Science.gov

Sample records for quantified results show

  1. Different methods to quantify Listeria monocytogenes biofilms cells showed different profile in their viability.

    PubMed

    Winkelströter, Lizziane Kretli; De Martinis, Elaine C P

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen able to adhere and to form biofilms in several materials commonly present in food processing plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Listeria monocytogenes attached to abiotic surface, after treatment with sanitizers, by culture method, microscopy and Quantitative Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Biofilms of L. monocytogenes were obtained in stainless steel coupons immersed in Brain Heart Infusion Broth, under agitation at 37 °C for 24 h. The methods selected for this study were based on plate count, microscopic count with the aid of viability dyes (CTC-DAPI), and qPCR. Results of culture method showed that peroxyacetic acid was efficient to kill sessile L. monocytogenes populations, while sodium hypochlorite was only partially effective to kill attached L. monocytogenes (p < 0.05). When, viability dyes (CTC/DAPI) combined with fluorescence microscopy and qPCR were used and lower counts were found after treatments (p < 0.05). Selective quantification of viable cells of L. monocytogenes by qPCR using EMA revelead that the pre-treatment with EMA was not appropriate since it also inhibited amplification of DNA from live cells by ca. 2 log. Thus, the use of CTC counts was the best method to count viable cells in biofilms. PMID:26221112

  2. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  3. Quantifying IOHDR brachytherapy underdosage resulting from an incomplete scatter environment

    SciTech Connect

    Raina, Sanjay; Avadhani, Jaiteerth S.; Oh, Moonseong; Malhotra, Harish K.; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Kuettel, Michael R.; Podgorsak, Matthew B. . E-mail: matthew.podgorsak@roswellpark.org

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Most brachytherapy planning systems are based on a dose calculation algorithm that assumes an infinite scatter environment surrounding the target volume and applicator. Dosimetric errors from this assumption are negligible. However, in intraoperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (IOHDR) where treatment catheters are typically laid either directly on a tumor bed or within applicators that may have little or no scatter material above them, the lack of scatter from one side of the applicator can result in underdosage during treatment. This study was carried out to investigate the magnitude of this underdosage. Methods: IOHDR treatment geometries were simulated using a solid water phantom beneath an applicator with varying amounts of bolus material on the top and sides of the applicator to account for missing tissue. Treatment plans were developed for 3 different treatment surface areas (4 x 4, 7 x 7, 12 x 12 cm{sup 2}), each with prescription points located at 3 distances (0.5 cm, 1.0 cm, and 1.5 cm) from the source dwell positions. Ionization measurements were made with a liquid-filled ionization chamber linear array with a dedicated electrometer and data acquisition system. Results: Measurements showed that the magnitude of the underdosage varies from about 8% to 13% of the prescription dose as the prescription depth is increased from 0.5 cm to 1.5 cm. This treatment error was found to be independent of the irradiated area and strongly dependent on the prescription distance. Furthermore, for a given prescription depth, measurements in planes parallel to an applicator at distances up to 4.0 cm from the applicator plane showed that the dose delivery error is equal in magnitude throughout the target volume. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the magnitude of underdosage in IOHDR treatments delivered in a geometry that may not result in a full scatter environment around the applicator. This implies that the target volume and, specifically, the prescription

  4. Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (≤ 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

  5. Quantifying the offensive sequences that result in goals in elite futsal matches.

    PubMed

    Sarmento, Hugo; Bradley, Paul; Anguera, M Teresa; Polido, Tiago; Resende, Rui; Campaniço, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the type of offensive sequences that result in goals in elite futsal. Thirty competitive games in the Spanish Primera Division de Sala were analysed using computerised notation analysis for patterns of play that resulted in goals. More goals were scored in positional attack (42%) and from set pieces (27%) compared to other activities. The number of defence to offense "transitions" (n = 45) and the start of offensive plays due to the rules of the game (n = 45) were the most common type of sequences that resulted in goals compared to other patterns of play. The central offensive zonal areas were the most common for shots on goal, with 73% of all goals scored from these areas of the pitch compared to defensive and wide zones. The foot was the main part of the body involved in scoring (n = 114). T-pattern analysis of offensive sequences revealed regular patterns of play, which are common in goal scoring opportunities in futsal and are typical movement patterns in this sport. The data demonstrate common offensive sequences and movement patterns related to goals in elite futsal and this could provide important information for the development of physical and technical training drills that replicate important game situations. PMID:26183125

  6. Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions for the Pliocene (Plio-QUMP): Initial results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, J.O.; Collins, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Dowsett, H.J.; Hunter, S.J.; Lunt, D.J.; Pickering, S.J.; Pound, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Examination of the mid-Pliocene Warm Period (mPWP; ~. 3.3 to 3.0. Ma BP) provides an excellent opportunity to test the ability of climate models to reproduce warm climate states, thereby assessing our confidence in model predictions. To do this it is necessary to relate the uncertainty in model simulations of mPWP climate to uncertainties in projections of future climate change. The uncertainties introduced by the model can be estimated through the use of a Perturbed Physics Ensemble (PPE). Developing on the UK Met Office Quantifying Uncertainty in Model Predictions (QUMP) Project, this paper presents the results from an initial investigation using the end members of a PPE in a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model (HadCM3) running with appropriate mPWP boundary conditions. Prior work has shown that the unperturbed version of HadCM3 may underestimate mPWP sea surface temperatures at higher latitudes. Initial results indicate that neither the low sensitivity nor the high sensitivity simulations produce unequivocally improved mPWP climatology relative to the standard. Whilst the high sensitivity simulation was able to reconcile up to 6 ??C of the data/model mismatch in sea surface temperatures in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere (relative to the standard simulation), it did not produce a better prediction of global vegetation than the standard simulation. Overall the low sensitivity simulation was degraded compared to the standard and high sensitivity simulations in all aspects of the data/model comparison. The results have shown that a PPE has the potential to explore weaknesses in mPWP modelling simulations which have been identified by geological proxies, but that a 'best fit' simulation will more likely come from a full ensemble in which simulations that contain the strengths of the two end member simulations shown here are combined. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  8. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across the Martian surface may have moderate to severe consequences if large potential differences develop. The observations from Sojourner point to just such a possibility. It is desirable to quantify these results. The various lander/rover missions being planned for the upcoming decade provide the means for doing so. They should, therefore, carry instruments that will not only measure vehicle charging but characterize all the natural and induced electrical phenomena occurring in the environment and assess their impact on future missions.

  9. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    The SHOW (solar hot water) computer program is capable of simulating both one and two tank designs of thermosiphon and pumped solar domestic hot water systems. SHOW differs in a number of ways from other programs, the most notable of which is the emphasis on a thermal/hydraulic model of the stratified storage tank. The predicted performance for a typical two tank pumped system, computed by Program SHOW are compared, with results computed using F-CHART and TRNSYS. The results show fair to good agreement between the various computer programs when comparing the annual percent solar contributions. SHOW is also used to compute the expected performance of a two tank thermosiphon system and to compare its performance to the two tank pumped system.

  10. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  11. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  12. Preliminary Results In Quantifying The Climatic Impact Forcing Factors Around 3 Ma Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluteau, F.; Ramstein, G.; Duringer, P.; Schuster, M.; Tiercelin, J. J.

    What is exactly the control of climate changes on the development of the Hominids ? Is it possible to quantify such changes ? and which are the forcing factors that create these changes ? We use here a General Circulation Model to investigate the climate sensitivity of 3 different forcing factors : the uplift of the East African Rift, the ex- tent (more than twenty time PD surfaces) of the Chad Lake and ultimately we shall with a coupled oceanatmospher GCM test the the effect of Indonesian throughflow changes. To achieve these goals, we need a multidisciplinary group to assess the evo- lution of the Rift and the extent of the Lake. We prescribe these different boundary conditions to the GCM and use a biome model to assess the vegetation changes. In this presentation we will only focus on the Rift uplift and the Chad lake impacts on Atmospheric circulation, monsoon and their environmental consequences in term of vegetation changes.

  13. Showing Value in Newborn Screening: Challenges in Quantifying the Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Early Detection of Phenylketonuria and Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Decision makers sometimes request information on the cost savings, cost-effectiveness, or cost-benefit of public health programs. In practice, quantifying the health and economic benefits of population-level screening programs such as newborn screening (NBS) is challenging. It requires that one specify the frequencies of health outcomes and events, such as hospitalizations, for a cohort of children with a given condition under two different scenarios—with or without NBS. Such analyses also assume that everything else, including treatments, is the same between groups. Lack of comparable data for representative screened and unscreened cohorts that are exposed to the same treatments following diagnosis can result in either under- or over-statement of differences. Accordingly, the benefits of early detection may be understated or overstated. This paper illustrates these common problems through a review of past economic evaluations of screening for two historically significant conditions, phenylketonuria and cystic fibrosis. In both examples qualitative judgments about the value of prompt identification and early treatment to an affected child were more influential than specific numerical estimates of lives or costs saved. PMID:26702401

  14. Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates

    PubMed Central

    Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (μ ≈ 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (μ ≈ 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (μ ≈ 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

  15. Quantifying entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati

    Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat

  16. Meta-analysis of aspirin use and risk of lung cancer shows notable results.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Friederike; Jochem, Maximilian; Schlattmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Aspirin is a promising agent for chemoprevention of lung cancer. We assessed the association of aspirin use and the development of lung cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity between studies. Databases were searched for relevant studies until September 2014. Studies evaluating the relationship of aspirin use and incidence of lung cancer were considered. Relative risks (RR) were extracted and a pooled estimate was calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I measure, random-effects models, and finite-mixture models. Sources of heterogeneity were investigated using a meta-regression. A decreased risk of lung cancer was found including 20 studies [RR=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.95] on the basis of a random-effects model. Strong heterogeneity was observed (τ=0.0258, I=74.4%). As a result, two subpopulations of studies were identified on the basis of a mixture model. The first subpopulation (42%) has an average RR of 0.64. The remaining subpopulation (58%) shows an RR of 1.04. Different results were found for case-control (RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90) and cohort studies (RR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.93-1.06) in a stratified analysis. In a subgroup analysis, use of aspirin was associated with a decreased risk of non-small-cell lung cancer in case-control studies (RR=0.74; 95% CI: 0.58-0.94). At first glance, our meta-analysis shows an average protective effect. A second glance indicates that there is strong heterogeneity. This leads to a subpopulation with considerable benefit and another subpopulation with no benefit. For further investigations, it is important to identify populations that benefit from aspirin use. PMID:26067033

  17. Image analysis techniques: Used to quantify and improve the precision of coatings testing results

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, D.J.; Whetten, A.R.

    1993-12-31

    Coating evaluations often specify tests to measure performance characteristics rather than coating physical properties. These evaluation results are often very subjective. A new tool, Digital Video Image Analysis (DVIA), is successfully being used for two automotive evaluations; cyclic (scab) corrosion, and gravelometer (chip) test. An experimental design was done to evaluate variability and interactions among the instrumental factors. This analysis method has proved to be an order of magnitude more sensitive and reproducible than the current evaluations. Coating evaluations can be described and measured that had no way to be expressed previously. For example, DVIA chip evaluations can differentiate how much damage was done to the topcoat, primer even to the metal. DVIA with or without magnification, has the capability to become the quantitative measuring tool for several other coating evaluations, such as T-bends, wedge bends, acid etch analysis, coating defects, observing cure, defect formation or elimination over time, etc.

  18. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination

  19. Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

    Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

  20. Data for behavioral results and brain regions showing a time effect during pair-association retrieval.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Hirose, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroyuki; Yoshizawa, Yasunori; Imai, Yoshio; Akahane, Masaaki; Machida, Toru; Shirouzu, Ichiro; Koike, Yasuharu; Konishi, Seiki

    2016-09-01

    The current data article provides behavioral and neuroimaging data for the research article "Relatedness-dependent rapid development of brain activity in anterior temporal cortex during pair-association retrieval" (Jimura et al., 2016) [1]. Behavioral performance is provided in a table. Fig. 2 of the article is based on this table. Brain regions showing time effect are provided in a table. A statistical activation map for the time effect is shown in Fig. 3C of the article. PMID:27508239

  1. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  2. QUantifying the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Effect over Eastern Mediterranean from Satellites (QUADIEEMS): Overview and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulias, Aristeidis K.; Zanis, Prodromos; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kourtidis, Konstantinos A.; Alexandri, Georgia; Ntogras, Christos; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis

    2013-04-01

    An overview and preliminary results from the research implemented within the framework of QUADIEEMS project are presented. For the scopes of the project, satellite data from five sensors (MODIS aboard EOS TERRA, MODIS aboard EOS AQUA, TOMS aboard Earth Probe, OMI aboard EOS AURA and CALIOP aboard CALIPSO) are used in conjunction with meteorological data from ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis and data from a global chemical-aerosol-transport model as well as simulation results from a regional climate model (RegCM4) coupled with a simplified aerosol scheme. QUADIEEMS focuses on Eastern Mediterranean [30oN-45No, 17.5oE-37.5oE], a region situated at the crossroad of different aerosol types and thus ideal for the investigation of the direct and indirect effects of various aerosol types at a high spatial resolution. The project consists of five components. First, raw data from various databases are acquired, analyzed and spatially homogenized with the outcome being a high resolution (0.1x0.1 degree) and a moderate resolution (1.0x1.0 degree) gridded dataset of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The marine, dust and anthropogenic fraction of aerosols over the region is quantified making use of the homogenized dataset. Regional climate model simulations with REGCM4/aerosol are also implemented for the greater European region for the period 2000-2010 at a resolution of 50 km. REGCM4's ability to simulate AOD550 over Europe is evaluated. The aerosol-cloud relationships, for sub-regions of Eastern Mediterranean characterized by the presence of predominant aerosol types, are examined. The aerosol-cloud relationships are also examined taking into account the relative position of aerosol and cloud layers as defined by CALIPSO observations. Within the final component of the project, results and data that emerged from all the previous components are used in satellite-based parameterizations in order to quantify the direct and indirect (first) radiative effect of the different

  3. Quantifying geological processes on Mars-Results of the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) on Mars express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Ansan, V.; Di Achille, G.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Head, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Mangold, N.; Michael, G. G.; Neukum, G.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pondrelli, M.; Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Williams, D. A.; Adeli, S.; Baratoux, D.; de Villiers, G.; Foing, B.; Gupta, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Deit, L. Le; Marinangeli, L.; Matz, K.-D.; Mertens, V.; Muller, J. P.; Pasckert, J. H.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Scholten, F.; Sowe, M.; Voigt, J.; Warner, N.

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the use of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data as an instrumental tool and its application in the analysis of geological processes and landforms on Mars during the last 10 years of operation. High-resolution digital elevations models on a local to regional scale are the unique strength of the HRSC instrument. The analysis of these data products enabled quantifying geological processes such as effusion rates of lava flows, tectonic deformation, discharge of water in channels, formation timescales of deltas, geometry of sedimentary deposits as well as estimating the age of geological units by crater size-frequency distribution measurements. Both the quantification of geological processes and the age determination allow constraining the evolution of Martian geologic activity in space and time. A second major contribution of HRSC is the discovery of episodicity in the intensity of geological processes on Mars. This has been revealed by comparative age dating of volcanic, fluvial, glacial, and lacustrine deposits. Volcanic processes on Mars have been active over more than 4 Gyr, with peak phases in all three geologic epochs, generally ceasing towards the Amazonian. Fluvial and lacustrine activity phases spread a time span from Noachian until Amazonian times, but detailed studies show that they have been interrupted by multiple and long lasting phases of quiescence. Also glacial activity shows discrete phases of enhanced intensity that may correlate with periods of increased spin-axis obliquity. The episodicity of geological processes like volcanism, erosion, and glaciation on Mars reflects close correlation between surface processes and endogenic activity as well as orbit variations and changing climate condition.

  4. Quantifying microwear on experimental Mistassini quartzite scrapers: preliminary results of exploratory research using LSCM and scale-sensitive fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Stemp, W James; Lerner, Harry J; Kristant, Elaine H

    2013-01-01

    Although previous use-wear studies involving quartz and quartzite have been undertaken by archaeologists, these are comparatively few in number. Moreover, there has been relatively little effort to quantify use-wear on stone tools made from quartzite. The purpose of this article is to determine the effectiveness of a measurement system, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), to document the surface roughness or texture of experimental Mistassini quartzite scrapers used on two different contact materials (fresh and dry deer hide). As in previous studies using LSCM on chert, flint, and obsidian, this exploratory study incorporates a mathematical algorithm that permits the discrimination of surface roughness based on comparisons at multiple scales. Specifically, we employ measures of relative area (RelA) coupled with the F-test to discriminate used from unused stone tool surfaces, as well as surfaces of quartzite scrapers used on dry and fresh deer hide. Our results further demonstrate the effect of raw material variation on use-wear formation and its documentation using LSCM and RelA. PMID:22688593

  5. Quantifying contextuality.

    PubMed

    Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; Kłobus, W; Wójcik, A

    2014-03-28

    Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

  6. Seeking to quantify the ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic interface coupling resulting in exchange bias with various thin-film conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, C. H.; Wang, S.; Ouyang, H.; Desautels, R. D.; Lierop, J. van; Lin, K. W.

    2014-08-07

    Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni, Fe)O thin films with bilayer and nanocrystallite dispersion morphologies are prepared with a dual ion beam deposition technique permitting precise control of nanocrystallite growth, composition, and admixtures. A bilayer morphology provides a Ni{sub 3}Fe-to-NiO interface, while the dispersion films have different mixtures of Ni{sub 3}Fe, NiO, and FeO nanocrystallites. Using detailed analyses of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images with Multislice simulations, the nanocrystallites' structures and phases are determined, and the intermixing between the Ni{sub 3}Fe, NiO, and FeO interfaces is quantified. From field-cooled hysteresis loops, the exchange bias loop shift from spin interactions at the interfaces are determined. With similar interfacial molar ratios of FM-to-AF, we find the exchange bias field essentially unchanged. However, when the interfacial ratio of FM to AF was FM rich, the exchange bias field increases. Since the FM/AF interface ‘contact’ areas in the nanocrystallite dispersion films are larger than that of the bilayer film, and the nanocrystallite dispersions exhibit larger FM-to-AF interfacial contributions to the magnetism, we attribute the changes in the exchange bias to be from increases in the interfacial segments that suffer defects (such as vacancies and bond distortions), that also affects the coercive fields.

  7. Comparison of gas analyzers for quantifying eddy covariance fluxes- results from an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S.; Biraud, S.; Polonik, P.; Billesbach, D.; Hanson, C. V.; Bogoev, I.; Conrad, B.; Alstad, K. P.; Burba, G. G.; Li, J.

    2015-12-01

    The eddy covariance technique requires simultaneous, rapid measurements of wind components and scalars (e.g., water vapor, carbon dioxide) to calculate the vertical exchange due to turbulent processes. The technique has been used extensively as a non-intrusive means to quantify land-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy. A variety of sensor technologies and gas sampling designs have been tried. Gas concentrations are commonly measured using infrared or laser absorption spectroscopy. Open-path sensors directly sample the ambient environment but suffer when the sample volume is obstructed (e.g., rain, dust). Closed-path sensors utilize pumps to draw air into the analyzer through inlet tubes which can attenuate the signal. Enclosed-path sensors are a newer, hybrid of the open- and closed-path designs where the sensor is mounted in the environment and the sample is drawn through a short inlet tube with short residence time. Five gas analyzers were evaluated as part of this experiment: open-path LI-COR 7500A, enclosed-path LI-COR 7200, closed-path Picarro G2311-f, open-path Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and enclosed-path Campbell Scientific EC155. We compared the relative performance of the gas analyzers over an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA. The field was host to a range of ancillary measurements including below-ground sensors, and a weighing lysimeter. The crop was flood irrigated and harvested monthly. To compare sensors, we evaluated the half-hour mean and variance of gas concentrations (or mole densities). Power spectra for the gas analyzers and turbulent fluxes (from a common sonic anemometer) were also calculated and analyzed. Eddy covariance corrections will be discussed as they relate to sensor design (e.g., density corrections, signal attenuation).

  8. Survey results show that adults are willing to pay higher insurance premiums for generous coverage of specialty drugs.

    PubMed

    Romley, John A; Sanchez, Yuri; Penrod, John R; Goldman, Dana P

    2012-04-01

    Generous coverage of specialty drugs for cancer and other diseases may be valuable not only for sick patients currently using these drugs, but also for healthy people who recognize the potential need for them in the future. This study estimated how healthy people value insurance coverage of specialty drugs, defined as high-cost drugs that treat cancer and other serious health conditions like multiple sclerosis, by quantifying willingness to pay via a survey. US adults were estimated to be willing to pay an extra $12.94 on average in insurance premiums per month for generous specialty-drug coverage--in effect, $2.58 for every dollar in out-of-pocket costs that they would expect to pay with a less generous insurance plan. Given the value that people assign to generous coverage of specialty drugs, having high cost sharing on these drugs seemingly runs contrary to what people value in their health insurance. PMID:22492884

  9. Prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion finding when it shows a discrepancy in pathologic result gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Yull; Park, Ho Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Depth of wall invasion is an important prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer, whereas the prognostic significance of intraoperative macroscopic serosal invasion (mSE) findings remain unclear when they show a discrepancy in pathologic findings. This study, therefore, assessed the prognostic significance of mSE. Methods Data from cohort of 2,835 patients with resectable gastric cancer who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Results The overall accuracy of mSE and pathologic results was 83.4%. The accuracy of mSE was 75.5% in pT2. On the other hand, the accuracy of pT3 dropped to 24.5%. According to mSE findings (+/–), the 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate differed significantly in patients with pT2 (+; 74.2% vs. –; 92.0%), pT3 (+; 76.7% vs. –; 91.8%) and pT4a (+; 51.3% vs. –; 72.8%) (P < 0.001 each), but not in patients with T1 tumor. Multivariate analysis showed that mSE findings (hazard ratio [HR], 2.275; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.148–4.509), tumor depth (HR, 6.894; 95% CI, 2.325–20.437), nodal status (HR, 5.206; 95% CI, 2.298–11.791), distant metastasis (HR, 2.881; 95% CI, 1.388–6.209), radical resection (HR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.017–3.940), and lymphatic invasion (HR, 2.713; 95% CI, 1.424–5.167) were independent predictors of 5-year DSS rate. Conclusion We observed considerable discrepancies between macroscopic and pathologic diagnosis of serosal invasion. However, macroscopic diagnosis of serosal invasion was independently prognostic of 5-year DSS. It suggests that because the pathologic results could not be perfect and the local inflammatory change with mSE(+) could affect survival, a combination of mSE(+/–) and pathologic depth may be predictive of prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:27186569

  10. Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

    2009-12-01

    in ponded areas, and (3) the effects of the widely varying seasonal temperature and snow cover on the rates of microbial processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter and methylation of Hg. These results emphasize that not all watersheds show simple linear relations between DOC and Hg species on an annual basis, and provide a caution that measurements such as the optical properties of waters are not always a strong surrogate for Hg.

  11. Quantifying resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Several frameworks to operationalize resilience have been proposed. A decade ago, a special feature focused on quantifying resilience was published in the journal Ecosystems (Carpenter, Westley & Turner 2005). The approach there was towards identifying surrogates of resilience, but few of the papers proposed quantifiable metrics. Consequently, many ecological resilience frameworks remain vague and difficult to quantify, a problem that this special feature aims to address. However, considerable progress has been made during the last decade (e.g. Pope, Allen & Angeler 2014). Although some argue that resilience is best kept as an unquantifiable, vague concept (Quinlan et al. 2016), to be useful for managers, there must be concrete guidance regarding how and what to manage and how to measure success (Garmestani, Allen & Benson 2013; Spears et al. 2015). Ideas such as ‘resilience thinking’ have utility in helping stakeholders conceptualize their systems, but provide little guidance on how to make resilience useful for ecosystem management, other than suggesting an ambiguous, Goldilocks approach of being just right (e.g. diverse, but not too diverse; connected, but not too connected). Here, we clarify some prominent resilience terms and concepts, introduce and synthesize the papers in this special feature on quantifying resilience and identify core unanswered questions related to resilience.

  12. Native trees show conservative water use relative to invasive trees: results from a removal experiment in a Hawaiian wet forest

    PubMed Central

    Cavaleri, Molly A.; Ostertag, Rebecca; Cordell, Susan; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    While the supply of freshwater is expected to decline in many regions in the coming decades, invasive plant species, often ‘high water spenders’, are greatly expanding their ranges worldwide. In this study, we quantified the ecohydrological differences between native and invasive trees and also the effects of woody invasive removal on plot-level water use in a heavily invaded mono-dominant lowland wet tropical forest on the Island of Hawaii. We measured transpiration rates of co-occurring native and invasive tree species with and without woody invasive removal treatments. Twenty native Metrosideros polymorpha and 10 trees each of three invasive species, Cecropia obtusifolia, Macaranga mappa and Melastoma septemnervium, were instrumented with heat-dissipation sap-flux probes in four 100 m2 plots (two invaded, two removal) for 10 months. In the invaded plots, where both natives and invasives were present, Metrosideros had the lowest sap-flow rates per unit sapwood, but the highest sap-flow rates per whole tree, owing to its larger mean diameter than the invasive trees. Stand-level water use within the removal plots was half that of the invaded plots, even though the removal of invasives caused a small but significant increase in compensatory water use by the remaining native trees. By investigating the effects of invasive species on ecohydrology and comparing native vs. invasive physiological traits, we not only gain understanding about the functioning of invasive species, but we also highlight potential water-conservation strategies for heavily invaded mono-dominant tropical forests worldwide. Native-dominated forests free of invasive species can be conservative in overall water use, providing a strong rationale for the control of invasive species and preservation of native-dominated stands. PMID:27293637

  13. Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring

  14. Development and application of methods to quantify spatial and temporal hyperpolarized 3He MRI ventilation dynamics: preliminary results in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Miranda; Wheatley, Andrew; McCormack, David G.; Parraga, Grace

    2010-03-01

    Hyperpolarized helium-3 (3He) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a non-invasive research method for quantifying lung structural and functional changes, enabling direct visualization in vivo at high spatial and temporal resolution. Here we described the development of methods for quantifying ventilation dynamics in response to salbutamol in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Whole body 3.0 Tesla Excite 12.0 MRI system was used to obtain multi-slice coronal images acquired immediately after subjects inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas. Ventilated volume (VV), ventilation defect volume (VDV) and thoracic cavity volume (TCV) were recorded following segmentation of 3He and 1H images respectively, and used to calculate percent ventilated volume (PVV) and ventilation defect percent (VDP). Manual segmentation and Otsu thresholding were significantly correlated for VV (r=.82, p=.001), VDV (r=.87 p=.0002), PVV (r=.85, p=.0005), and VDP (r=.85, p=.0005). The level of agreement between these segmentation methods was also evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis and this showed that manual segmentation was consistently higher for VV (Mean=.22 L, SD=.05) and consistently lower for VDV (Mean=-.13, SD=.05) measurements than Otsu thresholding. To automate the quantification of newly ventilated pixels (NVp) post-bronchodilator, we used translation, rotation, and scaling transformations to register pre-and post-salbutamol images. There was a significant correlation between NVp and VDV (r=-.94 p=.005) and between percent newly ventilated pixels (PNVp) and VDP (r=- .89, p=.02), but not for VV or PVV. Evaluation of 3He MRI ventilation dynamics using Otsu thresholding and landmark-based image registration provides a way to regionally quantify functional changes in COPD subjects after treatment with beta-agonist bronchodilators, a common COPD and asthma therapy.

  15. Quantifying Surface Processes and Stratigraphic Characteristics Resulting from Large Magnitude High Frequency and Small Magnitude Low Frequency Relative Sea Level Cycles: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Li, Q.; Esposito, C. R.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Relative Sea-Level (RSL) change, which is a primary control on sequence stratigraphic architecture, has a close relationship with climate change. In order to explore the influence of RSL change on the stratigraphic record, we conducted three physical experiments which shared identical boundary conditions but differed in their RSL characteristics. Specifically, the three experiments differed with respect to two non-dimensional numbers that compare the magnitude and periodicity of RSL cycles to the spatial and temporal scales of autogenic processes, respectively. The magnitude of RSL change is quantified with H*, defined as the peak to trough difference in RSL during a cycle divided by a system's maximum autogenic channel depth. The periodicity of RSL change is quantified with T*, defined as the period of RSL cycles divided by the time required to deposit one channel depth of sediment, on average, everywhere in the basin. Experiments performed included: 1) a control experiment lacking RSL cycles, used to define a system's autogenics, 2) a high magnitude, high frequency RSL cycles experiment, and 3) a low magnitude, low frequency cycles experiment. We observe that the high magnitude, high frequency experiment resulted in the thickest channel bodies with the lowest width-to-depth ratios, while the low magnitude, long period experiment preserves a record of gradual shoreline transgression and regression producing facies that are the most continuous in space. We plan to integrate our experimental results with Delft3D numerical experiments models that sample similar non-dimensional characteristics of RSL cycles. Quantifying the influence of RSL change, normalized as a function of the spatial and temporal scales of autogenic processes will strengthen our ability to predict stratigraphic architecture and invert stratigraphy for paleo-environmental conditions.

  16. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  17. QUANTIFYING FOREST ABOVEGROUND CARBON POOLS AND FLUXES USING MULTI-TEMPORAL LIDAR A report on field monitoring, remote sensing MMV, GIS integration, and modeling results for forestry field validation test to quantify aboveground tree biomass and carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Spangler; Lee A. Vierling; Eva K. Stand; Andrew T. Hudak; Jan U.H. Eitel; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2012-04-01

    Sound policy recommendations relating to the role of forest management in mitigating atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) depend upon establishing accurate methodologies for quantifying forest carbon pools for large tracts of land that can be dynamically updated over time. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) remote sensing is a promising technology for achieving accurate estimates of aboveground biomass and thereby carbon pools; however, not much is known about the accuracy of estimating biomass change and carbon flux from repeat LiDAR acquisitions containing different data sampling characteristics. In this study, discrete return airborne LiDAR data was collected in 2003 and 2009 across {approx}20,000 hectares (ha) of an actively managed, mixed conifer forest landscape in northern Idaho, USA. Forest inventory plots, established via a random stratified sampling design, were established and sampled in 2003 and 2009. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm was used to establish statistical relationships between inventory data and forest structural metrics derived from the LiDAR acquisitions. Aboveground biomass maps were created for the study area based on statistical relationships developed at the plot level. Over this 6-year period, we found that the mean increase in biomass due to forest growth across the non-harvested portions of the study area was 4.8 metric ton/hectare (Mg/ha). In these non-harvested areas, we found a significant difference in biomass increase among forest successional stages, with a higher biomass increase in mature and old forest compared to stand initiation and young forest. Approximately 20% of the landscape had been disturbed by harvest activities during the six-year time period, representing a biomass loss of >70 Mg/ha in these areas. During the study period, these harvest activities outweighed growth at the landscape scale, resulting in an overall loss in aboveground carbon at this site. The 30-fold increase in sampling density

  18. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  19. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  20. Quantifying Electron Delocalization in Electrides.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2016-01-12

    Electrides are ionic solids whose anions are electrons confined to crystal voids. We show that our electron delocalization range function EDR(r;d), which quantifies the extent to which an electron at point r in a calculated wave function delocalizes over distance d, provides useful insights into electrides. The EDR quantifies the characteristic delocalization length of electride electrons and provides a chemically intuitive real-space picture of the electrons' distribution. It also gives a potential diagnostic for whether a given formula unit will form a solid electride at ambient pressure, quantifies the effects of electron-electron correlation on confined electrons' interactions, and highlights analogies between covalent bonding and the interaction of interstitial quasi-atoms in high-pressure electrides. These results motivate adding the EDR to the toolbox of theoretical methods applied to electrides. PMID:26652208

  1. QUANTIFYING SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the dynamic solar chromosphere is fundamental in solar physics. Spicules are an important feature of the chromosphere, connecting the photosphere to the corona, potentially mediating the transfer of energy and mass. The aim of this work is to study the properties of spicules over different regions of the Sun. Our goal is to investigate if there is more than one type of spicule, and how spicules behave in the quiet Sun, coronal holes, and active regions. We make use of high cadence and high spatial resolution Ca II H observations taken by Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. Making use of a semi-automated detection algorithm, we self-consistently track and measure the properties of 519 spicules over different regions. We find clear evidence of two types of spicules. Type I spicules show a rise and fall and have typical lifetimes of 150-400 s and maximum ascending velocities of 15-40 km s{sup -1}, while type II spicules have shorter lifetimes of 50-150 s, faster velocities of 30-110 km s{sup -1}, and are not seen to fall down, but rather fade at around their maximum length. Type II spicules are the most common, seen in the quiet Sun and coronal holes. Type I spicules are seen mostly in active regions. There are regional differences between quiet-Sun and coronal hole spicules, likely attributable to the different field configurations. The properties of type II spicules are consistent with published results of rapid blueshifted events (RBEs), supporting the hypothesis that RBEs are their disk counterparts. For type I spicules we find the relations between their properties to be consistent with a magnetoacoustic shock wave driver, and with dynamic fibrils as their disk counterpart. The driver of type II spicules remains unclear from limb observations.

  2. Quantifying Quantumness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Daniel; Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Peter A.

    2010-03-01

    We introduce and study a measure of ``quantumness'' of a quantum state based on its Hilbert-Schmidt distance from the set of classical states. ``Classical states'' were defined earlier as states for which a positive P-function exists, i.e. they are mixtures of coherent states [1]. We study invariance properties of the measure, upper bounds, and its relation to entanglement measures. We evaluate the quantumness of a number of physically interesting states and show that for any physical system in thermal equilibrium there is a finite critical temperature above which quantumness vanishes. We then use the measure for identifying the ``most quantum'' states. Such states are expected to be potentially most useful for quantum information theoretical applications. We find these states explicitly for low-dimensional spin-systems, and show that they possess beautiful, highly symmetric Majorana representations. [4pt] [1] Classicality of spin states, Olivier Giraud, Petr Braun, and Daniel Braun, Phys. Rev. A 78, 042112 (2008)

  3. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  4. Quantifying solvated electrons' delocalization.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2015-07-28

    Delocalized, solvated electrons are a topic of much recent interest. We apply the electron delocalization range EDR(r;u) (J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 141, 144104) to quantify the extent to which a solvated electron at point r in a calculated wavefunction delocalizes over distance u. Calculations on electrons in one-dimensional model cavities illustrate fundamental properties of the EDR. Mean-field calculations on hydrated electrons (H2O)n(-) show that the density-matrix-based EDR reproduces existing molecular-orbital-based measures of delocalization. Correlated calculations on hydrated electrons and electrons in lithium-ammonia clusters illustrates how electron correlation tends to move surface- and cavity-bound electrons onto the cluster or cavity surface. Applications to multiple solvated electrons in lithium-ammonia clusters provide a novel perspective on the interplay of delocalization and strong correlation central to lithium-ammonia solutions' concentration-dependent insulator-to-metal transition. The results motivate continued application of the EDR to simulations of delocalized electrons. PMID:25994586

  5. Methods for Quantifying the Uncertainties of LSIT Test Parameters, Test Results, and Full-Scale Mixing Performance Using Models Developed from Scaled Test Data

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Cooley, Scott K.; Kuhn, William L.; Rector, David R.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    This report discusses the statistical methods for quantifying uncertainties in 1) test responses and other parameters in the Large Scale Integrated Testing (LSIT), and 2) estimates of coefficients and predictions of mixing performance from models that relate test responses to test parameters. Testing at a larger scale has been committed to by Bechtel National, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to “address uncertainties and increase confidence in the projected, full-scale mixing performance and operations” in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  6. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  7. Quantifiers induced by subjective expected value of sample information.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kaihong

    2014-10-01

    The ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator provides a unified framework for multiattribute decision making (MADM) under uncertainty. In this paper, we attempt to tackle some issues arising from the quantifier guided aggregation using OWA operators. This allows us to consider a more general case involving the generation of quantifier targeted at the specified decision maker (DM) by using sample information. In order to do that, we first develop a repeatable interactive procedure in which with the given sample values, and the expected values the DM involved provides with personal preferences, we build nonlinear optimal models to extract from the DM information about his/her decision attitude in an OWA weighting vector form. After that, with the obtained attitudinal weighting vectors we suggest a suitable quantifier just for this DM by means of the piecewise linear interpolations. This obtained quantifier is totally derived from the behavior of the DM involved and thus inherently characterized by his/her own attitudinal character. Owing to the nature of this type of quantifier, we call it the subjective expected value of sample information-induced quantifier. We show some properties of the developed quantifier. We also prove the consistency of OWA aggregation guided by this type of quantifier. In contrast with parameterized quantifiers, our developed quantifiers are oriented toward the specified DMs with proper consideration of their decision attitudes or behavior characteristics, thus bringing about more intuitively appealing and convincing results in the quantifier guided OWA aggregation. PMID:25222722

  8. Quantifying Health Across Populations.

    PubMed

    Kershnar, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I argue that as a theoretical matter, a population's health-level is best quantified via averagism. Averagism asserts that the health of a population is the average of members' health-levels. This model is better because it does not fall prey to a number of objections, including the repugnant conclusion, and because it is not arbitrary. I also argue that as a practical matter, population health-levels are best quantified via totalism. Totalism asserts that the health of a population is the sum of members' health-levels. Totalism is better here because it fits better with cost-benefit analysis and such an analysis is the best practical way to value healthcare outcomes. The two results are compatible because the theoretical and practical need not always align, whether in general or in the context of population health. PMID:26766584

  9. Quantifying concordance in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Grandis, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the concordance between different cosmological experiments is important for testing the validity of theoretical models and systematics in the observations. In earlier work, we thus proposed the Surprise, a concordance measure derived from the relative entropy between posterior distributions. We revisit the properties of the Surprise and describe how it provides a general, versatile, and robust measure for the agreement between data sets. We also compare it to other measures of concordance that have been proposed for cosmology. As an application, we extend our earlier analysis and use the Surprise to quantify the agreement between WMAP 9, Planck 13, and Planck 15 constraints on the Λ CDM model. Using a principle component analysis in parameter space, we find that the large Surprise between WMAP 9 and Planck 13 (S =17.6 bits, implying a deviation from consistency at 99.8% confidence) is due to a shift along a direction that is dominated by the amplitude of the power spectrum. The Planck 15 constraints deviate from the Planck 13 results (S =56.3 bits), primarily due to a shift in the same direction. The Surprise between WMAP and Planck consequently disappears when moving to Planck 15 (S =-5.1 bits). This means that, unlike Planck 13, Planck 15 is not in tension with WMAP 9. These results illustrate the advantages of the relative entropy and the Surprise for quantifying the disagreement between cosmological experiments and more generally as an information metric for cosmology.

  10. Two heteronuclear dipolar results at the price of one: Quantifying Na/P contacts in phosphosilicate glasses and biomimetic hydroxy-apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevensson, Baltzar; Mathew, Renny; Yu, Yang; Edén, Mattias

    2015-02-01

    The analysis of S{I} recoupling experiments applied to amorphous solids yields a heteronuclear second moment M2 (S-I) that represents the effective through-space dipolar interaction between the detected S spins and the neighboring I-spin species. We show that both M2 (S-I) and M2 (I-S) values are readily accessible from a sole S{I} or I{S} experiment, which may involve either S or I detection, and is naturally selected as the most favorable option under the given experimental conditions. For the common case where I has half-integer spin, an I{S} REDOR implementation is preferred to the S{I} REAPDOR counterpart. We verify the procedure by 23Na{31P} REDOR and 31P{23Na} REAPDOR NMR applied to Na2O-CaO-SiO2-P2O5 glasses and biomimetic hydroxyapatite, where the M2 (P-Na) values directly determined by REAPDOR agree very well with those derived from the corresponding M2 (Na-P) results measured by REDOR. Moreover, we show that dipolar second moments are readily extracted from the REAPDOR NMR protocol by a straightforward numerical fitting of the initial dephasing data, in direct analogy with the well-established procedure to determine M2 (S-I) values from REDOR NMR experiments applied to amorphous materials; this avoids the problems with time-consuming numerically exact simulations whose accuracy is limited for describing the dynamics of a priori unknown multi-spin systems in disordered structures.

  11. Analysis of conservative tracer measurement results using the Frechet distribution at planted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel and showing the effect of clogging processes.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Ernő; Klincsik, Mihály

    2015-11-01

    A mathematical process, developed in Maple environment, has been successful in decreasing the error of measurement results and in the precise calculation of the moments of corrected tracer functions. It was proved that with this process, the measured tracer results of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands filled with coarse gravel (HSFCW-C) can be fitted more accurately than with the conventionally used distribution functions (Gaussian, Lognormal, Fick (Inverse Gaussian) and Gamma). This statement is true only for the planted HSFCW-Cs. The analysis of unplanted HSFCW-Cs needs more research. The result of the analysis shows that the conventional solutions (completely stirred series tank reactor (CSTR) model and convection-dispersion transport (CDT) model) cannot describe these types of transport processes with sufficient accuracy. These outcomes can help in developing better process descriptions of very difficult transport processes in HSFCW-Cs. Furthermore, a new mathematical process can be developed for the calculation of real hydraulic residence time (HRT) and dispersion coefficient values. The presented method can be generalized to other kinds of hydraulic environments. PMID:26126688

  12. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  13. Transgene silencing of the Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome mutation results in a reversible bone phenotype, whereas resveratrol treatment does not show overall beneficial effects.

    PubMed

    Strandgren, Charlotte; Nasser, Hasina Abdul; McKenna, Tomás; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes; Rozell, Björn; Eriksson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a rare premature aging disorder that is most commonly caused by a de novo point mutation in exon 11 of the LMNA gene, c.1824C>T, which results in an increased production of a truncated form of lamin A known as progerin. In this study, we used a mouse model to study the possibility of recovering from HGPS bone disease upon silencing of the HGPS mutation, and the potential benefits from treatment with resveratrol. We show that complete silencing of the transgenic expression of progerin normalized bone morphology and mineralization already after 7 weeks. The improvements included lower frequencies of rib fractures and callus formation, an increased number of osteocytes in remodeled bone, and normalized dentinogenesis. The beneficial effects from resveratrol treatment were less significant and to a large extent similar to mice treated with sucrose alone. However, the reversal of the dental phenotype of overgrown and laterally displaced lower incisors in HGPS mice could be attributed to resveratrol. Our results indicate that the HGPS bone defects were reversible upon suppressed transgenic expression and suggest that treatments targeting aberrant progerin splicing give hope to patients who are affected by HGPS. PMID:25877214

  14. Magnetic Sphincter Augmentation for Gastroesophageal Reflux at 5 Years: Final Results of a Pilot Study Show Long-Term Acid Reduction and Symptom Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Saino, Greta; Bonavina, Luigi; Lipham, John C.; Dunn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: As previously reported, the magnetic sphincter augmentation device (MSAD) preserves gastric anatomy and results in less severe side effects than traditional antireflux surgery. The final 5-year results of a pilot study are reported here. Patients and Methods: A prospective, multicenter study evaluated safety and efficacy of the MSAD for 5 years. Prior to MSAD placement, patients had abnormal esophageal acid and symptoms poorly controlled by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients served as their own control, which allowed comparison between baseline and postoperative measurements to determine individual treatment effect. At 5 years, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)-Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) questionnaire score, esophageal pH, PPI use, and complications were evaluated. Results: Between February 2007 and October 2008, 44 patients (26 males) had an MSAD implanted by laparoscopy, and 33 patients were followed up at 5 years. Mean total percentage of time with pH <4 was 11.9% at baseline and 4.6% at 5 years (P < .001), with 85% of patients achieving pH normalization or at least a 50% reduction. Mean total GERD-HRQL score improved significantly from 25.7 to 2.9 (P < .001) when comparing baseline and 5 years, and 93.9% of patients had at least a 50% reduction in total score compared with baseline. Complete discontinuation of PPIs was achieved by 87.8% of patients. No complications occurred in the long term, including no device erosions or migrations at any point. Conclusions: Based on long-term reduction in esophageal acid, symptom improvement, and no late complications, this study shows the relative safety and efficacy of magnetic sphincter augmentation for GERD. PMID:26437027

  15. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage

  16. Quantifying and Reducing the Uncertainties in Future Projections of Droughts and Heat Waves for North America that Result from the Diversity of Models in CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.

    2014-12-01

    There are many sources of uncertainty regarding the future projections of our climate, including the multiple possible Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), the variety of climate models used, and the initial and boundary conditions with which they are run. Moreover, it has been shown that the internal variability of the climate system can sometimes be of the same order of magnitude as the climate change signal or even larger for some variables. Nonetheless, in order to help inform stakeholders in water resources and agriculture in North America when developing adaptation strategies, particularly for extreme events such as droughts and heat waves, it is necessary to study the plausible range of changes that the region might experience during the 21st century. We aim to understand and reduce the uncertainties associated with this range of possible scenarios by focusing on the diversity of climate models involved in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Data output from various CMIP5 models is compared against near surface climate and land-surface hydrological data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)-2 to evaluate how well each climate model represents the land-surface processes associated with droughts and heat waves during the overlapping historical period (1979-2005). These processes include the representation of precipitation and radiation and their partitioning at the land surface, land-atmosphere interactions, and the propagation of signals of these extreme events through the land surface. The ability of the CMIP5 models to reproduce these important physical processes for regions of North America is used to inform a multi-model ensemble in which models that represent the processes relevant to droughts and heat waves better are given more importance. Furthermore, the future projections are clustered to identify possible dependencies in behavior across models. The results indicate a wide range in performance

  17. A high-density wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) to quantify hydro-ecological interactions for a UK floodplain; project background and initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoef, A.; Choudhary, B.; Morris, P. J.; McCann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Floodplain meadows support some of the most diverse vegetation in the UK, and also perform key ecosystem services, such as flood storage and sediment retention. However, the UK now has less than 1500 ha of this unique habitat remaining. In order to conserve and better exploit the services provided by this grassland, an improved understanding of its functioning is essential. Vegetation functioning and species composition are known to be tightly correlated to the hydrological regime, and related temperature and nutrient regime, but the mechanisms controlling these relationships are not well established. The FUSE* project aims to investigate the spatiotemporal variability in vegetation functioning (e.g. photosynthesis and transpiration) and plant community composition in a floodplain meadow near Oxford, UK (Yarnton Mead), and their relationship to key soil physical variables (soil temperature and moisture content), soil nutrient levels and the water- and energy-balance. A distributed high density Wireless Underground Sensor Network (WUSN) is in the process of being established on Yarnton Mead. The majority, or ideally all, of the sensing and transmitting components will be installed below-ground because Yarnton Mead is a SSSI (Site of Special Scientific Interest, due to its unique plant community) and because occasionally sheep or cattle are grazing on it, and that could damage the nodes. This prerequisite has implications for the maximum spacing between UG nodes and their communications technologies; in terms of signal strength, path losses and requirements for battery life. The success of underground wireless communication is highly dependent on the soil type and water content. This floodplain environment is particularly challenging in this context because the soil contains a large amount of clay near the surface and is therefore less favourable to EM wave propagation than sandy soils. Furthermore, due to high relative saturation levels (as a result of high

  18. Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay Test Strips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    As easy to read as a home pregnancy test, three Quantifiable Lateral Flow Assay (QLFA) strips used to test water for E. coli show different results. The brightly glowing control line on the far right of each strip indicates that all three tests ran successfully. But the glowing test line on the middle left and bottom strips reveal their samples were contaminated with E. coli bacteria at two different concentrations. The color intensity correlates with concentration of contamination.

  19. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  20. Mathematical modelling in Matlab of the experimental results shows the electrochemical potential difference - temperature of the WC coatings immersed in a NaCl solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benea, M. L.; Benea, O. D.

    2016-02-01

    The method used for purchasing the corrosion behaviour the WC coatings deposited by plasma spraying, on a martensitic stainless steel substrate consists in measuring the electrochemical potential of the coating, respectively that of the substrate, immersed in a NaCl solution as corrosive agent. The mathematical processing of the obtained experimental results in Matlab allowed us to make some correlations between the electrochemical potential of the coating and the solution temperature is very well described by some curves having equations obtained by interpolation order 4.

  1. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  2. "First Things First" Shows Promising Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrie, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a school improvement model, First Things First, developed by James P. Connell, a former tenured professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in New York. The model has three pillars for the high school level: (1) small, themed learning communities that each keep a group of students together…

  3. Quantifying Faculty Workloads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, J. Andrew

    Teaching load depends on many variables, however most colleges define it strictly in terms of contact or credit hours. The failure to give weight to variables such as number of preparations, number of students served, committee and other noninstructional assignments is usually due to the lack of a formula that will quantify the effects of these…

  4. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  5. Quantifying tumour heterogeneity with CT

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Heterogeneity is a key feature of malignancy associated with adverse tumour biology. Quantifying heterogeneity could provide a useful non-invasive imaging biomarker. Heterogeneity on computed tomography (CT) can be quantified using texture analysis which extracts spatial information from CT images (unenhanced, contrast-enhanced and derived images such as CT perfusion) that may not be perceptible to the naked eye. The main components of texture analysis can be categorized into image transformation and quantification. Image transformation filters the conventional image into its basic components (spatial, frequency, etc.) to produce derived subimages. Texture quantification techniques include structural-, model- (fractal dimensions), statistical- and frequency-based methods. The underlying tumour biology that CT texture analysis may reflect includes (but is not limited to) tumour hypoxia and angiogenesis. Emerging studies show that CT texture analysis has the potential to be a useful adjunct in clinical oncologic imaging, providing important information about tumour characterization, prognosis and treatment prediction and response. PMID:23545171

  6. Quantifying Ubiquitin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ordureau, Alban; Münch, Christian; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB)-driven signaling systems permeate biology, and are often integrated with other types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), most notably phosphorylation. Flux through such pathways is typically dictated by the fractional stoichiometry of distinct regulatory modifications and protein assemblies as well as the spatial organization of pathway components. Yet, we rarely understand the dynamics and stoichiometry of rate-limiting intermediates along a reaction trajectory. Here, we review how quantitative proteomic tools and enrichment strategies are being used to quantify UB-dependent signaling systems, and to integrate UB signaling with regulatory phosphorylation events. A key regulatory feature of ubiquitylation is that the identity of UB chain linkage types can control downstream processes. We also describe how proteomic and enzymological tools can be used to identify and quantify UB chain synthesis and linkage preferences. The emergence of sophisticated quantitative proteomic approaches will set a new standard for elucidating biochemical mechanisms of UB-driven signaling systems. PMID:26000850

  7. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  8. Quantifying light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information.

  9. Quantifying surface normal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert B.; Oxley, Mark E.; Eismann, Michael T.; Goda, Matthew E.

    2006-05-01

    An inverse algorithm for surface normal estimation from thermal polarimetric imagery was developed and used to quantify the requirements on a priori information. Building on existing knowledge that calculates the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP) for a given surface normal in a forward model (from an object's characteristics to calculation of the DOLP and AOP), this research quantifies the impact of a priori information with the development of an inverse algorithm to estimate surface normals from thermal polarimetric emissions in long-wave infrared (LWIR). The inverse algorithm assumes a polarized infrared focal plane array capturing LWIR intensity images which are then converted to Stokes vectors. Next, the DOLP and AOP are calculated from the Stokes vectors. Last, the viewing angles, θ v, to the surface normals are estimated assuming perfect material information about the imaged scene. A sensitivity analysis is presented to quantitatively describe the a priori information's impact on the amount of error in the estimation of surface normals, and a bound is determined given perfect information about an object. Simulations explored the impact of surface roughness (σ) and the real component (n) of a dielectric's complex index of refraction across a range of viewing angles (θ v) for a given wavelength of observation.

  10. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  11. A new index quantifying the precipitation extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busuioc, Aristita; Baciu, Madalina; Stoica, Cerasela

    2015-04-01

    Meteorological Administration in Romania. These types of records contain the rainfall intensity (mm/minute) over various intervals for which it remains constant. The maximum intensity for each continuous rain over the May-August interval has been calculated for each year. The corresponding time series over the 1951-2008 period have been analysed in terms of their long term trends and shifts in the mean; the results have been compared to those resulted from other rainfall indices based on daily and hourly data, computed over the same interval such as: total rainfall amount, maximum daily amount, contribution of total hourly amounts exceeding 10mm/day, contribution of daily amounts exceeding the 90th percentile, the 90th, 99th and 99.9th percentiles of 1-hour data . The results show that the proposed index exhibit a coherent and stronger climate signal (significant increase) for all analysed stations compared to the other indices associated to precipitation extremes, which show either no significant change or weaker signal. This finding shows that the proposed index is most appropriate to quantify the climate change signal of the precipitation extremes. We consider that this index is more naturally connected to the maximum intensity of a real rainfall event. The results presented is this study were funded by the Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI) through the research project CLIMHYDEX, "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania", code PNII-ID-2011-2-0073 (http://climhydex.meteoromania.ro)

  12. Quantifying the Wave Driving of the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.

    1999-01-01

    The zonal mean eddy heat flux is directly proportional to the wave activity that propagates from the troposphere into the stratosphere. This quantity is a simple eddy diagnostic which is easily calculated from conventional meteorological analyses. Because this "wave driving" of the stratosphere has a strong impact on the stratospheric temperature, it is necessary to compare the impact of the flux with respect to stratospheric radiative changes caused by greenhouse gas changes. Hence, we must understand the precision and accuracy of the heat flux derived from our global meteorological analyses. Herein, we quantify the stratospheric heat flux using five different meteorological analyses, and show that there are 30% differences between these analyses during the disturbed conditions of the northern hemisphere winter. Such large differences result from the planetary differences in the stationary temperature and meridional wind fields. In contrast, planetary transient waves show excellent agreement amongst these five analyses, and this transient heat flux appears to have a long term downward trend.

  13. Quantifier Comprehension in Corticobasal Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated patients with focal neurodegenerative diseases to examine a formal linguistic distinction between classes of generalized quantifiers, like "some X" and "less than half of X." Our model of quantifier comprehension proposes that number knowledge is required to understand both first-order and higher-order quantifiers.…

  14. How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

    2014-07-21

    Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

  15. Quantifying T Lymphocyte Turnover

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral T cell populations are maintained by production of naive T cells in the thymus, clonal expansion of activated cells, cellular self-renewal (or homeostatic proliferation), and density dependent cell life spans. A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to quantify the relative contributions of these processes. In modern studies lymphocytes are typically labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), deuterium, or the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), their division history has been studied by monitoring telomere shortening and the dilution of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) or the dye CFSE, and clonal expansion has been documented by recording changes in the population densities of antigen specific cells. Proper interpretation of such data in terms of the underlying rates of T cell production, division, and death has proven to be notoriously difficult and involves mathematical modeling. We review the various models that have been developed for each of these techniques, discuss which models seem most appropriate for what type of data, reveal open problems that require better models, and pinpoint how the assumptions underlying a mathematical model may influence the interpretation of data. Elaborating various successful cases where modeling has delivered new insights in T cell population dynamics, this review provides quantitative estimates of several processes involved in the maintenance of naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools in mice and men. PMID:23313150

  16. Quantifying Loopy Network Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes) from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs. PMID:22701593

  17. Mountain torrents: Quantifying vulnerability and assessing uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment for elements at risk is an important component in the framework of risk assessment. The vulnerability of buildings affected by torrent processes can be quantified by vulnerability functions that express a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of individual elements at risk and the intensity of the impacting process. Based on data from the Austrian Alps, we extended a vulnerability curve for residential buildings affected by fluvial sediment transport processes to other torrent processes and other building types. With respect to this goal to merge different data based on different processes and building types, several statistical tests were conducted. The calculation of vulnerability functions was based on a nonlinear regression approach applying cumulative distribution functions. The results suggest that there is no need to distinguish between different sediment-laden torrent processes when assessing vulnerability of residential buildings towards torrent processes. The final vulnerability functions were further validated with data from the Italian Alps and different vulnerability functions presented in the literature. This comparison showed the wider applicability of the derived vulnerability functions. The uncertainty inherent to regression functions was quantified by the calculation of confidence bands. The derived vulnerability functions may be applied within the framework of risk management for mountain hazards within the European Alps. The method is transferable to other mountain regions if the input data needed are available. PMID:27087696

  18. Quantifying Anderson's fault types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Ce??le??rier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ?? and ?? to new quantities named A?? and A??. In their simple forms, A?? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?? ranges from 0?? to 60??, 60?? to 120??, and 120?? to 180??, respectively. After scaling, A?? and A?? agree to within 2% (or 1??), a difference of little practical significance, although A?? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A?? ranging from -3 to +3 and A?? from -180?? to +180??. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A?? and A?? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Quantifying the Arctic methane budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warwick, Nicola; Cain, Michelle; Pyle, John

    2014-05-01

    The Arctic is a major source of atmospheric methane, containing climate-sensitive emissions from natural wetlands and gas hydrates, as well as the fossil fuel industry. Both wetland and gas hydrate methane emissions from the Arctic may increase with increasing temperature, resulting in a positive feedback leading to enhancement of climate warming. It is important that these poorly-constrained sources are quantified by location and strength and their vulnerability to change be assessed. The MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic: Measurements, process studies and Modelling') addresses these issues as part of the UK NERC Arctic Programme. A global chemistry transport model has been used, along with MAMM and other long term observations, to assess our understanding of the different source and sink terms in the Arctic methane budget. Simulations including methane coloured by source and latitude are used to distinguish between Arctic seasonal variability arising from transport and that arising from changes in Arctic sources and sinks. Methane isotopologue tracers provide a further constraint on modelled methane variability, distinguishing between isotopically light and heavy sources (e.g. wetlands and gas fields). We focus on quantifying the magnitude and seasonal variability of Arctic wetland emissions.

  20. Quantifying actin wave modulation on periodic topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Can; Driscoll, Meghan; Sun, Xiaoyu; Parker, Joshua; Fourkas, John; Carlsson, Anders; Losert, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Actin is the essential builder of the cell cytoskeleton, whose dynamics are responsible for generating the necessary forces for the formation of protrusions. By exposing amoeboid cells to periodic topographical cues, we show that actin can be directionally guided via inducing preferential polymerization waves. To quantify the dynamics of these actin waves and their interaction with the substrate, we modify a technique from computer vision called ``optical flow.'' We obtain vectors that represent the apparent actin flow and cluster these vectors to obtain patches of newly polymerized actin, which represent actin waves. Using this technique, we compare experimental results, including speed distribution of waves and distance from the wave centroid to the closest ridge, with actin polymerization simulations. We hypothesize the modulation of the activity of nucleation promotion factors on ridges (elevated regions of the surface) as a potential mechanism for the wave-substrate coupling. Funded by NIH grant R01GM085574.

  1. Terahertz spectroscopy for quantifying refined oil mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-nan; Li, Jian; Zeng, Zhou-mo; Li, Jie; Tian, Zhen; Wang, Wei-kui

    2012-08-20

    In this paper, the absorption coefficient spectra of samples prepared as mixtures of gasoline and diesel in different proportions are obtained by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. To quantify the components of refined oil mixtures, a method is proposed to evaluate the best frequency band for regression analysis. With the data in this frequency band, dualistic linear regression fitting is used to determine the volume fraction of gasoline and diesel in the mixture based on the Beer-Lambert law. The minimum of regression fitting R-Square is 0.99967, and the mean error of fitted volume fraction of 97# gasoline is 4.3%. Results show that refined oil mixtures can be quantitatively analyzed through absorption coefficient spectra in terahertz frequency, which it has bright application prospects in the storage and transportation field for refined oil. PMID:22907017

  2. Quantifying Information Flow between Two Chaotic Semiconductor Lasers Using Symbolic Transfer Entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nian-Qiang; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lian-Shan; Luo, Bin; Xu, Ming-Feng; Tang, Yi-Long

    2012-03-01

    Symbolic transfer entropy (STE) is employed to quantify the dominant direction of information flow between two chaotic-semiconductor-laser time series. The information flow in unidirectionally and bidirectionally coupled systems was analyzed systematically. Numerical results show that the dependence relationship can be revealed if there exists any coupling between two chaotic semiconductor lasers. More importantly, in both unsynchronized and good synchronization regimes, the STE can be used to quantify the direction of information flow between the lasers, although the former case leads to a better identification. The results thus establish STE as an effective tool for quantifying the direction of information flow between chaotic-laser-based systems.

  3. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study. PMID:27464816

  4. Quantifying water diffusion in secondary organic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Hannah; Murray, Benjamin; Mattsson, Johan; O'Sullivan, Daniel; Wilson, Theodore; Zhang, Yue; Martin, Scot

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that some secondary organic aerosol (SOA) is highly viscous under certain atmospheric conditions. This may have important consequences for equilibration timescales, SOA growth, heterogeneous chemistry and ice nucleation. In order to quantify these effects, knowledge of the diffusion coefficients of relevant gas species within aerosol particles is vital. In this work, a Raman isotope tracer method is used to quantify water diffusion coefficients over a range of atmospherically relevant humidity and temperature conditions. D2O is observed as it diffuses from the gas phase into a disk of aqueous solution, without the disk changing in size or viscosity. An analytical solution of Fick's second law is then used with a fitting procedure to determine water diffusion coefficients in reference materials for method validation. The technique is then extended to compounds of atmospheric relevance and α-pinene secondary organic material. We produce water diffusion coefficients from 20 to 80 % RH at 23.5° C for sucrose, levoglucosan, M5AS and MgSO4. For levoglucosan we show that under conditions where a particle bounces, water diffusion in aqueous solutions can be fast (a fraction of a second for a 100 nm radius). For sucrose solutions, we also show that the Stokes-Einstein relation breaks down at high viscosity and cannot be used to predict water diffusion timescales with accuracy. In addition, we also quantify water diffusion coefficients in α-pinene SOM from 20-80% RH and over temperatures from 6 to -30° C. Our results suggest that, at 6° C, water diffusion in α-pinene SOA is not kinetically limited on the second timescale, even at 20% RH. As temperatures decrease, however, diffusion slows and may become an increasingly limiting factor for atmospheric processes. A parameterization for the diffusion coefficient of water in α-pinene secondary organic material, as a function of relative humidity and temperature, is presented. The implications for

  5. Quantifying the quiet epidemic

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During the late 20th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that ‘reliable modes of diagnosis’ were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated ‘top priority’. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts. PMID:25866448

  6. Quantifying nonisothermal subsurface soil water evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deol, Pukhraj; Heitman, Josh; Amoozegar, Aziz; Ren, Tusheng; Horton, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Accurate quantification of energy and mass transfer during soil water evaporation is critical for improving understanding of the hydrologic cycle and for many environmental, agricultural, and engineering applications. Drying of soil under radiation boundary conditions results in formation of a dry surface layer (DSL), which is accompanied by a shift in the position of the latent heat sink from the surface to the subsurface. Detailed investigation of evaporative dynamics within this active near-surface zone has mostly been limited to modeling, with few measurements available to test models. Soil column studies were conducted to quantify nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles using a sensible heat balance (SHB) approach. Eleven-needle heat pulse probes were used to measure soil temperature and thermal property distributions at the millimeter scale in the near-surface soil. Depth-integrated SHB evaporation rates were compared with mass balance evaporation estimates under controlled laboratory conditions. The results show that the SHB method effectively measured total subsurface evaporation rates with only 0.01-0.03 mm h-1difference from mass balance estimates. The SHB approach also quantified millimeter-scale nonisothermal subsurface evaporation profiles over a drying event, which has not been previously possible. Thickness of the DSL was also examined using measured soil thermal conductivity distributions near the drying surface. Estimates of the DSL thickness were consistent with observed evaporation profile distributions from SHB. Estimated thickness of the DSL was further used to compute diffusive vapor flux. The diffusive vapor flux also closely matched both mass balance evaporation rates and subsurface evaporation rates estimated from SHB.

  7. Working Memory Mechanism in Proportional Quantifier Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Szymanik, Jakub; Garraffa, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores the cognitive mechanisms involved in the verification of sentences with proportional quantifiers (e.g. "More than half of the dots are blue"). The first study shows that the verification of proportional sentences is more demanding than the verification of sentences such as: "There are seven blue and eight yellow…

  8. Holographic mixing quantified

    SciTech Connect

    Batell, Brian; Gherghetta, Tony

    2007-08-15

    We compute the precise elementary/composite field content of mass eigenstates in holographic duals of warped models in a slice of AdS{sub 5}. This is accomplished by decomposing the bulk fields not in the usual Kaluza-Klein basis, but rather into a holographic basis of 4D fields, corresponding to purely elementary source or conformal field theory (CFT) composite fields. Generically, this decomposition yields kinetic and mass mixing between the elementary and composite sectors of the holographic theory. Depending on where the bulk zero mode is localized, the elementary/composite content may differ radically, which we show explicitly for several examples including the bulk Randall-Sundrum graviton, bulk gauge boson, and Higgs boson.

  9. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  10. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  11. Children's interpretations of general quantifiers, specific quantifiers, and generics

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Susan A.; Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Was, Alexandra M.; Koch, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several scholars have hypothesized that generics are a default mode of generalization, and thus that young children may at first treat quantifiers as if they were generic in meaning. To address this issue, the present experiment provides the first in-depth, controlled examination of the interpretation of generics compared to both general quantifiers ("all Xs", "some Xs") and specific quantifiers ("all of these Xs", "some of these Xs"). We provided children (3 and 5 years) and adults with explicit frequency information regarding properties of novel categories, to chart when "some", "all", and generics are deemed appropriate. The data reveal three main findings. First, even 3-year-olds distinguish generics from quantifiers. Second, when children make errors, they tend to be in the direction of treating quantifiers like generics. Third, children were more accurate when interpreting specific versus general quantifiers. We interpret these data as providing evidence for the position that generics are a default mode of generalization, especially when reasoning about kinds. PMID:25893205

  12. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with

  13. Quantifying the seismicity on Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2013-07-01

    We quantify the seismicity on the island of Taiwan using the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes since 1900. A break in Gutenberg-Richter scaling for large earthquakes in global seismicity has been observed, this break is also observed in our Taiwan study. The seismic data from the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network are in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter relation taking b ≈ 1 when M < 7. For large earthquakes, M ≥ 7, the seismic data fit Gutenberg-Richter scaling with b ≈ 1.5. If the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for M < 7 earthquakes is extrapolated to larger earthquakes, we would expect a M > 8 earthquake in the study region about every 25 yr. However, our analysis shows a lower frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes so that the expected frequency of M > 8 earthquakes is about 200 yr. The level of seismicity for smaller earthquakes on Taiwan is about 12 times greater than in Southern California and the possibility of a M ≈ 9 earthquake north or south of Taiwan cannot be ruled out. In light of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear disaster, we also discuss the implications of our study for the three operating nuclear power plants on the coast of Taiwan.

  14. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min-Hui; Reager, John T.; Famiglietti, James S.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human-dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE-based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions.

  15. Quantifying renewable groundwater stress with GRACE

    PubMed Central

    Richey, Alexandra S.; Thomas, Brian F.; Lo, Min‐Hui; Reager, John T.; Voss, Katalyn; Swenson, Sean; Rodell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Groundwater is an increasingly important water supply source globally. Understanding the amount of groundwater used versus the volume available is crucial to evaluate future water availability. We present a groundwater stress assessment to quantify the relationship between groundwater use and availability in the world's 37 largest aquifer systems. We quantify stress according to a ratio of groundwater use to availability, which we call the Renewable Groundwater Stress ratio. The impact of quantifying groundwater use based on nationally reported groundwater withdrawal statistics is compared to a novel approach to quantify use based on remote sensing observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission. Four characteristic stress regimes are defined: Overstressed, Variable Stress, Human‐dominated Stress, and Unstressed. The regimes are a function of the sign of use (positive or negative) and the sign of groundwater availability, defined as mean annual recharge. The ability to mitigate and adapt to stressed conditions, where use exceeds sustainable water availability, is a function of economic capacity and land use patterns. Therefore, we qualitatively explore the relationship between stress and anthropogenic biomes. We find that estimates of groundwater stress based on withdrawal statistics are unable to capture the range of characteristic stress regimes, especially in regions dominated by sparsely populated biome types with limited cropland. GRACE‐based estimates of use and stress can holistically quantify the impact of groundwater use on stress, resulting in both greater magnitudes of stress and more variability of stress between regions. PMID:26900185

  16. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Guo, H.; King, L. E.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM) to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants) as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with the large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (Coefficient of Variation of 12% for standards, 4% for ambient samples), and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min-1). Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9). The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE) to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, road-side, and rural) in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per air volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88), suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in southeast US. However, the greater heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per PM mass basis) across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the instrument can also be used to determine oxidative potential with other acellular assays.

  17. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  18. Detecting, visualising, and quantifying mucins.

    PubMed

    Harrop, Ceri A; Thornton, David J; McGuckin, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    The extreme size, extensive glycosylation, and gel-forming nature of mucins make them a challenge to work with, and methodologies for the detection of mucins must take into consideration these features to ensure that one obtains both accurate and meaningful results. In understanding and appreciating the nature of mucins, this affords the researcher a valuable toolkit which can be used to full advantage in detecting, quantifying, and visualising mucins. The employment of a combinatorial approach to mucin detection, using antibody, chemical, and lectin detection methods, allows important information to be gleaned regarding the size, extent of glycosylation, specific mucin species, and distribution of mucins within a given sample. In this chapter, the researcher is guided through considerations into the structure of mucins and how this both affects the detection of mucins and can be used to full advantage. Techniques including ELISA, dot/slot blotting, and Western blotting, use of lectins and antibodies in mucin detection on membranes as well as immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence on both tissues and cells grown on Transwell™ inserts are described. Notes along with each section advice the researcher on best practice and describe any associated limitations of a particular technique from which the researcher can further develop a particular protocol. PMID:22259129

  19. A semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of ambient particles in aqueous extracts using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay: results from the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution and Epidemiology (SCAPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, T.; Verma, V.; Guo, H.; King, L. E.; Edgerton, E. S.; Weber, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of methods are used to measure the capability of particulate matter (PM) to catalytically generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo, also defined as the aerosol oxidative potential. A widely used measure of aerosol oxidative potential is the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay, which monitors the depletion of DTT (a surrogate for cellular antioxidants) as catalyzed by the redox-active species in PM. However, a major constraint in the routine use of the DTT assay for integrating it with large-scale health studies is its labor-intensive and time-consuming protocol. To specifically address this concern, we have developed a semi-automated system for quantifying the oxidative potential of aerosol liquid extracts using the DTT assay. The system, capable of unattended analysis at one sample per hour, has a high analytical precision (coefficient of variation of 15% for positive control, 4% for ambient samples) and reasonably low limit of detection (0.31 nmol min-1). Comparison of the automated approach with the manual method conducted on ambient samples yielded good agreement (slope = 1.08 ± 0.12, r2 = 0.92, N = 9). The system was utilized for the Southeastern Center for Air Pollution & Epidemiology (SCAPE) to generate an extensive data set on DTT activity of ambient particles collected from contrasting environments (urban, roadside, and rural) in the southeastern US. We find that water-soluble PM2.5 DTT activity on a per-air-volume basis was spatially uniform and often well correlated with PM2.5 mass (r = 0.49 to 0.88), suggesting regional sources contributing to the PM oxidative potential in the southeastern US. The correlation may also suggest a mechanistic explanation (oxidative stress) for observed PM2.5 mass-health associations. The heterogeneity in the intrinsic DTT activity (per-PM-mass basis) across seasons indicates variability in the DTT activity associated with aerosols from sources that vary with season. Although developed for the DTT assay, the

  20. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  1. A methodology for quantifying seated lumbar curvatures.

    PubMed

    Leitkam, Samuel T; Bush, Tamara Reid; Li, Mingfei

    2011-11-01

    To understand the role seating plays in the support of posture and spinal articulation, it is necessary to study the interface between a human and the seat. However, a method to quantify lumbar curvature in commercially available unmodified seats does not currently exist. This work sought to determine if the lumbar curvature for normal ranges of seated posture could be documented by using body landmarks located on the anterior portion of the body. The development of such a methodology will allow researchers to evaluate spinal articulation of a seated subject while in standard, commercially available seats and chairs. Anterior measurements of boney landmarks were used to quantify the relative positions of the ribcage and pelvis while simultaneous posterior measurements were made of lumbar curvature. The relationship between the anterior and the posterior measures was compared. The predictive capacity of this approach was evaluated by determining linear and second-order regressions for each of the four postures across all subjects and conducting a leave-one-out cross validation. The relationships between the anterior and posterior measures were approximated by linear and second-order polynomial regressions (r(2 ) =  0.829, 0.935 respectively) across all postures. The quantitative analysis showed that openness had a significant relationship with lumbar curvature, and a first-order regression was superior to a second-order regression. Average standard errors in the prediction were 5.9° for the maximum kyphotic posture, 9.9° for the comfortable posture, 12.8° for the straight and tall, and 22.2° for the maximum lordotic posture. These results show predictions of lumbar curvature are possible in seated postures by using a motion capture system and anterior measures. This method of lumbar curvature prediction shows potential for use in the assessment of seated spinal curvatures and the corresponding design of seating to accommodate those curvatures; however

  2. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  3. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  4. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  5. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  6. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  7. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  8. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  9. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-01

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR), a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  10. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods tested are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the

  11. Quantifying uncertainty in stable isotope mixing models

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Davis, Paul; Syme, James; Heikoop, Jeffrey; Fessenden-Rahn, Julianna; Perkins, George; Newman, Brent; Chrystal, Abbey E.; Hagerty, Shannon B.

    2015-05-19

    Mixing models are powerful tools for identifying biogeochemical sources and determining mixing fractions in a sample. However, identification of actual source contributors is often not simple, and source compositions typically vary or even overlap, significantly increasing model uncertainty in calculated mixing fractions. This study compares three probabilistic methods, SIAR [Parnell et al., 2010] a pure Monte Carlo technique (PMC), and Stable Isotope Reference Source (SIRS) mixing model, a new technique that estimates mixing in systems with more than three sources and/or uncertain source compositions. In this paper, we use nitrate stable isotope examples (δ15N and δ18O) but all methods testedmore » are applicable to other tracers. In Phase I of a three-phase blind test, we compared methods for a set of six-source nitrate problems. PMC was unable to find solutions for two of the target water samples. The Bayesian method, SIAR, experienced anchoring problems, and SIRS calculated mixing fractions that most closely approximated the known mixing fractions. For that reason, SIRS was the only approach used in the next phase of testing. In Phase II, the problem was broadened where any subset of the six sources could be a possible solution to the mixing problem. Results showed a high rate of Type I errors where solutions included sources that were not contributing to the sample. In Phase III some sources were eliminated based on assumed site knowledge and assumed nitrate concentrations, substantially reduced mixing fraction uncertainties and lowered the Type I error rate. These results demonstrate that valuable insights into stable isotope mixing problems result from probabilistic mixing model approaches like SIRS. The results also emphasize the importance of identifying a minimal set of potential sources and quantifying uncertainties in source isotopic composition as well as demonstrating the value of additional information in reducing the uncertainty in calculated

  12. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  13. Incremental comprehension of spoken quantifier sentences: Evidence from brain potentials.

    PubMed

    Freunberger, Dominik; Nieuwland, Mante S

    2016-09-01

    Do people incrementally incorporate the meaning of quantifier expressions to understand an unfolding sentence? Most previous studies concluded that quantifiers do not immediately influence how a sentence is understood based on the observation that online N400-effects differed from offline plausibility judgments. Those studies, however, used serial visual presentation (SVP), which involves unnatural reading. In the current ERP-experiment, we presented spoken positive and negative quantifier sentences ("Practically all/practically no postmen prefer delivering mail, when the weather is good/bad during the day"). Different from results obtained in a previously reported SVP-study (Nieuwland, 2016) sentence truth-value N400 effects occurred in positive and negative quantifier sentences alike, reflecting fully incremental quantifier comprehension. This suggests that the prosodic information available during spoken language comprehension supports the generation of online predictions for upcoming words and that, at least for quantifier sentences, comprehension of spoken language may proceed more incrementally than comprehension during SVP reading. PMID:27346365

  14. Quantifying reliability uncertainty : a proof of concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Diegert, Kathleen V.; Dvorack, Michael A.; Ringland, James T.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Huzurbazar, Aparna; Lorio, John F.; Fatherley, Quinn; Anderson-Cook, Christine; Wilson, Alyson G.; Zurn, Rena M.

    2009-10-01

    This paper develops Classical and Bayesian methods for quantifying the uncertainty in reliability for a system of mixed series and parallel components for which both go/no-go and variables data are available. Classical methods focus on uncertainty due to sampling error. Bayesian methods can explore both sampling error and other knowledge-based uncertainties. To date, the reliability community has focused on qualitative statements about uncertainty because there was no consensus on how to quantify them. This paper provides a proof of concept that workable, meaningful quantification methods can be constructed. In addition, the application of the methods demonstrated that the results from the two fundamentally different approaches can be quite comparable. In both approaches, results are sensitive to the details of how one handles components for which no failures have been seen in relatively few tests.

  15. Use of the Concept of Equivalent Biologically Effective Dose (BED) to Quantify the Contribution of Hyperthermia to Local Tumor Control in Radiohyperthermia Cervical Cancer Trials, and Comparison With Radiochemotherapy Results

    SciTech Connect

    Plataniotis, George A. Dale, Roger G.

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To express the magnitude of contribution of hyperthermia to local tumor control in radiohyperthermia (RT/HT) cervical cancer trials, in terms of the radiation-equivalent biologically effective dose (BED) and to explore the potential of the combined modalities in the treatment of this neoplasm. Materials and Methods: Local control rates of both arms of each study (RT vs. RT+HT) reported from randomized controlled trials (RCT) on concurrent RT/HT for cervical cancer were reviewed. By comparing the two tumor control probabilities (TCPs) from each study, we calculated the HT-related log cell-kill and then expressed it in terms of the number of 2 Gy fraction equivalents, for a range of tumor volumes and radiosensitivities. We have compared the contribution of each modality and made some exploratory calculations on the TCPs that might be expected from a combined trimodality treatment (RT+CT+HT). Results: The HT-equivalent number of 2-Gy fractions ranges from 0.6 to 4.8 depending on radiosensitivity. Opportunities for clinically detectable improvement by the addition of HT are only available in tumors with an alpha value in the approximate range of 0.22-0.28 Gy{sup -1}. A combined treatment (RT+CT+HT) is not expected to improve prognosis in radioresistant tumors. Conclusion: The most significant improvements in TCP, which may result from the combination of RT/CT/HT for locally advanced cervical carcinomas, are likely to be limited only to those patients with tumors of relatively low-intermediate radiosensitivity.

  16. Quantifying and measuring cyber resiliency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cybenko, George

    2016-05-01

    Cyber resliency has become an increasingly attractive research and operational concept in cyber security. While several metrics have been proposed for quantifying cyber resiliency, a considerable gap remains between those metrics and operationally measurable and meaningful concepts that can be empirically determined in a scientific manner. This paper describes a concrete notion of cyber resiliency that can be tailored to meet specific needs of organizations that seek to introduce resiliency into their assessment of their cyber security posture.

  17. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  18. Quantifying potential recharge in mantled sinkholes using ERT.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Benjamin F; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2009-01-01

    Potential recharge through thick soils in mantled sinkholes was quantified using differential electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Conversion of time series two-dimensional (2D) ERT profiles into 2D volumetric water content profiles using a numerically optimized form of Archie's law allowed us to monitor temporal changes in water content in soil profiles up to 9 m in depth. Combining Penman-Monteith daily potential evapotranspiration (PET) and daily precipitation data with potential recharge calculations for three sinkhole transects indicates that potential recharge occurred only during brief intervals over the study period and ranged from 19% to 31% of cumulative precipitation. Spatial analysis of ERT-derived water content showed that infiltration occurred both on sinkhole flanks and in sinkhole bottoms. Results also demonstrate that mantled sinkholes can act as regions of both rapid and slow recharge. Rapid recharge is likely the result of flow through macropores (such as root casts and thin gravel layers), while slow recharge is the result of unsaturated flow through fine-grained sediments. In addition to developing a new method for quantifying potential recharge at the field scale in unsaturated conditions, we show that mantled sinkholes are an important component of storage in a karst system. PMID:18823398

  19. Children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports (in 24-h dietary recalls): conventional and reporting-error-sensitive measures show inconsistent accuracy results for retention interval and breakfast location.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne D; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Albert F; Hitchcock, David B; Royer, Julie A; Puryear, Megan P; Collins, Kathleen L; Smith, Alyssa L

    2016-04-14

    Validation-study data were analysed to investigate retention interval (RI) and prompt effects on the accuracy of fourth-grade children's reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch (in 24-h recalls), and the accuracy of school-breakfast reports by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria). Randomly selected fourth-grade children at ten schools in four districts were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch, and were interviewed under one of eight conditions created by crossing two RIs ('short'--prior-24-hour recall obtained in the afternoon and 'long'--previous-day recall obtained in the morning) with four prompts ('forward'--distant to recent, 'meal name'--breakfast, etc., 'open'--no instructions, and 'reverse'--recent to distant). Each condition had sixty children (half were girls). Of 480 children, 355 and 409 reported meals satisfying criteria for reports of school-breakfast and school-lunch, respectively. For breakfast and lunch separately, a conventional measure--report rate--and reporting-error-sensitive measures--correspondence rate and inflation ratio--were calculated for energy per meal-reporting child. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio--but not report rate--showed better accuracy for school-breakfast and school-lunch reports with the short RI than with the long RI; this pattern was not found for some prompts for each sex. Correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better school-breakfast report accuracy for the classroom than for cafeteria location for each prompt, but report rate showed the opposite. For each RI, correspondence rate and inflation ratio showed better accuracy for lunch than for breakfast, but report rate showed the opposite. When choosing RI and prompts for recalls, researchers and practitioners should select a short RI to maximise accuracy. Recommendations for prompt selections are less clear. As report rates distort validation-study accuracy conclusions, reporting-error-sensitive measures are recommended. PMID

  20. Tracking and Quantifying Objects and Non-Cohesive Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Marle, Kristy; Wynn, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested infants' ability to assess and compare quantities of a food substance. Contrary to previous findings, the results suggest that by 10 months of age infants can quantify non-cohesive substances, and that this ability is different in important ways from their ability to quantify discrete objects: (1) In contrast to even much…

  1. Quantifying Order in Poly(3-hexylthiophene)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Chad; Nieuwendaal, Ryan; Delongchamp, Dean; Luscombe, Christine; Sista, Prakash; Boyd, Shane

    2014-03-01

    While poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is one of the most studied polymers in organic electronics, it remains one of the most challenging in terms of quantitative measures of its order, e.g., crystallinity. To address this challenge, we prepared a series of highly regioregular P3HT fractions ranging from 3.3 kg/mol to 23 kg/mol. Using this series plus a high molar mass (62 kg/mol) commercial material, we compare different metrics for order in P3HT via calorimetry, solid state NMR, and x-ray diffraction. We reconcile the results of our work with those of recent studies on oligomeric (3-hexylthiophenes). One challenges of quantifying low molar mass P3HT samples via DSC is a thermal fractionation effect due to varying chain lengths. We quantify these effects in our molar mass series, and a clear crossover region from extended chain crystals to chain folded crystals is identified through the thermal fractionation process. New values for the enthalpy of fusion of high molar mass P3HT and its equilibrium melting temperature are established through our work. Another result of our research is the validation of high heating rate DSC methods for quantifying crystallinity in P3HT samples with device relevant film thicknesses.

  2. Anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents: an event-related brain potential study.

    PubMed

    Filik, Ruth; Leuthold, Hartmut; Moxey, Linda M; Sanford, Anthony J

    2011-11-01

    We report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study examining how readers process sentences containing anaphoric reference to quantified antecedents. Previous studies indicate that positive (e.g. many) and negative (e.g. not many) quantifiers cause readers to focus on different sets of entities. For example in Many of the fans attended the game, focus is on the fans who attended (the reference set), and subsequent pronominal reference to this set, as in, Their presence was a boost to the team, is facilitated. In contrast, if many is replaced by not many, focus shifts to the fans who did not attend (the complement set), and reference to this set, as in, Their absence was disappointing, is preferred. In the current studies, the electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded while participants read positive or negative quantified statements followed by anaphoric reference to the reference set or complement set. Results showed that the pronoun their elicited a larger N400 following negative than positive quantifiers. There was also a larger N400 on the disambiguating word (presence/absence) for complement set reference following a positive quantifier, and for reference set reference following a negative quantifier. Findings are discussed in relation to theoretical accounts of complement anaphora. PMID:21986293

  3. PARAMETERS FOR QUANTIFYING BEAM HALO

    SciTech Connect

    C.K. ALLEN; T.P. WANGLER

    2001-06-01

    Two different parameters for the quantitative description of beam halo are introduced, both based on moments of the particle distribution. One parameter is a measure of spatial halo formation and has been defined previously by Wangler and Crandall [3], termed the profile parameter. The second parameter relies on kinematic invariants to quantify halo formation in phase space; we call it the halo parameter. The profile parameter can be computed from experimental beam profile data. The halo parameter provides a theoretically more complete description of halo in phase space, but is difficult to obtain experimentally.

  4. Quantifying Connectivity in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D.; Watson, J.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J.

    2008-12-01

    The quantification of coastal connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from marine pollution to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, coastal connectivity is best defined as the probability that water parcels from one nearshore location are advected to another site over a given time interval. Here, we demonstrate how to quantify coastal connectivity using Lagrangian probability- density function (PDF) methods, a classic modeling approach for many turbulent applications, and numerical solutions of coastal circulation for the Southern California Bight. Mean dispersal patterns from a single release site (or Lagrangian PDFs) show a strong dependency to the particle-release location and seasonal variability, reflecting circulation patterns in the Southern California Bight. Strong interannual variations, responding to El Nino and La Nina transitions are also observed. Mean connectivity patterns, deduced from Lagrangian PDFs, is spatially heterogeneous for the advection time of around 30 days or less, resulting from distinctive circulation patterns, and becomes more homogeneous for a longer advection time. A given realization of connectivity is stochastic because of eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind forcing changes. In general, mainland sites are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor source sites, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the Southern California Bight (e.g., designing marine protected areas, understanding gene structures, and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and provide a path for assessing connectivity for other regions of the coastal ocean.

  5. Quantifying crystal-melt segregation in dykes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Duretz, Thibault; May, Dave A.; Tartèse, Romain

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of magma flow is highly affected by the presence of a crystalline load. During magma ascent, it has been demonstrated that crystal-melt segregation constitutes a viable mechanism for magmatic differentiation. However, the influences of crystal volume fraction, geometry, size and density on crystal melt segregation are still not well constrained. In order to address these issues, we performed a parametric study using 2D direct numerical simulations, which model the ascension of crystal-bearing magma in a vertical dyke. Using these models, we have characterised the amount of segregation as a function of different quantities including: the crystal fraction (φ), the density contrast between crystals and melt (Δρ), the size of the crystals (Ac) and their aspect ratio (R). Results show that crystal aspect ratio does not affect the segregation if R is small enough (long axis smaller than ~1/6 of the dyke width, Wd). Inertia within the system was also found not to influence crystal-melt segregation. The degree of segregation was however found to be highly dependent upon other parameters. Segregation is highest when Δρ and Ac are large, and lowest for large pressure gradient (Pd) and/or large values of Wd. These four parameters can be combined into a single one, the Snumber, which can be used to quantify the segregation. Based on systematic numerical modelling and dimensional analysis, we provide a first order scaling law which allows quantification of the segregation for an arbitrary Snumber and φ, encompassing a wide range of typical parameters encountered in terrestrial magmatic systems.

  6. Results, Results, Results?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Dale

    2000-01-01

    Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

  7. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion

  8. Quantifying pulsed laser induced damage to graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Marc; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Bezares, Francisco J.; Robinson, Jeremy; Anderson, Travis; Chun, Hayden; Tadjer, Marko

    2011-11-21

    As an emerging optical material, graphene's ultrafast dynamics are often probed using pulsed lasers yet the region in which optical damage takes place is largely uncharted. Here, femtosecond laser pulses induced localized damage in single-layer graphene on sapphire. Raman spatial mapping, SEM, and AFM microscopy quantified the damage. The resulting size of the damaged area has a linear correlation with the optical fluence. These results demonstrate local modification of sp{sup 2}-carbon bonding structures with optical pulse fluences as low as 14 mJ/cm{sup 2}, an order-of-magnitude lower than measured and theoretical ablation thresholds.

  9. Quantifying torso deformity in scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Kumar, Anish; Durdle, Nelson G.; Raso, V. James

    2006-03-01

    Scoliosis affects the alignment of the spine and the shape of the torso. Most scoliosis patients and their families are more concerned about the effect of scoliosis on the torso than its effect on the spine. There is a need to develop robust techniques for quantifying torso deformity based on full torso scans. In this paper, deformation indices obtained from orthogonal maps of full torso scans are used to quantify torso deformity in scoliosis. 'Orthogonal maps' are obtained by applying orthogonal transforms to 3D surface maps. (An 'orthogonal transform' maps a cylindrical coordinate system to a Cartesian coordinate system.) The technique was tested on 361 deformed computer models of the human torso and on 22 scans of volunteers (8 normal and 14 scoliosis). Deformation indices from the orthogonal maps correctly classified up to 95% of the volunteers with a specificity of 1.00 and a sensitivity of 0.91. In addition to classifying scoliosis, the system gives a visual representation of the entire torso in one view and is viable for use in a clinical environment for managing scoliosis.

  10. Towards quantifying fuzzy stream power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanghart, W.; Korup, O.

    2012-04-01

    Deterministic flow direction algorithms such as the D8 have wide application in numerical models of landscape evolution. These simple algorithms play a central role in quantifying drainage basin area, and hence approximating—via empirically derived relationships from regional flood frequency and hydraulic geometry—stream power or fluvial erosion potential. Here we explore how alternative algorithms that employ a probabilistic choice of flow direction affect quantitative estimates of stream power. We test a probabilistic multi-flow direction algorithm within the MATLAB TopoToolbox in model and real landscapes of low topographic relief and minute gradients, where potentially fuzzy drainage divides are dictated by, among others, alluvial fan dynamics, playa infill, and groundwater fluxes and seepage. We employ a simplistic numerical landscape evolution model that simulates fluvial incision and hillslope diffusion and explicitly models the existence and capture of endorheic basins that prevail in (semi-)arid, low-relief landscapes. We discuss how using this probabilistic multi-flow direction algorithm helps represent and quantify uncertainty about spatio-temporal drainage divide locations and how this bears on quantitative estimates of downstream stream power and fluvial erosion potential as well as their temporal dynamics.

  11. SPACE: an algorithm to predict and quantify alternatively spliced isoforms using microarrays.

    PubMed

    Anton, Miguel A; Gorostiaga, Dorleta; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Segura, Victor; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Pascual-Montano, Alberto; Pio, Ruben; Montuenga, Luis M; Rubio, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Exon and exon+junction microarrays are promising tools for studying alternative splicing. Current analytical tools applied to these arrays lack two relevant features: the ability to predict unknown spliced forms and the ability to quantify the concentration of known and unknown isoforms. SPACE is an algorithm that has been developed to (1) estimate the number of different transcripts expressed under several conditions, (2) predict the precursor mRNA splicing structure and (3) quantify the transcript concentrations including unknown forms. The results presented here show its robustness and accuracy for real and simulated data. PMID:18312629

  12. Children's knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure: quantifier floating in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takaaki; Yoshinaga, Naoko

    2013-06-01

    The interpretation of floating quantifiers in Japanese requires knowledge of hierarchical phrase structure. However, the input to children is insufficient or even misleading, as our analysis indicates. This presents an intriguing question on learnability: do children interpret floating quantifiers based on a structure-dependent rule which is not obvious in the input or do they employ a sentence comprehension strategy based on the available input? Two experiments examined four- to six-year-old Japanese-speaking children for their interpretations of floating quantifiers in SOV and OSV sentences. The results revealed that no child employed a comprehension strategy in terms of the linear ordering of constituents, and most five- and six-year-olds correctly interpreted floating quantifiers when word-order difficulty was reduced. These facts indicate that children's interpretation of floating quantifiers is structurally dependent on hierarchical phrase structure, suggesting that this knowledge is a part of children's grammar despite the insufficient input available to them. PMID:22850618

  13. Comprehension of simple quantifiers: empirical evaluation of a computational model.

    PubMed

    Szymanik, Jakub; Zajenkowski, Marcin

    2010-04-01

    We examine the verification of simple quantifiers in natural language from a computational model perspective. We refer to previous neuropsychological investigations of the same problem and suggest extending their experimental setting. Moreover, we give some direct empirical evidence linking computational complexity predictions with cognitive reality. In the empirical study we compare time needed for understanding different types of quantifiers. We show that the computational distinction between quantifiers recognized by finite-automata and push-down automata is psychologically relevant. Our research improves upon, the hypotheses and explanatory power of recent neuroimaging studies as well as provides evidence for the claim that human linguistic abilities are constrained by computational complexity. PMID:21564222

  14. Quantifying entanglement with witness operators

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao, Fernando G.S.L.

    2005-08-15

    We present a unifying approach to the quantification of entanglement based on entanglement witnesses, which includes several already established entanglement measures such as the negativity, the concurrence, and the robustness of entanglement. We then introduce an infinite family of new entanglement quantifiers, having as its limits the best separable approximation measure and the generalized robustness. Gaussian states, states with symmetry, states constrained to super-selection rules, and states composed of indistinguishable particles are studied under the view of the witnessed entanglement. We derive new bounds to the fidelity of teleportation d{sub min}, for the distillable entanglement E{sub D} and for the entanglement of formation. A particular measure, the PPT-generalized robustness, stands out due to its easy calculability and provides sharper bounds to d{sub min} and E{sub D} than the negativity in most of the states. We illustrate our approach studying thermodynamical properties of entanglement in the Heisenberg XXX and dimerized models.

  15. QUANTIFIERS UNDONE: REVERSING PREDICTABLE SPEECH ERRORS IN COMPREHENSION

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Lyn; Clifton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Speakers predictably make errors during spontaneous speech. Listeners may identify such errors and repair the input, or their analysis of the input, accordingly. Two written questionnaire studies investigated error compensation mechanisms in sentences with doubled quantifiers such as Many students often turn in their assignments late. Results show a considerable number of undoubled interpretations for all items tested (though fewer for sentences containing doubled negation than for sentences containing many-often, every-always or few-seldom.) This evidence shows that the compositional form-meaning pairing supplied by the grammar is not the only systematic mapping between form and meaning. Implicit knowledge of the workings of the performance systems provides an additional mechanism for pairing sentence form and meaning. Alternate accounts of the data based on either a concord interpretation or an emphatic interpretation of the doubled quantifier don’t explain why listeners fail to apprehend the ‘extra meaning’ added by the potentially redundant material only in limited circumstances. PMID:26478637

  16. Quantifying properties of ICM inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Kravtsov, A.; Lau, E. T.; Nagai, D.; Sunyaev, R.

    2013-02-01

    We present a new method to identify and characterize the structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) in simulated galaxy clusters. The method uses the median of gas properties, such as density and pressure, which we show to be very robust to the presence of gas inhomogeneities. In particular, we show that the radial profiles of median gas properties in cosmological simulations of clusters are smooth and do not exhibit fluctuations at locations of massive clumps in contrast to mean and mode properties. Analysis of simulations shows that distribution of gas properties in a given radial shell can be well described by a log-normal probability density function and a tail. The former corresponds to a nearly hydrostatic bulk component, accounting for ˜99 per cent of the volume, while the tail corresponds to high-density inhomogeneities. The clumps can thus be easily identified with the volume elements corresponding to the tail of the distribution. We show that this results in a simple and robust separation of the diffuse and clumpy components of the ICM. The full width at half-maximum of the density distribution in simulated clusters is a growing function of radius and varies from ˜0.15 dex in cluster centre to ˜0.5 dex at 2 r500 in relaxed clusters. The small scatter in the width between relaxed clusters suggests that the degree of inhomogeneity is a robust characteristic of the ICM. It broadly agrees with the amplitude of density perturbations found in the Coma cluster core. We discuss the origin of ICM density variations in spherical shells and show that less than 20 per cent of the width can be attributed to the triaxiality of the cluster gravitational potential. As a link to X-ray observations of real clusters we evaluated the ICM clumping factor, weighted with the temperature-dependent X-ray emissivity, with and without high-density inhomogeneities. We argue that these two cases represent upper and lower limits on the departure of the observed X-ray emissivity

  17. Quantifying entanglement with scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, O.; Epping, M.; Kampermann, H.; Bruß, D.; Plenio, M. B.; Cramer, M.

    2014-03-01

    We show how the entanglement contained in states of spins arranged on a lattice may be lower bounded with observables arising in scattering experiments. We focus on the partial differential cross section obtained in neutron scattering from magnetic materials but our results are sufficiently general such that they may also be applied to, e.g., optical Bragg scattering from ultracold atoms in optical lattices or from ion chains. We discuss resonating valence bond states and ground and thermal states of experimentally relevant models—such as the Heisenberg, Majumdar-Ghosh, and XY models—in different geometries and with different spin numbers. As a by-product, we find that for the one-dimensional XY model in a transverse field such measurements reveal factorization and the quantum phase transition at zero temperature.

  18. QUANTIFYING ASSAY VARIATION IN NUTRIENT ANALYSIS OF FEEDSTUFFS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical results from different laboratories have greater variation than those from a single laboratory, and this variation differs by nutrient. Objectives of this presentation are to describe methods for quantifying the analytical reproducibility among and repeatability within laboratories, estim...

  19. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  20. New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sign Up See recent e-Newsletters Preserving Your Memory Magazine Get Your Copy Now Subscribe to our ... 3 Letter Resources Articles Brochure Download Preserving Your Memory Magazine e-Newsletter Resource Locator Videos Charity Navigator ...

  1. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  2. Career and Technical Education: Show Us the Buck, We'll Show You the Bang!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Adult and CTE programs in California have been cut by about 60 percent over the past three years. A number of school districts have summarily eliminated these programs to preserve funding for other educational endeavors. The author says part of the problem has been the community's inability to communicate quantifiable results. One of the hottest…

  3. Evaluation of two methods for quantifying passeriform lice

    PubMed Central

    Koop, Jennifer A. H.; Clayton, Dale H.

    2013-01-01

    Two methods commonly used to quantify ectoparasites on live birds are visual examination and dust-ruffling. Visual examination provides an estimate of ectoparasite abundance based on an observer’s timed inspection of various body regions on a bird. Dust-ruffling involves application of insecticidal powder to feathers that are then ruffled to dislodge ectoparasites onto a collection surface where they can then be counted. Despite the common use of these methods in the field, the proportion of actual ectoparasites they account for has only been tested with Rock Pigeons (Columba livia), a relatively large-bodied species (238–302 g) with dense plumage. We tested the accuracy of the two methods using European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris; ~75 g). We first quantified the number of lice (Brueelia nebulosa) on starlings using visual examination, followed immediately by dust-ruffling. Birds were then euthanized and the proportion of lice accounted for by each method was compared to the total number of lice on each bird as determined with a body-washing method. Visual examination and dust-ruffling each accounted for a relatively small proportion of total lice (14% and 16%, respectively), but both were still significant predictors of abundance. The number of lice observed by visual examination accounted for 68% of the variation in total abundance. Similarly, the number of lice recovered by dust-ruffling accounted for 72% of the variation in total abundance. Our results show that both methods can be used to reliably quantify the abundance of lice on European Starlings and other similar-sized passerines. PMID:24039328

  4. Quantifying cell behaviors during embryonic wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashburn, David; Ma, Xiaoyan; Crews, Sarah; Lynch, Holley; McCleery, W. Tyler; Hutson, M. Shane

    2011-03-01

    During embryogenesis, internal forces induce motions in cells leading to widespread motion in tissues. We previously developed laser hole-drilling as a consistent, repeatable way to probe such epithelial mechanics. The initial recoil (less than 30s) gives information about physical properties (elasticity, force) of cells surrounding the wound, but the long-term healing process (tens of minutes) shows how cells adjust their behavior in response to stimuli. To study this biofeedback in many cells through time, we developed tools to quantify statistics of individual cells. By combining watershed segmentation with a powerful and efficient user interaction system, we overcome problems that arise in any automatic segmentation from poor image quality. We analyzed cell area, perimeter, aspect ratio, and orientation relative to wound for a wide variety of laser cuts in dorsal closure. We quantified statistics for different regions as well, i.e. cells near to and distant from the wound. Regional differences give a distribution of wound-induced changes, whose spatial localization provides clues into the physical/chemical signals that modulate the wound healing response. Supported by the Human Frontier Science Program (RGP0021/2007 C).

  5. Quantifying utricular stimulation during natural behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Angela R. V.; Davis, Julian; Grant, Wally; Blob, Richard W.; Peterson, Ellengene; Neiman, Alexander B.; Rowe, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The use of natural stimuli in neurophysiological studies has led to significant insights into the encoding strategies used by sensory neurons. To investigate these encoding strategies in vestibular receptors and neurons, we have developed a method for calculating the stimuli delivered to a vestibular organ, the utricle, during natural (unrestrained) behaviors, using the turtle as our experimental preparation. High-speed digital video sequences are used to calculate the dynamic gravito-inertial (GI) vector acting on the head during behavior. X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans are used to determine the orientation of the otoconial layer (OL) of the utricle within the head, and the calculated GI vectors are then rotated into the plane of the OL. Thus, the method allows us to quantify the spatio-temporal structure of stimuli to the OL during natural behaviors. In the future, these waveforms can be used as stimuli in neurophysiological experiments to understand how natural signals are encoded by vestibular receptors and neurons. We provide one example of the method which shows that turtle feeding behaviors can stimulate the utricle at frequencies higher than those typically used in vestibular studies. This method can be adapted to other species, to other vestibular end organs, and to other methods of quantifying head movements. PMID:22753360

  6. Quantifying Emergent Behavior of Autonomous Robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martius, Georg; Olbrich, Eckehard

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying behaviors of robots which were generated autonomously from task-independent objective functions is an important prerequisite for objective comparisons of algorithms and movements of animals. The temporal sequence of such a behavior can be considered as a time series and hence complexity measures developed for time series are natural candidates for its quantification. The predictive information and the excess entropy are such complexity measures. They measure the amount of information the past contains about the future and thus quantify the nonrandom structure in the temporal sequence. However, when using these measures for systems with continuous states one has to deal with the fact that their values will depend on the resolution with which the systems states are observed. For deterministic systems both measures will diverge with increasing resolution. We therefore propose a new decomposition of the excess entropy in resolution dependent and resolution independent parts and discuss how they depend on the dimensionality of the dynamics, correlations and the noise level. For the practical estimation we propose to use estimates based on the correlation integral instead of the direct estimation of the mutual information using the algorithm by Kraskov et al. (2004) which is based on next neighbor statistics because the latter allows less control of the scale dependencies. Using our algorithm we are able to show how autonomous learning generates behavior of increasing complexity with increasing learning duration.

  7. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

    2011-01-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

  8. Detecting and Quantifying Topography in Neural Maps

    PubMed Central

    Yarrow, Stuart; Razak, Khaleel A.; Seitz, Aaron R.; Seriès, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Topographic maps are an often-encountered feature in the brains of many species, yet there are no standard, objective procedures for quantifying topography. Topographic maps are typically identified and described subjectively, but in cases where the scale of the map is close to the resolution limit of the measurement technique, identifying the presence of a topographic map can be a challenging subjective task. In such cases, an objective topography detection test would be advantageous. To address these issues, we assessed seven measures (Pearson distance correlation, Spearman distance correlation, Zrehen's measure, topographic product, topological correlation, path length and wiring length) by quantifying topography in three classes of cortical map model: linear, orientation-like, and clusters. We found that all but one of these measures were effective at detecting statistically significant topography even in weakly-ordered maps, based on simulated noisy measurements of neuronal selectivity and sparse sampling of the maps. We demonstrate the practical applicability of these measures by using them to examine the arrangement of spatial cue selectivity in pallid bat A1. This analysis shows that significantly topographic arrangements of interaural intensity difference and azimuth selectivity exist at the scale of individual binaural clusters. PMID:24505279

  9. Quantifying the Shape of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wrycza, Tomasz F.; Missov, Trifon I.; Baudisch, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In Biodemography, aging is typically measured and compared based on aging rates. We argue that this approach may be misleading, because it confounds the time aspect with the mere change aspect of aging. To disentangle these aspects, here we utilize a time-standardized framework and, instead of aging rates, suggest the shape of aging as a novel and valuable alternative concept for comparative aging research. The concept of shape captures the direction and degree of change in the force of mortality over age, which—on a demographic level—reflects aging. We 1) provide a list of shape properties that are desirable from a theoretical perspective, 2) suggest several demographically meaningful and non-parametric candidate measures to quantify shape, and 3) evaluate performance of these measures based on the list of properties as well as based on an illustrative analysis of a simple dataset. The shape measures suggested here aim to provide a general means to classify aging patterns independent of any particular mortality model and independent of any species-specific time-scale. Thereby they support systematic comparative aging research across different species or between populations of the same species under different conditions and constitute an extension of the toolbox available to comparative research in Biodemography. PMID:25803427

  10. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Jha, Sumit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  11. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. PMID:26024057

  12. Quantifying macromolecular conformational transition pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, Sean; Kumar, Avishek; Thorpe, Michael; Beckstein, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Diverse classes of proteins function through large-scale conformational changes that are challenging for computer simulations. A range of fast path-sampling techniques have been used to generate transitions, but it has been difficult to compare paths from (and assess the relative strengths of) different methods. We introduce a comprehensive method (pathway similarity analysis, PSA) for quantitatively characterizing and comparing macromolecular pathways. The Hausdorff and Fréchet metrics (known from computational geometry) are used to quantify the degree of similarity between polygonal curves in configuration space. A strength of PSA is its use of the full information available from the 3 N-dimensional configuration space trajectory without requiring additional specific knowledge about the system. We compare a sample of eleven different methods for the closed-to-open transitions of the apo enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK) and also apply PSA to an ensemble of 400 AdK trajectories produced by dynamic importance sampling MD and the Geometrical Pathways algorithm. We discuss the method's potential to enhance our understanding of transition path sampling methods, validate them, and help guide future research toward deeper physical insights into conformational transitions.

  13. Quantifying Scheduling Challenges for Exascale System Software

    SciTech Connect

    Mondragon, Oscar; Bridges, Patrick G.; Jones, Terry R

    2015-01-01

    The move towards high-performance computing (HPC) ap- plications comprised of coupled codes and the need to dra- matically reduce data movement is leading to a reexami- nation of time-sharing vs. space-sharing in HPC systems. In this paper, we discuss and begin to quantify the perfor- mance impact of a move away from strict space-sharing of nodes for HPC applications. Specifically, we examine the po- tential performance cost of time-sharing nodes between ap- plication components, we determine whether a simple coor- dinated scheduling mechanism can address these problems, and we research how suitable simple constraint-based opti- mization techniques are for solving scheduling challenges in this regime. Our results demonstrate that current general- purpose HPC system software scheduling and resource al- location systems are subject to significant performance de- ciencies which we quantify for six representative applica- tions. Based on these results, we discuss areas in which ad- ditional research is needed to meet the scheduling challenges of next-generation HPC systems.

  14. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999-2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build.

  15. Quantifying lateral femoral condyle ellipticalness in chimpanzees, gorillas, and humans.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D; Pfisterer, Theresa

    2012-11-01

    Articular surfaces of limb bones provide information for understanding animal locomotion because their size and shape are a reflection of habitual postures and movements. Here we present a novel method for quantifying the ellipticalness (i.e., departure from perfectly circular) of the lateral femoral condyle (LFC), applying this technique to hominid femora. Three-dimensional surface models were created for 49 Homo sapiens, 34 Pan troglodytes and 25 Gorilla gorilla femora. Software was developed that fit separate cylinders to each of the femoral condyles. These cylinders were constrained to have a single axis, but could have different radii. The cylinder fit to the LFC was allowed to assume an elliptical cross-section, while the cylinder fit to the medial condyle was constrained to remain circular. The shape of the elliptical cylinder (ratio of the major and minor axes of the ellipse) was recorded, and the orientation of the elliptical cylinder quantified as angles between the major axis of the ellipse and the anatomical and mechanical axes of the femur. Species were compared using analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparisons tests. Confirming qualitative descriptions, human LFCs are more elliptical than those of chimpanzees and gorillas. Human femora exhibit a narrow range for the angle between the major axis of the elliptical cylinder and femoral axes. Conversely, the chimpanzee sample is bimodal for these angles, exhibiting two ellipse orientations, while Gorilla shows no preferred angle. Our results suggest that like modern human femora, chimpanzee femoral condyles have preferentially used regions. PMID:23042636

  16. Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.

    SciTech Connect

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2009-09-01

    Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the

  17. Quantifying a cellular automata simulation of electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Graeme; Bell, Margaret; Blythe, Phil

    2014-12-01

    Within this work the Nagel-Schreckenberg (NS) cellular automata is used to simulate a basic cyclic road network. Results from SwitchEV, a real world Electric Vehicle trial which has collected more than two years of detailed electric vehicle data, are used to quantify the results of the NS automata, demonstrating similar power consumption behavior to that observed in the experimental results. In particular the efficiency of the electric vehicles reduces as the vehicle density increases, due in part to the reduced efficiency of EVs at low speeds, but also due to the energy consumption inherent in changing speeds. Further work shows the results from introducing spatially restricted speed restriction. In general it can be seen that induced congestion from spatially transient events propagates back through the road network and alters the energy and efficiency profile of the simulated vehicles, both before and after the speed restriction. Vehicles upstream from the restriction show a reduced energy usage and an increased efficiency, and vehicles downstream show an initial large increase in energy usage as they accelerate away from the speed restriction.

  18. Quantifying, Visualizing, and Monitoring Lead Optimization.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Andrew T; Roberts, Christopher D

    2016-05-12

    Although lead optimization (LO) is by definition a process, process-centric analysis and visualization of this important phase of pharmaceutical R&D has been lacking. Here we describe a simple statistical framework to quantify and visualize the progression of LO projects so that the vital signs of LO convergence can be monitored. We refer to the resulting visualizations generated by our methodology as the "LO telemetry" of a project. These visualizations can be automated to provide objective, holistic, and instantaneous analysis and communication of LO progression. This enhances the ability of project teams to more effectively drive LO process, while enabling management to better coordinate and prioritize LO projects. We present the telemetry of five LO projects comprising different biological targets and different project outcomes, including clinical compound selection, termination due to preclinical safety/tox, and termination due to lack of tractability. We demonstrate that LO progression is accurately captured by the telemetry. We also present metrics to quantify LO efficiency and tractability. PMID:26262898

  19. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  20. Quantifying Significance of MHC II Residues.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying; Lu, Ruoshui; Wang, Lusheng; Andreatta, Massimo; Li, Shuai Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a cell-surface protein mediating immune recognition, plays important roles in the immune response system of all higher vertebrates. MHC molecules are highly polymorphic and they are grouped into serotypes according to the specificity of the response. It is a common belief that a protein sequence determines its three dimensional structure and function. Hence, the protein sequence determines the serotype. Residues play different levels of importance. In this paper, we quantify the residue significance with the available serotype information. Knowing the significance of the residues will deepen our understanding of the MHC molecules and yield us a concise representation of the molecules. In this paper we propose a linear programming-based approach to find significant residue positions as well as quantifying their significance in MHC II DR molecules. Among all the residues in MHC II DR molecules, 18 positions are of particular significance, which is consistent with the literature on MHC binding sites, and succinct pseudo-sequences appear to be adequate to capture the whole sequence features. When the result is used for classification of MHC molecules with serotype assigned by WHO, a 98.4 percent prediction performance is achieved. The methods have been implemented in java (http://code.google.com/p/quassi/). PMID:26355503

  1. A Generalizable Methodology for Quantifying User Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Te-Yuan; Chen, Kuan-Ta; Huang, Polly; Lei, Chin-Laung

    Quantifying user satisfaction is essential, because the results can help service providers deliver better services. In this work, we propose a generalizable methodology, based on survival analysis, to quantify user satisfaction in terms of session times, i. e., the length of time users stay with an application. Unlike subjective human surveys, our methodology is based solely on passive measurement, which is more cost-efficient and better able to capture subconscious reactions. Furthermore, by using session times, rather than a specific performance indicator, such as the level of distortion of voice signals, the effects of other factors like loudness and sidetone, can also be captured by the developed models. Like survival analysis, our methodology is characterized by low complexity and a simple model-developing process. The feasibility of our methodology is demonstrated through case studies of ShenZhou Online, a commercial MMORPG in Taiwan, and the most prevalent VoIP application in the world, namely Skype. Through the model development process, we can also identify the most significant performance factors and their impacts on user satisfaction and discuss how they can be exploited to improve user experience and optimize resource allocation.

  2. Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Borzu

    2013-03-01

    For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.

  3. Stimfit: quantifying electrophysiological data with Python

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Segundo J.; Schlögl, Alois; Schmidt-Hieber, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular electrophysiological recordings provide crucial insights into elementary neuronal signals such as action potentials and synaptic currents. Analyzing and interpreting these signals is essential for a quantitative understanding of neuronal information processing, and requires both fast data visualization and ready access to complex analysis routines. To achieve this goal, we have developed Stimfit, a free software package for cellular neurophysiology with a Python scripting interface and a built-in Python shell. The program supports most standard file formats for cellular neurophysiology and other biomedical signals through the Biosig library. To quantify and interpret the activity of single neurons and communication between neurons, the program includes algorithms to characterize the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials and postsynaptic currents, estimate latencies between pre- and postsynaptic events, and detect spontaneously occurring events. We validate and benchmark these algorithms, give estimation errors, and provide sample use cases, showing that Stimfit represents an efficient, accessible and extensible way to accurately analyze and interpret neuronal signals. PMID:24600389

  4. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  5. Fuzzy Entropy Method for Quantifying Supply Chain Networks Complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jihui; Xu, Junqin

    Supply chain is a special kind of complex network. Its complexity and uncertainty makes it very difficult to control and manage. Supply chains are faced with a rising complexity of products, structures, and processes. Because of the strong link between a supply chain’s complexity and its efficiency the supply chain complexity management becomes a major challenge of today’s business management. The aim of this paper is to quantify the complexity and organization level of an industrial network working towards the development of a ‘Supply Chain Network Analysis’ (SCNA). By measuring flows of goods and interaction costs between different sectors of activity within the supply chain borders, a network of flows is built and successively investigated by network analysis. The result of this study shows that our approach can provide an interesting conceptual perspective in which the modern supply network can be framed, and that network analysis can handle these issues in practice.

  6. Quantifying consumption rates of dissolved oxygen along bed forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boano, Fulvio; De Falco, Natalie; Arnon, Shai

    2016-04-01

    Streambed interfaces represent hotspots for nutrient transformations because they host different microbial species, and the evaluation of these reaction rates is important to assess the fate of nutrients in riverine environments. In this work we analyze a series of flume experiments on oxygen demand in dune-shaped hyporheic sediments under losing and gaining flow conditions. We employ a new modeling code to quantify oxygen consumption rates from observed vertical profiles of oxygen concentration. The code accounts for transport by molecular diffusion and water advection, and automatically determines the reaction rates that provide the best fit between observed and modeled concentration values. The results show that reaction rates are not uniformly distributed across the streambed, in agreement with the expected behavior predicted by hyporheic exchange theory. Oxygen consumption was found to be highly influenced by the presence of gaining or losing flow conditions, which controlled the delivery of labile DOC to streambed microorganisms.

  7. Quantifying Global Uncertainties in a Simple Microwave Rainfall Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kummerow, Christian; Berg, Wesley; Thomas-Stahle, Jody; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2006-01-01

    While a large number of methods exist in the literature for retrieving rainfall from passive microwave brightness temperatures, little has been written about the quantitative assessment of the expected uncertainties in these rainfall products at various time and space scales. The latter is the result of two factors: sparse validation sites over most of the world's oceans, and algorithm sensitivities to rainfall regimes that cause inconsistencies against validation data collected at different locations. To make progress in this area, a simple probabilistic algorithm is developed. The algorithm uses an a priori database constructed from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar data coupled with radiative transfer computations. Unlike efforts designed to improve rainfall products, this algorithm takes a step backward in order to focus on uncertainties. In addition to inversion uncertainties, the construction of the algorithm allows errors resulting from incorrect databases, incomplete databases, and time- and space-varying databases to be examined. These are quantified. Results show that the simple algorithm reduces errors introduced by imperfect knowledge of precipitation radar (PR) rain by a factor of 4 relative to an algorithm that is tuned to the PR rainfall. Database completeness does not introduce any additional uncertainty at the global scale, while climatologically distinct space/time domains add approximately 25% uncertainty that cannot be detected by a radiometer alone. Of this value, 20% is attributed to changes in cloud morphology and microphysics, while 5% is a result of changes in the rain/no-rain thresholds. All but 2%-3% of this variability can be accounted for by considering the implicit assumptions in the algorithm. Additional uncertainties introduced by the details of the algorithm formulation are not quantified in this study because of the need for independent measurements that are beyond the scope of this paper. A validation strategy

  8. Quantifying strain variability in modeling growth of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Aryani, D C; den Besten, H M W; Hazeleger, W C; Zwietering, M H

    2015-09-01

    Prediction of microbial growth kinetics can differ from the actual behavior of the target microorganisms. In the present study, the impact of strain variability on maximum specific growth rate (μmax) (h(-1)) was quantified using twenty Listeria monocytogenes strains. The μmax was determined as function of four different variables, namely pH, water activity (aw)/NaCl concentration [NaCl], undissociated lactic acid concentration ([HA]), and temperature (T). The strain variability was compared to biological and experimental variabilities to determine their importance. The experiment was done in duplicate at the same time to quantify experimental variability and reproduced at least twice on different experimental days to quantify biological (reproduction) variability. For all variables, experimental variability was clearly lower than biological variability and strain variability; and remarkably, biological variability was similar to strain variability. Strain variability in cardinal growth parameters, namely pHmin, [NaCl]max, [HA]max, and Tmin was further investigated by fitting secondary growth models to the μmax data, including a modified secondary pH model. The fitting results showed that L. monocytogenes had an average pHmin of 4.5 (5-95% prediction interval (PI) 4.4-4.7), [NaCl]max of 2.0mM (PI 1.8-2.1), [HA]max of 5.1mM (PI 4.2-5.9), and Tmin of -2.2°C (PI (-3.3)-(-1.1)). The strain variability in cardinal growth parameters was benchmarked to available literature data, showing that the effect of strain variability explained around 1/3 or less of the variability found in literature. The cardinal growth parameters and their prediction intervals were used as input to illustrate the effect of strain variability on the growth of L. monocytogenes in food products with various characteristics, resulting in 2-4 logCFU/ml(g) difference in growth prediction between the most and least robust strains, depending on the type of food product. This underlined the importance

  9. Quantifying recrystallization by electron backscatter diffraction.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, H; Humphreys, F J

    2004-03-01

    The use of high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction in the scanning electron microscope to quantify the volume fraction of recrystallization and the recrystallization kinetics is discussed. Monitoring the changes of high-angle grain boundary (HAGB) content during annealing is shown to be a reliable method of determining the volume fraction of recrystallization during discontinuous recrystallization, where a large increase in the percentage of high-angle boundaries occurs during annealing. The results are shown to be consistent with the standard methods of studying recrystallization, such as quantitative metallography and hardness testing. Application of the method to a highly deformed material has shown that it can be used to identify the transition from discontinuous to continuous recrystallization during which there is no significant change in the percentage of HAGB during annealing. PMID:15009691

  10. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Brogaard, L.K.; Riber, C.; Christensen, T.H.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Materials and energy used for the construction of waste incinerators were quantified. • The data was collected from five incineration plants in Scandinavia. • Included were six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. • The capital goods contributed 2–3% compared to the direct emissions impact on GW. - Abstract: Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000–240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000–26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000–5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7–14 kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2–3% with respect to kg CO{sub 2} per tonne of waste combusted.

  11. Quantifying diet for nutrigenomic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The field of nutrigenomics shows tremendous promise for improved understanding of the effects of dietary intake on health. The knowledge that metabolic pathways may be altered in individuals with genetic variants in the presence of certain dietary exposures offers great potential for personalized nu...

  12. Quantifying anatomical shape variations in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nikhil; Fletcher, P Thomas; Preston, J Samuel; King, Richard D; Marron, J S; Weiner, Michael W; Joshi, Sarang

    2014-04-01

    We develop a multivariate analysis of brain anatomy to identify the relevant shape deformation patterns and quantify the shape changes that explain corresponding variations in clinical neuropsychological measures. We use kernel Partial Least Squares (PLS) and formulate a regression model in the tangent space of the manifold of diffeomorphisms characterized by deformation momenta. The scalar deformation momenta completely encode the diffeomorphic changes in anatomical shape. In this model, the clinical measures are the response variables, while the anatomical variability is treated as the independent variable. To better understand the "shape-clinical response" relationship, we also control for demographic confounders, such as age, gender, and years of education in our regression model. We evaluate the proposed methodology on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline structural MR imaging data and neuropsychological evaluation test scores. We demonstrate the ability of our model to quantify the anatomical deformations in units of clinical response. Our results also demonstrate that the proposed method is generic and generates reliable shape deformations both in terms of the extracted patterns and the amount of shape changes. We found that while the hippocampus and amygdala emerge as mainly responsible for changes in test scores for global measures of dementia and memory function, they are not a determinant factor for executive function. Another critical finding was the appearance of thalamus and putamen as most important regions that relate to executive function. These resulting anatomical regions were consistent with very high confidence irrespective of the size of the population used in the study. This data-driven global analysis of brain anatomy was able to reach similar conclusions as other studies in Alzheimer's disease based on predefined ROIs, together with the identification of other new patterns of deformation. The

  13. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  14. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  15. Processing of Numerical and Proportional Quantifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shikhare, Sailee; Heim, Stefan; Klein, Elise; Huber, Stefan; Willmes, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Quantifier expressions like "many" and "at least" are part of a rich repository of words in language representing magnitude information. The role of numerical processing in comprehending quantifiers was studied in a semantic truth value judgment task, asking adults to quickly verify sentences about visual displays using…

  16. Scalar Quantifiers: Logic, Acquisition, and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Bart; Katsos, Napoleon; Cummins, Chris; Moons, Jonas; Noordman, Leo

    2010-01-01

    Superlative quantifiers ("at least 3", "at most 3") and comparative quantifiers ("more than 2", "fewer than 4") are traditionally taken to be interdefinable: the received view is that "at least n" and "at most n" are equivalent to "more than n-1" and "fewer than n+1", respectively. Notwithstanding the prima facie plausibility of this claim, Geurts…

  17. Deaf Learners' Knowledge of English Universal Quantifiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berent, Gerald P.; Kelly, Ronald R.; Porter, Jeffrey E.; Fonzi, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Deaf and hearing students' knowledge of English sentences containing universal quantifiers was compared through their performance on a 50-item, multiple-picture task that required students to decide whether each of five pictures represented a possible meaning of a target sentence. The task assessed fundamental knowledge of quantifier sentences,…

  18. Dust as interstellar catalyst. I. Quantifying the chemical desorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minissale, M.; Dulieu, F.; Cazaux, S.; Hocuk, S.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the interstellar medium has profound consequences on the chemical composition of regions where stars are forming. Recent observations show that many species formed onto dust are populating the gas phase, especially in cold environments where UV- and cosmic-ray-induced photons do not account for such processes. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand and quantify the process that releases solid species into the gas phase, the so-called chemical desorption process, so that an explicit formula can be derived that can be included in astrochemical models. Methods: We present a collection of experimental results of more than ten reactive systems. For each reaction, different substrates such as oxidized graphite and compact amorphous water ice were used. We derived a formula for reproducing the efficiencies of the chemical desorption process that considers the equipartition of the energy of newly formed products, followed by classical bounce on the surface. In part II of this study we extend these results to astrophysical conditions. Results: The equipartition of energy correctly describes the chemical desorption process on bare surfaces. On icy surfaces, the chemical desorption process is much less efficient, and a better description of the interaction with the surface is still needed. Conclusions: We show that the mechanism that directly transforms solid species into gas phase species is efficient for many reactions.

  19. quantifying and Predicting Reactive Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Peter C. Burns, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences, University of Notre Dame

    2009-12-04

    This project was led by Dr. Jiamin Wan at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Peter Burns provided expertise in uranium mineralogy and in identification of uranium minerals in test materials. Dr. Wan conducted column tests regarding uranium transport at LBNL, and samples of the resulting columns were sent to Dr. Burns for analysis. Samples were analyzed for uranium mineralogy by X-ray powder diffraction and by scanning electron microscopy, and results were provided to Dr. Wan for inclusion in the modeling effort. Full details of the project can be found in Dr. Wan's final reports for the associated effort at LBNL.

  20. Quantifying chaos for ecological stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Jorge; Januário, Cristina; Martins, Nuno; Sardanyés, Josep

    2010-09-01

    The theory of ecological stoichiometry considers ecological interactions among species with different chemical compositions. Both experimental and theoretical investigations have shown the importance of species composition in the outcome of the population dynamics. A recent study of a theoretical three-species food chain model considering stoichiometry [B. Deng and I. Loladze, Chaos 17, 033108 (2007)] shows that coexistence between two consumers predating on the same prey is possible via chaos. In this work we study the topological and dynamical measures of the chaotic attractors found in such a model under ecological relevant parameters. By using the theory of symbolic dynamics, we first compute the topological entropy associated with unimodal Poincaré return maps obtained by Deng and Loladze from a dimension reduction. With this measure we numerically prove chaotic competitive coexistence, which is characterized by positive topological entropy and positive Lyapunov exponents, achieved when the first predator reduces its maximum growth rate, as happens at increasing δ1. However, for higher values of δ1 the dynamics become again stable due to an asymmetric bubble-like bifurcation scenario. We also show that a decrease in the efficiency of the predator sensitive to prey's quality (increasing parameter ζ) stabilizes the dynamics. Finally, we estimate the fractal dimension of the chaotic attractors for the stoichiometric ecological model.

  1. Quantifying Coral Reef Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral reefs have been declining during the last four decades as a result of both local and global anthropogenic stresses. Numerous research efforts to elucidate the nature, causes, magnitude, and potential remedies for the decline have led to the widely held belief that the recov...

  2. Diagnostic measure to quantify loss of clinical components in multi-lead electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, R K; Sharma, L N; Dandapat, S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a novel principal component (PC)-based diagnostic measure (PCDM) is proposed to quantify loss of clinical components in the multi-lead electrocardiogram (MECG) signals. The analysis of MECG shows that, the clinical components are captured in few PCs. The proposed diagnostic measure is defined as the sum of weighted percentage root mean square difference (PRD) between the PCs of original and processed MECG signals. The values of the weight depend on the clinical importance of PCs. The PCDM is tested over MECG enhancement and a novel MECG data reduction scheme. The proposed measure is compared with weighted diagnostic distortion, wavelet energy diagnostic distortion and PRD. The qualitative evaluation is performed using Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (SROCC) and Pearson linear correlation coefficient. The simulation result demonstrates that the PCDM performs better to quantify loss of clinical components in MECG and shows a SROCC value of 0.9686 with subjective measure. PMID:27222735

  3. Quantifying Diet for Nutrigenomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L.; Smith, Caren E.; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ordovas, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The field of nutrigenomics shows tremendous promise for improved understanding of the effects of dietary intake on health. The knowledge that metabolic pathways may be altered in individuals with genetic variants in the presence of certain dietary exposures offers great potential for personalized nutrition advice. However, although considerable resources have gone into improving technology for measurement of the genome and biological systems, dietary intake assessment remains inadequate. Each of the methods currently used has limitations tliat may be exaggerated in the context of gene x nutrient interaction in large multiethnic studies. Because of the specificity of most gene x nutrient interactions, valid data are needed for nutrient intakes at the individual level. Most statistical adjustment efforts are designed to improve estimates of nutrient intake distributions in populations and are unlikely to solve this problem. An improved method of direct measurement of individual usual dietary intake that is unbiased across populations is urgently needed. PMID:23642200

  4. Is it Logical to Count on Quantifiers? Dissociable Neural Networks Underlying Numerical and Logical Quantifiers

    PubMed Central

    Troiani, Vanessa; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the neural substrate of two classes of quantifiers: Numerical quantifiers like “at least three” which require magnitude processing, and logical quantifiers like “some” which can be satisfied using a simple form of perceptual logic. We assessed these distinct classes of quantifiers with converging observations from two sources: functional imaging data from healthy adults, and behavioral and structural data from patients with corticobasal degeneration, who have acalculia. Our findings are consistent with the claim that numerical quantifier comprehension depends on a parietal-dorsolateral prefrontal network, but logical quantifier comprehension depends instead on a rostral medial prefrontal-posterior cingulate network. These observations emphasize the important contribution of abstract number knowledge to the meaning of numerical quantifiers in semantic memory and the potential role of a logic-based evaluation in the service of non-numerical quantifiers. PMID:18789346

  5. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  6. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Quantifying gyrotropy in magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisdak, M.

    2016-01-01

    A new scalar measure of the gyrotropy of a pressure tensor is defined. Previously suggested measures are shown to be incomplete by means of examples for which they give unphysical results. To demonstrate its usefulness as an indicator of magnetic topology, the new measure is calculated for electron data taken from numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection, shown to peak at separatrices and X points, and compared to the other measures. The new diagnostic has potential uses in analyzing spacecraft observations, and so a method for calculating it from measurements performed in an arbitrary coordinate system is derived.

  8. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    PubMed

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour. PMID:20016600

  9. Quantifying hybridization in realistic time.

    PubMed

    Collins, Joshua; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles

    2011-10-01

    Recently, numerous practical and theoretical studies in evolutionary biology aim at calculating the extent to which reticulation-for example, horizontal gene transfer, hybridization, or recombination-has influenced the evolution for a set of present-day species. It has been shown that inferring the minimum number of hybridization events that is needed to simultaneously explain the evolutionary history for a set of trees is an NP-hard and also fixed-parameter tractable problem. In this article, we give a new fixed-parameter algorithm for computing the minimum number of hybridization events for when two rooted binary phylogenetic trees are given. This newly developed algorithm is based on interleaving-a technique using repeated kernelization steps that are applied throughout the exhaustive search part of a fixed-parameter algorithm. To show that our algorithm runs efficiently to be applicable to a wide range of practical problem instances, we apply it to a grass data set and highlight the significant improvements in terms of running times in comparison to an algorithm that has previously been implemented. PMID:21210735

  10. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  11. Quantifying the value of redundant measurements at GRUAN sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madonna, F.; Rosoldi, M.; Güldner, J.; Haefele, A.; Kivi, R.; Cadeddu, M. P.; Sisterson, D.; Pappalardo, G.

    2014-06-01

    The potential for measurement redundancy to reduce uncertainty in atmospheric variables has not been investigated comprehensively for climate observations. We evaluated the usefulness of entropy and mutual correlation concepts, as defined in information theory, for quantifying random uncertainty and redundancy in time series of atmospheric water vapor provided by five highly instrumented GRUAN (GCOS [Global Climate Observing System] Reference Upper-Air Network) Stations in 2010-2012. Results show that the random uncertainties for radiosonde, frost-point hygrometer, Global Positioning System, microwave and infrared radiometers, and Raman lidar measurements differed by less than 8%. Comparisons of time series of the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) content from ground-based remote sensing instruments with in situ soundings showed that microwave radiometers have the highest redundancy and therefore the highest potential to reduce random uncertainty of IWV time series estimated by radiosondes. Moreover, the random uncertainty of a time series from one instrument should be reduced of ~ 60% by constraining the measurements with those from another instrument. The best reduction of random uncertainty resulted from conditioning of Raman lidar measurements with microwave radiometer measurements. Specific instruments are recommended for atmospheric water vapor measurements at GRUAN sites. This approach can be applied to the study of redundant measurements for other climate variables.

  12. Quantifying Climatological Ranges and Anomalies for Pacific Coral Reef Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Gove, Jamison M.; Williams, Gareth J.; McManus, Margaret A.; Heron, Scott F.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Foley, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic–biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will

  13. Quantifying climatological ranges and anomalies for Pacific coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Gove, Jamison M; Williams, Gareth J; McManus, Margaret A; Heron, Scott F; Sandin, Stuart A; Vetter, Oliver J; Foley, David G

    2013-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are exposed to a range of environmental forcings that vary on daily to decadal time scales and across spatial scales spanning from reefs to archipelagos. Environmental variability is a major determinant of reef ecosystem structure and function, including coral reef extent and growth rates, and the abundance, diversity, and morphology of reef organisms. Proper characterization of environmental forcings on coral reef ecosystems is critical if we are to understand the dynamics and implications of abiotic-biotic interactions on reef ecosystems. This study combines high-resolution bathymetric information with remotely sensed sea surface temperature, chlorophyll-a and irradiance data, and modeled wave data to quantify environmental forcings on coral reefs. We present a methodological approach to develop spatially constrained, island- and atoll-scale metrics that quantify climatological range limits and anomalous environmental forcings across U.S. Pacific coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicate considerable spatial heterogeneity in climatological ranges and anomalies across 41 islands and atolls, with emergent spatial patterns specific to each environmental forcing. For example, wave energy was greatest at northern latitudes and generally decreased with latitude. In contrast, chlorophyll-a was greatest at reef ecosystems proximate to the equator and northern-most locations, showing little synchrony with latitude. In addition, we find that the reef ecosystems with the highest chlorophyll-a concentrations; Jarvis, Howland, Baker, Palmyra and Kingman are each uninhabited and are characterized by high hard coral cover and large numbers of predatory fishes. Finally, we find that scaling environmental data to the spatial footprint of individual islands and atolls is more likely to capture local environmental forcings, as chlorophyll-a concentrations decreased at relatively short distances (>7 km) from 85% of our study locations. These metrics will help

  14. The missing metric: quantifying contributions of reviewers

    PubMed Central

    Cantor, Maurício; Gero, Shane

    2015-01-01

    The number of contributing reviewers often outnumbers the authors of publications. This has led to apathy towards reviewing and the conclusion that the peer-review system is broken. Given the trade-offs between submitting and reviewing manuscripts, reviewers and authors naturally want visibility for their efforts. While study after study has called for revolutionizing publication practices, the current paradigm does not recognize reviewers' time and expertise. We propose the R-index as a simple way to quantify scientists' contributions as reviewers. We modelled its performance using simulations based on real data to show that early–mid career scientists, who complete high-quality reviews of longer manuscripts within their field, can perform as well as leading scientists reviewing only for high-impact journals. By giving citeable academic recognition for reviewing, R-index will encourage more participation with better reviews, regardless of the career stage. Moreover, the R-index will allow editors to exploit scores to manage and improve their review team, and for journals to promote high average scores as signals of a practical and efficient service to authors. Peer-review is a pervasive necessity across disciplines and the simple utility of this missing metric will credit a valuable aspect of academic productivity without having to revolutionize the current peer-review system. PMID:26064609

  15. Quantifying capital goods for waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, L K; Riber, C; Christensen, T H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for the construction of modern waste incineration plants were quantified. The data was collected from five incineration plants (72,000-240,000 tonnes per year) built in Scandinavia (Norway, Finland and Denmark) between 2006 and 2012. Concrete for the buildings was the main material used amounting to 19,000-26,000 tonnes per plant. The quantification further included six main materials, electronic systems, cables and all transportation. The energy used for the actual on-site construction of the incinerators was in the range 4000-5000 MW h. In terms of the environmental burden of producing the materials used in the construction, steel for the building and the machinery contributed the most. The material and energy used for the construction corresponded to the emission of 7-14 kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted throughout the lifetime of the incineration plant. The assessment showed that, compared to data reported in the literature on direct emissions from the operation of incinerators, the environmental impacts caused by the construction of buildings and machinery (capital goods) could amount to 2-3% with respect to kg CO2 per tonne of waste combusted. PMID:23561797

  16. Deciphering faces: quantifiable visual cues to weight.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Chen, Jingying; Perrett, David I; Stephen, Ian D

    2010-01-01

    Body weight plays a crucial role in mate choice, as weight is related to both attractiveness and health. People are quite accurate at judging weight in faces, but the cues used to make these judgments have not been defined. This study consisted of two parts. First, we wanted to identify quantifiable facial cues that are related to body weight, as defined by body mass index (BMI). Second, we wanted to test whether people use these cues to judge weight. In study 1, we recruited two groups of Caucasian and two groups of African participants, determined their BMI and measured their 2-D facial images for: width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio. All three measures were significantly related to BMI in males, while the width-to-height and cheek-to-jaw-width ratios were significantly related to BMI in females. In study 2, these images were rated for perceived weight by Caucasian observers. We showed that these observers use all three cues to judge weight in African and Caucasian faces of both sexes. These three facial cues, width-to-height ratio, perimeter-to-area ratio, and cheek-to-jaw-width ratio, are therefore not only related to actual weight but provide a basis for perceptual attributes as well. PMID:20301846

  17. Asteroid Geophysics and Quantifying the Impact Hazard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D.; Wooden, D. H.; Korycanksy, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Probably the major challenge in understanding, quantifying, and mitigating the effects of an impact on Earth is understanding the nature of the impactor. Of the roughly 25 meteorite craters on the Earth that have associated meteorites, all but one was produced by an iron meteorite and only one was produced by a stony meteorite. Equally important, even meteorites of a given chemical class produce a wide variety of behavior in the atmosphere. This is because they show considerable diversity in their mechanical properties which have a profound influence on the behavior of meteorites during atmospheric passage. Some stony meteorites are weak and do not reach the surface or reach the surface as thousands of relatively harmless pieces. Some stony meteorites roll into a maximum drag configuration and are strong enough to remain intact so a large single object reaches the surface. Others have high concentrations of water that may facilitate disruption. However, while meteorite falls and meteorites provide invaluable information on the physical nature of the objects entering the atmosphere, there are many unknowns concerning size and scale that can only be determined by from the pre-atmospheric properties of the asteroids. Their internal structure, their thermal properties, their internal strength and composition, will all play a role in determining the behavior of the object as it passes through the atmosphere, whether it produces an airblast and at what height, and the nature of the impact and amount and distribution of ejecta.

  18. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  19. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  20. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  1. Quantifying drug-protein binding in vivo.

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B; Bench, G; Keating III, G; Palmblad, M; Vogel, J; Grant, P G; Hillegonds, D

    2004-02-17

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides precise quantitation of isotope labeled compounds that are bound to biological macromolecules such as DNA or proteins. The sensitivity is high enough to allow for sub-pharmacological (''micro-'') dosing to determine macromolecular targets without inducing toxicities or altering the system under study, whether it is healthy or diseased. We demonstrated an application of AMS in quantifying the physiologic effects of one dosed chemical compound upon the binding level of another compound in vivo at sub-toxic doses [4].We are using tissues left from this study to develop protocols for quantifying specific binding to isolated and identified proteins. We also developed a new technique to quantify nanogram to milligram amounts of isolated protein at precisions that are comparable to those for quantifying the bound compound by AMS.

  2. Portable XRF Technology to Quantify Pb in Bone In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Specht, Aaron James; Weisskopf, Marc; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2014-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant. Bone lead has been established as an important biomarker for cumulative lead exposures and has been correlated with adverse health effects on many systems in the body. K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) is the standard method for measuring bone lead, but this approach has many difficulties that have limited the widespread use of this exposure assessment method. With recent advancements in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology, we have developed a portable system that can quantify lead in bone in vivo within 3 minutes. Our study investigated improvements to the system, four calibration methods, and system validation for in vivo measurements. Our main results show that the detection limit of the system is 2.9 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness, the best calibration method for in vivo measurement is background subtraction, and there is strong correlation between KXRF and portable LXRF bone lead results. Our results indicate that the technology is ready to be used in large human population studies to investigate adverse health effects of lead exposure. The portability of the system and fast measurement time should allow for this technology to greatly advance the research on lead exposure and public/environmental health. PMID:26317033

  3. Portable XRF Technology to Quantify Pb in Bone In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Aaron James; Weisskopf, Marc; Nie, Linda Huiling

    2014-01-01

    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant. Bone lead has been established as an important biomarker for cumulative lead exposures and has been correlated with adverse health effects on many systems in the body. K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) is the standard method for measuring bone lead, but this approach has many difficulties that have limited the widespread use of this exposure assessment method. With recent advancements in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology, we have developed a portable system that can quantify lead in bone in vivo within 3 minutes. Our study investigated improvements to the system, four calibration methods, and system validation for in vivo measurements. Our main results show that the detection limit of the system is 2.9 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness, the best calibration method for in vivo measurement is background subtraction, and there is strong correlation between KXRF and portable LXRF bone lead results. Our results indicate that the technology is ready to be used in large human population studies to investigate adverse health effects of lead exposure. The portability of the system and fast measurement time should allow for this technology to greatly advance the research on lead exposure and public/environmental health. PMID:26317033

  4. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  5. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting. PMID:25595291

  6. Quantifying Urban Groundwater in Environmental Field Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Belt, K.; Smith, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Groffman, P.; Scanlon, T.; Warner, J.; Ryan, R. J.; Yeskis, D.; McGuire, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Despite the growing footprint of urban landscapes and their impacts on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, comprehensive field studies of urban water budgets are few. The cumulative effects of urban infrastructure (buildings, roads, culverts, storm drains, detention ponds, leaking water supply and wastewater pipe networks) on temporal and spatial patterns of groundwater stores, fluxes, and flowpaths are poorly understood. The goal of this project is to develop expertise and analytical tools for urban groundwater systems that will inform future environmental observatory planning and that can be shared with research teams working in urban environments elsewhere. The work plan for this project draws on a robust set of information resources in Maryland provided by ongoing monitoring efforts of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES), USGS, and the U.S. Forest Service working together with university scientists and engineers from multiple institutions. A key concern is to bridge the gap between small-scale intensive field studies and larger-scale and longer-term hydrologic patterns using synoptic field surveys, remote sensing, numerical modeling, data mining and visualization tools. Using the urban water budget as a unifying theme, we are working toward estimating the various elements of the budget in order to quantify the influence of urban infrastructure on groundwater. Efforts include: (1) comparison of base flow behavior from stream gauges in a nested set of watersheds at four different spatial scales from 0.8 to 171 km2, with diverse patterns of impervious cover and urban infrastructure; (2) synoptic survey of well water levels to characterize the regional water table; (3) use of airborne thermal infrared imagery to identify locations of groundwater seepage into streams across a range of urban development patterns; (4) use of seepage transects and tracer tests to quantify the spatial pattern of groundwater fluxes to the drainage network in selected subwatersheds; (5

  7. Quantifying dynamical spillover in co-evolving multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Vikram S.; Noël, Pierre-André; Maoz, Zeev; D'Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-10-01

    Multiplex networks (a system of multiple networks that have different types of links but share a common set of nodes) arise naturally in a wide spectrum of fields. Theoretical studies show that in such multiplex networks, correlated edge dynamics between the layers can have a profound effect on dynamical processes. However, how to extract the correlations from real-world systems is an outstanding challenge. Here we introduce the Multiplex Markov chain to quantify correlations in edge dynamics found in longitudinal data of multiplex networks. By comparing the results obtained from the multiplex perspective to a null model which assumes layers in a network are independent, we can identify real correlations as distinct from simultaneous changes that occur due to random chance. We use this approach on two different data sets: the network of trade and alliances between nation states, and the email and co-commit networks between developers of open source software. We establish the existence of “dynamical spillover” showing the correlated formation (or deletion) of edges of different types as the system evolves. The details of the dynamics over time provide insight into potential causal pathways.

  8. Quantifying Uncertainties in Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Prigent, Catherine; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Aires, Filipe; Boukabara, Sid-Ahmed; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in the retrievals of microwave land surface emissivities were quantified over two types of land surfaces: desert and tropical rainforest. Retrievals from satellite-based microwave imagers, including SSM/I, TMI and AMSR-E, were studied. Our results show that there are considerable differences between the retrievals from different sensors and from different groups over these two land surface types. In addition, the mean emissivity values show different spectral behavior across the frequencies. With the true emissivity assumed largely constant over both of the two sites throughout the study period, the differences are largely attributed to the systematic and random errors in the retrievals. Generally these retrievals tend to agree better at lower frequencies than at higher ones, with systematic differences ranging 14% (312 K) over desert and 17% (320 K) over rainforest. The random errors within each retrieval dataset are in the range of 0.52% (26 K). In particular, at 85.0/89.0 GHz, there are very large differences between the different retrieval datasets, and within each retrieval dataset itself. Further investigation reveals that these differences are mostly likely caused by rain/cloud contamination, which can lead to random errors up to 1017 K under the most severe conditions.

  9. Quantifying evolutionary dynamics from variant-frequency time series.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Bhavin S

    2016-01-01

    From Kimura's neutral theory of protein evolution to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity, quantifying the relative importance of neutrality versus selection has long been a basic question in evolutionary biology and ecology. With deep sequencing technologies, this question is taking on a new form: given a time-series of the frequency of different variants in a population, what is the likelihood that the observation has arisen due to selection or neutrality? To tackle the 2-variant case, we exploit Fisher's angular transformation, which despite being discovered by Ronald Fisher a century ago, has remained an intellectual curiosity. We show together with a heuristic approach it provides a simple solution for the transition probability density at short times, including drift, selection and mutation. Our results show under that under strong selection and sufficiently frequent sampling these evolutionary parameters can be accurately determined from simulation data and so they provide a theoretical basis for techniques to detect selection from variant or polymorphism frequency time-series. PMID:27616332

  10. Quantifying dynamical spillover in co-evolving multiplex networks

    PubMed Central

    Vijayaraghavan, Vikram S.; Noël, Pierre-André; Maoz, Zeev; D’Souza, Raissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiplex networks (a system of multiple networks that have different types of links but share a common set of nodes) arise naturally in a wide spectrum of fields. Theoretical studies show that in such multiplex networks, correlated edge dynamics between the layers can have a profound effect on dynamical processes. However, how to extract the correlations from real-world systems is an outstanding challenge. Here we introduce the Multiplex Markov chain to quantify correlations in edge dynamics found in longitudinal data of multiplex networks. By comparing the results obtained from the multiplex perspective to a null model which assumes layers in a network are independent, we can identify real correlations as distinct from simultaneous changes that occur due to random chance. We use this approach on two different data sets: the network of trade and alliances between nation states, and the email and co-commit networks between developers of open source software. We establish the existence of “dynamical spillover” showing the correlated formation (or deletion) of edges of different types as the system evolves. The details of the dynamics over time provide insight into potential causal pathways. PMID:26459949

  11. Quantifying Uncertainties in Land-Surface Microwave Emissivity Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Prigent, Catherine; Norouzi, Hamidreza; Aires, Filipe; Boukabara, Sid-Ahmed; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Masunaga, Hirohiko

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainties in the retrievals of microwaveland-surface emissivities are quantified over two types of land surfaces: desert and tropical rainforest. Retrievals from satellite-based microwave imagers, including the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager, and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System, are studied. Our results show that there are considerable differences between the retrievals from different sensors and from different groups over these two land-surface types. In addition, the mean emissivity values show different spectral behavior across the frequencies. With the true emissivity assumed largely constant over both of the two sites throughout the study period, the differences are largely attributed to the systematic and random errors inthe retrievals. Generally, these retrievals tend to agree better at lower frequencies than at higher ones, with systematic differences ranging 1%-4% (3-12 K) over desert and 1%-7% (3-20 K) over rainforest. The random errors within each retrieval dataset are in the range of 0.5%-2% (2-6 K). In particular, at 85.5/89.0 GHz, there are very large differences between the different retrieval datasets, and within each retrieval dataset itself. Further investigation reveals that these differences are most likely caused by rain/cloud contamination, which can lead to random errors up to 10-17 K under the most severe conditions.

  12. Quantifying Wrinkle Features of Thin Membrane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Mindy B.; Iwasa, Takashi; Naton, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    For future micro-systems utilizing membrane based structures, quantified predictions of wrinkling behavior in terms of amplitude, angle and wavelength are needed to optimize the efficiency and integrity of such structures, as well as their associated control systems. For numerical analyses performed in the past, limitations on the accuracy of membrane distortion simulations have often been related to the assumptions made. This work demonstrates that critical assumptions include: effects of gravity, supposed initial or boundary conditions, and the type of element used to model the membrane. In this work, a 0.2 m x 02 m membrane is treated as a structural material with non-negligible bending stiffness. Finite element modeling is used to simulate wrinkling behavior due to a constant applied in-plane shear load. Membrane thickness, gravity effects, and initial imperfections with respect to flatness were varied in numerous nonlinear analysis cases. Significant findings include notable variations in wrinkle modes for thickness in the range of 50 microns to 1000 microns, which also depend on the presence of an applied gravity field. However, it is revealed that relationships between overall strain energy density and thickness for cases with differing initial conditions are independent of assumed initial conditions. In addition, analysis results indicate that the relationship between wrinkle amplitude scale (W/t) and structural scale (L/t) is independent of the nonlinear relationship between thickness and stiffness.

  13. Quantifying Access Disparities in Response Plans

    PubMed Central

    Indrakanti, Saratchandra; Mikler, Armin R.; O’Neill, Martin; Tiwari, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Effective response planning and preparedness are critical to the health and well-being of communities in the face of biological emergencies. Response plans involving mass prophylaxis may seem feasible when considering the choice of dispensing points within a region, overall population density, and estimated traffic demands. However, the plan may fail to serve particular vulnerable subpopulations, resulting in access disparities during emergency response. For a response plan to be effective, sufficient mitigation resources must be made accessible to target populations within short, federally-mandated time frames. A major challenge in response plan design is to establish a balance between the allocation of available resources and the provision of equal access to PODs for all individuals in a given geographic region. Limitations on the availability, granularity, and currency of data to identify vulnerable populations further complicate the planning process. To address these challenges and limitations, data driven methods to quantify vulnerabilities in the context of response plans have been developed and are explored in this article. PMID:26771551

  14. Quantifying Ant Activity Using Vibration Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult. PMID:24658467

  15. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-05-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the Differential Box-Counting Method (DBC)of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flares. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and Bl), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  16. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the differential Box-Counting Method (DBC) of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Centr's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flare. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and B1), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  17. Identifying and quantifying urban recharge: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, David N.

    2002-02-01

    The sources of and pathways for groundwater recharge in urban areas are more numerous and complex than in rural environments. Buildings, roads, and other surface infrastructure combine with man-made drainage networks to change the pathways for precipitation. Some direct recharge is lost, but additional recharge can occur from storm drainage systems. Large amounts of water are imported into most cities for supply, distributed through underground pipes, and collected again in sewers or septic tanks. The leaks from these pipe networks often provide substantial recharge. Sources of recharge in urban areas are identified through piezometry, chemical signatures, and water balances. All three approaches have problems. Recharge is quantified either by individual components (direct recharge, water-mains leakage, septic tanks, etc.) or holistically. Working with individual components requires large amounts of data, much of which is uncertain and is likely to lead to large uncertainties in the final result. Recommended holistic approaches include the use of groundwater modelling and solute balances, where various types of data are integrated. Urban recharge remains an under-researched topic, with few high-quality case studies reported in the literature.

  18. Quantifying Potential Groundwater Recharge In South Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basant, S.; Zhou, Y.; Leite, P. A.; Wilcox, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater in South Texas is heavily relied on for human consumption and irrigation for food crops. Like most of the south west US, woody encroachment has altered the grassland ecosystems here too. While brush removal has been widely implemented in Texas with the objective of increasing groundwater recharge, the linkage between vegetation and groundwater recharge in South Texas is still unclear. Studies have been conducted to understand plant-root-water dynamics at the scale of plants. However, little work has been done to quantify the changes in soil water and deep percolation at the landscape scale. Modeling water flow through soil profiles can provide an estimate of the total water flowing into deep percolation. These models are especially powerful with parameterized and calibrated with long term soil water data. In this study we parameterize the HYDRUS soil water model using long term soil water data collected in Jim Wells County in South Texas. Soil water was measured at every 20 cm intervals up to a depth of 200 cm. The parameterized model will be used to simulate soil water dynamics under a variety of precipitation regimes ranging from well above normal to severe drought conditions. The results from the model will be compared with the changes in soil moisture profile observed in response to vegetation cover and treatments from a study in a similar. Comparative studies like this can be used to build new and strengthen existing hypotheses regarding deep percolation and the role of soil texture and vegetation in groundwater recharge.

  19. Quantifying pressure variations from petrographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2015-04-01

    The existence of grain scale pressure variations has been established over the last decennia. Mineral reactions are often accompanied by volume and shape changes in a system where much heterogeneity in material properties exists. This gives rise to internal stresses and pressure variation during metamorphic reactions. The residual pressure in inclusions can be measured by Raman spectroscopy, but is restricted to a narrow range of minerals that (potentially) have a well calibrated Raman shift with pressure. Several alternative methods to quantify pressure variations from petrographic observations are presented. We distinguish equilibrium and non-equilibrium methods. Equilibrium methods are based on a newly developed method to predict phase equilibria and composition under a given pressure gradient. The pressure gradient can be found by iteratively matching predicted phase assemblages and composition with petrographic observations. Non-equilibrium methods involve the estimation of pressure variation in initial stages of reaction in which the system may still be isochoric. It then results in the potential pressure buildup for a given unreacted rock for example in the initial stages of dehydration of serpentinite in subduction settings.

  20. Quantifying Access Disparities in Response Plans.

    PubMed

    Indrakanti, Saratchandra; Mikler, Armin R; O'Neill, Martin; Tiwari, Chetan

    2016-01-01

    Effective response planning and preparedness are critical to the health and well-being of communities in the face of biological emergencies. Response plans involving mass prophylaxis may seem feasible when considering the choice of dispensing points within a region, overall population density, and estimated traffic demands. However, the plan may fail to serve particular vulnerable subpopulations, resulting in access disparities during emergency response. For a response plan to be effective, sufficient mitigation resources must be made accessible to target populations within short, federally-mandated time frames. A major challenge in response plan design is to establish a balance between the allocation of available resources and the provision of equal access to PODs for all individuals in a given geographic region. Limitations on the availability, granularity, and currency of data to identify vulnerable populations further complicate the planning process. To address these challenges and limitations, data driven methods to quantify vulnerabilities in the context of response plans have been developed and are explored in this article. PMID:26771551

  1. Quantifying Annual Aboveground Net Primary Production in the Intermountain West

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a larger project, methods were developed to quantify current year growth on grasses, forbs, and shrubs. Annual aboveground net primary production (ANPP) data are needed for this project to calibrate results from computer simulation models and remote-sensing data. Measuring annual ANPP of ...

  2. Quantifying the Risk of Blood Exposure in Optometric Clinical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoppe, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    A study attempted to quantify risk of blood exposure in optometric clinical education by surveying optometric interns in their fourth year at the Southern California College of Optometry concerning their history of exposure or use of a needle. Results indicate blood exposure or needle use ranged from 0.95 to 18.71 per 10,000 patient encounters.…

  3. Shakespeare and other English Renaissance authors as characterized by Information Theory complexity quantifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Craig, Hugh; Moscato, Pablo

    2009-03-01

    We introduce novel Information Theory quantifiers in a computational linguistic study that involves a large corpus of English Renaissance literature. The 185 texts studied (136 plays and 49 poems in total), with first editions that range from 1580 to 1640, form a representative set of its period. Our data set includes 30 texts unquestionably attributed to Shakespeare; in addition we also included A Lover’s Complaint, a poem which generally appears in Shakespeare collected editions but whose authorship is currently in dispute. Our statistical complexity quantifiers combine the power of Jensen-Shannon’s divergence with the entropy variations as computed from a probability distribution function of the observed word use frequencies. Our results show, among other things, that for a given entropy poems display higher complexity than plays, that Shakespeare’s work falls into two distinct clusters in entropy, and that his work is remarkable for its homogeneity and for its closeness to overall means.

  4. Rectal Swabs Are Suitable for Quantifying the Carriage Load of KPC-Producing Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, A.; Romano, J.; Chmelnitsky, I.; Navon-Venezia, S.; Edgar, R.

    2013-01-01

    It is more convenient and practical to collect rectal swabs than stool specimens to study carriage of colon pathogens. In this study, we examined the ability to use rectal swabs rather than stool specimens to quantify Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). We used a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to determine the concentration of the blaKPC gene relative to the concentration of 16S rRNA genes and a quantitative culture-based method to quantify CRE relative to total aerobic bacteria. Our results demonstrated that rectal swabs are suitable for quantifying the concentration of KPC-producing CRE and that qPCR showed higher correlation between rectal swabs and stool specimens than the culture-based method. PMID:23295937

  5. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  6. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  7. Quantifying the provenance of aeolian sediments using multiple composite fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Benli; Niu, Qinghe; Qu, Jianjun; Zu, Ruiping

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a new fingerprinting method that uses multiple composite fingerprints for studies of aeolian sediment provenance. We used this method to quantify the provenance of sediments on both sides of the Qinghai-Tibetan Railway (QTR) in the Cuona Lake section of the Tibetan Plateau (TP), in an environment characterized by aeolian and fluvial interactions. The method involves repeatedly solving a linear mixing model based on mass conservation; the model is not limited to spatial scale or transport types and uses all the tracer groups that passed the range check, Kruskal-Wallis H-test, and a strict analytical solution screening. The proportional estimates that result from using different composite fingerprints are highly variable; however, the average of these fingerprints has a greater accuracy and certainty than any single fingerprint. The results show that sand from the lake beach, hilly surface, and gullies contribute, respectively, 48%, 31% and 21% to the western railway sediments and 43%, 33% and 24% to the eastern railway sediments. The difference between contributions from various sources on either side of the railway, which may increase in the future, was clearly related to variations in local transport characteristics, a conclusion that is supported by grain size analysis. The construction of the QTR changed the local cycling of materials, and the difference in provenance between the sediments that are separated by the railway reflects the changed sedimentary conditions on either side of the railway. The effectiveness of this method suggests that it will be useful in other studies of aeolian sediments.

  8. Quantifying Sentiment and Influence in Blogspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Peter SY; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-07-25

    The weblog, or blog, has become a popular form of social media, through which authors can write posts, which can in turn generate feedback in the form of user comments. When considered in totality, a collection of blogs can thus be viewed as a sort of informal collection of mass sentiment and opinion. An obvious topic of interest might be to mine this collection to obtain some gauge of public sentiment over the wide variety of topics contained therein. However, the sheer size of the so-called blogosphere, combined with the fact that the subjects of posts can vary over a practically limitless number of topics poses some serious challenges when any meaningful analysis is attempted. Namely, the fact that largely anyone with access to the Internet can author their own blog, raises the serious issue of credibility— should some blogs be considered to be more influential than others, and consequently, when gauging sentiment with respect to a topic, should some blogs be weighted more heavily than others? In addition, as new posts and comments can be made on almost a constant basis, any blog analysis algorithm must be able to handle such updates efficiently. In this paper, we give a formalization of the blog model. We give formal methods of quantifying sentiment and influence with respect to a hierarchy of topics, with the specific aim of facilitating the computation of a per-topic, influence-weighted sentiment measure. Finally, as efficiency is a specific endgoal, we give upper bounds on the time required to update these values with new posts, showing that our analysis and algorithms are scalable.

  9. Uncertainty of natural tracer methods for quantifying river-aquifer interaction in a large river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yueqing; Cook, Peter G.; Shanafield, Margaret; Simmons, Craig T.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of river-aquifer interaction is critical to the conjunctive management of surface water and groundwater, in particular in the arid and semiarid environment with much higher potential evapotranspiration than precipitation. A variety of natural tracer methods are available to quantify river-aquifer interaction at different scales. These methods however have only been tested in rivers with relatively low flow rates (mostly less than 5 m3 s-1). In this study, several natural tracers including heat, radon-222 and electrical conductivity were measured both on vertical riverbed profiles and on longitudinal river samples to quantify river-aquifer exchange flux at both point and regional scales in the Heihe River (northwest China; flow rate 63 m3 s-1). Results show that the radon-222 profile method can estimate a narrower range of point-scale flux than the temperature profile method. In particular, three vertical radon-222 profiles failed to estimate the upper bounds of plausible flux ranges. Results also show that when quantifying regional-scale river-aquifer exchange flux, the river chemistry method constrained the flux (5.20-10.39 m2 d-1) better than the river temperature method (-100 to 100 m2 d-1). The river chemistry method also identified spatial variability of flux, whereas the river temperature method did not have sufficient resolution. Overall, for quantifying river-aquifer exchange flux in a large river, both the temperature profile method and the radon-222 profile method provide useful complementary information at the point scale to complement each other, whereas the river chemistry method is recommended over the river temperature method at the regional scale.

  10. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  11. Quantifying the curvilinear metabolic scaling in mammals.

    PubMed

    Packard, Gary C

    2015-10-01

    A perplexing problem confronting students of metabolic allometry concerns the convex curvature that seemingly occurs in log-log plots of basal metabolic rate (BMR) vs. body mass in mammals. This putative curvilinearity has typically been interpreted in the context of a simple power function, Y=a*Xb, on the arithmetic scale, with the allometric exponent, b, supposedly increasing steadily as a dependent function of body size. The relationship can be quantified in arithmetic domain by exponentiating a quadratic equation fitted to logarithmic transformations of the original data, but the resulting model is not in the form of a power function and it is unlikely to describe accurately the pattern in the original distribution. I therefore re-examined a dataset for 636 species of mammal and discovered that the relationship between BMR and body mass is well-described by a power function with an explicit, non-zero intercept and lognormal, heteroscedastic error. The model has an invariant allometric exponent of 0.75, so the appearance in prior investigations of a steadily increasing exponent probably was an aberration resulting from undue reliance on logarithmic transformations to estimate statistical models in arithmetic domain. Theoretical constructs relating BMR to body mass in mammals may need to be modified to accommodate a positive intercept in the statistical model, but they do not need to be revised, or rejected, at present time on grounds that the allometric exponent varies with body size. New data from planned experiments will be needed to confirm any hypothesis based on data currently available. PMID:26173580

  12. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  13. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  14. Quantifying forest mortality with the remote sensing of snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Emily Hewitt

    Greenhouse gas emissions have altered global climate significantly, increasing the frequency of drought, fire, and pest-related mortality in forests across the western United States, with increasing area affected each year. Associated changes in forests are of great concern for the public, land managers, and the broader scientific community. These increased stresses have resulted in a widespread, spatially heterogeneous decline of forest canopies, which in turn exerts strong controls on the accumulation and melt of the snowpack, and changes forest-atmosphere exchanges of carbon, water, and energy. Most satellite-based retrievals of summer-season forest data are insufficient to quantify canopy, as opposed to the combination of canopy and undergrowth, since the signals of the two types of vegetation greenness have proven persistently difficult to distinguish. To overcome this issue, this research develops a method to quantify forest canopy cover using winter-season fractional snow covered area (FSCA) data from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area and grain size (MODSCAG) algorithm. In areas where the ground surface and undergrowth are completely snow-covered, a pixel comprises only forest canopy and snow. Following a snowfall event, FSCA initially rises, as snow is intercepted in the canopy, and then falls, as snow unloads. A select set of local minima in a winter F SCA timeseries form a threshold where canopy is snow-free, but forest understory is snow-covered. This serves as a spatially-explicit measurement of forest canopy, and viewable gap fraction (VGF) on a yearly basis. Using this method, we determine that MODIS-observed VGF is significantly correlated with an independent product of yearly crown mortality derived from spectral analysis of Landsat imagery at 25 high-mortality sites in northern Colorado. (r =0.96 +/-0.03, p =0.03). Additionally, we determine the lag timing between green-stage tree mortality and

  15. Quantifying and Communicating Uncertainty in Preclinical Human Dose-Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, M; Lundahl, A; Någård, MB; Bredberg, U; Gennemark, P

    2015-01-01

    Human dose-prediction is fundamental for ranking lead-optimization compounds in drug discovery and to inform design of early clinical trials. This tutorial describes how uncertainty in such predictions can be quantified and efficiently communicated to facilitate decision-making. Using three drug-discovery case studies, we show how several uncertain pieces of input information can be integrated into one single uncomplicated plot with key predictions, including their uncertainties, for many compounds or for many scenarios, or both. PMID:26225248

  16. Quantifying the reheating temperature of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, Anupam; Zaldívar, Bryan

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine an exact definition of the reheat temperature for a generic perturbative decay of the inflaton. In order to estimate the reheat temperature, there are two important conditions one needs to satisfy: (a) the decay products of the inflaton must dominate the energy density of the universe, i.e. the universe becomes completely radiation dominated, and (b) the decay products of the inflaton have attained local thermodynamical equilibrium. For some choices of parameters, the latter is a more stringent condition, such that the decay products may thermalise much after the beginning of radiation-domination. Consequently, we have obtained that the reheat temperature can be much lower than the standard-lore estimation. In this paper we describe under what conditions our universe could have efficient or inefficient thermalisation, and quantify the reheat temperature for both the scenarios. This result has an immediate impact on many applications which rely on the thermal history of the universe, in particular gravitino abundance. Instant thermalisation: when the inflaton decay products instantly thermalise upon decay. Efficient thermalisation: when the inflaton decay products thermalise right at the instant when radiation epoch starts dominating the universe. Delayed thermalisation: when the inflaton decay products thermalise deep inside the radiation dominated epoch after the transition from inflaton-to-radiation domination had occurred. This paper is organised as follows. In Section 2 we set the stage and write down the relevant equations for our analysis. The standard lore about the reheating epoch is briefly commented in Section 3. Section 4 is devoted to present our analysis, in which we study the conditions under which the plasma attains thermalisation. Later on, in Section 5 we discuss the concept of reheat temperature such as to properly capture the issues of thermalisation. Finally, we conclude in Section 6.

  17. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  18. ShowMe3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  19. Taking the high (or low) road: a quantifier priming perspective on basic anchoring effects.

    PubMed

    Sleeth-Keppler, David

    2013-01-01

    Current explanations of basic anchoring effects, defined as the influence of an arbitrary number standard on an uncertain judgment, confound numerical values with vague quantifiers. I show that the consideration of numerical anchors may bias subsequent judgments primarily through the priming of quantifiers, rather than the numbers themselves. Study 1 varied the target of a numerical comparison judgment in a between--participants design, while holding the numerical anchor value constant. This design yielded an anchoring effect consistent with a quantifier priming hypothesis. Study 2 included a direct manipulation of vague quantifiers in the traditional anchoring paradigm. Finally, Study 3 examined the notion that specific associations between quantifiers, reflecting values on separate judgmental dimensions (i.e., the price and height of a target) can affect the direction of anchoring effects. Discussion focuses on the nature of vague quantifier priming in numerically anchored judgments. PMID:23951950

  20. Quantifying subsurface mixing of groundwater from lowland stream perspective.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Ype; Torfs, Paul; van der Zee, Sjoerd; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2013-04-01

    The distribution of time it takes water from the moment of precipitation to reach the catchment outlet is widely used as a characteristic for catchment discharge behaviour, catchment vulnerability to pollution spreading and pollutant loads from catchments to downstream waters. However, this distribution tends to vary in time driven by variability in precipitation and evapotranspiration. Subsurface mixing controls to what extent dynamics in rainfall and evpotranspiration are translated into dynamics of travel time distributions. This insight in hydrologic functioning of catchments requires new definitions and concepts that link dynamics of catchment travel time distributions to the degree of subsurface mixing. In this presentation we propose the concept of STorage Outflow Probability (STOP) functions, that quantify the probability of water parcels stored in a catchment, to leave this catchment by discharge or evapotranspiration. We will show how STOPs relate to the topography and subsurface and how they can be used for deriving time varying travel time distributions of a catchment. The presented analyses will combine a unique dataset of high-frequent discharge and nitrate concentration measurements with results of a spatially distributed groundwater model and conceptual models of water flow and solute transport. Remarkable findings are the large contrasts in discharge behaviour expressed in travel time between lowland and sloping catchments and the strong relationship between evapotranspiration and stream water nutrient concentration dynamics.

  1. Toward quantifying the effectiveness of water trading under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Luo, B; Huang, G H; Zou, Y; Yin, Y Y

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a methodology for quantifying the effectiveness of water-trading under uncertainty, by developing an optimization model based on the interval-parameter two-stage stochastic program (TSP) technique. In the study, the effectiveness of a water-trading program is measured by the water volume that can be released through trading from a statistical point of view. The methodology can also deal with recourse water allocation problems generated by randomness in water availability and, at the same time, tackle uncertainties expressed as intervals in the trading system. The developed methodology was tested with a hypothetical water-trading program in an agricultural system in the Swift Current Creek watershed, Canada. Study results indicate that the methodology can effectively measure the effectiveness of a trading program through estimating the water volume being released through trading in a long-term view. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to analyze the effects of different trading costs on the trading program. It shows that the trading efforts would become ineffective when the trading costs are too high. The case study also demonstrates that the trading program is more effective in a dry season when total water availability is in shortage. PMID:16624478

  2. Microfluidic experiments to quantify microbes encountering oil water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Jian; Jalali, Maryam; Molaei, Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    It is known that marine microbes are one of the components of biodegradation of crude oil. Biodegradation of crude oil is initiated by microbes encountering the droplet. To elucidate the key processes involved in bacterial encountering the rising oil droplets we have established microfluidic devices with hydrophilic surfaces to create micro oil droplets with controlled sizes. To quantify effect of motility of bacteria on their encounter rate, using high speed microscopy, we simultaneously tracked motile bacteria and solid particles with equivalent sizes encountering oil droplets. The results show that in the advection dominant regime, where the droplet size and the rising velocity are large, bacterial motility plays no role in the encountering rate; however, in the diffusion dominant regime, where the swimming velocity of the cells are comparable with rising velocity and Peclet number of particles is small, motility of the cells increases their encounter rate. Ongoing analysis focus on developing a mathematical model to predict the encounter rate of the cells based on their size, swimming speed, and dispersion rate and the size of oil droplets. GoMRI.

  3. Statistical physics approach to quantifying differences in myelinated nerve fibers

    PubMed Central

    Comin, César H.; Santos, João R.; Corradini, Dario; Morrison, Will; Curme, Chester; Rosene, Douglas L.; Gabrielli, Andrea; da F. Costa, Luciano; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    We present a new method to quantify differences in myelinated nerve fibers. These differences range from morphologic characteristics of individual fibers to differences in macroscopic properties of collections of fibers. Our method uses statistical physics tools to improve on traditional measures, such as fiber size and packing density. As a case study, we analyze cross–sectional electron micrographs from the fornix of young and old rhesus monkeys using a semi-automatic detection algorithm to identify and characterize myelinated axons. We then apply a feature selection approach to identify the features that best distinguish between the young and old age groups, achieving a maximum accuracy of 94% when assigning samples to their age groups. This analysis shows that the best discrimination is obtained using the combination of two features: the fraction of occupied axon area and the effective local density. The latter is a modified calculation of axon density, which reflects how closely axons are packed. Our feature analysis approach can be applied to characterize differences that result from biological processes such as aging, damage from trauma or disease or developmental differences, as well as differences between anatomical regions such as the fornix and the cingulum bundle or corpus callosum. PMID:24676146

  4. Quantifying singlet fission in novel organic materials using nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Erik; Xia, Jianlong; Yaffe, Omer; Kumar, Bharat; Berkelbach, Timothy; Wu, Qin; Miller, John; Nuckolls, Colin; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Reichman, David; Campos, Luis; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-10-01

    Singlet fission is a form of multiple exciton generation in which two triplet excitons are produced from the decay of a photoexcited singlet exciton. In a small number of organic materials, most notably pentacene, this conversion process has been shown to occur with unity quantum yield on sub-ps timescales. However, a poorly understood mechanism for fission along with strict energy and geometry requirements have so far limited the observation of this process to a few classes of organic materials, with only a subset of these (most notably the polyacenes) showing both efficient fission and long-lived triplets. Here, we utilize novel organic materials to investigate how the efficiency of the fission process depends on the coupling and the energetic driving force between chromophores in both intra- and intermolecular singlet fission materials. We demonstrate how the triplet yield can be accurately quantified using a combination of traditional transient spectroscopies and recently developed excited state saturable absorption techniques. These results allow us to gain mechanistic insight into the fission process and suggest general strategies for generating new materials that can undergo efficient fission.

  5. Statistical physics approach to quantifying differences in myelinated nerve fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comin, César H.; Santos, João R.; Corradini, Dario; Morrison, Will; Curme, Chester; Rosene, Douglas L.; Gabrielli, Andrea; da F. Costa, Luciano; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2014-03-01

    We present a new method to quantify differences in myelinated nerve fibers. These differences range from morphologic characteristics of individual fibers to differences in macroscopic properties of collections of fibers. Our method uses statistical physics tools to improve on traditional measures, such as fiber size and packing density. As a case study, we analyze cross-sectional electron micrographs from the fornix of young and old rhesus monkeys using a semi-automatic detection algorithm to identify and characterize myelinated axons. We then apply a feature selection approach to identify the features that best distinguish between the young and old age groups, achieving a maximum accuracy of 94% when assigning samples to their age groups. This analysis shows that the best discrimination is obtained using the combination of two features: the fraction of occupied axon area and the effective local density. The latter is a modified calculation of axon density, which reflects how closely axons are packed. Our feature analysis approach can be applied to characterize differences that result from biological processes such as aging, damage from trauma or disease or developmental differences, as well as differences between anatomical regions such as the fornix and the cingulum bundle or corpus callosum.

  6. Quantifying metastatic inefficiency: rare genotypes versus rare dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Luis H.; Newman, Timothy J.

    2014-08-01

    We introduce and solve a ‘null model’ of stochastic metastatic colonization. The model is described by a single parameter θ: the ratio of the rate of cell division to the rate of cell death for a disseminated tumour cell in a given secondary tissue environment. We are primarily interested in the case in which colonizing cells are poorly adapted for proliferation in the local tissue environment, so that cell death is more likely than cell division, i.e. \\theta \\lt 1. We quantify the rare event statistics for the successful establishment of a metastatic colony of size N. For N\\gg 1, we find that the probability of establishment is exponentially rare, as expected, and yet the mean time for such rare events is of the form \\sim log (N)/(1-\\theta ) while the standard deviation of colonization times is \\sim 1/(1-\\theta ). Thus, counter to naive expectation, for \\theta \\lt 1, the average time for establishment of successful metastatic colonies decreases with decreasing cell fitness, and colonies seeded from lower fitness cells show less stochastic variation in their growth. These results indicate that metastatic growth from poorly adapted cells is rare, exponentially explosive and essentially deterministic. These statements are brought into sharper focus by the finding that the temporal statistics of the early stages of metastatic colonization from low-fitness cells (\\theta \\lt 1) are statistically indistinguishable from those initiated from high-fitness cells (\\theta \\gt 1), i.e. the statistics show a duality mapping (1-\\theta )\\to (\\theta -1). We conclude our analysis with a study of heterogeneity in the fitness of colonising cells, and describe a phase diagram delineating parameter regions in which metastatic colonization is dominated either by low or high fitness cells, showing that both are plausible given our current knowledge of physiological conditions in human cancer.

  7. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  8. Quantify Prostate Cancer by Automated Histomorphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braumann, Ulf-Dietrich; Kuska, Jens-Peer; Löffler, Markus; Wernert, Nicolas

    A new method is presented to quantify malignant changes in histological sections of prostate tissue immunohistochemically stained for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by means of image processing. The morphological analysis of the prostate tissue uses the solidity of PSA-positive prostate tissue segments to compute a quantitative measure that turns out highly correlated with scores obtained from routine diagnosis (Gleason, Dhom).

  9. Protocol comparison for quantifying in situ mineralization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In situ mineralization methods are intended to quantify mineralization under realistic environmental conditions. This study was conducted to compare soil moisture and temperature in intake soil cores contained in cylinders to that in adjacent bulk soil, compare the effect of two resin bag techniques...

  10. Quantifying the Reuse of Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kristine; Sweeney, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of one case study from a larger project, which aims to quantify the claimed efficiencies of reusing learning objects to develop e-learning resources. The case study describes how an online inquiry project "Diabetes: A waste of energy" was developed by searching for, evaluating, modifying and then integrating as many…