Science.gov

Sample records for quantifying arm activity

  1. The US-DOE ARM/ASR Effort in Quantifying Uncertainty in Ground-Based Cloud Property Retrievals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Protat, A.; Zhao, C.

    2013-12-01

    One primary goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is to obtain and retrieve cloud microphysical properties from detailed cloud observations using ground-based active and passive remote sensors. However, there is large uncertainty in the retrieved cloud property products. Studies have shown that the uncertainty could arise from instrument limitations, measurement errors, sampling errors, retrieval algorithm deficiencies in assumptions, as well as inconsistent input data and constraints used by different algorithms. To quantify the uncertainty in cloud retrievals, a scientific focus group, Quantification of Uncertainties In Cloud Retrievals (QUICR), was recently created by the DOE Atmospheric System Research (ASR) program. This talk will provide an overview of the recent research activities conducted within QUICR and discuss its current collaborations with the European cloud retrieval community and future plans. The goal of QUICR is to develop a methodology for characterizing and quantifying uncertainties in current and future ARM cloud retrievals. The Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-641258.

  2. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-05-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the Differential Box-Counting Method (DBC)of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flares. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and Bl), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  3. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the differential Box-Counting Method (DBC) of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Centr's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flare. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and B1), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  4. Quantifying Ant Activity Using Vibration Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult. PMID:24658467

  5. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles. PMID:26473519

  6. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included. PMID:26794199

  7. Extravehicular activity translation arm (EVATA) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, P. R.; Stammreich, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The preliminary design of a deployable Extravehicular Activity Translation Arm (EVATA) assembly which will allow an EVA crewman to perform tasks in the vicinity of the External TNK (ET) umbilical doors and to inspect most of the underside of the shuttle spacecraft is reported. The concept chosen for the boom structure was the Astro Extendable Support Structure (ESS) which formed the main structure for the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna System on the SEASAT A spacecraft. This structure is a deployable triangular truss. A comparison of the EVATA and the SEASAT A ESS is shown. The development of status of the ESS is shown. The satellite configuration, the stowed truss load path, and the envelope deployment sequence for the ESS are also shown.

  8. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  9. Analysis of scapular kinematics during active and passive arm elevation

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yoshihiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Takei, Kazuto; Madokoro, Kazuya; Imura, Takeshi; Murata, Shin; Morihara, Toru; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Early postoperative passive motion exercise after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair remains controversial. To better understand this issue, this study was aimed at evaluating scapular kinematics and muscle activities during passive arm elevation in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] The dominant shoulders of 27 healthy subjects were examined. Electromagnetic sensors attached to the scapula, thorax, and humerus were used to determine three-dimensional scapular kinematics during active arm elevation with or without external loads and passive arm elevation. Simultaneously, the activities of seven shoulder muscles were recorded with surface and intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. [Results] Compared with active arm elevation, passive elevation between 30° and 100° significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and increased the glenohumeral elevation angle. However, no significant differences in scapular posterior tilt and external rotation were observed between active and passive arm elevation, and scapular plane kinematics were not affected by muscle activity. [Conclusion] Unlike active motion with or without an external load, passive arm elevation significantly decreased the scapular upward rotation and significantly increased the mid-range glenohumeral elevation. These data, which suggest that passive arm elevation should be avoided during the early postoperative period, may expand the understanding of rehabilitation after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. PMID:27390438

  10. The need for preoperative baseline arm measurement to accurately quantify breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fangdi; Skolny, Melissa N; Swaroop, Meyha N; Rawal, Bhupendra; Catalano, Paul J; Brunelle, Cheryl L; Miller, Cynthia L; Taghian, Alphonse G

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) is a feared outcome of breast cancer treatment, yet the push for early screening is hampered by a lack of standardized quantification. We sought to determine the necessity of preoperative baseline in accounting for temporal changes of upper extremity volume. 1028 women with unilateral breast cancer were prospectively screened for lymphedema by perometry. Thresholds were defined: relative volume change (RVC) ≥10 % for clinically significant lymphedema and ≥5 % including subclinical lymphedema. The first postoperative measurement (pseudo-baseline) simulated the case of no baseline. McNemar's test and binomial logistic regression models were used to analyze BCRL misdiagnoses. Preoperatively, 28.3 and 2.9 % of patients had arm asymmetry of ≥5 and 10 %, respectively. Without baseline, 41.6 % of patients were underdiagnosed and 40.1 % overdiagnosed at RVC ≥ 5 %, increasing to 50.0 and 54.8 % at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, increased weight change between baselines, hormonal therapy, dominant use of contralateral arm, and not receiving axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were associated with increased risk of underdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; not receiving regional lymph node radiation was significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. Increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry, not receiving ALND, and dominant use of ipsilateral arm were associated with overdiagnosis at RVC ≥ 5 %; increased pseudo-baseline asymmetry and not receiving ALND were significant at RVC ≥ 10 %. The use of a postoperative proxy even early after treatment results in poor sensitivity for identifying BCRL. Providers with access to patients before surgery should consider the consequent need for proper baseline, with specific strategy tailored by institution. PMID:27154787

  11. Patterns of arm muscle activation involved in octopus reaching movements.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Fiorito, G; Hochner, B

    1998-08-01

    The extreme flexibility of the octopus arm allows it to perform many different movements, yet octopuses reach toward a target in a stereotyped manner using a basic invariant motor structure: a bend traveling from the base of the arm toward the tip (Gutfreund et al., 1996a). To study the neuronal control of these movements, arm muscle activation [electromyogram (EMG)] was measured together with the kinematics of reaching movements. The traveling bend is associated with a propagating wave of muscle activation, with maximal muscle activation slightly preceding the traveling bend. Tonic activation was occasionally maintained afterward. Correlation of the EMG signals with the kinematic variables (velocities and accelerations) reveals that a significant part of the kinematic variability can be explained by the level of muscle activation. Furthermore, the EMG level measured during the initial stages of movement predicts the peak velocity attained toward the end of the reaching movement. These results suggest that feed-forward motor commands play an important role in the control of movement velocity and that simple adjustment of the excitation levels at the initial stages of the movement can set the velocity profile of the whole movement. A simple model of octopus arm extension is proposed in which the driving force is set initially and is then decreased in proportion to arm diameter at the bend. The model qualitatively reproduces the typical velocity profiles of octopus reaching movements, suggesting a simple control mechanism for bend propagation in the octopus arm. PMID:9671683

  12. Quantifying reflectance anisotropy of photosynthetically active radiation in grasslands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    1992-01-01

    Quantifying the vegetative surface's reflectance anisotropy was an important part of the First ISLSCP Field Experiment, as its major objectives focused on retrieval of surface parameters from satellite-derived reflectances. The explicit remote measurements for approximating the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of photosynthetically active radiation had not been previously undertaken. In this paper the proper expression of reflectance for BRDFs for retrieval of canopy parameters is assessed.

  13. Quantifying unsteadiness and dynamics of pulsatory volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, L.; Pioli, L.; Bonadonna, C.; Connor, C. B.; Andronico, D.; Harris, A. J. L.; Ripepe, M.

    2016-06-01

    Pulsatory eruptions are marked by a sequence of explosions which can be separated by time intervals ranging from a few seconds to several hours. The quantification of the periodicities associated with these eruptions is essential not only for the comprehension of the mechanisms controlling explosivity, but also for classification purposes. We focus on the dynamics of pulsatory activity and quantify unsteadiness based on the distribution of the repose time intervals between single explosive events in relation to magma properties and eruptive styles. A broad range of pulsatory eruption styles are considered, including Strombolian, violent Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions. We find a general relationship between the median of the observed repose times in eruptive sequences and the viscosity of magma given by η ≈ 100 ṡtmedian. This relationship applies to the complete range of magma viscosities considered in our study (102 to 109 Pa s) regardless of the eruption length, eruptive style and associated plume heights, suggesting that viscosity is the main magma property controlling eruption periodicity. Furthermore, the analysis of the explosive sequences in terms of failure time through statistical survival analysis provides further information: dynamics of pulsatory activity can be successfully described in terms of frequency and regularity of the explosions, quantified based on the log-logistic distribution. A linear relationship is identified between the log-logistic parameters, μ and s. This relationship is useful for quantifying differences among eruptive styles from very frequent and regular mafic events (Strombolian activity) to more sporadic and irregular Vulcanian explosions in silicic systems. The time scale controlled by the parameter μ, as a function of the median of the distribution, can be therefore correlated with the viscosity of magmas; while the complexity of the erupting system, including magma rise rate, degassing and fragmentation efficiency

  14. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs. PMID:26961103

  15. Quantifying reflectance anisotropy of photosynthetically active radiation in grasslands

    SciTech Connect

    Middleton, E.M. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper reports on a study to quantify the reflectance anisotropy of the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for grasslands. PAR falls in the wavelength range 0.4 to 0.7[mu]m. The study looks at the variation of PAR with illumination and vegetative canopy conditions. It uses bidirectional reflectance distribution function data, and measures of anisotropy derived from reflectance factor and reflectance fraction data to aid in the analysis. The data used for this analysis came from an intense effort mounted to measure diurnal changes in the anisotropy of surface reflectance from prairie grassland as a function of the vegetative canopy.

  16. Cortical Spectral Activity and Connectivity during Active and Viewed Arm and Leg Movement

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Julia E.; Huang, Helen J.; Snyder, Kristine L.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG) could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: (1) both arms and legs, (2) just legs, and (3) just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and supplementary motor

  17. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction. PMID:26615477

  18. The application of active side arm controllers in helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knorr, R.; Melz, C.; Faulkner, A.; Obermayer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Eurocopter Deutschland (ECD) started simulation trials to investigate the particular problems of Side Arm Controllers (SAC) applied to helicopters. Two simulation trials have been performed. In the first trial, the handling characteristics of a 'passive' SAC and the basic requirements for the application of an 'active' SAC were evaluated in pilot-in-the-loop simulations, performing the tasks in a realistic scenario representing typical phases of a transport mission. The second simulation trial investigated the general control characteristics of the 'active' in comparison to the 'passive' control principle. A description of the SACs developed by ECD and the principle of the 'passive' and 'active' control concept is given, as well as specific ratings for the investigated dynamic and ergonomic parameters effecting SAC characteristics. The experimental arrangements, as well as the trials procedures of both simulation phases, are described and the results achieved are discussed emphasizing the advantages of the 'active' as opposed to the 'passive' SAC concept. This also includes the presentation of some critical aspects still to be improved and proposals to solve them.

  19. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, T.R.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Engel, J. Jr.; Christenson, P.D.; Zhang, J.X.; Phelps, M.E.; Kuhl, D.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism.

  20. 75 FR 54599 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Specified Activities; Construction of the Knik Arm Crossing, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... received a request from the Knik Arm Bridge Toll Authority (KABATA), in coordination with the Department of... construction of a bridge across Knik Arm, named the Knik Arm Crossing, Alaska, over the course of...

  1. Patterns of motor activity in the isolated nerve cord of the octopus arm.

    PubMed

    Gutfreund, Yoram; Matzner, Henry; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2006-12-01

    The extremely flexible octopus arm provides a unique opportunity for studying movement control in a highly redundant motor system. We describe a novel preparation that allows analysis of the peripheral nervous system of the octopus arm and its interaction with the muscular and mechanosensory elements of the arm's intrinsic muscular system. First we examined the synaptic responses in muscle fibers to identify the motor pathways from the axial nerve cord of the arm to the surrounding musculature. We show that the motor axons project to the muscles via nerve roots originating laterally from the arm nerve cord. The motor field of each nerve is limited to the region where the nerve enters the arm musculature. The same roots also carry afferent mechanosensory information from the intrinsic muscle to the axial nerve cord. Next, we characterized the pattern of activity generated in the dorsal roots by electrically stimulating the axial nerve cord. The evoked activity, although far reaching and long lasting, cannot alone account for the arm extension movements generated by similar electrical stimulation. The mismatch between patterns of activity in the isolated cord and in an intact arm may stem from the involvement of mechanosensory feedback in natural arm extension. PMID:17179381

  2. Quantifying the amount and activity of Rubisco in leaves.

    PubMed

    Kubien, David S; Brown, Christopher M; Kane, Heather J

    2011-01-01

    The CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco plays a crucial biological role as a primary determinant of both plant yield and the response of the biosphere to global change. Here, we describe techniques for measuring the amount and activity of Rubisco in higher plants. To accommodate a range of experimental capabilities, we describe basic radioisotopic methods as well as non-radioactive techniques. The required calculations are included. We discuss problems that commonly arise during the extraction and assay of Rubisco. PMID:20960142

  3. Quantifying bursting neuron activity from calcium signals using blind deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Park, In Jun; Bobkov, Yuriy V; Ache, Barry W; Principe, Jose C

    2013-09-15

    Advances in calcium imaging have enabled studies of the dynamic activity of both individual neurons and neuronal assemblies. However, challenges, such as unknown nonlinearities in the spike-calcium relationship, noise, and the often relatively low temporal resolution of the calcium signal compared to the time-scale of spike generation, restrict the accurate estimation of action potentials from the calcium signal. Complex neuronal discharge, such as the activity demonstrated by bursting and rhythmically active neurons, represents an even greater challenge for reconstructing spike trains based on calcium signals. We propose a method using blind calcium signal deconvolution based on an information-theoretic approach. This model is meant to maximise the output entropy of a nonlinear filter where the nonlinearity is defined by the cumulative distribution function of the spike signal. We tested our maximum entropy (ME) algorithm using bursting olfactory receptor neurons (bORNs) of the lobster olfactory organ. The advantage of the ME algorithm is that the filter can be trained online based only on the statistics of the spike signal, without any assumptions regarding the unknown transfer function characterizing the relation between the spike and calcium signal. We show that the ME method is able to more accurately reconstruct the timing of the first and last spikes of a burst compared to other methods and that it improves the temporal precision fivefold compared to direct timing resolution of calcium signal. PMID:23711821

  4. Quantifying promoter activity during the developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ(66)-dependent promoter, which requires an extended -10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495

  5. Quantifying promoter activity during the developmental cycle of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Yanguang; Gao, Leiqiong; Zhang, Yan; Xian, Yuqi; Hua, Ziyu; Elaasar, Hiba; Shen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that undergoes a characteristic development cycle correlating with stage-specific gene expression profiles. Taking advantage of recent developments in the genetic transformation in C. trachomatis, we constructed a versatile green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter system to study the development-dependent function of C. trachomatis promoters in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism that controls C. trachomatis adaptability. We validated the use of the GFP reporter system by visualizing the activity of an early euo gene promoter. Additionally, we uncovered a new ompA promoter, which we named P3, utilizing the GFP reporter system combined with 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), in vitro transcription assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), and flow cytometry. Mutagenesis of the P3 region verifies that P3 is a new class of C. trachomatis σ66-dependent promoter, which requires an extended −10 TGn motif for transcription. These results corroborate complex developmentally controlled ompA expression in C. trachomatis. The exploitation of genetically labeled C. trachomatis organisms with P3-driven GFP allows for the observation of changes in ompA expression in response to developmental signals. The results of this study could be used to complement previous findings and to advance understanding of C. trachomatis genetic expression. PMID:27263495

  6. Loss, adaptation and new directions: The impact of arm morbidity on leisure activities following breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roanne; Hack, Thomas F; Quinlan, Elizabeth; Tatemichi, Sue; Towers, Anna; Kwan, Winkle; Miedema, Baukje; Tilley, Andrea; Hamoline, Rita; Morrison, Tricia

    2015-01-01

    The impact of arm morbidity on leisure and quality of life is an understudied area in cancer survivorship. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively describe the impact of breast cancer-related arm morbidity on leisure participation in Canadian women. A grounded theory approach was used to generate thematic categories and a model. Drawing on participants from a larger cohort study (n = 740), 40 women with arm morbidity symptoms were purposively sampled and interviewed. Three themes emerged: a sense of loss, adapting participation, and new directions. Women with arm morbidity may experience an abrupt loss of previously enjoyed leisure activities and engage in a process of adapting to discover new meanings and directions. Comprehensive, person-centred cancer survivorship programs may assist with adaptation to arm morbidity. PMID:26642494

  7. A dynamic model for generating actuator specifications for small arms barrel active stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Anupam; Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Lavigna, Chris

    2006-03-01

    Due to stresses encountered in combat, it is known that soldier marksmanship noticeably decreases regardless of prior training. Active stabilization systems in small arms have potential to address this problem to increase soldier survivability and mission effectiveness. The key to success is proper actuator design, but this is highly dependent on proper specification which is challenging due to the human/weapon interaction. This paper presents a generic analytical dynamic model which is capable of defining the necessary actuation specifications for a wide range of small arms platforms. The model is unique because it captures the human interface--shoulder and arm--that introduces the jitter disturbance in addition to the geometry, inertial properties and active stabilization stiffness of the small arms platform. Because no data to date is available for actual shooter-induced disturbance in field conditions, a method is given using the model to back-solve from measured shooting range variability data the disturbance amplitude information relative to the input source (arm or shoulder). As examples of the applicability of the model to various small arms systems, two different weapon systems were investigated: the M24 sniper weapon and the M16 assault rifle. In both cases, model based simulations provided valuable insight into impact on the actuation specifications (force, displacement, phase, frequency) due to the interplay of the human-weapon-active stabilization interface including the effect of shooter-disturbance frequency, disturbance location (shoulder vs. arm), and system parameters (stiffness, barrel rotation).

  8. Quantifying Leisure Physical Activity and Its Relation to Bone Density and Strength

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: Compare three published methods of quantifying physical activity (total activity, peak strain, and bone loading exposure [BLE] scores) and identify their associations with areal bone mineral density (aBMD), volumetric BMD (vBMD), and bone strength. Methods: Postmenopausal women (N = 239; me...

  9. Muscular Activity in the Arm during Lexical Retrieval: Implications for Gesture-Speech Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsella, Ezequiel; Krauss, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    The origin and functions of the hand and arm gestures that accompany speech production are poorly understood. It has been proposed that gestures facilitate lexical retrieval, but little is known about when retrieval is accompanied by gestural activity and how this activity is related to the semantics of the word to be retrieved. Electromyographic…

  10. Endurance time, muscular activity and the hand/arm tremor for different exertion forces of holding.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exertion force on endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor during holding. Fifteen healthy young males were recruited as participants. The independent variable was exertion force (20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity). The dependent variables were endurance time, muscular activity and hand/arm tremor. The results showed that endurance time decreased with exertion force while muscular activity and hand/arm tremor increased with exertion force. Hand/arm tremor increased with holding time. Endurance time of 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity was approximately 22.7%, 12.0% and 5.6% of that of 20% maximum holding capacity, respectively. The rms (root mean square) acceleration of hand/arm tremor of the final phase of holding was 2.27-, 1.33-, 1.20- and 1.73-fold of that of the initial phase of holding for 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% maximum holding capacity, respectively. PMID:26655224

  11. The influence of body posture, arm movement, and work stress on trapezius activity during computer work.

    PubMed

    Mork, Paul Jarle; Westgaard, Rolf H

    2007-11-01

    The study aimed to determine the influence of arm posture and movement on trapezius activity of computer workers, considering the full workday. A second aim was to investigate if work periods perceived as stressful were associated with elevated or more sustained muscle activity pattern. Twenty-six computer workers performing call-center (n=11), help desk (n=7), or secretarial (n=8) work tasks participated. Bilateral trapezius surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity and heart rate was recorded throughout the workday. Simultaneous inclinometer recordings from left thigh and upper arms identified periods with sitting, standing, and walking, as well as arm posture and movement. Perceived work stress and tension were recorded on visual analog scales (VAS) every hour. Trapezius sEMG activity was low in seated posture [group median 1.8 and 0.9% of activity at maximal voluntary contraction (%EMGmax) for dominant and non-dominant side] and was elevated in standing (3.0 and 2.5% EMGmax) and walking (3.9 and 3.4% EMGmax). In seated posture (mean duration 79% of workday) arm movement consistently influenced trapezius activity, accounting for approximately 20% of intra-individual variation in trapezius activity. Arm elevation was on average not associated with trapezius activity when seated; however, considerable individual variation was observed. There was no indication of increase in trapezius activity or more sustained activity pattern, nor in heart rate, in high-stress versus low-stress periods, comparing periods with seated posture for the subjects reporting contrasts of at least two VAS units in stress (n=16) or tension (n=14) score. PMID:17653757

  12. Diagnosis and characterization of mania: Quantifying increased energy and activity in the human behavioral pattern monitor.

    PubMed

    Perry, William; McIlwain, Meghan; Kloezeman, Karen; Henry, Brook L; Minassian, Arpi

    2016-06-30

    Increased energy or activity is now an essential feature of the mania of Bipolar Disorder (BD) according to DSM-5. This study examined whether objective measures of increased energy can differentiate manic BD individuals and provide greater diagnostic accuracy compared to rating scales, extending the work of previous studies with smaller samples. We also tested the relationship between objective measures of energy and rating scales. 50 hospitalized manic BD patients were compared to healthy subjects (HCS, n=39) in the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM) which quantifies motor activity and goal-directed behavior in an environment containing novel stimuli. Archival hBPM data from 17 schizophrenia patients were used in sensitivity and specificity analyses. Manic BD patients exhibited higher motor activity than HCS and higher novel object interactions. hBPM activity measures were not correlated with observer-rated symptoms, and hBPM activity was more sensitive in accurately classifying hospitalized BD subjects than observer ratings. Although the findings can only be generalized to inpatient populations, they suggest that increased energy, particularly specific and goal-directed exploration, is a distinguishing feature of BD mania and is best quantified by objective measures of motor activity. A better understanding is needed of the biological underpinnings of this cardinal feature. PMID:27138818

  13. Quantifying microbial activity in deep subsurface sediments using a tritium based hydrognease enzyme assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, R.; Nickel, J.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial life is widespread in Earth's subsurface and estimated to represent a significant fraction of Earth's total living biomass. However, very little is known about subsurface microbial activity and its fundamental role in biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other biologically important elements. Hydrogen is one of the most important elements in subsurface anaerobic microbial metabolism. Heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic microorganisms use hydrogen in their metabolic pathways. They either consume or produce protons for ATP synthesis. Hydrogenase (H2ase) is a ubiquitous intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of molecular hydrogen and/or water into protons and electrons. The protons are used for the synthesis of ATP, thereby coupling energy generating metabolic processes to electron acceptors such as CO2 or sulfate. H2ase enzyme targets a key metabolic compound in cellular metabolism therefore the assay can be used as a measure for total microbial activity without the need to identify any specific metabolic process. Using the highly sensitive tritium assay we measured H2ase enzyme activity in the organic-rich sediments of Lake Van, a saline, alkaline lake in eastern Turkey, in marine sediments of the Barents Sea and in deep subseafloor sediments from the Nankai Trough. H2ase activity could be quantified at all depths of all sites but the activity distribution varied widely with depth and between sites. At the Lake Van sites H2ase activity ranged from ca. 20 mmol H2 cm-3d-1 close to the sediment-water interface to 0.5 mmol H2 cm-3d-1 at a depth of 0.8 m. In samples from the Barents Sea H2ase activity ranged between 0.1 to 2.5 mmol H2 cm-3d-1 down to a depth of 1.60 m. At all sites the sulfate reduction rate profile followed the upper part of the H2ase activity profile until sulfate reduction reached the minimum detection limit (ca. 10 pmol cm-3d-1). H2ase activity could still be quantified after the decline of sulfate reduction, indicating that

  14. Summary of the ARM activities at ECMWF from 2007-2009

    SciTech Connect

    Maike Ahlgrimm; Anton Beljaars

    2010-07-13

    The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), as one of the leading centres in numerical weather prediction, has been an active user of observations for model evaluation for many years. Many examples exist where detailed experimental studies have inspired model improvement. To establish a link between the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) research and ECMWF's model development, funding was provided for an \\u201cARM fellow\\u201d at ECMWF. Furthermore, ECMWF has been working closely with ARM related projects for many years. ECMWF provides operational analysis data for the ARM stations (permanent and mobile) as background meteorological information and ECMWF has implemented the Rapid Radiative Transport Model long wave and short wave schemes as radiation codes in the operational system. These codes were developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research Inc. with ARM support and were extensively evaluated using detailed ARM observations. This short report describes the history of the ARM-fellowship at ECMWF and summarizes the achievements over the last 3 years. The emphasis of the ARM funded work over the last 3 years has been on further development and evaluation of a new shallow convection scheme in the context of ECMWF's Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The shallow convection scheme is based on the DualM approach which combines Eddy Diffusion with a Dual Mass flux concept. One of the mass fluxes describes the dry updraughts, whereas the second updraught saturates at cloud base and penetrates into the cloud. The new scheme was optimized using single column cases from a wide range of climatological regimes. Further evaluation of the 3-dimensional model using Lidar data from space (CALIPSO) clearly indicates that the resulting cloud structures are much more realistic than the ones produced by the control model (Tiedtke mass flux scheme). Additionally, data from the ARM mobile facility in 2006 in Niamey has been used to evaluate the

  15. Quantifying forearm muscle activity during wrist and finger movements by means of multi-channel electromyography.

    PubMed

    Gazzoni, Marco; Celadon, Nicolò; Mastrapasqua, Davide; Paleari, Marco; Margaria, Valentina; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of hand and finger movement is an important topic with applications in prosthetics, rehabilitation, and ergonomics. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is the gold standard for the analysis of muscle activation. Previous studies investigated the optimal electrode number and positioning on the forearm to obtain information representative of muscle activation and robust to movements. However, the sEMG spatial distribution on the forearm during hand and finger movements and its changes due to different hand positions has never been quantified. The aim of this work is to quantify 1) the spatial localization of surface EMG activity of distinct forearm muscles during dynamic free movements of wrist and single fingers and 2) the effect of hand position on sEMG activity distribution. The subjects performed cyclic dynamic tasks involving the wrist and the fingers. The wrist tasks and the hand opening/closing task were performed with the hand in prone and neutral positions. A sensorized glove was used for kinematics recording. sEMG signals were acquired from the forearm muscles using a grid of 112 electrodes integrated into a stretchable textile sleeve. The areas of sEMG activity have been identified by a segmentation technique after a data dimensionality reduction step based on Non Negative Matrix Factorization applied to the EMG envelopes. The results show that 1) it is possible to identify distinct areas of sEMG activity on the forearm for different fingers; 2) hand position influences sEMG activity level and spatial distribution. This work gives new quantitative information about sEMG activity distribution on the forearm in healthy subjects and provides a basis for future works on the identification of optimal electrode configuration for sEMG based control of prostheses, exoskeletons, or orthoses. An example of use of this information for the optimization of the detection system for the estimation of joint kinematics from sEMG is reported. PMID:25289669

  16. Quantifying Forearm Muscle Activity during Wrist and Finger Movements by Means of Multi-Channel Electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Gazzoni, Marco; Celadon, Nicolò; Mastrapasqua, Davide; Paleari, Marco; Margaria, Valentina; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of hand and finger movement is an important topic with applications in prosthetics, rehabilitation, and ergonomics. Surface electromyography (sEMG) is the gold standard for the analysis of muscle activation. Previous studies investigated the optimal electrode number and positioning on the forearm to obtain information representative of muscle activation and robust to movements. However, the sEMG spatial distribution on the forearm during hand and finger movements and its changes due to different hand positions has never been quantified. The aim of this work is to quantify 1) the spatial localization of surface EMG activity of distinct forearm muscles during dynamic free movements of wrist and single fingers and 2) the effect of hand position on sEMG activity distribution. The subjects performed cyclic dynamic tasks involving the wrist and the fingers. The wrist tasks and the hand opening/closing task were performed with the hand in prone and neutral positions. A sensorized glove was used for kinematics recording. sEMG signals were acquired from the forearm muscles using a grid of 112 electrodes integrated into a stretchable textile sleeve. The areas of sEMG activity have been identified by a segmentation technique after a data dimensionality reduction step based on Non Negative Matrix Factorization applied to the EMG envelopes. The results show that 1) it is possible to identify distinct areas of sEMG activity on the forearm for different fingers; 2) hand position influences sEMG activity level and spatial distribution. This work gives new quantitative information about sEMG activity distribution on the forearm in healthy subjects and provides a basis for future works on the identification of optimal electrode configuration for sEMG based control of prostheses, exoskeletons, or orthoses. An example of use of this information for the optimization of the detection system for the estimation of joint kinematics from sEMG is reported. PMID:25289669

  17. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used. PMID:24802139

  18. Stepping Out of the Shade: Control of Neuronal Activity by the Scaffold Protein Kidins220/ARMS

    PubMed Central

    Scholz-Starke, Joachim; Cesca, Fabrizia

    2016-01-01

    The correct functioning of the nervous system depends on the exquisitely fine control of neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, which relies on an intricate network of protein-protein interactions and signaling that shapes neuronal homeostasis during development and in adulthood. In this complex scenario, Kinase D interacting substrate of 220 kDa/ankyrin repeat-rich membrane spanning (Kidins220/ARMS) acts as a multi-functional scaffold protein with preferential expression in the nervous system. Engaged in a plethora of interactions with membrane receptors, cytosolic signaling components and cytoskeletal proteins, Kidins220/ARMS is implicated in numerous cellular functions including neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and maturation and neuronal activity, often in the context of neurotrophin (NT) signaling pathways. Recent studies have highlighted a number of cell- and context-specific roles for this protein in the control of synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability, which are at present far from being completely understood. In addition, some evidence has began to emerge, linking alterations of Kidins220 expression to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this review, we present a concise summary of our fragmentary knowledge of Kidins220/ARMS biological functions, focusing on the mechanism(s) by which it controls various aspects of neuronal activity. We have tried, where possible, to discuss the available evidence in the wider context of NT-mediated regulation, and to outline emerging roles of Kidins220/ARMS in human pathologies. PMID:27013979

  19. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait. PMID:26683072

  20. Influence of vibration on mechanical power and electromyogram activity in human arm flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Bosco, C; Cardinale, M; Tsarpela, O

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vibration on the mechanical properties of arm flexors. A group of 12 international level boxers, all members of the Italian national team, voluntarily participated in the experiment: all were engaged in regular boxing training. At the beginning of the study they were tested whilst performing forearm flexion with an extra load equal to 5% of the subjects' body mass. Following this. one arm was given the experimental treatment (E; mechanical vibration) and the other was the control (no treatment). The E treatment consisted of five repetitions lasting 1-min each of mechanical vibration applied during arm flexion in isometric conditions with 1 min rest between them. Further tests were performed 5 min immediately after the treatment on both limbs. The results showed statistically significant enhancement of the average power in the arm treated with vibrations. The root mean square electromyogram (EMGrms) had not changed following the treatment but, when divided by mechanical power, (P) as an index of neural efficiency, it showed statistically significant increases. It was concluded that mechanical vibrations enhanced muscle P and decreased the related EMG/P relationship in elite athletes. Moreover, the analysis of EMGrms recorded before the treatment and during the treatment itself showed an enormous increase in neural activity during vibration up to more than twice the baseline values. This would indicate that this type of treatment is able to stimulate the neuromuscular system more than other treatments used to improve neuromuscular properties. PMID:10090628

  1. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  2. Discovering a one-dimensional active subspace to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xingzhi; Parks, Geoffrey T.; Chen, Xiaoqian; Seshadri, Pranay

    2016-03-01

    Uncertainty quantification has recently been receiving much attention from aerospace engineering community. With ever-increasing requirements for robustness and reliability, it is crucial to quantify multidisciplinary uncertainty in satellite system design which dominates overall design direction and cost. However, coupled multi-disciplines and cross propagation hamper the efficiency and accuracy of high-dimensional uncertainty analysis. In this study, an uncertainty quantification methodology based on active subspaces is established for satellite conceptual design. The active subspace effectively reduces the dimension and measures the contributions of input uncertainties. A comprehensive characterization of associated uncertain factors is made and all subsystem models are built for uncertainty propagation. By integrating a system decoupling strategy, the multidisciplinary uncertainty effect is efficiently represented by a one-dimensional active subspace for each design. The identified active subspace is checked by bootstrap resampling for confidence intervals and verified by Monte Carlo propagation for the accuracy. To show the performance of active subspaces, 18 uncertainty parameters of an Earth observation small satellite are exemplified and then another 5 design uncertainties are incorporated. The uncertainties that contribute the most to satellite mass and total cost are ranked, and the quantification of high-dimensional uncertainty is achieved by a relatively small number of support samples. The methodology with considerably less cost exhibits high accuracy and strong adaptability, which provides a potential template to tackle multidisciplinary uncertainty in practical satellite systems.

  3. Quantifying the lifetime circadian rhythm of physical activity: a covariate-dependent functional approach

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Luo; Huang, Lei; Schrack, Jennifer A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective measurement of physical activity using wearable devices such as accelerometers may provide tantalizing new insights into the association between activity and health outcomes. Accelerometers can record quasi-continuous activity information for many days and for hundreds of individuals. For example, in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging physical activity was recorded every minute for 773 adults for an average of 7 days per adult. An important scientific problem is to separate and quantify the systematic and random circadian patterns of physical activity as functions of time of day, age, and gender. To capture the systematic circadian pattern, we introduce a practical bivariate smoother and two crucial innovations: (i) estimating the smoothing parameter using leave-one-subject-out cross validation to account for within-subject correlation and (ii) introducing fast computational techniques that overcome problems both with the size of the data and with the cross-validation approach to smoothing. The age-dependent random patterns are analyzed by a new functional principal component analysis that incorporates both covariate dependence and multilevel structure. For the analysis, we propose a practical and very fast trivariate spline smoother to estimate covariate-dependent covariances and their spectra. Results reveal several interesting, previously unknown, circadian patterns associated with human aging and gender. PMID:25361695

  4. Quantifying the Sensitivity of Energy Fluxes to Land Surface Parameter Selection Using the Active Subspace Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jefferson, J.; Gilbert, J. M.; Maxwell, R. M.; Constantine, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Complex hydrologic models are commonly used as computational tools to assess and quantify fluxes at the land surface and for forecasting and prediction purposes. When estimating water and energy fluxes from vegetated surfaces, the equations solved within these models require that multiple input parameters be specified. Some parameters characterize land cover properties while others are constants used to model physical processes like transpiration. As a result, it becomes important to understand the sensitivity of output flux estimates to uncertain input parameters. The active subspace method identifies the most important direction in the high-dimensional space of model inputs. Perturbations of input parameters in this direction influence output quantities more, on average, than perturbations in other directions. The components of the vector defining this direction quantify the sensitivity of the model output to the corresponding inputs. Discovering whether or not an active subspace exists is computationally efficient compared to several other sensitivity analysis methods. Here, we apply this method to evaluate the sensitivity of latent, sensible and ground heat fluxes from the ParFlow-Common Land Model (PF-CLM). Of the 19 input parameters used to specify properties of a grass covered surface, between three and six parameters are identified as important for heat flux estimates. Furthermore, the 19-dimenision input parameter space is reduced to one active variable and the relationship between the inputs and output fluxes for this case is described by a quadratic polynomial. The input parameter weights and the input-output relationship provide a powerful combination of information that can be used to understand land surface dynamics. Given the success of this proof-of-concept example, extension of this method to identify important parameters within the transpiration computation will be explored.

  5. Introducing Co-Activation Pattern Metrics to Quantify Spontaneous Brain Network Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingyuan E.; Chang, Catie; Greicius, Michael D.; Glover, Gary H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, fMRI researchers have begun to realize that the brain's intrinsic network patterns may undergo substantial changes during a single resting state (RS) scan. However, despite the growing interest in brain dynamics, metrics that can quantify the variability of network patterns are still quite limited. Here, we first introduce various quantification metrics based on the extension of co-activation pattern (CAP) analysis, a recently proposed point-process analysis that tracks state alternations at each individual time frame and relies on very few assumptions; then apply these proposed metrics to quantify changes of brain dynamics during a sustained 2-back working memory (WM) task compared to rest. We focus on the functional connectivity of two prominent RS networks, the default-mode network (DMN) and executive control network (ECN). We first demonstrate less variability of global Pearson correlations with respect to the two chosen networks using a sliding-window approach during WM task compared to rest; then we show that the macroscopic decrease in variations in correlations during a WM task is also well characterized by the combined effect of a reduced number of dominant CAPs, increased spatial consistency across CAPs, and increased fractional contributions of a few dominant CAPs. These CAP metrics may provide alternative and more straightforward quantitative means of characterizing brain network dynamics than time-windowed correlation analyses. PMID:25662866

  6. An automated method to quantify microglia morphology and application to monitor activation state longitudinally in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Cleopatra; Weimer, Robby M

    2012-01-01

    Microglia are specialized immune cells of the brain. Upon insult, microglia initiate a cascade of cellular responses including a characteristic change in cell morphology. To study the dynamics of microglia immune response in situ, we developed an automated image analysis method that enables the quantitative assessment of microglia activation state within tissue based solely on cell morphology. Per cell morphometric analysis of fluorescently labeled microglia is achieved through local iterative threshold segmentation, which reduces errors caused by signal-to-noise variation across large volumes. We demonstrate, utilizing systemic application of lipopolysaccharide as a model of immune challenge, that several morphological parameters, including cell perimeter length, cell roundness and soma size, quantitatively distinguish resting versus activated populations of microglia within tissue comparable to traditional immunohistochemistry methods. Furthermore, we provide proof-of-concept data that monitoring soma size enables the longitudinal assessment of microglia activation in the mouse neocortex imaged via 2-photon in vivo microscopy. The ability to quantify microglia activation automatically by shape alone allows unbiased and rapid analysis of both fixed and in vivo central nervous system tissue. PMID:22457705

  7. Domestic politics, citizen activism, and U. S. nuclear arms control policy

    SciTech Connect

    Knopf, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The author seeks to ascertain whether and how citizens' movements concerning nuclear arms control and disarmament affect US arms control policy. The author employs a comparative case study methodology. He examines cases of the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations during the period of protest against nuclear testing, and the Reagan Administration during the nuclear weapons freeze campaign and the subsequent campaign for a comprehensive test ban. He hows there are four mechanisms through which public advocacy efforts can influence arms control policy, identifies the conditions under which each can be effective, and details the type of impact each mechanism has. Domestic activism interacts with broader public opinion in a way that creates electoral pressure; with elite-level debates in a way that removes a consensus behind presidential policy or changes the winning coalition in Congress; with bureaucratic politics, by generating ideas that have utility for some agents within the Executive; or with the public diplomacy of foreign governments, especially the Soviet Union. Citizens' movements had an impact on policy in each of the cases studied. The type and extent of impact, and the mechanisms involved in giving activism influence, are different for each case.

  8. Tracking performance of unbalanced QPSK demodulators. II - Biphase Costas loop with active arm filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.

    1978-01-01

    In a Costas loop study for biphase modulation conducted by Simon and Lindsey (1977), it was demonstrated that considerable improvement in tracking performance could be obtained by employing active arm filters of the integrate-and-dump type as opposed to passive arm filters. An investigation is conducted concerning the possibility to obtain a similar performance improvement for an unbalanced quadriphase-shift-keying (QPSK) modulation. It is found that the biphase Costas loop can be used as an efficient demodulator of QPSK in cases in which the ratio of data rates is of the same order of magnitude as the inverse of the power ratio. These cases involve approximately equal signal energies in the two channels.

  9. A Visual Analytics Approach to Structured Data Analysis to Enhance Nonproliferation and Arms Control Verification Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, David S.

    2014-08-07

    Analysis activities for Nonproliferation and Arms Control verification require the use of many types of data. Tabular structured data, such as Excel spreadsheets and relational databases, have traditionally been used for data mining activities, where specific queries are issued against data to look for matching results. The application of visual analytics tools to structured data enables further exploration of datasets to promote discovery of previously unknown results. This paper discusses the application of a specific visual analytics tool to datasets related to the field of Arms Control and Nonproliferation to promote the use of visual analytics more broadly in this domain. Visual analytics focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces (Wong and Thomas 2004). It promotes exploratory analysis of data, and complements data mining technologies where known patterns can be mined for. Also with a human in the loop, they can bring in domain knowledge and subject matter expertise. Visual analytics has not widely been applied to this domain. In this paper, we will focus on one type of data: structured data, and show the results of applying a specific visual analytics tool to answer questions in the Arms Control and Nonproliferation domain. We chose to use the T.Rex tool, a visual analytics tool developed at PNNL, which uses a variety of visual exploration patterns to discover relationships in structured datasets, including a facet view, graph view, matrix view, and timeline view. The facet view enables discovery of relationships between categorical information, such as countries and locations. The graph tool visualizes node-link relationship patterns, such as the flow of materials being shipped between parties. The matrix visualization shows highly correlated categories of information. The timeline view shows temporal patterns in data. In this paper, we will use T.Rex with two different datasets to demonstrate how interactive exploration of

  10. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-06-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  11. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  12. Immobilization of pectinase on silica-based supports: Impacts of particle size and spacer arm on the activity.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, Dilek; Tükel, S Seyhan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-06-01

    The pectinase was separately immobilized onto Florisil and nano silica supports through both glutaraldehyde and 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arms. The effects of spacer arm, particle size of support and ionic liquids on the activities of pectinase preparations were investigated. The immobilization of pectinase onto Florisil and nano silica through 3-glyoxypropyltrietoxysilane spacer arm completely led to inactivation of enzyme; however, 10 and 75% pectinase activity were retained when it was immobilized through glutaraldehyde spacer arm onto Florisil and nano silica, respectively. The pectinase immobilized onto nano silica through glutaraldehyde spacer arm showed 6.3-fold higher catalytic efficiency than that of the pectinase immobilized onto Florisil through same spacer arm. A 2.3-fold increase in thermal stability of pectinase was provided upon immobilization onto nano silica at 35°C. The effects of IL/buffer mixture and volume ratio of IL/buffer mixture on the catalytic activities of free and immobilized pectinase preparations were also tested. All the pectinase preparations showed highest activity in 10% (v/v) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate containing medium and their activities significantly affected from the concentration of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate. PMID:26964525

  13. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability. PMID:26114456

  14. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  15. CCN activation kinetics: quantifying compositional impacts in polluted and pristine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raatikainen, T. E.; Cerully, K. M.; Lance, S.; Tkacik, D. S.; Petaja, T.; Laaksonen, A.; Kulmala, M. T.; Smith, J. N.; Nenes, A.

    2011-12-01

    Cloud droplet formation and condensational growth is limited by the gas-phase diffusion of water vapor and possibly by other composition-dependent mechanisms (e.g., related to slow solute dissolution rate or the presence of organic surface films). Over the past decades, a variety of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counters have been used to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions, and the recent development of the Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT) CCN counter has expanded measurements of CCN worldwide. An important feature of the DMT design is the ability to both count and size the activated droplets exiting the flow chamber, which enables inferences about activation kinetics from the measured droplet sizes. However, droplet sizes are also strongly dependent on the instrument operating conditions and on the aerosol dry size distribution. Thus, a detailed numerical instrument model is used to account for these dependencies, allowing the quantification of composition impacts on droplet growth rates as parameterized by an empirical water uptake coefficient. We have used that kind of model to quantify the water uptake coefficients for CCN data obtained with a DMT CCN counter during two field campaigns throughout 2006-2007. The 2006 MILAGRO campaign focused on the polluted outflow from Mexico City, while the 2007 EUCAARI campaign took place in Hyytiälä, a clean background site in southern Finland in the middle of the boreal forest belt. Similar instrument setups were used at both sites to obtain size-resolved measurements over a range of supersaturations. When realistic size and hygroscopicity distributions are used, model droplet size predictions are in excellent agreement with the Mexico City observations for a constant mass accommodation coefficient of about 0.2. This suggests that aerosol compositional effects do not introduce significant limitations on water uptake at this polluted site. Chemical variability also explains the observed changes in the width of the

  16. Quantifying the 3D Odorant Concentration Field Used by Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Blue crabs and other aquatic organisms locate food and mates by tracking turbulent odorant plumes. The odorant concentration fluctuates unpredictably due to turbulent transport, and many characteristics of the fluctuation pattern have been hypothesized as useful cues for orienting to the odorant source. To make a direct linkage between tracking behavior and the odorant concentration signal, we developed a measurement system based the laser induced fluorescence technique to quantify the instantaneous 3D concentration field surrounding actively tracking blue crabs. The data suggest a correlation between upstream walking speed and the concentration of the odorant signal arriving at the antennule chemosensors, which are located near the mouth region. More specifically, we note an increase in upstream walking speed when high concentration bursts arrive at the antennules location. We also test hypotheses regarding the ability of blue crabs to steer relative to the plume centerline based on the signal contrast between the chemosensors located on their leg appendages. These chemosensors are located much closer to the substrate compared to the antennules and are separated by the width of the blue crab. In this case, it appears that blue crabs use the bilateral signal comparison to track along the edge of the plume.

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Mineral Dust and Dissolved Iron Deposition on Marine Biological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Meskhidze, N.; Gassó, S.; Solmon, F.

    2009-12-01

    Aeolian dust deposition has proven to be a critical source of iron (Fe) to remote oceanic regions where it can play an important role in regulating marine ecosystem productivity. Increases in marine biological activity have been suggested to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and enhance oceanic emissions of marine primary organic aerosols and biologically produced trace gases leading to secondary aerosol formation. These mechanisms can affect climate directly by enhancing carbon sequestration rates, and through organic aerosols influencing incoming solar radiation or modulating shallow marine cloud properties. Due to dust emissions and transport also being dependent upon climatic conditions, the relationship between aeolian dust deposition and oceanic emissions (e.g., primary organic matter, dimethylsulphide, halocarbons, and several types of non-methane hydrocarbons) presents a possible ocean-atmosphere feedback cycle. The Southern Ocean (SO) is characterized as being the largest oceanic region with marine primary productivity that is limited by the micronutrient Fe. Despite the potentially important role of dust laden-Fe in this region, few studies exist that can help to constrain the impact of dust-laden Fe fluxes on biological productivity in the Atlantic sector of the SO. Patagonia has been estimated to supply the majority of aeolian-Fe deposited to the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO). Thus, the focus of this study is to quantify the influence of Patagonian dust storms on marine primary productivity in the SAO and assess the potential climatic effect of variability in aeolian dust deposition. In this work we use the global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with a prognostic Fe dissolution scheme (GEOS-Chem/DFeS), to evaluate the deposition of Patagonian dust and associated dissolved iron (DFe) fluxes to the SAO. Model predicted fluxes of DFe were then used to quantify the impact of Patagonian dust on marine primary productivity in the surface

  18. Quantifying surface albedo and other direct biogeophysical climate forcings of forestry activities.

    PubMed

    Bright, Ryan M; Zhao, Kaiguang; Jackson, Robert B; Cherubini, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    By altering fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture exchanges between the land surface and atmosphere, forestry and other land-use activities affect climate. Although long recognized scientifically as being important, these so-called biogeophysical forcings are rarely included in climate policies for forestry and other land management projects due to the many challenges associated with their quantification. Here, we review the scientific literature in the fields of atmospheric science and terrestrial ecology in light of three main objectives: (i) to elucidate the challenges associated with quantifying biogeophysical climate forcings connected to land use and land management, with a focus on the forestry sector; (ii) to identify and describe scientific approaches and/or metrics facilitating the quantification and interpretation of direct biogeophysical climate forcings; and (iii) to identify and recommend research priorities that can help overcome the challenges of their attribution to specific land-use activities, bridging the knowledge gap between the climate modeling, forest ecology, and resource management communities. We find that ignoring surface biogeophysics may mislead climate mitigation policies, yet existing metrics are unlikely to be sufficient. Successful metrics ought to (i) include both radiative and nonradiative climate forcings; (ii) reconcile disparities between biogeophysical and biogeochemical forcings, and (iii) acknowledge trade-offs between global and local climate benefits. We call for more coordinated research among terrestrial ecologists, resource managers, and coupled climate modelers to harmonize datasets, refine analytical techniques, and corroborate and validate metrics that are more amenable to analyses at the scale of an individual site or region. PMID:25914206

  19. Quantifying colocalization of a conditionally active transcription factor FOXP3 in three-dimensional cellular space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Thomas; Allan, Sarah E.; Levings, Megan K.

    2009-02-01

    Biological macromolecular interactions between proteins, transcription factors, DNA and other types of biomolecules, are fundamentally important to several cellular and biological processes. 3D Multi-channel confocal microscopy and colocalization analysis of fluorescent signals have proven to be invaluable tools for detecting such molecular interactions. The aim of this work was to quantify colocalization of the FOXP3 transcription factor in 3D cellular space generated from the confocal 3D image sets. 293T cells transfected with a conditionally active form of FOXP3 were stained for nuclei with Hoechst, for FOXP3 with anti-FOXP3 conjugated to PE, and 4-hydroxytamoxifen used as protein translocation and activation agent. Since the protein signal was weak and nonspecific intensity contributions were strong, it was difficult to perform colocalization analysis and estimate colocalization quantities. We performed 3D restoration by deconvolution method on the confocal images using experimentally measured point spread functions (PSFs) and subsequently a color shift correction. The deconvolution method eliminated nonspecific intensity contributions originating from PSF imposed by optical microscopy diffraction resolution limits and noise since these factors significantly affected colocalization analysis and quantification. Visual inspection of the deconvolved 3D image suggested that the FOXP3 molecules are predominantly colocalized within the nuclei although the fluorescent signals from FOXP3 molecules were also present in the cytoplasm. A close inspection of the scatter plot (colocalization map) and correlation quantities such as the Pearsons and colocalization coefficients showed that the fluorescent signals from the FOXP3 molecules and DNA are strongly correlated. In conclusion, our colocalization quantification approach confirms the preferential association of the FOXP3 molecules with the DNA despite the presence of fluorescent signals from the former one both in the

  20. Single-molecule catalysis mapping quantifies site-specific activity and uncovers radial activity gradient on single 2D nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Andoy, Nesha May; Zhou, Xiaochun; Choudhary, Eric; Shen, Hao; Liu, Guokun; Chen, Peng

    2013-02-01

    Shape-controlled metal nanocrystals are a new generation of nanoscale catalysts. Depending on their shapes, these nanocrystals exhibit various surface facets, and the assignments of their surface facets have routinely been used to rationalize or predict their catalytic activity in a variety of chemical transformations. Recently we discovered that for 1-dimensional (1D) nanocrystals (Au nanorods), the catalytic activity is not constant along the same side facets of single nanorods but rather differs significantly and further shows a gradient along its length, which we attributed to an underlying gradient of surface defect density resulting from their linear decay in growth rate during synthesis (Nat. Nanotechnol.2012, 7, 237-241). Here we report that this behavior also extends to 2D nanocrystals, even for a different catalytic reaction. By using super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to map out the locations of catalytic events within individual triangular and hexagonal Au nanoplates in correlation with scanning electron microscopy, we find that the catalytic activity within the flat {111} surface facet of a Au nanoplate exhibits a 2D radial gradient from the center toward the edges. We propose that this activity gradient results from a growth-dependent surface defect distribution. We also quantify the site-specific activity at different regions within a nanoplate: The corner regions have the highest activity, followed by the edge regions and then the flat surface facets. These discoveries highlight the spatial complexity of catalytic activity at the nanoscale as well as the interplay amid nanocrystal growth, morphology, and surface defects in determining nanocatalyst properties. PMID:23320465

  1. Mapping Activity Patterns to Quantify Risk of Violent Assault in Urban Environments

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Guo, Wensheng; Allison, Paul D.; Hollander, Judd E.; Nance, Michael L.; Branas, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We collected detailed activity paths of urban youth to investigate the dynamic interplay between their lived experiences, time spent in different environments, and risk of violent assault. Methods: We mapped activity paths of 10- to 24-year-olds, including 143 assault patients shot with a firearm, 206 assault patients injured with other types of weapons, and 283 community controls, creating a step-by-step mapped record of how, when, where, and with whom they spent time over a full day from waking up until going to bed or being assaulted. Case–control analyses compared cases with time-matched controls to identify risk factors for assault. Case-crossover analyses compared cases at the time of assault with themselves earlier in the day to investigate whether exposure increases acted to the trigger assault. Results: Gunshot assault risks included being alone (odds ratio [OR] = 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3, 1.9) and were lower in areas with high neighbor connectedness (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.8). Acquiring a gun (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.6) and entering areas with more vacancy, violence, and vandalism (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.7) appeared to trigger the risk of getting shot shortly thereafter. Nongunshot assault risks included being in areas with recreation centers (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.4). Entering an area with higher truancy (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.5) and more vacancy, violence, and vandalism appeared to trigger the risk of nongunshot assault. Risks varied by age group. Conclusions: We achieved a large-scale study of the activities of many boys, adolescents, and young men that systematically documented their experiences and empirically quantified risks for violence. Working at a temporal and spatial scale that is relevant to the dynamics of this phenomenon gave novel insights into triggers for violent assault. PMID:26414941

  2. Quantifying the effect of biomass and its change on landslide activity at regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steger, Stefan; Glade, Thomas; Hollaus, Markus; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Bogaard, Thom; van Beek, Rens; Bell, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Landslides of the slide-type movement represent potentially damaging phenomena for residents, their properties and infrastructure all over the world. The causes of these geomorphic processes are manifold as multiple interacting natural and anthropogenic factors influence their occurrence. Numerous studies reveal that human induced land cover changes, such as deforestation or afforestation, highly influence the stability of a slope. As forest stands can be managed directly by humans, an in-depth evaluation of the processes that define stability under forested and non-forested conditions appear crucial in order to develop sustainable avoidance strategies for large areas. The main objective of this research is to simulate and quantify the effects of forest related biomass and biomass changes on slope stability at regional scale. The procedure consist of combining vegetation related parameters derived from 3D airborne laser scanning (ALS) point clouds with a spatially distributed physically based hydro-mechanical slope stability model. The study area (~15km²) is located in Vorarlberg (Austria) where highly detailed geocoded ALS point cloud data is available for the years 2004 and 2011. Furthermore, an additional ALS flight is planned for the year 2015/2016. Forest related information (e.g. biomass, stem volume, vertical layer structure, understory) will be directly computed on the basis of the 3D cloud data. In-situ assessments of vegetation related parameters will be carried out to establish empirical linkages between ALS derived information and stability influencing parameters (tree allometry). Partial deforestation and/or afforestation will be simulated by gradually adapting the respective point cloud data densities. Subsequently, all this information will be implemented into the dynamic hydro-mechanical slope stability model Starwars/Probstab that allows to quantitatively assess geomechanical and hydrological effects on landslide activity. The results of this

  3. Hand-Arm Coordinated Manipulation Using Active Body-Environment Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugaiwa, Taisuke; Iwata, Hiroyasu; Sugano, Shigeki

    Human-symbiotic humanoid robots that can perform tasks dexterously with their hands are needed in our homes, welfare facilities, and other places. To improve their performance of tasks, we propose a scheme of controlling motion aimed at appropriately coordinated hand and arm motions. By observing human manual tasks, we identify an active body-environment contact as a kind of human manual skills and devise a motion control scheme based on it. We also analyze the effectiveness of the combination of the active body-environment contact and our proposed scheme in example tasks of the adding/removing constraint task. We validate our motion control scheme through actual tests on a prototype human-symbiotic humanoid robot.

  4. Quantifying the transition from fluvial- to wave-dominance for river deltas with multiple active channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, J.; Ashton, A. D.; Giosan, L.

    2012-12-01

    The plan-view morphologies of fluvial- and wave-dominated deltas are clearly distinctive, but transitional forms are numerous. A quantitative, process-based description of this transition remains unexplored, particularly for river deltas with multiple active channels. Previous studies focused on general attributes of the fluvial and marine environment, such as the balance between wave energy and river discharge. Here, we propose that the transition between fluvial and wave dominance is directly related to the magnitude of the fluvial bedload flux to the nearshore region versus the alongshore sediment transport capacity of waves removing sediment away from the mouth. In the case of a single-channel delta, this balance can be computed for a given distribution of waves approaching shore. Fluvial dominance occurs when fluvial sediment input exceeds the wave-sustained maximum alongshore sediment transport for all potential shoreline orientations both up- and downdrift of the river mouth. However, deltaic channels have the tendency to bifurcate with increasing fluvial strength. Initial bifurcation splits the fluvial sediment flux among individual channels, while the potential sediment transport by waves remains constant for both river mouths. At higher bifurcation orders, multiple channels interact with each other alongshore, a situation more complicated than the single channel case and one that cannot be simple addressed analytically. We apply a model of plan-view shoreline evolution to simulate the evolution of a deltaic environment with multiple active channels. A highly simplified fluvial domain is represented by deposition of sediment where channels meet the coast. We investigate two scenarios of fluvial delivery. The first scenario deposits fluvial sediment alongshore on a self-similar predefined network of channels. We analyze the effects of different network geometrical parameters, such as bifurcation length, bifurcation angle, and sediment partitioning. In the

  5. Quantifying the transient response of bedrock channels to Active Normal Faulting: New Field Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, A. C.; Cowie, P. A.; Tucker, G. E.; Attal, M.; Roberts, G.

    2005-12-01

    Understanding the morphological response of the fluvial system to transient tectonic forcing is one of the major challenges facing quantitative geomorphology. In theory, insight gained from studying channel adjustment to changing tectonic rates should provide clear diagnostic tests of the many competing `erosion laws' which aim to quantify stream incision. However, fluvial algorithms in current landscape models tend to be parameterised in terms of hydraulic scaling relationships, which only describe channel width and depth as power-law functions of river discharge or upstream drainage area. Unfortunately, these scaling relationships, which have been derived from channels in tectonically quiescent areas, are not appropriate for bedrock rivers in active settings. This problem is serious for understanding non-equilibrium systems because hydraulic adjustments are an important aspect of the morphodynamic response to tectonic and climatic forcing. Recent theoretical attempts to resolve this issue still rely fundamentally on assumptions of steady-state channel form. To devise an alternative approach we need to collect geometrical data for channels incising in areas where the boundary conditions are well-constrained independently. We address this challenge by providing new and detailed field measurements of valley and bankfull channel width, depth, slope and grain-size data for an out-of-equilibrium channel with a drainage area of 65km2 crossing an active extensional fault near Fiamignano, Italy, where there are excellent constraints on current rates of fault movement, and good evidence for an increase in throw-rate approximately 700 Kyr ago. We show that in this situation channel width becomes strongly decoupled from drainage area immediately upstream of the fault and that channel aspect ratio and median grain-size are correlated with channel slope. The ratio of total stream power to coarse-fraction grain size peaks in precisely the areas where channel width

  6. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. Methods The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user’s arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. Results In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0

  7. Quantifying the toxic and mutagenic activity of complex mixtures with Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Somani, S.M.; Schaeffer, D.J.; Mack, J.O.

    1981-03-01

    The toxicity and mutagenicity of 11 compounds individually and in mixtures were quantified in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, and TA1537 by a modification of the Ames spot test. The distance (millimeters) from the center of the petri dish to the bacterial growth front represented the toxic response. When mutagenicity occurred, the distance from the inner radius to the outer radius of the mutagenic growth represented the mutagenic response. Multiple regression analysis was used to quantify the toxicity and mutagenicity of individual compounds in the mixtures. The results indicate that the effects of compounds in mixtures are generally additive.

  8. CCL21/IL21-armed oncolytic adenovirus enhances antitumor activity against TERT-positive tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Li, Yi-Fei; Si, Chong-Zhan; Zhu, Yu-Hui; Jin, Yan; Zhu, Tong-Tong; Liu, Ming-Yuan; Liu, Guang-Yao

    2016-07-15

    Multigene-armed oncolytic adenoviruses are capable of efficiently generating a productive antitumor immune response. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21) binds to CCR7 on naïve T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) to promote their chemoattraction to the tumor and resultant antitumor activity. Interleukin 21 (IL21) promotes survival of naïve T cells while maintaining their CCR7 surface expression, which increases their capacity to transmigrate in response to CCL21 chemoattraction. IL21 is also involved in NK cell differentiation and B cell activation and proliferation. The generation of effective antitumor immune responses is a complex process dependent upon coordinated interactions of various subsets of effector cells. Using the AdEasy system, we aimed to construct an oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing CCL21 and IL21 that could selectively replicate in TERTp-positive tumor cells (Ad-CCL21-IL21 virus). The E1A promoter of these oncolytic adenoviruses was replaced by telomerase reverse transcriptase promoter (TERTp). Ad-CCL21-IL21 was constructed from three plasmids, pGTE-IL21, pShuttle-CMV-CCL21 and AdEasy-1 and was homologously recombined and propagated in the Escherichia coli strain BJ5183 and the packaging cell line HEK-293, respectively. Our results showed that our targeted and armed oncolytic adenoviruses Ad-CCL21-IL21 can induce apoptosis in TERTp-positive tumor cells to give rise to viral propagation, in a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, we confirm that these modified oncolytic adenoviruses do not replicate efficiently in normal cells even under high viral loads. Additionally, we investigate the role of Ad-CCL21-IL21 in inducing antitumor activity and tumor specific cytotoxicity of CTLs in vitro. This study suggests that Ad-CCL21-IL21 is a promising targeted tumor-specific oncolytic adenovirus. PMID:27157859

  9. Bycatch, bait, anglers, and roads: quantifying vector activity and propagule introduction risk across lake ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Drake, D Andrew R; Mandrak, Nicholas E

    2014-06-01

    Long implicated in the invasion process, live-bait anglers are highly mobile species vectors with frequent overland transport of fishes. To test hypotheses about the role of anglers in propagule transport, we developed a social-ecological model quantifying the opportunity for species transport beyond the invaded range resulting from bycatch during commercial bait operations, incidental transport, and release to lake ecosystems by anglers. We combined a gravity model with a stochastic, agent-based simulation, representing a 1-yr iteration of live-bait angling and the dynamics of propagule transport at fine spatiotemporal scales (i.e., probability of introducing n propagules per lake per year). A baseline scenario involving round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) indicated that most angling trips were benign; irrespective of lake visitation, anglers failed to purchase and transport propagules (benign trips, median probability P = 0.99912). However, given the large number of probability trials (4.2 million live-bait angling events per year), even the rarest sequence of events (uptake, movement, and deposition of propagules) is anticipated to occur. Risky trips (modal P = 0.00088 trips per year; approximately 1 in 1136) were sufficient to introduce a substantial number of propagules (modal values, Poisson model = 3715 propagules among 1288 lakes per year; zero-inflated negative binomial model = 6722 propagules among 1292 lakes per year). Two patterns of lake-specific introduction risk emerged. Large lakes supporting substantial angling activity experienced propagule pressure likely to surpass demographic barriers to establishment (top 2.5% of lakes with modal outcomes of five to 76 propagules per year; 303 high-risk lakes with three or more propagules, per year). Small or remote lakes were less likely to receive propagules; however, most risk distributions were leptokurtic with a long right tail, indicating the rare occurrence of high propagule loads to most waterbodies

  10. Differential effects of mental load on proximal and distal arm muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Bloemsaat, Jules G; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Van Galen, Gerard P

    2005-12-01

    Work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) that result from keyboarding tasks are prevalent and costly. Although the precise mechanisms causing the disorder are not yet fully understood, several risk factors have been proposed. These include the repetitive nature of the motor task and the associated sustained static working postures, but also more psychological factors such as mental load. Epidemiological surveys have shown that WRUEDs are more prone to develop in the postural muscles of the neck/shoulder area than in the executive muscles controlling the hand. The present study investigated whether the activation patterns of these two muscle types are differentially affected by an additional mental load during the performance of a repetitive tapping task. Participants tapped various keying patterns with their dominant index finger at two prescribed tempi. Mental load was manipulated by means of an auditory short-term memory task. We recorded the EMG activity of two neck/shoulder muscles (trapezius and deltoid), two upper arm muscles (biceps and triceps), and four forearm muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis, extensor digitorum, extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi ulnaris) and analyzed the kinematics and impact forces of the index finger. The results confirmed that the upper limb has two functions. Specifically, activity of the executive distal musculature was increased during tapping at the higher pace, while the activity of the postural upper limb musculature was elevated due to the memory task. We argue that continuously increased muscular activity can lead to fatigue and thus eventually cause musculoskeletal complaints. The results are discussed with respect to biomechanical adaptation strategies that deal with the consequences of increased noise in the neuromotor system due to enhanced mental processing. PMID:16078028

  11. Active-Arm Passive-Leg Exercise Improves Cardiovascular Function in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    West, Christopher R; Currie, Katharine D; Gee, Cameron; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Borisoff, Jaimie

    2015-11-01

    In a 43-yr-old male subject with a chronic T3 AIS A spinal cord injury, the acute cardiorespiratory responses to active upper-extremity exercise alone and combined active-arm passive-leg exercise (AAPLE) were investigated, along with the cardiorespiratory, cardiac, vascular, and body composition responses to a 6-wk AAPLE interval training intervention. AAPLE elicited superior acute maximal cardiorespiratory responses compared with upper-extremity exercise alone. In response to a 6-wk interval training regimen, AAPLE caused a 25% increase in peak oxygen uptake, a 10% increase in resting stroke volume, and a 4-fold increase in brachial artery blood flow. Conversely, there were no changes in femoral arterial function, body composition, or bone mineral density in response to training. As a potential clinical intervention, AAPLE may be advantageous over other forms of currently available exercise, owing to the minimal setup time and cost involved and the nonreliance on specialized equipment that is required for other exercise modalities. PMID:26259052

  12. A fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay for quantifying toxic effects of Roundup® to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Ørsted, Michael; Roslev, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Daphnia magna is a widely used model organism for aquatic toxicity testing. In the present study, the authors investigated the hydrolytic enzyme activity of D. magna after exposure to toxicant stress. In vivo enzyme activity was quantified using 15 fluorogenic enzyme probes based on 4-methylumbelliferyl or 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. Probing D. magna enzyme activity was evaluated using short-term exposure (24-48 h) to the reference chemical K2 Cr2 O7 or the herbicide formulation Roundup®. Toxicant-induced changes in hydrolytic enzyme activity were compared with changes in mobility (International Organization for Standardization standard 6341). The results showed that hydrolytic enzyme activity was quantifiable as a combination of whole body fluorescence of D. magna and the fluorescence of the surrounding water. Exposure of D. magna to lethal and sublethal concentrations of Roundup resulted in loss of whole body enzyme activity and release of cell constituents, including enzymes and DNA. Roundup caused comparable inhibition of mobility and alkaline phosphatase activity with median effective concentration values at 20 °C of 8.7 mg active ingredient (a.i.)/L to 11.7 mg a.i./L. Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity by Roundup was lowest at 14 °C and greater at 20 °C and 26 °C. The results suggest that the fluorescence-based hydrolytic enzyme activity assay (FLEA assay) can be used as an index of D. magna stress. Combining enzyme activity with fluorescence measurements may be applied as a simple and quantitative supplement for toxicity testing with D. magna. PMID:25809520

  13. The Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised: Assessing Real-world Arm Use in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Uswatte, Gitendra; Taub, Edward; Griffin, Angi; Vogtle, Laura; Rowe, Jan; Barman, Joydip

    2012-01-01

    Objective Widely accepted models of disability suggest that actual use of an impaired upper-extremity in everyday life frequently deviates from its motor capacity, as measured by laboratory tests. Yet, direct measures of real-world use of an impaired upper-extremity are rare in pediatric neurorehabilitation. This paper examines how well the Pediatric Motor Activity Log-Revised (PMAL-R) measures this parameter, when the PMAL-R is administered as a structured interview as originally designed. Design Parents of sixty children between 2–8 years with upper-extremity hemiparesis due to cerebral palsy (CP) completed the PMAL-R twice. Additionally, the children were videotaped during play structured to elicit spontaneous arm use. More-affected arm use was scored by masked raters; it was thought to reflect everyday activity since no cues were given about which arm to employ. Testing sessions were separated by 3 weeks, during which 29 children received upper-extremity rehabilitation and 31 did not. Results The PMAL-R had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .93) and test-retest reliability (r = .89). Convergent validity was supported by a strong correlation between changes in PMAL-R scores and more-affected arm use during play, r(53) = .5, p < .001. Conclusions The PMAL-R interview is a reliable and valid measure of upper-extremity pediatric neurorehabilitation outcome. PMID:22686553

  14. Quantifying the Relationship between Organic Aerosol Composition and Hygroscopicity/CCN Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemann, Paul J.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Petters, Markus D.

    2013-06-30

    The overall objective for this project was to provide the data and underlying process level understanding necessary to facilitate the dynamic treatment of organic aerosol CCN activity in future climate models. The specific objectives were as follows: (1) employ novel approaches to link organic aerosol composition and CCN activity, (2) evaluate the effects of temperature and relative humidity on organic aerosol CCN activity, and (3) develop parameterizations to link organic aerosol composition and CCN activity.

  15. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries

  16. Relationship between stretch reflex thresholds and voluntary arm muscle activation in patients with spasticity.

    PubMed

    Musampa, Nadine K; Mathieu, Pierre A; Levin, Mindy F

    2007-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in agonist-antagonist muscle activation in the single-joint elbow system in patients with spastic hemiparesis are directly related to limitations in the range of regulation of the thresholds of muscle activation. We extended these findings to the double-joint, shoulder-elbow system in these patients. Ten non-disabled individuals and 11 stroke survivors with spasticity in upper limb muscles participated. Stroke survivors had sustained a single unilateral stroke 6-36 months previously, had full pain-free passive range of motion of the affected shoulder and elbow and had some voluntary control of the arm. EMG activity from four elbow and two shoulder muscles was recorded during quasi-static (<5 degrees /s) stretching of elbow flexors/extensors and during slow voluntary elbow flexion/extension movement through full range. Stretches and active movements were initiated from full elbow flexion or extension with the shoulder in three different initial positions (60 degrees , 90 degrees , 145 degrees horizontal abduction). SRTs were defined as the elbow angle at which EMG signals began to exceed 2SD of background noise. SRT angles obtained by passive muscle stretch were compared with the angles at which the respective muscles became activated during voluntary elbow movements. SRTs in elbow flexors were correlated with clinical spasticity scores. SRTs of elbow flexors and extensors were within the biomechanical range of the joint and varied with changes in the shoulder angle in all subjects with hemiparesis but could not be reached in this range in all healthy subjects when muscles were initially relaxed. In patients, limitations in the regulation of SRTs resulted in a subdivision of all-possible shoulder-elbow arm configurations into two areas, one in which spasticity was present ("spatial spasticity zone") and another in which it was absent. Spatial spasticity zones were different for different muscles in different patients but

  17. Quantifying the density and utilization of active sites in non-precious metal oxygen electroreduction catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Kramm, Ulrike I; Steinberg, Julian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Thomas, Arne; Reier, Tobias; Paraknowitsch, Jens-Peter; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materials doped with transition metal and nitrogen are highly active, non-precious metal catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of molecular oxygen in fuel cells, metal air batteries, and electrolytic processes. However, accurate measurement of their intrinsic turn-over frequency and active-site density based on metal centres in bulk and surface has remained difficult to date, which has hampered a more rational catalyst design. Here we report a successful quantification of bulk and surface-based active-site density and associated turn-over frequency values of mono- and bimetallic Fe/N-doped carbons using a combination of chemisorption, desorption and (57)Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Our general approach yields an experimental descriptor for the intrinsic activity and the active-site utilization, aiding in the catalyst development process and enabling a previously unachieved level of understanding of reactivity trends owing to a deconvolution of site density and intrinsic activity. PMID:26486465

  18. Quantifying the density and utilization of active sites in non-precious metal oxygen electroreduction catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Kramm, Ulrike I.; Steinberg, Julian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Thomas, Arne; Reier, Tobias; Paraknowitsch, Jens-Peter; Strasser, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Carbon materials doped with transition metal and nitrogen are highly active, non-precious metal catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of molecular oxygen in fuel cells, metal air batteries, and electrolytic processes. However, accurate measurement of their intrinsic turn-over frequency and active-site density based on metal centres in bulk and surface has remained difficult to date, which has hampered a more rational catalyst design. Here we report a successful quantification of bulk and surface-based active-site density and associated turn-over frequency values of mono- and bimetallic Fe/N-doped carbons using a combination of chemisorption, desorption and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Our general approach yields an experimental descriptor for the intrinsic activity and the active-site utilization, aiding in the catalyst development process and enabling a previously unachieved level of understanding of reactivity trends owing to a deconvolution of site density and intrinsic activity.

  19. Quantifying the density and utilization of active sites in non-precious metal oxygen electroreduction catalysts

    PubMed Central

    Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Kramm, Ulrike I.; Steinberg, Julian; Zhang, Yuanjian; Thomas, Arne; Reier, Tobias; Paraknowitsch, Jens-Peter; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Carbon materials doped with transition metal and nitrogen are highly active, non-precious metal catalysts for the electrochemical conversion of molecular oxygen in fuel cells, metal air batteries, and electrolytic processes. However, accurate measurement of their intrinsic turn-over frequency and active-site density based on metal centres in bulk and surface has remained difficult to date, which has hampered a more rational catalyst design. Here we report a successful quantification of bulk and surface-based active-site density and associated turn-over frequency values of mono- and bimetallic Fe/N-doped carbons using a combination of chemisorption, desorption and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. Our general approach yields an experimental descriptor for the intrinsic activity and the active-site utilization, aiding in the catalyst development process and enabling a previously unachieved level of understanding of reactivity trends owing to a deconvolution of site density and intrinsic activity. PMID:26486465

  20. Bacterial skin infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-12-01

    From 2000 through 2012, health care records of the Military Health System documented 998,671 incident cases of bacterial skin infections among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces. Most cases (97.3%) were identified from records of outpatient medical encounters rather than hospitalizations. Cellulitis accounted for half (50.9%) of all cases of bacterial skin infection but 96 percent of associated hospital bed days. Of all cases, 42.3 percent were "other" skin infections (i.e., folliculitis, impetigo, pyoderma, pyogenic granuloma, other and unspecified infections). The remainder were attributable to carbuncles/furuncles (6.6%) and erysipelas (0.1%). Rates of infection were higher among female service members except for "other" skin infections. In general, the highest rates were associated with youth, recruit trainee status, and junior enlisted rank; however, rates of erysipelas were highest among those 50 years and older. Annual incidence rates of all bacterial skin infections have increased greatly since 2000. During the entire period, such infections required more than 1.4 million health care encounters and 94,000 hospital bed-days (equivalent to 257 years of lost duty time). The prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment of bacterial skin infections, particularly in high risk settings, deserve continued emphasis. PMID:24428536

  1. Making music after stroke: using musical activities to enhance arm function.

    PubMed

    van Wijck, Frederike; Knox, Don; Dodds, Colin; Cassidy, Gianna; Alexander, Gillian; MacDonald, Raymond

    2012-04-01

    A common long-term consequence of stroke is impaired arm function, which affects independence and quality of life in a considerable proportion of stroke survivors. There is a growing need for self-management strategies that enable stroke survivors to continue their recovery after rehabilitation has ceased. Interventions with high-intensity, repetitive task training and feedback are most likely to improve function. Achieving the required amount of self-practice is challenging, however. Innovative approaches are required to translate therapies into rewarding activities that can be undertaken independently. This paper describes the key principles and development of a novel intervention that integrates individuals' preferred music with game technology in upper limb rehabilitation. The "tap tempo" paradigm, which uses rhythmic auditory cueing, provides repetitive upper limb task training, which can be tailored to individual goals and progress (e.g., in terms of movement range and complexity), while providing sensitive quantitative feedback to promote skill acquisition and enhance self-management. PMID:22524372

  2. Correlation of primate red nucleus discharge with muscle activity during free-form arm movements.

    PubMed

    Miller, L E; van Kan, P L; Sinkjaer, T; Andersen, T; Harris, G D; Houk, J C

    1993-09-01

    1. We recorded from 239 neurons located in the magnocellular division of the red nucleus of four alert macaque monkeys. At the same time, we recorded electromyographic (EMG) signals from as many as twenty electrodes chronically implanted on muscles of the shoulder, arm, forearm and hand. We recorded EMG signals for periods ranging from several months to a year. 2. The monkeys were trained to perform three free-form food retrieval tasks, each of which activated all of the recorded muscles and most of the neurons. The 'prehension' task required simply that the monkey grasp a piece of food from a fixed point in space. The 'barrier' task required the monkey to reach around a small barrier to obtain the food, and the 'Kluver' task required that food be removed from small holes. During the prehension task, we found approximately equal numbers of neurons that were strongly active while the hand was being moved toward the target (70% of units), and while the food was being grasped (60%). Relatively few units were active as the hand was returned to the mouth (15%). 3. Data files of 1-2 min duration were collected while the monkey performed a single behavioural task. Whenever possible, we recorded files for all three tasks from each neuron. For each file we calculated long time-span analog cross-correlations (+/- 1.28 s) between instantaneous neuronal firing rate and each of the full-wave rectified, low-pass filtered EMG signals. We used the peak correlation and the time of the peak as two summary measures of the functional relation between modulation of neuronal activity and EMG. 4. The magnitude of the strongest correlations was between 0.4 and 0.5 (normalized to a perfect correlation of +/- 1.0). Distal muscles were the most frequently correlated, and extensors were more frequently correlated than flexors. For all monkeys, the lags for well correlated muscles were distributed broadly about a uni-modal value near 0 ms. Eighty five per cent of the correlations larger than

  3. Low back pain associates with altered activity of the cerebral cortex prior to arm movements that require postural adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Jesse V.; Henry, Sharon M.; Nagle, Keith J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low back pain (LBP) associates with altered postural stabilization and concomitant changes in cerebrocortical motor physiology. Methods: Ten participants with LBP and 10 participants without LBP performed self-initiated, voluntary arm raises. Electromyographic onset latencies of the bilateral internal oblique and erector spinae muscles were analyzed relative to that of the deltoid muscle as measures of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Amplitudes of alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD) and of Bereitschaftspotentials (BP) were calculated from scalp electroencephalography as measures of cerebrocortical motor physiology. Results: The APA was first evident in the trunk muscles contralateral to the arm raise for both groups. Significant alpha ERD was evident bilaterally at the central and parietal electrodes for participants with LBP but only at the electrodes contralateral and midline to the arm raise for those without LBP. The BP amplitudes negatively correlated with APA onset latencies for participants with (but not for those without) LBP. Conclusions: Cerebrocortical activity becomes altered prior to arm movements requiring APAs for individuals with chronic LBP. Significance: These results support a theoretical model that altered central motor neurophysiology associates with LBP, thereby implying that rehabilitation strategies should address these neuromotor impairments. PMID:20071225

  4. [Medical support of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation: results of activity and tasks for 2016].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya

    2016-01-01

    The author gives an analysis of activity of the medical service of the Armed Forces in 2015 concerning development of normative legal basis for the military health care, improvement of the level of operational and mobilization readiness of subunits of army group, and military-medical institutions, improvement of effectiveness of treatment and evacuation measures, health resort treatment, medical stuff training optimization, sanitary-and-epidemiologic support, material and technical support improvement, adoption of advanced scientific achievements focusing on medical care delivery to army group, active development and increase in medical information systems, telehealth. system. The author gives data characterizing state and level of development of medical service of the Armed Forces and its dynamics. Main tasks and parameters of development of the service in 2016 and up to 2020 are formulated. PMID:27120950

  5. Using Hidden Markov Models to Improve Quantifying Physical Activity in Accelerometer Data – A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Witowski, Vitali; Foraita, Ronja; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Pigeot, Iris; Wirsik, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The use of accelerometers to objectively measure physical activity (PA) has become the most preferred method of choice in recent years. Traditionally, cutpoints are used to assign impulse counts recorded by the devices to sedentary and activity ranges. Here, hidden Markov models (HMM) are used to improve the cutpoint method to achieve a more accurate identification of the sequence of modes of PA. Methods 1,000 days of labeled accelerometer data have been simulated. For the simulated data the actual sedentary behavior and activity range of each count is known. The cutpoint method is compared with HMMs based on the Poisson distribution (HMM[Pois]), the generalized Poisson distribution (HMM[GenPois]) and the Gaussian distribution (HMM[Gauss]) with regard to misclassification rate (MCR), bout detection, detection of the number of activities performed during the day and runtime. Results The cutpoint method had a misclassification rate (MCR) of 11% followed by HMM[Pois] with 8%, HMM[GenPois] with 3% and HMM[Gauss] having the best MCR with less than 2%. HMM[Gauss] detected the correct number of bouts in 12.8% of the days, HMM[GenPois] in 16.1%, HMM[Pois] and the cutpoint method in none. HMM[GenPois] identified the correct number of activities in 61.3% of the days, whereas HMM[Gauss] only in 26.8%. HMM[Pois] did not identify the correct number at all and seemed to overestimate the number of activities. Runtime varied between 0.01 seconds (cutpoint), 2.0 minutes (HMM[Gauss]) and 14.2 minutes (HMM[GenPois]). Conclusions Using simulated data, HMM-based methods were superior in activity classification when compared to the traditional cutpoint method and seem to be appropriate to model accelerometer data. Of the HMM-based methods, HMM[Gauss] seemed to be the most appropriate choice to assess real-life accelerometer data. PMID:25464514

  6. Accelerometry: a feasible method to quantify physical activity in ambulatory and nonambulatory adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Noorduyn, Stephen G; Obeid, Joyce; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the feasibility of physical activity monitoring in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. A convenience sample of ambulatory and non-ambulatory adolescents (N = 23; 17 males, 6 females; mean age 13.5 y, SD 2.6 y; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) distribution: n = 9 Level I, n = 5 Level II, n = 5 Level III, n = 4 Level IV) was recruited. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed using the ActiGraph GT1M activity monitor. Discomfort or adverse effects of wearing the accelerometers were recorded by participants. Levels of physical activity were determined as total PA, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and vigorous PA (VPA) using cut-points recently validated for CP. Results. Most participants showed little reluctance. Mean daily MVPA for all participants was 30.7 minutes (SD 30.3), which corresponded to 2.7 (SD 2.4) minutes of MVPA per hour or 4.5% (SD 3.9) of the total monitoring time. Total PA and MVPA were greatest in ambulatory youth (GMFCS levels I and II) compared with youth who use a walking aid or wheelchair (GMFCS levels III and IV) (P < 0.05). Conclusion(s). The results support the use of the accelerometer as a feasible and useful measure of activity in ambulatory and nonambulatory adolescents with CP. PMID:22792119

  7. Quantifying Aluminum Crystal Size Part 1: The Model-Eliciting Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.; Hjalmarson, Margret; Zawojewski, Judith S.; Bowman, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Model-eliciting activities (MEA), specially designed client-drive, open-ended problems, have been implemented in a first-year engineering course and in secondary schools. The educational goals and settings are different, but the design of an MEA enables it to be versatile. This paper will introduce the reader to the principles that guide MEA…

  8. Biochemical methods for quantifying sphingolipids: ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine kinase-1 activity, and sphingosine-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Leyre; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids (ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine-1-phosphate) are bioactive lipids with important biological functions in proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Herein, we describe easy and rapid biochemical methods with the use of radiolabeled molecules ((3)H, (32)P) for their mass determination. Quantitation of sphingosine kinase-1 activity, the most studied isoform, is also included. PMID:22528435

  9. Quantifying the effects of co-expressing EGFR and HER2 on HER activation and trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Zhang, Yi; Opresko, Lee; Resat, Haluk

    2008-06-27

    The integration of experimental measurements and computational predictions is a powerful means to understand the molecular mechanisms of complex biological systems. The human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) system is an intricately regulated system that plays critical roles in development and tumorigenesis. Here, we apply integrated experimentation and modeling to analyze HER receptor activation in a panel of cell lines expressing different levels of HER1 and HER2. A mathematical model that includes the fundamental biochemical/biophysical processes involved in receptor activation was used to fit the experimental data, and 19 independent parameters including receptor dimerization affinities, trafficking rates and relative phosphorylation levels were estimated. The parameter values quantitatively support existing ideas on the effect of HER2 on HER1 phosphorylation dynamics, and enable us to predict receptor dimerization patterns in the cell lines. The integrated approach described here can be applied to obtain a predictive understanding of other biomolecular systems.

  10. A high-throughput method for quantifying metabolically active yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Subir Kumar; Knudsen, Peter Boldsen; Rosenkjaer, Alexander; Lantz, Anna Eliasson; Thykaer, Jette; Workman, Mhairi

    2015-06-01

    By redesigning the established methylene blue reduction test for bacteria and yeast, we present a cheap and efficient methodology for quantitative physiology of eukaryotic cells applicable for high-throughput systems. Validation of the method in fermenters and high-throughput systems proved equivalent, displaying reduction curves that interrelated directly with CFU counts. For growth rate estimation, the methylene blue reduction test (MBRT) proved superior, since the discriminatory nature of the method allowed for the quantification of metabolically active cells only, excluding dead cells. The drop in metabolic activity associated with the diauxic shift in yeast proved more pronounced for the MBRT-derived curve compared with OD curves, consistent with a dramatic shift in the ratio between live and dead cells at this metabolic event. This method provides a tool with numerous applications, e.g. characterizing the death phase of stationary phase cultures, or in drug screens with pathogenic yeasts. PMID:25773544

  11. Quantifying the Topology and Evolution of a Magnetic Flux Rope Associated with Multi-flare Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) play an important role in solar activities. The quantitative assessment of the topology of an MFR and its evolution is crucial for a better understanding of the relationship between the MFR and associated activities. In this paper, we investigate the magnetic field of active region (AR) 12017 from 2014 March 28–29, during which time 12 flares were triggered by intermittent eruptions of a filament (either successful or confined). Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we calculate the magnetic energy and helicity injection in the AR, and extrapolate the 3D magnetic field with a nonlinear force-free field model. From the extrapolations, we find an MFR that is cospatial with the filament. We further determine the configuration of this MFR from the closed quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) around it. Then, we calculate the twist number and the magnetic helicity for the field lines composing the MFR. The results show that the closed QSL structure surrounding the MFR becomes smaller as a consequence of flare occurrence. We also find that the flares in our sample are mainly triggered by kink instability. Moreover, the twist number varies more sensitively than other parameters with the occurrence of flares.

  12. Nuclear activation method and apparatus for detecting and quantifying earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, J.F.

    1993-08-17

    A method is described for characterizing at least one activated element in an earth formation surrounding a borehole, comprising the steps of: (a) displacing in said borehole a sonde comprising a neutron source and at least two gamma ray detectors longitudinally spaced from said source, while irradiating said formation with neutrons of sufficient energy to interact with said element according to the activation reaction; (b) detecting and counting at each detector the gamma rays resulting from the activation of atoms of said element; (c) determining, at each depth, the number of gamma ray counts detected during the time period defined by the time instants when respectively said source and said detectors pass that depth, said determination of gamma ray counts being made for each detector at each depth; (d) establishing a relationship, for each depth, between the counts from the respective detectors for that depth and the corresponding time instants when the corresponding detector passes that depth; and (e) deriving from said relationship at least one characteristic of said element.

  13. The effects of task-oriented versus repetitive bilateral arm training on upper limb function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gui Bin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of task-oriented bilateral arm training and repetitive bilateral arm training on upper limb function and activities of daily living in stroke patients. [Subjects] Forty patients with hemiplegia resulting from stroke were divided into a task orientied bilateral arm training group (n=20) and a repetitive bilateral arm training group (n=20). [Methods] The task-oriented group underwent bilateral arm training with 5 functional tasks, and the repetitive group underwent bilateral arm training with rhythmin auditory cueing for 30 minutes/day, 5 times/week, for 12 weeks. [Results] The upper limb function and the ability to perform activities of daily living improved significantly in both groups. Although there were significant differences between the groups, the task-oriented group showed greater improvement in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] We recommend bilateral arm training as well as adding functional task training as a clinical intervention to improve upper limb function activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia. PMID:26157217

  14. Combined geochemical and electrochemical methodology to quantify corrosion of carbon steel by bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Moreira, Rebeca; Bildstein, Olivier; Lartigue, Jean-Eric; Schlegel, Michel L; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent; Libert, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The availability of respiratory substrates, such as H2 and Fe(II,III) solid corrosion products within nuclear waste repository, will sustain the activities of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). This may have a direct effect on the rate of carbon steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of Shewanella oneidensis (an HOB and IRB model organism) on the corrosion rate by looking at carbon steel dissolution in the presence of H2 as the sole electron donor. Bacterial effect is evaluated by means of geochemical and electrochemical techniques. Both showed that the corrosion rate is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in the presence of bacteria. The geochemical experiments indicated that the composition and crystallinity of the solid corrosion products (magnetite and vivianite) are modified by bacteria. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments evidenced that the bacterial activity can be stimulated when H2 is generated in a small confinement volume. In this case, a higher corrosion rate and mineralization (vivianite) on the carbon steel surface were observed. The results suggest that the mechanism likely to influence the corrosion rate is the bioreduction of Fe(III) from magnetite coupled to the H2 oxidation. PMID:24064199

  15. Quantifying the metabolic activities of human-associated microbial communities across multiple ecological scales

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Corinne Ferrier; Turnbaugh, Peter James

    2013-01-01

    Humans are home to complex microbial communities, whose aggregate genomes and their encoded metabolic activities are referred to as the human microbiome. Recently, researchers have begun to appreciate that different human body habitats and the activities of their resident microorganisms can be better understood in ecological terms, as a range of spatial scales encompassing single cells, guilds of microorganisms responsive to a similar substrate, microbial communities, body habitats, and host populations. However, the bulk of the work to date has focused on studies of culturable microorganisms in isolation or on DNA sequencing-based surveys of microbial diversity in small to moderately sized cohorts of individuals. Here, we discuss recent work that highlights the potential for assessing the human microbiome at a range of spatial scales, and for developing novel techniques that bridge multiple levels: for example, through the combination of single cell methods and metagenomic sequencing. These studies promise to not only provide a much-needed epidemiological and ecological context for mechanistic studies of culturable and genetically tractable microorganisms, but may also lead to the discovery of fundamental rules that govern the assembly and function of host-associated microbial communities. PMID:23550823

  16. Inspiratory muscle fatigue affects latissimus dorsi but not pectoralis major activity during arms only front crawl sprinting.

    PubMed

    Lomax, Mitch; Tasker, Louise; Bostanci, Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) affects the muscle activity of the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during maximal arms only front crawl swimming. Eight collegiate swimmers were recruited to perform 2 maximal 20-second arms only front crawl sprints in a swimming flume. Both sprints were performed on the same day, and IMF was induced 30 minutes after the first (control) sprint. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (PImax and PEmax, respectively) were measured before and after each sprint. The median frequency (MDF) of the electromyographic signal burst was recorded from the latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major during each 20-second sprint along with stroke rate and breathing frequency. Median frequency was assessed in absolute units (Hz) and then referenced to the start of the control sprint for normalization. After IMF inducement, stroke rate increased from 56 ± 4 to 59 ± 5 cycles per minute, and latissimus dorsi MDF fell from 67 ± 11 Hz at the start of the sprint to 61 ± 9 Hz at the end. No change was observed in the MDF of the latissimus dorsi during the control sprint. Conversely, the MDF of the pectoralis major shifted to lower frequencies during both sprints but was unaffected by IMF. As the latter induced fatigue in the latissimus dorsi, which was not otherwise apparent during maximal arms only control sprinting, the presence of IMF affects the activity of the latissimus dorsi during front crawl sprinting. PMID:24402450

  17. Quantifying activity: a new assay reveals T-cell signalling in tiny skin biopsy samples.

    PubMed

    Dornmair, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Tissue-invasive T cells are observed in many inflammatory dermatological diseases, but in most cases, it is not known how they were attracted, what they might recognize, and to which extent they are activated. Answering these questions is surely essential for understanding pathogeneses of the diseases. In a recent issue of Experimental Dermatology, Smith et al. showed that early signalling events in skin-resident T cells may be investigated by multiplex immunoprecipitation flow cytometry, even if only few T cells are available from skin biopsy samples. This new technology will most likely contribute to elucidating the role of skin-invasive T cells and to understanding the pathology of dermatological diseases. PMID:24665970

  18. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance. PMID:27416714

  19. Use of spike triggered averaging of muscle activity to quantify inputs to motoneuron pools.

    PubMed

    Fortier, P A

    1994-07-01

    1. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which postspike facilitation (PSpF) of electromyograms (EMGs) could be used to estimate the inputs to separate motoneuron pools, under conditions where there was wide variability in the parameters of muscle activity. These parameters included cancellation of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs), variations in EMG noise, and changes in MUAP amplitude and duration. A systematic series of computer simulations with increasing complexity were used to achieve this goal. The initial simulations (model I) included a premotoneuronal (PreM) cell connected to a single postsynaptic motoneuron (Mn), which in turn projected to a muscle. The next simulations (model II) included other target motoneurons with their efferents each projecting to separate muscles. The last simulations (model III) included more than one postsynaptic motoneuron per Mn-pool, as is the case in mammalian neuromuscular systems. 2. A sample simulation (model I) was performed to determine if the PreM-evoked effects were within physiologically observed values. A cross-correlogram (XC) calculated from a PreM cell and its target Mn, receiving a PreM-evoked excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of 0.5 mV, produced a XC peak area of 0.04 Mn-spikes/PreM-trigger. The PSpF of EMG activity evoked by this PreM cell had a mean percent increase of 4.6% (MPI = mean bin amplitude of PSpF above baseline/mean baseline level x 100). These XC and PSpF values were within the range of values previously obtained from animal experiments. 3. The magnitude of MUAP cancellation in the EMG was tested by calculating two spike-triggered averages (SpTAs) of EMGs from Mn-triggers (not PreM-triggers as in the other SpTAs): one using typical bipolar MUAPs and another using their rectified counterpart of only positive polarity to eliminate the possibility of MUAP cancellation. The PSpF calculated from bipolar spikes was 24.8% smaller than the one calculated using unipolar spikes

  20. Quantifying Early Aftershock Activity of the 2004 Mid Niigata Prefecture Earthquake (Mw6.6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enescu, B.; Mori, J.; Miyazawa, M.

    2006-12-01

    We analyse the early aftershock activity of the 2004 Mid Niigata earthquake, using both earthquake catalog data and continuous waveform recordings. The frequency-magnitude distribution analysis of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) catalog shows that the magnitude of completeness of the aftershocks changes from values around 5.0, immediately after the mainshock, to about 1.8, twelve hours later. Such a large incompleteness of early events can bias significantly the estimation of aftershock rates. To better determine the temporal pattern of aftershocks in the first minutes after the Niigata earthquake, we analyse the continuous seismograms recorded at six Hi-Net (High Sensitivity Seismograph Network) stations located close to the aftershock distribution. Clear aftershocks can be seen from about 35 sec. after the mainshock. We use events which are both identified on the filtered waveforms and are listed in the JMA catalogue, to calibrate an amplitude-magnitude relation. We estimate that the events picked on the waveforms recorded at two seismic stations (NGOH and YNTH), situated on opposite sides of the aftershock distribution, are complete above a threshold magnitude of 3.4. The c-value determined by taking these events into account is about 0.003 days (4.3 min). Statistical tests demonstrate that a small, but non-zero, c-value is a reliable result. We also analyse the decay with time of the moment release rates of the aftershocks in the JMA catalog, since these rates should be much less influenced by the missing small events. The moment rates follow a power-law time dependence from a few minutes to months after the mainshock. We finally show that the rate-and-state dependent friction law or stress corrosion could explain well our findings.

  1. Quantifying cambial activity of high-elevation conifers in the Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziaco, E.; Biondi, F.; Rossi, S.; Deslauriers, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the physiological mechanisms that control the formation of tree rings provides the necessary biological basis for developing dendroclimatic reconstructions and dendroecological histories. Studies of wood formation in the Great Basin are now being conducted in connection with the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network (NevCAN), a recently established transect of valley-to-mountaintop instrumented stations in the Snake and Sheep Ranges of the Great Basin. Automated sensors record meteorological, soil, and vegetational variables at these sites, providing unique opportunities for ecosystem science, and are being used to investigate the ecological implications of xylogenesis. We present here an initial study based on microcores collected during summer 2013 from mountain and subalpine conifers (including Great Basin bristlecone pine, Pinus longaeva) growing on the west slope of Mt. Washington. Samples were taken from the mountain west (SM; 2810 m elevation) and the subalpine west (SS, 3355 m elevation) NevCAN sites on June 16th and 27th, 2013. The SS site was further subdivided in a high (SSH) and a low (SSL) group of trees, separated by about 10 m in elevation. Microscopic analyses showed the effect of elevation on cambial activity, as annual ring formation was more advanced at the lower (mountain) site compared to the higher (subalpine) one. At all sites cambium size showed little variations between the two sampling dates. The number of xylem cells in the radial enlargement phase decreased between the two sampling dates at the mountain site but increased at the subalpine site, confirming a delayed formation of wood at the higher elevations. Despite relatively high within-site variability, a general trend of increasing number of cells in the lignification phase was found at all sites. Mature cells were present only at the mountain site on June 27th. Spatial differences in the xylem formation process emerged at the species level and, within

  2. Scapular and rotator cuff muscle activity during arm elevation: A review of normal function and alterations with shoulder impingement

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, V; Camargo, PR; Ludewig, PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this manuscript is to review current knowledge of how muscle activation and force production contribute to shoulder kinematics in healthy subjects and persons with shoulder impingement. Results The middle and lower serratus anterior muscles produce scapular upward rotation, posterior tilting, and external rotation. Upper trapezius produces clavicular elevation and retraction. The middle trapezius is primarily a medial stabilizer of the scapula. The lower trapezius assists in medial stabilization and upward rotation of the scapula. The pectoralis minor is aligned to resist normal rotations of the scapula during arm elevation. The rotator cuff is critical to stabilization and prevention of excess superior translation of the humeral head, as well as production of glenohumeral external rotation during arm elevation. Alterations in activation amplitude or timing have been identified across various investigations of subjects with shoulder impingement as compared to healthy controls. These include decreased activation of the middle or lower serratus anterior and rotator cuff, delayed activation of middle and lower trapezius, and increased activation of the upper trapezius and middle deltoid in impingement subjects. In addition, subjects with a short resting length of the pectoralis minor exhibit altered scapular kinematic patterns similar to those found in persons with shoulder impingement. Conclusion These normal muscle functional capabilities and alterations in patient populations should be considered when planning exercise approaches for the rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:20411160

  3. Valid and reliable instruments for arm-hand assessment at ICF activity level in persons with hemiplegia: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Loss of arm-hand performance due to a hemiparesis as a result of stroke or cerebral palsy (CP), leads to large problems in daily life of these patients. Assessment of arm-hand performance is important in both clinical practice and research. To gain more insight in e.g. effectiveness of common therapies for different patient populations with similar clinical characteristics, consensus regarding the choice and use of outcome measures is paramount. To guide this choice, an overview of available instruments is necessary. The aim of this systematic review is to identify, evaluate and categorize instruments, reported to be valid and reliable, assessing arm-hand performance at the ICF activity level in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify articles containing instruments assessing arm-hand skilled performance in patients with stroke or cerebral palsy. Instruments were identified and divided into the categories capacity, perceived performance and actual performance. A second search was performed to obtain information on their content and psychometrics. Results Regarding capacity, perceived performance and actual performance, 18, 9 and 3 instruments were included respectively. Only 3 of all included instruments were used and tested in both patient populations. The content of the instruments differed widely regarding the ICF levels measured, assessment of the amount of use versus the quality of use, the inclusion of unimanual and/or bimanual tasks and the inclusion of basic and/or extended tasks. Conclusions Although many instruments assess capacity and perceived performance, a dearth exists of instruments assessing actual performance. In addition, instruments appropriate for more than one patient population are sparse. For actual performance, new instruments have to be developed, with specific focus on the usability in different patient populations and the assessment of quality of use as well as

  4. Quantifying resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Several frameworks to operationalize resilience have been proposed. A decade ago, a special feature focused on quantifying resilience was published in the journal Ecosystems (Carpenter, Westley & Turner 2005). The approach there was towards identifying surrogates of resilience, but few of the papers proposed quantifiable metrics. Consequently, many ecological resilience frameworks remain vague and difficult to quantify, a problem that this special feature aims to address. However, considerable progress has been made during the last decade (e.g. Pope, Allen & Angeler 2014). Although some argue that resilience is best kept as an unquantifiable, vague concept (Quinlan et al. 2016), to be useful for managers, there must be concrete guidance regarding how and what to manage and how to measure success (Garmestani, Allen & Benson 2013; Spears et al. 2015). Ideas such as ‘resilience thinking’ have utility in helping stakeholders conceptualize their systems, but provide little guidance on how to make resilience useful for ecosystem management, other than suggesting an ambiguous, Goldilocks approach of being just right (e.g. diverse, but not too diverse; connected, but not too connected). Here, we clarify some prominent resilience terms and concepts, introduce and synthesize the papers in this special feature on quantifying resilience and identify core unanswered questions related to resilience.

  5. Nonspecific Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Moradi, Ali; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad H; Ring, David

    2013-01-01

    Nonspecific activity-related arm pain is characterized by an absence of objective physical findings and symptoms that do not correspond with objective pathophysiology. Arm pain without strict diagnosis is often related to activity, work-related activity in particular, and is often seen in patients with physically demanding work. Psychological factors such as catastrophic thinking, symptoms of depression, and heightened illness concern determine a substantial percentage of the disability associated with puzzling hand and arm pains. Ergonomic modifications can help to control symptoms, but optimal health may require collaborative management incorporating psychosocial and psychological elements of illness. PMID:25207288

  6. Development of a transportable neutron activation analysis system to quantify manganese in bone in vivo: feasibility and methodology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingzi; Koltick, David; Byrne, Patrick; Wang, Haoyu; Zheng, Wei; Nie, Linda H

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a transportable neutron activation analysis (NAA) system to quantify manganese (Mn) in bone using a portable deuterium–deuterium (DD) neutron generator as the neutron source. Since a DD neutron generator was not available in our laboratory, a deuterium–tritium (DT) neutron generator was used to obtain experimental data and validate the results from Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. After validation, MC simulations using a DD generator as the neutron source were then conducted. Different types of moderators and reflectors were simulated, and the optimal thicknesses for the moderator and reflector were determined. To estimate the detection limit (DL) of the system, and to observe the interference of the magnesium (Mg) γ line at 844 keV to the Mn γ line at 847 keV, three hand phantoms with Mn concentrations of 30 parts per million (ppm), 150 ppm, and 500 ppm were made and irradiated by the DT generator system. The Mn signals in these phantoms were then measured using a 50% high-efficiency high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The DL was calculated to be about 4.4 ppm for the chosen irradiation, decay, and measurement time. This was calculated to be equivalent to a DL of about 3.3 ppm for the DD generator system. To achieve this DL with one 50% high-efficiency HPGe detector, the dose to the hand was simulated to be about 37 mSv, with the total body equivalent dose being about 23μSv. In conclusion, it is feasible to develop a transportable NAA system to quantify Mn in bone in vivo with an acceptable radiation exposure to the subject. PMID:24165395

  7. A self-centering active probing technique for kinematic parameter identification and verification of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santolaria, J.; Brau, A.; Velázquez, J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-05-01

    A crucial task in the procedure of identifying the parameters of a kinematic model of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) or robot arm is the process of capturing data. In this paper a capturing data method is analyzed using a self-centering active probe, which drastically reduces the capture time and the required number of positions of the gauge as compared to the usual standard and manufacturer methods. The mathematical models of the self-centering active probe and AACMM are explained, as well as the mathematical model that links the AACMM global reference system to the probe reference system. We present a self-calibration method that will allow us to determine a homogeneous transformation matrix that relates the probe's reference system to the AACMM last reference system from the probing of a single sphere. In addition, a comparison between a self-centering passive probe and self-centering active probe is carried out to show the advantages of the latter in the procedures of kinematic parameter identification and verification of the AACMM.

  8. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop an empirical parameterization for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken as a measure of the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterization developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A calibration factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this calibration factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization, including calibration

  9. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; et al

    2015-01-13

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop an empirical parameterization for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken as a measure of the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterizationmore » developed follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A calibration factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this calibration factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization, including calibration

  10. Integrating laboratory and field data to quantify the immersion freezing ice nucleation activity of mineral dust particles

    DOE PAGESBeta

    DeMott, P. J.; Prenni, A. J.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, R. C.; Petters, M. D.; Tobo, Y.; Niemand, M.; Möhler, O.; Snider, J. R.; Wang, Z.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Data from both laboratory studies and atmospheric measurements are used to develop a simple parametric description for the immersion freezing activity of natural mineral dust particles. Measurements made with the Colorado State University (CSU) continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) when processing mineral dust aerosols at a nominal 105% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw) are taken to approximate the immersion freezing nucleation activity of particles. Ice active frozen fractions vs. temperature for dusts representative of Saharan and Asian desert sources were consistent with similar measurements in atmospheric dust plumes for a limited set of comparisons available. The parameterization developedmore » follows the form of one suggested previously for atmospheric particles of non-specific composition in quantifying ice nucleating particle concentrations as functions of temperature and the total number concentration of particles larger than 0.5 μm diameter. Such an approach does not explicitly account for surface area and time dependencies for ice nucleation, but sufficiently encapsulates the activation properties for potential use in regional and global modeling simulations, and possible application in developing remote sensing retrievals for ice nucleating particles. A correction factor is introduced to account for the apparent underestimate (by approximately 3, on average) of the immersion freezing fraction of mineral dust particles for CSU CFDC data processed at an RHw of 105% vs. maximum fractions active at higher RHw. Instrumental factors that affect activation behavior vs. RHw in CFDC instruments remain to be fully explored in future studies. Nevertheless, the use of this correction factor is supported by comparison to ice activation data obtained for the same aerosols from Aerosol Interactions and Dynamics of the Atmosphere (AIDA) expansion chamber cloud parcel experiments. Further comparison of the new parameterization to the immersion

  11. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  12. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  13. Some possible applications of measurements on mu mesons to nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and arms control activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, W.R.; Vanier, P.E.

    1997-10-01

    In the nuclear safeguards and arms control areas, well-developed methodologies exist for determining the properties of nuclear materials via measurements of the gamma rays and neutrons emitted from these materials, or in the arms control area, by the use of radiography. In certain favorable instances, it may by feasible to perform comparable measurements with the use of a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring radiation--cosmic ray mu mesons (muons). At the earth`s surface these charged particles have a broad energy distribution peaking at about 500 MeV with a flux of approximately 10{sup {minus}2}/cm{sup 2}-sec-steradian. In traversing matter, muons lose energy at a rate of approximately 2 MeV/gram almost independent of atomic number. Muons can readily be detected by either plastic scintillators or wire planes. While the flux is small, a scintillator of one meter area, for example, will register about 20,000 events/min. these particles should have utility in the detection and imaging of objects with sectional densities of a few hundred grams/cm{sup 2}. The degree of intrusiveness of the imaging can be controlled through the detector configuration. Some possible applications include: (1) mass measurements on large UF{sub 6} cylinders, (2) determination of the size of treaty-limited objects, e.g., missiles, in rail cars or other containment; (3) verification of single or multiple warheads or components; (4) the detection of concealed, underground cavities. Examples will be presented.

  14. Quantifying contextuality.

    PubMed

    Grudka, A; Horodecki, K; Horodecki, M; Horodecki, P; Horodecki, R; Joshi, P; Kłobus, W; Wójcik, A

    2014-03-28

    Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a universal framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) the bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) the top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures, relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of nonlocality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches by showing that the measure emerging from the communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. Our framework allows for the quantitative, resource-type comparison of completely different games. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems, showing in particular that the Peres-Mermin game is by order of magnitude more contextual than that of Klyachko et al. Furthermore, we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity. PMID:24724629

  15. Quantifying entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati

    Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat

  16. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, H.

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube is disclosed. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel. 23 figs.

  17. Robotic arm

    SciTech Connect

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  18. How ‘arm-twisting’ by the inducer triggers activation of the MalT transcription factor, a typical signal transduction ATPase with numerous domains (STAND)

    PubMed Central

    Danot, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Signal transduction ATPases with numerous domains (STAND) get activated through inducer-dependent assembly into multimeric platforms. This switch relies on the conversion of their nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) from a closed, ADP-bound form to an open, ATP-bound form. The NOD closed form is stabilized by contacts with the arm, a domain that connects the NOD to the inducer-binding domain called the sensor. How the inducer triggers NOD opening remains unclear. Here, I pinpointed the NOD-arm interface of the MalT STAND transcription factor, and I generated a MalT variant in which this interface can be covalently locked on demand, thereby trapping the NOD in the closed state. By characterizing this locked variant, I found that the inducer is recognized in two steps: it first binds to the sole sensor with low affinity, which then triggers the recruitment of the arm to form a high-affinity arm-sensor inducer-binding site. Strikingly, this high-affinity binding step was incompatible with arm-NOD contacts maintaining the NOD closed. Through this toggling between two mutually exclusive states reminiscent of a single-pole double-throw switch, the arm couples inducer binding to NOD opening, shown here to precede nucleotide exchange. This scenario likely holds for other STANDs like mammalian NLR innate immunity receptors. PMID:25740650

  19. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements

    PubMed Central

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions. PMID:24688468

  20. Motor Asymmetry Attenuation in Older Adults during Imagined Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Paizis, Christos; Skoura, Xanthi; Personnier, Pascaline; Papaxanthis, Charalambos

    2014-01-01

    Laterality is an important feature of motor behavior. Several studies have shown that lateralization in right-handed young adults (i.e., right versus left arm superiority) emerges also during imagined actions, that is when an action is internally simulated without any motor output. Such information, however, is lacking for elderly people and it could be valuable to further comprehend the evolution of mental states of action in normal aging. Here, we evaluated the influence of age on motor laterality during mental actions. Twenty-four young (mean age: 24.7 ± 4.4 years) and 24 elderly (mean age: 72.4 ± 3.6 years) participants mentally simulated and actually executed pointing movements with either their dominant-right or non-dominant-left arm in the horizontal plane. We recorded and analyzed the time of actual and mental movements and looked for differences between groups and arms. In addition, electromyographic activity from arm muscle was recorded to quantify any enhancement in muscle activation during mental actions. Our findings indicated that both groups mentally simulated arm movements without activating the muscles of the right or the left arm above the baseline level. This finding suggests that young and, notably, elderly adults are able to generate covert actions without any motor output. We found that manual asymmetries (i.e., faster movements with the right arm) were preserved in young adults for both actual and mental movements. In elderly adults, manual asymmetries were observed for actual but not for mental movements (i.e., equal movement times for both arms). These findings clearly indicate an age-related reduction of motor laterality during mental actions. PMID:24688468

  1. Quantifying Amount and Variability of Cloud Water Inputs Using Active-Strand Collector, Ceilometer, Dewpoint, and Photographic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, M. A.; Bassiouni, M.; Murphy, S. F.; Gonzalez, G.; Van Beusekom, A. E.; Torres-Sanchez, A.; Estrada-Ruiz, C.

    2015-12-01

    Cloud water associated with orographic processes contributes to soil moisture and streamflow, suppresses transpiration, and moderates drought in tropical mountain forests. It is difficult to quantify, yet may be vulnerable to changes in amount and frequency due to warming climate. Cloud immersion is characterized and monitored as part of the ecohydrology research of the USGS Water, Energy and Biogeochemical Budgets (WEBB) program and the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (CZO). Stable-isotope studies indicated cloud water may contribute significantly to headwater streamflow, and measurements with an active-strand collector yielded estimates of overnight cloud water deposition rates on Pico del Este (1050 m); but cloud liquid water content and spatial and temporal variability are not well understood. At five sites spanning the lifting condensation level to ridge-top (600-1000 m) in the Luquillo Mountains, cloud immersion conditions are monitored using time-lapse photography and temperature/ relative humidity (T/RH) sensors. A ceilometer, installed at 99 m on the windward slope on 4/29/2013, provides longer-term data to understand variation in cloud base altitude and to detect changes that may occur with warming climate. The cloud-zone sites range from tropical wet forest (mixed species) to rain forest (sierra palm) to elfin cloud forest. T/RH sensors indicated foggy conditions when temperature < dewpoint, but they are not sensitive to varying water content in the cloud. Images were processed to determine frequency and duration of immersion and estimates of optical density of cloud. Spatial heterogeneity in cloud immersion is assessed by comparing ceilometer measurements to the images. These complementary data sets provide quantification of spatial and temporal patterns of cloud immersion, and areal estimates of cloud water deposition will be made to determine importance in the water budget.

  2. Monitoring charge flux to quantify unusual ligand-induced ion channel activity for use in biological nanopore-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Macazo, Florika C; White, Ryan J

    2014-06-01

    The utility of biological nanopores for the development of sensors has become a growing area of interest in analytical chemistry. Their emerging use in chemical analysis is a result of several ideal characteristics. First, they provide reproducible control over nanoscale pore sizes with an atomic level of precision. Second, they are amenable to resistive-pulse type measurement systems when embedded into an artificial lipid bilayer. A single binding event causes a change in the flow of millions of ions across the membrane per second that is readily measured as a change in current with excellent signal-to-noise ratio. To date, ion channel-based biosensors have been limited to well-behaved proteins. Most demonstrations of using ion channels as sensors have been limited to proteins that remain in the open, conducting state, unless occupied by an analyte of interest. Furthermore, these proteins are nonspecific, requiring chemical, biochemical, or genetic manipulations to impart chemical specificity. Here, we report on the use of the pore-forming abilities of heat shock cognate 70 (Hsc70) to quantify a specific analyte. Hsc70 reconstitutes into phospholipid membranes and opens to form multiple conductance states specifically in the presence of ATP. We introduce the measurement of "charge flux" to characterize the ATP-regulated multiconductance nature of Hsc70, which enables sensitive quantification of ATP (100 μM-4 mM). We believe that monitoring protein-induced charge flux across a bilayer membrane represents a universal method for quantitatively monitoring ion-channel activity. This measurement has the potential to broaden the library of usable proteins in the development of nanopore-based biosensors. PMID:24794413

  3. Quantifying planetary limits of Earth system processes relevant to human activity using a thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Food, water, and energy play, obviously, a central role in maintaining human activity. In this contribution, I derive estimates for the fundamental limits on the rates by which these resources are provided by Earth system processes and the levels at which these can be used sustainably. The key idea here is that these resources are, directly or indirectly, generated out of the energy associated with the absorption of sunlight, and that the energy conversions from sunlight to other forms ultimately limit the generation of these resources. In order to derive these conversion limits, we need to trace the links between the processes that generate food, water and energy to the absorption of sunlight. The resource "food" results from biomass production by photosynthesis, which requires light and a sufficient magnitude of gas exchange of carbon dioxide at the surface, which is maintained by atmospheric motion which in turn is generated out of differential radiative heating and cooling. The resource "water" is linked to hydrologic cycling, with its magnitude being linked to the latent heat flux of the surface energy balance and water vapor transport in the atmosphere which is also driven by differential radiative heating and cooling. The availability of (renewable) energy is directly related to the generation of different forms of energy of climate system processes, such as the kinetic energy of atmospheric motion, which, again, relates to radiative heating differences. I use thermodynamics and its limits as a basis to establish the planetary limits of these processes and use a simple model to derive first-order estimates. These estimates compare quite well with observations, suggesting that this thermodynamic view of the whole Earth system provides an objective, physical basis to define and quantify planetary boundaries as well as the factors that shape these boundaries.

  4. Self-reported and performance-based outcomes using DEKA Arm.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Borgia, Matthew; Latlief, Gail; Sasson, Nicole; Smurr-Walters, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties of the DEKA Arm and associated engineering innovations are easy to observe. What is less clear is how these advances translate into functional benefits for the user with amputation. Study aims were to (1) quantify outcomes including dexterity, performance of daily activities, and prosthetic skill and spontaneity of users of the DEKA Arm and (2) compare outcomes when using the DEKA Arm with scores using the existing prosthesis. This was a quasi-experimental study. Descriptive analyses examined outcomes by DEKA Arm configuration level. Of the 39 subjects fit with a DEKA Arm, 32 were trained in use and completed end-of-study testing. Data from 26 prosthetic users were used to compare outcomes using existing prostheses with outcomes with the DEKA Arm. Dexterity and activity performance with the DEKA Arm varied by amputation level (p < 0.01). Self-reported function and number of activities performed using the prosthesis were similar across levels. Comparisons with existing prostheses showed the effect on dexterity varied by level. Activity performance and spontaneity of prosthetic use improved for users of the shoulder configuration level, while use of the prosthesis to perform activities and perceived difficulty performing self-selected tasks improved for all levels. PMID:25019659

  5. Quantifying the Impact of Mosquitoes on Quality of Life and Enjoyment of Yard and Porch Activities in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Yara A.; Shepard, Donald S.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus, a day-biting mosquito, to densely inhabited areas in the northeastern Atlantic states of the USA has dramatically increased the problem that mosquitoes create for urban and suburban residents. We quantified the impact of mosquitoes on residents' quality of life within the context of a comprehensive area-wide integrated pest management program to control Ae. albopictus in two counties (Mercer and Monmouth) in New Jersey. We interviewed residents of 121 randomly selected households in both counties between October and November 2010. We asked residents about their experience with mosquitoes in their neighborhood and the importance of the ability to relax outdoors without mosquitoes compared to other neighborhood characteristics (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). We rated residents' utility based on paired comparisons to known states from the EuroQol health description system. The majority (54.6%) of respondents considered mosquitoes to be a problem. Respondents reported an average of 7.1 mosquito bites in a typical week during that summer. Mosquitoes prevented 59.5% of residents from enjoying their outdoor activities at least to some extent. Residents rated the mosquito acceptability (mean ± standard deviation) during that summer on a scale of 0 (mosquito invasion) to 100 (no mosquitoes) at 56.7±28.7, and their overall utility at 0.87±0.03. This is comparable to living with up to two risk factors for diabetes (i.e., abdominal obesity, body mass index of 28 or more, reported cholesterol problems, diagnosis of hypertension, or history of cardiovascular disease) or women experiencing menstrual disorders. Respondents rated the importance of enjoying outdoor activities without mosquitoes (4.69±0.80) comparable to that of neighborhood safety (4.74±0.80) and higher than that of a clean neighborhood (4.59±0.94). In conclusion, New Jersey residents reported that mosquitoes decreased their utility by 0

  6. Quantifying the sensitivity of ephemeral streams to land disturbance activities in arid ecosystems at the watershed scale.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Ben L; Hamada, Yuki; Bowen, Esther E; Grippo, Mark A; Hartmann, Heidi M; Patton, Terri L; Van Lonkhuyzen, Robert A; Carr, Adrianne E

    2014-11-01

    Large areas of public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management and located in arid regions of the southwestern United States are being considered for the development of utility-scale solar energy facilities. Land-disturbing activities in these desert, alluvium-filled valleys have the potential to adversely affect the hydrologic and ecologic functions of ephemeral streams. Regulation and management of ephemeral streams typically falls under a spectrum of federal, state, and local programs, but scientifically based guidelines for protecting ephemeral streams with respect to land-development activities are largely nonexistent. This study developed an assessment approach for quantifying the sensitivity to land disturbance of ephemeral stream reaches located in proposed solar energy zones (SEZs). The ephemeral stream assessment approach used publicly-available geospatial data on hydrology, topography, surficial geology, and soil characteristics, as well as high-resolution aerial imagery. These datasets were used to inform a professional judgment-based score index of potential land disturbance impacts on selected critical functions of ephemeral streams, including flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitat value, and groundwater recharge. The total sensitivity scores (sum of scores for the critical stream functions of flow and sediment conveyance, ecological habitats, and groundwater recharge) were used to identify highly sensitive stream reaches to inform decisions on developable areas in SEZs. Total sensitivity scores typically reflected the scores of the individual stream functions; some exceptions pertain to groundwater recharge and ecological habitats. The primary limitations of this assessment approach were the lack of high-resolution identification of ephemeral stream channels in the existing National Hydrography Dataset, and the lack of mechanistic processes describing potential impacts on ephemeral stream functions at the watershed scale. The

  7. Robotic Arm Manipulator Using Active Control for Sample Acquisition and Transfer, and Passive Mode for Surface Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Jun; Underhill, Michael L.; Trease, Brian P.; Lindemann, Randel A.

    2010-01-01

    A robotic arm that consists of three joints with four degrees of freedom (DOF) has been developed. It can carry an end-effector to acquire and transfer samples by using active control and comply with surface topology in a passive mode during a brief surface contact. The three joints are arranged in such a way that one joint of two DOFs is located at the shoulder, one joint of one DOF is located at the elbow, and one joint of one DOF is located at the wrist. Operationally, three DOFs are moved in the same plane, and the remaining one on the shoulder is moved perpendicular to the other three for better compliance with ground surface and more flexibility of sample handling. Three out of four joints are backdriveable, making the mechanism less complex and more cost effective

  8. Is Two Better than One? Limb Activation Treatment Combined with Contralesional Arm Vibration to Ameliorate Signs of Left Neglect

    PubMed Central

    Pitteri, Marco; Arcara, Giorgio; Passarini, Laura; Meneghello, Francesca; Priftis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of the Limb Activation Treatment (LAT) alone and in combination with the Contralateral Arm Vibration (CAV) on left neglect (LN) rehabilitation. We conceived them as techniques that both prompt the activation of the lesioned right hemisphere because of the activation (with the LAT as an active technique) and the stimulation (with the CAV as a passive technique) of the left hemibody. To test the effect of the simultaneous use of these two techniques (i.e., LAT and CAV) on visuo-spatial aspects of LN, we described the case of an LN patient (GR), who showed high intra-individual variability (IIV) in performance. Given the high IIV of GR, we used an ABAB repeated-measures design to better define the effectiveness of the combined application of LAT and CAV, as a function of time. The results showed an improvement of GR’s performance on the Bells test following the combined application of LAT and CAV, with respect to the application of LAT alone. We did not find, however, significant effects of treatment on two other LN tests (i.e., Line bisection and Picture scanning). We propose that the combined application of LAT and CAV can be beneficial for some aspects of LN. PMID:23966926

  9. A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zharkova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

  10. Effects of task-oriented robot training on arm function, activity, and quality of life in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over fifty percent of stroke patients experience chronic arm hand performance problems, compromising independence in daily life activities and quality of life. Task-oriented training may improve arm hand performance after stroke, whereby augmented therapy may lead to a better treatment outcome. Technology-supported training holds opportunities for increasing training intensity. However, the effects of robot-supported task-oriented training with real life objects in stroke patients are not known to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness and added value of the Haptic Master robot combined with task-oriented arm hand training in chronic stroke patients. Methods In a single-blind randomized controlled trial, 22 chronic stroke patients were randomly allocated to receive either task-oriented robot-assisted arm-hand training (experimental group) or task-oriented non-robotic arm-hand training (control group). For training, the T-TOAT (Technology-supported Task-Oriented Arm Training) method was applied. Training was provided during 8 weeks, 4 times/week, 2× 30 min/day. Results A significant improvement after training on the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) was demonstrated in the experimental group (p = 0.008). Results were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. On the perceived performance measure (Motor Activity Log (MAL)), both, the experimental and control group improved significantly after training (control group p = 0.008; experimental group p = 0.013). The improvements on MAL in both groups were maintained until 6 months after cessation of the training. With regard to quality of life, only in the control group a significant improvement after training was found (EuroQol-5D p = 0.015, SF-36 physical p = 0.01). However, the improvement on SF-36 in the control group was not maintained (p = 0.012). No between-group differences could be demonstrated on any of the outcome measures

  11. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads

    PubMed Central

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Migliaccio, Gian M.; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  12. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor carpi radialis (at low acceleration load, P > 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P < 0.05), with the exception of flexor digitorum superficialis (P > 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads. PMID:27378948

  13. QUANTIFYING SPICULES

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the dynamic solar chromosphere is fundamental in solar physics. Spicules are an important feature of the chromosphere, connecting the photosphere to the corona, potentially mediating the transfer of energy and mass. The aim of this work is to study the properties of spicules over different regions of the Sun. Our goal is to investigate if there is more than one type of spicule, and how spicules behave in the quiet Sun, coronal holes, and active regions. We make use of high cadence and high spatial resolution Ca II H observations taken by Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope. Making use of a semi-automated detection algorithm, we self-consistently track and measure the properties of 519 spicules over different regions. We find clear evidence of two types of spicules. Type I spicules show a rise and fall and have typical lifetimes of 150-400 s and maximum ascending velocities of 15-40 km s{sup -1}, while type II spicules have shorter lifetimes of 50-150 s, faster velocities of 30-110 km s{sup -1}, and are not seen to fall down, but rather fade at around their maximum length. Type II spicules are the most common, seen in the quiet Sun and coronal holes. Type I spicules are seen mostly in active regions. There are regional differences between quiet-Sun and coronal hole spicules, likely attributable to the different field configurations. The properties of type II spicules are consistent with published results of rapid blueshifted events (RBEs), supporting the hypothesis that RBEs are their disk counterparts. For type I spicules we find the relations between their properties to be consistent with a magnetoacoustic shock wave driver, and with dynamic fibrils as their disk counterpart. The driver of type II spicules remains unclear from limb observations.

  14. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  15. Kidins220/ARMS binds to the B cell antigen receptor and regulates B cell development and activation

    PubMed Central

    Fiala, Gina J.; Janowska, Iga; Prutek, Fabiola; Hobeika, Elias; Satapathy, Annyesha; Sprenger, Adrian; Plum, Thomas; Seidl, Maximilian; Dengjel, Jörn; Reth, Michael; Cesca, Fabrizia; Brummer, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling is critical for B cell development and activation. Using mass spectrometry, we identified a protein kinase D–interacting substrate of 220 kD (Kidins220)/ankyrin repeat–rich membrane-spanning protein (ARMS) as a novel interaction partner of resting and stimulated BCR. Upon BCR stimulation, the interaction increases in a Src kinase–independent manner. By knocking down Kidins220 in a B cell line and generating a conditional B cell–specific Kidins220 knockout (B-KO) mouse strain, we show that Kidins220 couples the BCR to PLCγ2, Ca2+, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) signaling. Consequently, BCR-mediated B cell activation was reduced in vitro and in vivo upon Kidins220 deletion. Furthermore, B cell development was impaired at stages where pre-BCR or BCR signaling is required. Most strikingly, λ light chain–positive B cells were reduced sixfold in the B-KO mice, genetically placing Kidins220 in the PLCγ2 pathway. Thus, our data indicate that Kidins220 positively regulates pre-BCR and BCR functioning. PMID:26324445

  16. Characteristics of the Colombian armed conflict and the mental health of civilians living in active conflict zones

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that the Colombian armed conflict has continued for almost five decades there is still very little information on how it affects the mental health of civilians. Although it is well established in post-conflict populations that experience of organised violence has a negative impact on mental health, little research has been done on those living in active conflict zones. Médecins Sans Frontières provides mental health services in areas of active conflict in Colombia and using data from these services we aimed to establish which characteristics of the conflict are most associated with specific symptoms of mental ill health. Methods An analysis of clinical data from patients (N = 6,353), 16 years and over, from 2010–2011, who consulted in the Colombian departments (equivalent to states) of Nariño, Cauca, Putumayo and Caquetá. Risk factors were grouped using a hierarchical cluster analysis and the clusters were included with demographic information as predictors in logistic regressions to discern which risk factor clusters best predicted specific symptoms. Results Three clear risk factor clusters emerged which were interpreted as ‘direct conflict related violence’, ‘personal violence not directly conflict-related’ and ‘general hardship’. The regression analyses indicated that conflict related violence was more highly related to anxiety-related psychopathology than other risk factor groupings while non-conflict violence was more related to aggression and substance abuse, which was more common in males. Depression and suicide risk were represented equally across risk factor clusters. Conclusions As the largest study of its kind in Colombia it demonstrates a clear impact of the conflict on mental health. Among those who consulted with mental health professionals, specific conflict characteristics could predict symptom profiles. However, some of the highest risk outcomes, like depression, suicide risk and aggression, were more

  17. Active muscle response using feedback control of a finite element human arm model.

    PubMed

    Östh, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Happee, Riender

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical human body models (HBMs) are important research tools that are used to study the human response in car crash situations. Development of automotive safety systems requires the implementation of active muscle response in HBM, as novel safety systems also interact with vehicle occupants in the pre-crash phase. In this study, active muscle response was implemented using feedback control of a nonlinear muscle model in the right upper extremity of a finite element (FE) HBM. Hill-type line muscle elements were added, and the active and passive properties were assessed. Volunteer tests with low impact loading resulting in elbow flexion motions were performed. Simulations of posture maintenance in a gravity field and the volunteer tests were successfully conducted. It was concluded that feedback control of a nonlinear musculoskeletal model can be used to obtain posture maintenance and human-like reflexive responses in an FE HBM. PMID:21294008

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Armed Thiophene Derivatives and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) Analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Alatibi, Fatima; El-Sayed, Nahed Nasser E; Al-Showiman, Salim; Kheder, Nabila Abdelshafy; Wadood, Abdul; Rauf, Abdur; Bawazeer, Saud; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2016-01-01

    Tetrasubstituted 2-acetylthiophene derivative 5 was synthesized and then condensed with various nitrogen nucleophiles such as 5-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 2-aminobenzimidazole, aniline or p-chloroaniline to afford the corresponding iminothiophene derivatives 6-8a,b. Condensation of thiophene 5 with malononitrile as carbon nucleophile afforded compound 9, which underwent nucleophilic addition with DMF-DMA to afford compound 10. The newly synthesized products were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, MS, ¹H-(13)C-NMR and CHN analysis and then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Results of the in vitro antibacterial activity showed that thiophene derivative 7 was found to be more potent than the standard drug gentamicin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Some of these compounds showed potential antimicrobial activities. Molecular docking and Osiris/Molinspiration analyses show the crucial role and impact of substituents on bioactivity and indicate the unfavorable structural parameters in actual drug design: more substitution with electronic donor group doesn't guarantee more effective bioactivity. This study should greatly help in an intelligent and a controlled pharmacomodulation of antibiotics. PMID:26901173

  19. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-10

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty informationmore » on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.« less

  20. A path towards uncertainty assignment in an operational cloud-phase algorithm from ARM vertically pointing active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Holmes, Aimee; Luke, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of cloud phase (liquid, ice, mixed, etc.) is necessary to describe the radiative impact of clouds and their lifetimes, but is a property that is difficult to simulate correctly in climate models. One step towards improving those simulations is to make observations of cloud phase with sufficient accuracy to help constrain model representations of cloud processes. In this study, we outline a methodology using a basic Bayesian classifier to estimate the probabilities of cloud-phase class from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) vertically pointing active remote sensors. The advantage of this method over previous ones is that it provides uncertainty information on the phase classification. We also test the value of including higher moments of the cloud radar Doppler spectrum than are traditionally used operationally. Using training data of known phase from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE) field campaign, we demonstrate a proof of concept for how the method can be used to train an algorithm that identifies ice, liquid, mixed phase, and snow. Over 95 % of data are identified correctly for pure ice and liquid cases used in this study. Mixed-phase and snow cases are more problematic to identify correctly. When lidar data are not available, including additional information from the Doppler spectrum provides substantial improvement to the algorithm. This is a first step towards an operational algorithm and can be expanded to include additional categories such as drizzle with additional training data.

  1. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  2. Leptin and Leptin Receptor Genetic Variants Associate with Habitual Physical Activity and the Arm Body Composition Response to Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, S; Haddad, CJ; Kostek, MA; Angelopoulos, TJ; Clarkson, PM; Gordon, PM; Moyna, NM; Visich, PS; Zoeller, RF; Seip, RL; Bilbie, S; Thompson, PD; Devaney, J; Gordish-Dressman, H; Hoffman, EP; Price, Thomas B.; Pescatello, LS

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We investigated the influence of Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) SNPs on habitual physical activity (PA) and body composition response to a unilateral, upper body resistance training (RT) program. METHODS European-derived American volunteers (men=111, women=131, 23.4±5.4 yr, 24.4±4.6 kg·m−2) were genotyped for LEP 19 G>A (rs2167270), and LEPR 326 A>G (rs1137100), 668 A>G (rs1137101), 3057 G>A (rs1805096), and 1968 G>C (rs8179183). They completed the Paffenbarger PA Questionnaire. Arm muscle and subcutaneous fat volumes were measured before and after 12wk of supervised RT with MRI. Multivariate and repeated measures ANCOVA tested differences among phenotypes by genotype and gender with age and body mass index as covariates. RESULTS Adults with the LEP 19 GG genotype reported more kcal/wk in vigorous intensity PA (1273.3±176.8, p=0.017) and sports/recreation (1922.8±226.0, p<0.04) than A allele carriers (718.0±147.2, 1328.6±188.2, respectively). Those with the LEP 19 GG genotype spent more hr/wk in light intensity PA (39.7±1.6) than A allele carriers (35.0±1.4, p=0.03). In response to RT, adults with the LEPR 668 G allele gained greater arm muscle volume (67687.05±3186.7 vs. 52321.87±5125.05 mm3, p=0.01) and subcutaneous fat volume (10599.89±3683.57 vs. −5224.73±5923.98 mm3, p=0.02) than adults with the LEPR 668 AA genotype, respectively. CONCLUSION LEP19 G>A and LEPR 668 A>G associated with habitual PA and the body composition response to RT. These LEP and LEPR SNPs are located in coding exons likely influencing LEP and LEPR function. Further investigation is needed to confirm our findings and establish mechanisms for LEP and LEPR genotype and PA and body composition associations we observed. PMID:22975643

  3. Arm in Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low and (MS) Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs), simulate handling of large components in space. Above Endeavour's Payload Bay (PLB), Low, anchored by a Portable Foot Restraint (PFR) Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) end effector, maneuvers Wisoff, representing the mass of a large space component. This particular task was rehearsed with eyes toward the servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) or the assembly and maintenance of Space Station. This Extravehicular Activity (EVA), Detailed Test Objective (DTO) was conducted both with and without intentional disturbances from Endeavour's thrusters and movements of the RMS. The SPACEHAB-01 Commercial Middeck Augmentation Module (CMAM)) is visible in the foreground with the Superfluid Helium On Orbit Transfer (SHOOT) payload liquid helium dewar assembly and the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) only partially visible in the aft PLB shadows. The vertical stabilizer and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods are silhouetted against the Earth's surface.

  4. Injuries associated with combat sports, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries. PMID:24885879

  5. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using (137)Cs activities and radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24km(2), Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n=36) and subsurface channel bank (n=17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n=41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. (137)Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of the pond. This original sediment

  6. Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Oh, Gi-Taik; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-07-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition among adults that can cause symptoms such as frequent heartburn, substernal chest pain, and regurgitation of food. During 2005-2014, a total of 137,081 active component service members had an incident (first-ever) diagnosis of GERD (incidence rate: 101.3 per 10,000 person-years). Incidence rates were higher than their respective counterparts among females, black and white non-Hispanics, service members in the Coast Guard and Air Force, officers, and those in healthcare occupations. Rates increased monotonically with increasing age groups. Most GERD cases (79.2%) were uncomplicated GERD; however, 20.8% were identified as having a symptom or complication linked to their GERD diagnosis. Lifestyle changes, medication, and prevention of serious complications should be emphasized among individuals diagnosed with GERD, particularly those at risk for severe disease. PMID:26207411

  7. Cold weather injuries, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, July 2008-June 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    From July 2012 through June 2013, the number of active and reserve component service members treated for cold injuries (n=479) was the lowest of the last five cold seasons (2008-2013). Over the last five years hypothermia was the most common cold injury among service members in the Marine Corps and Coast Guard, while frostbite was the most common type of cold injury in the other three Services. Consistent with trends from previous cold seasons, service members who were female, less than 20 years old, or of black, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity tended to have higher cold injury rates than their respective counterparts. Among service members overall, Army personnel accounted for the majority (62%) of cold injuries. PMID:24191768

  8. Thyroid disorders among active component military members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-10-01

    During 2002-2011, among active component U.S. military members, the rates of idiopathic hypothyroidism were 39.7 and 7.8 per 10,000 person-years among females and males, respectively. Unadjusted rates of idiopathic hypothyroidism and chronic thyroiditis (e.g., Hashimoto's disease) were at least twice as high among white, non-Hispanic as black, non-Hispanic service members. However, black, non-Hispanic service members had higher rates of goiter and thyrotoxicosis. Increasing rates of thyroid disorders during the period were accompanied by increases in numbers of screening tests for thyroid function recorded during outpatient visits. Increased thyroid function testing since the beginning of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may reflect increased testing of military members with mental disorders (e.g., depression, irritability, PTSD), musculoskeletal pain, sleep disorders, menstrual/fertility abnormalities, obesity, and other conditions which have sharply increased in prevalence over the same period. PMID:23121006

  9. Determination of Large-Scale Cloud Ice Water Concentration by Combining Surface Radar and Satellite Data in Support of ARM SCM Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guosheng

    2013-03-15

    water contents in support of cloud modeling activities. The approach of the study is to expand a (surface) point measurement to an (satellite) area measurement. That is, the study takes the advantage of the high quality cloud measurements (particularly cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements) at the point of the ARM sites. We use the cloud ice water characteristics derived from the point measurement to guide/constrain a satellite retrieval algorithm, then use the satellite algorithm to derive the 3-D cloud ice water distributions within an 10° (latitude) x 10° (longitude) area. During the research period, we have developed, validated and improved our cloud ice water retrievals, and have produced and archived at ARM website as a PI-product of the 3-D cloud ice water contents using combined satellite high-frequency microwave and surface radar observations for SGP March 2000 IOP and TWP-ICE 2006 IOP over 10 deg. x 10 deg. area centered at ARM SGP central facility and Darwin sites. We have also worked on validation of the 3-D ice water product by CloudSat data, synergy with visible/infrared cloud ice water retrievals for better results at low ice water conditions, and created a long-term (several years) of ice water climatology in 10 x 10 deg. area of ARM SGP and TWP sites and then compared it with GCMs.

  10. Global circulation of the Earth's atmosphere at altitudes from 0 to 135 Km simulated with the ARM model. Consideration of the solar activity contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivolutsky, A. A.; Cherepanova, L. A.; Dement'eva, A. V.; Repnev, A. I.; Klyuchnikova, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The results of simulations of the global circulation and temperature regime in the altitude range from the lower tropospheric layers to 135 km are presented. They were obtained with the Atmospheric Research Model (ARM), an advanced modification of a version of the Cologne Middle Atmosphere Model (COMMA). The ARM is characterized by higher spatial resolution and better parameterizations of the radiation sources and heat sinks. At the lower boundary of the model, wavy sources of perturbations, which are caused by internal gravity waves and planetary waves, are specified. The results of the modeling of the global temperature and wind fields for the mean solar activity level are presented, and their changes, which are caused by variations of the UV-radiation fluxes in the solar activity cycle and by solar proton flares, are also considered.

  11. Sunburn among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002-2013.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Sunburn is caused by acute overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation directly from the sun or from artificial UV sources. Service members are at risk of excessive exposure to sunlight due to the nature of their military duties, which often involve working and training outdoors, and deployment to environments where UV radiation is more intense. From January 2002 through December 2013, a total of 19,172 incident cases of clinically significant sunburn were diagnosed among active component service members. Most of the cases (80.2%) were first degree sunburn. The incidence rates of sunburn diagnoses were higher among females, white non-Hispanics, younger age groups, individuals in the Marine Corps or Army, and among enlisted service members. Additionally, the rate among recruits was more than 3.5 times the rate for non-recruits. Sixty-one percent of all diagnosed cases occurred from May through July. Sunburn cases occurred in all areas of the U.S., particularly near major recruit and combat training locations. Service members are strongly advised to practice sun safety as a part of heat illness prevention, including properly using broad-spectrum sunscreen, finding or constructing shade during work and rest, wearing protective clothing and military combat eye protection items, and avoiding tanning booths and sun lamps. PMID:25080329

  12. Septicemia diagnosed during hospitalizations, active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    During the period 2000 through 2012, the records of 3,360 hospitalized active component service members contained a diagnosis of septicemia. Most of these cases were identified via diagnoses recorded in the first and second diagnostic positions and the numbers and rates of such cases increased dramatically during the period. Rates were higher among women than men and in the oldest and youngest age groups. The most frequent co-occurring diagnoses were pneumonia and infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue. For the majority of cases of septicemia, no specific etiologic agent was indicated by ICD-9 codes in the record. The most commonly specified agents were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Most service members were returned to duty after discharge. The overall mortality associated with hospitalized septicemia cases was 4 percent, but was 5.1 percent for septicemia attributed to gram negative bacteria. Possible reasons why the mortality rate in service members was lower than the rates associated with septicemia in the general population are discussed. PMID:24011371

  13. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... Mosby; 2013:chap 57. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  14. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. 31.3401(a)(1)-1 Section 31.3401(a)(1)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES...

  15. Para-aminobenzamidine linked regenerated cellulose membranes for plasminogen activator purification: Effect of spacer arm length and ligand density

    PubMed Central

    Fasoli, Ezio; Reyes, Yiaslin Ruiz; Guzman, Osiris Martinez; Rosado, Alexandra; Cruz, Vivian Rodriguez; Borges, Amaris; Martinez, Edmarie; Bansal, Vibha

    2013-01-01

    Despite membrane-based separations offering superior alternative to packed bed chromatographic processes, there has been a substantial lacuna in their actual application to separation processes. One of the major reasons behind this is the lack of availability of appropriately modified or end-group modifiable membranes. In this paper, an affinity membrane was developed using a commercially available serine protease inhibitor, para-aminobenzamidine (pABA). The membrane modification was optimized for protein binding capacity by varying: i) the length of the spacer arm (SA; 5-atoms, 7-atoms, and 14-atoms) linking the ligand to membrane surface; ii) the affinity ligand (pABA) density on membrane surface (5–25 nmoles per cm2). Resulting membranes were tested for their ability to bind plasminogen activators (PAs) from mono- and multi- component systems in batch mode. The membrane containing pABA linked through 7-atoms SA but similar ligand density as in the case of 5- or 14- atoms long SA was found to bind up to 1.6-times higher amounts of PA per nmole of immobilized ligand from conditioned HeLa cell culture media. However, membranes with similar ligand densities but different lengths of SA, showed comparable binding capacities in monocomponent system. In addition, the length of SA did not affect the selectivity of the ligand for PA. A clear inverse linear correlation was observed between ligand density and binding capacity until the point of PA binding optima was reached (11±1.0 nmoles per cm2) in mono- and multi- component systems for 7- as well as 14- atoms SA. Up to 200-fold purification was achieved in a single step separation of PA from HeLa conditioned media using these affinity membranes. The issues of ligand leaching and reuse of the membranes were also investigated. An extensive regeneration procedure allowed the preservation of approximately 95% of the PA binding capacity of the membranes even after five cycles of use. PMID:23703544

  16. A novel method to quantify the activity of alcohol acetyltransferase Using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhongqiu; Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Huxuan; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2016-07-15

    Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATFase) extensively catalyzes the reactions of alcohols to acetic esters in microorganisms and plants. In this work, a novel method has been proposed to quantify the activity of AATFase using a SnO2-based sensor of electronic nose, which was determined on the basis of its higher sensitivity to the reducing alcohol than the oxidizing ester. The maximum value of the first-derivative of the signals from the SnO2-based sensor was therein found to be an eigenvalue of isoamyl alcohol concentration. Quadratic polynomial regression perfectly fitted the correlation between the eigenvalue and the isoamyl alcohol concentration. The method was used to determine the AATFase activity in this type of reaction by calculating the conversion rate of isoamyl alcohol. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the AATFase activity of a cider yeast strain. Compared with GC-MS, the method shows promises with ideal recovery and low cost. PMID:26948643

  17. The effect of swinging the arms on muscle activation and production of leg force during ski skating at different skiing speeds.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Lindinger, Stefan J; Ohtonen, Olli; Rapp, Walter; Müller, Erich; Linnamo, Vesa

    2016-06-01

    The study investigated the effects of arm swing during leg push-off in V2-alternate/G4 skating on neuromuscular activation and force production by the leg muscles. Nine skilled cross-country skiers performed V2-alternate skating without poles at moderate, high, and maximal speeds, both with free (SWING) and restricted arm swing (NOSWING). Maximal speed was 5% greater in SWING (P<0.01), while neuromuscular activation and produced forces did not differ between techniques. At both moderate and high speed the maximal (2% and 5%, respectively) and average (both 5%) vertical force and associated impulse (10% and 14%) were greater with SWING (all P<0.05). At high speed range of motion and angular velocity of knee flexion were 24% greater with SWING (both P<0.05), while average EMG of m. biceps femoris was 31% lower (all P<0.05) in SWING. In a similar manner, the average EMG of m. vastus medialis and m. biceps femoris were lower (17% and 32%, P<0.05) during the following knee extension. Thus, swinging the arms while performing V2-alternate can enhance both maximal speed and skiing economy at moderate and, in particularly, high speeds. PMID:27031075

  18. Anomalous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In this composite image of spiral galaxy M106 (NGC 4258), optical data from the Digitized Sky Survey is shown as yellow, radio data from the Very Large Array appears as purple, X-ray data from Chandra is coded blue, and infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope appears red. Two anomalous arms, which aren't visible at optical wavelengths, appear as purple and blue emission.

  19. On Day-to-Day Variability of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Among the palette of methods (satellite, VLF, ELF) for monitoring global lightning activity, observations of the background Schumann resonances (SR) provide a unique prospect for estimating the integrated activity of global lightning activity in absolute units (coul2 km2/sec). This prospect is ensured by the SR waves' low attenuation, with wavelengths commensurate with the dimensions of dominant regional lightning "chimneys", and by the accumulating methodology for background SR techniques. Another benefit is the reduction of SR measurements into a compact set of resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors). Suggested and tested in numerical simulations by T.R. Madden in the 1960s, the idea to invert the SR characteristics for the global lightning source has been farther developed, statistically substantiated, and practically realized here on the basis of the computing power and the quantity of experimental material way beyond what the SR pioneers had at their disposal. The critical issue of the quality of the input SR parameters is addressed by implementing a statistically substantiated sanitizing procedure to dispose of the fragments of the observed time series containing unrepresentative elements - local interference of various origin and strong ELF transients originating outside the major "chimneys" represented in the source model. As a result of preliminary research, a universal empirical sanitizing criterion has been established. Due to the fact that the actual observations have been collected from a set of individually organized ELF stations with various equipment sets and calibration techniques, the relative parameters in both input (the intensities) and output (the "chimney" activities) are being used as far as possible in the inversion process to avoid instabilities caused by calibration inconsistencies. The absolute regional activities - and so the sought for global activity in absolute units - is determined in the

  20. Arm Care. Relief and Prevention for Shoulder Tendonitis, Tennis Elbow, Bursitis and Wrist Sprain in Athletics and Other Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nirschl, Robert P.

    The book provides a practical and meaningful treatment program for athletes involved in sports which injure the arm or shoulder to a high degree, such as tennis, baseball, swimming, raquetball, pole vaulting, javelin throwing, and weight training. The book's chapters present information on: (1) symptoms of injury; (2) the anatomy of injury; (3)…

  1. A scaling approach to find order parameters quantifying the effects of dopaminergic agents on unconditioned motor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Paulus, M P; Geyer, M A

    1991-01-01

    1. Three experiments were conducted in the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM) to assess the effects of the D1 agonist SKF-38393, the D2 agonist quinpirole, and the interaction of the D2 antagonists haloperidol with amphetamine or cocaine on the amount, the structure, and the unpredictability of micro-events of rat exploratory behavior. 2. SKF-38393 (0.3, 1.0, 3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg) did not change the amount of motor behavior indicated by the temporal scaling exponent alpha, a descriptor of the local degree of acting, during a 60 min exposure in the BPM. However, SKF-38393 (3.0, and 10.0 mg/kg) significantly increased the spatial scaling exponent d, indicating an increased component of local circumscribed movements. 3. Quinpirole (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) produced a biphasic dose response with respect to the amount of motor behavior. Low doses (0.03, 0.1) significantly decreased the local degree of acting, whereas alpha returned to control group levels for higher doses (0.3, 1.0 mg/kg). The change in activity was accompanied by a significant increase of local movements, i.e. d was increased for the lower doses. 4. Haloperidol (15.0 micrograms/kg) reduced a slightly increased d measure for amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg) treated animals and increased a significantly reduced d for cocaine (20.0 mg/kg) treated animals, without affecting the increases of motor activity induced by both treatments. 5. It is concluded that the structure of motor activity provides an important measure of unconditioned motor behavior, which can be affected independently of the typically measured amount of motor activity. PMID:1684875

  2. Exploiting active subspaces to quantify uncertainty in the numerical simulation of the HyShot II scramjet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, P. G.; Emory, M.; Larsson, J.; Iaccarino, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present a computational analysis of the reactive flow in a hypersonic scramjet engine with focus on effects of uncertainties in the operating conditions. We employ a novel methodology based on active subspaces to characterize the effects of the input uncertainty on the scramjet performance. The active subspace identifies one-dimensional structure in the map from simulation inputs to quantity of interest that allows us to reparameterize the operating conditions; instead of seven physical parameters, we can use a single derived active variable. This dimension reduction enables otherwise infeasible uncertainty quantification, considering the simulation cost of roughly 9500 CPU-hours per run. For two values of the fuel injection rate, we use a total of 68 simulations to (i) identify the parameters that contribute the most to the variation in the output quantity of interest, (ii) estimate upper and lower bounds on the quantity of interest, (iii) classify sets of operating conditions as safe or unsafe corresponding to a threshold on the output quantity of interest, and (iv) estimate a cumulative distribution function for the quantity of interest.

  3. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Megan O.; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A.; Schmit, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892

  4. Effect of Tendon Vibration on Hemiparetic Arm Stability in Unstable Workspaces.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Megan O; Gadhoke, Bani; Scheidt, Robert A; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimulation of wrist musculature can enhance stability in the proximal arm and may be a useful therapy aimed at improving arm control post-stroke. Specifically, our prior research indicates tendon vibration can enhance stability during point-to-point arm movements and in tracking tasks. The goal of the present study was to investigate the influence of forearm tendon vibration on endpoint stability, measured at the hand, immediately following forward arm movements in an unstable environment. Both proximal and distal workspaces were tested. Ten hemiparetic stroke subjects and 5 healthy controls made forward arm movements while grasping the handle of a two-joint robotic arm. At the end of each movement, the robot applied destabilizing forces. During some trials, 70 Hz vibration was applied to the forearm flexor muscle tendons. 70 Hz was used as the stimulus frequency as it lies within the range of optimal frequencies that activate the muscle spindles at the highest response rate. Endpoint position, velocity, muscle activity and grip force data were compared before, during and after vibration. Stability at the endpoint was quantified as the magnitude of oscillation about the target position, calculated from the power of the tangential velocity data. Prior to vibration, subjects produced unstable, oscillating hand movements about the target location due to the applied force field. Stability increased during vibration, as evidenced by decreased oscillation in hand tangential velocity. PMID:26633892

  5. Imbalance in individual researcher's peer review activities quantified for four British Ecological Society journals, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Petchey, Owen L; Fox, Jeremy W; Haddon, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers contribute to the scientific peer review system by providing reviews, and "withdraw" from it by submitting manuscripts that are subsequently reviewed. So far as we are aware, there has been no quantification of the balance of individual's contributions and withdrawals. We compared the number of reviews provided by individual researchers (i.e., their contribution) to the number required by their submissions (i.e. their withdrawals) in a large and anonymised database provided by the British Ecological Society. The database covered the Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, and Functional Ecology from 2003-2010. The majority of researchers (64%) did not have balanced contributions and withdrawals. Depending on assumptions, 12% to 44% contributed more than twice as much as required; 20% to 52% contributed less than half as much as required. Balance, or lack thereof, varied little in relation to the number of years a researcher had been active (reviewing or submitting). Researchers who contributed less than required did not lack the opportunity to review. Researchers who submitted more were more likely to accept invitations to review. These finding suggest overall that peer review of the four analysed journals is not in crisis, but only due to the favourable balance of over- and under-contributing researchers. These findings are limited to the four journals analysed, and therefore cannot include researcher's other peer review activities, which if included might change the proportions reported. Relatively low effort was required to assemble, check, and analyse the data. Broader analyses of individual researcher's peer review activities would contribute to greater quality, efficiency, and fairness in the peer review system. PMID:24658631

  6. Imbalance in Individual Researcher's Peer Review Activities Quantified for Four British Ecological Society Journals, 2003-2010

    PubMed Central

    Petchey, Owen L.; Fox, Jeremy W.; Haddon, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    Researchers contribute to the scientific peer review system by providing reviews, and “withdraw” from it by submitting manuscripts that are subsequently reviewed. So far as we are aware, there has been no quantification of the balance of individual's contributions and withdrawals. We compared the number of reviews provided by individual researchers (i.e., their contribution) to the number required by their submissions (i.e. their withdrawals) in a large and anonymised database provided by the British Ecological Society. The database covered the Journal of Ecology, Journal of Animal Ecology, Journal of Applied Ecology, and Functional Ecology from 2003–2010. The majority of researchers (64%) did not have balanced contributions and withdrawals. Depending on assumptions, 12% to 44% contributed more than twice as much as required; 20% to 52% contributed less than half as much as required. Balance, or lack thereof, varied little in relation to the number of years a researcher had been active (reviewing or submitting). Researchers who contributed less than required did not lack the opportunity to review. Researchers who submitted more were more likely to accept invitations to review. These finding suggest overall that peer review of the four analysed journals is not in crisis, but only due to the favourable balance of over- and under-contributing researchers. These findings are limited to the four journals analysed, and therefore cannot include researcher's other peer review activities, which if included might change the proportions reported. Relatively low effort was required to assemble, check, and analyse the data. Broader analyses of individual researcher's peer review activities would contribute to greater quality, efficiency, and fairness in the peer review system. PMID:24658631

  7. Quantifying Habitual Levels of Physical Activity According to Impact in Older People: Accelerometry Protocol for the VIBE Study.

    PubMed

    Deere, Kevin C; Hannam, Kimberly; Coulson, Jessica; Ireland, Alex; McPhee, Jamie S; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayers, Adrian; Lipperts, Matthijs; Grimm, Bernd; Tobias, Jon H

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) may need to produce high impacts to be osteogenic. The aim of this study was to identify threshold(s) for defining high impact PA for future analyses in the VIBE (Vertical Impact and Bone in the Elderly) study, based on home recordings with triaxial accelerometers. Recordings were obtained from 19 Master Athlete Cohort (MAC; mean 67.6 years) and 15 Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS; mean 77.7 years) participants. Data cleaning protocols were developed to exclude artifacts. Accelerations expressed in g units were categorized into three bands selected from the distribution of positive Y-axis peak accelerations. Data were available for 6.6 and 4.4 days from MAC and HCS participants respectively, with approximately 14 hr recording daily. Three-fold more 0.5-1.0g impacts were observed in MAC versus HCS, 20-fold more 1.0-1.5g impacts, and 140-fold more impacts ≥ 1.5g. Our analysis protocol successfully distinguishes PA levels in active and sedentary older individuals. PMID:26372670

  8. Recovery of post stroke proximal arm function, driven by complex neuroplastic bilateral brain activation patterns and predicted by baseline motor dysfunction severity

    PubMed Central

    Pundik, Svetlana; McCabe, Jessica P.; Hrovat, Ken; Fredrickson, Alice Erica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Feng, I Jung; Daly, Janis J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Neuroplastic changes that drive recovery of shoulder/elbow function after stroke have been poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between neuroplastic brain changes related to shoulder/elbow movement control in response to treatment and recovery of arm motor function in chronic stroke survivors.Methods: Twenty-three chronic stroke survivors were treated with 12 weeks of arm rehabilitation. Outcome measures included functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) for the shoulder/elbow components of reach and a skilled motor function test (Arm Motor Abilities Test, AMAT), collected before and after treatment.Results: We observed two patterns of neuroplastic changes that were associated with gains in motor function: decreased or increased task-related brain activation. Those with significantly better motor function at baseline exhibited a decrease in brain activation in response to treatment, evident in the ipsilesional primary motor and contralesional supplementary motor regions; in contrast, those with greater baseline motor impairment, exhibited increased brain activation in response to treatment. There was a linear relationship between greater functional gain (AMAT) and increased activation in bilateral primary motor, contralesional primary and secondary sensory regions, and contralesional lateral premotor area, after adjusting for baseline AMAT, age, and time since stroke.Conclusions: Recovery of functional reach involves recruitment of several contralesional and bilateral primary motor regions. In response to intensive therapy, the direction of functional brain change (i.e., increase or decrease in task-related brain recruitment) for shoulder/elbow reach components depends on baseline level of motor function and may represent either different phases of recovery or different patterns of neuroplasticity that drive functional recovery. PMID:26257623

  9. Volatile constituents of Trifolium pratense spp. nivale quantified at different growth stages, and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Cecotti, Roberto; Carpana, Emanuele; Bergomi, Patrizia; Tava, Aldo

    2013-11-01

    The composition of the volatile fraction of Trifolium pratense L. ssp. nivale (Sieber) Asch. et Gr. from the southwestern Alps was investigated. Fresh aerial parts were collected in the summer at three different growth stages, namely vegetative, flowering and fruiting. The oils obtained by steam-distillation accounted for 0.006 to 0.011% of the fresh plant material and their composition was determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. Several classes of compounds were found, with a predominance of alcohols in all phases, followed by aldehydes, hydrocarbons, terpenes, phenolics, ketones, acids and esters. The oil composition varied both in quantity and quality; the most abundant compounds were oct-1-en-3-ol and phenylacetaldehyde in the vegetative and flowering phases, and phenylacetaldehyde and 2-phenylethanol in the fruiting phase. The essential oils obtained were tested for activity against two major bee pests, i.e. Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius, and against a reference bacterial species, Bacillus subtilis. PMID:24427957

  10. A new algorithm quantifies the roles of wind and midge flight activity in the bluetongue epizootic in northwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Sedda, Luigi; Brown, Heidi E; Purse, Bethan V; Burgin, Laura; Gloster, John; Rogers, David J

    2012-06-22

    The 2006 bluetongue (BT) outbreak in northwestern Europe had devastating effects on cattle and sheep in that intensively farmed area. The role of wind in disease spread, through its effect on Culicoides dispersal, is still uncertain, and remains unquantified. We examine here the relationship between farm-level infection dates and wind speed and direction within the framework of a novel model involving both mechanistic and stochastic steps. We consider wind as both a carrier of host semio-chemicals, to which midges might respond by upwind flight, and as a transporter of the midges themselves, in a more or less downwind direction. For completeness, we also consider midge movement independent of wind and various combinations of upwind, downwind and random movements. Using stochastic simulation, we are able to explain infection onset at 94 per cent of the 2025 affected farms. We conclude that 54 per cent of outbreaks occurred through (presumably midge) movement of infections over distances of no more than 5 km, 92 per cent over distances of no more than 31 km and only 2 per cent over any greater distances. The modal value for all infections combined is less than 1 km. Our analysis suggests that previous claims for a higher frequency of long-distance infections are unfounded. We suggest that many apparent long-distance infections resulted from sequences of shorter-range infections; a 'stepping stone' effect. Our analysis also found that downwind movement (the only sort so far considered in explanations of BT epidemics) is responsible for only 39 per cent of all infections, and highlights the effective contribution to disease spread of upwind midge movement, which accounted for 38 per cent of all infections. The importance of midge flight speed is also investigated. Within the same model framework, lower midge active flight speed (of 0.13 rather than 0.5 m s(-1)) reduced virtually to zero the role of upwind movement, mainly because modelled wind speeds in the area

  11. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  12. Progress report of FY 1998 activities: Continued development of an integrated sounding system in support of the DOE/ARM experimental program

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han; Vladimir Leuskiy

    1998-09-06

    Both during September 15-30, 1996 and September 15-October 5, 1997, the Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) participated in an experiment at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site that was designed to study many of the ways that ARM is measuring water vapor. These experiments, called the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods (WVIOPs), produced some results of significant importance to ARM water vapor measurements. We have spent the major portion of this years activities in analyzing results of these experiments, and improving algorithms for improving the measurement of precipitable water vapor (PWV) from instruments available at ARM. The most important ARM instrument for this measurement continues to be the Microwave Radiometer (MWR). Measurements of water vapor at the North Slope of Alaska and Adjacent Arctic Ocean (NSA/AAO) CART site in Barrow, Alaska, area potential problem because of the difficulty of radiosondes to measure low amounts of vapor during cold and extremely dry conditions. The applicability of MWR scaling to radiosondes is questionable because of the low sensitivity of these instrument during dry conditions. It has been suggested by the ARM Instantaneous Radiative Flux Working Group and others that measurements of brightness temperature around 183 GHz could be used to scale during the coldest and driest periods. However, the millimeter wavelengths are vulnerable to cloud effects from both liquid and ice. We have participated in the planning and will participate in the Millimeter wave Arctic Experiment that will evaluate microwave and millimeter wave radiometers during extremely cold conditions. ETL has tested, both in an experiment at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory and during the two Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods in 1996 and 1997, a 5-mm scanning radiometer that measures low-altitude temperature profiles; both profiles of lapse rate and absolute temperature can be measured with the instrument

  13. Korean arms control: Arms control policies of the two Koreas

    SciTech Connect

    Park, T.H.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines the arms control proposals suggested by South and North Korea since the end of the Korean War and suggests some arms control measures that would be applied to the Korean Peninsula. Pyongyang has persistently proposed arms reduction measures since 1953, but Seoul has refused to discuss the issue because it suspected the North's true motive. The study points out that the objective reality of the two Koreas does not show any strong possibility of a war on the Peninsula. The most destabilizing factor in the South-North military relations is the possibility of misperception and miscalculation about the military capabilities and intentions of the other side. The study recommends that Seoul government not entirely adhere to the European CSBM model centered on the transparency of military activities. There are many other policy options for Seoul. The area between Seoul and Pyongyang can be made into a [open quotes]limited forces area[close quotes] as experienced by Egypt and Israel on the Sinai Peninsula. The study notes the utility of applying Charles Osgood's GRIT strategy to the Korean situation, a unilateral arms control approach. Among the structural arms control issues, the withdrawal of the US forces and its nuclear weapons are the most important ones which have to be dealt with before seriously negotiating arms reductions between the two Koreas. Considering the increasing capability of the South Korean armed forces and the availability of the US air and naval forces in and around South Korea, the US ground forces and the nuclear weapons would best be withdrawn from the South. Although these withdrawals cannot be used as bargaining chips by the South in the arms control negotiations with the North, these can be effectively utilized as GRIT measures. The South needs to persuade the North to reduce its redundant offensive weapons including chemical weapons and SCUD missiles as priority targets for arms reduction.

  14. A method to quantify and analyze the foraging activity of honey bees: relevance to the sublethal effects induced by systemic insecticides.

    PubMed

    Colin, M E; Bonmatin, J M; Moineau, I; Gaimon, C; Brun, S; Vermandere, J P

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of agropharmaceuticals' side effects requires more realistic simulations of field conditions than those deduced from the dose-lethality relation obtained under laboratory conditions. Because the presence of sublethal doses or concentrations may also alter the behavior of foraging insects, we attempted to devise a quantifiable and accurate protocol for evidencing various alterations in free-flying bees. Such a protocol was illustrated by testing new classes of systemic insecticides. The protocol focused on video recording to quantify the foraging activity of small colonies of honey bees confined in insect-proof tunnels. The basis of the protocol was not the colony itself but the change in each colony on a specific day and between days. First, the paradigms of attendance at a safe feeding source were established by observing 8 control colonies at different times of the season during 5 days after the necessary forager training was accomplished. Second, on three different colonies we considered the paradigms on the control day before contamination and during 4 days after the feeding source was contaminated. During the same period, one more colony was exclusively fed with safe food to serve as control. Two plant-systemic insecticides were tested at contamination levels 70 times lower than the 50% of the lethal concentration. Imidacloprid, at 6 microg/kg, clearly induced a decrease in the proportion of active bees. Fipronil, at 2 microg/kg, induced an additional decrease in attendance at the feeder. Such levels are still higher than the corresponding lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC). Our protocol, which provided intermediate conditions between field and laboratory conditions, allowed the quantification, with an enhanced level of sensitivity, of sublethal effects on foraging bees. PMID:15386133

  15. Development of a sensitive in vitro assay to quantify the biological activity of pro-inflammatory phorbol esters in Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Guillaume; Padhi, Bhaja K; Hawari, Jalal; Sunahara, Geoffrey I; Poon, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    New health safety concerns may arise from the increasing production and use of Jatropha oil, a biodiesel feedstock that also contains toxic, pro-inflammatory, and co-carcinogenic phorbol esters. Based on the exceptional sensitivity of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells to the model phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a robust bioassay was developed to quantify the biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters directly in oil, without sample extraction. We first verified that the characteristic response of MDCK cells to TPA was also observed following direct exposure to phorbol esters in Jatropha oil. We further confirmed that similarly to TPA, Jatropha oil's phorbol esters can activate protein kinase C (PKC). We then assessed the transcriptional response of MDCK cells to Jatropha oil exposure by measuring the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a gene involved in inflammatory processes which is strongly upregulated following PKC activation. Based on the parameterization of a TPA dose-response curve, the transcriptional response of MDCK cells to Jatropha oil exposure was expressed in term of TPA toxic equivalent (TEQ), a convenient metric to report the inflammatory potential of complex mixtures. The sensitive bioassay described in this manuscript may prove useful for risk assessment, as it provides a quantitative method and a convenient metric to report the inflammatory potential of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil. This bioassay may also be adapted for the detection of bioactive phorbol esters in other matrices. PMID:25588777

  16. Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, H. U.; Goetz, W.; Hartwig, H.; Hviid, S. F.; Kramm, R.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Reynolds, R.; Shinohara, C.; Smith, P.; Tanner, R.; Woida, P.; Woida, R.; Bos, B. J.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2008-10-01

    The Phoenix Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is a variable-focus color camera mounted to the Robotic Arm (RA) of the Phoenix Mars Lander. It is designed to acquire both close-up images of the Martian surface and microscopic images (down to a scale of 23 μm/pixel) of material collected in the RA scoop. The mounting position at the end of the Robotic Arm allows the RAC to be actively positioned for imaging of targets not easily seen by the Stereo Surface Imager (SSI), such as excavated trench walls and targets under the Lander structure. Color information is acquired by illuminating the target with red, green, and blue light-emitting diodes. Digital terrain models (DTM) can be generated from RAC images acquired from different view points. This can provide high-resolution stereo information about fine details of the trench walls. The large stereo baseline possible with the arm can also provide a far-field DTM. The primary science objectives of the RAC are the search for subsurface soil/ice layering at the landing site and the characterization of scoop samples prior to delivery to other instruments on board Phoenix. The RAC shall also provide low-resolution panoramas in support of SSI activities and acquire images of the Lander deck for instrument and Lander check out. The camera design was inherited from the unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander mission (1999) and further developed for the (canceled) Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander (MSL01). Extensive testing and partial recalibration qualified the MSL01 RAC flight model for integration into the Phoenix science payload.

  17. Accuracy of neutron self-activation method with iodine-containing scintillators for quantifying 128I generation using decay-fitting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the accuracy of a self-activation method with iodine-containing scintillators in quantifying 128I generation in an activation detector; the self-activation method was recently proposed for photo-neutron on-line measurements around X-ray radiotherapy machines. Here, we consider the accuracy of determining the initial count rate R0, observed just after termination of neutron irradiation of the activation detector. The value R0 is directly related to the amount of activity generated by incident neutrons; the detection efficiency of radiation emitted from the activity should be taken into account for such an evaluation. Decay curves of 128I activity were numerically simulated by a computer program for various conditions including different initial count rates (R0) and background rates (RB), as well as counting statistical fluctuations. The data points sampled at minute intervals and integrated over the same period were fit by a non-linear least-squares fitting routine to obtain the value R0 as a fitting parameter with an associated uncertainty. The corresponding background rate RB was simultaneously calculated in the same fitting routine. Identical data sets were also evaluated by a well-known integration algorithm used for conventional activation methods and the results were compared with those of the proposed fitting method. When we fixed RB = 500 cpm, the relative uncertainty σR0 /R0 ≤ 0.02 was achieved for R0/RB ≥ 20 with 20 data points from 1 min to 20 min following the termination of neutron irradiation used in the fitting; σR0 /R0 ≤ 0.01 was achieved for R0/RB ≥ 50 with the same data points. Reasonable relative uncertainties to evaluate initial count rates were reached by the decay-fitting method using practically realistic sampling numbers. These results clarified the theoretical limits of the fitting method. The integration method was found to be potentially vulnerable to short-term variations in background levels, especially

  18. Activation patterns of mono- and bi-articular arm muscles as a function of force and movement direction of the wrist in humans

    PubMed Central

    van Bolhuis, B M; Gielen, C C A M; van Ingen Schenau, G J

    1998-01-01

    In order to explain the task-dependent activation of muscles, we have investigated the hypothesis that mono- and bi-articular muscles have a different functional role in the control of multijoint movements. According to this hypothesis, bi-articular muscles are activated in a way to control the direction of external force. The mono-articular muscles are thought to be activated to contribute to joint torque mainly during shortening movements.To investigate this hypothesis, surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from several mono- and bi-articular arm muscles during voluntary slow movements of the wrist in a horizontal plane against an external force. The direction of force produced at the wrist and the direction of movement of the wrist were varied independently.The results revealed distinct differences between the activation patterns of mono- and bi-articular muscles. The activation of the bi-articular muscles was not affected by movement direction, but appeared to vary exclusively with the direction of force.The mono-articular muscles showed significantly more EMG activity for movements in a specific direction, which equalled the movement direction corresponding to the largest shortening velocity of the muscle. The EMG activity decreased gradually for movements in other directions. This direction-dependent activation appeared to be independent of the direction of the external force. PMID:9490859

  19. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm.

    PubMed

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T; Lytton, William W

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  20. Cortical Spiking Network Interfaced with Virtual Musculoskeletal Arm and Robotic Arm

    PubMed Central

    Dura-Bernal, Salvador; Zhou, Xianlian; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Przekwas, Andrzej; Francis, Joseph T.; Lytton, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Embedding computational models in the physical world is a critical step towards constraining their behavior and building practical applications. Here we aim to drive a realistic musculoskeletal arm model using a biomimetic cortical spiking model, and make a robot arm reproduce the same trajectories in real time. Our cortical model consisted of a 3-layered cortex, composed of several hundred spiking model-neurons, which display physiologically realistic dynamics. We interconnected the cortical model to a two-joint musculoskeletal model of a human arm, with realistic anatomical and biomechanical properties. The virtual arm received muscle excitations from the neuronal model, and fed back proprioceptive information, forming a closed-loop system. The cortical model was trained using spike timing-dependent reinforcement learning to drive the virtual arm in a 2D reaching task. Limb position was used to simultaneously control a robot arm using an improved network interface. Virtual arm muscle activations responded to motoneuron firing rates, with virtual arm muscles lengths encoded via population coding in the proprioceptive population. After training, the virtual arm performed reaching movements which were smoother and more realistic than those obtained using a simplistic arm model. This system provided access to both spiking network properties and to arm biophysical properties, including muscle forces. The use of a musculoskeletal virtual arm and the improved control system allowed the robot arm to perform movements which were smoother than those reported in our previous paper using a simplistic arm. This work provides a novel approach consisting of bidirectionally connecting a cortical model to a realistic virtual arm, and using the system output to drive a robotic arm in real time. Our techniques are applicable to the future development of brain neuroprosthetic control systems, and may enable enhanced brain-machine interfaces with the possibility for finer control of

  1. FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Ed R. Westwater CIRES, University of Colorado /NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory 325 Broadway MS R/E/ET1 Boulder, Colorado 80305

    2002-04-30

    OAK B188 FINAL REPORT OF FY 1999, 2000, AND 2001 ACTIVITIES: CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SOUNDING SYSTEM IN SUPPORT OF THE DOE/ARM EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM The basic goals of the research are to develop and test algorithms and deploy instruments that improve measurements of atmospheric quantities relevant to radiative transfer and climate research. Primary among these atmospheric variables are integrated amounts of water vapor and cloud liquid, as well as profiles of temperature, water vapor and cloud liquid. A primary thrust of this research is to combine data from instruments available to ARM to maximize their importance in radiative transfer and climate research. To gather data relevant to these studies, participation in field experiments, especially intensive operating periods, as well as the subsequent analysis and dissemination of collected data, is of primary importance. Examples of relevant experiments include several Water Vapor Intensive Operating Periods at the Southern Great Plains Cloud And Radiation Testbed site, experiments in the Tropical Western Pacific such as PROBE and Nauru'99, and experiments at the North Slope of Alaska/Adjacent Arctic Ocean site. This final report describes our analyses of data taken during these field experiments.

  2. Quantifying Isoniazid Levels in Small Hair Samples: A Novel Method for Assessing Adherence during the Treatment of Latent and Active Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Gerona, Roy; Wen, Anita; Chin, Aaron T.; Koss, Catherine A.; Bacchetti, Peter; Metcalfe, John; Gandhi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious pathogen worldwide and the most prevalent opportunistic infection in people living with HIV. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the incidence of active TB and reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients independently of antiretroviral therapy. However, treatment of latent or active TB is lengthy and inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics and adherence common. Current methods of assessing adherence to TB treatment using drug levels in plasma or urine assess short-term exposure and pose logistical challenges. Drug concentrations in hair assess long-term exposure and have demonstrated pharmacodynamic relevance in HIV. Methods A large hair sample from a patient with active TB was obtained for assay development. Methods to pulverize hair and extract isoniazid were optimized and then the drug detected by liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, linearity and stability to establish the assay’s suitability for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Hair samples from patients on directly-observe isoniazid-based latent or active TB therapy from the San Francisco Department of Public Health TB clinic were then tested. Results Our LC/MS-MS-based assay detected isoniazid in quantities as low as 0.02ng/mg using 10–25 strands hair. Concentrations in spiked samples demonstrated linearity from 0.05–50ng/mg. Assay precision and accuracy for spiked quality-control samples were high, with an overall recovery rate of 79.5%. In 18 patients with latent or active TB on treatment, isoniazid was detected across a wide linear dynamic range. Conclusions An LC-MS/MS-based assay to quantify isoniazid levels in hair with performance characteristics suitable for TDM was developed and validated. Hair concentrations of isoniazid assess long-term exposure and may be useful for monitoring adherence to

  3. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  4. Arms control and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    A collection of 16 articles from the Scientific American discusses the evolution of nuclear weapons since 1945 and the attempts to control the nuclear arms race through national action and international negotiations. The articles and commentaries by political scientists Bruce M. Russett and Fred Chernoff combine technical information on weapons and deployment systems with political analysis of current arms strategies and diplomacy. The articles are grouped under three major topics: SALT and the history of arms control negotiations, current strategic arms negotiations, and European security. A separate abstract was written for each of the 16 articles selected for the Energy Data Base. 226 references.

  5. Quantifying T Lymphocyte Turnover

    PubMed Central

    De Boer, Rob J.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral T cell populations are maintained by production of naive T cells in the thymus, clonal expansion of activated cells, cellular self-renewal (or homeostatic proliferation), and density dependent cell life spans. A variety of experimental techniques have been employed to quantify the relative contributions of these processes. In modern studies lymphocytes are typically labeled with 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU), deuterium, or the fluorescent dye carboxy-fluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE), their division history has been studied by monitoring telomere shortening and the dilution of T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) or the dye CFSE, and clonal expansion has been documented by recording changes in the population densities of antigen specific cells. Proper interpretation of such data in terms of the underlying rates of T cell production, division, and death has proven to be notoriously difficult and involves mathematical modeling. We review the various models that have been developed for each of these techniques, discuss which models seem most appropriate for what type of data, reveal open problems that require better models, and pinpoint how the assumptions underlying a mathematical model may influence the interpretation of data. Elaborating various successful cases where modeling has delivered new insights in T cell population dynamics, this review provides quantitative estimates of several processes involved in the maintenance of naive and memory, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell pools in mice and men. PMID:23313150

  6. Objectively-assessed outcome measures: a translation and cross-cultural adaptation procedure applied to the Chedoke McMaster Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standardised translation and cross-cultural adaptation (TCCA) procedures are vital to describe language translation, cultural adaptation, and to evaluate quality factors of transformed outcome measures. No TCCA procedure for objectively-assessed outcome (OAO) measures exists. Furthermore, no official German version of the Canadian Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) is available. Methods An eight-step for TCCA procedure for OAO was developed (TCCA-OAO) based on the existing TCCA procedure for patient-reported outcomes. The TCCA-OAO procedure was applied to develop a German version of the CAHAI (CAHAI-G). Inter-rater reliability of the CAHAI-G was determined through video rating of CAHAI-G. Validity evaluation of the CAHAI-G was assessed using the Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment (CMSA). All ratings were performed by trained, independent raters. In a cross-sectional study, patients were tested within 31 hours after the initial CAHAI-G scoring, for their motor function level using the subscales for arm and hand of the CMSA. Inpatients and outpatients of the occupational therapy department who experienced a cerebrovascular accident or an intracerebral haemorrhage were included. Results Performance of 23 patients (mean age 69.4, SD 12.9; six females; mean time since stroke onset: 1.5 years, SD 2.5 years) have been assessed. A high inter-rater reliability was calculated with ICCs for 4 CAHAI-G versions (13, 9, 8, 7 items) ranging between r = 0.96 and r = 0.99 (p < 0.001). Correlation between the CAHAI-G and CMSA subscales for hand and arm was r = 0.74 (p < 0.001) and r = 0.67 (p < 0.001) respectively. Internal consistency of the CAHAI-G for all four versions ranged between α = 0.974 and α = 0.979. Conclusions The TCCA-OAO procedure was validated regarding its feasibility and applicability for objectively-assessed outcome measures. The resulting German CAHAI can be used as a valid and reliable assessment for bilateral upper limb performance in

  7. Improved orthopedic arm joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    Joint permits smooth and easy movement of disabled arm and is smaller, lighter and less expensive than previous models. Device is interchangeable and may be used on either arm at the shoulder or at the elbow.

  8. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm ... a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries include Tendinitis and bursitis Sprains Dislocations Broken bones ...

  9. Active Submarine Volcanoes and Electro-Optical Sensor Networks: The Potential of Capturing and Quantifying an Entire Eruptive Sequence at Axial Seamount, Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Proskurowski, G.; Fundis, A. T.; Kawka, O.

    2011-12-01

    The NE Pacific Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative is designed to provide unprecedented electrical power and bandwidth to the base and summit of Axial Seamount. The scientific community is engaged in identifying a host of existing and innovative observation and measurement techniques that utilize the high-power and bandwidth infrastructure and its real-time transmission capabilities. The cable, mooring, and sensor arrays will enable the first quantitative documentation of myriad processes leading up to, during, and following a submarine volcanic event. Currently planned RSN instrument arrays will provide important and concurrent spatial and temporal constraints on earthquake activity, melt migration, hydrothermal venting behavior and chemistry, ambient currents, microbial community structure, high-definition (HD) still images and HD video streaming from the vents, and water-column chemistry in the overlying ocean. Anticipated, but not yet funded, additions will include AUVs and gliders that continually document the spatial-temporal variations in the water column above the volcano and the distal zones. When an eruption appears imminent the frequency of sampling will be increased remotely, and the potential of repurposing the tracking capabilities of the mobile sensing platforms will be adapted to the spatial indicators of likely eruption activity. As the eruption begins mobile platforms will fully define the geometry, temperature, and chemical-microbial character of the volcanic plume as it rises into the thoroughly documented control volume above the volcano. Via the Internet the scientific community will be able to witness and direct adaptive sampling in response to changing conditions of plume formation. A major goal will be to document the eruptive volume and link the eruption duration to the volume of erupted magma. For the first time, it will be possible to begin to quantify the time-integrated output of an underwater

  10. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Dynamic measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    Dual-arm dynamic operation quality measures are presented which quantify the efficiency and capability of generating Cartesian accelerations by two cooperative arms based on the analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions. Dual-arm dynamic manipulability is defined as the efficiency of generating Cartesian accelerations under the dynamic and kinematic interactions between individual arms and an object under manipulation. The analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions is based on the so-called Cartesian space agent model of an arm, which represents an individual arm as a force source acting upon a point mass with the effective Cartesian space arm dynamics and an environment or an object under manipulation. The Cartesian space agent model of an arm makes it possible to derive the dynamic and kinematic constraints involved in the transport, assembly and grasping modes of dual-arm cooperation. A task-oriented operational quality measure, (TOQd) is defined by evaluating dual-arm dynamic manipulability in terms of given task requirements. TOQd is used in dual-arm joint configuration optimization. Simulation results are shown. A complete set of forward dynamic equations for a dual-arm system is derived, and dual-arm dynamic operational quality measures for various modes of dual-arm cooperation allowing sliding contacts are established.

  11. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  12. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  13. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  14. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast Guard) that...

  15. 50 CFR 404.9 - Armed Forces actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Armed Forces actions. 404.9 Section 404.9... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.9 Armed Forces actions. (a) The prohibitions in this part do not apply to activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast...

  16. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  17. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In mountainous regions, rockfall represents one of the most hazardous processes potentially threatening human life and infrastructure. For risk assessment and dimensioning rockfall mitigation, a thorough understanding of rockfall processes is crucial. Here, the rate of backweathering and rockfall supply are key factors for sediment budget assessment in rock slope environments. However, recent LiDAR approaches do not cover the entire spectrum of rockfall magnitudes (e.g. small fragmental rockfall, rare large events) and many former rockfall studies do not address geological and geotechnical factors controlling rockfall. The test setup was deliberately chosen to reduce the degrees of freedom for rockfall-controlling factors. Lithology, aspect, slope gradient and porosity were kept uniform but scan sites were chosen vary bedding orientation and joint density systematically along a 600 m high limestone rock face. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to detect and quantify rockfall activity (mm/a) at five selected rock walls of the north-facing rock slopes of the Reintal Valley over the course of one year. Additionally, structural data were obtained by traditional scanline measurements and TLS-based analysis. The compatibility of TLS methods was tested by validating the data with existing rockfall inventories obtained by direct measurements by Krautblatter et al. (2012). The results show a high discrepancy of seasonal rockfall activity between summer months (0.001 to 0.022 mm/a) and autumn to spring (0.021 to 0.364 mm/a) as well as between favorable bedding orientation (0.015 mm/a) and daylighted bedding (max. 0.264 mm/a). A significant effect of joint spacing on rockfall activity is not evident in the data or overlain by the bedding orientation effect. Nevertheless, the differences in estimated block sizes between the observed rock walls is clearly visible in the TLS derived particle size distribution. The latter was adduced to extrapolate rockfall magnitudes

  18. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  19. Quantifying Faculty Workloads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, J. Andrew

    Teaching load depends on many variables, however most colleges define it strictly in terms of contact or credit hours. The failure to give weight to variables such as number of preparations, number of students served, committee and other noninstructional assignments is usually due to the lack of a formula that will quantify the effects of these…

  20. Catalysis: Quantifying charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Trevor E.; Campbell, Charles T.

    2016-02-01

    Improving the design of catalytic materials for clean energy production requires a better understanding of their electronic properties, which remains experimentally challenging. Researchers now quantify the number of electrons transferred from metal nanoparticles to an oxide support as a function of particle size.

  1. The future of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.; Mack, A.

    1987-01-01

    This collection of essays examines the issues involved in the arms negotiations between the Superpowers, and the potential for developing effective arms control in the future. Contents (partial): Preface; Reagan administration and arms control; Superpowers Arms Control: The Soviet perspective; Nuclear disengagement zones and no first use doctrines as arms control measures; Regional arms control in the South Pacific; Arms control and the Indian Ocean; Preventing Proliferation: The role of Australian uranium.

  2. Embedded ARM System for Volcano Monitoring in Remote Areas: Application to the Active Volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica)

    PubMed Central

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  3. Embedded ARM system for volcano monitoring in remote areas: application to the active volcano on Deception Island (Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Peci, Luis Miguel; Berrocoso, Manuel; Fernández-Ros, Alberto; García, Alicia; Marrero, José Manuel; Ortiz, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a multi-parameter system for monitoring volcanic activity. The system permits the remote access and the connection of several modules in a network. An embedded ARM™ processor has been used, allowing a great flexibility in hardware configuration. The use of a complete Linux solution (Debian™) as Operating System permits a quick, easy application development to control sensors and communications. This provides all the capabilities required and great stability with relatively low energy consumption. The cost of the components and applications development is low since they are widely used in different fields. Sensors and commercial modules have been combined with other self-developed modules. The Modular Volcano Monitoring System (MVMS) described has been deployed on the active Deception Island (Antarctica) volcano, within the Spanish Antarctic Program, and has proved successful for monitoring the volcano, with proven reliability and efficient operation under extreme conditions. In another context, i.e., the recent volcanic activity on El Hierro Island (Canary Islands) in 2011, this technology has been used for the seismic equipment and GPS systems deployed, thus showing its efficiency in the monitoring of a volcanic crisis. PMID:24451461

  4. Simultaneous structure-activity studies and arming of natural products by C–H amination reveal cellular targets of eupalmerin acetate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Cisar, Justin S.; Zhou, Congying; Vera, Brunilda; Williams, Howard; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Romo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To fully exploit the inherent and enduring potential of natural products for fundamental cell biology and drug lead discovery, synthetic methods for functionalizing unique sites are highly desirable. Here we describe a strategy for the derivatization of natural products at ‘unfunctionalized’ positions via Rh(II)-catalyzed amination enabling simultaneous structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and arming (alkynylation) of natural products. Employing Du Bois C–H amination, allylic and benzylic C–H bonds underwent amination and olefins underwent aziridination. With tertiary amine-containing natural products, amidines were produced via C–H amination/oxidation and unusual N-aminations provided hydrazine sulfamate inner salts. The alkynylated derivatives are readied for subsequent conjugation to access cellular probes for mechanism of action studies. Both chemo- and site-selectivity was studied by application to a diverse set of natural products including the marine-derived anticancer diterpene, eupalmerin acetate (EPA). Quantitative proteome profiling with an alkynyl EPA derivative obtained by site-selective, allylic C–H amination led to identification of several protein targets in HL-60 cells, including several known to be associated with cancer proliferation, suggestive of a polypharmacological mode of action for EPA. PMID:23695633

  5. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  6. Quantifying elbow extension and elbow hyperextension in cricket bowling: a case study of Jenny Gunn.

    PubMed

    King, Mark A; Yeadon, Maurice R

    2012-05-01

    In this study a method for determining elbow extension and elbow abduction for a cricket bowling delivery was developed and assessed for Jenny Gunn who has hypermobility in both elbows and whose bowling action has been repeatedly queried by umpires. Bowling is a dynamic activity which is assessed visually in real time in a cricket match by an umpire. When the legality of a bowler's action is questioned by an umpire a quantitative analysis is undertaken using a marker based motion analysis system. This method of quantifying elbow extension should agree with a visual assessment of when the arm is "straight" and should minimise the effects of marker movement. A set of six markers on the bowling arm were used to calculate elbow angles. Differences of up to 1° for elbow extension and up to 2° for elbow abduction were found when angles calculated from the marker set for static straight arm trials were compared with measurements taken by a chartered sports physiotherapist. In addition comparison of elbow extension angles at ball release calculated from the markers during bowling trials with those measured from high speed video also showed good agreement with mean differences of 0°±2°. PMID:22548307

  7. Quantifying Health Across Populations.

    PubMed

    Kershnar, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I argue that as a theoretical matter, a population's health-level is best quantified via averagism. Averagism asserts that the health of a population is the average of members' health-levels. This model is better because it does not fall prey to a number of objections, including the repugnant conclusion, and because it is not arbitrary. I also argue that as a practical matter, population health-levels are best quantified via totalism. Totalism asserts that the health of a population is the sum of members' health-levels. Totalism is better here because it fits better with cost-benefit analysis and such an analysis is the best practical way to value healthcare outcomes. The two results are compatible because the theoretical and practical need not always align, whether in general or in the context of population health. PMID:26766584

  8. Quantifying Ubiquitin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ordureau, Alban; Münch, Christian; Harper, J. Wade

    2015-01-01

    Ubiquitin (UB)-driven signaling systems permeate biology, and are often integrated with other types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), most notably phosphorylation. Flux through such pathways is typically dictated by the fractional stoichiometry of distinct regulatory modifications and protein assemblies as well as the spatial organization of pathway components. Yet, we rarely understand the dynamics and stoichiometry of rate-limiting intermediates along a reaction trajectory. Here, we review how quantitative proteomic tools and enrichment strategies are being used to quantify UB-dependent signaling systems, and to integrate UB signaling with regulatory phosphorylation events. A key regulatory feature of ubiquitylation is that the identity of UB chain linkage types can control downstream processes. We also describe how proteomic and enzymological tools can be used to identify and quantify UB chain synthesis and linkage preferences. The emergence of sophisticated quantitative proteomic approaches will set a new standard for elucidating biochemical mechanisms of UB-driven signaling systems. PMID:26000850

  9. Science and society test VIII: The arms race revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1983-03-01

    Approximate numerical estimates are developed in order to quantify a variety of aspects of the arms race. The results of these calculations are consistent with either direct observations or with more sophisticated calculations. This paper will cover some of the following aspects of the arms race: (1) the electromagnetic pulse (EMP); (2) spy satellites; (3) ICBM accuracy; (4) NAVSTAR global positioning satellites; (5) particle and laser beam weapons; (6) the neutron bomb; and (7) war games.

  10. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  11. Quantifying concordance in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Grandis, Sebastian; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the concordance between different cosmological experiments is important for testing the validity of theoretical models and systematics in the observations. In earlier work, we thus proposed the Surprise, a concordance measure derived from the relative entropy between posterior distributions. We revisit the properties of the Surprise and describe how it provides a general, versatile, and robust measure for the agreement between data sets. We also compare it to other measures of concordance that have been proposed for cosmology. As an application, we extend our earlier analysis and use the Surprise to quantify the agreement between WMAP 9, Planck 13, and Planck 15 constraints on the Λ CDM model. Using a principle component analysis in parameter space, we find that the large Surprise between WMAP 9 and Planck 13 (S =17.6 bits, implying a deviation from consistency at 99.8% confidence) is due to a shift along a direction that is dominated by the amplitude of the power spectrum. The Planck 15 constraints deviate from the Planck 13 results (S =56.3 bits), primarily due to a shift in the same direction. The Surprise between WMAP and Planck consequently disappears when moving to Planck 15 (S =-5.1 bits). This means that, unlike Planck 13, Planck 15 is not in tension with WMAP 9. These results illustrate the advantages of the relative entropy and the Surprise for quantifying the disagreement between cosmological experiments and more generally as an information metric for cosmology.

  12. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  13. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2‧-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2‧-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L‧) and 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L″) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (μeff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  14. Incident and recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Owings, Alfred J; Clark, Leslie L; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections impose a significant clinical and public health burden on the Military Health System. Repeat infections contribute significantly to that burden. This report summarizes rates and relative risks of true incident (i.e., initial or "first time ever") and recurrent (i.e., repeat) chlamydia and gonorrhea infections among active component members between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014. During the surveillance period, a total of 66,396 initial chlamydia and 9,138 initial gonorrhea cases were diagnosed. Annual crude rates of initial chlamydia infections increased by 23%. Crude rates of initial gonorrhea infections remained stable overall, but female rates decreased by 28.3% over the period. Among the incident cohorts, 11,699 cases of repeat chlamydia, and 1,138 cases of repeat gonorrhea were diagnosed over the period, accounting for 15.0% and 11.1% of overall cohort chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, respectively. The Army branch, those aged 17-19 years, females, non-Hispanic black service members, junior enlisted ranks, and single/never-married service members had the highest crude rates of initial chlamydia and gonorrhea infection, and (single/never-married service members excepted) highest adjusted relative risk of repeat chlamydia infection. PMID:26930148

  15. Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with concomitant induction of cellular immune responses by a tetraaza-macrocycle with acetate pendant arms.

    PubMed

    David, S; Ordway, D; Arroz, M J; Costa, J; Delgado, R

    2001-01-01

    The novel tetraaza-macrocyclic compound 3,7,11-tris(carboxymethyl)-3,7,11,17-tetraaza-bicyclo[11.3.1]heptadeca-1(17),13,15-triene, abbreviated as ac3py14, was investigated for its activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and for induction of protective cellular immune responses. Perspective results show that ac3py14 and its Fe3+ 1:1 complex, [Fe(ac3py14)], inhibited radiometric growth of several strains of M. tuberculosis. Inhibition with 25 microg/mL varied from 99% for H37Rv to 80% and above for multiple drug-resistant clinical isolates. The capacity of ac3py14 to elicit a beneficial immune response without cellular apoptosis was assessed and compared to the effects of virulent M. tuberculosis. The present study produces evidence that after stimulation with ac3py14 there was significant production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), whereas the production of interleukin-5 (IL-5) remained low, and there was development of a memory population (CD45RO). The level of binding of Annexin V, a marker of apoptosis, was not sufficient to result in toxic effects toward alphabeta and gammadelta T cells and CD14+ macrophages. This preliminary study is the first report of a compound that simultaneously exerts an inhibitory effect against M. tuberculosis and induces factors associated with protective immune responses. PMID:11501675

  16. Use of complementary health approaches at military treatment facilities, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2010-2015.

    PubMed

    Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L; McNellis, Mark G

    2016-07-01

    Survey-based research has demonstrated the increasing use and acceptance of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in general and military populations. This report summarizes the use of three CAM procedures (chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation, acupuncture, and biofeedback) among active component service members from 2010 through 2015. Findings document a marked increase in the use of chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation and acupuncture procedures since 2010. The majority of the 240 military installations in this analysis provided chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation; more than three-quarters provided acupuncture; and approximately one-third provided biofeedback procedures. "Other and unspecified disorders of the back" was the most frequent condition for which chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation and acupuncture were used. "Non-allopathic lesions not elsewhere classified" was the second most frequent diagnosis during chiropractic/osteopathic manipulation-related visits. The second and third most frequent diagnoses during acupuncture-related visits were "acute and chronic pain" and "adjustment reaction," respectively. "Adjustment reaction" was the second most frequent diagnosis associated with biofeedback. Continued research is needed to gain a better understanding of why military personnel are using CAM and the role these procedures play in their health care. PMID:27501938

  17. Incidence and recent trends in functional gastrointestinal disorders, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amelia G; Hu, Zheng; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-06-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common chronic conditions with an unknown pathophysiology and etiology. FGIDs elevate healthcare costs and cause substantial burden to public health and the military, including diminished readiness, productivity, and quality of life. This retrospective cohort study of active component U.S. military personnel covered a 10-year surveillance period, 2005-2014. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was the data source. Incident cases were identified and rates were calculated and stratified by important covariates. Trends were described over the surveillance period. Incidence rates among deployed personnel were compared to rates in non-deployed personnel, stratified by age and sex. An increasing trend in functional constipation was observed during 2005-2012. Being female, black, in the Army or Air Force, and younger than 20 years of age or 40 years of age or older was associated with higher incidence rates. Deployment-exposed personnel had incidence rates that were 53% higher than those of non-deployed personnel. Elevated rates in personnel younger than 20 years of age and deployed personnel evoke interest concerning readiness and cost implications for the Military Health System. These subgroups should be examined in future studies. PMID:27362344

  18. Incidence of joint replacement among active component service members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Denise O; Taubman, Stephen B; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-05-01

    In the U.S., joint replacements have become more common and the average age of individuals who undergo joint replacements has decreased. Joint replacements among active component service members increased 10.5% during 2004-2009, then 61.9% during 2009-2014. Knees and hips were the most frequently replaced joints among service members. During the surveillance period (and particularly after 2009), incidence rates increased in each age group of service members 30 years or older. Relative to their respective counterparts, rates of joint replacement overall--and of the hip and knee specifically--were higher among service members who were black, non-Hispanic; officers; and healthcare workers. One year after joint replacement, 18.2% had retired; 5.2% had been medically disqualified from service; 6.3% had otherwise left service; and 70.3% were still in service. By 2 years post-joint replacement, 30.2% had retired; 13.0% had been medically disqualified; 10.0% had otherwise left service; and 46.8% were still in service. Service members aged 30-44 years were the most likely to remain in service post-joint replacement. Given the increases in the frequency of joint replacement among younger service members, the number of service members who remain in service post-joint replacement may continue to increase. PMID:25996170

  19. Incidence of hiatal hernia in service members, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Francis L; Taubman, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    From 2005 through 2014, a total of 27,276 active component service members had incident diagnoses of hiatal hernia documented in their medical records. The overall incidence rate was 19.7 cases per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs); annual incidence rates ranged from 16.5 to 22.2 cases per 10,000 p-yrs. Rates overall increased monotonically with increasing age and were higher among Air Force and Army members, officers, and healthcare workers than their respective counterparts. During the surveillance period, the 27,276 service members who had incident diagnoses of hiatal hernia accounted for 44,092 hiatal hernia-related encounters overall (1.6 encounters per case). Among all incident cases, 235 (0.86%) had surgical repairs documented during the period. The frequency of surgical treatment of hiatal hernias among military members mirrored the low frequency in U.S. civilian practice. During 2010-2014, most surgical procedures (79%) were accomplished via laparoscopic approaches. The incidence rates of hiatal hernia diagnoses reported here likely greatly underestimate the true incidence in U.S. military populations. Reasons for the underestimates and comparisons with other populations are discussed. PMID:27602798

  20. Post-refractive surgery complications and eye disease, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Blitz, Jason B; Hunt, Devin J; Cost, Angelia A

    2016-05-01

    Refractive surgery (RS) is a common procedure in the U.S. military population. This report provides an estimation of incident RS for vision correction purposes in the active component of the U.S. military from 1 January 2005 through 31 December 2014 and the prevalence of post-RS complications and eye disease in the 1-year period after RS. During the surveillance period, a total of 121,571 subjects without a diagnosis of eye disease other than hyperopia, myopia, or astigmatism in the previous year received a single incident RS procedure. In the 1-year period after RS, 5.3% of subjects with preoperative hyperopia or myopia had treatment-persistent (unresolved) hyperopia or myopia; 2.0% of subjects with preoperative astigmatism had treatment-persistent (unresolved) astigmatism; and 3.8% were diagnosed with tear film insufficiency. In general, most outcomes showed higher prevalences in Army and Air Force personnel versus Navy and Marine Corps personnel, in women versus men, in officer versus enlisted personnel, and in aviation and Special Forces personnel. A wide variation in outcome prevalences was noted by procedural military treatment facility. PMID:27255946

  1. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, E; Sisterson, DL

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is observationally based, and quantifying the uncertainty of its measurements is critically important. With over 300 widely differing instruments providing over 2,500 datastreams, concise expression of measurement uncertainty is quite challenging. The ARM Facility currently provides data and supporting metadata (information about the data or data quality) to its users through a number of sources. Because the continued success of the ARM Facility depends on the known quality of its measurements, the Facility relies on instrument mentors and the ARM Data Quality Office (DQO) to ensure, assess, and report measurement quality. Therefore, an easily-accessible, well-articulated estimate of ARM measurement uncertainty is needed.

  2. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Static measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    The authors present dual-arm system static operational quality measures which quantify the efficiency and capability of a dual-arm system in generating Cartesian velocities and static forces. First, they define and analyze the kinematic interactions between the two arms incurred by the various modes of dual-arm cooperation, such as transport, assembly, and grasping modes of cooperation, and specify the kinematic constraints imposed on individual arms in Cartesian space due to the kinematic interactions. Dual-arm static manipulability is presented. Finally, dual-arm operational quality is scaled by a task-oriented operational quality measure (TOQs) obtained by the comparison between the desired and actual static manipulabilities. TOQs is used in the optimization of dual-arm joint configurations. Simulation results are shown.

  3. Targeting RING domains of Mdm2–MdmX E3 complex activates apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, W; Xu, C; Ling, X; Fan, C; Buckley, B P; Chernov, M V; Ellis, L; Li, F; Muñoz, I G; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    Reactivation of tumor-suppressor p53 for targeted cancer therapy is an attractive strategy for cancers bearing wild-type (WT) p53. Targeting the Mdm2–p53 interface or MdmX ((MDM4), mouse double minute 4)–p53 interface or both has been a focus in the field. However, targeting the E3 ligase activity of Mdm2–MdmX really interesting new gene (RING)–RING interaction as a novel anticancer strategy has never been explored. In this report, we describe the identification and characterization of small molecule inhibitors targeting Mdm2–MdmX RING–RING interaction as a new class of E3 ligase inhibitors. With a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based E3 activity assay in high-throughput screening of a chemical library, we identified inhibitors (designated as MMRis (Mdm2–MdmX RING domain inhibitors)) that specifically inhibit Mdm2–MdmX E3 ligase activity toward Mdm2 and p53 substrates. MMRi6 and its analog MMRi64 are capable of disrupting Mdm2–MdmX interactions in vitro and activating p53 in cells. In leukemia cells, MMRi64 potently induces downregulation of Mdm2 and MdmX. In contrast to Nutlin3a, MMRi64 only induces the expression of pro-apoptotic gene PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) with minimal induction of growth-arresting gene p21. Consequently, MMRi64 selectively induces the apoptotic arm of the p53 pathway in leukemia/lymphoma cells. Owing to the distinct mechanisms of action of MMRi64 and Nutlin3a, their combination synergistically induces p53 and apoptosis. Taken together, this study reveals that Mdm2–MdmX has a critical role in apoptotic response of the p53 pathway and MMRi64 may serve as a new pharmacological tool for p53 studies and a platform for cancer drug development. PMID:26720344

  4. A new way of assessing arm function in activity using kinematic Exposure Variation Analysis and portable inertial sensors--A validity study.

    PubMed

    Ertzgaard, Per; Öhberg, Fredrik; Gerdle, Björn; Grip, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Portable motion systems based on inertial motion sensors are promising methods, with the advantage compared to optoelectronic cameras of not being confined to a laboratory setting. A challenge is to develop relevant outcome measures for clinical use. The aim of this study was to characterize elbow and shoulder motion during functional tasks, using portable motion sensors and a modified Exposure Variation Analysis (EVA) and evaluate system accuracy with optoelectronic cameras. Ten healthy volunteers and one participant with sequel after stroke performed standardised functional arm tasks. Motion was registered simultaneously with a custom developed motion sensor system, including gyroscopes and accelerometers, and an optoelectronic camera system. The EVA was applied on elbow and shoulder joints, and angular and angular velocity EVA plots was calculated. The EVA showed characteristic patterns for each arm task in the healthy controls and a distinct difference between the affected and unaffected arm in the participant with sequel after stroke. The accuracy of the portable system was high with a systematic error ranging between -1.2° and 2.0°. The error was direction specific due to a drift component along the gravity vector. Portable motion sensor systems have high potential as clinical tools for evaluation of arm function. EVA effectively illustrates joint angle and joint angle velocity patterns that may capture deficiencies in arm function and movement quality. Next step will be to manage system drift by including magnetometers, to further develop clinically relevant outcome variables and apply this for relevant patient groups. PMID:26456185

  5. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  6. Quantifying light pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information.

  7. Single Myosin Cross-Bridge Orientation in Cardiac Papillary Muscle Detects Lever-Arm Shear Strain in Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Thomas P.; Josephson, Matthew P.; Ajtai, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    Myosin motors transduce ATP free energy into mechanical work. Transduction models allocate specific functions to motor structural domains beginning with ATP hydrolysis in the active site and ending in a lever-arm rotating power-stroke. Myosin light chains, regulatory (RLC) and essential (ELC), bind IQ-domains on the lever-arm and track its movement. Strong evidence exists that light chains stabilize the lever-arm and that light chain mutation undermines stability. Human ventricular RLC tagged with photoactivatable GFP (HCRLC-PAGFP) replaces native RLC in porcine papillary muscle fibers, restores native contractility, and situates PAGFP for single molecule orientation tracking within the crowded fiber lattice. The spatial emission pattern from single photoactivated PAGFP tagged myosins was observed in z-stacks fitted simultaneously to maximize accuracy in estimated dipole orientation. Emitter dipole polar and azimuthal angle pair scatter plots identified an area where steric and molecular crowding constraints depopulated orientations unfavorable for actin interaction. Transitions between pre- and post-power-stroke states represent the lever-arm trajectory sampled by the data and quantify lever-arm shear strain in transduction at three tension levels. These data identify forces acting on myosin in the in situ fiber system due to crowding, steric hindrance, and actomyosin interaction. They induce lever-arm shear strain observed with single molecule orientation detection. A single myosin work histogram reveals discretized power-stroke substates reminiscent of the Huxley–Simmons model for myosin based contraction [Huxley and Simmons (1971) Nature 233, 533]. RLC or ELC mutation, should it impact lever-arm shear strain, will be detected as changes in single myosin shear strain or power-stroke substate distribution. PMID:21819137

  8. Acid-labile pHPMA modification of four-arm oligoaminoamide pDNA polyplexes balances shielding and gene transfer activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Linda; Kostka, Libor; Kessel, Eva; Krhac Levacic, Ana; Kostkova, Hana; Etrych, Tomas; Lächelt, Ulrich; Wagner, Ernst

    2016-08-01

    We report novel pH-reversibly surface-shielded polyplexes with enhanced gene transfer activity upon systemic administration. A four-arm-structured sequence-defined cationic oligomer KK[HK[(H-Sph-K)3HC]2]2 was designed and synthesized on solid-phase, containing additional lysine residues not only for improved pDNA polyplex stability, but also providing attachment points for subsequent polyplex functionalization with amine-reactive shielding polymers. Herein, the surface of polyplexes was shielded with hydrophilic polymers, monovalent PEG or monovalent and multivalent pHPMA, optionally attached to the polyplex via the acid-labile linker AzMMMan. Overall, surface modification with PEG or pHPMA resulted in a decrease in the zeta potential of polyplexes, consistent with the degree of surface shielding. At pH 6.0, only polyplexes modified via the acid-labile linkage showed an increase in zeta potential, consistent with a "deshielding" in acidic environment, expected as beneficial for endosomal escape. Shielding was more efficient for multivalent pHPMA (20kDa, 30kDa) as compared to monovalent pHPMA (10kDa, 20kDa, 30kDa) or PEG (5kDa). In vitro transfection studies revealed higher gene expression by the polyplexes with the acid-labile shield as compared to their irreversibly shielded counterparts. Intravenous administration of AzMMMan-pHPMA modified polyplexes in an in vivo tumor mouse model mediated enhanced gene expression in the subcutaneous tumor and reduced undesirable expression in the liver. PMID:27235729

  9. Quantifying surface normal estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Robert B.; Oxley, Mark E.; Eismann, Michael T.; Goda, Matthew E.

    2006-05-01

    An inverse algorithm for surface normal estimation from thermal polarimetric imagery was developed and used to quantify the requirements on a priori information. Building on existing knowledge that calculates the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and the angle of polarization (AOP) for a given surface normal in a forward model (from an object's characteristics to calculation of the DOLP and AOP), this research quantifies the impact of a priori information with the development of an inverse algorithm to estimate surface normals from thermal polarimetric emissions in long-wave infrared (LWIR). The inverse algorithm assumes a polarized infrared focal plane array capturing LWIR intensity images which are then converted to Stokes vectors. Next, the DOLP and AOP are calculated from the Stokes vectors. Last, the viewing angles, θ v, to the surface normals are estimated assuming perfect material information about the imaged scene. A sensitivity analysis is presented to quantitatively describe the a priori information's impact on the amount of error in the estimation of surface normals, and a bound is determined given perfect information about an object. Simulations explored the impact of surface roughness (σ) and the real component (n) of a dielectric's complex index of refraction across a range of viewing angles (θ v) for a given wavelength of observation.

  10. Monitoring and Evaluating the Quality Consistency of Compound Bismuth Aluminate Tablets by a Simple Quantified Ratio Fingerprint Method Combined with Simultaneous Determination of Five Compounds and Correlated with Antioxidant Activities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Ling, Junhong; Gao, Jiayue; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    A combination method of multi-wavelength fingerprinting and multi-component quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated to monitor and evaluate the quality consistency of herbal medicines (HM) in the classical preparation Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets (CBAT). The validation results demonstrated that our method met the requirements of fingerprint analysis and quantification analysis with suitable linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). In the fingerprint assessments, rather than using conventional qualitative “Similarity” as a criterion, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method (SQRFM) was recommended, which has an important quantified fingerprint advantage over the “Similarity” approach. SQRFM qualitatively and quantitatively offers the scientific criteria for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)/HM quality pyramid and warning gate in terms of three parameters. In order to combine the comprehensive characterization of multi-wavelength fingerprints, an integrated fingerprint assessment strategy based on information entropy was set up involving a super-information characteristic digitized parameter of fingerprints, which reveals the total entropy value and absolute information amount about the fingerprints and, thus, offers an excellent method for fingerprint integration. The correlation results between quantified fingerprints and quantitative determination of 5 marker compounds, including glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), liquiritin (LQ), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), indicated that multi-component quantification could be replaced by quantified fingerprints. The Fenton reaction was employed to determine the antioxidant activities of CBAT samples in vitro, and they were correlated with HPLC fingerprint components using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method

  11. Monitoring and evaluating the quality consistency of Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets by a simple quantified ratio fingerprint method combined with simultaneous determination of five compounds and correlated with antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingchun; Liu, Zhongbo; Sun, Guoxiang; Wang, Yan; Ling, Junhong; Gao, Jiayue; Huang, Jiahao

    2015-01-01

    A combination method of multi-wavelength fingerprinting and multi-component quantification by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detector (DAD) was developed and validated to monitor and evaluate the quality consistency of herbal medicines (HM) in the classical preparation Compound Bismuth Aluminate tablets (CBAT). The validation results demonstrated that our method met the requirements of fingerprint analysis and quantification analysis with suitable linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ). In the fingerprint assessments, rather than using conventional qualitative "Similarity" as a criterion, the simple quantified ratio fingerprint method (SQRFM) was recommended, which has an important quantified fingerprint advantage over the "Similarity" approach. SQRFM qualitatively and quantitatively offers the scientific criteria for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM)/HM quality pyramid and warning gate in terms of three parameters. In order to combine the comprehensive characterization of multi-wavelength fingerprints, an integrated fingerprint assessment strategy based on information entropy was set up involving a super-information characteristic digitized parameter of fingerprints, which reveals the total entropy value and absolute information amount about the fingerprints and, thus, offers an excellent method for fingerprint integration. The correlation results between quantified fingerprints and quantitative determination of 5 marker compounds, including glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), liquiritin (LQ), isoliquiritigenin (ILG), isoliquiritin (ILQ) and isoliquiritin apioside (ILA), indicated that multi-component quantification could be replaced by quantified fingerprints. The Fenton reaction was employed to determine the antioxidant activities of CBAT samples in vitro, and they were correlated with HPLC fingerprint components using the partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. In

  12. Incident diagnoses of cancers in the active component and cancer-related deaths in the active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces, 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Lee, Terrence; Williams, Valerie F; Clark, Leslie L

    2016-07-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S., surpassed only by heart disease. It is estimated that approximately one of every four deaths in the U.S. is due to cancer. Between 2005 and 2014 among active component service members in the U.S. military, crude incidence rates of most cancer diagnoses have remained relatively stable. During this period, 8,973 active component members were diagnosed with at least one of the cancers of interest and no specific increasing or decreasing trends were evident. Cancers accounted for 1,054 deaths of service members on active duty during the 10-year surveillance period; this included 727 service members in the active component and 327 in the reserve component. PMID:27501939

  13. On quantifying insect movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wiens, J.A.; Crist, T.O. ); Milne, B.T. )

    1993-08-01

    We elaborate on methods described by Turchin, Odendaal Rausher for quantifying insect movement pathways. We note the need to scale measurement resolution to the study insects and the questions being asked, and we discuss the use of surveying instrumentation for recording sequential positions of individuals on pathways. We itemize several measures that may be used to characterize movement pathways and illustrate these by comparisons among several Eleodes beetles occurring in shortgrass steppe. The fractal dimension of pathways may provide insights not available from absolute measures of pathway configuration. Finally, we describe a renormalization procedure that may be used to remove sequential interdependence among locations of moving individuals while preserving the basic attributes of the pathway.

  14. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  15. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  16. Quantifier Comprehension in Corticobasal Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Corey T.; Clark, Robin; Moore, Peachie; Grossman, Murray

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigated patients with focal neurodegenerative diseases to examine a formal linguistic distinction between classes of generalized quantifiers, like "some X" and "less than half of X." Our model of quantifier comprehension proposes that number knowledge is required to understand both first-order and higher-order quantifiers.…

  17. Quantifying the physical activity energy expenditure of commuters using a combination of global positioning system and combined heart rate and movement sensors

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Silvia; Ogilvie, David; Dalton, Alice; Westgate, Kate; Brage, Søren; Panter, Jenna

    2015-01-01

    Background Active commuting may help to increase adults' physical activity levels. However, estimates of its energy cost are derived from a small number of studies which are laboratory-based or use self-reported measures. Methods Adults working in Cambridge (UK) recruited through a predominantly workplace-based strategy wore combined heart rate and movement sensors and global positioning system (GPS) devices for one week, and completed synchronous day-by-day travel diaries in 2010 and 2011. Commuting journeys were delineated using GPS data, and metabolic intensity (standard metabolic equivalents; MET) was derived and compared between journey types using mixed-effects linear regression. Results 182 commuting journeys were included in the analysis. Median intensity was 1.28 MET for car journeys; 1.67 MET for bus journeys; 4.61 MET for walking journeys; 6.44 MET for cycling journeys; 1.78 MET for journeys made by car in combination with walking; and 2.21 MET for journeys made by car in combination with cycling. The value for journeys made solely by car was significantly lower than those for all other journey types (p < 0.04). On average, 20% of the duration of journeys incorporating any active travel (equating to 8 min) was spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Conclusions We have demonstrated how GPS and activity data from a free-living sample can be used simultaneously to provide objective estimates of commuting energy expenditure. On average, incorporating walking or cycling into longer journeys provided over half the weekly recommended activity levels from the commute alone. This may be an efficient way of achieving physical activity guidelines and improving population health. PMID:26441297

  18. An elastica arm scale.

    PubMed

    Bosi, F; Misseroni, D; Dal Corso, F; Bigoni, D

    2014-09-01

    The concept of a 'deformable arm scale' (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  19. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  20. Bruising Hands and Arms

    MedlinePlus

    ... and arms is common. Dermatologists call it 'actinic purpura', 'solar purpura' or 'Bateman's purpura'. These flat blotches start out red, then turn ... flimsy looking. Mostly seen in older individuals, actinic purpura is due to the weakened state of blood ...

  1. An elastica arm scale

    PubMed Central

    Bosi, F.; Misseroni, D.; Dal Corso, F.; Bigoni, D.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a ‘deformable arm scale’ (completely different from a traditional rigid arm balance) is theoretically introduced and experimentally validated. The idea is not intuitive, but is the result of nonlinear equilibrium kinematics of rods inducing configurational forces, so that deflection of the arms becomes necessary for equilibrium, which would be impossible for a rigid system. In particular, the rigid arms of usual scales are replaced by a flexible elastic lamina, free to slide in a frictionless and inclined sliding sleeve, which can reach a unique equilibrium configuration when two vertical dead loads are applied. Prototypes designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the system show a high accuracy in the measurement of load within a certain range of use. Finally, we show that the presented results are strongly related to snaking of confined beams, with implications for locomotion of serpents, plumbing and smart oil drilling. PMID:25197248

  2. Robot arm system for automatic satellite capture and berthing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Shinichiro; Toriu, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Masato; Kubo, Tomoaki; Miyata, Makoto

    1994-01-01

    Load control is one of the most important technologies for capturing and berthing free flying satellites by a space robot arm because free flying satellites have different motion rates. The performance of active compliance control techniques depend on the location of the force sensor and the arm's structural compliance. A compliance control technique for the robot arm's structural elasticity and a consideration for an end-effector appropriate for it are presented in this paper.

  3. Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26716453

  4. Quantifying solvated electrons' delocalization.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scalmani, Giovanni; Frisch, Michael J

    2015-07-28

    Delocalized, solvated electrons are a topic of much recent interest. We apply the electron delocalization range EDR(r;u) (J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 141, 144104) to quantify the extent to which a solvated electron at point r in a calculated wavefunction delocalizes over distance u. Calculations on electrons in one-dimensional model cavities illustrate fundamental properties of the EDR. Mean-field calculations on hydrated electrons (H2O)n(-) show that the density-matrix-based EDR reproduces existing molecular-orbital-based measures of delocalization. Correlated calculations on hydrated electrons and electrons in lithium-ammonia clusters illustrates how electron correlation tends to move surface- and cavity-bound electrons onto the cluster or cavity surface. Applications to multiple solvated electrons in lithium-ammonia clusters provide a novel perspective on the interplay of delocalization and strong correlation central to lithium-ammonia solutions' concentration-dependent insulator-to-metal transition. The results motivate continued application of the EDR to simulations of delocalized electrons. PMID:25994586

  5. Uncertainty quantified trait predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazayeli, Farideh; Kattge, Jens; Banerjee, Arindam; Schrodt, Franziska; Reich, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Functional traits of organisms are key to understanding and predicting biodiversity and ecological change, which motivates continuous collection of traits and their integration into global databases. Such composite trait matrices are inherently sparse, severely limiting their usefulness for further analyses. On the other hand, traits are characterized by the phylogenetic trait signal, trait-trait correlations and environmental constraints, all of which provide information that could be used to statistically fill gaps. We propose the application of probabilistic models which, for the first time, utilize all three characteristics to fill gaps in trait databases and predict trait values at larger spatial scales. For this purpose we introduce BHPMF, a hierarchical Bayesian extension of Probabilistic Matrix Factorization (PMF). PMF is a machine learning technique which exploits the correlation structure of sparse matrices to impute missing entries. BHPMF additionally utilizes the taxonomic hierarchy for trait prediction. Implemented in the context of a Gibbs Sampler MCMC approach BHPMF provides uncertainty estimates for each trait prediction. We present comprehensive experimental results on the problem of plant trait prediction using the largest database of plant traits, where BHPMF shows strong empirical performance in uncertainty quantified trait prediction, outperforming the state-of-the-art based on point estimates. Further, we show that BHPMF is more accurate when it is confident, whereas the error is high when the uncertainty is high.

  6. Quantifying Loopy Network Architectures

    PubMed Central

    Katifori, Eleni; Magnasco, Marcelo O.

    2012-01-01

    Biology presents many examples of planar distribution and structural networks having dense sets of closed loops. An archetype of this form of network organization is the vasculature of dicotyledonous leaves, which showcases a hierarchically-nested architecture containing closed loops at many different levels. Although a number of approaches have been proposed to measure aspects of the structure of such networks, a robust metric to quantify their hierarchical organization is still lacking. We present an algorithmic framework, the hierarchical loop decomposition, that allows mapping loopy networks to binary trees, preserving in the connectivity of the trees the architecture of the original graph. We apply this framework to investigate computer generated graphs, such as artificial models and optimal distribution networks, as well as natural graphs extracted from digitized images of dicotyledonous leaves and vasculature of rat cerebral neocortex. We calculate various metrics based on the asymmetry, the cumulative size distribution and the Strahler bifurcation ratios of the corresponding trees and discuss the relationship of these quantities to the architectural organization of the original graphs. This algorithmic framework decouples the geometric information (exact location of edges and nodes) from the metric topology (connectivity and edge weight) and it ultimately allows us to perform a quantitative statistical comparison between predictions of theoretical models and naturally occurring loopy graphs. PMID:22701593

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activities of Pendant Arm-Pyridyltetrazole Copper(II) Complexes: DNA Binding/Cleavage Activity and Cytotoxic Studies.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Shaik; Rao, Bommuluri Umamaheswara; Surendrababu, Manubolu Surya; Raju, Kalidindi Krishnam; Rao, Gollapalli Nageswara

    2015-10-01

    2-(1H-Tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine (L) has been reacted separately with Me2NCH2CH2Cl⋅HCl and ClCH2CH2OH to yield two regioisomers in each case, N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanamine (L1)/N,N-dimethyl-2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanamine (L2) and 2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]ethanol (L3)/2-[5-(pyridin-2-yl)-2H-tetrazol-2-yl]ethanol (L4), respectively. These ligands, L1-L4, have been coordinated with CuCl2 ⋅H2O in 1 : 1 composition to furnish the corresponding complexes 1-4. EPR Spectra of Cu complexes 1 and 3 were characteristic of square planar geometry, with nuclear hyperfine spin 3/2. Single X-ray crystallographic studies of 3 revealed that the Cu center has a square planar structure. DNA binding studies were carried out by UV/VIS absorption; viscosity and thermal denaturation studies revealed that each of these complexes are avid binders of calf thymus DNA. Investigation of nucleolytic cleavage activities of the complexes was carried out on double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by using a gel electrophoresis experiment under various conditions, where cleavage of DNA takes place by oxidative free-radical mechanism (OH(⋅)). In vitro anticancer activities of the complexes against MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma) cells revealed that the complexes inhibit the growth of cancer cells. The IC50 values of the complexes showed that Cu complexes exhibit comparable cytotoxic activities compared to the standard drug cisplatin. PMID:26460557

  8. SHOCK-ABSORBING CONCRETE (SACON) BULLET TRAPS FOR SMALL ARMS RANGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small-arms training is a requirement in all branches of the military. Over 1,800 active military outdoor small-arms training ranges are operated in the United States. In a typical year, small-arms training activities consume over 300 million rounds and add between 1 and 2 million...

  9. Validity of method to quantify transtibial amputees' free-living prosthetic wearing times and physical activity levels when using suction suspension sockets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kit Tzu; Spence, William D; Maxwell, Douglas; Stansfield, Benedict William

    2012-01-01

    Prostheses are prescribed to restore the mobility of people with amputated lower limbs. Monitoring the prosthesis wearing times and physical activity of prosthesis users would provide invaluable information regarding rehabilitation progress and suitability of the prosthesis. The validation of a method to determine wearing times and physical activity state, as well as strides taken, of amputees wearing suction suspension sockets is reported. Eight participants with transtibial amputation were fitted with custom-made suction sockets. Analysis algorithms were used to automatically characterize physical activity based on the pressure at the socket's relief valve. The algorithms were validated in a laboratory-based protocol that included walking, stair climbing, standing, sitting, donning, and doffing. Intraclass correlation coefficient (2,1) values of >0.98 were achieved with mean differences of - 2.0%, 0.3%, 1.3%, and 0.7% for agreement between "off," "static," and "dynamic" times and stride count, respectively, as determined by the analysis algorithms and a concurrent video analysis. This study demonstrates that an interpretation of the pressure at the pressure-relief valve of suction suspension sockets can be used to determine wearing times and activity state. PMID:22773201

  10. Quantifying Anderson's fault types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Ce??le??rier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ?? and ?? to new quantities named A?? and A??. In their simple forms, A?? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?? ranges from 0?? to 60??, 60?? to 120??, and 120?? to 180??, respectively. After scaling, A?? and A?? agree to within 2% (or 1??), a difference of little practical significance, although A?? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A?? ranging from -3 to +3 and A?? from -180?? to +180??. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A?? and A?? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.