. The method is based on the selective adsorption of carbon monoxide on the active surface of a platinum sensing ele...

M. W. Rupich G. L. Holleck H. F. Wise A. C. Makrides

1984-01-01

66

Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation. Updated July 11, 2011.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nation's health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, functions, and systems across which these goods and services move are called critical infrastructures (e.g., ele...

J. D. Moteff

2011-01-01

67

Spain Develops Alkaromatic Perchlorocarbons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research on perchlorinated alkylaromatic compounds is very briefly discussed. The recent synthesis of a polymeric polyradical has enlarged the possible applications of these free radicals, which are active in electonic transfer processes. Their use as ele...

M. Ballester

1968-01-01

68

Steganography -- The New Intelligence Threat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thanks to new computer tools, digital files can easily be altered to embed hidden documents, pictures, or virtually anything that is digital in nature. This process is called steganography, or 'the art of hidden information.' Hiding information within ele...

S. D. Murphy

2004-01-01

69

Device for Evaluating Optical Elements by Reflected Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a method and apparatus for evaluating optical elements which uses reflected images. The method allows determination of the optical effects contributed by individual surfaces of a single optical alone, or in a multiple ele...

M. N. Ediger L. Grossman

1991-01-01

70

Genetic Alterations of the p53 Gene Are a Feature of Malignant Mesotheliomas1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A putative tumor suppressor gene, p53, has been shown to be altered in a variety of human tumor types. The primary mechanism of p53 inactivation is believed to be mutation of one alíele followed by loss of the second alíele.Malignant mesothelioma is a tumor that has been highly associated with exposure to asbestos fibers, which are known to cause chromosomal

Richard J. Cote; Suresh C. Jhanwar; Steve Novick; Angel Pellicer

1991-01-01

71

A hybrid wavelet framework for modeling vbr video traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traffic models play an important role in network simulation and performance analysis. This paper presents a frame-level hybrid framework for modeling variable bitrate (VBR) video traffic. To accurately capture long-range dependent (LRD) and short-range dependent (SRD) properties of video traffic, we incorporate ele- ments of wavelet-domain analysis into classical time-domain mod- eling found in prior work. However, unlike previous studies,

Min Dai; Dmitri Loguinov; Hayder Radha

2004-01-01

72

Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula.  

PubMed

The ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula Linn. (Caesalpinaceae) was evaluated for antiulcer activity against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer. Ranitidine (30 mg/kg b.w.) and ELE at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg b.w. were administered orally in different groups of rats (n = 6), 1 h prior to pyloric ligation. Four hours after pyloric ligation, the gastric juice was collected for evaluation of various parameters. The antiulcer activity of ELE was evidenced by the significant attenuation of gastric volume, pH, free acidity, and total acidity in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats in a dose-dependent manner, and this protective effect could be due to strengthening of the mucosal defense mechanism. ELE pre-treatment significantly attenuated the fall in status of sialic acid and fucose accompanied by an increase in hexose, hexosamine, total non-amino polysaccharide, total carbohydrate, and C:P ratio in the gastric juice of pylorus-ligated rats, and this effect could be due to protection of the mucosal barrier system. ELE pre-treatment significantly prevented the increase in LPO and SOD accompanied by a fall in CAT, in the gastric juice of pyloric-ligated rats. This protective ability of ELE against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer could be attributed to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Higher doses of ELE (750 mg/kg b.w.) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment. In essence, the antiulcer activity of ELE could be attributed to (i) a decrease in gastric acid secretion, (ii) protection of the mucosal barrier and restoration of mucosal secretions, (iii) inhibition of free radical generation or prevention of lipid peroxidation, and (iv) free radical scavenging or antioxidant properties. PMID:20673173

Karthikeyan, Sivanesan; Gobianand, Kuppannan

2010-08-01

73

Examining photoinduced energy transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin has been an important model system for investigating fundamental electron transfer (EleT) in proteins. Early pioneering studies used ruthenium photosensitizers to induce EleT in azurin and this experimental data continues to be used to develop theories for EleT mediated through a protein matrix. In this study we show that putative EleT rates in the P. aeruginosa azurin model system, measured via photoinduced methods, can also be explained by an alternate energy transfer (EngT) mechanism. Investigation of EngT in azurin, conducted in this study, isolates and resolves confounding phenomena--i.e., zinc contamination and excited state emission--that can lead to erroneous kinetic assignments. Here we employ two azurin photosensitizer systems, the previously reported Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)2(imidazole) and an unreported phototrigger, Ru(bpy)2(phen-IA), Ru(2,2'-bipyridine)2(5-iodoacetamido-1,10-phenanthroline), that has a longer lifetime, to better resolve convoluted kinetic observations and allow us to draw clear distinctions between photoinduced EngT and EleT. Extensive metal analysis, in addition to electrochemical and photochemical (photoinduced transfer) measurements, suggests Zn-metalated azurin contamination can result in a biexponential reaction, which can be mistaken for EleT. Namely, upon photoinduction, the observed slow phase is exclusively the contribution from Zn-metalated azurin, not EleT, whereas the fast phase is the result of EngT between the photosensitizer and the Cu-site, rather than simple excited-state decay of the phototrigger. PMID:24467236

Tobin, Peter H; Wilson, Corey J

2014-02-01

74

``Learning to Research'' in a Virtual Learning Environment: A Case Study on the Effectiveness of a Socio-constructivist Learning Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Learning is the basis for research and lifelong training. The implementation of virtual environments for developing this competency requires the use of effective learning models. In this study we present an experiment in positive learning from the virtual campus of the Complutense University of Madrid (UCM). In order to carry it out we have used E-Ling, an e-learning environment that has been developed with an innovative didactic design based on a socio-constructivist learning approach. E-Ling has been used since 2006 to train future teachers and researchers in learning to research. Some of the results of this experiment have been statistically analysed in order to compare them with other learning models. From the obtained results we have concluded that E-Ling is a more productive proposal for developing competences in learning to research.

Lpez-Alonso, C.; Fernndez-Pampilln, A.; de-Miguel, E.; Pita, G.

75

Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following; nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) engine system analysis program development; nuclear thermal propulsion engine analysis capability requirements; team resources used to support NESS development; expanded liquid engine simulations (ELES) computer model; ELES verification examples; NESS program development evolution; past NTP ELES analysis code modifications and verifications; general NTP engine system features modeled by NESS; representative NTP expander, gas generator, and bleed engine system cycles modeled by NESS; NESS program overview; NESS program flow logic; enabler (NERVA type) nuclear thermal rocket engine; prismatic fuel elements and supports; reactor fuel and support element parameters; reactor parameters as a function of thrust level; internal shield sizing; and reactor thermal model.

Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

1993-01-01

76

Fat Necrosis After Partial-Breast Irradiation With Brachytherapy or Electron Irradiation Versus Standard Whole-Breast Radiotherapy-4-Year Results of a Randomized Trial  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the incidence and clinical relevance of fat necrosis after accelerated partial-breast irradiation (PBI) using interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) in comparison with partial-breast electron irradiation (ELE) and whole-breast irradiation (WBI). Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2004, 258 early-stage breast cancer patients were randomized to receive 50 Gy WBI (n = 130) or PBI (n = 128). The latter consisted of either 7 x 5.2 Gy HDR-BT (n = 88) or 50 Gy ELE (n = 40). The incidence of fat necrosis, its impact on cosmetic outcome, accompanying radiologic features, and clinical symptoms were evaluated. Results: The 4-year actuarial rate of fat necrosis was 31.1% for all patients, and 31.9%, 36.5%, and 17.7% after WBI, HDR-BT and ELE, respectively (p{sub WBI/HDR-BT} = 0.26; p{sub WBI/ELE} = 0.11; p{sub ELE/HDR-BT} = 0.025). The respective rate of asymptomatic fat necrosis was 20.2%, 25.3%, and 10% of patients. The incidence of symptomatic fat necrosis was not significantly different after WBI (8.5%), HDR-BT (11.4%), and ELE (7.5%). Symptomatic fat necrosis was significantly associated with a worse cosmetic outcome, whereas asymptomatic fat necrosis was not. Fat necrosis was detectable with mammography and/or ultrasound in each case. Additional imaging examinations were required in 21% of cases and aspiration cytology in 42%. Conclusions: Asymptomatic fat necrosis is a common adverse event of breast-conserving therapy, having no significant clinical relevance in the majority of the cases. The incidence of both symptomatic and asymptomatic fat necrosis is similar after conventional WBI and accelerated partial-breast HDR-BT.

Loevey, Katalin [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: klovey@oncol.hu; Fodor, Janos; Major, Tibor [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Szabo, Eva [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Orosz, Zsolt [Department of Human and Experimental Tumor Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Sulyok, Zoltan [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary); Janvary, Levente; Froehlich, Georgina; Kasler, Miklos; Polgar, Csaba [Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Budapest (Hungary)

2007-11-01

77

Effects of chemical activation and season on birth efficiency of cloned pigs.  

PubMed

The effects of chemical activation on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were studied by investigating the developmental process from porcine oocyte activation to birth of cloned pigs. Three different activation methods were used: (i) Electroporation (Ele); (ii) Ele followed by incubation with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP); and (iii) Ele followed by a treatment with cycloheximide (CHX). In experiment 1, the rates of cleavage, developmental rates and cell number of porcine parthenogenetic (PA) embryos were investigated in the three treatment groups. In experiment 2, NT embryos produced by the three different activation treatments were compared for the rates of cleavage, development and cell number. Finally, the effects of Ele and Ele+CHX activation methods on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were compared. The activated oocytes treated by combination activation generally showed a higher (P<0.05) blastocyst rate and produced more expanded blastocysts than oocytes activated with Ele. The rates of cleavage and total cell number of parthenotes were not significantly different. Parthenogenetic embryos activated with 6-DMAP developed into blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages at a significantly (P<0.05) higher rate than those treated with Ele, but the developmental capability was dramatically decreased in NT embryos. With the CHX activation method, the NT embryo blastocyst rate was substantially (P<0.05) increased although the production of expanded blastocysts was not significantly different from that by the other two methods. The birth rate of cloned pigs increased in the CHX group, though the rate was not significantly different from Ele. The effects of season on developmental rate of the porcine PA embryos and birth rate of cloned pigs were also examined in our study. Porcine oocytes collected in the spring had higher developmental capabilities than those collected in the winter. However, no difference in birth rate of the cloned pigs was found between the oocytes collected in the two seasons. The results obtained from PA and NT embryos, following different activation methods, were inconsistent, suggesting that activation mechanisms are dissimilar in PA and NT embryos. Although the chemical activation in our study leads to an elevation of the blastocyst rate, it does not improve the oocyte's molecular programming and so does not significantly improve the efficiency of producing cloned pig births. PMID:19641871

Ma, YuFang; Li, Yan; Wei, HengXi; Li, QiuYan; Fang, Rui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Kun; Xue, Kai; Lou, YanKun; Dai, YunPing; Lian, LinSheng; Li, Ning

2009-07-01

78

SIGNIFICATO CLINICO DELLA PROTEINURIA NELLE PATOLOGIE RENALI DEI PICCOLI ANIMALI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Le patologie renali dei piccoli animali, spesso, vengono diagnosticate tardivamente, quando ormai si istaurato un danno irreversibile per il quale l?intervento terapeutico causale pu risultare ineffi cace. stato valutato che in caso di insuffi cienza renale si ha un aumento dell?azotemia solo quando gi il 75% del parenchima renale compromesso da un punto di vista funzionale (Osborne

79

Applications of independent component analysis in SAR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection of faint, small and hidden targets in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image is still an issue for automatic target recognition (ATR) system. How to effectively separate these targets from the complex background is the aim of this paper. Independent component analysis (ICA) theory can enhance SAR image targets and improve signal clutter ratio (SCR), which benefits to detect and recognize faint targets. Therefore, this paper proposes a new SAR image target detection algorithm based on ICA. In experimental process, the fast ICA (FICA) algorithm is utilized. Finally, some real SAR image data is used to test the method. The experimental results verify that the algorithm is feasible, and it can improve the SCR of SAR image and increase the detection rate for the faint small targets.

Huang, Shiqi; Cai, Xinhua; Hui, Weihua; Xu, Ping

2009-07-01

80

Dentate Granule Cell Neurogenesis Is Increased by Seizures and Contributes to Aberrant Network Reorganization in the Adult Rat Hippocampus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dentate granule cell layer of the rodent hippocampal formation has the distinctive property of ongoing neurogen- esis that continues throughout adult life. In both human temporal lobe epilepsy and rodent models of limbic epilepsy, this same neuronal population undergoes extensive remod- eling, including reorganization of mossy fibers, dispersion of the granule cell layer, and the appearance of granule cells

Jack M. Parent; Timothy W. Yu; Rebecca T. Leibowitz; Daniel H. Geschwind; Robert S. Sloviter; Daniel H. Lowenstein

81

Modeling and control of multi-contact centers of pressure and internal forces in humanoid robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a methodology for the mod- eling and control of internal forces and moments produced during multi-contact interactions between humanoid robots and the environment. The approach is based on the virtual linkage model which provides a physical representation of the internal forces and moments acting between the various contacts. The forces acting at the contacts are decomposed into

Luis Sentis; Oussama Khatib

2009-01-01

82

Baglets: Adding Hierarchical Scheduling to Aglets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant number of new Java-based technologies for mobile code (aka agents) have recently emerged. The 'Aglets' system, from IBM's research labs, provides an ele- gant mechanism for creating mobile code, but lacks a native scheduling mechanism for determining where code should be executed. In this paper we present the results of an in- vestigation into adding sophisticated scheduling capabil-

Arvind Gopalan; Sajid Saleem; Matthias Martin; Daniel Andresen

1999-01-01

83

Factors affecting susceptibility of farms to crop raiding by African elephants: using a predictive model to mitigate conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Crop raiding by African elephants Loxodonta africana erodes local tolerance for ele- phants and thereby impedes conservation efforts, so solutions are urgently required. Within conflict zones, crop raiding is not distributed equally amongst farms, which may be a result of variation in local physical or geographical factors, or in farmers' efforts to defend their fields. Understanding the efficacy

N. W. SITATI; M. J. WALPOLE; N. LEADER-WILLIAMS

2005-01-01

84

No ao sedentarismo, sim sade: contribuies da Educao Fsica escolar e dos esportes No to sedentarianism, yes to health: contributions of school physical education and sports No al sedentarismo, s a la salud: contribuciones de la educacin fsica en la escuela y de los deportes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Um dos grandes problemas enfrentados pelos povos no mundo se refere ao sedentarismo. Associado a ele, a obesidade, as cardiopatias, a diabetes e tantas outras doenas aparecem com ndices muito preocupantes principalmente nas populaes de jovens em idade escolar. A tecnologia parece agravar mais ainda este quadro. Entretanto, a prtica da atividade fsica regular, com orientao, com vestimenta e

Ubiratan Silva Alves

85

History of the origin of the chemical elements and their discoveries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origin of the chemical elements show a wide diversity with some of these elements having their origin in antiquity. Still other elements have been synthesized within the past fifty years via nuclear reactions on heavy elements, because these other ele...

Holden

2001-01-01

86

Evaluation of the predictive ability of two elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two elastic-viscoplastic constitutive formulations are evaluated using laboratory and field data from Sackville, New Brunswick and Gloucester, Ontario. Both constitutive models have been implemented in a finite ele- ment program and formulated for undrained analysis and fully coupled analysis based on Biot consolidation theory. A laboratory study of the rate-sensitive behaviour of Sackville clay is described. The response of Sackville

Sean D. Hinchberger; R. Kerry Rowe

2005-01-01

87

History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The origin of the chemical elements show a wide diversity with some of these elements having their origin in antiquity. Still other elements have been synthesized within the past fifty years via nuclear reactions on heavy elements, because these other ele...

N. E. Holden

2001-01-01

88

Faunistic and floristic post-fire succession in southern Switzerland: an integrated analysis with regard to fire frequency and time since the last fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of fires on fauna are generally studied in a single or few groups for a short to medium term period. Fire ecological evaluations are rarely supported by different ele- ments representing various trophic levels and spatial scales. In the present study we investigated the post-fire ecological effects on flora and fauna with regard to fire frequency and time

M. Moretti; M. Zanini; M. Conedera

2002-01-01

89

Skin: a constructive approach to modeling free-form shapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new particle-based surface representation with which a user can interactively sculpt free-form surfaces. The particles maintain mesh connectivity and operate under rules that lead them to form triangulations with properties that make them suitable for use in subdivision. A user interactively guides the particles, which we call skin, to grow over a given collection of polyhedral ele-

Lee Markosian; Jonathan M. Cohen; Thomas Crulli; John F. Hughes

1999-01-01

90

Characterization of tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in the African Savannah Elephant (Loxodonta africana africana)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most African elephant (Loxodonta africana africana) populations are isolated and thus threatened by a loss of genetic diversity. As a consequence, genetic analysis of African ele- phant populations will play an increasing role in their conservation, and microsatellite loci will be an important tool in these analyses. Previously published sets of polymorphic micro- satellites developed for African elephants are all

E. A. Archie; C. J. Moss; S. C. Alberts

2003-01-01

91

Steel Weldability. Research on Crack Germination in Steels with Small Grain Size.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sound emission analysis has been applied to enable clear distinction to be made between cracking and other signals. MIG and MAG welding and welding with basic electrode have been used. In single-pass overlays applied on steel grade St E 70 using basic ele...

J. Ruge, V. Juergens, G. Schroeder

1977-01-01

92

Human Factors Analysis and Modeling of U.S. Navy Afloat Electrical Shock Mishaps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrical shock mishaps account for 33 percent of all personnel injuries occurring onboard U.S. Navy surface combatants from 1995 to 1997. Clearly this indicates a need to identify the root causes and to develop intervention strategies for preventing ele...

M. S. Sciretta

1999-01-01

93

Believable environments: generating interactive storytelling in vast location-based pervasive games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generating content into vast areas is a relevant challenge in the field of location-based pervasive games. In this paper, we present a game proto- type that enables children travelling in the back seat of a car to enjoy a narrated experience where gameplay combines with the experience of trav- eling through the road network. The prototype is designed to provide

Anton Gustafsson; John Bichard; Liselott Brunnberg; Oskar Juhlin; Marco Combetto

2006-01-01

94

Motes Sensor Networks in Dynamic Scenarios: an Experimental Study for Pervasive Applications in Urban Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent works have shown that using mobile ele- ments (or data MULEs) to collect and carry data from sensor networks to a collection point may have significant advantages over traditional ad hoc sensor networks. Previous papers on the MULE architecture are mainly based on simulation and numerical analysis. In this paper we investigate the performance of the data MULE model

Giuseppe Anastasi; Marco Conti; Enrico Gregori; Carlo Spagoni; Giuseppe Valente

95

Applications of Ecological Niche Modeling for Species Delimitation: A Review and Empirical Evaluation Using Day Geckos (Phelsuma) from Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the systematic utility of ecological niche modeling is generally well known (e.g., concerning the recog- nition and discovery of areas of endemism for biogeographic analyses), there has been little discussion of applications concerning species delimitation, and to date, no empirical evaluation has been conducted. However, ecological niche mod- eling can provide compelling evidence for allopatry between populations, and can

CHRISTOPHER J. RAXWORTHY; COLLEEN M. INGRAM; Nirhy Rabibisoa; RICHARD G. PEARSON

2007-01-01

96

A Universal Framework for Regulatory Element Discovery across All Genomes and Data Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Deciphering the noncoding regulatory genome has proved a formidable challenge. Despite the wealth of available gene expression data, there currently exists no broadly applicable method for characterizing the regulatory ele- ments that shape the rich underlying dynamics. We present a general framework for detecting such regulatory DNA and RNA motifs that relies on directly assessing the mutual information between

Olivier Elemento; Noam Slonim; Saeed Tavazoie

2007-01-01

97

Defence Adademies and Colleges 2009 International Conference. Network Centric Learning: Towards Authentic ePractices, 25 - 27 March 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These proceedings provide yet another opportunity to review and reflect on a range of papers and case studies presented and discussed in Stellenbosch. For those who did not attend, these double peer refereed papers offer an overview of the breadth of e-le...

A. Herrmann D. Rossiter H. Eijkman N. V. Waag- Cowling

2009-01-01

98

Thinking Allowed: Managing Innovation in English Language Education--A Research Agenda  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Waters (2009), the author attempted to capture the "state of the art" in theorising, practice, and research activity about the management of innovation in English language education (ELE). In this article, he reprises a number of areas in that review, to identify where the field would benefit from further enquiry about how to

Waters, Alan

2014-01-01

99

Tests on Mutagenic Effects of Strong Magnetic Fields.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies on effects of magnetic fields on Tradescantia included pink stamen hair mutations, pollen abortion, and micronuclei formation in the tetrad stages of pollen production. Exposures were made using permanent magnets for fields up to 0.7 tesla, an ele...

J. W. Baum L. A. Schairer K. L. Lindahl

1978-01-01

100

Formation of Electron Beam and Volume Discharge in Air under Atmospheric Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The conditions to form electron beams in air, nitrogen, and in the mixture CO2 - N2 - He under atmospheric pressure have been examined experimentally. At nanosecond pulses applied to the diode, e-beam was obtained in air with amplitude of 70 Angstrom. Ele...

V. F. Tarasenko V. M. Orlovskii

2003-01-01

101

Interfacing Sound Stream Segregation to Automatic Speech Recognition - Preliminary Results on Listening to Several Sounds Simultaneously  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on listening to several sounds at once. Two issues are addressed: segregating speech streams from a mixture of sounds, and interfacing speech stream segregation with automatic speech recognition (ASR). Speech stream segregation (SSS) is mod- eled as a process of extracting harmonic fragments, grouping these extracted harmonic fragments, and substituting some sounds

Hiroshi G. Okuno; Tomohiro Nakatani; Takeshi Kawabata

1996-01-01

102

Interfacing Sound Stream Segregation to Recognition - Preliminar Several Sounds Si  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the preliminary results of experiments on listening to several sounds at once. 'Ike issues are addressed: segregating speech streams from a mixture of sounds, and interfacing speech stream segregation with automatic speech recognition (AD). Speech stream segregation (SSS) is mod- eled as a process of extracting harmonic fragments, grouping these extracted harmonic fragments, and substituting some sounds

Hiroshi G. Okuno; Tomohiro Nakatani; Takeshi Kawabata

1996-01-01

103

Numerical Solution of Stochastic Differential Equations in Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter is an introduction and survey of numerical solution meth- ods for stochastic differential equations. The solutions will be continuous stochastic processes that represent diffusive dynamics, a common modeling assumption for fi- nancial systems. We include a review of fundamental concepts, a description of ele- mentary numerical methods and the concepts of convergence and order for stochastic differential equation

Timothy Sauer

104

Plate tectonics on the early Earth: limitations imposed by strength and buoyancy of subducted lithosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tectonic style and viability of modern plate tectonics in the early Earth is still debated. Field observations and theoretical arguments both in favor and against the uniformitarian view of plate tectonics back until the Archean continue to accumulate. Here, we present the first numerical mod- eling results that address for a hotter Earth the viability of subduction, one of

Jeroen van Hunen; Arie P. van den Berg

105

Evaluating the Level of Degree Programmes in Higher Education: The Case of Nursing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The European Quality Assurance system demands that the degree programme level is represented in terms of quantitative outcomes to be valid and reliable. To meet this need the Educational Level Evaluator (ELE) was devised. This conceptually designed procedure with instrumentation aiming to evaluate the level of a degree validly and reliably still

Rexwinkel, Trudy; Haenen, Jacques; Pilot, Albert

2013-01-01

106

United States Security Policy in Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Honorable Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada during the early 1960's, once described the experience of being a nation on the borders of the United States as like being in bed with an elephant no matter how friendly or well intentioned the ele...

S. R. Nichols H. J. Wiarda

1993-01-01

107

Analysis of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase families of Arabidopsis thaliana suggests functional diversification of chromatin modification among multicellular eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequence similarity and profile searching tools were used to analyze the genome sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Caenorhabditis ele- gans and Drosophila melanogaster for genes encoding three families of histone deacetylase (HDAC) proteins and three families of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) proteins. Plants, animals and fungi were found to have a single member of each of three subfamilies

Ritu Pandey; Andreas Muller; Carolyn A. Napoli; David A. Selinger; Craig S. Pikaard; Eric J. Richards; Judith Bender; David W. Mount; Richard A. Jorgensen

2002-01-01

108

Experimental Results with the KVH C-100 Fluxgate Compass in Mobile Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion on the use of ele c- tronic compasses in mobile robots. Different error sources are considered, and solutions are proposed to correct these errors. Experimental results show the effec- tiveness of some of the error reduction measures. The results also show what performance can be expected from a well-calibrated compass system. The overall most important

Lauro Ojeda; Johann Borenstein

2000-01-01

109

Formal taxonomy of species C of the Anopheles minimus sibling species complex (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nomenclatural identity of species C of the Anopheles minimus complex is resolved by excluding the available junior synonyms of the nominotypical member of the complex and naming it An. harrisoni Harbach & Manguin, sp. n. Anoph- eles formosaensis I Tsuzuki, An. christophersi Theobald and An. christophersi var. alboapicalis Theobald are retained as junior synonyms of An. minimus Theobald based

RALPH E. HARBACH; CLAIRE GARROS; NGUYEN DUC MANH; SYLVIE MANGUIN

110

Radial Expansion and an Effect of Visual Scale on the Spatial Perception of 2D Vibrotactile Position Cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We summarize a newly-found effect of visual scale on perception of position for a 2D vibrotactile cue and propose this can be mod- eled to improve accuracy of display. In our experiment, a 2D array of vibrating motors presents a stimulus to the palm. Subjects indi- cate stimulus's position under varying visual scales and presence or lack of visual reinforcement.

Nicholas G. Lipari; Christoph W. Borst

111

ILLUSTRATION OF BILEVEL FORMULATIONS IN CONCURRENT DESIGN MODELING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-player mathematical games can potentially be very useful mod- eling tools in concurrent design. The purpose of this paper is to illus- trate a variety of concurrent decision-making models that arise in two simple applications where explicit models can be obtained to repre- sent the typical stages of design and manufacturing in product devel- opment. The resulting models are bilevel

K. Badhrinath; J. R. Jagannatha Rao

112

Compact Antennas with Reduced Mutual Coupling for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

rinted sinusoidal monopoles are a type of meander line antennas, with smooth curve structure and enhanced perfor- mance, suitable for build- ing compact multi-ele- ment antennas (MEAs). The antennas described here were designed at 2-3 GHz to meet the size and bandwidth con- straints of multimedia sensor networks. Their performance was characterized in terms of electrical size, bandwidth, and broadband

Constantine G. Kakoyiannis; Penelope Gika; Philip Constantinou

2009-01-01

113

A FINITE ELEMENT INTERIOR PENALTY METHOD FOR MHD IN HETEROGENEOUS DOMAINS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maxwell equations in the MHD limit in heterogeneous domains com- posed of conducting and nonconducting regions are solved by using Lagrange finite ele- ments and by enforcing continuities across interfaces using an interior penalty technique `a la Nitsche\\/Dupont-Douglas (19, 8). The method is shown to be stable and convergent and is validated by convergence tests. It is used to

J.-L. Guermond; R. Laguerre; J. Leorat; C. Nore

2006-01-01

114

Integrin (the CSAT antigen): functionality requires oligomeric integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrin, the cell-substrate attachment (CSAT) antigen, is a complex of integral membrane glycoproteins whose apparent function is to mediate cell-substratum adhesion by serving as a transmem- brane link between the extracellular matrix and ele- ments of the cytoskeleton. Previous attempts to sepa- rate the members of this complex under nondenaturing conditions have been successful. We have now pro- duced a

Clayton A. Buck; Elizabeth Shea; Kimberly Duggan; Alan E Horwitz

1986-01-01

115

Alignments anchored on genomic landmarks can aid in the identification of regulatory elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The transcription start site (TSS) has been located for an increasing number of genes across several organisms. Statistical tests have shown that some cis-acting regulatory elements have positional preferences with respect to the TSS, but few strategies have emerged for locating ele- ments by their positional preferences. This paper elaborates such a strategy. First, we align promoter regions without

Kannan Tharakaraman; Leonardo Mario-ramrez; Sergey Sheetlin; David Landsman; John L. Spouge

2005-01-01

116

Effect of a Pulsed Electric Field on the Formation of a Latent Image in Lead Iodide and Silver Oxalate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mechanism of the formation of a latent image in PbI2 and Ag2C2O4 by the action of synchronized electric field and light pulses was studied. A quartz plate was vacuum coated with PbI2 and metallic Ag strips and fixed between 2 Cu disk electrodes; one ele...

Y. I. Mikhailov V. V. Boldyrev R. Stoichev Y. Malinovski

1973-01-01

117

Trends in Cell-Based Electrochemical Biosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-based electrochemical biosensors have contributed tremendously to the fields of biology, medicine, chem- istry, pharmacology, and environmental science. With electrochemical transducers and whole cells as the recognition ele- ments, these biosensors provide new horizons for biosensing and life science research. This review focuses on the re- search accomplishments on this topic over the last three years, and is divided into

Lin Ding; Dan Du; Xueji Zhang; Huangxian Ju

2008-01-01

118

Numerical Studies of the Friction Force for the RHIC Electron Cooler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accurate calculation of electron cooling times requires an accurate description of the dynamical friction force. The proposed RHIC cooler will require (approx.) 55 MeV electrons, which must be obtained from an RF linac, leading to very high transverse ele...

A. V. Fedotov I. Ben-Zvi Y. Eidelman V. N. Litvinenko

2005-01-01

119

Physically based simulation of cloth on distributed memory architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physically based simulation of cloth in virtual environments is a computationally demanding problem. It involves mod- eling the internal material properties of the textile (physical modeling) and also treating interactions with the surrounding scene (collision handling). In this paper, we present an approach to parallel cloth simulation designed for distributed memory parallel architec- tures, particularly clusters built of commodity components.

Bernhard Thomaszewski; Wolfgang Blochinger

2007-01-01

120

THE SOURCES AND BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY METALS IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical evaluation has been made of the literature regarding the sources of heavy metals in sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Residential loadings of heavy metals as a percentage of total metal loads are highly variable with respect to both the particular ele...

121

Preservice Teachers Beliefs about Primary Classroom Practice: Similarities and Differences between Early Childhood and Elementary Prepared Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different professional preparation paths lead to teaching positions in the primary grades, resulting in conflicting paradigms. In early childhood educa- tion (ECED), child development theory traditionally serves as the context for decision making regarding instructional strategies and curriculum content. In contrast, elementary education (ELED) historically focuses on prescribed grade-related student outcomes as the context for curriculum and instruction. A

Nancy File; Dominic F. Gullo

122

A comparison of early childhood and elementary education students beliefs about primary classroom teaching practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two professional preparation paths lead to teaching positions in the lower primary grades; their different histories and emphasis result in potentially conflicting paradigms. We examined the viewpoints of 119 pre-service teachers who were either at the beginning or near the end of their programs in early childhood (ECED) or elementary education (ELED). They completed a survey of their beliefs about

Nancy File; Dominic F. Gullo

2002-01-01

123

Evaluation of Microstructure of a 6092 Al-17.5 Volume Percent SiC Particle Reinforced Composite Using Electron Backscatter Pattern (EBSP) Analysis Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microtexture and grain boundary misorientation data were obtained for a 6092 Al-17.5 volume percent SiC particle reinforced material as a function of processing history. Computer aided electron backscatter pattern (EBSP) analysis methods in a scanning ele...

J. J. Markovich

1998-01-01

124

Value-Based Elicitation of Product Line Variability: An Experience Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding and modeling the variability of an existing system is a highly critical and challenging task when adopting a product line approach. Only little guidance is available for identifying the variable ele- ments in a complex system and for choosing the ap- propriate level of granularity for modeling. Also, product line engineers have to find a balance between the technically

Rick Rabiser; Deepak Dhungana; Paul Grnbacher; Benedikt Burgstaller

2008-01-01

125

Comparison of functional biochemical, and morphometric alterations in the lungs of four rat strains and hamsters following repeated intratracheal instillation of crocidolite asbestos  

EPA Science Inventory

Four rat strains and hamsters were exposed to 0.7mg crocidolite asbestos/g lung once/wk for 3weeks by intratracheal instillation (IT). Pulmonary function, biochemistry, and morphometry were evaluated at 3 and 6-months after IT. Each rat strain, but not the hamster, exhibited ele...

126

Usage of tilt-in-space, recline, and elevation seating functions in natural environment of wheelchair users  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the usage of powered seating functions, including tilt-in-space, backrest recline, and seat ele- vation, among a group of wheelchair users during their typical daily activities. Twelve individuals who used a power wheel- chair with seating functions participated in the study. They drove their own wheelchair and used the seating functions as needed in their community environment for

Dan Ding; Elizabeth Leister; Rory A. Cooper; Rosemarie Cooper; Shirley G. Fitzgerald; Michael L. Boninger

2008-01-01

127

First Video Game  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2010-01-08

128

Regulation of Fas Ligand Expression by IL8 in Human Endometrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous cytokines and growth factors are synthesized in the endometrium. IL-8 is one of these cytokines regulating endometrial function. It is a neutrophil chemoattractant\\/ activating factor and a potent angiogenic agent. IL-8 is ele- vated in the peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis. We have previously demonstrated a direct proliferative effect of IL-8 on endometrial stromal cells. We hypothesized that

BELGIN SELAM; UMIT A. KAYISLI; JUAN A. GARCIA-VELASCO; G. EDA AKBAS; AYDIN ARICI

2010-01-01

129

Bayesian Inference on Multiscale Models for Poisson Intensity Estimation: Applications to Photon-Limited Image Denoising  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an improved statistical model for an- alyzing Poisson processes, with applications to photon-limited imaging. We build on previous work, adopting a multiscale representation of the Poisson process in which the ratios of the underlying Poisson intensities (rates) in adjacent scales are mod- eled as mixtures of conjugate parametric distributions. Our main contributions include: 1) a rigorous and robust

Stamatios Lefkimmiatis; Petros Maragos; George Papandreou

2009-01-01

130

Electrochemical Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of NiCr20'4 and CoCr20'4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a Bureau of Mines investigation into the standard Gibbs energies of formation Delta Gf, for NiCr2O4 (nickel chromite) and CoCr2O4 (cobalt chromite). High temperature galvanic cells employing stabilized ZrO2 (zirconia) as the solid ele...

S. C. Schaefer

1986-01-01

131

Extramedullary Hematopoiesis-Related Pleural Effusion: The Case of ?-Thalassemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Thalassemia intermedia has a later clini- cal onset and a milder anemia than thalassemia major, characterized by high output state, left ventricle remod- eling, and age-related pulmonary hypertension. Bone deformities, extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH), and spleen and liver enlargement are the consequences of hypoxia and enhanced erythropoiesis. The EMH-related pleural effusion is rarely referred to in the literature of thalassemia.

Athanassios Aessopos; Stergios Tassiopoulos; Dimitrios Farmakis; Ioannis Moyssakis; Maria Kati; Katerina Polonifi; Maria Tsironi

2006-01-01

132

Standardisation of the Automated Quantimet.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Quantimet Image Analysing Computer is widely used as an inclusion counter, when it has to assess large numbers of samples often in the hands of inexperienced operators. The limits of Quantimet accuracy are not always fully understood, and optical, ele...

D. H. Evans

1970-01-01

133

Systemic Translocation of Particulate Matter-Associated Metals Following a Single Intratracheal Instillation in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respirable ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Direct translocation of PM-associated metals from the lungs into sys- temic circulation may be partly responsible. We measured ele- mental content of lungs, plasma, heart, and liver of healthy male WKY rats (12-15 weeks old) 4 or 24 h following a single intra- tracheal

J. Grace Wallenborn; John K. McGee; Mette C. Schladweiler; Allen D. Ledbetter; Urmila P. Kodavanti

2007-01-01

134

Optimization of two-dimensional flows with homogeneous and heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically reacting gaseous flows in catalytic monoliths are numerically investi- gated to mathematically optimize product yields by the variation of operating condi- tions and catalyst loading. The fluid dynamics of the single monolith channel is mod- eled by the two-dimensional boundary layer equations (BLEs), a system of parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) with highly nonlinear boundary conditions arising from the

H. D. Minh; S. Tischer; O. Deutschmann

2008-01-01

135

CXCR4 Is Required by a Nonprimate Lentivirus: Heterologous Expression of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in Human, Rodent, and Feline Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterologous feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) expression system permitted high-level expression of FIV proteins and efficient production of infectious FIV in human cells. These results identify the FIV U3 ele- ment as the sole restriction to the productive phase of replication in nonfeline cells. Heterologous FIV expres- sion in a variety of human cell lines resulted in profuse syncytial lysis

ERIC M. POESCHLA; DAVID J. LOONEY

1998-01-01

136

Exploiting Platform Heterogeneity for Power Efficient Data Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently become clear that power management is of critical importance in modern enterprise computing envi- ronments. The traditional drive for higher performance has influenced trends towards consolidation and higher densi- ties, artifacts enabled by virtualization and new small form factor server blades. The resulting effect has been increased power and cooling requirements in data centers which ele- vate

Ripal Nathuji; Canturk Isci; Eugene Gorbatov

2007-01-01

137

Automating Architectural View Integration in UML  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architecting software systems requires more than what general- purpose software development models can provide. Architecting is about mod- eling, solving and interpreting, and in doing so, placing a major emphasis on mismatch identification and reconciliation within and among architectural views (such as diagrams). The emergence of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), which has become a de-facto standard for OO software

Alexander Egyed

1999-01-01

138

DBN-Based Multistream Models for Mandarin Toneme Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A toneme in Mandarin Chinese is a tonal phone which consists of a base phone (main vowel) and a tone. To capture both, most recog- nition systems use two feature streams: the standard MFCCs for the base phones, and pitch features for the tones. In this paper we propose the use of Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBNs) for mod- eling the

Xin Lei; Gang Ji; Tim Ng; Jeff Bilmes; Mari Ostendorf

2005-01-01

139

Content Mapping Techniques for Qualitative and Semiqualitative Analysis with the Electron Microbeam Probe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Content mapping of small surface areas with the electron microbeam probe can be used to quickly obtain very effectively both qualitative and quantitative information. An automatic content mapping device is available with the Hitachi Perkin-Elmer XMA-S Ele...

J. S. Solomon W. L. Baun

1970-01-01

140

Initial Submission: Acute Intraperitoneal Study of 1,6-Hexanediol Diacrylate in Rats with Cover Letter dated 09/04/1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The intraperitoneal LD50 (with 95% confidence limits) in rats was 1025 (511-1539) mg/kg for both sexes combined. The test material caused acute toxic effects at 273, 910 and 2730 mg/kg levels during the first 24 hours post-dosing which included pelvic ele...

1992-01-01

141

Technology exploration for graphene nanoribbon FETs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graphene nanoribbon FETs (GNRFETs) are promising devices for beyond-CMOS nanoelectronics because of their excellent carrier transport properties and potential for large scale processing and fabrication. This paper combines atomistic quantum transport mod- eling with circuit simulation to perform technology exploration for GNRFET circuits. A quantitative study of the effects of variations and defects on the performance and reliability of GNRFET

Mihir R. Choudhury; Youngki Yoon; Jing Guo; Kartik Mohanram

2008-01-01

142

Enthalpy of Formation of Alpha(1) - Tungsten Hexachloride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The enthalpy of formation of alpha(1) tungsten hexachloride was determined by combusting tungsten in chlorine gas in contact with the liquid. A nickel bomb was used. The tungsten specimens in the form of wire were electrically heated for ignition. The ele...

M. C. Stuart P. Gross

1972-01-01

143

Stakeholders Participation In The European Water Framework Directive  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the new framework directive, public information and consultation are main ele- ments in the procedure towards River Basin Management Plans. In general decision making in integrated water management should not be limited to the application of models and desk study. All important decisions need interaction with societal actors. These stakeholders have visions, ideas, patterns of behaviour and solutions for

J. A. van Ast; S. P. Boot

2002-01-01

144

Experimental Test of SuperRadiance in a Single Pass Seeded FEL.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Superradiance and nonlinear evolution of a FEL pulse in a single-pass FEL were experimentally demonstrated at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) Source Development Laboratory (SDL). The experiment was performed using a 1.5 ps high-brightness ele...

T. Watanabe D. Liu J. B. Murphy J. Rose T. Shaftan

2005-01-01

145

a Biopirataria: a pilhagem da natureza e do conhecimento , de Vandana Shiva (Petrpolis, Vozes, 2001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biodiversidade, proteo do meio ambiente, agricultura sustentvel, agribusiness e alimentos geneticamente modificados - tais so os temas que cada vez mais ocupam o centro das controvrsias atuais sobre a agricultura, no mundo inteiro. O Brasil no exceo, e entre os movimentos que do a eles maior destaque encontra-se o MST. Imbudo de forte conscincia ecolgica desde sua fundao, e

Hugh Lacey; Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira

2001-01-01

146

Formation of collodial Ag precipitates in fused silica by MeV ion implantation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formation of Ag nanoclusters in fused silica by MeV ion implantation has been studied. Size and size distributions of nanoclusters depend on dose. These nanoclusters give rise to strong absorption at the surface plasmon wavelength. Implantation at ele...

C. W. White D. S. Zhou R. A. Zuhr R. H. Magruder

1993-01-01

147

The Rock Art Stability Index A New Strategy for Maximizing the Sustainability of Rock Art  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify those petroglyph and pictograph panels most susceptible to damage, we propose a field-friendly index that incorporates ele- ments of existing strategies to characterize the stability of stone. The Rock Art Stability Index (RASI) has six general categories: Site Setting (geological factors); Weakness of the Rock Art Panel; Evidence of Large Erosion Events On and Below the

Ronald I. Dorn; David S. Whitley; Niccole Villa Cerveny; Steven J. Gordon; Case Allen; Elyssa Gutbrod

148

Temperature Measurements in a Free Burning Arc.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectroscopic analysis of a 100-A gas tungsten arc welding arc indicates an arc temperature of 1100 exp 0 K near the cathode, decreasing toward the anode to 8000 exp 0 K. At these temperatures, the argon gas is approximately 2 percent ionized, and the ele...

S. S. Glickstein

1975-01-01

149

Holt Film Wall Shear Instrumentation for Boundary Layer Transition Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Measurements of the performance of hot-film wall-shear sensors were performed to aid development of improved sensors. The effect of film size and substrate properties on the sensor performance was quantified through parametric studies carried out both ele...

S. P. Schneider

1994-01-01

150

Motion parallel to line orientation: Disambiguaton of motion percepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four experiments demonstrate that lines indicating path of movement can generate rotational percepts in a multistable motion display that usually produces only horizontal or vertical motion percepts. The properties of the path of movement lines are predicted by a neural network theory of visual perception. Experimental results validate the theory's predictions by demonstrating that movement of the display ele- ments

Gregory Francis; Hyungjun Kim

1999-01-01

151

Age effects on interrelationships between lung volume and heart rate during standing  

Microsoft Academic Search

terize the effects of aging on autonomic mediation of heart rate, lung volume, and interrelationships be- tween lung volume and heart rate, we analyzed spec- tral properties of respiration and heart rate and mod- eled interrelationships between respiration and heart rate in healthy young and older subjects in response to movement from the supine to standing positions. Our results demonstrating

GARRETT STANLEY; DAVIDE VEROTTA; NOAH CRAFT; RONALD A. SIEGEL; JANICE B. SCHWARTZ

1997-01-01

152

The Impact of Overseas Training on Curriculum Innovation and Change in English Language Education in Western China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the impact of a UK-based professional development programme on curriculum innovation and change in English Language Education (ELE) in Western China. Based on interviews, focus group discussions and observation of a total of 48 English teachers who had participated in an overseas professional development programme influenced

Li, Daguo; Edwards, Viv

2013-01-01

153

Efficient Computation of Frequent and Top-k Elements in Data Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an integrated approach for solving both prob- lems of finding the most popular k elements, and finding frequent ele- ments in a data stream. Our technique is efficient and exact if the alpha- bet under consideration is small. In the more practical large alphabet case, our solution is space efficient and reports both top-k and frequent elements with

Ahmed Metwally; Divyakant Agrawal; Amr El Abbadi

2005-01-01

154

Mechanical Design Philosophy and Construction of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher Ring AmPS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design philosophy and the construction of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AmPS) are described with emphasis on the vacuum components as well as on the alignment system and on the supports for the magnets and the monitors. The AmPS ring is a 900 MeV ele...

A. P. Kaan J. A. Heemskerk J. Touw J. Bijleveld H. B. Rookhuizen

1992-01-01

155

SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated ele...

R. Downing S. Errede A. Gauthier M. Haney I. Karliner

1993-01-01

156

PBPK Modeling of the Percutaneous Absorption of Perchloroethylene from a Soil Matrix in Rats and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a widely used volatile organic chemi- cal. Exposures to PCE are primarily through inhalation and dermal contact. The dermal absorption of PCE from a soil matrix was compared in rats and humans using real-time MS\\/MS exhaled breath technology and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) mod- eling. Studies with rats were performed to compare the effects of loading volume,

Torka S. Poet; Karl K. Weitz; Richard A. Gies; Jeffrey A. Edwards; Karla D. Thrall; Richard A. Corley; Hanafi Tanojo; Xiaoying Hui; Howard I. Maibach; Ronald C. Wester

2002-01-01

157

On the Aesthetics of Programming and Modeling: Part 1: Evolving Program to Model DRAFT 0.9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling is increasingly being employed in computer programming. With the economies of graphical user interfaces and software design tools favoring new ap- proaches to software visualization, there are many overlaps between programs and models to suggest that programming can be done effectively with modeling. Mod- eling can be made more effective through an injection of aesthetic principles. We overview the

Paul A. Fishwick

158

N-tert-butyl hydroxylamine, a mitochondrial antioxidant, protects human retinal pigment epithelial cells from iron overload: relevance to macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe visual impairment in the elderly in developed countries. AMD patients have ele- vated levels of iron within the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE), which may lead to oxidative damage to mitochon- dria, disruption of retinal metabolism, and vision impair- ment or loss. As a possible model for iron-induced AMD, we investigated

Ludmila A. Voloboueva; David W. Killilea; Hani Atamna; Bruce N. Ames

2007-01-01

159

First Video Game  

ScienceCinema

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

160

First Video Game  

SciTech Connect

Fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the ele

Peter Takacs

2008-10-21

161

Toward a simple physical model of double-reed musical instruments: influence of aerodynamical losses in the embouchure on the c oupling between the reed and the bore of the resonator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The air flow model usually considered for physical mod- eling of wind instruments has to be modified for double- reed instruments. Indeed, it is usually assumed in simple models that air pressure in the reed channel is the same as air pressure at the input of the bore. On the contrary, the first aim of this paper is to explain

C. Vergez; A. Almeida; X. Rodet; G. Pompidou

162

Consistency of genome-based methods in measuring Metazoan evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven distinct genome-wide divergence measures were applied pairwise to the nine sequenced animal genomes of human, mouse, rat, chicken, pufferfish, fruit fly, mosquito, and two nem- atode worms (Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis ele- gans). Qualitatively, all of these divergence measures are found to correlate with the estimated time since speciation; however, marked deviations are observed in a few lineages. The

Evgeny M. Zdobnova; Christian von Mering; Ivica Letunica; Peer Bork

163

Fatal Accident Circumstances and Epidemiology (FACE) Report: Lineman Electrocuted When He Contacts a 7200-Volt Powerline While Installing a Guy Wire in North Carolina, March 5, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerned the death of a 30 year old male journeyman lineman who was electrocuted while installing a guy wire. His employer was an electrical contractor that had been contracted to install a new single phase 7200 volt powerline by the local ele...

1990-01-01

164

LDL particle subclasses in hypercholesterolemia: molecular determinants of reduced lipid hydroperoxide stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by ele- vated plasma levels of LDL in which the cholesteryl ester (CE)-rich LDL subclasses of light and intermediate density (LDL1 1 2 and LDL3, respectively) typically predominate. The molecular mechanisms implicated in oxidation of LDL particle subclasses in hypercholesterolemia are indetermi- nate. Lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), primary oxidation products in LDL, are implicated in atherogenesis. LOOH formation

Laurent Chancharme; Patrice Thrond; Fabienne Nigon; Stphanie Zarev; Alain Mallet; Eric Bruckert; M. John Chapman

165

Fin Assembly for a Vehicle.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fin assembly for effecting guidance of a vehicle through a fluid medium includes an electromagnet fixed in a portion of the vehicle, and a rigid shaft fixed to a hull portion of the vehicle and extending outwardly therefrom and in alignment with the ele...

C. P. Cho S. J. Olson

1996-01-01

166

The OPAL Project: Open source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure has been developed to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1) Overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost and technology); 2) Preliminary research, acquisition and familiarisation with all available ELE software packages; 3) Assessment of these 30+ software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4) Loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data. Keywords: OPAL, displacement-based, DBELA, earthquake loss estimation, earthquake loss assessment, open source, HAZUS

Daniell, James

2010-05-01

167

Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software (OPAL)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides a comparison between Earthquake Loss Estimation (ELE) software packages and their application using an "Open Source Procedure for Assessment of Loss using Global Earthquake Modelling software" (OPAL). The OPAL procedure was created to provide a framework for optimisation of a Global Earthquake Modelling process through: 1. overview of current and new components of earthquake loss assessment (vulnerability, hazard, exposure, specific cost, and technology); 2. preliminary research, acquisition, and familiarisation for available ELE software packages; 3. assessment of these software packages in order to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the ELE methods used; and 4. loss analysis for a deterministic earthquake (Mw = 7.2) for the Zeytinburnu district, Istanbul, Turkey, by applying 3 software packages (2 new and 1 existing): a modified displacement-based method based on DBELA (Displacement Based Earthquake Loss Assessment, Crowley et al., 2006), a capacity spectrum based method HAZUS (HAZards United States, FEMA, USA, 2003) and the Norwegian HAZUS-based SELENA (SEismic Loss EstimatioN using a logic tree Approach, Lindholm et al., 2007) software which was adapted for use in order to compare the different processes needed for the production of damage, economic, and social loss estimates. The modified DBELA procedure was found to be more computationally expensive, yet had less variability, indicating the need for multi-tier approaches to global earthquake loss estimation. Similar systems planning and ELE software produced through the OPAL procedure can be applied to worldwide applications, given exposure data.

Daniell, J. E.

2011-07-01

168

Microelectronic Arrays for Cell-Based Functional Genomics/ High Throughput Phenotyping by Electrokinetic Assembly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An electrochemical apparatus 1 permits electric-field-assisted fluidic assembly of objects 2 on a patterned silicon substrate 11 by means of electrical addressing. Charged objects 2 such as beads and live cells are moved electrokinetically, like as in ele...

C. Barlow M. Ozkan S. Esener S. N. Bhata

2001-01-01

169

Cell to Cell Communication in Response to Mechanical Stress via Bilateral Release of Atp and Utp in Polarized Epithelia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airway epithelia are positioned at the inter- face between the body and the environment, and gener- ate complex signaling responses to inhaled toxins and other stresses. Luminal mechanical stimulation of air- way epithelial cells produces a propagating wave of ele- vated intracellular Ca 2 1 that coordinates components of the integrated epithelial stress response. In polarized airway epithelia, this response

Lszl Homolya; Thomas H. Steinberg; Richard C. Boucher

2000-01-01

170

Behavioural inbreeding avoidance in wild African elephants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The costs of inbreeding depression, as well as the opportunity costs of inbreeding avoidance, determine whether and which mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance evolve. In African ele- phants, sex-biased dispersal does not lead to the complete separation of male and female relatives, and so individuals may experience selection to recognize kin and avoid inbreed- ing. However, because estrous females are rare

ELIZABETH A. ARCHIE; JULIE A. HOLLISTER-SMITH; JOYCE H. POOLE; PHYLLIS C. LEE; CYNTHIA J. MOSS; JSUS E. MALDONADO; ROBERT C. FLEISCHER; SUSAN C. ALBERTS

2007-01-01

171

Multi-represented Classification Based on Confidence Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex objects are often described by multiple representations mod- eling various aspects and using various feature transformations. To integrate all information into classification, the common way is to train a classifier on each representation and combine the results based on the local class probabilities. In this paper, we derive so-called confidence estimates for each of the classifiers reflecting the correctness

Johannes Afalg; Hans-peter Kriegel; Alexey Pryakhin; Matthias Schubert

2007-01-01

172

Synthesis and Selection of Radiotherapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

as radioimmunotherapy (RIT) or peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), respectively. The first radionuclide that was used in radionuclide therapy is I-131. Antibodies can be labeled with I-131 using an oxidative substitution reaction, resulting in radioiodination of the tyrosine residues. Ele- gant remote systems have been developed to label antibodies and peptides with high activity doses (>5 GBq) I-131 have been

O. C. Boerman

173

F' and M' Traps in Alkali Halides Studied by Means of Photostimulated Thermoluminescence.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature of some traps in NaCl, KCl, KBr is investigated by means of correlated experiments on photostimulated thermoluminescence and optical absorption. The glow peaks centered at 149K in KBr and at 340K in NaCl are due to the thermal release of F' ele...

P. Scaramelli

1966-01-01

174

Direct Interaction of CASK\\/LIN2 and Syndecan Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan and Their Overlapping Distribution in Neuronal Synapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASK , the rat homolog of a gene ( LIN-2 ) re- quired for vulval differentiation in Caenorhabditis ele- gans , is expressed in mammalian brain, but its function in neurons is unknown. CASK is distributed in a punc- tate somatodendritic pattern in neurons. By immu- nogold EM, CASK protein is concentrated in synapses, but is also present at nonsynaptic

Yi-Ping Hsueh; Fu-Chia Yang; Viktor Kharazia; Scott Naisbitt; Alexandra R. Cohen; Richard J. Weinberg; Morgan Sheng

1998-01-01

175

Petri Net Modeling of Cyber-Physical Attacks on Smart Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of Petri nets for mod- eling coordinated cyber-physical attacks on the smart grid. Petri nets offer more flexibility and expressiveness than traditional at- tack trees to represent the actions of simultaneous attackers. How- ever, Petri net models for attacks on very large critical infrastruc- tures such as the smart grid require a great amount of

Thomas M. Chen; Juan Carlos Sanchez-Aarnoutse; John Buford

2011-01-01

176

An information theoretic approach for the discovery of irregular and repetitive patterns in genomic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented rate at which genomic data is accumulated underscores the need to develop highly efficient analytical capabilities. Traditionally, most of the effort post- sequencing has been focused on the identification and annota- tion of genes along with their promoters and regulatory ele- ments. However, a major part of the vastness outside the gene- space is still left unexplored because

Willard Davis; Ananth Kalyanaraman; Diane J. Cook

2008-01-01

177

Agent-Based Modeling: A New Approach for Theory Building in Social Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most social and psychological phenomena occur not as the result of isolated decisions by individuals but rather as the result of repeated interactions between multiple individuals over time. Yet the theory-building and mod- eling techniques most commonly used in social psychol- ogy are less than ideal for understanding such dynamic and interactive processes. This article describes an alter- native approach

Eliot R. Smith; Frederica R. Conrey

2007-01-01

178

USING A PERCEPTUALLY BASED TIMBRE METRIC FOR PARAMETER CONTROL ESTIMATION IN PHYSICAL MODELING SYNTHESIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manual adjustment of control parameters for physical mod- eling synthesis suffers from practical limitations of time- intensive and sometimes arbitrary and haphazard param- eter tweaking. An efficient approach to automatic pa- rameter estimation, the goal of this study, would poten- tially eliminate much of the hit or miss nature of parame- ter tuning by finding optimal control parameters for phys-

Hiroko Terasawa; Jonathan Berger; Julius O. Smith

179

Modeling and control of formations of nonholonomic mobile robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the control of a team of nonholonomic mobile robots navigating in a terrain with obstacles while maintaining a desired formation and changing formations when required, using graph theory. We model the team as a triple, , consisting of a group ele- ment that describes the gross position of the lead robot, a set of shape vari- ables

Jaydev P. Desai; James P. Ostrowski; Vijay Kumar

2001-01-01

180

Test of a conceptual prototype of the total internal reflection Cherenkov imaging detector (DIRC) with cosmic muons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The DIRC is a totally internally reflecting Cherenkov imaging detector proposed for particle identification at the asymmetric e(sup +)e(sup (minus)) B factories. First test results from a conceptual prototype using cosmic muons are reported. The photo-ele...

D. Aston H. Kawahara D. McShurley D. Muller G. Oxoby

1994-01-01

181

Non-Destructive Bridge Testing with Acoustic Emission (AE) Sensor Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proposed research at the Denbigh Blvd. in the City of Newport News, Virginia was completed according to the plan of action prepared in consultation with the VDOT and the Virginia Council of Transportation Innovation and Research (VCTIR). The major ele...

D. S. Parmar

2011-01-01

182

Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-based Assay for Estimating DNA Yield Extracted from Domestic Cat Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been developed for the quantification of genomic DNA ex- tracted from domestic cat samples. The assay, which targets highly repetitive genomic short interspersed nuclear ele- ments (SINE), can be performed rapidly and is highly sensitive, detecting as little as 10 fg of feline genomic DNA. The assay was linear over a 106

Marilyn Menotti-Raymond; Victor David; Leslie Wachter; Naoya Yuhki; Stephen J. O'Brien

2003-01-01

183

Hands-On Teaching and Entrepreneurship Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the experiment being conducted in the Electric Circuits II course (ELE1103) at PUC-Rio's Electrical Engineering Department since March 1997. This experiment was held in both the fall and the spring semesters of 1997. The basis for the experiment was concurrent teaching methodology, to which the principles of entrepreneurship

da Silveira, Marcos Azevedo; da Silva, Mauro Schwanke; Kelber, Christian R.; de Freitas, Manuel R.

184

Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Coagulation/Filtration, U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at the City of Okanogan, WA - Final Performance Evaluation Report  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the City of Okanogan, WA facility. The objectives of the project were to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of Filtronics? FH-13 Ele...

185

Near Neighbor Search in Large Metric Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given user data, one often wants to find ap- proximate matches in a large database. A good example of such a task is finding images similar to a given image in a large collection of images. We focus on the important and technically difficult case where each data ele- ment is high dimensional, or more generally, is represented by a

Sergey Brin

1995-01-01

186

Evaluating the life of the structures of farm machinery frames from the standpoint of crack resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the supporting frames of agricultural machinery which are the optimum with respect to strength and metal consumption assumes their functioning under extreme conditions of load in the presence of various stress raisers. In this case, as experience shows, the failure of a structure is related most frequently to the development of cracks in its ele- ments. An

T. I. Rybak; V. I. Samodala; A. I. Darchuk; V. A. Proniv

1983-01-01

187

Web Navigation Prediction Using Multiple Evidence Combination and Domain Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 Web can be applied effectively in many important applications, 5 such as web search, latency reduction, and personalization sys- 6 tems. Such application has traditional tradeoffs between mod- 7 eling complexity and prediction accuracy. In this paper, we 8 study several hybrid models that combine different classification 9 techniques, namely, Markov models, artificial neural networks 10 (ANNs), and the

Mamoun A. Awad; Latifur R. Khan

2007-01-01

188

What's Decidable About Arrays?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by applications to program verication, we study a decision procedure for satisabilit y in an expressive fragment of a the- ory of arrays, which is parameterized by the theories of the array ele- ments. The decision procedure reduces satisabilit y of a formula of the fragment to satisabilit y of an equisatisable quantier-free formula in the combined theory of

Aaron R. Bradley; Zohar Manna; Henny B. Sipma

2006-01-01

189

Avaliao dos efeitos centrais dos fl orais de Bach em camundongos atravs de modelos farmacolgicos especfi cos  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Os Remdios Florais de Bach (RFB), constituem um mtodo alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na teraputica de vrias patologias em muitos pases do mundo. Os RFB so reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ao dos RFB ainda no tenha sido elucidado, eles vm sendo indicados para o tratamento de vrias doenas neuropsiquitricas. O

Mrcia M. De-Souza; Milene Garbeloto; Karin Denez; Iriane Eger-Mangrich

190

Summary of Chalcogenide Glass Processing: Wet-Etching and Photolithography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a study designed to explore the different properties of two different chalcogenide materials, As2S3 and As24S38Se38, when subjected to photolithographic wet-etching techniques. Chalcogenide glasses are made by combining chalcogen ele...

B. J. Riley B. R. Johnson L. Saraf S. K. Sundaram

2006-01-01

191

Multidimensional Data Modeling for Business Process Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging area of business process intelligence attempts to enhance the analytical capabilities of business process management systems by employing data warehousing and mining technologies. This paper presents an approach to re-engineering the business process mod- eling in conformity with the multidimensional data model. Since the business process and the multidimensional model are driven by rather di! erent objectives and

Svetlana Mansmann; Thomas Neumuth; Marc H. Scholl

2007-01-01

192

On a Folk Theory of Society: Children, Evolution, and Mental Representations of Social Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Representing and reasoning about the social universe is a major task for the young child, one that almost certainly involves specialized knowledge structures. Individuals in interaction are fundamental elements of sociality, and, unsurprisingly, evolution has prepared children with special-purpose mechanisms for drawing attention to and processing information about persons. Social aggregates are also fundamental ele - ments of human sociality,

Lawrence A. Hirschfeld

2001-01-01

193

Multi-Camera Scene Analysis using an Object-Centric Continuous Distribution Hidden Markov Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a multi-camera event detection framework that can op- erate on a common ground plane as well as on the image plane. The proposed event detector is based on an object-centric state mod- eling that uses a Continuous Distribution Hidden Markov Model (CDHMM). Video objects are first detected using statistical change detection and then tracked using graph matching. Next,

Murtaza Taj; Andrea Cavallaro

2007-01-01

194

Germs and Hygiene - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Hmoob) Japanese (???) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (???) Portuguese (portugus) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (espaol) Tagalog ( ... PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Portuguese (portugus) Cover Your Cough English Cubrase quando tossir - portugus ( ...

195

Common Cold - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... ????) French (franais) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Portuguese (portugus) Russian (???????) Spanish (espaol) Tagalog (Tagalog) Vietnamese (Ti?ng ... Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Portuguese (portugus) Cover Your Cough English Cubrase quando tossir - portugus ( ...

196

Electrostatic Similarities between Protein and Small Molecule Ligands Facilitate the Design of Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

One of the underlying principles in drug discovery is that a biologically active compound is complimentary in shape and molecular recognition features to its receptor. This principle infers that molecules binding to the same receptor may share some common features. Here, we have investigated whether the electrostatic similarity can be used for the discovery of small molecule protein-protein interaction inhibitors (SMPPIIs). We have developed a method that can be used to evaluate the similarity of electrostatic potentials between small molecules and known protein ligands. This method was implemented in a software called EleKit. Analyses of all available (at the time of research) SMPPII structures indicate that SMPPIIs bear some similarities of electrostatic potential with the ligand proteins of the same receptor. This is especially true for the more polar SMPPIIs. Retrospective analysis of several successful SMPPIIs has shown the applicability of EleKit in the design of new SMPPIIs.

Zhang, Kam Y. J.

2013-01-01

197

Circulating Ghrelin Is Sensitive to Changes in Body Weight during a Diet and Exercise Program in Normal-Weight Young Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghrelin is directly involved with short-term regulation of en- ergy balance. Although circulating levels of ghrelin are ele- vated in anorexia nervosa and reduced in obesity, the role of ghrelin in regulating long-term energy balance in healthy women has not been investigated. We examined the effects of a 3-month energy deficit-imposing diet and exercise interven- tion on circulating ghrelin in

H. J. Leidy; J. K. GARDNER; B. R. FRYE; M. L. SNOOK; M. K. SCHUCHERT; E. L. RICHARD; N. I. WILLIAMS

2004-01-01

198

Structure model for kassite, CaTirOo(OH)t Prrrn G. Srr.r  

Microsoft Academic Search

and alloys, some of which contain noble and rare-earth Kassite is a rare mineral that contains common ele- metals. Our attention was drawn to the kassite grains ments in simple proportions. In spite of this chemical because they gave energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra simplicity, the literature describing kassite is confused. with a CalTi peak-height ratio of 1:2 rather than the

Glen Osmond

199

Timing of Ca 2 1 Release from Intracellular Stores and the Electrical Response of Limulus Ventral Photoreceptors to Dim Flashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light-induced release of Ca 2 1 from stores in Limulus ventral photoreceptors was studied using confo- cal fluorescence microscopy and the Ca 2 1 indicator dyes, Oregon green-5N and fluo-4. Fluorescence was collected from a spot within 4 m m of the microvillar membrane. A dual-flash protocol was used to reconstruct transient ele- vations of intracellular free calcium ion concentration

Richard Payne; James Demas

200

NDT as a tool, for Post-Irradiation Examination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-destructive testing scored important successes in nuc lear field. All NDT techniques available nowadays provide comprehensible indications on the behaviour of the track. This paper reviews the NDT techniques used in the post-irradiate d examination of fuel element taken from Es-salam nuclear reactor. Indeed, the fuel ele ment emits alpha, beta and gamma rays, that why, measurement are done in

Abdeldjalil ALGHEM; Mourad KADOUMA; Rabah BENADDAD

201

Electrochemical behaviour of microbes on orthodontic wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study is to investigate the ele c- trochemical behaviour of orthodontic wires in artificial saliva with and without bacteria. Four factors were considered to characterize the bacteria present in the saliva, viz. urban and rural groups of vegetarians and non-vegetarians. The results showed that among the heterotrophic bacterial isolates, Gram-positive species dominated over the Gram-negative

S. Maruthamuthu; A. Rajasekar; S. Sathiyanarayanan; N. Muthukumar; N. Palaniswamy

202

Programming robots via learning by showing in a virtual environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the so-called TeleSensorProgramming concept that uses sensory perception to achieve local autonomy in robotic manipulation. Sensor-based robot tasks are used to define ele- mental moves within a high level programming environment. This approach is applicable in both, the real robot's world and the simulated one, i.e. in a virtual environment. Beside the graphical off-line programming concept, the range

B. Brunner; K. Arbter; G. Hirzinger; R. Koeppe

1995-01-01

203

NF-kB Activation in Pancreas Induces Pancreatic and Systemic Inflammatory Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: The role of nuclear factor kB (NF- kB) activation in acute pancreatitis is uncertain. The transcription factor NF-kB is activated early in acute pancreatitis, and NF-kB is widely considered a key ele- ment in inflammatory responses based on its ability to regulate the expression of inflammatory mediators in vitro. However, its role in vivo in specific diseases

XUEQING CHEN; BAOAN JI; BING HAN; STEPHEN A. ERNST; DIANE SIMEONE; CRAIG D. LOGSDON

2002-01-01

204

Metallothionein I and II Protect against Zinc Deficiency and Zinc Toxicity in Mice1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallothionein (MT)-bound zinc accu mulates when animals are exposed to excess zinc and is depleted under conditions of zinc deficiency, sug gesting that MT serves as a means of sequestering excess zinc as well as a zinc reservoir that can be utilized when zinc is deficient. To examine the impor tance of MT for these processes, mice with null alíeles

EDWARD J. KELLY; CAROL J. QUAIFE; GLENDA J. FROELICK; RICHARD D. PALMITER

205

Adding Heat Pipes and Coolant Loop Models to Finite Element and\\/or Finite difference Thermal\\/Structural Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Active cooling technologies such as heat pipes, loop heat pipes (LHPs), thermosyphons, loop thermosyphons (LTSs), and pumped single- or two-phase coolant loops require specialized modeling treatment. However, these 1D ducted systems are largely overlooked in 3D thermal mod- eling tools. The increasing popularity of CFD and FEM models and generation of analysis data from 3D CAD data are strong trends

B. Cullimore; D. A. Johnson

206

Isolation of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for the grey-headed robin (Poecilodryas albispecularis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We isolated 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the grey-headed robin Poecilodryas albispecularis from genomic libraries enriched for (AAGG)n and (AACC)n repetitive ele- ments and characterized them in 12 individuals. The number of alleles ranges from three to nine per locus with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.33 to 0.90. These markers will be useful for analysis of questions concerning population

CAROLYNE BARDELEBEN; KATHLEEN SEMPLE DELANEY; JEREMY AUSTIN; RACHAEL L. MOORE

2005-01-01

207

Modeling and Recognition of Driving Behavior Based on Stochastic Switched ARX Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of the mod- eling and recognition of human driving behavior based on a stochastic switched auto-regressive exogenous (SS-ARX) model. First, a parameter estimation algorithm for the SS-ARX model with multiple measured input-output sequences is developed based on the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. This can be achieved by extending the parameter estimation technique for the conventional hidden

Shogo Sekizawa; Shinkichi Inagaki; Tatsuya Suzuki; Soichiro Hayakawa; Nuio Tsuchida; Taishi Tsuda; Hiroaki Fujinami

2007-01-01

208

Atividade anti-retroviral e propriedades farmacocinticas da associao entre lamivudina e zidovudina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lamivudina (3TC) e a zidovudina (ZDV) so agentes anti- retrovirais indicados para o tratamento de infeco pelo HIV. Eles so anlogos nucleosdeos, que passam por reaes intracelulares de fosforilao e atuam inibindo a enzima transcriptase reversa. Os compostos trifosforilados formados se ligam cadeia de DNA pr-viral impedindo sua replicao. A teraputica anti-retroviral utilizando apenas um frmaco ocasiona, freqentemente,

Jacqueline de Souza; Slvia Storpirtis

2004-01-01

209

Weighted fair bandwidth sharing using SCALE technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently there is not enough work on the Internet weighted fair bandwidth sharing without per-flow management, especially when both UDP and TCP flows of different RTTs and d ifferent bandwidth targets coexist. This paper contains two contributions: 1) A mechanism called SCALE-WFS, Scalable Core with Aggregation Level l abEling - Weighted Fair bandwidth-Sharing, is presented to achieve near-optimal Max-Min weighted

Haifeng Zhu; Aimin Sang; San-qi Li

2001-01-01

210

Delamination damage analyses of adhesively bonded lap shear joints in laminated FRP composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional non-linear finite ele- ment analyses have been carried out to evaluate the out-of-plane stresses in the\\u000a adhesive layer existing between the lap and the strap adherends of the Lap Shear Joint (LSJ) in laminated FRP composites for\\u000a varied delamination lengths. The delaminations are presumed to be pre-embedded in the thin resin rich layer existing between\\u000a the first and second

S. K. Panigrahi; B. Pradhan

2007-01-01

211

A fi social ?i nesocial online. Explorarea comportamentului agresiv online al copiilor ?i adolescen?ilor (cyber-bullying) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acest studiu ?i propune s? exploreze problema incipient? a agresivit??ii online (cyber- bullying) n rndul adolescen?ilor romni,cu accent pe diferen?ierea tipurilor de agresivitate n rela?ie cu utilizarea instrumentelor de socializare (mesagerie instant ?i re?ele sociale), monitorizare parental? ?i anumi?i factori psihosociali. Rezultatele sugereaz? leg?turi moderate cu utilizarea instrumentelor de socializare (SNS ?i IM) ?i cu monitorizarea parental? offline. Nu s-au

Monica Barbovschi

212

Expectation Maximization for Clustering on Hyperspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dimensional directional data is becoming increasingly important in contemporary ap- plications such as analysis of text and gene-expression data. A natural model for multi-variate directional data is provided by the von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distribution on the unit hypersphere that is analogous to multi-variate Gaussian distribution in Rd. In this paper, we propose mod- eling complex directional data as a

Arindam Banerjee; Inderjit Dhillon; Joydeep Ghosh; Suvrit Sra

2003-01-01

213

Expectation Maximization for Clustering on Hyperspheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

High dimensional directional data is becoming increasingly important in contemporary ap- plications such as analysis of text and gene-expression data. A natural model for multi-variate directional data is provided by the von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distribution on the unit hypersphere that is analogous to multi-variate Gaussian distribution in Rd. In this paper, we propose mod- eling complex directional data as a

Arindam Banerjee; Inderjit Dhillony; Joydeep Ghosh; Suvrit Sray

214

Polymorphism at the Glutathione S-Transferase Locus GSTM3: Interactions with Cytochrome P450 and Glutathione S-Transferase Genotypes as Risk Factors for Multiple Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of polymorphism in the glutathione S-transferase, GSTM3 gene on susceptibility to cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been investigated. We have reported previously two GSTM3 alíeles, GSTM3*A and Í..S\\/.Uf;\\/(, distinguished by a recognition motif for the YY1 transcription factor in GSTM3*B. In this study, unmunohistochemistry was used to identify GSTM3 expression in the epidermis of skin samples from

Lilian Yengi; Avis Inskip; Janice Gilford; Julie Alldersea; Lisa Bailey; Andrew Smith; John T. Lear; Adrian H. Heagerty; Bill Bowers; Philip Hand; John D. Hayes; Peter W. Jones; Richard C. Strange; Anthony A. Fryer

215

Study of a Kindred With Partial Deficiency of Red Cell 2,3-D iphosphoglycerate M utase (2,3-DPGM) and Compensated Hemolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A kindred with partial deficiency of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate mutase (2,3- DPGM) was studied. The propositus pre- sented with indirect hyperbilirubinemia, normal hemoglobin (15.8 g\\/dI), and ele- vated reticulocyte count (4.6%). The red cell 5tCr survival was decreased (rVi 16 days). Incubated osmotic fragility was nor- mal; autohemolysis was increased and corrected with glucose and ATP. The P50 was 18.5

Susan F. Travis; James Garvin; Jean Atwater; Patricia Gillmer

1978-01-01

216

Multi-rate Coupled Hidden Markov Models and Their Application to Machining Tool-Wear Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces multi-rate coupled hidden Markov models (multi-rate HMMs for short) for multiscale mod- eling of nonstationary processes, extending traditional HMMs from single to multiple time scales with hierarchical repre- sentations of the process state and observations. Scales in the multi-rate HMMs are organized in a coarse-to-fine manner with Markov conditional independence assumptions within and across scales, allowing for

Mari Ostendorf; Gary D. Bernard

217

3D MODELING OF THE ST.ANTHONY ABBOT CHURCH IN S.DANIELE DEL FRIULI (I): FROM LASER SCANNING AND PHOTOGRAMMETRY TO VRML\\/X3D MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the steps of the 3D modeling of the Church of Saint Anthony Abbot in San Daniele del Friuli (I), from the laser scanning and photogrammetric integrated surveying to the final VRML\\/X3D photorealistic model. This church keeps the most beautiful and harmonious cycle of Renaissance fresco es of the region, painted by Pellegrino da San Dani ele: the

Domenico Visintini; Eliana Siotto; Elena Menean

218

Topology of Type II REases revisited; structural classes and the common conserved core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type II restriction endonucleases (REases) are deoxyribonucleases that cleave DNA sequences with remarkable specificity. Type II REases are highly divergent in sequence as well as in topology, i.e. the connectivity of secondary structure ele- ments. A widely held assumption is that a structural core of five b-strands flanked by two a-helices is common to these enzymes. We introduce a sys-

Masha Y. Niv; Daniel R. Ripoll; Jorge A. Vila; Adam Liwo; Eva S. Vanamee; Aneel K. Aggarwal; Harel Weinstein; Harold A. Scheraga

2007-01-01

219

MINERALS FROM MACEDONIA XII. THE DEPENDENCE OF QUARTZ AND OPAL COLOR ON TRACE ELEMENT COMPOSITION - AAS, FT IR AND MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the color of quartz and opal natural minerals, collected from different localities in the Re- public of Macedonia (Alinci, Belut?e, Budinarci, Mariovo, Sasa, Sa?devo, ?anite, ?einovo, Zletovo) on their ele- ment composition is studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT IR), micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In order to determine the content of different trace

Petre Makreski; Gligor Jovanovski; Blao Boev

220

The Role of Kupffer Cell Activation and Viral Gene Expression in Early Liver Toxicity after Infusion of Recombinant Adenovirus Vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic application of first-generation adenovirus induces pathogenic effects in the liver. To begin unrav- eling the mechanisms underlying early liver toxicity after adenovirus infusion, particularly the role of mac- rophage activation and expression of viral genes in transduced target cells, first-generation adenovirus or adenovirus vectors that lacked most early and late gene expression were administered to C3H\\/HeJ mice after transient

ANDRE LIEBER; CHENG-YI HE; LEONARD MEUSE; DAVID SCHOWALTER; IRINA KIRILLOVA; BRIAN WINTHER; MARK A. KAY

1997-01-01

221

On Unscented Kalman Filtering for State Estimation of Continuous-Time Nonlinear Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the application of the un- scented Kalman filter (UKF) to continuous-time filtering prob- lems, where both the state and measurement processes are mod- eled as stochastic differential equations. The mean and covariance differential equations which result in the continuous-time limit of the UKF are derived. The continuous-discrete unscented Kalman filter is derived as a special case of

Simo Sarkk

2007-01-01

222

Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

Mody, Cyrus

2013-03-01

223

Electrophysiological and Psychophysical Flicker Sensitivity in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal sensitivity was assessed in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and ocular hypertension (OUT). Three measures of flicker sensitivity were obtained: psychophysical modulation thresholds, visual-evoked potentials (VEPs), and focal electroretinograms (FEKGs). We found ele- vated psychophysical thresholds at higher temporal frequencies (30-50 Hz) in patients with POAG, relative to thresholds for age-matched controls. The OUT patients had elevated psychophysical

Karen Holopigian; William Seiple; Charles Mayron; Richard Kory; Monica Lorenzo

1990-01-01

224

MOCHA: Modularity in Model Checking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new interactive verification environment called M OCHA for the modular verifi- cation of heterogeneous systems. MOCHA differs from many existing model checkers in three significant ways: - For modeling, we replace unstructured state-transition graphs with th e heterogeneous mod- eling framework of reactive modules(AH96). The definition of reactive modules is inspired by formalisms such as Unity (CM88),

Rajeev Alur; Thomas A. Henzinger; Freddy Y. C. Mang; Shaz Qadeer; Sriram K. Rajamani; Serdar Tasiran

1998-01-01

225

Regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in sea urchin eggs by reversible association with cell structural elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin, Stron- gylocentrotus purpuratus, glucose-6-phosphate de- hydrogenase (G6PDH) associates with the particulate elements remaining either after homogenization or ex- traction of eggs with non-ionic detergent in low ionic-strength media. At physiological ionic strength, the extent of G6PDH binding to these particulate ele- ments is proportional to the total protein concentration in the extracts. In

Robert R. Swezey; David Epel

1986-01-01

226

Toxicological and cytophysiological aspects of lanthanides action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lanthanides, also called rare-earth elements, are an interesting group of 15 chemi- cally active, mainly trivalent, f-electronic, silvery-white metals. In fact, lanthanides are not as rare as the name implies, except for promethium, a radioactive artificial ele- ment not found in nature. The mean concentrations of lanthanides in the earth's crust are comparable to those of life-important elements like iodine,

Artur Pa; Piotr Czekaj

2000-01-01

227

Low-energy positron diffraction from the (110) surfaces of GaAs and InP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intensities of 16 nonequivalent beams of normally incident positrons diffracted from the (110) surfaces of GaAs and InP are reported. The sample temperature was approximately 110 K. The intensities were measured over the energy range 30 eV[le][ital E][le]200 eV. The atomic geometries of GaAs(110) and InP(110) were extracted from these intensities via their comparison with the predictions of a

X. M. Chen; K. F. Canter; C. B. Duke; A. Paton; D. L. Lessor; W. K. Ford

1993-01-01

228

HCI as an engineering discipline : to be or not to be!?  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges in the emerging interdisciplinary field of human-computer interaction (HCI) is the specification of a research line that can enable the development of validated design knowledge with a predictive power for the design of interactive systems. Based on the three different ele- ments in the design of interactive systems: (1) human being(s), (2) technical artefact(s), and

G. W. Matthias Rauterberg

2006-01-01

229

Auger electron spectroscopic study and photoelectrochemical response of electrodeposited n-CdTe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical deposition of cadmium telluride (CdTe) in aqueous medium is an easy and economic way of preparing large areas of polycrystalline semiconductor for the construction of semiconductor solar cells. In this letter the surface and bulk composition and the photoelectrochemical response of n-type CdTe obtained by cathodic deposition are described. The ele, ctrochemical mechanism of the deposition, structure and semiconducting

P. Loaeza; O. Solorza

1990-01-01

230

Circuits and architectures for field programmable gate array with configurable supply voltage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) with supply voltage (Vdd) programmability have been proposed recently to reduce FPGA power, where the Vdd-level can be customized for FPGA circuit elements and unused circuit ele-ments can be power-gated. In this paper, we first design novel Vdd-programmable and Vdd-gateable interconnect switches with minimal number of configuration SRAM cells. We then evaluate Vdd-programmable FPGA

Yan Lin; Fei Li; Lei He

2005-01-01

231

Elevated hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 activity affects multiple pathways controlling hepatic lipid and carbohydrate composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatic fatty acid elongase-5 (Elovl-5) plays an important role in long chain monounsaturated and polyun- saturated fatty acid synthesis. Elovl-5 activity is regulated during development, by diet, hormones, and drugs, and in chronic disease. This report examines the impact of ele- vated Elovl-5 activity on hepatic function. Adenovirus- mediated induction of Elovl5 activity in livers of C57BL\\/6 mice increased hepatic

Yun Wang; Moises Torres-Gonzalez; Sasmita Tripathy; Daniela Botolin; Barbara Christian; Donald B. Jump

2008-01-01

232

A Preponderance of Basic Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Isoforms Accompanies Inappropriate Hypersecretion of Both Basal and Pulsatile LH in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently demonstrated that adolescent girls with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) exhibit augmented LH secretion due to an increase in immunofluorometric and deconvolution-estimated LH se- cretory burst mass and pulse frequency. Concurrently, we inferred either a prolongation of apparent (endogenous) LH half-life or ele- vated basal (nonpulsatile) LH release in PCOS. The in vivo half-life of LH molecules can be

M. G. Ropelato; M. C. GARCIA-RUDAZ; C. CASTRO-FERNANDEZ; A. ULLOA-AGUIRRE; M. E. ESCOBAR; M. BARONTINI; J. D. VELDHUIS

1999-01-01

233

EFICINCIA DE PRODUTOS ALCALINOS E ORGNICO NA IMOBILIZAO DE CADMIO PRESENTE EM UM RESDUO INDUSTRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

anos de funcionamento, despejou na gua e no solo um resduo perigoso contendo metais pesados, entre eles o cdmio. Para avaliar o potencial de inertizao do Cd presente no resduo da Ing, foram utilizados produtos de reao alcalina e orgnica em diferentes propores, visando um pH de equilbrio de 6,0; 6,5 e 7,0. No decorrer do perodo de incubao, foi

ROSIANE SALES PINHEIRO; FAB IANA; SOARES DOS SANTOS; MRCIO OSVALDO; LIMA MAGALHES; CLARICE DE OLIVEIRA; NELSON MOURA BRASIL; AMARAL SOBRINHO

2004-01-01

234

M\\/G\\/1Type Markov Processes: A Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

M\\/G\\/1-type processes are commonly encountered when mod- eling modern complex computer and communication systems. In this tutorial, we present a detailed survey of existing solution methods for M\\/G\\/1-type processes, focusing on the matrix-analytic methodology. From rst principles and using simple examples, we derive the funda- mental matrix-analytic results and lay out recent advances. Finally, we give an overview of an

Alma Riska; Evgenia Smirni

2002-01-01

235

Stable Remodeling of Tailless Nucleosomes by the Human SWI-SNF Complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The histone N-terminal tails have been shown previously to be important for chromatin assembly, remod- eling, and stability. We have tested the ability of human SWI-SNF (hSWI-SNF) to remodel nucleosomes whose tails have been cleaved through a limited trypsin digestion. We show that hSWI-SNF is able to remodel tailless mononucleosomes and nucleosomal arrays, although hSWI-SNF remodeling of tailless nucleosomes is

JEFFREY R. GUYON; GEETA J. NARLIKAR; SAID SIF; ROBERT E. KINGSTON

1999-01-01

236

Molecular and morphological evidence on the phylogeny of the Elephantidae  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper isreally one of placing the root in a three-taxon tree. Wehave shown that both outgroup rooting using the dugong,and maximum-likelihood ingroup rooting using amolecular clock, locate the root in the Elephas lineage andsuggest an (Ele (Lox, Mam)) relationship. The statisticalsupport for this relationship, evaluated using either thebootstrap or Bayesian method, is insucient tocondently exclude the alternative Mammuthus ^

Mark G. Thomas; Erika Hagelberg; Hywel B. Jones; Ziheng Yang; Adrian M. Lister

2000-01-01

237

HISTEROSKOPSKA RESEKCIJA PREGRADE - VPLIV NA NOSE?NOST HYSTEROSCOPIC RESECTION OF UTERINE SEPTUM - EFFECTS ON PREGNANCY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klju?ne besede: Klju?ne besede: pregrada maternice; nose?nost; prezgodnji porod Izvle?ek - Izvle?ek - Izvle?ek - Izvle?ek - Izvle?ek - Izhodi?a. Pri enskah s spontanim splavom, pre- zgodnjim porodom ali pri neplodnih enskah z vaginalnim ultrazvokom pogosto odkrijemo pregrado v maternici, ki jo od leta 1993 tudi histeroskopsko reseciramo. Zato smo eleli ugotoviti pomen majhne pregrade na potek in izid nose?no-

Helena Ban; Martina Ribi?-Pucelj; Andrej Vogler; Eda Bokal-Vrta?nik

238

Dynamic modeling of short-circuit behavior of a six-pulse rectifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Existing models describing the dynamic behavior of a six-pulse rectifier during a short-circuit fault condition are derived from switch models using average value parametric functions. Unlike these models, new non-parametric dynamic models have been developed using analytical average-value mod- eling approach. In this modeling approach, depending upon the number of switches conducting during a switching cycle, the operating point of

Pandarinath Murali; Surya Santoso

2011-01-01

239

Inhibiting S100B Restores p53 Levels in Primary Malignant Melanoma Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

S100 calcium-binding proteins such as S100B are ele- vated in primary malignant melanoma and are used as markers for this and numerous other cancers. Wild-type p53 protein levels are relatively low in these cancer cells (i.e. when compared with cells without S100B) but are elevated when RNA antisense to S100B is introduced. This result implicates S100B in the down-regulation of

Jing Lin; Qingyuan Yang; Zhe Yan; Joseph Markowitz; Paul T. Wilder; France Carrier; David J. Weber

2004-01-01

240

Fibroblast growth factor 1 induced during myogenesis by a transcription-translation coupling mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is involved in muscle development and regeneration. The FGF1 gene contains four tissue-specific promoters allow- ing synthesis of four transcripts with distinct leader regions. Two of these transcripts contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), which are RNA ele- ments allowing mRNA translation to occur in condi- tions of blockade of the classical cap-dependent mechanism. Here,

Caroline Conte; Nadera Ainaoui; Aurelie Delluc-Clavieres; Marie P. Khoury; Rania Azar; Francoise Pujol; Yvan Martineau; Stephane Pyronnet; Anne-Catherine Prats

2009-01-01

241

Transfer of Tn5385, a Composite, Multiresistance Chromosomal Element from Enterococcus faecalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tn5385 is a ca. 65-kb element integrated into the chromosomes of clinical Enterococcus faecalis strains CH19 and CH116. It confers resistance to erythromycin, gentamicin, mercuric chloride, streptomycin, tetracycline- minocycline, and penicillin via b-lactamase production. Tn5385 is a composite structure containing regions previously found in staphylococcal and enterococcal plasmids. Several transposons and transposon-like ele- ments within Tn5385 have been identified, including

LOUIS B. RICE; LENORE L. CARIAS

1998-01-01

242

Halk Etimolojisinde Yer Alan Bazi Kelimelerle ?lgili Yaki?tirmalar  

Microsoft Academic Search

zet Halk etimolojisi zerine yapilan ara?tirmalar Batida XIX. Yzyilin ortalarina kadar uzamasina ra?men bizde di?er bilim dallarinda oldu?u gibi yakin zamana kadar ciddi bir ?ekilde ve sistematik olarak ele alinmami?tir. Trke'nin halk etimolojisine ba?lanacak kelime hazinesinin ortaya koyulmasi ihtiya halindedir. Milletlerin tarih boyunca birbirleriyle siyasi, sosyal, ticari ve kltrel ili?kilerde bulunmu? olmalari kelime ali?veri?lerine yol ami?tir. Her dilin kendine has

Hasan Kksal

243

Chemoprevention of Rat Liver Carcinogenesis by S-Adenosyl-L-methionine: A Long-Term Study1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work has shown a consistent fall in S-adenosyl-i.-methion- ine (SAM) in the liver of diethylnitrosamine-initiated rats, during the development of preneoplastic lesions, in persistent nodules (PNs), and hepatocellular carcinomas. The injection of SAM into rats causes the reconstitution of the SAM pool, coupled with growth restraint, remod eling, and apoptosis of preneoplastic cells, and inhibits the development of PNs

Rosa M. Pascale; Maria M. Simile; Lucia Daino; Giampaola Pinna; Simona Bennati; Monica Carta; Maria A. Seddaiu; Giovanni Massarelli; Francesco Feo

1992-01-01

244

Conceptual Modeling for the Probability of Raid Annihilation (PRA) Testbed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A U.S. Navy enterprise methodology has been established for consistent ship self defense operational test and evaluation (OT&E) across all ship classes. A cornerstone of the Navy T&E Enterprise is the Probability of Raid Annihilation (PRA) Testbed. The Navy PRA Testbed implements HLA federated simulations of ship combat system ele- ments against independent, reactive threat raids in a common environment

Sarah Trbovich; Shala Malone

245

Effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury in rats.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of Cassia fistula Linn. leaf extract on liver injury induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) was investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200+/-10g were administered a single dose of DEN (200mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and left for 30 days. For hepatoprotective studies, ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of C. fistula Linn. (500mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered daily for 30 days. AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, gamma-GT and bilirubin were estimated in serum and liver tissue. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), SOD and CAT were also estimated in liver tissue as markers of oxidative stress. DEN induced hepatotoxicity in all the treated animals were evident by elevated serum ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels and a simultaneous fall in their levels in the liver tissue after 30 days. Induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidenced by increased LPO and fall in the activities of SOD and CAT. ELE administration for 30 days prevented the DEN induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress. In conclusion, it was observed that ELE of C. fistula Linn. protects the liver against DEN induced hepatic injury in rats. PMID:17289008

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor Raj; Gobianand, Kuppannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2007-04-01

246

Peculiaridades observadas no espectro da estrela magntica HD 190073 - candidata a estrela do tipo Ae de Herbig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentaremos os resultados de uma investigao espectroscpica cooperativa da estrela magntica HD 190073. As observaes foram conduzidas no Observatrio do Pico dos Dias (LNA/MCT), European Southern Observatory (ESO, Chile), e Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO, Ucrnia), entre 1998 e 2002. Discutiremos em detalhe um dos padres mais marcantes do espectro desse objeto - as multicomponentes em absoro das linhas Ca ii K e H. De acordo com nossos resultados, a estrutura complexa desse perfil permaneceu constante durante vrias decadas (dos anos 30 at os anos 80) aps o que apresentou mudanas marcantes nos anos 90. Essa variabilidade apresenta bvia contradio com a interpretao tradicional desse fenmeno como o resultado de espalhamento ressonante atuando seletivamente sobre o vento estelar em distncias diferentes. Propomos uma explicao alternativa com base em uma topologia espec fica do campo magntico estelar. Essa hiptese permite, tambm, explicar uma srie de outras peculiaridades observadas no envoltrio de HD 190073, tais como: (a) a baixa velocidade de rotao pode ser o resultado da interao entre a magnetosfera estelar e um disco equatorial hipottico; (b) o gs circumstelar acumulado em loops magnticos em latitudes intermedirias pode estimular a formao de regies gasosas densas a distncias intermedirias da estrela, onde linhas em emisso com perfil simples so formadas.

Franco, G. A. P.; Pogodin, M. A.; Lopes, D. F.

2003-08-01

247

Replicon typing characterization of plasmids encoding resistance to gentamicin and apramycin in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium isolated from human and animal sources in Belgium.  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli and salmonella strains with plasmids conferring resistance to gentamicin and apramycin have been isolated with increasing frequency both from cattle and hospital patients in Belgium. The apramycin-gentamicin resistance plasmids were characterized in recipient strains by their profiles and molecular weights using agarose gel electrophoresis, by their antimicrobial resistance patterns and by replicon typing using a series of DNA probes specific for the genes controlling their systems of replication. Overall, most of the plasmids differed in their DNA electrophoretic patterns. Seventeen different antimicrobial resistance profiles were observed, and there were six different types of replicons. However, two replication genes predominated and had a preferential distribution in different bacterial species. The rep FIC.a plus rep Q multireplicon was found mainly in plasmids recovered from gentamicin- and apramycin-resistant E. coli while replicon of the type rep FIC.b largely prevailed in S. typhimurium. Identical replication genes were found in most animal and human strains, hence suggesting a high homology between apramycin-gentamicin plasmids in these communities. Finally, our results indicate that the rapid spread of apramycin-gentamicin-resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from animals and from humans in Belgium is not due to a single plasmid, but rather that the gene encoding AAC(3)-IV is carried by various replicons.

Pohl, P.; Glupczynski, Y.; Marin, M.; Van Robaeys, G.; Lintermans, P.; Couturier, M.

1993-01-01

248

Flow cytometry and GISH reveal mixed ploidy populations and Spartina nonaploids with genomes of S. alterniflora and S. maritima origin  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Spartina exhibits extensive hybridization and includes classic examples of recent speciation by allopolyploidy. In the UK there are two hexaploid species, S. maritima and S. alterniflora, as well as the homoploid hybrid S. townsendii (2n = 60) and a derived allododecaploid S. anglica (2n = 120, 122, 124); the latter two are considered to have originated in Hythe, southern England at the end of the 19th century. Methods Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and flow cytometry were used to characterize the genomic composition and distribution of these species and their ploidy levels at Eling Marchwood and Hythe, both near Southampton, southern England. Key Results GISH identified approx. 60 chromosomes each of S. maritima and S. alterniflora origin in S. anglica and 62 chromosomes from S. alterniflora and 30 chromosomes from S. maritima in a nonaploid individual from Eling Marchwood, UK. GISH and flow cytometry also revealed that most (94 %) individuals examined at Hythe were hexaploid (the remaining two individuals (6 %) were dodedcaploid; n = 34), whereas hexaploid (approx. 36 % of plants), nonaploid (approx. 27 %) and dodecaploid (approx. 36 %) individuals were found at Eling Marchwood (n = 22). Conclusions Nonaploid individuals indicate the potential for introgression between hexaploid and dodecaploid species, complicating the picture of polyploid-induced speciation within the genus. Despite the aggressive ecological habit of S. anglica, it has not out-competed S. townsendii at Hythe (homoploid hybrids at a frequency of 94 %, n = 34), despite >100 years of coexistence. The success of GISH opens up the potential for future studies of polyploid-induced genome restructuring in this genus.

Renny-Byfield, Simon; Ainouche, Malika; Leitch, Ilia J.; Lim, K. Yoong; Le Comber, Steven C.; Leitch, Andrew R.

2010-01-01

249

Variabilidad del metabolismo oxidativo de frmacos en la poblacin uruguaya Polimorfismo gentico del citocromo P-450 2D6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumen El estudio ele losj7ctores gmticos que determirmr7 la respuesta a los 7~2edictr7i2erzfo.s se demmirm ,fi77.7rlacogerrtica. EH la dcada del 70 se describi el polirnorfsmo perr&ico dc Iri Llchri.coqLrina-hidroxiiasa. u77 hallazgo de gran r-elevatrcia dado que rnlrclo.r.f~\\/llcrc,o.c utili:ados cu teraputica se oxidar? por la misma \\\\ja metahlic~a. Esto e.xpliccr ,grrrrr parte LIP iir var-iahilitiud iudividual que se obset-va en las

Francisco E. Estvez; Marcos Giusti; Susana Parrillo; Miguel Pr-ando

1997-01-01

250

TEM Study of SAFARI-2000 Aerosols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of our research was to obtain data on the chemical and physical properties of individual aerosol particles from biomass smoke plume s in southern Africa and from air masses in the region that are affec ted by the smoke. We used analytical transmission electron microscopy (ATEM), including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and ele ctron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and field-emission electron microscopy (FESEM) to study aerosol particles from several smoke and haz e samples and from a set of cloud samples.

Buseck, Peter R.

2004-01-01

251

KONUT YER SE?M?-ULA?IM ETK?LE??M TEOR?LER?: KR?T?K B?R L?TERATR ?NCELENMES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bu makalede, literatrdeki yerle?im ve ula?im arasindaki etkile?im geleneksel ve a?da? kentsel yerle?im kuramlari i?i?inda ele?tirel bir gzle incelenmektedir. Halen nemlerini koruduklari halde, bu teorilerin o?u faaliyet yerle?imi ve ula?im arasindaki ili?kileri inceleyen ara?tirmacilari bir takim sorunlar ve zorluklarla kar?i kar?iya birakmaktadir. ?? mekani konutsal yer seim kararlarini yada konut yer seimi seilen i?i, kent iinde ali?ma amaciyla yapilan yolculuklarindan

Mehmet C. MARIN

252

Dynamic and quasi-static lung mechanics system for gas-assisted and liquid-assisted ventilation.  

PubMed

Our aim was to develop a computerized system for real-time monitoring of lung mechanics measurements during both gas and liquid ventilation. System accuracy was demonstrated by calculating regression and percent error of the following parameters compared to standard device: airway pressure difference (Delta P(aw)), respiratory frequency (f(R) ), tidal volume (V(T)), minute ventilation (V'(E)), inspiratory and expiratory maximum flows (V'(ins,max), V'(exp,max)), dynamic lung compliance (C(L,dyn) ), resistance of the respiratory system calculated by method of Mead-Whittenberger (R(rs,MW)) and by equivalence to electrical circuits (R(rs,ele)), work of breathing (W(OB)), and overdistension. Outcome measures were evaluated as function of gas exchange, cardiovascular parameters, and lung mechanics including mean airway pressure (mP(aw)). Delata P(aw), V(T), V'(ins,max), V'(exp,max), and V'(E) measurements had correlation coefficients r = 1.00, and %error < 0.5%. f(R), C(L,dyn), R(rs,MW), R(rs,ele), and W(OB) showed r > or = 0.98 and %error < 5%. Overdistension had r = 0.87 and %error < 15%. Also, resistance was accurately calculated by a new algorithm. The system was tested in rats in which lung lavage was used to induce acute respiratory failure. After lavage, both gas- and liquid-ventilated groups had increased mP(aw) and W(OB), with decreased V(T), V'(E), C(L,dyn), R(rs,MW), and R(rs,ele) compared to controls. After 1-h ventilation, both injured group had decreased V(T), V'(E) , and C(L,dyn), with increased mP(aw), R(rs,MW), R(rs,ele), and W(OB) . In lung-injured animals, liquid ventilation restored gas exchange, and cardiovascular and lung functions. Our lung mechanics system was able to closely monitor pulmonary function, including during transitions between gas and liquid phases. PMID:19336282

Alvarez, Francisco J; Gastiasoro, Elena; Rey-Santano, M Carmen; Gomez-Solaetxe, Miguel A; Publicover, Nelson G; Larrabe, Juan L

2009-07-01

253

PROLAPSO DO RETO ASPECTOS CLNICOS E CIRRGICOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O prolapso retal um transtorno da esttica do reto e se manifesta pela invaginao oculta ou visvel, quando h sada de segmento varivel do reto pelo nus. Trata-se de uma anomalia relativamente incomum, incapacitante e de etiologia pouco conhecida, para que concorre uma multiplicidade de fatores de diferentes patogenias. mais freqente na mulher idosa, com pico acima

254

Extrao de amnio de filtros de amostragem, coleta e determinao pelo mtodo da gota suspensa  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A amostragem de amnia no ar feita usualmente com filtro impregnado com cido. O cido ascrbico, quando usado como impregnante, facilmente oxidado em meio bsico e aquoso, gerando uma soluo fortemente colorida que inviabiliza a determinao por colorimetria. Este trabalho apresenta um novo procedimento para extrao do on amnio dos filtros de amostragem, transferindo o on amnio

Alexandre FRANCO; Arnaldo Alves CARDOSO; Andrew G. ALLEN

2000-01-01

255

Programa de tratamento assertivo na comunidade (PACT) e gerenciamento de casos (case management): reviso de 20 anos da literatura Program for Assertive Community Treatment (PACT) and Case Management: review of 20 years of literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

r esumo o bjetivo: Realizar uma reviso de estudos sobre programa de tratamento assertivo na comunidade (PACT) e case management para verificar se os resultados demonstram des - fechos mais favorveis quando tais modelos so implementados na rede comunitria de assistncia para portadores de doena mental grave e persistente. mtodos: A coleta de artigos - publicados entre 1985 e 2005

Louise de Frana Machado; Catarina Magalhes Dahl; Maria Ceclia de; Arajo Carvalho; Maria Tavares Cavalcanti

256

Comportamento da dose glandular versus contraste do objeto em mamografia: determinao de formalismo semi-emprico para diferentes combinaes alvo-filtro  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJETIVO: Verificar o efeito da mudana no contraste do objeto, tempo de exposio e dose de radiao quando diferentes espessuras de filtrao de molibdnio (Mo) e rdio (Rh) so empregadas em mamgrafos. MATERIAIS E MTODOS: Realizaram-se medidas da exposio na entrada da pele com uma cmara de ionizao para diferentes espessuras para os filtros de Mo e Rh. Para determinar

Gabriela Hoff; Carlos Eduardo de Almeida; Gary T. Barnes

2006-01-01

257

Computacao Algebrica no Calculo das Variacoes: Determinacao de Simetrias e Leis de Conservacao  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo. Os problemas de optimizacao dinamica (em espacos de funcoes) trata- dos pelo calculo das variacoes, sao normalmente resolvidos por recursoas condicoes necessarias de Euler-Lagrange, que sao equacoes diferenciais de segunda ordem (ou de ordem superior, quando os problemas variacionais envolvem derivadas de ordem superior a um). Estas equacoes sao, em geral, nao lineares e de difcil resolucao. Uma forma

Paulo D. F. Gouveia; Delfim F. M. Torres

2004-01-01

258

Doao de rgos e tecidos no Brasil: podemos evoluir? Organ and tissues donation in Brazil: can we evolve? Donacin de rganos y de tejidos en el Brasil: podemos desarrollarnos?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ReSumO: Desde 1997, quando da aprovao da chamada Lei dos transplantes, at os dias de hoje, tivemos vrias oportunidades de esclarecimentos populao acerca da doao de rgos e tecidos no Brasil. Adicionalmente, tambm tivemos um importante avano nessa rea, possibilitando aos profis- sionais mudanas e melhorias em suas prticas assistenciais. Mas ainda buscamos no somente entender o significado da

Bartira De Aguiar Roza; Ben-Hur Ferraz Neto; Tadeu Thom; Janine Schirmer

259

NOTIFICAES TCNICAS E FITOSSANITRIAS OMC: QUAL O IMPACTO NAS EXPORTAES AGRCOLAS DO BRASIL?  

Microsoft Academic Search

notria a crescente importncia das medidas tcnicas, sanitrias e fitossanitrias s exportaes brasileiras de produtos agrcolas, tais como: certificao de origem, avaliao de conformidade, normas e procedimentos tcnicos, etc. Essas medidas tm sido formalizadas em notificaes aos acordos TBT e SPS da OMC, vigentes desde 1995. Cabe ressaltar, no entanto, que essas medidas podem servir como barreiras protecionistas quando

Braulio Martins Bueno; Orlando Monteiro da Silva

2008-01-01

260

AvAliAo de pulpotomiAs utilizAndo Formocresol, Hidrxido de clcio e AgregAdo trixido minerAl (mtA) em molAres decduos Eval Uati On Of PUlPOt Omy in PRimaRy m OlaRS USing fORmOCRESOl, CalCiUm Hyd ROxid E and minERal tRiO xidE aggREgatE (mta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

resumo Introduo: A tcnica de pulpotomia envolve a amputao da poro coronria da polpa dentria infectada, preservando-se a vitalidade e funo do remanescente pulpar radicular. Quando corretamente indicada, mantm o dente decduo at a sua poca natural de esfoliao, preservando suas funes. Mtodos: Este estudo avalia atravs de observaes clnicas e radiogrficas, a resposta pulpar de dentes decduos humanos submetidos

Ana Beatriz; Silveira Moretti; Vivien Thiemy Sakai; Thais Marchini Oliveira; Marina Lourdes; Calvo Fracasso; Adriano Hoshi; Maria Aparecida; Moreira Machado; Ruy Cesar; Camargo Abdo

261

CARACTERIZAO MORFOLGICA DAS UNIDADES DE DISPERSO DE CINCO ESPCIES INVASORAS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 RESUMO - A identificao das unidades de disperso da maior importncia nos trabalhos de um laboratrio de anlise de sementes. Muitas plantas invasoras causam grandes prejuzos s culturas econmicas, principalmente, quando se condidera a produo de sementes. As caractersticas morfolgicas das unidades de disperso no variam muito com as condies ambientais e podem ser usadas na identificao taxonmica

DORIS GROTH

1999-01-01

262

Na Cauda do Cometa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. No toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constitudos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um ncleo slido, que pode ter vrios quilmetros de dimetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direo contrria ao Sol, devido aos ventos

M. R. Voelzke

2009-01-01

263

AVALIAO TERICA E EXPERIMENTAL DO COMPORTAMENTO DE VIGAS DE CONCRETO ARMADO REFORADAS POR MEIO DA PROTENSO DE CABOS EXTERNOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo As patologias apresentadas por algumas estruturas e a necessidade de aumento da capacidade de carga de outras fizeram com que diversas tcnicas fossem desenvolvidas para o reforo de vigas de concreto armado. Uma delas a incorporao e protenso de cabos externos. O grande diferencial desta tcnica quando comparada s demais o seu carter ativo, ou seja, por

Tatiana Gesteira; Martins de Almeida; Joo Bento de Hanai

264

DIREITOS FUNDAMENTAIS DA MULHER: AS PERSONAGENS DE CIRO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ciro dos Anjos Abdias and A menina do sobrado O presente trabalho apresenta um breve estudo sobre os direitos fundamentais da mulher, fazendo um retrocesso de sua posio na sociedade, desde os tempos bblicos, quando surgiu o mito de que fora responsvel pela queda do homem, iniciando-se sua discriminao. Foi feito um levantamento da situao da mulher em diversos pases,

DOS ANJOS

265

FITOSPA BASILICATA: NUOVO SERVIZIO PER LE PROBLEMATICHE FITOSANITARIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

La necessit di utilizzare un'unica piattaforma elettronica dove far confluire tutte le informazioni prodotte dall'Agenzia, dalla Regione Basilicata, Universit e Centri di Ricerca stata una necessit subito emersa quando il web diventato il principale veicolo delle informazioni prodotte. Il portale dei Servizi di Sviluppo Agricolo della Basilicata si compone di otto sezioni che quotidianamente vengono si aggiornano e

Emanuele Scalcione; Pietro Zienna; Camilla Nigro; Nicola Cardinale; Giovanni Lacertosa

266

A emergncia da categoria agricultor familiar como sujeito de direitos na trajetria do sindicalismo rural brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de reconhecimento dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos apesar de ser recente quando pensado a partir da trajetria do sindicalismo rural brasileiro demonstra ter suas primeiras razes ainda na constituio da legislao trabalhista-sindical dos anos de 1930. Visando explorar esse processo o artigo tem por objetivo analisar a emergncia dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos na

Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto

2008-01-01

267

DESENVOLVIMENTO SUSTENTVEL E SOJICULTURA EM RORAIMA: TRAJETRIAS ANTAGNICAS OU CONCILIVEIS?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quando h o entendimento de que crescimento e desenvolvimento so sinnimos, tende-se a prezar uma dimenso do desenvolvimento em detrimento das outras, o que acaba por prejudicar a populao por meio de carncias nas condies de vida e destruio do meio ambiente principalmente. O ideal do desenvolvimento sustentvel surge na tentativa de harmonizar crescimento econmico, igualdade social e preservao ambiental.

Luciana Dal Gianluppi; Paulo Dabdab Waquil

2008-01-01

268

ADAPTABILIDADE E ESTABILIDADE DE HBRIDOS DE MILHO NO NORDESTE BRASILEIRO NO ANO AGRCOLA DE 2000\\/2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

4 IPA, Av. Gen. San Martim 1371, Caixa Postal 1022, 50761-000, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a adaptabilidade e a estabilidade de quarenta e um hbridos de milho quando submetidos a vinte e quatro ambientes no Nordeste brasileiro, para fins de indicao na regio. Os ensaios foram realizados no ano agrcola de 2000\\/2001, em blocos

Hlio Wilson; Lemos de Carvalho; Milton Jos Cardoso; Maria de Lourdes da Silva Leal; Manoel Xavier dos Santos; Jos Nildo Tabosa

269

Spiritual background and its association with the medical decision of, DNR at terminal life stages.  

PubMed

In recent years personal and clinical dilemmas relating to terminally ill patient-care medical, decisions have increased significantly. Although understanding the patient's medical, nursing and, social background is important, a comprehensive appraisal essential for treating the "whole patient" is, incomplete without a spirituality assessment. Religious beliefs and practices affect medical and health, care decisions and require recognition as a dynamic in coping with suffering, loss, life, and death. Taking a spiritual background obtains information that is meaningful to the patient's life and may, influence the medical decision-making relating to health. A study was undertaken to determine, whether assessing the spiritual background influences medical decisions-making regarding the use of, DNR. The target population was 46 family-member caregivers of non-communicative patients in the Herzog, Hospital Skilled Nursing ward located in Jerusalem. The spiritual assessment questionnaire was the, acronym FICA (faith, importance, community and addressing). Two-thirds of the families were opposed to a determination utilizing do not resuscitate (DNR). Multivariate, analysis of the findings found that only religious affiliation was statistically significant (p=0.003). The doctors recommend DNR in 67% of the cases while the family caregiver accepted this decision in, only 33% of the cases. The hypothesis was verified. People who are perceived as being religious or as being greatly influenced, by faith/spirituality opposed the recommendation implementing DNR. Obtaining a spiritual background assists the physician to understand the patient or family spirituality, facilitates sensitivity to value frameworks and preferences in making medical and health-related, decisions. PMID:24029615

Jaul, Efraim; Zabari, Yonit; Brodsky, Jenny

2014-01-01

270

Trasformazioni e patologie del paesaggio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Anche il paesaggio, come vedremo, si evolve. Ma parlare oggi di evoluzione assai problematico e quindi non si pu fare a\\u000a meno di un inquadramento pi generale del fenomeno. Quando oggi si parla di evoluzione si presenta sovente un quadro che,\\u000a purtroppo, non ha sempre i caratteri della scienza e un dibattito che, di conseguenza, trascina polemiche anche fra

Vittorio Ingegnoli

271

Lo sviluppo dell'occhio  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Alle mamme si perdona tutto, anche quando esibiscono il loro bambino di poche settimane nella culla ed estasiate gorgheggiano:\\u000a Guarda come sorride, mi ha riconosciuta!. In realt, un bambino di qualche settimana non in grado di riconoscere nessuno,\\u000a ancora troppo impegnato a districarsi in quello strano mondo nel quale piombato, fatto di luce e di buio, di

Lucio Buratto

272

Characterization of the Setting Process in Dental Polysulfide Rubbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

SYNOPSIS IN INTERLINGUACHARACTERISATION DEL PROCESSO DEL PRISA IN CAUCHUS DENTAL A POLYSULFURO.Le characteristicas del prisa de cauchus dental a polysulfuro esseva studiate per viscometria extrusional. Quando le reagente de prisa esseva addite, le fortia extrusional (F) cresceva exponentialmente con le tempore, i.e., F = Aexp(kt). Per contrasto con le situation in alginatos e cauchus a silicona, nulle prestemente identificabile tempore

Michael Braden

1966-01-01

273

Tachykinin receptors mediating airway marcomolecular secretion  

SciTech Connect

Three tachykinin receptor types, termed NK1, NK2, and NK3, can be distinguished by the relative potency of various peptides in eliciting tissue responses. Airway macromolecular secretion is stimulated by the tachykinin substance P (SP). The purposes of this study were to determine the tachykinin receptor subtype responsible for this stimulation, and to examine the possible involvement of other neurotransmitters in mediating this effect. Ferret tracheal explants maintained in organ culture were labeled with {sup 3}H-glucosamine, a precursor of high molecular weight glycoconjugates (HMWG) which are released by airway secretory cells. Secretion of labeled HMWG then was determined in the absence and presence of the tachykinins SP, neurokinin A (NKA), neurokinin B (NKB), physalaemin (PHY), and eledoisin (ELE). To evaluate the possible contribution of other mediators, tachykinin stimulation was examined in the presence of several receptor blockers.

Gentry, S.E. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

1991-01-01

274

Residential water demand model under block rate pricing: A case study of Beijing, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cities, the inconsistency between water supply and water demand has become a critical problem because of deteriorating water shortage and increasing water demand. Uniform price of residential water cannot promote the efficient water allocation. In China, block water price will be put into practice in the future, but the outcome of such regulation measure is unpredictable without theory support. In this paper, the residential water is classified by the volume of water usage based on economic rules and block water is considered as different kinds of goods. A model based on extended linear expenditure system (ELES) is constructed to simulate the relationship between block water price and water demand, which provide theoretical support for the decision-makers. Finally, the proposed model is used to simulate residential water demand under block rate pricing in Beijing.

Chen, H.; Yang, Z. F.

2009-05-01

275

Soaking RNAi in Bombyx mori BmN4-SID1 Cells Arrests Cell Cycle Progression  

PubMed Central

RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism for sequence-specific gene silencing. Previously, the BmN4-SID1 cell expressing Caenorhabditis ele gans SID-1 was established, in which soaking RNAi could induce effective gene silencing. To establish its utility, 6 cell cycle progression related cDNAs, CDK1, MYC, MYB, RNRS, CDT1, and GEMININ, were isolated from the silkworm, Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), and their expressions were further silenced by soaking RNAi in the BmN4-SID1 cells. The cell cycle progression analysis using flow cytometer demonstrated that the small amount of double stranded RNA was enough to arrest cell cycle progression at the specific cell phases. These data suggest that RNAi in the BmN4-SID1 cells can be used as a powerful tool for loss-of-function analysis of B. mori genes.

Mon, Hiroaki; Li, Zhiqing; Kobayashi, Isao; Tomita, Shuichiro; Lee, JaeMan; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tamura, Toshiki; Kusakabe, Takahiro

2013-01-01

276

The geochemistry of deepwater particulate matter over the hydrothermal field at 9d50' N (the East Pacific Rise)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of geochemical studies of particulate matter in the water mass over the hydrothermal field at 950' N on the East Pacific Rise are presented. The particulate matter was tested in background waters, in the buoyant plume, and in the near-bottom waters. The contents of Si, Al, P, Corg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ag, and Hg were determined. No definite correlations were found between the ele-ments in the background waters. Many of the chemical elements correlated with Fe and associated with its oxyhydroxides in the buoyant plume. In the near-bottom waters, microelements are associated with Fe, Zn, and Cu (probably, to their sulfides formed under fluid mixing with seawater). The matter precipitated in a sed-imentation trap was similar to the near-bottom particulate matter in the elemental composition.

Lukashin, V. N.; Demina, L. L.; Gordeev, V. V.; Gordeev, V. Yu.

2012-04-01

277

Wireless and inductively powered implant for measuring electrocardiogram.  

PubMed

The development of an active implantable device for measuring electrocardiogram (ECG) is presented. The study is a part of a project which aims at developing implantable ECG instrumentation with wireless data and power transfer ( http://www.ele.tut.fi/tule ). The developed implant presented here has all the measurement electronics as well as power and data communication instrumentation included. The implant itself contains no battery, while power for the implant is transferred electromagnetically from an external reader device. The results of testing the implant attached on the body surface and in vitro in a water container are also presented. The developed system was also successfully tested in in vivo measurements, which were conducted on four cows with an implantation time of 24 h. The in vivo testing of implant in cows was conducted by a veterinarian in supervised conditions under approved animal experiment licence. PMID:17929070

Riistama, Jarno; Visnen, Juho; Heinisuo, Sami; Harjunp, Hanna; Arra, Satu; Kokko, Kati; Mntyl, Maunu; Kaihilahti, Jutta; Heino, Pekka; Kellomki, Minna; Vainio, Outi; Vanhala, Jukka; Lekkala, Jukka; Hyttinen, Jari

2007-12-01

278

Movement patterns of Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus during breeding and post-breeding periods at Qinghai Lake, China  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreak at Qinghai Lake, China, in 2005 caused the death of over 6,000 migratory birds, half of which were Bar-headed Geese Anser indicus. Understanding the movements of this species may inform monitoring of outbreak risks for HPAI viruses; thus, we investigated the movement patterns of 29 Bar-headed Geese at Qinghai Lake, China during 2007 and 2008 by using high resolution GPS satellite telemetry. We described the movements and distribution of marked Bar-headed Geese during the pre-nesting, nesting, and moulting periods. Of 21 Bar-headed Geese with complete transmission records, 3 moved to other areas during the nesting period: 2 to Jianghe wetland (50 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) and 1 to Cuolongka Lake (220 km northwest of Qinghai Lake) during the nesting period. We identified nesting attempts of 7 of the marked geese at Qinghai Lake. Four completed successful nesting attempts according to our rules of judgment for the breeding status, and 2 geese lost broods soon after hatching (hereafter referred to as unsuccessful breeders). Of 18 geese present at Qinghai Lake during the nesting period, 9 (6 non-breeders, 2 successful breeders and 1 unsuccessful breeder) remained at Qinghai Lake during the moulting period; and 9 (5 non-breeders, 4 unsuccessful breeders) left Qinghai Lake for moulting. Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake, Alake Lake, Zhaling-Eling Lake area and Huangheyuan wetland area were used as moulting sites. Geese that moulted at Qinghai Lake, Cuolongka Lake, Kuhai Lake, Donggeicuona Lake and Alake Lake also moved to Zhaling-Eling Lake area or Huangheyuan wetland area and stayed there for several days prior to autumn migration. Mean home range and core area estimates did not differ significantly by sex, year and between breeders and non-breeders.

Cui, Peng; Hou, Yuansheng; Tang, Mingjie; Zhang, Haiting; Zuohua, Yuanchun; Yin, Zuohua; Li, Tianxian; Guo, Shan; Xing, Zhi; He, Yubang; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.; Takekawa, John Y.; Yan, Baoping; Lei, Fumin

2011-01-01

279

An entangled-light-emitting diode.  

PubMed

An optical quantum computer, powerful enough to solve problems so far intractable using conventional digital logic, requires a large number of entangled photons. At present, entangled-light sources are optically driven with lasers, which are impractical for quantum computing owing to the bulk and complexity of the optics required for large-scale applications. Parametric down-conversion is the most widely used source of entangled light, and has been used to implement non-destructive quantum logic gates. However, these sources are Poissonian and probabilistically emit zero or multiple entangled photon pairs in most cycles, fundamentally limiting the success probability of quantum computational operations. These complications can be overcome by using an electrically driven on-demand source of entangled photon pairs, but so far such a source has not been produced. Here we report the realization of an electrically driven source of entangled photon pairs, consisting of a quantum dot embedded in a semiconductor light-emitting diode (LED) structure. We show that the device emits entangled photon pairs under d.c. and a.c. injection, the latter achieving an entanglement fidelity of up to 0.82. Entangled light with such high fidelity is sufficient for application in quantum relays, in core components of quantum computing such as teleportation, and in entanglement swapping. The a.c. operation of the entangled-light-emitting diode (ELED) indicates its potential function as an on-demand source without the need for a complicated laser driving system; consequently, the ELED is at present the best source on which to base future scalable quantum information applications. PMID:20520709

Salter, C L; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Nicoll, C A; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J

2010-06-01

280

A comparison of collisions of saltating grains with loose and consolidated silt surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A particle tracking velocimetry system was used to study the trajectories of saltating sand particles as they impacted either consolidated (solid) or unconsolidated (loose) silt surfaces in a wind tunnel. The tunnel friction velocity varied between 0.26 and 0.3 m s-1. The average coefficient of restitution, defined as the ratio of postcollision velocity to precollision velocity, was found to be $\\epsilon$ = 0.64 for the loose bed and $\\epsilon$ = 0.79 for the solid bed, respectively. The average ratio of energy loss to impact energy was found to be EL/E0 = 0.58 for the loose bed and EL/E0 = 0.37 for the solid bed, respectively. These indices demonstrate that the loose bed absorbs more momentum and energy from the impacting sand particle. The average ejection angle was lower at 18 for the loose bed than 23 for the solid bed. In the loose surface, crater formations were observed to form with each impact. Surface profile measurements suggest an average crater volume of >0.1 mm3. For both beds, the coefficient of restitution decreases with the particle impact speed. In the case of the solid bed, the dependence on impact speed is in good agreement with a model of two colliding spheres with identical material properties. With regard to the loose bed, a model of the impacting particle motion as it plows through and plastically deforms the bed material is tested. If the ratio of the horizontal to vertical forces on the particle as it plows through the bed is taken as a linear function of impact speed, the model is in good agreement with measured data. This suggests that compaction of the surface may occur along with the plowing and displacement of loose bed material.

Gordon, Mark; McKenna Neuman, Cheryl

2009-11-01

281

Anomalous diffusion for bed load transport with a physically-based model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion of bed load particles shows both normal and anomalous behavior for different spatial-temporal scales. Understanding and quantifying these different types of diffusion is important not only for the development of theoretical models of particle transport but also for practical purposes, e.g., river management. Here we extend a recently proposed physically-based model of particle transport by Fan et al. [2013] to further develop an Episodic Langevin equation (ELE) for individual particle motion which reproduces the episodic movement (start and stop) of sediment particles. Using the proposed ELE we simulate particle movements for a large number of uniform size particles, incorporating different probability distribution functions (PDFs) of particle waiting time. For exponential PDFs of waiting times, particles reveal ballistic motion in short time scales and turn to normal diffusion at long time scales. The PDF of simulated particle travel distances also shows a change in its shape from exponential to Gamma to Gaussian with a change in timescale implying different diffusion scaling regimes. For power-law PDF (with power - ?) of waiting times, the asymptotic behavior of particles at long time scales reveals both super-diffusion and sub-diffusion, however, only very heavy tailed waiting times (i.e. 1.0 < ? < 1.5) could result in sub-diffusion. We suggest that the contrast between our results and previous studies (for e.g., studies based on fractional advection-diffusion models of thin/heavy tailed particle hops and waiting times) results could be due the assumption in those studies that the hops are achieved instantaneously, but in reality, particles achieve their hops within finite times (as we simulate here) instead of instantaneously, even if the hop times are much shorter than waiting times. In summary, this study stresses on the need to rethink the alternative models to the previous models, such as, fractional advection-diffusion equations, for studying the anomalous diffusion of bed load particles. The implications of these results for modeling sediment transport are discussed.

Fan, N.; Singh, A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Wu, B.

2013-12-01

282

Subsurface Geometry of the Sani-Chelungpu Faults and Fold Scarp Formation in the 1999 Chi-Chi Taiwan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A set of detailed cross sections reveal three-dimensional ramp-flat geometry of the Sani and Chelungpu faults in central Taiwan, where the Chi-Chi earthquake occurred. Along the Choshui River, the Chelungpu fault dips toward the east at 30o-40 o and detached at a depth of 10 km. Along with decreasing ramp-dip to 20o-25 o, the decollement changes from 10 km northward to 6 km deep in the Chungliao section, an average 32o dip toward south in 6 km distance. The decollement lies at a roughly constant depth of 6-7 km from Chungliao northward to the WufengVKuoshing section, where it steps from 6 km to 3 km deep in the Fengyuan-Tamaopu section (average 8 o dip toward south). About 10 km north of Fengyuan, drilling wells show that the Chelungpu fault lies less than 1 km along the Taan River (average 10 o dip). South of Wufeng, the Chelungpu-Sani fault emplaced the Pliocene Chinshu Shale ontop the Pleistocene Toukoushan Formation; whereas in the north, the Sani thrust imbrcates from the Chelungpu fault and cuts down-section northward. North from the Taan River, the late Quaternary Tungshih anticline in the hanging-wall of the Sani thrust localizes the surface ruptures and grows during the Chi-Chi earthquake. Fold scarps of the Chi-Chi earthquake appear in the Ailiao village (east of Tsaotun), Hsintse folded terrace, and western limb of the Tungshih antcilne. They are developed associated with coseismic fault-bend folding. Applying a schematic relationship between fault slip, folding vector and height, width and dip of fold scarp as well as terrace dating and geodetic data to the Shuichin (ele. 600m) and Dana (ele. 500m) terraces in the Hsintse area, a geologic slip rate of 5 mm/yr, or a minimum of 38 Chi-Chi equivalent earthquakes is needed to form the 100m-high fold scarp. Results of comparing coseismic and finite excess area in the Tungshih anticline show that Quaternary structures in the north of the Taan River are relatively younger than terraces in the Hsintse area.

Hung, J.; Suppe, J.

2002-12-01

283

Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Volume 1: Program user's guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine system design analysis tool is required to support current and future Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) propulsion and vehicle design studies. Currently available NTP engine design models are those developed during the NERVA program in the 1960's and early 1970's and are highly unique to that design or are modifications of current liquid propulsion system design models. To date, NTP engine-based liquid design models lack integrated design of key NTP engine design features in the areas of reactor, shielding, multi-propellant capability, and multi-redundant pump feed fuel systems. Additionally, since the SEI effort is in the initial development stage, a robust, verified NTP analysis design tool could be of great use to the community. This effort developed an NTP engine system design analysis program (tool), known as the Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS) program, to support ongoing and future engine system and stage design study efforts. In this effort, Science Applications International Corporation's (SAIC) NTP version of the Expanded Liquid Engine Simulation (ELES) program was modified extensively to include Westinghouse Electric Corporation's near-term solid-core reactor design model. The ELES program has extensive capability to conduct preliminary system design analysis of liquid rocket systems and vehicles. The program is modular in nature and is versatile in terms of modeling state-of-the-art component and system options as discussed. The Westinghouse reactor design model, which was integrated in the NESS program, is based on the near-term solid-core ENABLER NTP reactor design concept. This program is now capable of accurately modeling (characterizing) a complete near-term solid-core NTP engine system in great detail, for a number of design options, in an efficient manner. The following discussion summarizes the overall analysis methodology, key assumptions, and capabilities associated with the NESS presents an example problem, and compares the results to related NTP engine system designs. Initial installation instructions and program disks are in Volume 2 of the NESS Program User's Guide.

Pelaccio, Dennis G.; Scheil, Christine M.; Petrosky, Lyman J.

1993-01-01

284

Resposta do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg ao "ringdown" de buraco negros  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acredita-se que quando duas estrelas de nutrons coalescem, elas, eventualmente, formam um buraco negro com massa igual a soma das massas dos objetos originais. Durante a formao do buraco negro, o espao-tempo em torno do sistema sofre perturbaes que se propagam na forma de radiao gravitacional. A forma de onda associada a radiao gravitacional, durante este estgio, aproxima-se a uma senide exponencialmente amortecida. Este tipo de sinal conhecido como "ringdown", e seu comportamento e parametrizao so muito bem conhecidos. Neste trabalho, simulamos computacionalmente sinais provenientes do "ringdown" de buracos negros, com a finalidade de testar o desempenho do detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg em observ-los, quando entrar em funcionamento. Este primeiro teste terico ajudou-nos a criar estratgias de deteco de sinais imersos no rudo instrumental. Calculamos a relao sinal-rudo como uma funo da frequncia, bem como sua integral dentro da faixa de sensibilidade do detector. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o detector Schenberg ter sensibilidade suficiente para detectar este tipo de sinal, proveniente de fontes astrofsicas localizadas dentro de um raio de ~100kpc.

Costa, C. A.; Aguiar, O. D.; Magalhes, N. S.

2003-08-01

285

Captura de satlites durante a formao de Jpiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O planeta Jupiter apresenta um grande nmero de satlites irregulares. As caractersticas das rbitas destes objetos indicam que os mesmos no teriam se formado ao redor do planeta que se encontram. As teorias existentes so de que estes objetos teriam se formado em uma regio distante do planeta e sua evoluo dinmica os teria levado a uma captura gravitacional pelo planeta. Tendo em vista que o processo de captura gravitacional sem efeitos dissipativos no produz uma captura permanente, estudamos o processo de captura durante o estgio de formao do planeta. Realizamos simulaes numricas para os casos de satlites prgrados e retrgrados que inicialmente se encontram ao redor de Jupiter com sua massa atual e ento, evoluimos a integrao voltando no tempo de modo que o planeta sofra uma reduo em sua massa (de 100% para 10% de sua massa atual) e verificamos o instante em que o satlites escapa do planeta (quando sua energia do problema de dois corpos se torna positiva). Assim, analisando o problema inverso no tempo, obtivemos em qual estgio de formao de Jupiter aquele hipottico satlite teria sido capturado. Os resultados mostram que os satlites retrgrados so capturados assim que entram na regio delimitada pela esfera de Hill do planeta, enquanto que os satlites prgrados s so capturados quando entram numa regio bem mais prxima ao planeta, uma frao da esfera de Hill.

Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.; Yokoyama, T.

2003-08-01

286

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of spacetime: The role of gravitational dissipation  

SciTech Connect

In [T. Jacobson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1260 (1995).] it was shown that the Einstein equation can be derived as a local constitutive equation for an equilibrium spacetime thermodynamics. More recently, in the attempt to extend the same approach to the case of f(R) theories of gravity, it was found that a nonequilibrium setting is indeed required in order to fully describe both this theory as well as classical general relativity (GR) [C. Eling, R. Guedens, and T. Jacobson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 121301 (2006).]. Here, elaborating on this point, we show that the dissipative character leading to nonequilibrium spacetime thermodynamics is actually related--both in GR as well as in f(R) gravity--to nonlocal heat fluxes associated with the purely gravitational/internal degrees of freedom of the theory. In particular, in the case of GR we show that the internal entropy production term is identical to the so-called tidal heating term of Hartle-Hawking. Similarly, for the case of f(R) gravity, we show that dissipative effects can be associated with the generalization of this term plus a scalar contribution whose presence is clearly justified within the scalar-tensor representation of the theory. Finally, we show that the allowed gravitational degrees of freedom can be fixed by the kinematics of the local spacetime causal structure, through the specific equivalence principle formulation. In this sense, the thermodynamical description seems to go beyond Einstein's theory as an intrinsic property of gravitation.

Chirco, G.; Liberati, S. [SISSA, Via Beirut 2, 34151 Trieste, Italy and INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy)

2010-01-15

287

QUALITY OF HEALTH EDUCATION POSTERS IN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS IN AL-KHOBAR TOWN, EASTERN PROVINCE  

PubMed Central

Background: Health Education (HE) is vital to each of the seven other central ele-ments of Public Health Care (PHC). HE must be carefully planned and implemented. A crucial part of HE is planning, production and placement of effective HE posters. Objective: Assess the quality of health education posters in Al-Khobar PHC centers. Methods: A cross-sectional study of a sample of 138 HE posters in three PHC centers in Al-Khobar was conducted. The quality of posters in relation to set criteria was measured using a data sheet and scoring system developed by the investigator. Results: The health education subjects displayed were among the common health problems in Saudi Arabia in 134 (97.1 %) of the posters.More than one-third (34.8%) had been displayed for more than one year. In 74 (53.6%) of the posters, the source of scientific information was unknown. The assessment showed that 109 (79%) posters were of optimal quality. Conclusion: The study showed that the health education posters in PHC centers in Al-Khobar were relatively satisfactory, though they did not fulfill some of the required criteria. Health education posters should be included in the assessment of health education programs in primary health care centers.

Al-Sowielem, Latifa S.

2001-01-01

288

Developments in HF equipment and systems mobile and portable terminals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the advent of satellite platforms, sophisticated high frequency (HF) propagation and system research promised improved capability during disturbed ionospheric propagation conditions. However, satellite relays captured the imaginations and pocketbooks of the communications community in the mid-1960s. Consequently, extant HF systems aged while satellite systems were implemented. During peacetime, satellite systems transmit quality low data rate communications and navigation aids to mobile users, but there is now renewed interest in the low cost and survivability attributes of HF radio. At this time, when old HF prime systems need replacement for logistical reasons, the need for low cost communications that can survive jamming, nuclear effects, and space warfare is not satisfied. The HF renaissance is the response to this challenge. Logistical replacement procurements that provide new capabilities are redressing the attrition of vacuum-tube radio equipment over the last decade. Procuring organizations typically compile specifications comprising state-of-the-art and new capabilities offered by competing vendors. Integrated circuits, which include microprocessors, synthesizer ele ments, and other evolving components, have led to new circuit architectures. The first of the following three sections describes: Receivers; Transceivers and Antenna Couplers; Antenna Kits; and Audio Channel Peripherals.

Wilson, Q. C.

1986-03-01

289

Parametric study of a high-average-power XeCl laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide-aperture, x-ray preionized discharge pumped XeCl laser is described. The laser head is included in a gas circulation loop. The x-ray generator is made of a secondary emission electron gun. The x-ray pulse duration is 400 ns (FWHM). The laser energy (EL) and the average power are given as a function of various parameters: charging voltage (Vc), buffer gas pressure (PL), total capacitance (CT), the interelectrode distance (d), and the repetition rate. The laser discharge is driven by a classical LC-inversion circuit. The stored energy (ES) in the capacitor bank is CTxVc2/2 and the efficiency is defined by EL/ES. Up to a repetition rate of 50 Hz, the laser energy per pulse remains almost constant, with low fluctuations. The best efficiency, for different pressures, is obtained for the same Vc/PLxd value. The optimal buffer gas pressure decreases with an increase of the total capacitance. More than 4.5 J per pulse, single shot, have been extracted from a 40 X 5.8 X 4 cm3 discharge (efficiency equals 1%). At a lower laser energy level (2.5 J), the maximum efficiency reaches 2.5%. An average output power of 175 W has been obtained. With this device, good preliminary results on Kr/F2/Ne mixture are given.

Godard, Bruno; Estocq, Emmanuel; Joulain, Franck; Murer, Pierre; Stehle, Marc X.; Bonnet, Jean C.; Pigache, Daniel R.

1991-09-01

290

Protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. on diethylnitrosamine induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in ethanol pretreated rats.  

PubMed

Diethylnitrosamine (DEN), found in many commonly consumed foods, is widely reported to induce cancer in animals and humans. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the leaf extract of the medicinal plant Cassia fistula Linn. against diethylnitrosamine induced liver injury in ethanol pretreated rats. Albino Wistar rats, pretreated with ethanol for 15 days, were administered a single dose of DEN. Thirty days after DEN administration, hepatotocellular damage was observed histologically, along with elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, ?-GT and bilirubin and a simultaneous fall in the levels of the marker enzymes in the liver tissue. Liver oxidative stress was confirmed by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decrease in enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants activities. Oral administration of the ethanolic leaf extract (ELE) of Cassia fistula for 30 days to ethanol + DEN treated rats significantly improved the above alterations in the markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress, resulting in the reversal of most of the parameters studied and were comparable to the standard hepatoprotective drug silymarin. PMID:21157638

Pradeep, Kannampalli; Raj Mohan, Chandrasekaran Victor; Gobianand, Kupannan; Karthikeyan, Sivanesan

2010-01-01

291

Modeling crop production on the soil-like substrate in CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of plants and soils in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is accompanied by mod-eling of nutrient dynamics and gas exchange to analyze data and plan the experiments. In this connection a mathematical model, based on a deterministic differential equation framework, was developed. Our simulations were validated by comparing their predictions with the results obtained during the laboratory experiments with wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown on the soil-like substrate (SLS). The components of the model were the atmospheric carbon dioxide, humus, mineral nitrogen, microbial biomass and extracellular enzymes of SLS as well as the foliage, stems, roots, grains, straw and root exudates of wheat. Impact of photoperiod, daily photosynthetic photon flux, atmospheric volume, carbon and nitrogen content of SLS, decom-position rate of SLS organic matter on the crop production was simulated. When available SLS nitrogen content was sufficient and circulating carbon mass of BLSS was constant, the increase of light intensity from the certain level provoked the decrease of plant harvest index. Decompo-sition rate of SLS organic matter could be increased under nitrogen limiting conditions owing to active synthesis of extracellular microbial enzymes. Possible applications of the modeling for the improvement of plant growing in BLSS are discussed. Keywords: wheat, soil-like substrate, modeling, nitrogen

Polonskiy, Vadim; Manukovsky, Nickolay; Kovalev, Vladimir

292

Atmospheric Input of Particulate Matter In The Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have shown that aerosols in the Arctic are of importance for atmo- spheric chemistry and climate. But up to now atmospheric input of particulate matter in the Arctic Ocean is studied insufficiently. We began aerosol research in the Arctic marine boundary layer in 1991. In this presentation we summarized data on parti- cle size and composition of aerosols and on particulate material in snow cover col- lected during 10 years (1991-2000) onboard of Russian research vessels and German icebreaker "Polarstern". Concentrations of most chemical elements are nearly of the same order as literature data from other Arctic areas. A catastrophic increase of ele- ment content due to anthropogenic factor in the summer-autumn has not been found. The balance calculations based on our and literature data show that the contribution of aerosols to formation of the sedimentary material in the Arctic is close to the con- tribution of the river sediments beyond the marginal filters of rivers. For some chem- ical elements (Pb, Sb, Se, V) the aeolian source is very important. Our studies were financially supported by the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (grants RFBR 96- 05-00043 and 98-05-64279), DFG (grant STE-412/10-2) and by German and Russian Ministries for Science and Technology in the frame of Otto Schmidt Laboratory fel- lowship and "Laptev Sea 2000" project.

Shevchenko, V. P.; Klyuvitkin, A. A.; Kriews, M.; Lisitzin, A. P.; Nothig, E.-M.; Novigatsky, A. N.; Smirnov, V. V.; Stein, R.; Vinogradova, A. A.

293

Molecular dynamics simulations of a set of isoniazid derivatives bound to InhA, the enoyl-acp reductase from M. tuberculosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ligand-receptor molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) were carried out for a set of hydrazides bound to the enoyl-acp reductase from M. tuberculosis, InhA (PDB entry code 1zid). The hypothesized active conformations resulting from a previous receptor-independent (RI) 4D-QSAR analysis and related optimum model/alignment were used in this study. The molecular dynamics simulations (MDS) protocol employed 500000 steps for each ligand-receptor complex, the step size was 0.001 ps (1 fs), and the simulation temperature was 310 K, the same temperature used in the biological assay. An output trajectory file was saved every 20 simulation steps, resulting in 25,000 conformations. The hydration shell model was used to calculate the solvation energy of the lowest-energy conformation obtained from each MDS. Structural parameters as well as binding energy contributions were considered in this analysis. The thermodynamic descriptors ELE1,4, ELtors, ELvdW, ELel, and ELel+Hb appear to be more relevant to the biological activity. These findings can be meaningful for developing QSAR studies and for designing new antituberculosis agents.

Pasqualoto, Kerly F. M.; Ferreira, Mrcia M. C.; Santos-Filho, Osvaldo A.; Hopfinger, Anton J.

294

Discos de acreso em sistemas Be-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alguns fenmenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existncia, mesmo que temporria, de um disco de acreso quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formao do disco de acreso em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+an branca, e a influncia da excentricidade orbital na ocorrncia deste fenmeno. Utilizamos a expresso analtica para o momento angular especfico da matria constituinte de um meio em expanso lenta, como o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condio bsica de que o raio de circularizao deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvn. Conclumos que existe um limite para o perodo orbital do sistema acima do qual no possvel a formao do disco de acreso, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

2003-08-01

295

Ensino de Astronomia no Ensino Mdio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho de interveno foi realizado junto a Escola Estadual Colnia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com trs turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Mdio, envolvendo 119 alunos, 40 na turma A, 40 na turma B e 39 na turma C. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionrio de vinte questes dissertativas e objetivas para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prvios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar uma interferncia nas classes envolvidas utilizando metodologias diferentes sendo elas: a tradicional, onde o professor um repassador de informaes, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda tambm de forma tradicional, porm com auxlio de multimdia para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira sob forma de seminrios, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenes necessrias. Ao final do trabalho as mesmas turmas da fase inicial orientadas pelo mesmo professor responderam novamente ao questionrio proposto para diagnosticar dentre as trs metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores resultados, sendo os iniciais comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%,turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, aps a interveno os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando claramente uma absoro de conhecimentos. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas voc acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, aps o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente.Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxlio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, foi a mais significativa.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

2008-09-01

296

Diferentes metodologias aplicadas ao ensino de astronomia no Ensino Mdio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho de interveno foi realizado junto Escola Estadual Colnia dos Pescadores na cidade de Caraguatatuba, com trs turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Mdio, envolvendo 119 alunos com idades entre 16 e 19 anos. A fase inicial foi composta de um questionrio de vinte questes dissertativas e objetivas, aplicado pelo professor titular da sala, que era o mesmo nas trs turmas, para diagnosticar nos educandos os conceitos prvios sobre Astronomia e, partindo destes realizar um trabalho de interveno nas classes envolvidas utilizando, em cada uma, metodologias diferentes: (A) sob forma de seminrios, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenes necessrias; (B) de forma tradicional, com auxlio de multimdias para desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. Ao final do trabalho os alunos responderam novamente o questionrio inicial para diagnosticar dentre as trs metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhores aplicaes, os resultados iniciais foram comparados com os finais. Quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se inicialmente que os acertos na turma A foram de 100%, turma B: 64%, turma C: 84%, aps a interveno os acertos foram: 100%, 97% e 85% respectivamente, demonstrando que houve um avano significativo na turma B, a turma A manteve seu ndice e a turma C evoluiu, porm no tanto quanto a B. Quando interrogados sobre quantos planetas voc acha que existem em nosso Sistema Solar? os acertos foram: turma A: 39%, turma B: 48% e turma C: 46%, aps o desenvolvimento do trabalho os acertos foram 94%, 97% e 90% respectivamente. Dentro das respostas obtidas observa-se que a metodologia tradicional com o auxlio de multimeios, aplicada na turma B, demonstrou melhores resultados, sendo a mais significativa. Outra concluso muito importante que apesar de o tema Astronomia ser amplamente recomendado, este no ensinado, nem no Ensino Fundamental, nem no Ensino Mdio.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

2009-03-01

297

Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z so binrias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magntico intermedirio (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes composta por apenas 6 fontes Galcticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa anlise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), at cerca de 200keV, faixa tima de operao do telescpio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos trs telescpios de raios-X bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivao para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emisso nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (tambm BXBM). Apresentam-se a anlise/reduo de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial ateno direcionada a este item devido a localizao das fontes do tipo Z e tambm ao problema de contaminao por fontes prximas. Com exceo de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de deteco dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satlite BeppoSAX. As interpretaes deste resultado sero apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, ns deduzimos que a produo de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condio satisfeita: o brilho da componente trmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~41036ergs-1.

D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

2003-08-01

298

[Multiplexing mapping of human cDNAs]. Final report, September 1, 1991--February 28, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Using PCR with automated product analysis, 329 human brain cDNA sequences have been assigned to individual human chromosomes. Primers were designed from single-pass cDNA sequences expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Primers were used in PCR reactions with DNA from somatic cell hybrid mapping panels as templates, often with multiplexing. Many ESTs mapped match sequence database records. To evaluate of these matches, the position of the primers relative to the matching region (In), the BLAST scores and the Poisson probability values of the EST/sequence record match were determined. In cases where the gene product was stringently identified by the sequence match had already been mapped, the gene locus determined by EST was consistent with the previous position which strongly supports the validity of assigning unknown genes to human chromosomes based on the EST sequence matches. In the present cases mapping the ESTs to a chromosome can also be considered to have mapped the known gene product: rolipram-sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase, chromosome 1; protein phosphatase 2A{beta}, chromosome 4; alpha-catenin, chromosome 5; the ELE1 oncogene, chromosome 10q11.2 or q2.1-q23; MXII protein, chromosome l0q24-qter; ribosomal protein L18a homologue, chromosome 14; ribosomal protein L3, chromosome 17; and moesin, Xp11-cen. There were also ESTs mapped that were closely related to non-human sequence records. These matches therefore can be considered to identify human counterparts of known gene products, or members of known gene families. Examples of these include membrane proteins, translation-associated proteins, structural proteins, and enzymes. These data then demonstrate that single pass sequence information is sufficient to design PCR primers useful for assigning cDNA sequences to human chromosomes. When the EST sequence matches previous sequence database records, the chromosome assignments of the EST can be used to make preliminary assignments of the human gene to a chromosome.

Not Available

1994-04-01

299

APIFLAME v1.0: high-resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new model for the calculation of daily, high-resolution (up to 1 km) fire emissions, developed in the framework of the APIFLAME (Analysis and Prediction of the Impact of Fires on Air quality ModEling) project. The methodology relies on the classical approach, multiplying the burned area by the fuel load consumed and the emission factors specific to the vegetation burned. Emissions can be calculated on any user-specified domain, horizontal grid, and list of trace gases and aerosols, providing input information on the burned area (location, extent), and emission factors of the targeted species are available. The applicability to high spatial resolutions and the flexibility to different input data (including vegetation classifications) and domains are the main strength of the proposed algorithm. The modification of the default values and databases proposed does not require any change in the core of the model. The code may be used for the calculation of global or regional inventories. However, it has been developed and tested more specifically for Europe and the Mediterranean area. A regional analysis of fire activity and the resulting emissions in this region is provided. The burning season extends from June to October in most regions, with generally small but frequent fires in eastern Europe, western Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, and large events in the Mediterranean area. The resulting emissions represent a significant fraction of the total yearly emissions (on average amounting to ~ 30% of anthropogenic emissions for PM2.5, ~ 20% for CO). The uncertainty regarding the daily carbon emissions is estimated at ~ 100% based on an ensemble analysis. Considering the large uncertainties regarding emission factors, the potential error on the emissions for the various pollutants is even larger. Comparisons with other widely used emission inventories show good correlations but discrepancies of a factor of 2-4 in the amplitude of the emissions, our results being generally on the higher end.

Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Anav, A.; Viovy, N.; Maignan, F.; Wooster, M.

2014-04-01

300

Identificao de variveis cataclsmicas eruptivas na direo do bojo galctico e Nuvens de Magalhes usando dados do OGLE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Na dcada de 90 iniciaram-se vrios programas para a pesquisa de matria escura na Galxia usando o efeito de microlentes gravitacionais. Entre os projetos mais bem conhecidos podemos mencionar o OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) e o MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects). A estratgia usada por eles consiste em fazer fotometria de banda larga (normalmente B, R e I) de um grande nmero de estrelas (dezenas de milhes) to freqentemente quanto poss vel e por longos per odos de tempo (anos). Uma tal sistemtica de observao, alm de descobrir inmeras lentes gravitacionais, tambm muito apropriada para a descoberta de estrelas variveis. De fato, inmeras novas variveis de vrios tipos foram descobertas como subproduto. Exemplos podem ser encontrados nos endereos http://bulge.princeton.edu/~ogle/ e http://wwwmacho.mcmaster.ca/. As variveis catacl smicas eruptivas (novas clssicas, novas recorrentes e novas ans) so objetos que apresentam variabilidade de grande amplitude com escalas de tempo de dias a centenas de dias e, por esta razo, devem ter sido detectadas em grande nmero nestes "surveys". Para testar esta possibilidade ns procuramos nos dados do OGLE por tais sistemas e o presente trabalho mostra os resultados desta pesquisa. Os objetos foram selecionados entre as variveis detectadas usando a amplitude de variao de brilho como critrio principal. Este critrio forneceu 13756 objetos, sendo 2169 na direo da Grande Nuvem de Magalhes, 1162 na direo da Pequena Nuvem de Magalhes e o restante na direo do Bojo Galctico. A anlise foi feita inspecionando-se visualmente cada curva de luz por erupes com as caractersticas acima mencionadas. Os resultados obtidos podem ser sumarizados como: descoberta de duas novas clssicas e 33 novas ans. Alm disso, pode-se mencionar a identificao de candidatas a outros tipos de variveis como: estrelas simbiticas, RV Tauri, R Coronae Borealis, Miras, etc.

Cieslinski, D.; Diaz, M. P.; Mennickent, R.; Pietrzyski, G.

2003-08-01

301

Perceived economic situation, but not education level, is associated with disability prevalence in the Spanish elderly: observational study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this paper is to ascertain if the subjective perception of the economic situation of a household is associated with the prevalence of disability in old age, net of education level. Subjective economic perception is less non-response biased. Knowing if the self-perceived economic situation is related to disability over and above education level has important implications both for understanding the mechanisms that lead to disability and for selecting policies to reduce it. Methods This is a transversal study based on the pilot of the ELES survey, which is a representative survey of non-institutionalised Spaniards aged 50 and over. Only individuals whose job income levels were fixed before becoming disabled were selected to avoid the main source of reverse causality. Disability was defined as having difficulty in carrying out any of 12 activities of daily living. Education level, difficulty in making ends meet, self-perceived relative economic position of the household, age, gender, psychological disposition, and alcohol and tobacco consumption were introduced as independent variables in binary logistic models. Results The working sample is made up of 704 individuals of aged 60 and over. The subjective household economic situation, measured in two different ways, is strongly and consistently related with the prevalence of disability net of age, gender, education level and psychological disposition. After adjusting for age and gender, education level is no longer associated with disability. However, having economic difficulties has the same effect on disability prevalence as being 10years older, or being a woman instead of a man. Conclusions As the economic situation of the elderly is much easier to improve than their formal education, our findings support feasible interventions which could lead to a reduction in the prevalence of disability.

2014-01-01

302

Diagnostic strategy of the W7-X stellarator (abstract)  

SciTech Connect

The Wendelstein 7-X experiment is a concept test for properties of reactor relevant plasmas in advanced stellarators. Prominent features include a modular superconducting coil assembly, a five-fold toroidal symmetry, and a helical magnetic axis. Due to the optimization process, W7-X is characterized by a vacuum magnetic field configuration with smooth magnetic surfaces, improved magnetic field configuration with smooth magnetic surfaces, improved equilibrium properties with a weak dependence of rotational transform and shear on the plasma pressure {beta}, good magneto-hydrodynamic stability properties due to magnetic well stabilization, reduced neoclassical transport losses and negligible bootstrap current in the long mean-free-path regime, good collisionless {alpha}-particle confinement in an equivalent reactor, and, as a technical aspect, good feasibility of the superconducting modular coils. W7-X will be heated by continuous electron cyclotron resonance heating and pulsed neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The envisaged parameters are T{sub e}{le}10 keV, T{sub i}{le}6 keV central densities {le}3{times}10{sup 20} m{sup -3} with an averaged {l_angle}{beta}{r_angle}{le}5%. Despite the complicated geometrical structure, all basic diagnostics are compatible with W7-X. Diagnostic methods and applications in a stellarator are not different from those in tokamaks. But, special efforts are being made to equip the experiment with those diagnostics necessary to measure the quantities directly related with the optimization of the machine: verification of the predicted magnetic topology and characterization of the configuration throughout the entire parameter range, identification of equilibrium and stability, and determination of confinement properties. The article describes the strategy developed which assures that the detailed measurement needs of the W7-X experimental program can be met. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Hartfuss, H.J.; Brakel, R.; Endler, M.; Geist, T.; Grigull, P.; Hofmann, J.V.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Ringler, H.; Teubel, A.; Wagner, F.; Weller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Ass., 85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Ass., 85748 Garching (Germany)

1997-01-01

303

Diagnostic strategy of the W7-X stellarator  

SciTech Connect

The Wendelstein 7-X experiment is a concept test for properties of reactor relevant plasmas in advanced stellarators. Prominent features include a modular superconducting coil assembly, a fivefold toroidal symmetry, and a helical magnetic axis. Due to the optimization process, W7-X is characterized by a vacuum magnetic field configuration with smooth magnetic surfaces, improved equilibrium properties with a weak dependence of rotational transform and shear on the plasma pressure {beta}, good magneto-hydrodynamic stability properties due to magnetic well stabilization, reduced neoclassical transport losses and negligible bootstrap current in the long mean-free-path regime, good collisionless {alpha}-particle confinement in an equivalent reactor, and, as a technical aspect, good feasibility of the superconducting modular coils. W7-X will be heated by continuous electron cyclotron resonance heating and pulsed neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron resonance heating. The envisaged parameters are {ital T{sub e}}{le}10 keV, {ital T{sub i}}{le}6 keV central densities {le}3{times}10{sup 20} m{sup {minus}3} with an averaged {l_angle}{beta}{r_angle}{le}5{percent}. Despite the complicated geometrical structure, all basic diagnostics are compatible with W7-X. Generally, diagnostic methods and applications in a stellarator are not different from those in tokamaks. However, special efforts are being made to equip the experiment with those diagnostics necessary to measure the quantities directly related with the optimization of the machine: the verification of the predicted magnetic topology and characterization of the configuration throughout the entire parameter range, the identification of equilibrium and stability, and the determination of the confinement properties. The article describes the strategy developed which assures that the detailed measurement needs of the W7-X experimental program can be met. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Hartfuss, H.J.; Brakel, R.; Endler, M.; Geist, T.; Grigull, P.; Hofmann, J.V.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Ringler, H.; Teubel, A.; Wagner, F.; Weller, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Ass., 85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Ass., 85748 Garching (Germany)

1997-02-01

304

Biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires in the Deccan Plateau, India.  

PubMed

Forest fires constitute one of the most serious environmental problems in several forested regions of India. In the Indian sub-continent, relatively few studies have focused on the assessment of biophysical and anthropogenic controls of forest fires at a landscape scale and the spatial aspects of these relationships. In this study, we used fire count data sets from satellite remote sensing data covering 78 districts over four different states of the Deccan Plateau, India, for assessing the underlying causes of fires. Spatial data for explanatory variables of fires pertaining to topography, vegetation, climate, anthropogenic and accessibility factors have been gathered corresponding with fire presence/absence. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of the presence of fires as a function of the explanatory variables. Results for fire area estimates suggested that, of the total fires covering 47,043km(2) that occurred during the year 2000 for the entire Indian region, 29.0% occurred in the Deccan Plateau, with Andhra Pradesh having 13.5%, Karnataka 14.7%, Kerala 0.1%, and Tamilnadu 1.15%. Results from the logistic regression suggest that the strongest influences on the fire occurrences were the amount of forest area, biomass densities, rural population density (PD), average precipitation of the warmest quarter, elevation (ELE) and mean annual temperature (MAT). Among these variables, biomass density (BD) and average precipitation of the warmest quarter had the highest significance, followed by others. These results on the best predictors of forest fires can be used both as a strategic planning tool to address broad scale fire risk concerns, and also as a tactical guide to help forest managers to design fire mitigation measures at the district level. PMID:17275159

Prasad, V Krishna; Badarinath, K V S; Eaturu, Anuradha

2008-01-01

305

A physics-based data assimilation model for the high-latitude space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-latitude space environment is a complex and dynamic system that exhibits weather features at all times. As shown by meteorologists and oceanographers, a powerful way of mod-eling dynamic systems is with the use of data assimilation models and, consequently, over the past decade data assimilation models have been developed for various regions of the space environment. In this presentation we will report on the development of a physics-based en-semble Kalman filter model for the high-latitude ionosphere and electrodynamics. The model is composed of a high-resolution time dependent magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model, a physics-based 3-dimensional ionosphere model, and a magnetic inversion model that calcu-lates both ground and space magnetic perturbations for a 3-dimensional current system. The data that can be assimilated by the model include magnetic perturbations from more than 100 ground-based and IRIDIUM space-based magnetometers, SuperDARN radar data, and in situ drift velocities measured by satellites. The model provides specifications and forecasts for the high-latitude convection electric fields, conductances, Joule heating rates, field-aligned and ionospheric currents, and plasma densities in the E and F regions and topside ionosphere. A unique feature of the model is its ability to capture mesoscale plasma structures and sharp boundaries. The model was used over several periods to specify the high-latitude plasma and electrodynamic environment. We will present the current status of the model and discuss the employed data assimilation technique. Recent examples obtained from this new model will be presented and comparisons with independent data will be shown.

Scherliess, Ludger; Schunk, Robert; Zhu, Lie; Eccles, Vince

306

APIFLAME v1.0: high resolution fire emission model and application to the Euro-Mediterranean region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new model for the calculation of daily, high-resolution (up to 1 km) fire emissions, developed in the framework of the APIFLAME project (Analysis and Prediction of the Impact of Fires on Air quality ModEling). The methodology relies on the classical approach, multiplying the burned area by the fuel load and the emission factors specific to the vegetation burned. Emissions can be calculated on any user-specified domain, horizontal grid, and list of trace gases and aerosols, providing input information on the burned area (location, extent) and emission factors of the targeted species are available. The strength of the proposed algorithm is its high resolution and its flexibility in terms of domain and input data (including the vegetation classification). The modification of the default values and databases proposed does not require changes in the core of the model. The code may be used for the calculation of global or regional inventories. However, it has been developed and tested more specifically for Europe and the Mediterranean area. In this region, the burning season extends from June to October in most regions, with generally small but frequent fires in Eastern Europe, Western Russia, Ukraine and Turkey, and large events in the Mediterranean area. The resulting emissions represents a significant fraction of the total yearly emissions (on average amounting to ~30% of anthropogenic emissions for PM2.5, ~20% for CO). The uncertainty on the daily carbon emissions was estimated to ~100% based on an ensemble analysis. Considering the large uncertainties on emission factors, the potential error on the emissions for the various pollutants is even larger. Comparisons to other widely used emission inventories shows good correlations but discrepancies of a factor of 2-4 on the amplitude of the emissions, our results being generally on the higher end.

Turquety, S.; Menut, L.; Bessagnet, B.; Anav, A.; Viovy, N.; Maignan, F.; Wooster, M.

2013-11-01

307

Swift heavy ions in magnetic insulators: A damage-cross-section velocity effect  

SciTech Connect

The damage in ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet, Y[sub 3]Fe[sub 5]O[sub 12] or YIG, induced by energetic heavy-ion bombardment in the electronic stopping-power regime has been studied in the low-velocity range (for a beam energy [ital E][le]3.6 MeV/amu). Epitaxial thin films of YIG on [111]-Gd[sub 3]Ga[sub 5]O[sub 12] substrates were thus irradiated at room temperature with 15-MeV [sup 19]F, 50-MeV [sup 32]S, 650-MeV [sup 181]Ta, 750-MeV [sup 208]Pb, and 666-MeV [sup 238]U. The damage-cross-section [ital A] is extracted from channeling-Rutherford-backscattering spectroscopy and compared to previous works. All the experimental results show that at one given value of [ital dE]/[ital dx], the damage cross section is higher for low-velocity ions than for high-velocity ions over a large range of [ital dE]/[ital dx]. At constant [ital dE]/[ital dx], the larger the difference between the ion velocities is, the larger the difference between the damage cross sections. Such a deviation might be explained by the effect of the energy deposition being more localized for the low-velocity ions than for the high-velocity ions. This work clearly indicates that the electronic stopping power is not the only key parameter in the creation of ion tracks, and that the damage cross section depends on the lateral distribution of the energy deposition.

Meftah, A. (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches avec les Ions Lourds, BP 5133, F-14040 Caen CEDEX (France)); Brisard, F.; Costantini, J.M. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Service PTN, BP 12, F-91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France)); Hage-Ali, M.; Stoquert, J.P. (Centre de Recherches Nucleaires, Groupe Phase, F-67037 Strasbourg CEDEX (France)); Studer, F. (Crismat enInstitut des Sciences de la Matiere et du Rayonnement, Universite de Caen, 14032 Caen CEDEX (France)); Toulemonde, M. (Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherches avec les Ions Lourds, BP 5133, F-14040 Caen CEDEX (France))

1993-07-01

308

Progress on EUV-source development, tool integration and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In EUV lithography, extreme ultraviolet radiation of 13.5 nm wavelength is used to print feature with resolutions consis-tent with the requirements of the 45 nm technology node or below. EUV is produced by heating xenon, tin, or other ele-ments to a plasma state, using either magnetic compression or laser irradiation. The key concerns-identified at the third EUV-Symposium-are the ability to supply defect-free masks and to increase source component lifetimes to meet the wafer throughput requirements for high volume manufacturing. Source availability and performance, however, made steady progress within the last years on two lines of actions: High power sources for high volume production and medium and low power sources for allowing in-house metrology and performance studies on EUV-mask-blanks, EUV-Masks, photoresists and optical elements. For "volume production sources" 50 W of collected EUV powers are already available by various suppliers. Compact discharge sources of medium power in the range of 10-100 mW / sr / 2% bandwidth and low power EUV-tubes of low-est cost of ownership and superior stability are ideal for peripheral metrology on components for EUV-Lithography. These low power sources supplement beamlines at storage rings by transferring EUV-applications to individual R&D labs. Proceeding integration of those EUV sources into tools for technology development like open frame and micro-exposers, and in tools for actinic metrology is the best proof of the progress. As of today, the first EUV sources and measurement equipment are available to be used for EUV system, mask, optics and component as well as lithography process development. With the commercial availability of EUV-plasma sources other applications using short wave-length, XUV-radiation will be feasible in a laboratory environment. Some examples of XUV applications are discussed.

Lebert, Rainer; Jagle, Bernhard; Wies, Christian; Stamm, Uwe; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Gaebel, Kai; Schriever, Guido; Pankert, Joseph; Bergmann, Klaus; Neff, Willi; Egbert, Andre

2005-06-01

309

Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park ('Place of Refuge of Honaunau') is the southernmost of the three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. It is a relatively small park originally 73 ha (182 acres), and was expanded in 2006 with the acquisition of an additional 96 ha (238 acres). The park is probably best known for the pu'uhonua (place of refuge) native Hawaiian cultural site. In addition to the pu'uhonua, the park contains palace grounds, royal fishponds, burial sites, prehistoric trails, a royal canoe landing area, stone house platforms and associated temple structures. A massive basalt rock wall (300 m long, 3 m high, and 5 m wide) separates the pu'uhonua from the areas used by Hawaiian royalty and other grounds. Honaunau Bay is a popular marine resource area adjacent to the park. The seaward-sloping lands of PUHO lie at the base of Mauna Loa volcano, which forms a bench of low-lying pahoehoe lava flows at Pu'uhonua Point. The park coastline is approximately 1.6 km long and is mostly rocky with the exception of a small artificially nourished beach at Keone'ele Cove at the northern boundary next to Honaunau Bay. The park is bounded to the south by Ki'ilae Bay and includes the coastal portions of three Hawaiian land divisions (ahupua'a): Honaunau, Keokea, and Ki'ilae. The western boundary is the high tide mark. The waters of Keone'ele Cove, the ancient royal canoe landing at PUHO, while not formally under NPS jurisdiction, are managed by the park under an agreement with the State of Hawai'i. This small embayment is a known haven for sea turtles, which are often found sunning themselves on the nearshore volcanic platform. Impacts to this area include frequent visits by scuba divers and snorkelers to Honaunau Bay and a small boat ramp located just to the north of Keone'ele Cove. There is an accompanying report that presents the results of benthic habitat mapping of the offshore waters for PUHO (Cochran and others, 2006b; linked below). They mapped from the shoreline to depths of approximately 40 m, where the shelf drops off to a sand-covered bottom. PUHO park boundaries extend only to the mean high-tide level; however, landscape impacts created by development around the park are of concern to

Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

2008-01-01

310

A estabilidade dos PAHS em funo da energia da radiao interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetria cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contm uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas molculas so consideradas os tijolos da criao de grandes molculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policclicos Aromticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, uma regio de fotodissociao molecular que propicia a formao de novas molculas, confirmada pela presena de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que a unidade bsica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta famlia de molculas orgnicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistncia para sobreviver ao campo de radiao UV interestelar e a gerao das bandas de emisso no identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistncia dos PAHs ao campo de radiao UV interestelar. Empregando a tcnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vo, no modo de coincidncia fotoeltron-fotoon, estudamos a ionizao e fragmentao das seguintes molculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hlio monocromtica em 21,21 eV (584,5 ) e a radiao Sncroton do Laboratrio Nacional de Luz Sncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ao de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nvel de fotodissociao, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relao ao on molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas molculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produo de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentao do Naftaleno [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidncias observacionais da existncia do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente tambm possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

2003-08-01

311

Laser Ablation Increases PEM/Catalyst Interfacial Area  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigational method of improving the performance of a fuel cell that contains a polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) is based on the concept of roughening the surface of the PEM, prior to deposition of a thin layer of catalyst, in order to increase the PEM/catalyst interfacial area and thereby increase the degree of utilization of the catalyst. The roughening is done by means of laser ablation under carefully controlled conditions. Next, the roughened membrane surface is coated with the thin layer of catalyst (which is typically platinum), then sandwiched between two electrode/catalyst structures to form a membrane/ele c t - rode assembly. The feasibility of the roughening technique was demonstrated in experiments in which proton-conducting membranes made of a perfluorosulfonic acid-based hydrophilic, protonconducting polymer were ablated by use of femtosecond laser pulses. It was found that when proper combinations of the pulse intensity, pulse-repetition rate, and number of repetitions was chosen, the initially flat, smooth membrane surfaces became roughened to such an extent as to be converted to networks of nodules interconnected by filaments (see Figure 1). In further experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was performed on a pristine (smooth) membrane and on two laser-roughened membranes after the membranes were coated with platinum on both sides. Some preliminary EIS data were interpreted as showing that notwithstanding the potential for laser-induced damage, the bulk conductivities of the membranes were not diminished in the roughening process. Other preliminary EIS data (see Figure 2) were interpreted as signifying that the surface areas of the laser-roughened membranes were significantly greater than those of the smooth membrane. Moreover, elemental analyses showed that the sulfur-containing molecular groups necessary for proton conduction remained intact, even near the laser-roughened surfaces. These preliminary results can be taken as indications that laser-roughened PEMs should function well in fuel cells and, in particular, should exhibit current and power densities greater than those attainable by use of smooth membranes.

Whitacre, Jay; Yalisove, Steve

2009-01-01

312

Cell Mechanisms of Bone Tissue Loss Under Space Flight Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations on the space biosatellites has shown that the bone skeleton is one of the most im-portant targets of the effect space flight factors on the organism. Bone tissue cells were studied by electron microscopy in biosamples of rats' long bones flown on the board american station "SLS-2" and in experiments with modelling of microgravity ("tail suspension" method) with using autoradiography. The analysis of data permits to suppose that the processes of remod-eling in bone tissue at microgravity include the following succession of cell-to-cell interactions. Osteocytes as mechanosensory cells are first who respond to a changing "mechanical field". The next stage is intensification of osteolytic processes in osteocytes, leading to a volume en-largement of the osteocytic lacunae and removal of the "excess bone". Then mechanical signals have been transmitted through a system of canals and processes of the osteocytic syncitium to certain superficial bone zones and are perceived by osteoblasts and bone-lining cells (superficial osteocytes), as well as by the bone-marrow stromal cells. The sensitivity of stromal cells, pre-osteoblasts and osteoblasts, under microgravity was shown in a number of works. As a response to microgravity, the system of stromal cells -preosteoblasts -osteoblasts displays retardation of proliferation, differentiation and specific functions of osteogenetic cells. This is supported by the 3H-thymidine studies of the dynamics of differentiation of osteogenetic cells in remodeling zones. But unloading is not adequate and in part of the osteocytes are apoptotic changes as shown by our electron microscopic investigations. An osteocytic apoptosis can play the role in attraction the osteoclasts and in regulation of bone remodeling. The apoptotic bodies with a liquid flow through a system of canals are transferred to the bone surface, where they fulfil the role of haemoattractants for monocytes come here and form osteoclasts. The osteoclasts destroy bone tissue. The macrophages are incorporated into resorption lacunaes and utilize the organic matrix and cellular detritus. The products are secreted to remodeling zones and act as haemoattractants for recruiting and subsequent differentiation here of the osteogenic precursor cells. However, as shown by our results with 3H-glycine, in absence of mechanical stimulus the activization of osteoblastogenesis either doesn't occur, or takes place on a smaller scale. According to our electron-microscopic data a load deficit leads to an adaptive differentiation of fibroblasts and adipocytes in this remodeling zones. This sequence of events is considered as a mechanism of bone tissue loss which underlies the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis under space flight condition.

Rodionova, Natalia

313

Photodissociation of ketene: CH{sub 2}CO {yields} CH{sub 2}(a{sup 1}A{sub 1}) + CO(v=1) rates and dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The rotational energy release in the dissociation of ketene (CH{sub 2}CO) along its singlet potential energy surface is observed and compared with several statistical and dynamical theories. Rotational distributions for the product, CO(X{sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1), are measured from the threshold for production of CH{sub 2}(a {sup 1}A{sub 1}) (0,0,0) + CO(X{sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1) to 1720 cm{sup -1} above. Near threshold (E{le} 200 cm{sup -1} over threshold), phase space theory (PST) matches the observed distributions. At 357 and 490 cm{sup -1}, PST constrained by the measured state distributions of the methylene fragment, provides a good fit to these CO(v=1) rotational distributions. For E > 490 cm{sup -1}, the constrained PST matches the average rotational energy observed but predicts distributions which are broader than observed. This contrasts to the rotational distributions of the {sup 1}CH{sub 2} fragment which become shifted to lower rotational states than PST as energy increases from 200 cm{sup -1} above threshold. Dynamical models, the impulsive model and Franck-Condon mapping, do not account for the product rotational state distributions. The CO(v=1) rotational distributions for E > 200 cm{sup -1} contain no measurable product from triplet channel fragmentation. Therefore, they can be compared with the previously determined CO(v=0) rotational distributions in order to partition the CO(v=0) yield between singlet and triplet channels and recalculate the singlet yield. This new yield is found to be at the upper limits of the range previously reported. Rate constants and quantum yields have been determined for the photodissociation of ketene to produce CH{sub 2}(a {sup 1}A{sub 1}) (0,0,0) + CO(X {sup 1}{Sigma}+)(v=1). At 57, 110, 200, 357, and 490 cm{sup -1} above this product threshold, vibrational branching ratios for the singlet products were measured and compared to phase space theory (PST), separate statistical ensembles (SSE), and variational RRKM (var. RRKM).

Wade, E.A.

1996-12-01

314

Incorporando a variabilidade no processo de identifica??o do modelo de m?ximo global no Grade of Membership (GoM): considera??es metodol?gicas  

PubMed Central

A disponibilidade de bases de dados cada vez mais complexas e multidimensionais um dos principais motivadores para o aumento do nmero de estudos que utilizam anlises multivariadas baseadas em lgica de conjuntos nebulosos. Apesar da disseminao do mtodo Grade of Membership nos trabalhos empricos brasileiros da rea de cincias sociais e sade, questes relativas identificabilidade e estabilidade dos parmetros finais estimados pelo programa GoM 3.4 no foram suficientemente aprofundadas. Dada a relevncia de se obterem parmetros nicos e estveis, Guedes et al. (2010) propuseram um procedimento emprico para localizar um modelo de mximo global (MG) com parmetros estveis. Entretanto, seu localizador de MG no incorpora qualquer medida de variabilidade. Neste artigo, tal limitao contornada por meio da utilizao de uma estatstica de ponderao Mximo Global Ponderado (MGP) semelhante ao coeficiente de variao. Esse indicador busca no penalizar de forma desproporcional situaes nas quais os desvios mdios, apesar de diferentes de zero, so muito pequenos. Apresentam-se evidncias de que o localizador MGP reduz a distncia do modelo identificado real estrutura latente dos dados em anlise, quando comparados ao modelo identificado pelo localizador no ponderado, MG.

Guedes, Gilvan Ramalho; Siviero, Pamila Cristina Lima; Caetano, Andre Junqueira; Machado, Carla Jorge; Brondizio, Eduardo

2012-01-01

315

Ambiente e formao estelar em galxias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estudamos o ambiente de galxias com formao estelar inicialmente a partir de uma amostra limitada em volume proveniente do 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. Discriminamos as galxias com formao estelar com base em distintas classes espectrais, utilizando para esta classificao as larguras equivalentes das linhas [OII]l3727 e Hd. O ambiente caracterizado pela densidade espacial local de galxias. Mostramos que a frao de galxias com formao estelar bastante reduzida em ambientes densos, enquanto a de galxias passivas aumenta nestas regies. Por outro lado, quando analisamos a frao de galxias que apresentam um surto recente de formao estelar, notamos que ela independe do ambiente, sendo que em regies mais densas alguns destes objetos apresentam distores em sua morfologia. Estes resultados so confrontados com a anlise da dependncia ambiental da taxa de formao estelar, estimada pela emisso em Ha, de uma amostra extrada do Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Um declnio gradual da formao estelar tambm observado nesta anlise, sugerindo que as interaes por efeitos de mar sejam responsveis pela reduo da formao estelar em ambientes densos atravs da remoo do reservatrio de gs das galxias. No entanto, estas interaes tambm podem induzir surtos de formao estelar nas galxias, alm de peculiaridades morfolgicas observadas nos objetos que habitam regies mais densas.

Mateus, A., Jr.; Sodr, L., Jr.

2003-08-01

316

Estudo de no gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A investigao do campo de flutuaes da Radiao Csmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmolgicos que descrevem a origem e a evoluo das flutuaes primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionrio que prev um espectro de flutuaes adiabticas distribudas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topolgicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a gerao de flutuaes de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuio no gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traos do modelo no gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuaes adiabticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulaes das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traos marcantes na distribuio das flutuaes de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuies do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferncia de potncia de flutuaes em escalas angulares intermedirias para flutuaes em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relao entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acsticos no espectro de potncia da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuio do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observaes recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previses do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observaes em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuaes primordiais.

Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.

2003-08-01

317

On efeito do achatamento nos pontos de equilbrio e na dinmica de sistemas coorbitais  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste trabalho analisamos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nos pontos de equilbrio lagrangianos e na configurao de rbitas girino-ferradura. Enfatizamos os sistemas coorbitais de satlites de Saturno, pois se encontram em relativa proximidade com o planeta, em que o efeito do achatamento se torna mais evidente. O estudo dividido em trs etapas independentes. Na primeira fase analisamos as equaes de movimento do problema restrito de trs corpos considerando o efeito do achatamento, e atravs do balanceamento de foras buscamos a nova configurao dos pontos de equilbrio lagrangianos. Conclumos, nesta etapa, que os pontos de equilbrio estveis apresentam um pequeno deslocamento definido pelo parmetro de achatamento, no podendo ser mais representados por tringulos eqilteros. Aplicamos este resultado aos satlites coorbitais de Tetis e Dione, encontrando as posies de equilbrio levemente deslocadas em relao ao caso sem achatamento. Na segunda fase visamos o sistema Saturno-Jano-Epimeteu, que por se tratar de um sistema de massas comparveis, optamos por desenvolver as equaes de Yoder et al (Icarus 53, pg 431-443, 1983), que permitem determinar os pontos de equilbrio e a amplitude de oscilao angular das rbitas girino-ferradura para o problema no-restrito de trs corpos, porm, no nosso estudo consideramos o efeito do achatamento do corpo principal nestas equaes. Encontramos que a distncia angular entre satlites, quando em posio de equilbrio estvel, diminui quanto maior for o parmetro de achatamento do corpo principal. Alm disso, a rbita de transio girino-ferradura possui largura angular menor em relao ao caso sem achatamento. Por fim, realizamos integraes numricas para os casos reais de coorbitais de Saturno comparando com os resultados analticos. Nestas integraes simulamos diversas rbitas girino-ferradura com diferentes parmetros de achatamento, utilizando condies iniciais corrigidas para a presena do achatamento.

Mouro, D. C.; Winter, O. C.; Yokoyama, T.

2003-08-01

318

Determinao de regies de rbitas diretas estveis ao redor da Lua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regies do sistema Terra-Lua que contm rbitas diretas estveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilizao destas rbitas em futuras misses de veculos espaciais como alternativas de trajetrias com baixo custo de manuteno. Adotando-se o problema restrito de trs corpos, Terra-Lua-partcula, a localizao e a extenso destas regies de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estvel toda rbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mnimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partcula em relao Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regies est associada a duas famlias de rbitas peridicas simples H1 e H2 e a rbitas quase-peridicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regies de estabilidade passamos a analis-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interaes relevantes ao sistema como as perturbaes do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das mars, da presso de radiao e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados at o momento mostram que a perturbao do Sol a nica que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regies de estabilidade. Tambm estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regies quando caractersticas intrnsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das rbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinao da rbita Lua so consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informaes que nos permitiro compreender a evoluo das regies de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parmetros adequados para a utilizao das trajetrias estveis em futuras misses espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

2003-08-01

319

Eventos de Desconexao na Cauda de Plasma do Cometa P/Halley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observacoes cometrias e de vento solar sao comparadas com o propsito de determinar-se as condicoes do vento solar associadas aos eventos de desconexao (DEs) observados em caudas de plasma cometrias. Os dados cometrios sao provenientes do The International Halley Watch Atlas of Large-Scale Phenomena. A anlise visual sistemtica das imagens do atlas revelou, entre outras estruturas morfolgicas, 47 DEs ao longo da cauda de plasma do P/Halley. Estes 47 DEs registrados em 47 imagens distintas permitiram a descoberta de 19 origens de DEs, ou seja, o tempo em que as desconexoes iniciaram foi calculado. Os dados do vento solar sao provenientes de medidas feitas in situ pela sonda espacial IMP-8, as quais foram usadas para elaborar a variacao da velocidade do vento solar, densidade e pressao dinmica durante o intervalo analisado. O presente trabalho compara as atuais teorias conflitantes, baseadas nos mecanismos de formacao, com o intuito de explicar o fenmeno cclico dos DEs, ou seja, os efeitos de producao inica, os efeitos de pressao e os efeitos de reconexao magntica sao analisados. Para cada uma das 19 origens de DEs comparou-se a densidade com a respectiva velocidade do vento solar com o intuito de determinar-se uma possvel correlacao entre estas origens e os efeitos de pressao dinmica. Quando da ocorrncia de 6 origens de DEs o IMP-8 nao realizou medidas, nos outros 13 casos 10 origens (77%) mostraram uma anticorrelacao entre velocidade e densidade e apenas 3 (23%) revelaram uma tendncia similar entre velocidade e densidade. Portanto, a anlise inicial demonstra uma fraca correlacao entre as origens dos DEs e os efeitos de pressao.

Voelzke, M. R.; Fahr, H. J.

2001-08-01

320

Excitao e fotoabsoro de molculas interestelares no ultra violeta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O estudo dos processos de excitao, fotoabsoro e ionizao molecular nas nuvens interestelar, permite a anlise dos processos qumicos, como a formao e destruio de molculas, at mesmo daquelas que do origem vida. Acredita-se que as molculas como CS2, NH3, CO2 e N2O esto presentes nas nuvens onde so formadas as estrelas e seus sistemas planetrios. Estas molculas so congeladas na superfcie de objetos densos, como aqueles encontrados na Nuvem de Oort do nosso Sistema Solar. Quando esses objetos (cometas) desprendem-se dessa regio, aproximam-se do Sol, sofrem a interao da radio Ultra Violeta (UV), passam fase gasosa e so bombardeados por ons e eltrons presentes nos ventos solares. Obtivemos os espectros de fotoabsoro do CS2, NH3 e N2O na faixa do UV, convertendo espectros de Perda de Energia de Eltrons, medidos no menor ngulo de espalhamento e na energia de impacto de 1000 eV. Destes espectros determinamos os valores de fora de oscilador (f) e de seo de choque absolutas na faixa de 500 a 2000 . Para tal, estudamos e comparamos dois diferentes mtodos de converso. Neste trabalho tambm geramos muitos dados moleculares como, valores absolutos de seo de choque elstica em funo do ngulo de espalhamento e a distribuio de fora do oscilador generalizada (df/dE) em funo da energia de excitao para diversos ngulos de espalhamento. Comparando nossos espectros de fotoabsoro com o espectro da atmosfera de Jpiter, obtido pelo Telescpio Espacial Hubble, logo aps o impacto do cometa Shoemaker-Levy 9, confirmamos a presena do CS2 e da amnia.

Rodrigues, A. M. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Souza, G. B.; Turci, C. C.

2003-08-01

321

Projeto do sistema anti-ressonante da fiao dos transdutores para o detector Mario Schenberg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O detector de ondas gravitacionais Mario Schenberg est sendo projetado e construdo pelo grupo Grviton. Sua construo est ocorrendo no Laboratrio de Estado Slido e Baixas Temperaturas (LESBT) da Universidade de So Paulo, na cidade de So Paulo. Esse detector possui uma massa ressonante esfrica de cobre-alumnio, com 65 cm de dimetro, pesando aproximadamente 1150 Kg, suspensa por um sistema de isolamento vibracional, que se encontra em fase de testes preliminares. A real eficcia desse sistema, entretanto, s poder ser comprovada quando o detector estiver aparelhado com, pelo menos, um transdutor eletromecnico de altssima sensibilidade acoplado massa ressonante. Neste momento, no s este sistema de isolamento vibracional ser posto em teste, como o do projeto da fiao que transporta os sinais de microondas at os transdutores e destes para a pr-amplificao. Apesar dessa fiao ter sido projetada para no apresentar nenhum contato com a superfcie esfrica da antena, de maneira a no haver nenhuma transmisso de rudo vibracional do laboratrio para esta, deve-se minimizar o rudo microfnico produzido nessa fiao por oscilaes mecnicas, uma vez que ela no utiliza nenhum sistema de isolamento vibracional. Com o intuito de resolver este problema, projetamos uma estrutura, formada por pequenos cilindros conectados por barras, a qual no ter nenhuma ressonncia mecnica na faixa de freqncias de interesse para deteco (3000 - 3400 Hz). Desta forma, as vibraes nessa faixa no sero amplificadas. O projeto foi feito usando iterativamente, de maneira a otimizar os resultados obtidos, o programa de elementos finitos Msc/Nastran. Atravs de simulaes feitas neste programa, determinamos os parmetros geomtricos ideais a serem utilizados, os quais proporcionam a maior regio espectral de interesse livre de ressonncias.

Vieira, S. J.., Jr.; Melo, J. L.

2003-08-01

322

On random walk de Lvy aplicado aos mapas de varincias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uma pergunta que surge ao nos confrontarmos com os mapas de varincias, ou s-Maps [Klafke, J. C. "Estudo da Difuso Catica em Ressonncias Asteroidais", Tese de Doutorado, IAG/USP, 2002] diz respeito ao contedo fsico de tais representaes do espao de fase. Ou seja, o que representa as varincias das aes obtidas para uma determinada condio inicial e como relacion-las com o tempo de difuso das rbitas, supondo-se que estas de fato estejam envolvidas em um processo difusivo? Para discutirmos essa questo, lanamos mo da modelagem dos processos estocsticos subjacentes s varincias determinadas e implementamos uma srie de simulaes do tipo Monte Carlo a partir das informaes registradas nos s-Maps calculados para algumas ressonncias asteroidais bem estudadas (p.ex. 3: 1, 2: 1 e 3: 2). Para tanto, temos usado uma funo de densidade de probabilidade gaussiana ao definir os n passos que permitiro estabelecer uma relao direta entre o Mapa de Difuso e o Mapa de Varincias. Contudo, os resultados obtidos at agora tem subestimado o tempo de difuso esperado para os fenmenos conhecidos. Tal se deve ao fato de que, no processo difusivo real, possvel existirem passos de comprimento consideravelmente maiores que a mdia estabelecida pelas distribuies gaussiana ou normal, sobretudo quando se cruza uma regio catica. Neste trabalho, apresentamos os resultados comparativos de simulaes de Monte Carlo com base no random walk de Lvy [Klafter, J. et al. 2002. "Beyond Brownian motion", Phys. Today, Feb, 33-39.], o qual possibilita passos espordicos de comprimento acima do valor mdio (saltos) permitindo estabelecer uma escala de tempo mais prxima da esperada para a difuso.

Klafke, J. C.

2003-08-01

323

Investigao dos perfs temporais de alta resoluo de exploses solares tipo-III decimtricas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exploses solares tipo-III indicam a presena de feixes de eltrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigao fornece informaes tanto sobre os processos de acelerao de partculas quanto das caractersticas do agente causador e do local de acelerao. Exploses tipo-III decimtricas so geradas por feixes de eltrons viajando atravs de arcos magnticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfs temporais destes fenmenos, quando tomados com alta resoluo, informam sobre os mecanismos de acelerao de partculas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da regio de acelerao. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operao no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de exploses tipo-III decimtricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resoluo temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 exploses isoladas para uma investigao estatstica detalhada de seus perfs temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqncia. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfs temporais so complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfs da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo no-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfs temporais da descida so dominados por um decaimento no-linear. Neste trabalho, ser efetuada uma anlise dos perfs temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as exploses selecionadas, em termos dos provveis mecanismos de acelerao e relaxamento. 2

Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

2003-08-01

324

Diferentes Metodologias Aplicadas ao Ensino de Astronomia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Espera-se que o educando ao final da educao bsica, adquira uma compreenso atualizada das hipteses, modelos e formas de investigao sobre a origem e evoluo do Universo em que vive. O presente trabalho tem como principal objetivo compreender dentre trs prticas pedaggicas adotadas no Ensino de Astronomia, na terceira srie do Ensino Mdio, da Escola Estadual Colnia dos Pescadores, qual melhor cumpre o papel de formao e aprendizagem para vida. A pesquisa preliminar foi atravs de um questionrio onde o intuito foi diagnosticar o conhecimento j existente acerca do tema em questo. O questionrio composto de vinte questes dissertativas e objetivas, onde os educandos das trs turmas envolvidas o responderam. Este trabalho utiliza as seguintes metodologias: a tradicional, onde o professor um repassador de informaes, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz; a segunda tambm de forma tradicional, porm com auxlio de multimdia para desenvolvimento das aulas e aterceira sob forma de seminrios, elaborados e apresentados pelos educandos, no qual o educador faz apenas as intervenes necessrias. Ao final do trabalho os alunos respondero novamente o questionrio inicial para diagnosticar dentre as trs metodologias utilizadas qual apresentou melhor resultado. Os resultados preliminares obtidos, j podem ser observados e, dos 119 alunos entrevistados, as respostas obtidas so as mais diversas e evidenciam que a grande maioria nunca teve em sua vida escolar o tema Astronomia. Ao serem questionados se j haviam estudado Astronomia as respostas foram: turma A: sim 43%; turma B: sim: 21%; turma C: sim: 24%. Porm quando questionados a respeito do significado de Astronomia observou-se que: turma A: 100% de acertos; turma B: 64% acertos; turma C: 84% de acertos, demonstrando claramente a aprendizagem em diferentes esferas, no dependendo unicamente da escola. At o presente momento, verificou-se que h interesse em estudar o tema Astronom! ia entre os educandos.

Albrecht, E.; Voelzke, M. R.

2007-08-01

325

Desenvolvimento das cmeras de raios-X duros do satlite MIRAX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O MIRAX (Monitor e Imageador de RAios-X) um projeto de desenvolvimento de um pequeno satlite astronmico de raios-X (~200 kg, ~240 W). A estratgia bsica da misso ser observar continuamente (~9 meses por ano) a regio central (~1000 graus2) do plano Galctico e realizar estudos espectroscpicos de banda larga (2-200 keV) e alta sensibilidade de um grande conjunto de fontes atravs de imagens com resoluo de ~6'. Isso proporcionar uma cobertura indita do "espao de descobertas" atravs da deteco, localizao, identificao e estudo detalhado de fenmenos imprevisveis, tais como transientes fracos de raios-X, novas rpidas de raios-X e bursts de raios gama, assim como o estudo de fontes com emisso persistente. Neste trabalho apresentamos o projeto das duas cmeras de raios-X duros (CXDs) do MIRAX, que iro operar na faixa de 10 a 200 keV. Cada CXD consistir de um plano de detectores CZT (Cd0,9Zn0,1Te) de 0,5 mm de resoluo espacial e 370 cm2 de rea total, e de uma mscara codificada com elementos quadrados de 1,3 mm de lado e 0,5 cm de espessura. A mscara ter dimenses de 315 cm 275 cm e ser montada a 700 cm de distncia dos detectores. Com essa configurao as CXDs tero 6' de resoluo angular e, quando colocadas a um ngulo de 29 entre si, as duas cmeras propiciam um campo totalmente codificado de 39 612' e um campo total de 76 44. Sero apresentadas simulaes de observaes da regio do plano Galctico com o conjunto formado pelas duas CXDs.

Braga, J.; Rothschild, R.; Staubert, R.; Heise, J.; Remillard, R.; D'Amico, F.; Jablonski, F.; Meja, J.; Carvalho, H.; Heindl, B.; Matteson, J.; Kendziorra, E.; Wilms, J.; in't Zand, J.; Kuulkers, E.

2003-08-01

326

Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general theory of relativity was developed by Einstein a century ago. Since then, it has become the standard theory of gravity, especially important to the fields of fundamental astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and experimental gravitational physics. Today, the application of general relativity is also essential for many practical purposes involving astrometry, navigation, geodesy, and time synchronization. Numerous experiments have successfully tested general relativity to a remarkable level of precision. Exploring relativistic gravity in the solar system now involves a variety of high-accuracy techniques, for example, very long baseline radio interferometry, pulsar timing, spacecraft Doppler tracking, planetary radio ranging, lunar laser ranging, the global positioning system (GPS), torsion balances and atomic clocks. Over the last few decades, various groups within the International Astronomical Union have been active in exploring the application of the general theory of relativity to the modeling and interpretation of high-accuracy astronomical observations in the solar system and beyond. A Working Group on Relativity in Celestial Mechanics and Astrometry was formed in 1994 to define and implement a relativistic theory of reference frames and time scales. This task was successfully completed with the adoption of a series of resolutions on astronomical reference systems, time scales, and Earth rotation models by the 24th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Manchester, UK, in 2000. However, these resolutions only form a framework for the practical application of relativity theory, and there have been continuing questions on the details of the proper application of relativity theory to many common astronomical problems. To ensure that these questions are properly addressed, the 26th General Assembly of the IAU, held in Prague in August 2006, established the IAU Commission 52, "Relativity in Fundamental Astronomy". The general scientific goals of the new commission are to: * clarify the geometrical and dynamical concepts of fundamental astronomy within a relativistic framework, * provide adequate mathematical and physical formulations to be used in fundamental astronomy, * deepen the understanding of relativity among astronomers and students of astronomy, and * promote research needed to accomplish these tasks. The present book is intended to make a theoretical contribution to the efforts undertaken by this commission. The first three chapters of the book review the foundations of celestial mechanics as well as those of special and general relativity. Subsequent chapters discuss the theoretical and experimental principles of applied relativity in the solar system. The book is written for graduate students and researchers working in the area of gravitational physics and its applications inmodern astronomy. Chapters 1 to 3 were written by Michael Efroimsky and Sergei Kopeikin, Chapters 4 to 8 by Sergei Kopeikin, and Chapter 9 by George Kaplan. Sergei Kopeikin also edited the overall text. It hardly needs to be said that Newtonian celestial mechanics is a very broad area. In Chapter 1, we have concentrated on derivation of the basic equations, on explanation of the perturbed two-body problem in terms of osculating and nonosculating elements, and on discussion of the gauge freedom in the six-dimensional configuration space of the orbital parameters. The gauge freedom of the configuration space has many similarities to the gauge freedom of solutions of the Einstein field equations in general theory of relativity. It makes an important element of the Newtonian theory of gravity, which is often ignored in the books on classic celestial mechanics. Special relativity is discussed in Chapter 2. While our treatment is in many aspects similar to the other books on special relativity, we have carefully emphasised the explanation of the Lorentz and Poincar transformations, and the appropriate transformation properties of geometric objects like vectors and tensors, for example, the velocity, acceleration, force, ele

Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

2011-09-01

327

A Study on the Timing Technology of Digital Satellite TV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on analyzing and summarizing the modern timing technologies, through intensive analyzing the characteristics of the current digital satellite TV signals, and without changing equipment configuration of the digital satellite TV transmitter and signal system, this thesis puts forward the method of using the digital TV signal to transmit the standard time and frequency, and carries out the relevant researches on the key technologies. Meanwhile, we make experiments on the digital satellite TV timing system, which are based on the proposed timing method. Through analyzing the test data, the timing method is proved practicable and with a high precision. The main research work is as follows: (1) Firstly, we summarize the necessary conditions and key elements required for timing by analyzing the characteristics of modern timing methods, and analyze Chinas digital satellite TV signal system; Secondly, we propose the idea that the inherent flag bit of source coding signals of TV is used to trigger event of timing and then complete this task; Thirdly, we propose the principle of transmitting the standard time and frequency through digital satellite TV signal, analyze the error sources which affect the accuracy of timing, and find the ways to reduce the error effect. (2) Synchronization clock signal is recovered from asynchronous serial interface (ASI) data to achieve bit synchronization, so that the transmitter can accurately access to the high-precision standard time code. At the same time, the TV signal transmission delay on the transmission channel is accurately measured in order to supply the necessary information for timing. Based on the analysis of the ASI data transmission characteristics and transmission standards, a method using over-sampling to recover the ASI clock signal and synchronize the digital TV signal source coding is proposed in this paper. This method is proved effective by the implementation on the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). (3) Using the model to predict the digital TV signal transmission delay can make the users receiver obtain the real-time timing information, and can resist the timing information errors caused by the delay jitter of the transmitter devices and the TV signal transmission links within a certain range, so that the users receiver can obtain more accurate timing information. In this paper, a differential measurement method of TV signal transmission delay is proposed which provides the necessary data for TV signal transmission delay mod-eling. Then, the fitting model is obtained according to the analysis of the delay variation factors. Finally, the optimal time-lengths of the observation data and forecasting data used to obtain the fitting model in theory are calculated by verifying the simulation data. (4) The insertion method of the timing information is determined, and the timinginformation signal frame format is designed based on the objective conditions of insertion devices. Such a transmission format can ensure that the users could obtain the correct timing information quickly after turning on the receiver. (5) A program of timing system through digital satellite TV is designed. The connection relations of subsystems, divided according to different functions, and the data interfaces are clearly defined. After analyzing the experimental environment of Jiangsu TV station, which is the project partner, we determine the transmission links and TV signal collection points. Through analyzing the experimental data, it is proved that the timing programis practicable, the key approaches are correct, and the timing principle is accurate.

Song, K. X.

2013-03-01

328

The Successful Implementation of NASA Orbital Debris Requirements for the Retirement of TDRS-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

TDRS-1 was decommissioned on October 28th 2009 following more than 26 years of operation. The Grand Old Dame of the TDRSS constellation wa s launched aboard the maiden voyage of the Space Shuttle Challenger ( STS-6) in April 1983. TDRS-1 survived a malfunction of the Inertial Upper Stage eventually utilizing its own propulsion system to success fully reach its assigned station in geosynchronous orbit. The anomalo us beginning of the TDRS-1 mission was not without lasting consequenc es as the primary reaction control system (A-side) was completely di sabled with an apparent propellant leak and the secondary system (B-s ide) suffered damage to its negative roll thruster rendering the thru ster inoperable. Following decommissioning the challenge to completin g a successful TDRS-1 end-of-mission (EOM) was the implementation of the stringent orbital debris requirements of NPR 8715.6 with a parti ally functioning spacecraft not originally designed to meet those req uirements. The TDRS-1 EOM had three key goals: 1) removal of the spac ecraft from geosynchronous orbit; 2) depletion of the remaining prope llant; and 3) passivation of all other sources of energy storage or generation. The TDRS-1 EOM approach was one of minimizing risks while accomplishing the goals above. The orbit raising portion of EOM was accomplished using deltavelocity operations already proven during pre vious stationchanging maneuvers. The propellant depletion approach wa s necessarily more aggressive as over 20 hours of burn time was requ ired to deplete the remaining fuel. A novel approach utilizing a spin ning, thrusting, passively controlled spacecraft configuration was ut ilized to achieve reasonable burn durations that met schedule constra ints. This nonstandard configuration required careful analysis of ele ctrical, thermal, and communication subsystems. The configuration wa s thoroughly simulated prior to the start of operations and carefully characterized during the initial spin period and first burn. Passiva tion was by definition a unique operation not previously performed wi thin the TDRS 1-7 constellation. Use was made of a TDRS spacecraft si mulator to verify the operational procedure to mitigate risks and pro vide crew training. TDRS-1 orbit raising maneuvers commenced on June 5th 2010 and completed on June 14th with an apogee 370 km and a peri gee 352 km above geosynchronous altitude. 127 kg of propellant were e stimated to be remaining in the tanks at the completion of orbit rais ing. TDRS-1 was placed in its spinning orientation on June 16th and the first fuel depletion burn was performed the following day. A seri es of 10 depletion burns were performed ending on June 26th when both propellant tank pressures experienced dramatic drops. Final passivat ion was performed on June 27 th deactivating electronics, removing t he batteries from the bus and solar arrays, and disabling the space-t o-ground communications equipment. The Second TDRS Ground Terminal (S TGT) continued to open loop track TDRS-1 for several days attempting command reacquisition several times a day. All attempts were unsucce ssful confirming passivation was achieved. The TDRS-1 orbit at passiv ation was an orbital debris compliant 36,319 x 36,128 km in height. W hile differing spacecraft designs may preclude mimicking the exact TD RS-1 EOM approach, the TDRS-1 campaign serves to demonstrate that pr e-NPR 8715.6 designs can be made to meet the requirements resulting i n a reduced orbit debris environment for future missions

Mirczak, Walter; Staich, Steve; Vaught, Lynn; Zaleski, Ronald

2010-01-01

329

Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the sampling sites were divided into three groups with each group associated with one of the three outfalls sampled: SSO, OF4, and OF5. The variations of normalized PCB congener concentrations from Woods Inlet, from outfalls along Meandering Road Creek, and from streambed sediment sampling sites along Meandering Road Creek generally form similar patterns within sample groups, which is indicative of a common source of PCBs to each group. Overall, the variations in congener ratios indicate that PCBs in surficial lake-bottom sediment of Woods Inlet probably entered Woods Inlet primarily from Meandering Road Creek, and that runoff from AFP4 is a prominent source of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek. Sixteen of the 20 box core sites in Woods Inlet had lower PCB concentrations in the 2006 cores compared to those in the 2003 cores.

Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

2008-01-01

330

Observaes das exploses csmicas de raios gama GRB021004 e GRB021211 com o satlite HETE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE) o primeiro satlite inteiramente dedicado ao estudo das exploses csmicas de raios gama (ECRGs). Lanado em 9 de outubro de 2000, o HETE possui instrumentao capaz de observar as ECRGs desde o UV at raios gama e localiz-las com preciso de ~ 1-10 minutos de arco. As localizaes das ECRGs detectadas so disseminadas rapidamente (em alguns segundos) pela Internet atravs de uma rede de estaes de recepo ao longo do equador. A participao brasileira nesse projeto se d atravs da montagem e operao de uma estao de recepo em Natal, RN, e da participao na equipe cientfica da misso. Neste trabalho so apresentados resultados da observao pelo HETE de duas ECRGs: GRB 021004 e GRB 021211. A GRB021004 foi detectada em raios gama pelo HETE em 4 de outubro de 2002 e localizada em raios-X em apenas 48 s, quando a emisso de raios gama ainda estava se processando. A exploso, relativamente brilhante e longa, durou aproximadamente 100 s. Um transiente ptico de magnitude 15 foi detectado no local da exploso nove minutos aps o evento, e observaes realizadas aps 7 horas determinaram um desvio para o vermelho de absoro de 1,6. O GRB021004 foi o burst mais bem observado at o momento e suas observaes em vrios comprimentos de onda tm sido fundamentais para o aprimoramento dos modelos de ECRGs. O GRB21211, um burst brilhante e rico em raios-X, foi detectado em 11 de dezembro de 2002 e localizado em raios-X em 22 s aps o incio do evento. A durao do burst foi de 2,3 s em altas energias (85 a 400 keV) e de 8,5 s em baixas energias (2 a 10 keV). Caso essa exploso no tivesse sido rapidamente localizada pelo HETE, ela teria sido classificada como "opticamente escura", j que o transiente ptico decaiu rapidamente de R < 14 a R19 dentro dos primeiros 20 minutos e j estava mais fraco do que R23 depois de 24 horas da ocorrncia do burst. Sero discutidas as implicaes desse resultado nos modelos de afterglows de ECRGs.

Braga, J.; Ricker, G.; Hurley, K.; Lamb, D.; Grew, G.; et al.

2003-08-01

331

On Ensino da Astronomia no Ensino Mdio sob Diferentes Abordagens Metodolgicas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O presente trabalho, sobre a interveno de metodologias de ensino, foi desenvolvido na Escola Estadual Colnia dos Pescadores, na cidade de Caraguatatuba - SP, em trs turmas do terceiro ano do Ensino Mdio, perfazendo um total de 119 educandos, entre 16 e 19 anos. Antes de iniciar-se a interveno, um questionrio de vinte perguntas objetivas e dissertativas foi desenvolvido, aplicado pelo professor da classe, que ministrou as aulas correspondentes. Este questionrio foi o mesmo em todas as trs classes com o objetivo de diagnosticar o conhecimento prvio dos alunos sobre Astronomia. Comeando a interveno nas turmas, o professor envolvido usou trs diferentes metodologias de ensino: (A) em forma de seminrios, elaborados e apresentados pelos alunos, nos quais o professor fazia apenas as intervenes necessrias, (B) na forma tradicional, com a ajuda de multimdia para o desenvolvimento das aulas e a terceira (C) a tradicional, fazendo uso exclusivo de lousa e giz. No final do trabalho os alunos responderam o mesmo questionrio novamente, de modo que os trs mtodos utilizados puderam ser comparados. Os resultados apresentados aps a interveno foram melhores que os resultados iniciais indicando a ocorrncia de uma aprendizagem significativa. Quando os estudantes foram inicialmente questionados sobre quantos planetas existem no nosso sistema solar, a classe A obteve 39% de respostas certas, a classe B 48% e a classe C 46%, mas aps o desenvolvimento das atividades, as classes obtiveram respectivamente 94%, 97 % e 90% de aproveitamento. No trmino do bimestre, foi sugerido aos educandos que elaborassem uma histria em quadrinhos, a qual serviu para averiguar se os conceitos inicialmente observados foram alterados e se novos foram agregados. A anlise das histrias foi dividida em trs partes: Criatividade; Temas abordados; Emprego correto dos conceitos estudados. Ao final quatorze histrias foram confeccionadas. O aprendizado foi to significativo que os alunos produzira m histrias em quadrinhos, com informaes muito ricas. Outro dado muito importante que, apesar da Astronomia ser um tema amplamente recomendado, no ensinado nem em escolas de ensino fundamental nem no ensino mdio.

Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Albrecht, Evonir

2011-12-01

332

Cognitive performance of neuromyelitis optica patients: comparison with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present research was to investigate cognitive pattern of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to compare it with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' performance. Methods: Fourteen NMO, 14 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 14 healthy control patients participated in the investigation. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated with the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery for MS; Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Digit Span; and Semantic Fluency. Results: Fifty-seven percent of NMO patients and 42.85% of the MS ones had abnormal performance in at least two cognitive tests. The NMO Group showed abnormal performance in verbal fluency, verbal and visual memories, with greater attention deficits. NMO patients outperformed healthy control in the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). However, no difference was found between NMO and RRMS patients. Conclusions: The NMO Group showed more dysfunction in attention and verbal fluencies than in verbal and visual memories. When compared with the MS patients, a similar dysfunction pattern was found. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o padro cognitivo de pacientes com neuromielite ptica (NMO) e compar-lo com o desempenho de pacientes com esclerose mltipla (EM). Mtodos: Quatorze pacientes com NMO, 14 com esclerose mltipla recorrente remitente (EMRR) e 14 participantes do Controle saudveis participaram da presente investigao. As funes neuropsicolgicas foram avaliadas com a Bateria Breve de Testes Neuropsicolgicos de Rao, Teste Smbolo Digit e a Fluncia Semntica. Resultados: Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes com NMO e 42,85% daqueles com EM apresentaram desempenho anormal em pelo menos dois testes cognitivos. O Grupo NMO apresentarou desempenho anormal na fluncia verbal e nas memrias visual e verbal, com maiores dficits de ateno. Pacientes com NMO superaram os controles saudveis em PASAT. No entanto, no foi encontrada diferena entre os pacientes com NMO e aqueles com EMRR. Concluses: O Grupo NMO mostrou mais disfuno nas fluncias de ateno e verbais do que nas memrias verbal e visual. Quando comparados com os pacientes com EM, um padro de disfuno semelhante foi encontrado. PMID:23828523

Vanotti, Sandra; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Eizaguirre, Barbara; Melamud, Luciana; Rey, Ral; Villa, Andrs

2013-06-01

333

On the Current Thermal State of Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The current thermal state of Mars is a fundamental unknown in Mars science. Although is has a huge influence on the planet's current geodynamic activity and controls the possibility for basal melting at the polar caps [1], constraints on this quantities are very scarce. This situation has lately been improved by the study of lithospheric deformation at the north polar cap [2] which constrained the current Martian elastic lithosphere thickness Te, an indirect measure of the temperatures in the planetary interior. Using radar sounding data obtained bySHARAD, the shallow radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, [2] found that the current Martian lithosphere is extremely stiff and Te is larger than 300 km today. This is surprising as this value is almost twice as large as previously estimated from theoretical considerations and flexure studies [3][1]. In order to be consistent with the planets thermal evolution, [2] argue that the amount of radioactive elements in the Martian interior needs to be subchondritic. This appears to be problematic as geochemical analysis of the SNC meteorites implies higher concentrations of radioactive elements [4]. Furthermore, if the concentration of heat producing elements is indeed reduced, the resulting low interior temperatures will inhibit partial mantle melting and magmatism. However, geological evidence suggests that Mars has been volcanically active in the recent past [5]. In order to address these inconsistencies, we reinvestigate the thermal evolution of Mars and examine its current thermal state for a wide range of initial condition using the current elastic thickness Te and the potential for partial mantle melting to constrain our models. Modeling: We investigate the thermal evolution of Mars by solving the energy balance equations for the core and mantle, treating the mantle energy transport by parametrized convection models. This is done using scaling laws for stagnant lid convection and our model is similar to that of [3]. We ignore crustal production and assume that the bulk of the crust is primordial. Starting from given initial conditions the thermal evolution of Mars is calculated and the current elastic thickness and mantle temperatures are evaluated. Elastic thicknesses are calculated using the strength envelope formalism for given crustal and mantle rheologies [3] and the potential for partial mantle melting is parameterized using the minimum temperature difference between the mantle temperature and the solidus of peridotite which is given by [6]. Partial melting will occur if temperatures locally exceeds the solidus of peridotite Tsol. As lateral inhomogeneities due to thickness variations of the insulating crust can locally increase temperatures by up to 100 K [7] and plumes rising from the coremantle boundary may further increase temperatures by up to 50 K, we will assume that partial mantle melting is feasible if temperatures are lower than Tsol by at most 150 K. Parameters: The current thermal state of Mars is most sensitive to the amount and distribution of radioactive ele- ments and the efficiency of mantle energy transport, which is a strong function of mantle viscosity. We vary the fraction of radiogenic elements in the crust ? between 20 and 80 % and the fraction of radiogenic elements with respect to the reference compositional model ? [4] between 30 and 100 %. The reference mantle viscosity at 1600 K was varied between ?0 = 1019 and 1021 Pa s, corresponding to wet and dry olivine rheologies. Other parameters were kept constant and we use an initial upper mantle temperature of 1800 K, an initial core temperature of 2100 K, a crustal thermal conductivity of 3 W m-1 K-1, a mantle thermal conductivity of 4 W m-1 K-1 and a crustal thickness of 50 km. Fig. 1 shows the temperature structure of one model having 50 % of the radioactive elements in the crust (? = 0.5) and the fraction of radiogenic elements with respect to the reference model is 70 % ? = 0.7. As a comparison, the solidus and liquidus of peridotite are also given. The minimum temperatu

Grott, M.; Breuer, D.

2008-09-01