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1

AquaLite, a bioluminescent label for immunoassay and nucleic acid detection: quantitative analyses at the attomol level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AquaLiteR is a direct, bioluminescent label capable of detecting attomol levels of analyte in clinical immunoassays and assays for the quantitative measurement of nucleic acids. Bioluminescent immunoassays (BIAs) require no radioisotopes and avoid complex fluorescent measurements and many of the variables of indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). AquaLite, a recombinant form of the photoprotein aequorin from a bioluminescent jellyfish, is coupled directly to antibodies to prepare bioluminescent conjugates for assay development. When the AquaLite-antibody complex is exposed to a solution containing calcium ions, a flash of blue light ((lambda) max equals 469 nm) is generated. The light signal is measured in commercially available luminometers that simultaneously inject a calcium solution and detect subattomol photoprotein levies in either test tubes or microtiter plates. Immunometric or 'sandwich' type assays are available for the quantitative measurement of human endocrine hormones and nucleic acids. The AquaLite TSH assay can detect 1 attomol of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 0.2 mL of human serum and is a useful clinical tool for diagnosing hyperthyroid patients. AquaLite-based nucleic acid detection permits quantifying attomol levels of specific nucleic acid markers and represents possible solution to the difficult problem of quantifying the targets of nucleic acid amplification methods.

Smith, David F.; Stults, Nancy L.

1996-04-01

2

Increasing the Accuracy of MODIS Snow Product using Quantitative Restoration for MODIS Band 6 on Aqua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem in satellite imagery is striping and scan line dropout. While transmission errors are sometimes the cause of this problem, a more frequent source is damage to individual detectors, or to the electronics that record the response of the detectors. Launch, deployment into the harsh environment of space, particle bombardment, radiation, and space dust can result in detector damage at any point of an imager's life cycle. There are many examples of imagers which suffer from periodic line drop. Classical examples include Landsat 4 and 5. More recent examples include the 1.6 micron (Band 6) in MODIS on Aqua and WV 6.2 band on SEVIRI. To use standard image processing operations and off the shelf software, the missing data must be first estimated in some principled way. End users may have little or no knowledge of how to do that. It is important to note that many end users will often work with partial data, selected bands or regions of interest. The damaged bands create uncertainty in the reliability of the results of prediction algorithms that rely on that band. For example, the calculation of the NASA snow mask relies prominently on the Band 6 measurement in determining the likelihood of snow cover on the ground at the location of each pixel in the image. The current NASA-utilized solution to this problem is to use 2.1 micron (Band 7) measurements from MODIS on Aqua with an appropriately-adjusted algorithm. In response to the Band 6 problem, our group has developed an algorithm to recreate the missing Band 6 data from reliable data in the other 500m bands using quantitative restoration techniques. Our algorithm uses values in a spectral/spatial neighborhood of the pixel to be estimated, and proposes a value based on training data from the uncorrupted pixels. Due to the non-parametric nature of the estimator, we avoid the blurring inherent spatial interpolation, which has implicit smoothness priors. Our preliminary work shows this approach not only reduces the RMSE but restores the correct gradient information as well. We have shown that using all the neighboring channels we are able to quantitatively estimate the value at dead or noisy detectors applied to the MODIS band 6 case. We have performed an initial evaluation using MODIS Terra data, to estimate the potential benefit to the Aqua snow product. Since the corresponding band 6 of the MODIS/Terra has no such problem, it makes it possible to evaluate the algorithm by simulating the band 6 MODIS/Aqua damage on MODIS/Terra. Our tests demonstrate that NASA's snow product applied to our restored band 6, better matches the true band 6 snow product than the currently used band 7 proxy. We will present the evaluations based on several standard performance metrics that demonstrate that the use of the original NASA algorithm with the restored Band 6 data generates a more reliable snow mask than the modified algorithm with Band 7 data. In particular, the restored Band 6 data is much more reliable under certain conditions where the Band 7 algorithm tends to run into problems, including the very important border areas between snowy regions and snow-free regions, and areas where tree cover makes determinations of snow on the ground difficult.

Bonev, G.; Gladkova, I.; Grossberg, M.

2010-12-01

3

Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary

1995-01-01

4

Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

Douglas, Vonnie M.

2000-01-01

5

Merging MODIS Terra and Aqua Level 3 Aerosol Optical Thickness for Giovanni Online Data Analysis and Visualization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a vast amount of satellite-obtained environmental data held, the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) researches ways to combine multi-sensor data to increase their usefulness, and to integrate it in the GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni). Here, we studied the performance of various methods for merging-interpolating the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua Level 3 Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT). To quickly validate the accuracy of the merger, we introduced two confidence functions, which characterize the percentage of the merged AOT pixels as a function of the relative deviation of the merged AOT from original Terra and Aqua AOTs in respect to the original AOT standard deviations or AOT means. Experiment with three different methods for pure merging (no interpolation): simple arithmetic averaging (SIM), maximum likelihood estimate (MLE), and weighting by pixel counts (WPC) demonstrated the relative proximity of the resulting AOTs produced by the three methods with the MLE (SIM) being slightly preferable when validating with respect to AOT standard deviations (AOT means). Another experiment with eight different methods of combined merger-interpolation applied to a variety of scenes with different gap patterns showed that that the absolutely best method is when the merging of Terra and Aqua AOTs is done first followed by Optimal Interpolation to fill in the gaps. The sensitivity of the results to the gap patterns and radius of influence was assessed.

Zubko, V.; Leptoukh, G.; Gopalan, A.

2007-12-01

6

Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the analyst. This video material carefully documents several options in the process of quantitatively weighing and transferring a solid, quantitatively transferring a liquid aliquot with a pipet, and the process of quantitative volumetric titration. There are many local variants in each of these procedures. For example, some prefer to transfer solid with a weighing spoon, some with a finger held bottle, and some with a paper-strap held bottle. Students should follow the local preference, but should be aware of other acceptable options. Whatever the technique option chosen, the procedure must be done reproducibly, if analysis quality is to be optimized. Acknowledgments Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis was created with support from Project SERAPHIM and the NSF Directorate for Education and Human Resources, grant MDR-9154099.

Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

1996-12-01

7

Analysis of the tropical tropopause layer using the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM): Aqua planet experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamical characteristics of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are investigated using the Nonhydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM) run on the Earth Simulator under an aqua planet condition. Two experiments are performed: one with a 3.5 km horizontal spacing and a three-dimensional snapshot output and another with a 7 km horizontal spacing and 3-hourly averages for 1 month. The number

H. Kubokawa; M. Fujiwara; T. Nasuno; M. Satoh

2010-01-01

8

Science Writers' Guide to Aqua  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides an overview of the Aqua mission, instruments, research, science teams, and Aqua website. This information is provided to aid the professional science writer in writing stories and articles related to the Aqua mission. Note: this guide was produced before Aqua was launched; for the most recent information on Aqua, go to http://aqua.nasa.gov.

2002-03-01

9

Quantitative Analysis of Transcript Accumulation  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Transcript Accumulation from Genes Duplicated by Polyploidy Using c to evaluate polyploid gene expression, but the methods most commonly used for transcript analysis--namely, RNA techniques such as cDNA-AFLP (7,8) can provide high- resolution transcript analysis with wide genome coverage

Wendel, Jonathan F.

10

Service-Oriented Atmospheric Radiances (SOAR): Gridding and Analysis Services for Multisensor Aqua IR Radiance Data for Climate Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aqua spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002, carries two well-calibrated independent infrared (IR) grating spectrometers Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), which have been continuously returning upwelling IR spectral radiance measurements for over five years. Based on an Aqua Sr. Project Review, estimates of available flight fuel, power, and orbital projections assess the life span

Milton Halem; Neal Most; Curt A. Tilmes; Kevin Stewart; Yelena Yesha; David Chapman; Phuong Nguyen

2009-01-01

11

Software for quantitative trait analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

2005-01-01

12

Improved centroid moment tensor analyses in the NIED AQUA (Accurate and QUick Analysis system for source parameters)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid determination of hypocentral parameters and their transmission to the public are valuable components of disaster mitigation. We have operated an automatic system for this purpose—termed the Accurate and QUick Analysis system for source parameters (AQUA)—since 2005 (Matsumura et al., 2006). In this system, the initial hypocenter, the moment tensor (MT), and the centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions are automatically determined and posted on the NIED Hi-net Web site (www.hinet.bosai.go.jp). This paper describes improvements made to the AQUA to overcome limitations that became apparent after the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (05:46:17, March 11, 2011 in UTC). The improvements included the processing of NIED F-net velocity-type strong motion records, because NIED F-net broadband seismographs are saturated for great earthquakes such as the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake. These velocity-type strong motion seismographs provide unsaturated records not only for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake, but also for recording stations located close to the epicenters of M>7 earthquakes. We used 0.005-0.020 Hz records for M>7.5 earthquakes, in contrast to the 0.01-0.05 Hz records employed in the original system. The initial hypocenters determined based on arrival times picked by using seismograms recorded by NIED Hi-net stations can have large errors in terms of magnitude and hypocenter location, especially for great earthquakes or earthquakes located far from the onland Hi-net network. The size of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake was initially underestimated in the AQUA to be around M5 at the initial stage of rupture. Numerous aftershocks occurred at the outer rise east of the Japan trench, where a great earthquake is anticipated to occur. Hence, we modified the system to repeat the MT analyses assuming a larger size, for all earthquakes for which the magnitude was initially underestimated. We also broadened the search range of centroid depth for earthquakes located far from the onland Hi-net network. After implementing the above improvements, the CMT solution for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake was successfully determined with a moment magnitude (Mw) of 8.6 (9.04 × 10^21 Nm). The focal mechanisms and centroid depths of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake and M>7 aftershocks, as obtained using the improved system, are in agreement with those from the GlobalCMT. The sizes of these earthquakes are also consistent with those of GlobalCMT, with differences of less than Mw 0.1 except for the mainshock (Mw9.1, 5.31 × 10^22 Nm, GlobalCMT). This discrepancy may indicate that the bandwidth used in the analysis is insufficient for an earthquake of this size. To address this shortcoming, we used 0.0025-0.0100 Hz records and obtained a magnitude of Mw8.9 (3.35 × 10^22 Nm). This result is consistent with the GlobalCMT and other results (e.g., Mw 9.0, 3.43 × 10^22 Nm reported by Ozawa et al., 2011; Mw9.0, 4.42 × 10^22 Nm reported by Suzuki et al., 2011). Using the improved system, the CMT analysis for the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake is estimated to be completed within 12 minutes of the origin time.

Kimura, H.; Asano, Y.; Matsumoto, T.

2012-12-01

13

Aqua-Thrusters!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students construct their own rocket-powered boat called an "aqua-thruster." These aqua-thrusters will be made from a film canister and will use carbon dioxide gas — produced from a chemical reaction between an antacid tablet and water — to propel it. Students observe the effect that surface area of this simulated solid rocket fuel has on thrust.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

14

Issues in Data Fusion for Use in an Interactive Online Analysis System using MODIS Terra and Aqua Daily Aerosol Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Fusion defined here as a consisting of merging and interpolation is a method of combining spatio- temporally near-coincident satellite observations to provide complete global or regional maps of geophysical variables for comparison with transport models and ground station observations. We investigate various methods, challenges and limitations of data fusion, with and without interpolation, as a first step towards merging datasets archived in the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) and made public through the Goddard Interactive Online Visualization and Analysis Infrastructure (Giovanni) data portals. As a prototype for the data fusion algorithm, this study uses daily global observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT), as measured by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. The goal is to develop a very fast online method for data fusion for implementation into Giovanni. We demonstrate three different methods for fusion (without interpolation): Simple Arithmetic Averaging (SIM), Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) and Weighting by Pixel Counts (WPC). All three methods are roughly comparable, with the MLE (SIM) being slightly preferable when validating with respect to the AOT standard deviations (AOT means). To evaluate the fused product, we introduce two confidence functions, which characterize the percentage of the fused AOT pixels as a function of the relative deviation of the fused AOT from the initial Terra and Aqua AOTs. Gaps in the daily global maps of AOT's arise from regions in sun glint, clouds, gaps between orbit tracks at low latitudes, and other sources of missing data. Data fusion with spatial interpolation produces spatially contiguous fields (global and regional maps) for dust event tracking and comparison with and input to 3-D global and regional models. Eight combinations of merger-interpolation are applied to scenes with regular and irregular data gap patterns. The Cumulative SemiVariogram (CSV) was found to be sensitive to the spatial distribution and fraction of gap areas and, thus, useful for assessing the sensitivity and radius of influence of the merged data to gap patterns. Our results show that the merging-interpolation procedure can produce complete spatial fields with acceptable errors. In this work we also look at some of the challenges involved in data fusion as described above which include the treatment of biases in the individual measurements with respect to a validation standard and assumptions made about the spatial and temporal distribution of the parameter.

Gopalan, A.; Zubko, V.; Leptoukh, G. G.

2008-12-01

15

NASA EOS Aqua Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), the Aqua satellite mission is gathering information on the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface to help scientists understand the role of hydrology and its impact on climate. The website features introductions of the science team, information on the data products, and summaries and fact sheets of the four science groups involved with the Aqua project: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The Cool Science link offers excellent videos to educate the public on Aqua's mission and science. Users can find countless incredible satellite images of Earth's landscapes and physical characteristics. The web provides many Aqua brochures, educational presentations, archived webcasts, press releases, and much more.

16

A quantitative fitness analysis workflow.  

PubMed

Quantitative Fitness Analysis (QFA) is an experimental and computational workflow for comparing fitnesses of microbial cultures grown in parallel(1,2,3,4). QFA can be applied to focused observations of single cultures but is most useful for genome-wide genetic interaction or drug screens investigating up to thousands of independent cultures. The central experimental method is the inoculation of independent, dilute liquid microbial cultures onto solid agar plates which are incubated and regularly photographed. Photographs from each time-point are analyzed, producing quantitative cell density estimates, which are used to construct growth curves, allowing quantitative fitness measures to be derived. Culture fitnesses can be compared to quantify and rank genetic interaction strengths or drug sensitivities. The effect on culture fitness of any treatments added into substrate agar (e.g. small molecules, antibiotics or nutrients) or applied to plates externally (e.g. UV irradiation, temperature) can be quantified by QFA. The QFA workflow produces growth rate estimates analogous to those obtained by spectrophotometric measurement of parallel liquid cultures in 96-well or 200-well plate readers. Importantly, QFA has significantly higher throughput compared with such methods. QFA cultures grow on a solid agar surface and are therefore well aerated during growth without the need for stirring or shaking. QFA throughput is not as high as that of some Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) screening methods(5,6). However, since QFA cultures are heavily diluted before being inoculated onto agar, QFA can capture more complete growth curves, including exponential and saturation phases(3). For example, growth curve observations allow culture doubling times to be estimated directly with high precision, as discussed previously(1). Here we present a specific QFA protocol applied to thousands of S. cerevisiae cultures which are automatically handled by robots during inoculation, incubation and imaging. Any of these automated steps can be replaced by an equivalent, manual procedure, with an associated reduction in throughput, and we also present a lower throughput manual protocol. The same QFA software tools can be applied to images captured in either workflow. We have extensive experience applying QFA to cultures of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae but we expect that QFA will prove equally useful for examining cultures of the fission yeast S. pombe and bacterial cultures. PMID:22907268

Banks, A P; Lawless, C; Lydall, D A

2012-01-01

17

Quantification of High-Molecular Weight Protein Platforms by AQUA Mass Spectrometry as Exemplified for the CD95 Death-Inducing Signaling Complex (DISC)  

PubMed Central

Contemporary quantitative mass spectrometry provides fascinating opportunities in defining the stoichiometry of high-molecular weight complexes or multiprotein platforms. The composition stoichiometry of multiprotein platforms is a key to understand the regulation of complex signaling pathways and provides a basis for constructing models in systems biology. Here we present an improved AQUA technique workflow that we adapted for the quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the stoichiometry of the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death inducing signaling complex (DISC). The DISC is a high-molecular weight platform essential for the initiation of CD95-mediated apoptotic and non-apoptotic responses. For protein quantification, CD95 DISCs were immunoprecipitated and proteins in the immunoprecipitations were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by protein quantification using the AQUA technique. We will discuss in detail AQUA analysis of the CD95 DISC focusing on the key issues of this methodology, i.e., selection and validation of AQUA peptides. The application of this powerful method allowed getting new insights into mechanisms of procaspase-8 activation at the DISC and apoptosis initiation [1]. Here we discuss the AQUA methodology adapted by us for the analysis of the CD95 DISC in more detail. This approach paves the way for the successful quantification of multiprotein complexes and thereby delineating the intrinsic details of molecular interactions. PMID:24709794

Warnken, Uwe; Schleich, Kolja; Schnölzer, Martina; Lavrik, Inna

2013-01-01

18

Quantification of High-Molecular Weight Protein Platforms by AQUA Mass Spectrometry as Exemplified for the CD95 Death-Inducing Signaling Complex (DISC).  

PubMed

Contemporary quantitative mass spectrometry provides fascinating opportunities in defining the stoichiometry of high-molecular weight complexes or multiprotein platforms. The composition stoichiometry of multiprotein platforms is a key to understand the regulation of complex signaling pathways and provides a basis for constructing models in systems biology. Here we present an improved AQUA technique workflow that we adapted for the quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of the stoichiometry of the CD95 (Fas/APO-1) death inducing signaling complex (DISC). The DISC is a high-molecular weight platform essential for the initiation of CD95-mediated apoptotic and non-apoptotic responses. For protein quantification, CD95 DISCs were immunoprecipitated and proteins in the immunoprecipitations were separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by protein quantification using the AQUA technique. We will discuss in detail AQUA analysis of the CD95 DISC focusing on the key issues of this methodology, i.e., selection and validation of AQUA peptides. The application of this powerful method allowed getting new insights into mechanisms of procaspase-8 activation at the DISC and apoptosis initiation [1]. Here we discuss the AQUA methodology adapted by us for the analysis of the CD95 DISC in more detail. This approach paves the way for the successful quantification of multiprotein complexes and thereby delineating the intrinsic details of molecular interactions. PMID:24709794

Warnken, Uwe; Schleich, Kolja; Schnölzer, Martina; Lavrik, Inna

2013-01-01

19

Development of DNA Damage Response Signaling Biomarkers using Automated, Quantitative Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

The DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates DNA repair with cell cycle checkpoints to ameliorate or mitigate the pathological effects of DNA damage. Automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) and Tissue Studio are commercial technologies that use digitized immunofluorescence microscopy images to quantify antigen expression in defined tissue compartments. Because DDR is commonly activated in cancer and may reflect genetic instability within the lesion, a method to quantify DDR in cancer offers potential diagnostic and/or prognostic value. In this study, both AQUA and Tissue Studio algorithms were used to quantify the DDR in radiation-damaged skin fibroblasts, melanoma cell lines, moles, and primary and metastatic melanomas. Digital image analysis results for three markers of DDR (?H2AX, P-ATM, P-Chk2) correlated with immunoblot data for irradiated fibroblasts, whereas only ?H2AX and P-Chk2 correlated with immunoblot data in melanoma cell lines. Melanoma cell lines displayed substantial variation in ?H2AX and P-Chk2 expression, and P-Chk2 expression was significantly correlated with radioresistance. Moles, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases in brain, lung and liver displayed substantial variation in ?H2AX expression, similar to that observed in melanoma cell lines. Automated digital analysis of immunofluorescent images stained for DDR biomarkers may be useful for predicting tumor response to radiation and chemotherapy. PMID:24309508

Nikolaishvilli-Feinberg, Nana; Cohen, Stephanie M.; Midkiff, Bentley; Zhou, Yingchun; Olorvida, Mark; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Omolo, Bernard; Shields, Janiel M.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Groben, Pamela A.; Kaufmann, William K.

2014-01-01

20

Quantitative behavior analysis and human values.  

PubMed

Many scientists believe that among the virtues of quantitative science are that its facts are free from personal, social, political, economic, and other cultural influences, or at least, if they are not, they should be. Radical behaviorism suggests, however, that a science of behavior must apply to peoples' everyday professional behaviors, including those of quantitative behavior analysts. The behaviors of quantitative behavior analysts, however, like the behaviors of everyone else, depend on the cultures to which they belong. A quantitative science of behavior must therefore describe and explain the cultural and human values of quantitative behavior analysts. In this sense, a quantitative science of behavior must apply to itself. No such "reflexive behavior analysis" currently exists and its development might shed considerable light on the basic nature of behavior analysis. PMID:17418984

Shimp, Charles P

2007-06-01

21

Aqua Education and Public Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Aqua satellite was launched on May 4, 2002, with six instruments designed to collect data about the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. Since the late 1990s, the Aqua mission has involved considerable education and public outreach (EPO) activities, including printed products, formal education, an engineering competition, webcasts, and high-profile multimedia efforts. The printed products include Aqua and instrument brochures, an Aqua lithograph, Aqua trading cards, NASA Fact Sheets on Aqua, the water cycle, and weather forecasting, and an Aqua science writers' guide. On-going formal education efforts include the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL) Project, the MY NASA DATA Project, the Earth System Science Education Alliance, and, in partnership with university professors, undergraduate student research modules. Each of these projects incorporates Aqua data into its inquiry-based framework. Additionally, high school and undergraduate students have participated in summer internship programs. An earlier formal education activity was the Aqua Engineering Competition, which was a high school program sponsored by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Morgan State University, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry. The competition began with the posting of a Round 1 Aqua-related engineering problem in December 2002 and concluded in April 2003 with a final round of competition among the five finalist teams. The Aqua EPO efforts have also included a wide range of multimedia products. Prior to launch, the Aqua team worked closely with the Special Projects Initiative (SPI) Office to produce a series of live webcasts on Aqua science and the Cool Science website aqua.nasa.gov/coolscience, which displays short video clips of Aqua scientists and engineers explaining the many aspects of the Aqua mission. These video clips, the Aqua website, and numerous presentations have benefited from dynamic visualizations showing the Aqua launch, instrument deployments, instrument sensing, and the Aqua orbit. More recently, in 2008 the Aqua team worked with the ViewSpace production team from the Space Telescope Science Institute to create an 18-minute ViewSpace feature showcasing the science and applications of the Aqua mission. Then in 2010 and 2011, Aqua and other NASA Earth-observing missions partnered with National CineMedia on the "Know Your Earth" (KYE) project. During January and July 2010 and 2011, KYE ran 2-minute segments highlighting questions that promoted global climate literacy on lobby LCD screens in movie theaters throughout the U.S. Among the ongoing Aqua EPO efforts is the incorporation of Aqua data sets onto the Dynamic Planet, a large digital video globe that projects a wide variety of spherical data sets. Aqua also has a highly successful collaboration with EarthSky communications on the production of an Aqua/EarthSky radio show and podcast series. To date, eleven productions have been completed and distributed via the EarthSky network. In addition, a series of eight video podcasts (i.e., vodcasts) are under production by NASA Goddard TV in conjunction with Aqua personnel, highlighting various aspects of the Aqua mission.

Graham, S. M.; Parkinson, C. L.; Chambers, L. H.; Ray, S. E.

2011-12-01

22

Errors in Quantitative Image Analysis due to  

E-print Network

Errors in Quantitative Image Analysis due to Platform-Dependent Image Scaling1 Thomas L. Chenevert,7], or dynamic Address all correspondence to: Thomas L. Chenevert, PhD, University of Michigan Hospitals, Room B2

Rubin, Daniel L.

23

Google My Maps: Simple Quantitative Analysis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Carsten Braun, Westfield State College Summary This activity shows how to use Google My Maps for simple quantitative analysis, for example to find the latitude and longitude of a location or the length and area of ...

Carsten Braun

24

Analysis of Raman Lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October - November, 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolution of the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign resulted in new correction techniques for both Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 measurements that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of those measurement systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.

2005-01-01

25

Quantitative analysis of qualitative images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show optical evidence that demonstrates artists as early as Jan van Eyck and Robert Campin (c1425) used optical projections as aids for producing their paintings. We also have found optical evidence within works by later artists, including Bermejo (c1475), Lotto (c1525), Caravaggio (c1600), de la Tour (c1650), Chardin (c1750) and Ingres (c1825), demonstrating a continuum in the use of optical projections by artists, along with an evolution in the sophistication of that use. However, even for paintings where we have been able to extract unambiguous, quantitative evidence of the direct use of optical projections for producing certain of the features, this does not mean that paintings are effectively photographs. Because the hand and mind of the artist are intimately involved in the creation process, understanding these complex images requires more than can be obtained from only applying the equations of geometrical optics.

Hockney, David; Falco, Charles M.

2005-03-01

26

Quantitative histogram analysis of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADXG_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for loading of an image No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:138 946 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:15 166 675 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Quantification of image data (e.g., for discrimination of molecular species in gels or fluorescent molecular probes in cell cultures) requires proprietary or complex software packages, which might not include the relevant statistical parameters or make the analysis of multiple images a tedious procedure for the general user. Method of solution: Tool for conversion of RGB bitmap image into luminance-linear image and extraction of luminance histogram, probability distribution, and statistical parameters (average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of histogram and median of probability distribution) with possible selection of region of interest (ROI) and lower and upper threshold levels. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Does not incorporate application-specific functions (e.g., morphometric analysis) Typical running time: Seconds (depending on image size and processor speed) Unusual features of the program: None

Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.

2006-11-01

27

AQUA: An underwater walking robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the RHHex hexapod robot, the AQUA robot is an aquatic robot that swims via the motion of its legs, rather than using thrusters and control surfaces for propulsion. Through an appropriate set of gaits, the AQUA vehicle is capable of five-degree-of-freedom motion in the open water, it can swim along the surface and it can walk along the

Christina Georgiades; Andrew German; Andrew Hogue; Hui Liu; Chris Prahacs; Arlene Ripsman; Robert Sim; Pifu Zhang; Martin Buehler; Gregory Dudek; Michael Jenkin; Evangelos Milios

28

Mobile app-based quantitative scanometric analysis.  

PubMed

The feasibility of using smartphones and other mobile devices as the detection platform for quantitative scanometric assays is demonstrated. The different scanning modes (color, grayscale, black/white) and grayscale converting protocols (average, weighted average/luminosity, and software specific) have been compared in determining the optical darkness ratio (ODR) values, a conventional quantitation measure for scanometric assays. A mobile app was developed to image and analyze scanometric assays, as demonstrated by paper-printed tests and a biotin-streptavidin assay on a plastic substrate. Primarily for ODR analysis, the app has been shown to perform as well as a traditional desktop scanner, augmenting that smartphones (and other mobile devices) promise to be a practical platform for accurate, quantitative chemical analysis and medical diagnostics. PMID:25420202

Wong, Jessica X H; Liu, Frank S F; Yu, Hua-Zhong

2014-12-16

29

Christhin: Quantitative Analysis of Thin Layer Chromatography  

E-print Network

Manual for Christhin 0.1.36 Christhin (Chromatography Riser Thin) is software developed for the quantitative analysis of data obtained from thin-layer chromatographic techniques (TLC). Once installed on your computer, the program is very easy to use, and provides data quickly and accurately. This manual describes the program, and reading should be enough to use it properly.

Barchiesi, Maximiliano; Renaudo, Carlos; Rossi, Pablo; Pramparo, María de Carmen; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben; Gayol, María Fernanda

2012-01-01

30

Seniors' Online Communities: A Quantitative Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To examine the contents and characteristics of seniors' online communities and to explore their potential benefits to older adults. Design and Methods: Quantitative content analysis of a full year's data from 14 leading online communities using a novel computerized system. The overall database included 686,283 messages. Results: There was…

Nimrod, Galit

2010-01-01

31

Quantitative analysis of blood vessel geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Re-narrowing or restenosis of a human coronary artery occurs within six months in one third of balloon angioplasty procedures. Accurate and repeatable quantitative analysis of vessel shape is important to characterize the progression and type of restenosis, and to evaluate effects new therapies might have. A combination of complicated geometry and image variability, and the need for high resolution and large image size makes visual/manual analysis slow, difficult, and prone to error. The image processing and analysis described here was developed to automate feature extraction of the lumen, internal elastic lamina, neointima, external elastic lamina, and tunica adventitia and to enable an objective, quantitative definition of blood vessel geometry. The quantitative geometrical analysis enables the measurement of several features including perimeter, area, and other metrics of vessel damage. Automation of feature extraction creates a high throughput capability that enables analysis of serial sections for more accurate measurement of restenosis dimensions. Measurement results are input into a relational database where they can be statistically analyzed compared across studies. As part of the integrated process, results are also imprinted on the images themselves to facilitate auditing of the results. The analysis is fast, repeatable and accurate while allowing the pathologist to control the measurement process.

Fuhrman, Michael G.; Abdul-Karim, Othman; Shah, Sujal; Gilbert, Steven G.; Van Bibber, Richard

2001-07-01

32

Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.  

PubMed

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

2013-01-01

33

Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior  

PubMed Central

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

2013-01-01

34

Aqua Satellite Mission Educational Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important component of the Aqua mission, launched into space on May 4, 2002 with a suite of six instruments from the U.S., Japan, and Brazil, is the effort to educate the public about the mission and the science topics that it addresses. This educational outreach includes printed products, web casts, other web-based materials, animations, presentations, and a student contest. The printed products include brochures for the mission as a whole and for the instruments, NASA Fact Sheets on the mission, the water cycle, and weather forecasting, an Aqua Science Writers' Guide, an Aqua lithograph, posters, and trading cards. Animations include animations of the launch, the orbit, instrument deployments, instrument sensing, and several of the data products. Each of these materials is available on the Aqua web site at http://aqua.nasa.gov, as are archived versions of the eight Aqua web casts. The web casts were done live on the internet and focused on the spacecraft, the science, the launch, and the validation efforts. All web casts had key Aqua personnel as live guests and had a web-based chat session allowing viewers to ask questions. Other web-based materials include a "Cool Science" section of the aqua.nasa.gov website, with videos of Aqua scientists and engineers speaking about Aqua and the science and engineering behind it, arranged in a framework organized for the convenience of teachers dealing with core curriculum requirements. The web casts and "Cool Science" site were produced by the Special Project Initiatives Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Outreach presentations about Aqua have been given at schools, universities, and public forums at many locations around the world, especially in the U.S. A competition was held for high school students during the 2002-03 school year, culminating in April 2003, with five finalist teams competing for the top slots, followed by an awards ceremony. The competition had all the student teams analyzing an anomalous situation encountered by Aqua shortly after launch and the five finalist teams determining how best to handle a hypothetical degradation of the solid state recorder.

Parkinson, C. L.; Graham, S. M.

2003-12-01

35

Informatics and Quantitative Analysis in Biological Imaging  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Biological imaging is now a quantitative technique for probing cellular structure and dynamics and is increasingly used for cell-based screens. However, the bioinformatics tools required for hypothesis-driven analysis of digital images are still immature. We are developing the Open Microscopy Environment (OME) as an informatics solution for the storage and analysis of optical microscope image data. OME aims to automate image analysis, modeling, and mining of large sets of images and specifies a flexible data model, a relational database, and an XML-encoded file standard that is usable by potentially any software tool. With this design, OME provides a first step toward biological image informatics.

Jason Swedlow (University of Dundee; )

2003-04-04

36

Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease  

PubMed Central

We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients.

Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

2015-01-01

37

Quantitative image analysis of celiac disease.  

PubMed

We outline the use of quantitative techniques that are currently used for analysis of celiac disease. Image processing techniques can be useful to statistically analyze the pixular data of endoscopic images that is acquired with standard or videocapsule endoscopy. It is shown how current techniques have evolved to become more useful for gastroenterologists who seek to understand celiac disease and to screen for it in suspected patients. New directions for focus in the development of methodology for diagnosis and treatment of this disease are suggested. It is evident that there are yet broad areas where there is potential to expand the use of quantitative techniques for improved analysis in suspected or known celiac disease patients. PMID:25759524

Ciaccio, Edward J; Bhagat, Govind; Lewis, Suzanne K; Green, Peter H

2015-03-01

38

Quantitative Electron Diffraction Structure Analysis (EDSA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modern state of EDSA in combination with topological analysis of the ESP and electron density allows to obtain reliable\\u000a and quantitative information about chemical bonding and properties.\\u000a \\u000a The electrostatic field in a crystal is good characterized, the determining factor is however, the introduction of cations\\u000a in the ESP of NaCl type structures. Thus precise EDSA data for calculating the

A. S. Avilov

39

Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis is published by the School of Business Administration at the University of Washington, Seattle. It publishes theoretical and empirical research in financial economics. The web site details the instructions on submitting articles for publications; table of contents and abstracts of previous articles are also accessible. Full text of articles that have been accepted for publication are available in Acrobat format.

40

Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection  

PubMed Central

This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods—the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics. PMID:24740424

Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

2014-01-01

41

Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

2009-09-01

42

Towards quantitative connectivity analysis: reducing tractography biases.  

PubMed

Diffusion MRI tractography is often used to estimate structural connections between brain areas and there is a fast-growing interest in quantifying these connections based on their position, shape, size and length. However, a portion of the connections reconstructed with tractography is biased by their position, shape, size and length. Thus, connections reconstructed are not equally distributed in all white matter bundles. Quantitative measures of connectivity based on the streamline distribution in the brain such as streamline count (density), average length and spatial extent (volume) are biased by erroneous streamlines produced by tractography algorithms. In this paper, solutions are proposed to reduce biases in the streamline distribution. First, we propose to optimize tractography parameters in terms of connectivity. Then, we propose to relax the tractography stopping criterion with a novel probabilistic stopping criterion and a particle filtering method, both based on tissue partial volume estimation maps calculated from a T1-weighted image. We show that optimizing tractography parameters, stopping and seeding strategies can reduce the biases in position, shape, size and length of the streamline distribution. These tractography biases are quantitatively reported using in-vivo and synthetic data. This is a critical step towards producing tractography results for quantitative structural connectivity analysis. PMID:24816531

Girard, Gabriel; Whittingstall, Kevin; Deriche, Rachid; Descoteaux, Maxime

2014-09-01

43

Quantitative analysis of spirality in elliptical galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an automated galaxy morphology analysis method to quantitatively measure the spirality of galaxies classified manually as elliptical. The data set used for the analysis consists of 60,518 galaxy images with redshift obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and classified manually by Galaxy Zoo, as well as the RC3 and NA10 catalogues. We measure the spirality of the galaxies by using the Ganalyzer method, which transforms the galaxy image to its radial intensity plot to detect galaxy spirality that is in many cases difficult to notice by manual observation of the raw galaxy image. Experimental results using manually classified elliptical and S0 galaxies with redshift <0.3 suggest that galaxies classified manually as elliptical and S0 exhibit a nonzero signal for the spirality. These results suggest that the human eye observing the raw galaxy image might not always be the most effective way of detecting spirality and curves in the arms of galaxies.

Dojcsak, Levente; Shamir, Lior

2014-04-01

44

Aqua 10 Years After Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2013-01-01

45

COMPOUND QUANTITATIVE ULTRASONIC TOMOGRAPHY OF LONG BONES USING WAVELETS ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

COMPOUND QUANTITATIVE ULTRASONIC TOMOGRAPHY OF LONG BONES USING WAVELETS ANALYSIS Philippe cedex 20 Abstract: Compound Quantitative Ultrasonic Tomography (CQUT) is used to long bones imaging. We map. Both tomographies are based on ultrasonic propagation in bones, particularly perturbed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Empirical Bayes Analysis of Quantitative Proteomics Experiments  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics have enabled the incorporation of proteomic data into systems approaches to biology. However, development of analytical methods has lagged behind. Here we describe an empirical Bayes framework for quantitative proteomics data analysis. The method provides a statistical description of each experiment, including the number of proteins that differ in abundance between 2 samples, the experiment's statistical power to detect them, and the false-positive probability of each protein. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed 2 types of mass spectrometric experiments. First, we showed that the method identified the protein targets of small-molecules in affinity purification experiments with high precision. Second, we re-analyzed a mass spectrometric data set designed to identify proteins regulated by microRNAs. Our results were supported by sequence analysis of the 3? UTR regions of predicted target genes, and we found that the previously reported conclusion that a large fraction of the proteome is regulated by microRNAs was not supported by our statistical analysis of the data. Conclusions/Significance Our results highlight the importance of rigorous statistical analysis of proteomic data, and the method described here provides a statistical framework to robustly and reliably interpret such data. PMID:19829701

Margolin, Adam A.; Ong, Shao-En; Schenone, Monica; Gould, Robert; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Carr, Steven A.; Golub, Todd R.

2009-01-01

47

Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, the morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the galaxy mergers are visualized using phylogenies to provide a graph that reflects the morphological similarities between the different galaxy mergers, and thus quantitatively profile the morphology of galaxy mergers.

Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John

2013-08-01

48

Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis  

SciTech Connect

A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

2000-07-01

49

AQUA: An Amphibious Autonomous Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

AQUA, an amphibious robot that swims via the motion of its legs rather than using thrusters and control surfaces for propulsion, can walk along the shore, swim along the surface in open water, or walk on the bottom of the ocean. The vehicle uses a variety of sensors to estimate its position with respect to local visual features and provide

Gregory Dudek; Philippe Giguère; Chris Prahacs; Shane Saunderson; Junaed Sattar; Luz-Abril Torres-Mendez; Michael Jenkin; Andrew German; Andrew Hogue; Arlene Ripsman; James E. Zacher; Evangelos E. Milios; Hui Liu; Pifu Zhang; Martin Buehler; Christina Georgiades

2007-01-01

50

Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of complex mineral  

E-print Network

Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of complex mineral assemblages: A decade of Reynolds Cup round robins CSIRO LAND AND WATER / MINERALS DOWN UNDER FLAGSHIP Mark D Raven and Peter G Self 24 April analysis methods · Summary · Conclusions Accuracy in quantitative phase analysis of complex mineral

Magee, Joseph W.

51

Quantitative Analysis of Triple Mutant Genetic Interactions  

PubMed Central

The quantitative analysis of genetic interactions between pairs of gene mutations has proven effective for characterizing cellular functions but can miss important interactions for functionally redundant genes. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach termed Triple Mutant Analysis (TMA). The procedure relies on a query strain that contains two deletions in a pair of redundant or otherwise related genes, that is crossed against a panel of candidate deletion strains to isolate triple mutants and measure their growth. A central feature of TMA is to interrogate mutants that are synthetically sick when two other genes are deleted but interact minimally with either single deletion. This approach has been valuable for discovering genes that restore critical functions when the principle actors are deleted. TMA has also uncovered double mutant combinations that produce severe defects because a third protein becomes deregulated and acts in a deleterious fashion, and it has revealed functional differences between proteins presumed to act together. The protocol is optimized for Singer ROTOR pinning robots, takes 3 weeks to complete, and measures interactions for up to 30 double mutants against a library of 1536 single mutants. PMID:25010907

Braberg, Hannes; Alexander, Richard; Shales, Michael; Xu, Jiewei; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E.; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E.; Krogan, Nevan J.

2014-01-01

52

Structure and bonding of the vanadium(III) hexa-aqua cation. 1. Experimental characterization and ligand-field analysis.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic and crystallographic data are presented for salts containing the [V(OH(2))(6)](3+) cation, providing a rigorous test of the ability of the angular overlap model (AOM) to inter-relate the electronic and molecular structure of integer-spin complexes. High-field multifrequency EPR provides a very precise definition of the ground-state spin-Hamiltonian parameters, while single-crystal absorption measurements enable the energies of excited ligand-field states to be identified. The EPR study of vanadium(III) as an impurity in guanidinium gallium sulfate is particularly instructive, with fine-structure observed attributable to crystallographically distinct [V(OH(2))(6)](3+) cations, hyperfine coupling, and ferroelectric domains. The electronic structure of the complex depends strongly on the mode of coordination of the water molecules to the vanadium(III) cation, as revealed by single-crystal neutron and X-ray diffraction measurements, and is also sensitive to the isotopic abundance. It is shown that the AOM gives a very good account of the change in the electronic structure, as a function of geometric coordinates of the [V(OH(2))(6)](3+) cation. However, the ligand-field analysis is inconsistent with the profiles of electronic transitions between ligand-field terms. PMID:15578844

Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Spichiger, David; Carver, Graham; Frey, Beatrice; Meier, Roland; Weihe, Høgni; Cowan, John A; McIntyre, Garry J; Zahn, Gernot; Barra, Anne-Laure

2004-12-13

53

Quantitative Trait Linkage Analysis Using Gaussian Copulas  

PubMed Central

Mapping and identifying variants that influence quantitative traits is an important problem for genetic studies. Traditional QTL mapping relies on a variance-components (VC) approach with the key assumption that the trait values in a family follow a multivariate normal distribution. Violation of this assumption can lead to inflated type I error, reduced power, and biased parameter estimates. To accommodate nonnormally distributed data, we developed and implemented a modified VC method, which we call the “copula VC method,” that directly models the nonnormal distribution using Gaussian copulas. The copula VC method allows the analysis of continuous, discrete, and censored trait data, and the standard VC method is a special case when the data are distributed as multivariate normal. Through the use of link functions, the copula VC method can easily incorporate covariates. We use computer simulations to show that the proposed method yields unbiased parameter estimates, correct type I error rates, and improved power for testing linkage with a variety of nonnormal traits as compared with the standard VC and the regression-based methods. PMID:16751671

Li, Mingyao; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Song, Peter X.-K.

2006-01-01

54

Error Propagation Analysis for Quantitative Intracellular Metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Model-based analyses have become an integral part of modern metabolic engineering and systems biology in order to gain knowledge about complex and not directly observable cellular processes. For quantitative analyses, not only experimental data, but also measurement errors, play a crucial role. The total measurement error of any analytical protocol is the result of an accumulation of single errors introduced by several processing steps. Here, we present a framework for the quantification of intracellular metabolites, including error propagation during metabolome sample processing. Focusing on one specific protocol, we comprehensively investigate all currently known and accessible factors that ultimately impact the accuracy of intracellular metabolite concentration data. All intermediate steps are modeled, and their uncertainty with respect to the final concentration data is rigorously quantified. Finally, on the basis of a comprehensive metabolome dataset of Corynebacterium glutamicum, an integrated error propagation analysis for all parts of the model is conducted, and the most critical steps for intracellular metabolite quantification are detected. PMID:24957773

Tillack, Jana; Paczia, Nicole; Nöh, Katharina; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Noack, Stephan

2012-01-01

55

QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

56

Enabling Quantitative Data Analysis Through e-Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how quantitative data analysis in the social sciences can engage with and exploit an e-Infrastructure. We highlight how a number of activities which are central to quantitative data analysis, referred to as 'data management', can benefit from e- infrastructural support. We conclude by discussing how these issues are relevant to the DAMES (Data Management through e-Social Science)

K. L. L. Tan; P. S. Lambert; K. J. Turner; J. Blum; V. Gayle; S. B. Jones; R. O. Sinnott; G. Warner

2009-01-01

57

Aqua-Net Mate: a Real-time Virtual Channel/Modem Simulator for Aqua-Net  

E-print Network

Aqua-Net Mate: a Real-time Virtual Channel/Modem Simulator for Aqua-Net Yibo Zhu, Son Le, Lina Pu they are implemented. In order to address these issues, we introduce Aqua-Net Mate, a real-time virtual channel/modem simulator specifically designed for Aqua-Net, a well-developed UAN networking framework. Aqua-Net Mate

Zhou, Shengli

58

In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by applying the in aqua vivo approach are considerable. The percentage of {gamma} values {<=}1 increased on average from 66.2% to 93.1% and from 43.6% to 97.5% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The corresponding mean {gamma} value decreased from 0.99 to 0.43 for the IMRT cases and from 1.71 to 0.40 for the VMAT cases, which is similar to the accepted clinical values for the verification of IMRT treatments of prostate, rectum, and head-and-neck cancers. The deviation between the reconstructed and planned dose at the isocenter diminished on average from 5.3% to 0.5% for the VMAT patients and was almost the same, within 1%, for the IMRT cases. The in aqua vivo verification results for IMRT and VMAT treatments of a large group of patients had a mean {gamma} of approximately 0.5, a percentage of {gamma} values {<=}1 larger than 89%, and a difference of the isocenter dose value less than 1%. Conclusions: With the in aqua vivo approach for the verification of lung cancer treatments (IMRT and VMAT), we can achieve results with the same accuracy as obtained during in vivo EPID dosimetry of sites without large inhomogeneities.

Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2012-01-15

59

Quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra with principal components analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented for quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra as mixtures of particles on microscopic and macroscopic scales using principal components analysis. This technique allows for determination of the endmembers being mixed, their abundance, and the scale of mixing, as well as other physical parameters. Eighteen lunar telescopic reflectance spectra of the Copernicus crater region, from 600 nm to 1800 nm in wavelength, are modeled in terms of five likely endmembers: mare basalt, mature mare soil, anorthosite, mature highland soil, and clinopyroxene. These endmembers were chosen from a similar analysis of 92 lunar soil and rock samples. The models fit the data to within 2 percent rms. It is found that the goodness of fit is marginally better for intimate mixing over macroscopic mixing.

Johnson, P. E.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.

1985-01-01

60

A Full Snow Season in Yellowstone: A Database of Restored Aqua Band 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The algorithms for estimating snow extent for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) optimally use the 1.6- m channel which is unavailable for MODIS on Aqua due to detector damage. As a test bed to demonstrate that Aqua band 6 can be restored, we chose the area surrounding Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks. In such rugged and difficult-to-access terrain, satellite images are particularly important for providing an estimation of snow-cover extent. For the full 2010-2011 snow season covering the Yellowstone region, we have used quantitative image restoration to create a database of restored Aqua band 6. The database includes restored radiances, normalized vegetation index, normalized snow index, thermal data, and band-6-based snow-map products. The restored Aqua-band-6 data have also been regridded and combined with Terra data to produce a snow-cover map that utilizes both Terra and Aqua snow maps. Using this database, we show that the restored Aqua-band-6-based snow-cover extent has a comparable performance with respect to ground stations to the one based on Terra. The result of a restored band 6 from Aqua is that we have an additional band-6 image of the Yellowstone region each day. This image can be used to mitigate cloud occlusion, using the same algorithms used for band 6 on Terra. We show an application of this database of restored band-6 images to illustrate the value of creating a cloud gap filling using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s operational cloud masks and data from both Aqua and Terra.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Bonev, George; Romanov, Peter; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy

2013-01-01

61

[Application of SVR in quantitative analysis of wines].  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy has been widely used in some related fields, thus induces the rapid development of quantitative analysis method based on Lambert-Beer's Law and chemometrics in recent years. The selection of appropriate pre-processing method and calibration model is extremely crucial to the quantitative analysis. The present paper selected 30 wine samples and used infrared spectroscopy combined with vector regression algorithm SVR quantitative analysis model with standard normal variate, baseline correction and outliers elimination to analyze four representative components of wine. Satisfactory results were gained while the relative errors were limited to less than 5%. This method can be applied to the wine representative quantitative analysis for the material content. PMID:24555371

Luo, Tao; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Jun

2013-11-01

62

Quantitative analysis of cerebral white matter anatomy from diffusion MRI  

E-print Network

In this thesis we develop algorithms for quantitative analysis of white matter fiber tracts from diffusion MRI. The presented methods enable us to look at the variation of a diffusion measure along a fiber tract in a single ...

Maddah, Mahnaz

2008-01-01

63

Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2012-01-01

64

Quantitative analysis of tremor time series J. Timmer y  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of tremor time series J. Timmer y M. Lauk y G. Deuschl z y Department/Breisgau, Germany z Department of Neurology, University of Kiel, Germany running title : tremor analysis Address Germany Tel.: ++49/431/597-2610 FAX : ++49/431/597-2712 Abstract Spectral analysis is applied to tremor

Timmer, Jens

65

Quantitative analysis of tremor time series J. Timmer y  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of tremor time series J. Timmer y M. Lauk y \\Lambda G. Deuschl z y Department/Breisgau, Germany z Department of Neurology, University of Kiel, Germany running title : tremor analysis Address Germany Tel.: ++49/431/597­2610 FAX : ++49/431/597­2712 Abstract Spectral analysis is applied to tremor

Timmer, Jens

66

Towards a Quantitative OCT Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of performance. Therefore, raw images and qualitative data are commonly used in clinical and scientific reports. Here, we assess the value of OCT reflectivity profiles as a basis for a quantitative characterization of the retinal status in a cross-species comparative study. Methods Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), confocal Scanning-La­ser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Fluorescein Angiography (FA) were performed in mice (Mus musculus), gerbils (Gerbillus perpadillus), and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, and additional SLOs and FAs were obtained with the HRA I (same manufacturer). Reflectivity profiles were extracted from 8-bit greyscale OCT images using the ImageJ software package (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/). Results Reflectivity profiles obtained from OCT scans of all three animal species correlated well with ex vivo histomorphometric data. Each of the retinal layers showed a typical pattern that varied in relative size and degree of reflectivity across species. In general, plexiform layers showed a higher level of reflectivity than nuclear layers. A comparison of reflectivity profiles from specialized retinal regions (e.g. visual streak in gerbils, fovea in non-human primates) with respective regions of human retina revealed multiple similarities. In a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), the value of reflectivity profiles for the follow-up of therapeutic interventions was demonstrated. Conclusions OCT reflectivity profiles provide a detailed, quantitative description of retinal layers and structures including specialized retinal regions. Our results highlight the potential of this approach in the long-term follow-up of therapeutic strategies. PMID:24927180

Garcia Garrido, Marina; Beck, Susanne C.; Mühlfriedel, Regine; Julien, Sylvie; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.

2014-01-01

67

Pore geometry: new techniques for quantitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

Accurate measurements and high resolution three-dimensional displays of pore geometry have been achieved using sophisticated optics, three-dimensional image analysis, and techniques of computer tomography. These new methods allow detailed analysis of low permeability pore structures with isolated secondary porosity. Examples under study include Cotton Valley tight gas sands, Smackover carbonates, and Whitestone limestone.

Lin, C.; Hamasaki, J.

1983-03-01

68

Quantitative Electroencephalography (QEEG) and Neuropsychological Syndrome Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ideographic, syndrome analysis and the nomothetic, standardized test battery approaches to neuropsychological assessment are compared and contrasted within the context of advances in noninvasive technology readily available for use within the examiner's office. By demonstrating the relative strengths and benefits of syndrome analysis, it is suggested that this approach provides a thorough and efficient method of neuropsychological assessment. Subsequently,

B. V. Shenal; R. D. Rhodes; T. M. Moore; D. A. Higgins; D. W. Harrison

2001-01-01

69

Database design and implementation for quantitative image analysis research.  

PubMed

Quantitative image analysis (QIA) goes beyond subjective visual assessment to provide computer measurements of the image content, typically following image segmentation to identify anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Commercially available picture archiving and communication systems focus on storage of image data. They are not well suited to efficient storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. In this paper, we present a system that integrates image segmentation, quantitation, and characterization with database and data mining facilities. The paper includes generic process and data models for QIA in medicine and describes their practical use. The data model is based upon the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data hierarchy, which is augmented with tables to store segmentation results (ROIs) and quantitative data from multiple experiments. Data mining for statistical analysis of the quantitative data is described along with example queries. The database is implemented in PostgreSQL on a UNIX server. Database requirements and capabilities are illustrated through two quantitative imaging experiments related to lung cancer screening and assessment of emphysema lung disease. The system can manage the large amounts of quantitative data necessary for research, development, and deployment of computer-aided diagnosis tools. PMID:15787012

Brown, Matthew S; Shah, Sumit K; Pais, Richard C; Lee, Yeng-Zhong; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Goldin, Jonathan G; Cardenas, Alfonso F; Aberle, Denise R

2005-03-01

70

A Comparative Assessment of Greek Universities' Efficiency Using Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In part due to the increased demand for higher education, typical evaluation frameworks for universities often address the key issue of available resource utilisation. This study seeks to estimate the efficiency of 20 public universities in Greece through quantitative analysis (including performance indicators, data envelopment analysis (DEA) and…

Katharaki, Maria; Katharakis, George

2010-01-01

71

Trace Environmental Quantitative Analysis: Principles, Techniques and Applications, 2nd  

E-print Network

of the recent trend toward miniaturization, the use of field-based instrumentation, and the need for highTrace Environmental Quantitative Analysis: Principles, Techniques and Applications, 2nd Edition environmental analysis are typically based upon discrete sampling methods followed by routine laboratory

Zubarev, Eugene

72

Using fire tests for quantitative risk analysis  

SciTech Connect

Fires can be considered a causal chain-of-events in which the growth and spread of fire may cause damage and injury if it is rapid enough to overcome the barriers placed in its way. Fire tests for fire resistance of the barriers can be used in a quantitative risk assessment. The fire growth and spread is modelled in a State Transition Model (STM). The fire barriers are presented as part of the Fire Protection Model (FPM) which is based on a portion of the NFPA Decision Tree. An Emergency Equivalent Network is introduced to couple the Fire Growth Model (FGM) and the FPM so that the spread of fire beyond the room-of-origin can be computed. An example is presented in which a specific building floor plan is analyzed to obtain the shortest expected time for fire to spread between two points. To obtain the probability and time for each link in the network, data from the results of fire tests were used. These results were found to be lacking and new standards giving better data are advocated.

Ling, W.C.T.; Williamson, R.B.

1980-03-01

73

Quantitative infrared analysis of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant where hydrogen fluoride is produced upon the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}. This poses a problem for in this setting and a method for determining the mole percent concentration was desired. HF has been considered to be a non-ideal gas for many years. D. F. Smith utilized complex equations in his HF studies in the 1950s. We have evaluated HF behavior as a function of pressure from three different perspectives. (1) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of pressure for 100% HF. (2) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of increasing partial pressure HF. Total pressure = 300 mm HgA maintained with nitrogen. (3) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} for constant partial pressure HF. Total pressure is increased to greater than 800 mm HgA with nitrogen. These experiments have shown that at partial pressures up to 35mm HgA, HIF follows the ideal gas law. The absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} can be quantitatively analyzed via infrared methods.

Manuta, D.M.

1997-04-01

74

Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis  

SciTech Connect

A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa [Division 8.5, BAM Fed. Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

2014-02-18

75

The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis  

SciTech Connect

This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

Bennett, C.T.

1995-07-01

76

A Quantitative Analysis of Countries' Research Strengths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study employed a multidimensional analysis to evaluate transnational patterns of scientific research to determine relative research strengths among widely varying nations. Findings from this study may inform national policy with regard to the most efficient use of scarce national research resources, including government and private funding.…

Saxena, Anurag; Brazer, S. David; Gupta, B. M.

2009-01-01

77

Quantitive and sociological analysis of blog networks  

E-print Network

This paper examines the emerging phenomenon of blogging, using three different Polish blogging services as the base of the research. Authors show that blog networks are sharing their characteristics with complex networks gamma coefficients, small worlds, cliques, etc.). Elements of sociometric analysis were used to prove existence of some social structures in the blog networks.

Bachnik, W; Leszczynski, P; Podsiadly, R; Rymszewicz, E; Kurylo, L; Makowiecki, D S; Bykowska, B; Bachnik, Wiktor; Szymczyk, Stanislaw; Leszczynski, Piotr; Podsiadlo, Rafal; Rymszewicz, Ewa; Kurylo, Lukasz; Makowiec, Danuta; Bykowska, Beata

2005-01-01

78

Quantitive and Sociological Analysis of Blog Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the emerging phenomenon of blogging, using three different Polish blogging services as the base of the research. Authors show that blog networks are sharing their characteristics with complex networks (gamma coefficients, small worlds, cliques, etc.). Elements of sociometric analysis were used to prove existence of some social structures in the blog networks.

Wiktor Bachnik; Stanislaw Szymczyk; S. Leszczynski; Rafal Podsiadlo; Ewa Rymszewicz; Lukasz Kurylo; Danuta Makowiec; Beata Bykowska

2005-01-01

79

Synergism of MODIS Aerosol Remote Sensing from Terra and Aqua  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors, aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, are showing excellent competence at measuring the global distribution and properties of aerosols. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution from MODIS daytime data over land and ocean surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 microns over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. Since the beginning of its operation, the quality of Terra-MODIS aerosol products (especially AOT) have been evaluated periodically by cross-correlation with equivalent data sets acquired by ground-based (and occasionally also airborne) sunphotometers, particularly those coordinated within the framework of the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). Terra-MODIS AOT data have been found to meet or exceed pre-launch accuracy expectations, and have been applied to various studies dealing with local, regional, and global aerosol monitoring. The results of these Terra-MODIS aerosol data validation efforts and studies have been reported in several scientific papers and conferences. Although Aqua-MODIS is still young, it is already yielding formidable aerosol data products, which are also subjected to careful periodic evaluation similar to that implemented for the Terra-MODIS products. This paper presents results of validation of Aqua-MODIS aerosol products with AERONET, as well as comparative evaluation against corresponding Terra-MODIS data. In addition, we show interesting independent and synergistic applications of MODIS aerosol data from both Terra and Aqua. In certain situations, this combined analysis of Terra- and Aqua-MODIS data offers an insight into the diurnal cycle of aerosol loading.

Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

2003-01-01

80

Analysis of the influence of river discharge and wind on the Ebro turbid plume using MODIS-Aqua and MODIS-Terra data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbid plume formed at many river mouths influences the adjacent coastal area because it transports sediments, nutrients, and pollutants. The effects of the main forcings affecting the Ebro turbid plume were analyzed using data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites over the period 2003-2011. Composite images were obtained for days under certain river discharge conditions (different flow regimes) and different types of wind (alongshore and cross-shore winds) in order to obtain a representative plume pattern for each situation. River discharge was the main driver of the Ebro River plume, followed by wind as the secondary force and regional oceanic circulation as the third one. Turbid plume extension increased monotonically with increased river discharge. Under high river discharge conditions (> 355 m3 s- 1), wind distributed the plume in the dominant wind direction. Seaward winds (mistral) produced the largest extension of the plume (1893 km2), whereas southern alongshore winds produced the smallest one (1325 km2). Northern alongshore winds induced the highest mean turbid value of the plume, and southern alongshore winds induced the lowest one. Regardless of the wind condition, more than 70% of the plume extension was located south of the river mouth influenced by the regional oceanic circulation.

Fernández-Nóvoa, D.; Mendes, R.; deCastro, M.; Dias, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

2015-02-01

81

Quantitative analysis of heart rate variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the modern industrialized countries every year several hundred thousands of people diedue to the sudden cardiac death. The individual risk for this sudden cardiac death cannot bedefined precisely by common available, non-invasive diagnostic tools like Holter-monitoring,highly amplified ECG and traditional linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore,we apply some rather unconventional methods of nonlinear dynamics to analyse the

J. Kurths; A. Voss; P. Saparin; A. Witt; H. J. Kleiner; N. Wessel

1995-01-01

82

Longitudinal association analysis of quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Longitudinal genetic studies provide a valuable resource for exploring key genetic and environmental factors that affect complex traits over time. Genetic analysis of longitudinal data that incorporate temporal variations is important for understanding genetic architecture and biological variations of common complex diseases. Although they are important, there is a paucity of statistical methods to analyze longitudinal human genetic data. In this article, longitudinal methods are developed for temporal association mapping to analyze population longitudinal data. Both parametric and nonparametric models are proposed. The models can be applied to multiple diallelic genetic markers such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and multiallelic markers such as microsatellites. By analytical formulae, we show that the models take both the linkage disequilibrium and temporal trends into account simultaneously. Variance-covariance structure is constructed to model the single measurement variation and multiple measurement correlations of an individual based on the theory of stochastic processes. Novel penalized spline models are used to estimate the time-dependent mean functions and regression coefficients. The methods were applied to analyze Framingham Heart Study data of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 13 and GAW 16. The temporal trends and genetic effects of the systolic blood pressure are successfully detected by the proposed approaches. Simulation studies were performed to find out that the nonparametric penalized linear model is the best choice in fitting real data. The research sheds light on the important area of longitudinal genetic analysis, and it provides a basis for future methodological investigations and practical applications. PMID:22965819

Fan, Ruzong; Zhang, Yiwei; Albert, Paul S; Liu, Aiyi; Wang, Yuanjia; Xiong, Momiao

2012-12-01

83

Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

Buck, Gregory M.

1995-01-01

84

Expression and prognostic significance of kallikrein-related peptidase 8 protein levels in advanced ovarian cancer by using automated quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Kallikrein-related peptidases, a subgroup of the serine protease enzyme family, are considered to be important prognostic biomarkers in cancer. In this study we sought to determine the prognostic value of kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8, hK8, KLK-8) in ovarian cancer using a novel method of compartmentalised in situ protein analysis. A tissue array composed of 150 advanced stage ovarian cancers, uniformly treated with surgical debulking followed by platinum-paclitaxel combination chemotherapy, was constructed. For the evaluation of kallikrein-related peptidase 8 protein expression, we used an immunofluorescence-based method of automated in situ quantitative protein analysis (AQUA). Mean follow-up time of the cohort was 34.35 months. One hundred twenty-six of 150 cases had sufficient tissue for AQUA analysis. There were significant correlations between tumour mask KLK8 protein expression levels and clinicopathological variables, including grade (p = 0.0011), residual disease (p = 0.0063) and clinical response to chemotherapy(p = 0.0346). In univariate survival analysis there was a significant correlation between KLK8 tumour mask expression and five years progression-free survival, meanwhile it was not associated with five-year overall survival (p = 0.0694). Specifically, low KLK8 expression correlated with better outcome (top vs. bottom quartile, p = 0.0319). In multivariate survival analysis, adjusting for well-characterised prognostic variables, tumour KLK8 expression level retained its prognostic significance for progression-free survival (95%CI: 0.341-1.027, p = 0.045). The possibility that KLK8 may be a suitable candidate as a diagnostic and prognostic marker warrants further investigation. PMID:19277417

Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Psyrri, Amanda; Scorilas, Andreas; Markakis, Sonia; Kowalski, Diane; Camp, Robert L; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Dimopoulos, Meletios A

2009-03-01

85

A quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an informal quantitative analysis of the F18 flight control system (FCS). The analysis technique combines a coverage model with a fault tree model. To demonstrate the method's extensive capabilities, we replace the fault tree with a digraph model of the F18 FCS, the only model available to us. The substitution shows that while digraphs have primarily been used for qualitative analysis, they can also be used for quantitative analysis. Based on our assumptions and the particular failure rates assigned to the F18 FCS components, we show that coverage does have a significant effect on the system's reliability and thus it is important to include coverage in the reliability analysis.

Doyle, Stacy A.; Dugan, Joanne B.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

1993-01-01

86

Quantitative signal analysis in pulsed resonant photoacoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The pulsed excitation of acoustic resonances was studied by means of a high- Q photoacoustic resonator with different types of microphone. The signal strength of the first radial mode was calculated by the basic theory as well as by a modeling program, which takes into account the acoustic impedances of the resonator, the acoustic filter system, and the influence of the microphone coupling on the photoacoustic cavity. When the calculated signal strength is used, the high- Q system can be calibrated for trace-gas analysis without a certified gas mixture. The theoretical results were compared with measurements and show good agreement for different microphone configurations. From the measured pressure signal (in pascals per joule), the absorption coefficient of ethylene was calculated; it agreed within 10 with literature values. In addition, a Helmholtz configuration with a highly sensitive 1-in. (2.54-cm) microphone was realized. Although the Q factor was reduced, the sensitivity could be increased by the Helmholtz resonator in the case of pulsed experiments. A maximum sensitivity of the coupled system of 341 mV Pa was achieved.

Schäfer, Stefan; Miklós, András; Hess, Peter

1997-05-01

87

EXPERTIMENT 10 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS USING CAPILLARY  

E-print Network

EXPERTIMENT 10 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS USING CAPILLARY COLUMNS The purpose gas chromatograph using capillary column and splitting injection mode. See also the HP 5890 gas A mixture of hydrocarbons (xylenes) will be provided to run on the gas chromatograph so that the retention

Nazarenko, Alexander

88

Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure  

E-print Network

Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells of electrochemical ceramic devices such as solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells depends on the distribution in research and development of optimal microstructure design and fabrication. Three dimensional microstructure

89

CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

INTRODUCTION: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK Hugh A. Barton1 and Carey N. Pope2 1US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 2Department of...

90

RETINAL DISORDERS Quantitative analysis of central visual field defects  

E-print Network

RETINAL DISORDERS Quantitative analysis of central visual field defects in macular edema using levels of contrast in one eye of 37 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME, n=16) and exudative age . Amslergrid . Contrast sensitivity. Diabetic macular edema . Macular edema . Scotomas Introduction Amsler grid

Arizona, University of

91

Issues Related to Data Analysis and Quantitative Methods in PER  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, offers authors' discussion of some issues that always arise, implicitly or explicitly, when conducting quantitative research and carrying out data analysis in Physics Education Research. (Most are relevant for qualitative research as well.)

Meltzer, David (David Elliott)

92

Analysis of quantitative trait loci that influence animal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral differences between in- bred strains of mice and rats have a genetic basis that can now be dissected using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Over the last 10 years, a large number of genetic loci that influence behavior have been mapped. In this article I review what that information has revealed about the genetic architecture of behavior. I show

Jonathan Flint

2003-01-01

93

ILLINOIS -RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting  

E-print Network

Slide 1 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Broken Rails Darwin H. Schafer II & Christopher P.L. Barkan May 9th, 2008 The William W. Hay Railroad Engineering Seminar Series University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign #12;Slide 2 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING

Barkan, Christopher P.L.

94

Quantitative Methods Inquires ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD  

E-print Network

the covariates are: sex and birth order of the child, mother's age, education and economic status of the childQuantitative Methods Inquires 1 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD MORTALITY BETWEEN RURAL Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Abstract: Knowledge of factors that affect the under-five year child

de Leon, Alex R.

95

Practical quantitative lithic use-wear analysis using multiple classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although use-wear analysis of prehistoric stone tools using conventional microscopy has proven useful to archaeologists interested in tool function, critics have questioned the reliability and repeatability of the method. The research presented here shows it is possible to quantitatively discriminate between various contact materials (e.g., wood, antler) using laser scanning confocal microscopy in conjunction with conventional edge damage data. Experiments

Nathan E. Stevens; Douglas R. Harro; Alan Hicklin

2010-01-01

96

Application of Evidential Networks in quantitative analysis of railway accidents  

E-print Network

Application of Evidential Networks in quantitative analysis of railway accidents Felipe Aguirre1.belmonte@transport.alstom.com ABSTRACT Currently, a high percentage of accidents in railway systems are accounted to human factors reliability data are very difficult to quantify, thus, qualitative methods are often used in railway system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

Quantitative Analysis of Boron with Solid State Track Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study aimed at the application of solid state track detectors to the quantitative analysis of boron, track detector plates of cellulose nitrate were set in polypropylene test tubes, filled with various concentrations of boron-agar solution, and irradiated with thermal neutrons. After irradiation, the cellulose track detectors were separated from the solution, and etched with suitable chemical reagents. The

Takao TSURUTA; Mitsuyoshi YAZAKI

1977-01-01

98

AN OPTICAL DEFLECTOMETER FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT STRUCTURES  

E-print Network

AN OPTICAL DEFLECTOMETER FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF TURBULENT STRUCTURES S.S. McIntyre', E., University Park, PA 16802 Abstract A novel instrument, the optical deflectome- ter, is proposed to make turbulence measurements. The instrument, which is based on the schlieren principle, is non

Settles, Gary S.

99

Quantitative analysis of gene expression in a single  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of gene expression in a single cell by qPCR Kiyomi Taniguchi, TomoharuDNA library immobilized on beads for measuring the expression of multiple genes in a single cell. We used roles1. There have recently been several attempts to investigate the heterogeneity of gene expression

Cai, Long

100

Quantitative Analysis for Authentication of Low-cost RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Formal analysis techniques are widely used today in order to verify and analyze communication protocols. In this work, we launch a quantitative verification analysis for the low- cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) protocol proposed by Song and Mitchell. The analysis exploits a Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) using the well-known PRISM model checker. We have managed to represent up to 100 RFID tags communicating with a reader and quantify each RFID session according to the protocol's computation and transmission cost requirements. As a consequence, not only does the proposed analysis provide quantitative verification results, but also it constitutes a methodology for RFID designers who want to validate their products under specific cost requirements.

Paparrizos, Ioannis; Petridou, Sophia

2011-01-01

101

Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

1975-01-01

102

Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books.  

PubMed

We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of 'culturomics,' focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. Culturomics extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K; Pickett, Joseph P; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

2011-01-14

103

Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books  

PubMed Central

We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of ‘culturomics’, focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. ‘Culturomics’ extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva P.; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K.; Pickett, Joseph P.; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

2011-01-01

104

An analysis of critical factors for quantitative immunoblotting.  

PubMed

Immunoblotting (also known as Western blotting) combined with digital image analysis can be a reliable method for analyzing the abundance of proteins and protein modifications, but not every immunoblot-analysis combination produces an accurate result. I illustrate how sample preparation, protocol implementation, detection scheme, and normalization approach profoundly affect the quantitative performance of immunoblotting. This study implemented diagnostic experiments that assess an immunoblot-analysis workflow for accuracy and precision. The results showed that ignoring such diagnostics can lead to pseudoquantitative immunoblot data that markedly overestimate or underestimate true differences in protein abundance. PMID:25852189

Janes, Kevin A

2015-01-01

105

An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules  

PubMed Central

The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

2014-01-01

106

An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.  

PubMed

The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

2014-01-01

107

Quantitative analysis of pedestrian counterflow in a cellular automaton model.  

PubMed

Pedestrian dynamics exhibits various collective phenomena. Here, we study bidirectional pedestrian flow in a floor field cellular automaton model. Under certain conditions, lane formation is observed. Although it has often been studied qualitatively, e.g., as a test for the realism of a model, there are almost no quantitative results, either empirically or theoretically. As basis for a quantitative analysis, we introduce an order parameter which is adopted from the analysis of colloidal suspensions. This allows us to determine a phase diagram for the system where four different states (free flow, disorder, lanes, gridlock) can be distinguished. Although the number of lanes formed is fluctuating, lanes are characterized by a typical density. It is found that the basic floor field model overestimates the tendency towards a gridlock compared to experimental bounds. Therefore, an anticipation mechanism is introduced which reduces the jamming probability. PMID:23005183

Nowak, Stefan; Schadschneider, Andreas

2012-06-01

108

Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

Anderson, James L.; And Others

1980-01-01

109

Lipid analysis by quantitative thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for the quantitative analysis of lipids using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are reviewed. The general procedures\\u000a are divided into two groups on the basis of whether or not the methods involve the recovery of substances from chromatoplates.\\u000a \\u000a Recovery methods are elaborated under detection of spots, recovery of substances and quantification. Methods are described\\u000a for the recovery of labile compounds from

O. S. Privett; M. L. Blank; D. W. Codding; E. C. Nickell

1965-01-01

110

Quantitative analysis of lipids by thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for the quantitative analysis of neutral and phospholipids by thinlayer chromatography (TLC) employing\\u000a densitometry. The chromatophates are prepared with the usual solvent systems. The spots are charred under standard conditions\\u000a and analyzed with a Photovolt Corp. densitometer equipped with a special stage designed for holding 20×20 cm chromatoplates.\\u000a Each spot on the chromatoplate gives a peak

M. L. Blank; J. A. Schmit; O. S. Privett

1964-01-01

111

Sensitive LC MS quantitative analysis of carbohydrates by Cs + attachment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a sensitive assay for the quantitative analysis of carbohydrates from human plasma using LC\\/MS\\/MS is described\\u000a in this paper. After sample preparation, carbohydrates were cationized by Cs+ after their separation by normal phase liquid chromatography on an amino based column. Cesium is capable of forming a quasi-molecular\\u000a ion [M + Cs]+ with neutral carbohydrate molecules in the

Eduard Rogatsky; Harsha Jayatillake; Gayotri Goswami; Vlad Tomuta; Daniel Stein

2005-01-01

112

Wheat from Chaff: Meta-analysis as Quantitative Literature Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and develops a quantitative method of literature reviewing and evaluating empirical research, meta-regression analysis or MRA. Economics is theory-driven. Yet, we must learn empirically if economics is to advance. MRA offers a more objective statistical method to summarize our empirical knowledge and to explain the wide study-to-study variation in economic research. MRA is used to assess the

T. D. Stanley

2001-01-01

113

Quantitative NMR Analysis of Partially Substituted Biodiesel Glycerols  

SciTech Connect

Phosphitylation of hydroxyl groups in biodiesel samples with 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane followed by 31P-NMR analysis provides a rapid quantitative analytical technique for the determination of substitution patterns on partially esterified glycerols. The unique 31P-NMR chemical shift data was established with a series mono and di-substituted fatty acid esters of glycerol and then utilized to characterize an industrial sample of partially processed biodiesel.

Nagy, M.; Alleman, T. L.; Dyer, T.; Ragauskas, A. J.

2009-01-01

114

Quantitative analysis of angiogenesis using confocal laser scanning microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angiogenesis is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Angiogenesis is commonly quantified by measuring microvessel density\\u000a (MVD) within tumors. In this report, we compared light microscopy with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in the qualitative\\u000a and quantitative analysis of angiogenesis. MVDs were determined manually in a lung tumor xenograft and a normal skeletal muscle\\u000a using CD31 immunohistochemical staining and light

Linlang Guo; Patricia Burke; Su-Hao Lo; Regina Gandour-Edwards; Derick Lau

2001-01-01

115

Quantitative analysis of food fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior efficiency of capillary columns is desirable for the gas chromatographic analysis of complex mixtures of fatty\\u000a acids, but there have been some reservations regarding quantitation and reproducibility. This paper discusses the use of wall-coated\\u000a glass capillary columns in a semiautomated system for the determination of food fatty acids. Glass columns coated with SP2340\\u000a were used for extended periods

H. T. Slover; E. Lanza

1979-01-01

116

Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Fault Trees based on the Structure Function  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Fault Trees based on the Structure Function G. Merle , J of any Dynamic Fault Tree (DFT) from its structure function. Both these probabilistic models, structure function, probabilistic model, quantitative analysis. 1. Introduction The structure function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Universal Quantitative NMR Analysis of Complex Natural Samples  

PubMed Central

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a universal and quantitative analytical technique. Being a unique structural tool, NMR also competes with metrological techniques for purity determination and reference material analysis. In pharmaceutical research, applications of quantitative NMR (qNMR) cover mostly the identification and quantification of drug and biological metabolites. Offering an unbiased view of the sample composition, and the possibility to simultaneously quantify multiple compounds, qNMR has become the method of choice for metabolomic studies and quality control of complex natural samples such as foods, plants or herbal remedies, and biofluids. In this regard, NMR-based metabolomic studies, dedicated to both the characterization of herbal remedies and clinical diagnosis, have increased considerably. PMID:24484881

Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

118

A Quantitative Risk Analysis Approach for Deliberate Nikos Vavoulas, Christos Xenakis  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Risk Analysis Approach for Deliberate Threats Nikos Vavoulas, Christos Xenakis in a misleading way. In this paper, a quantitative risk analysis approach for deliberate threats is introduced threat. Keywords: risk analysis, quantitative, deliberate threat, risk estimation, risk identification. 1

Stavrakakis, Ioannis

119

Quantitative near-infrared spectral analysis of young OB stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recently obtained moderate resolution (R˜8,000-12,000) high signal-to-noise H- and K-band spectroscopy of a number of optically visible, well studied OB stars (Hanson et al. 2005) to test the reliability of a pure near-infrared quantitative analysis (Repolust et al. 2005). The analysis of 25 of these OB stars via near-infrared spectra alone using the NLTE line-blanketed model atmosphere code FASTWIND (Puls et al. 2005) has proved successful at constraining stellar and wind parameters, consistent with results from previous optical analyses of these stars. This opens the door to quantitative analysis of OB stars at an extraordinarily young age, while they are still heavily enshrouded in their birth cocoons. Because the analysis requires good quality spectra at both H and K band, present 8-m class telescopes limit us to sources which are not extremely embedded (A_V ). As a first example, we present a preliminary analysis of the heavily reddened (A_V = 25), early-O star ionizing the UCHII region, G29.96-0.02. Challenges facing such an analysis include contributions from excess thermal emission from circumstellar material (disks, etc.) which weaken or even eliminate photospheric lines used in the analysis, nebular contamination in several of the principle H and He lines and crowding or general confusion in these very young and typically complex regions. Spectrographs coupled with state of the art adaptive optics will be extremely useful in minimizing these challenges, and may allow even fairly complex regions to be directly studied.

Hanson, M. M.; Puls, J.; Repolust, T.

120

A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.

1994-11-01

121

Quantitative Analysis of Liver Golgi Proteome in the Cell Cycle  

PubMed Central

During mitosis, the Golgi membranes in mammalian cells undergo a continuous disassembly process and generate mitotic fragments that are distributed into the daughter cells and reassembled into new Golgi after mitosis. This disassembly and reassembly process is critical for Golgi biogenesis during cell division, but the underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we have recapitulated this process using an in vitro assay and analyzed the proteins that are associated with interphase and mitotic Golgi membranes using quantitative proteomics that combines the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification approach with OFFGEL isoelectric focusing separation and LC-MALDI-MS/MS. A total of 1,193 Golgi-associated proteins were identified and quantified. These included broad functional categories: Golgi structural proteins, Golgi resident enzymes, SNAREs, Rab GTPases, and secretory and cytoskeletal proteins. More importantly, the combination of the quantitative proteomic approach with Western blot analysis allowed us to unveil 86 proteins with significant changes in abundance under the mitotic condition compared to the interphase condition. Altogether, this systematic quantitative proteomic study revealed candidate proteins of the molecular machinery that controls the Golgi disassembly and reassembly processes in the cell cycle. PMID:22903713

Chen, Xuequn; Andrews, Philip C.; Wang, Yanzhuang

2013-01-01

122

Quantitative analysis of motion control in long term ?-gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the 179-days EUROMIR '95 space mission, two in-flight experiments have foreseen quantitative thres-dimensional human movement analysis in ?gravity. For this aim, a space qualified opto-electronic motion analyser based on passive markers has been installed onboard the Russian Space Station MIR and 8 in flight sessions have been performed. Technology and method for the collection of kinematics data are described, evaluating the accuracy in three-dimensional marker localisation. Results confirm the suitability of opto-electronic technology for quantitative human motion analysis on orbital modules and raise a set of "lessons learned", leading to the improvement of motion analyser performance with a contemporary swiftness of the on-board operations. Among the experimental program of T4, results of three voluntary posture perturbation protocols are described. The analysis suggests that a short term reinterpretation of proprioceptive information and re-calibration of sensorimotor mechanisms seem to end within the first weeks of flight, while a continues long term adaptation process allows the refinement of motor performance, in the frame of never abandoned terrestrial strategies.

Baroni, Guido; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Anolli, Alessandra; Andreoni, Giuseppe; Pedotti, Antonio

123

Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.  

PubMed

Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148-165, 2015. PMID:24889823

Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

2015-04-01

124

Teaching neuroinformatics with an emphasis on quantitative locus analysis.  

PubMed

Although powerful bioinformatics tools are available for free on the web and are used by neuroscience professionals on a daily basis, neuroscience students are largely ignorant of them. This Neuroinformatics module weaves together several bioinformatics tools to make a comprehensive unit. This unit encompasses quantifying a phenotype through a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis, which links phenotype to loci on chromosomes that likely had an impact on the phenotype. Students then are able to sift through a list of genes in the region(s) of the chromosome identified by the QTL analysis and find a candidate gene that has relatively high expression in the brain region of interest. Once such a candidate gene is identified, students can find out more information about the gene, including the cells/layers in which it is expressed, the sequence of the gene, and an article about the gene. All of the resources employed are available at no cost via the internet. Didactic elements of this instructional module include genetics, neuroanatomy, Quantitative Trait Locus analysis, molecular techniques in neuroscience, and statistics-including multiple regression, ANOVA, and a bootstrap technique. This module was presented at the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) 2011 Workshop at Pomona College and can be accessed at http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/bioinformatics. PMID:23493834

Grisham, William; Korey, Christopher A; Schottler, Natalie A; McCauley, Lisa Beck; Beatty, Jackson

2012-01-01

125

Teaching Neuroinformatics with an Emphasis on Quantitative Locus Analysis  

PubMed Central

Although powerful bioinformatics tools are available for free on the web and are used by neuroscience professionals on a daily basis, neuroscience students are largely ignorant of them. This Neuroinformatics module weaves together several bioinformatics tools to make a comprehensive unit. This unit encompasses quantifying a phenotype through a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis, which links phenotype to loci on chromosomes that likely had an impact on the phenotype. Students then are able to sift through a list of genes in the region(s) of the chromosome identified by the QTL analysis and find a candidate gene that has relatively high expression in the brain region of interest. Once such a candidate gene is identified, students can find out more information about the gene, including the cells/layers in which it is expressed, the sequence of the gene, and an article about the gene. All of the resources employed are available at no cost via the internet. Didactic elements of this instructional module include genetics, neuroanatomy, Quantitative Trait Locus analysis, molecular techniques in neuroscience, and statistics—including multiple regression, ANOVA, and a bootstrap technique. This module was presented at the Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience (FUN) 2011 Workshop at Pomona College and can be accessed at http://mdcune.psych.ucla.edu/modules/bioinformatics. PMID:23493834

Grisham, William; Korey, Christopher A.; Schottler, Natalie A.; McCauley, Lisa Beck; Beatty, Jackson

2012-01-01

126

QUANTITATIVE MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS COMBINED WITH ENRICHMENT METHODS  

PubMed Central

Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

2015-01-01

127

Analysis of fungal gene expression by Real Time quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The Real-Time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method has become central for the quantification of gene expression as well as other applications. The major advantages of qPCR are the utilization of small amount of template, high sensitivity and the ability to detect products during the reaction. After selecting qPCR among other options (northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR), one should consider several factors. The first and critical step in qPCR of fungi is the selection of an appropriate growth medium and RNA extraction method, which will avoid accumulation of inhibitors. In this chapter, we focus on detection of the accumulating product with the Syber Green dye, but other detection technologies, such as hybridization probes, might be considered as well. Accurate qPCR analysis with Syber Green depends mainly on optimal PCR reaction, and therefore it is important to design primers that will avoid formation of interfering structures. It is possible to use absolute quantification of the template in the sample, or to conduct a relative analysis, as described in this protocol. In the relative analysis method, expression of the gene of interest is compared with expression of a reference gene. According to our experience as well as according to the literature, it is recommended to use at least three reference genes in order to obtain reliable results. PMID:20238263

Ish-Shalom, Shahar; Lichter, Amnon

2010-01-01

128

Flow quantitation by radio frequency analysis of contrast echocardiography.  

PubMed

Contrast echocardiography has the potential for measuring cardiac output and regional blood flow. However, accurate quantitation is limited both by the use of non-standard contrast agents and by the electronic signal distortion inherent to the echocardiographic instruments. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify flow by combining a stable contrast agent and a modified echo equipment, able to sample the radio frequency (RF) signal from a region of interest (ROI) in the echo image. The contrast agent SHU-454 (0.8 ml) was bolus injected into an in vitro calf vein, at 23 flow rates (ranging from 376 to 3620 ml/min) but constant volume and pressure. The ROI was placed in the centre of the vein, the RF signal was processed in real time and transferred to a personal computer to generate time-intensity curves. In the absence of recirculation, contrast washout slope and mean transit time (MTT) of curves (1.11-8.52 seconds) yielded excellent correlations with flow: r = 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. To compare the accuracy of RF analysis with that of conventional image processing as to flow quantitation, conventional images were collected in the same flow model by two different scanners: a) the mechanical sector scanner used for RF analysis, and b) a conventional electronic sector scanner. These images were digitized off-line, mean videodensity inside an identical ROI was measured and time-intensity curves were built. MTT by RF was shorter than by videodensitometric analysis of the images generated by the same scanner (p < 0.001). In contrast, MTT by RF was longer than by the conventional scanner (p < 0.001). Significant differences in MTT were also found with changes in the gain setting controls of the conventional scanner. To study the stability of the contrast effect, 6 contrast injections (20 ml) were performed at a constant flow rate during recirculation: the spontaneous decay in RF signal intensity (t1/2 = 64 +/- 8 seconds) was too long to affect MTT significantly. In conclusion, the combination of a stable contrast agent and a modified echocardiographic instrument provides accurate quantitation of flow in an in vitro model; RF analysis is more accurate than conventional processing as to flow quantitation by contrast echocardiography. PMID:8492003

Rovai, D; Lombardi, M; Mazzarisi, A; Landini, L; Taddei, L; Distante, A; Benassi, A; L'Abbate, A

1993-03-01

129

Quantitative trace analysis of complex mixtures using SABRE hyperpolarization.  

PubMed

Signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is an emerging nuclear spin hyperpolarization technique that strongly enhances NMR signals of small molecules in solution. However, such signal enhancements have never been exploited for concentration determination, as the efficiency of SABRE can strongly vary between different substrates or even between nuclear spins in the same molecule. The first application of SABRE for the quantitative analysis of a complex mixture is now reported. Despite the inherent complexity of the system under investigation, which involves thousands of competing binding equilibria, analytes at concentrations in the low micromolar range could be quantified from single-scan SABRE spectra using a standard-addition approach. PMID:25469822

Eshuis, Nan; van Weerdenburg, Bram J A; Feiters, Martin C; Rutjes, Floris P J T; Wijmenga, Sybren S; Tessari, Marco

2015-01-26

130

Quantitative analysis of tritium distribution in austenitic stainless steels welds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tritium autoradiography was used to study the tritium distribution in laser and arc (TIG) weldments performed on tritiated AISI 316 samples. Quantitative values of the local tritium concentration were obtained from the microdensitometric analysis of the autoradiographs. This procedure was used to map the tritium concentration in the samples before and after laser and TIG treatments. The effect of the detritiation conditions and of welding on the tritium distribution in the material is extensively characterized. The results illustrate the interest of the technique for predicting a possible embrittlement of the material associated with a local enhancement of the tritium concentration and the presence of helium 3 generated by tritium decay.

Roustila, A.; Kuromoto, N.; Brass, A. M.; Chêne, J.

1994-08-01

131

Quantitative Analysis Of Cristobalite In The Presence Of Quartz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The detection and quantitation of-cristobalite in quartz is necessary to calculate threshold value limits (TVL) for free crystalline silica (FCS) as proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). The cristobalite standard used in this study was made by heating diatomaceous earth to the transition temperature for cristobalite. The potassium bromide (KBR) pellet method was used for the analysis. Potassium cyanide (KCN) was used as an internal standard. Samples ranged from 5% to 30% cris-tobalite in quartz. Precision for this method is within 2%.

Totten, Gary A.

1985-12-01

132

Lipid biomarker analysis for the quantitative analysis of airborne microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

There is an ever increasing concern regarding the presence of airborne microbial contaminants within indoor air environments. Exposure to such biocontaminants can give rise to large numbers of different health effects including infectious diseases, allergenic responses and respiratory problems, Biocontaminants typically round in indoor air environments include bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa and dust mites. Mycotoxins, endotoxins, pollens and residues of organisms are also known to cause adverse health effects. A quantitative detection/identification technique independent of culturability that assays both culturable and non culturable biomass including endotoxin is critical in defining risks from indoor air biocontamination. Traditionally, methods employed for the monitoring of microorganism numbers in indoor air environments involve classical culture based techniques and/or direct microscopic counting. It has been repeatedly documented that viable microorganism counts only account for between 0.1-10% of the total community detectable by direct counting. The classic viable microbiologic approach doe`s not provide accurate estimates of microbial fragments or other indoor air components that can act as antigens and induce or potentiate allergic responses. Although bioaerosol samplers are designed to damage the microbes as little as possible, microbial stress has been shown to result from air sampling, aerosolization and microbial collection. Higher collection efficiency results in greater cell damage while less cell damage often results in lower collection efficiency. Filtration can collect particulates at almost 100% efficiency, but captured microorganisms may become dehydrated and damaged resulting in non-culturability, however, the lipid biomarker assays described herein do not rely on cell culture. Lipids are components that are universally distributed throughout cells providing a means to assess independent of culturability.

Macnaughton, S.J.; Jenkins, T.L.; Cormier, M.R. [Microbial Insights Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

133

Operational Experiences in Planning and Reconstructing Aqua Inclination Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the lead satellite in NASA's growing Earth Observing System (EOS) PM constellation, it is increasingly critical that Aqua maintain its various orbit requirements. The two of interest for this paper are maintaining an orbit inclination that provides for a consistent mean local time and a semi-major Axis (SMA) that allows for ground track repeatability. Maneuvers to adjust the orbit inclination involve several flight dynamics constraints and complexities which make planning such maneuvers challenging. In particular, coupling between the orbital and attitude degrees of freedom lead to changes in SMA when changes in inclination are effected. A long term mission mean local time trend analysis was performed in order to determine the size and placement of the required inclination maneuvers. Following this analysis, detailed modeling of each burn and its Various segments was performed to determine its effects on the immediate orbit state. Data gathered from an inclination slew test of the spacecraft and first inclination maneuver uncovered discrepancies in the modeling method that were investigated and resolved. The new modeling techniques were applied and validated during the second spacecraft inclination maneuver. These improvements should position Aqua to successfully complete a series of inclination maneuvers in the fall of 2004. The following paper presents the events and results related

Rand, David; Reilly, Jacqueline; Schiff, Conrad

2004-01-01

134

Probabilistic Clustering and Quantitative Analysis of White Matter Fiber Tracts  

PubMed Central

A novel framework for joint clustering and point-by-point mapping of white matter fiber pathways is presented. Accurate clustering of the trajectories into fiber bundles requires point correspondence along the fiber pathways determined. This knowledge is also crucial for any tract-oriented quantitative analysis. We employ an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm to cluster the trajectories in a Gamma mixture model context. The result of clustering is the probabilistic assignment of the fiber trajectories to each cluster, an estimate of the cluster parameters, and point correspondences. Point-by-point correspondence of the trajectories within a bundle is obtained by constructing a distance map and a label map from each cluster center at every iteration of the EM algorithm. This offers a time-efficient alternative to pairwise curve matching of all trajectories with respect to each cluster center. Probabilistic assignment of the trajectories to clusters is controlled by imposing a minimum threshold on the membership probabilities, to remove outliers in a principled way. The presented results confirm the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed framework for quantitative analysis of diffusion tensor MRI. PMID:17633714

Maddah, Mahnaz; Wells, William M.; Warfield, Simon K.; Westin, Carl-Fredrik; Grimson, W. Eric L.

2012-01-01

135

Quantitative analysis on electrooculography (EOG) for neurodegenerative disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have documented abnormal horizontal and vertical eye movements in human neurodegenerative disease as well as during altered states of consciousness (including drowsiness and intoxication) in healthy adults. Eye movement measurement may play an important role measuring the progress of neurodegenerative diseases and state of alertness in healthy individuals. There are several techniques for measuring eye movement, Infrared detection technique (IR). Video-oculography (VOG), Scleral eye coil and EOG. Among those available recording techniques, EOG is a major source for monitoring the abnormal eye movement. In this real-time quantitative analysis study, the methods which can capture the characteristic of the eye movement were proposed to accurately categorize the state of neurodegenerative subjects. The EOG recordings were taken while 5 tested subjects were watching a short (>120 s) animation clip. In response to the animated clip the participants executed a number of eye movements, including vertical smooth pursued (SVP), horizontal smooth pursued (HVP) and random saccades (RS). Detection of abnormalities in ocular movement may improve our diagnosis and understanding a neurodegenerative disease and altered states of consciousness. A standard real-time quantitative analysis will improve detection and provide a better understanding of pathology in these disorders.

Liu, Chang-Chia; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Seref, Onur; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Sackellares, J. C.; Skidmore, Frank M.

2007-11-01

136

Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

Haaland, D.M.

1991-01-01

137

Quantitative analysis of live cells using digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the life time of a cell, it goes through changes to the plasma membrane as well as its internal structures especially distinctive during processes like cell division and death. Different types of microscope are used to fulfill the observation of the cell's variation. In our experiment, Vero cells have been investigated by using phase contrast microscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A comparison of the images obtained for cell division is presented here. The conventional phase contrast microscope provided a good imaging method in the real time analysis of cell division. The off-axis digital hologram recorded by the DHM system can be reconstructed to obtain both the intensity image and phase contrast image of the test object. These can be used for live cell imaging to provide multiple results from a single equipment setup. The DHM system, besides being a qualitative tool, is able to provide quantitative results and 3D images of the cell division process. The ability of DHM to provide quantitative analysis makes it an ideal tool for life science applications.

Lewis, Tan Rongwei; Qu, Weijuan; Chee, Oi Choo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand

2009-12-01

138

Quantitative analysis of live cells using digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the life time of a cell, it goes through changes to the plasma membrane as well as its internal structures especially distinctive during processes like cell division and death. Different types of microscope are used to fulfill the observation of the cell's variation. In our experiment, Vero cells have been investigated by using phase contrast microscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A comparison of the images obtained for cell division is presented here. The conventional phase contrast microscope provided a good imaging method in the real time analysis of cell division. The off-axis digital hologram recorded by the DHM system can be reconstructed to obtain both the intensity image and phase contrast image of the test object. These can be used for live cell imaging to provide multiple results from a single equipment setup. The DHM system, besides being a qualitative tool, is able to provide quantitative results and 3D images of the cell division process. The ability of DHM to provide quantitative analysis makes it an ideal tool for life science applications.

Lewis, Tan Rongwei; Qu, Weijuan; Chee, Oi Choo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand

2010-03-01

139

QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MARSILEA MINUTA LINN.  

E-print Network

The objective of the present study was to find out the presence of phytochemicals in the petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of Marsilea minuta Linn (Marsileaceae), a common aquatic medicinal fern by both qualitative and quantitative screening methods. In qualitative analysis, the phytochemical compounds such as steroids, reducing sugars, triterpenoids, sugars, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthroquinones and amino acids were screened in five solvent extracts. The methanol extract of the fern showed positive results for 10 phytochemical tests. The benzene extract exhibited positive results for 9 tests. In chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the plant showed positive results for 7 tests and in aqueous extract of the fern 5 phytochemical tests were positive. In quantitative analysis the important secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins were tested in all the extracts of the fern. The methanol extract showed highest amount of phytochemicals when compared with other solvent extracts. KEY WARDS: Marsilea minuta, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins and tannins

A. John; De Britto; D. Herin Sheeba Gracelin; P. Benjamin; Jeya Rathna Kumar; A. John; De Britto

140

[Quantitative analysis of transformer oil dissolved gases using FTIR].  

PubMed

For the defects of requiring carrier gas and regular calibration, and low safety using chromatography to on line monitor transformer dissolved gases, it was attempted to establish a dissolved gas analysis system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Taking into account the small amount of characteristic gases, many components, detection limit and safety requirements and the difficulty of degasser to put an end to the presence of interference gas, the quantitative analysis model was established based on sparse partial least squares, piecewise section correction and feature variable extraction algorithm using improvement TR regularization. With the characteristic gas of CH4, C2H6, C2H6, and CO2, the results show that using FTIR meets DGA requirements with the spectrum wave number resolution of 1 cm(-1) and optical path of 10 cm. PMID:24369641

Zhao, An-xin; Tang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Er-zhen; Zhang, Zhong-hua; Liu, Jun-hua

2013-09-01

141

Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven

2006-01-01

142

Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

2006-12-01

143

Quantitative analysis of cyclic beta-turn models.  

PubMed Central

The beta-turn is a frequently found structural unit in the conformation of globular proteins. Although the circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the alpha-helix and beta-pleated sheet are well defined, there remains some ambiguity concerning the pure component CD spectra of the different types of beta-turns. Recently, it has been reported (Hollósi, M., Kövér, K.E., Holly, S., Radics, L., & Fasman, G.D., 1987, Biopolymers 26, 1527-1572; Perczel, A., Hollósi, M., Foxman, B.M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991a, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 9772-9784) that some pseudohexapeptides (e.g., the cyclo[(delta)Ava-Gly-Pro-Aaa-Gly] where Aaa = Ser, Ser(OtBu), or Gly) in many solvents adopt a conformational mixture of type I and the type II beta-turns, although the X-ray-determined conformation was an ideal type I beta-turn. In addition to these pseudohexapeptides, conformational analysis was also carried out on three pseudotetrapeptides and three pseudooctapeptides. The target of the conformation analysis reported herein was to determine whether the ring stress of the above beta-turn models has an influence on their conformational properties. Quantitative nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) measurements yielded interproton distances. The conformational average distances so obtained were interpreted utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to yield the conformational percentages. These conformational ratios were correlated with the conformational weights obtained by quantitative CD analysis of the same compounds. The pure component CD curves of type I and type II beta-turns were also obtained, using a recently developed algorithm (Perczel, A., Tusnády, G., Hollósi, M., & Fasman, G.D., 1991b, Protein Eng. 4(6), 669-679). For the first time the results of a CD deconvolution, based on the CD spectra of 14 beta-turn models, were assigned by quantitative NOE results. The NOE experiments confirmed the ratios of the component curves found for the two major beta-turns by CD analysis. These results can now be used to enhance the conformational determination of globular proteins on the basis of their CD spectra. PMID:1304345

Perczel, A.; Fasman, G. D.

1992-01-01

144

Functional linear models for association analysis of quantitative traits.  

PubMed

Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. PMID:24130119

Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L; Wilson, Alexander F; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Xiong, Momiao

2013-11-01

145

Analysis of generalized interictal discharges using quantitative EEG.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence from animal models of the absence seizures suggests a focal source for the initiation of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges. Furthermore, clinical studies indicate that patients diagnosed with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) exhibit focal electroencephalographic abnormalities, which involve the thalamo-cortical circuitry. This circuitry is a key network that has been implicated in the initiation of generalized discharges, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of GSW discharges. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) analysis may be able to detect abnormalities associated with the initiation of GSW discharges. The objective of this study was to determine whether interictal GSW discharges exhibit focal characteristics using qEEG analysis. In this study, 75 EEG recordings from 64 patients were analyzed. All EEG recordings analyzed contained at least one GSW discharge. EEG recordings were obtained by a 22-channel recorder with electrodes positioned according to the international 10-20 system of electrode placement. EEG activity was recorded for 20 min including photic stimulation and hyperventilation. The EEG recordings were visually inspected, and the first unequivocally confirmed generalized spike was marked for each discharge. Three methods of source imaging analysis were applied: dipole source imaging (DSI), classical LORETA analysis recursively applied (CLARA), and equivalent dipole of independent components with cluster analysis. A total of 753 GSW discharges were identified and spatiotemporally analyzed. Source evaluation analysis using all three techniques revealed that the frontal lobe was the principal source of GSW discharges (70%), followed by the parietal and occipital lobes (14%), and the basal ganglia (12%). The main anatomical sources of GSW discharges were the anterior cingulate cortex (36%) and the medial frontal gyrus (23%). Source analysis did not reveal a common focal source of GSW discharges. However, there was a predominance of GSW discharges originating from the cingulate gyrus and the frontal lobe. PMID:25277883

da Silva Braga, Aline Marques; Fujisao, Elaine Keiko; Betting, Luiz Eduardo

2014-12-01

146

Quantitative (13)C NMR analysis of lignins with internal standards.  

PubMed

Novel protocols for acquiring quantitative (13)C NMR spectra of lignins have been developed using the internal reference compounds 1,3,5-trioxane and pentafluorobenzene. Trioxane offers a convenient internal standard for collecting inverse gated proton decoupled (13)C NMR spectra for lignins, whereas pentafluorobenzene can be used to provide information on the amount of methine carbon using the DEPT experiment. In each case, the internal reference compounds provide single, un-overlapped sharp signals in the middle of the spectral region, permitting facile integration. These integrals could be used to determine the amounts of different structural features of lignins, expressed in absolute units of millimoles per gram. The optimum parameters for these experiments were validated for a variety of spectrometer platforms, and standard errors were determined for different spectral areas using lignin model compounds and "standard" lignins. In addition, the data derived for the International Round Robin "standard" lignins showed good agreement with the data from quantitative (31)P NMR spectroscopy and published data, obtained by independent laboratories using independent methods of analysis. PMID:11513630

Xia, Z; Akim, L G; Argyropoulos, D S

2001-08-01

147

Quantitative analysis of multiple sclerosis: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a presumed immune-mediated etiology. For treatment of MS, the measurements of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are often used in conjunction with clinical evaluation to provide a more objective measure of MS burden. In this paper, we apply a new unifying automatic mixture-based algorithm for segmentation of brain tissues to quantitatively analyze MS. The method takes into account the following effects that commonly appear in MR imaging: 1) The MR data is modeled as a stochastic process with an inherent inhomogeneity effect of smoothly varying intensity; 2) A new partial volume (PV) model is built in establishing the maximum a posterior (MAP) segmentation scheme; 3) Noise artifacts are minimized by a priori Markov random field (MRF) penalty indicating neighborhood correlation from tissue mixture. The volumes of brain tissues (WM, GM) and CSF are extracted from the mixture-based segmentation. Experimental results of feasibility studies on quantitative analysis of MS are presented.

Li, Lihong; Li, Xiang; Wei, Xinzhou; Sturm, Deborah; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

2006-03-01

148

Aqua: AIRS, AMSU, HSB, AMSR-E, CERES, MODIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure provides an overview of the Aqua spacecraft, instruments, science, and data products Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission is collecting about the Earth's water cycle, including evaporation from the oceans, water vapor in the atmosphere, clouds, precipitation, soil moisture, sea ice, land ice, and snow cover on the land and ice. Additional variables also measured by Aqua include radiative energy fluxes, aerosols, vegetation cover on the land, phytoplankton and dissolved organic matter in the oceans, and air, land, and water temperatures. Note: this guide was produced before Aqua was launched; for the most recent information on Aqua, go to http://aqua.nasa.gov.

149

Quantitative analysis of dinuclear manganese(II) EPR spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative method for the analysis of EPR spectra from dinuclear Mn(II) complexes is presented. The complex [(Me 3TACN) 2Mn(II) 2(?-OAc) 3]BPh 4 ( 1) (Me 3TACN= N, N', N''-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane; OAc=acetate 1-; BPh 4=tetraphenylborate 1-) was studied with EPR spectroscopy at X- and Q-band frequencies, for both perpendicular and parallel polarizations of the microwave field, and with variable temperature (2-50 K). Complex 1 is an antiferromagnetically coupled dimer which shows signals from all excited spin manifolds, S=1 to 5. The spectra were simulated with diagonalization of the full spin Hamiltonian which includes the Zeeman and zero-field splittings of the individual manganese sites within the dimer, the exchange and dipolar coupling between the two manganese sites of the dimer, and the nuclear hyperfine coupling for each manganese ion. All possible transitions for all spin manifolds were simulated, with the intensities determined from the calculated probability of each transition. In addition, the non-uniform broadening of all resonances was quantitatively predicted using a lineshape model based on D- and r-strain. As the temperature is increased from 2 K, an 11-line hyperfine pattern characteristic of dinuclear Mn(II) is first observed from the S=3 manifold. D- and r-strain are the dominate broadening effects that determine where the hyperfine pattern will be resolved. A single unique parameter set was found to simulate all spectra arising for all temperatures, microwave frequencies, and microwave modes. The simulations are quantitative, allowing for the first time the determination of species concentrations directly from EPR spectra. Thus, this work describes the first method for the quantitative characterization of EPR spectra of dinuclear manganese centers in model complexes and proteins. The exchange coupling parameter J for complex 1 was determined ( J=-1.5±0.3 cm-1; H ex=-2J S1· S2) and found to be in agreement with a previous determination from magnetization. The phenomenon of exchange striction was found to be insignificant for 1.

Golombek, Adina P.; Hendrich, Michael P.

2003-11-01

150

Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-12-01

151

Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts  

PubMed Central

Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images – the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877

Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

2014-01-01

152

Quantitative multielement analysis using high energy particle bombardment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charged particles ranging in energy from 0.8 to 4.0 MeV are used to induce resonant nuclear reactions, Coulomb excitation (gamma X-rays), and X-ray emission in both thick and thin targets. Quantitative analysis is possible for elements from Li to Pb in complex environmental samples, although the matrix can severely reduce the sensitivity. It is necessary to use a comparator technique for the gamma-rays, while for X-rays an internal standard can be used. A USGS standard rock is analyzed for a total of 28 elements. Water samples can be analyzed either by nebulizing the sample doped with Cs or Y onto a thin formvar film or by extracting the sample (with or without an internal standard) onto ion exchange resin which is pressed into a pellet.

Clark, P. J.; Neal, G. F.; Allen, R. O.

1974-01-01

153

Theoretical Sensitivity Analysis for Quantitative Operational Risk Management  

E-print Network

We study an asymptotic behaviour of the difference between value-at-risks VaR(L) and VaR(L+S) for heavy-tailed random variables L and S as an application to sensitivity analysis of quantitative operational risk management in the framework of an advanced measurement approach (AMA) of Basel II. We have different types of results according to the magnitude relationship of thickness of tails of L and S. Especially if the tail of S is enough thinner than the one of L, then VaR(L + S) - VaR(L) is asymptotically equivalent to an expected loss of S when L and S are independent. We also give some generalized results without the assumption of independence.

Kato, Takashi

2011-01-01

154

Quantitative analysis of chromosome localization in the nucleus.  

PubMed

The spatial organization of the genome within the interphase nucleus is important for mediating genome functions. The radial organization of chromosome territories has been studied traditionally using two-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using labeled whole chromosome probes. Information from 2D-FISH images is analyzed quantitatively and is depicted in the form of the spatial distribution of chromosomes territories. However, to the best of our knowledge no open-access tools are available to delineate the position of chromosome territories from 2D-FISH images. In this chapter we present a methodology termed Image Analysis of Chromosomes for computing their localization (IMACULAT). IMACULAT is an open-access, automated tool that partitions the cell nucleus into shells of equal area or volume and computes the spatial distribution of chromosome territories. PMID:25311133

Chakraborty, Sandeep; Mehta, Ishita; Kulashreshtha, Mugdha; Rao, B J

2015-01-01

155

Quantitative genetic analysis of injury liability in infants and toddlers  

SciTech Connect

A threshold model of latent liability was applied to infant and toddler twin data on total count of injuries sustained during the interval from birth to 36 months of age. A quantitative genetic analysis of estimated twin correlations in injury liability indicated strong genetic dominance effects, but no additive genetic variance was detected. Because interpretations involving overdominance have little research support, the results may be due to low order epistasis or other interaction effects. Boys had more injuries than girls, but this effect was found only for groups whose parents were prompted and questioned in detail about their children`s injuries. Activity and impulsivity are two behavioral predictors of childhood injury, and the results are discussed in relation to animal research on infant and adult activity levels, and impulsivity in adult humans. Genetic epidemiological approaches to childhood injury should aid in targeting higher risk children for preventive intervention. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Phillips, K.; Matheny, A.P. Jr. [Univ. of Louisville Medical School, KY (United States)

1995-02-27

156

Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.

2010-03-01

157

Quantitative microstructure analysis of polymer-modified mortars.  

PubMed

Digital light, fluorescence and electron microscopy in combination with wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy were used to visualize individual polymers, air voids, cement phases and filler minerals in a polymer-modified cementitious tile adhesive. In order to investigate the evolution and processes involved in formation of the mortar microstructure, quantifications of the phase distribution in the mortar were performed including phase-specific imaging and digital image analysis. The required sample preparation techniques and imaging related topics are discussed. As a form of case study, the different techniques were applied to obtain a quantitative characterization of a specific mortar mixture. The results indicate that the mortar fractionates during different stages ranging from the early fresh mortar until the final hardened mortar stage. This induces process-dependent enrichments of the phases at specific locations in the mortar. The approach presented provides important information for a comprehensive understanding of the functionality of polymer-modified mortars. PMID:14629568

Jenni, A; Herwegh, M; Zurbriggen, R; Aberle, T; Holzer, L

2003-11-01

158

Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.

2013-06-01

159

Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

1981-07-01

160

Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Clinical Development of Therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been significant progress in development of therapeutics for prevention and management of several disease areas in recent years, leading to increased average life expectancy, as well as of quality of life, globally. However, due to complexity of addressing a number of medical needs and financial burden of development of new class of therapeutics, there is a need for better tools for decision making and validation of efficacy and safety of new compounds. Numerous biological markers (biomarkers) have been proposed either as adjunct to current clinical endpoints or as surrogates. Imaging biomarkers are among rapidly increasing biomarkers, being examined to expedite effective and rational drug development. Clinical imaging often involves a complex set of multi-modality data sets that require rapid and objective analysis, independent of reviewer's bias and training. In this chapter, an overview of imaging biomarkers for drug development is offered, along with challenges that necessitate quantitative and objective image analysis. Examples of automated and semi-automated analysis approaches are provided, along with technical review of such methods. These examples include the use of 3D MRI for osteoarthritis, ultrasound vascular imaging, and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for oncology. Additionally, a brief overview of regulatory requirements is discussed. In conclusion, this chapter highlights key challenges and future directions in this area.

Analoui, Mostafa

161

Quantitative immunochromatographic analysis: theory and application to theophylline immunoassay.  

PubMed

The development of an immunochromatographic technique suitable for rapid analysis of biological fluids is described. Quasi-one-dimensional antibody lattices specific for theophylline were constructed by packing Sepharose beads conjugated with specific antibody into specially designed narrow capillary tubes. The design of these capillary columns was such that they would subtract a preset threshold quantity of antigen (label and analyte) from the total amount presented. Labeled antigen, which appeared in the flowthrough, could then be used to precisely quantitate the analyte present. The ideal format would permit very precise subtraction of 100% of the available antigen up to the threshold amount and none of the remainder. The microcolumn described here comes close to this ideal behavior through the attainment of very high ratios of bound/free antigen. The elevated bound/free ratio could be explained by theoretical analysis of the effect on equilibria of the high antibody concentration in this quasi-one-dimensional system. Lattices containing anti-theophylline antibodies were used to develop a competitive enzyme immunoassay for theophylline which demonstrated a dose-response that was closely similar to that predicted by theoretical treatment. The entire assay procedure was performed in less than 30 min and demonstrated a sensitivity limit of approximately 20 ng/ml. Preliminary studies on clinical serum samples suggest that this assay has potential for the routine analysis of biological fluids. PMID:3674415

Lee, S R; Liberti, P A

1987-10-01

162

Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: A Quantitative Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background A comprehensive three-dimensional echocardiography based approach is applied to preoperative mitral valve (MV) analysis in patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR). This method is used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of the pathologic anatomy associated with IMR. Methods Intraoperative real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiograms of 18 patients with IMR (10 with anterior, 8 with inferior infarcts) and 17 patients with normal MV were analyzed. A customized image analysis protocol was used to assess global and regional determinants of annular size and shape, leaflet tethering and curvature, relative papillary muscle anatomy, and anatomic regurgitant orifice area. Results Both mitral annular area and MV tenting volume were increased in the IMR group as compared with patients with normal MV (mitral annular area = 1,065 ± 59 mm2 versus 779 ± 44 mm2, p = 0.001; and MV tenting volume = 3,413 ± 403 mm3 versus 1,696 ± 200 mm3, p = 0.001, respectively). Within the IMR group, patients with anterior infarct had larger annuli (1,168 ± 99 mm2) and greater tenting volumes (4,260 ± 779 mm3 versus 2,735 ± 245 mm3, p = 0.06) than the inferior infarct subgroup. Papillary-annular distance was increased in the IMR group relative to normal; these distances were largest in patients with anterior infarcts. Whereas patients with normal MV had very consistent anatomic determinants, annular shape and leaflet tenting distribution in the IMR group were exceedingly variable. Mean anatomic regurgitant orifice area was 25.8 ± 3.0 mm2, and the number of discrete regurgitant orifices varied from 1 to 4. Conclusions Application of custom analysis techniques to three-dimensional echocardiography images allows a quantitative and systematic analysis of the MV, and demonstrates the extreme variability in pathologic anatomy that occurs in patients with severe IMR. PMID:21172506

Vergnat, Mathieu; Jassar, Arminder S.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Ryan, Liam P.; Eperjesi, Thomas J.; Pouch, Alison M.; Weiss, Stuart J.; Cheung, Albert T.; Acker, Michael A.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

2011-01-01

163

Quantitative analysis with the optoacoustic/ultrasound system OPUS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OPUS (Optoacoustic plus Ultrasound) system is a combination of a medical ultrasound scanner with a highrepetition rate, wavelength-tunable laser system and a suitable triggering interface to synchronize the laser and the ultrasound system. The pulsed laser generates an optoacoustic (OA), or photoacoustic (PA), signal which is detected by the ultrasound system. Alternatively, imaging in conventional ultrasound mode can be performed. Both imaging modes can be superimposed. The laser light is coupled into the tissue laterally, parallel to the ultrasound transducer, which does not require for any major modification to the transducer or the ultrasound beam forming. This was a basic requirement on the instrument, as the intention of the project was to establish the optoacoustic imaging modality as add-on to a conventional standard ultrasound instrument. We believe that this approach may foster the introduction of OA imaging as routine tool in medical diagnosis. Another key aspect of the project was to exploit the capabilities of OA imaging for quantitative analysis. The intention of the presented work is to summarize all steps necessary to extract the significant information from the PA raw data, which are required for the quantification of local absorber distributions. We show results of spatially resolved absorption measurements in scattering samples and a comparison of four different image reconstruction algorithms, regarding their influence on lateral resolution as well as on the signal to noise ratio for different sample depths and absorption values. The reconstruction algorithms are based on Fourier transformation, on a generalized 2D Hough transformation, on circular back-projection and the classical delay-and-sum approach which is implemented in most ultrasound scanners. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of a newly developed laser source, combining diode and flash lamp pumping. Compared to all-flash-lamp pumped systems it features a significantly higher pulse-to-pulse stability, which is required for sensitive and precise quantitative analyses.

Haisch, Christoph; Zell, Karin; Sperl, Jonathan; Vogel, Mika W.; Niessner, Reinhard

2009-02-01

164

Quantitative DNA Methylation Analysis of Candidate Genes in Cervical Cancer  

PubMed Central

Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97–1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

Siegel, Erin M.; Riggs, Bridget M.; Delmas, Amber L.; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D.

2015-01-01

165

Semiautomatic Software For Quantitative Analysis Of Cardiac Positron Tomography Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to derive accurate values for true tissue radiotracers concentrations from gated positron emission tomography (PET) images of the heart, which are critical for quantifying noninvasively regional myocardial blood flow and metabolism, appropriate corrections for partial volume effect (PVE) and contamination from adjacent anatomical structures are required. We therefore developed an integrated software package for quantitative analysis of tomographic images which provides for such corrections. A semiautomatic edge detection technique outlines and partitions the myocardium into sectors. Myocardial wall thickness is measured on the images perpendicularly to the detected edges and used to correct for PVE. The programs automatically correct for radioactive decay, activity calibration and cross contaminations for both static and dynamic studies. Parameters derived with these programs include tracer concentrations and their changes over time. They are used for calculating regional metabolic rates and can be further displayed as color coded parametric images. The approach was validated for PET imaging in 11 dog experiments. 2D echocardiograms (Echo) were recorded simultaneously to validate the edge detection and wall thickness measurement techniques. After correction for PVE using automatic WT measurement, regional tissue tracer concentrations derived from PET images correlated well with true tissue concentrations as determined by well counting (r=0.98). These preliminary studies indicate that the developed automatic image analysis technique allows accurate and convenient evaluation of cardiac PET images for the measurement of both, regional tracer tissue concentrations as well as regional myocardial function.

Ratib, Osman; Bidaut, Luc; Nienaber, Christoph; Krivokapich, Janine; Schelbert, Heinrich R.; Phelps, Michael E.

1988-06-01

166

Quantitative image analysis: software systems in drug development trials.  

PubMed

Multi-dimensional image analysis is being used increasingly to arrive at surrogate end-points for drug development trials. Various imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) and ultrasound are used to analyze treatments for diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, and Alzheimer's disease. However, extracting information from images can be tedious and is prone to high user variability. The medical image analysis community is moving towards advanced software systems specifically designed for drug development trials. These systems can automatically identify the anatomy of interest in medical images (segmentation methods), can compare the anatomy over time or between patients (registration methods) and allow the quantitative extraction of anatomical features and the integration of the data and results into a database management system, automatically tracking the changes made to the data (audit trail generation). In this article, we present a case study using a prototype system that is used for quantifying multiple sclerosis lesions from multivariate MRI. PMID:12801797

Pathak, Sayan D; Ng, Lydia; Wyman, Brad; Fogarasi, Stephen; Racki, Stephen; Oelund, John C; Sparks, Bobbi; Chalana, Vikram

2003-05-15

167

Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes  

SciTech Connect

Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, and which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

2015-01-01

168

Quantitative diet analysis of four mesopredators from a coral reef.  

PubMed

The diets of four common mesopredator fishes were examined in the back-reef habitat of a subtropical fringing reef system during the summer months. Quantitative gut content analyses revealed that crustaceans, represented >60% of ingested prey (% mass) by the latticed sand-perch Parapercis clathrata, brown dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus and half-moon grouper Epinephelus rivulatus. Dietary analyses also provided insights into ontogenetic shifts. Juvenile P. fuscus ingested large numbers of crustaceans (amphipods and isopods); these small prey were rarely found in larger individuals (<1% of ingested mass). Fishes also made an important contribution to the diets of all three species representing 10-30% of ingested mass. Conversely, the sand lizardfish Synodus dermatogenys fed exclusively on fishes including clupeids, gobies and labrids. Differences in the gut contents of the four species recorded were not apparent using stable isotope analysis of muscle tissues. The similarity of ?(13) C values in muscle tissues suggested that carbon within prey was derived from primary producers, with comparable carbon isotope signatures to corals and macroalgae, whilst similarities in ?(15) N values indicated that all four species belonged to the same trophic level. Thus, interspecific differences between mesopredator diets were undetectable when using stable isotope analysis which suggests that detailed elucidation of trophic pathways requires gut content analyses. PMID:24641257

Ashworth, E C; Depczynski, M; Holmes, T H; Wilson, S K

2014-04-01

169

Quantitative Assessment of Early Diabetic Retinopathy Using Fractal Analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12–20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. RESULTS—In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023–1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02–7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21–1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. CONCLUSIONS—Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage. PMID:18835945

Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C.; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L.; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y.

2009-01-01

170

Understanding Maneuver Uncertainties during Inclination Maneuvers of the Aqua Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Fall 2006 inclination campaign for the Aqua spacecraft it was discovered that there was significant uncertainty in the prediction of the semimajor axis change during a maneuver. The low atmospheric drag environment at the time of the maneuvers amplified the effects of this uncertainty leading to a potential violation of the spacecraft ground-track requirements. In order to understand the uncertainty, a Monte Carlo simulation was developed to characterize the expected semi-major axis change uncertainty given the observed behavior of the spacecraft propulsion and attitude control systems during a maneuver. This expected uncertainty was then used to develop new analysis tools to ensure that future inclination maneuver plans will .meet ground-track control requirements in the presence of the error.

McKinley, David P.

2007-01-01

171

PFabrication of gold tips by chemical etching in aqua regia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to produce sharp gold tips for applications in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy. Thin gold wires are tapered by chemical etching in aqua regia, covered by an isooctane protective layer. Tips with apical radii of curvature of <50 nm are obtained with a 40% yield. The tip performances have been checked by shear-force imaging of amyloid fibrils samples and compared to optical fiber probes. The analysis of the tip morphology, carried out by scanning electron microscopy, shows the existence of two different etching processes occurring in bulk and at the liquid-liquid interface. A simple analytical model is presented to describe the dynamics of the tip formation at the liquid-liquid meniscus interface that fits remarkably well the experimental results in terms of tip shape and length.

Bonaccorso, F.; Calogero, G.; Di Marco, G.; Maragò, O. M.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Giorgianni, U.; Channon, K.; Sabatino, G.

2007-10-01

172

SILAC-based quantitative proteomic analysis of gastric cancer secretome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gastric cancer is a commonly occurring cancer in Asia and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. However, there is no reliable blood-based screening test for this cancer. Identifying proteins secreted from tumor cells could lead to the discovery of clinically useful biomarkers for early detection of gastric cancer. Experimental design A SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach was employed to identify secreted proteins that were differentially expressed between neoplastic and non-neoplastic gastric epithelial cells. Proteins from the secretome were subjected to SDS-PAGE and SCX-based fractionation, followed by mass spectrometric analysis on an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. Immunohistochemical labeling was employed to validate a subset of candidates using tissue microarrays. Results We identified 2,205 proteins in the gastric cancer secretome of which 263 proteins were overexpressed >4-fold in gastric cancer-derived cell lines as compared to non-neoplastic gastric epithelial cells. Three candidate proteins, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), lectin mannose binding 2 (LMAN2) and PDGFA associated protein 1 (PDAP1), were validated by immunohistochemical labeling. Conclusions and clinical relevance We report here the largest cancer secretome described to date. The novel biomarkers identified in the current study are excellent candidates for further testing as early detection biomarkers for gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:23161554

Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A.; Balakrishnan, Lavanya; Syed, Nazia; Sekhar, Nirujogi Raja; Katte, Teesta V.; Pinto, Sneha M.; Srikanth, Srinivas M.; Kumar, Praveen; Pawar, Harsh; Kashyap, Manoj K.; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Ashktorab, Hassan; Smoot, Duane T; Ramaswamy, Girija; Kumar, Rekha V.; Cheng, Yulan; Meltzer, Stephen J; Roa, Juan Carlos; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Prasad, T.S. Keshava; Harsha, H. C.; Chatterjee, Aditi; Pandey, Akhilesh

2013-01-01

173

Limits of normality of quantitative thoracic CT analysis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although computed tomography (CT) is widely used to investigate different pathologies, quantitative data from normal populations are scarce. Reference values may be useful to estimate the anatomical or physiological changes induced by various diseases. Methods We analyzed 100 helical CT scans taken for clinical purposes and referred as nonpathological by the radiologist. Profiles were manually outlined on each CT scan slice and each voxel was classified according to its gas/tissue ratio. For regional analysis, the lungs were divided into 10 sterno-vertebral levels. Results We studied 53 males and 47 females (age 64 ± 13 years); males had a greater total lung volume, lung gas volume and lung tissue. Noninflated tissue averaged 7 ± 4% of the total lung weight, poorly inflated tissue averaged 18 ± 3%, normally inflated tissue averaged 65 ± 8% and overinflated tissue averaged 11 ± 7%. We found a significant correlation between lung weight and subject's height (P <0.0001, r2 = 0.49); the total lung capacity in a supine position was 4,066 ± 1,190 ml, ~1,800 ml less than the predicted total lung capacity in a sitting position. Superimposed pressure averaged 2.6 ± 0.5 cmH2O. Conclusion Subjects without lung disease present significant amounts of poorly inflated and overinflated tissue. Normal lung weight can be predicted from patient's height with reasonable confidence. PMID:23706034

2013-01-01

174

Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Association in Live Biological Fluorescent Samples  

PubMed Central

Determining vesicle localization and association in live microscopy may be challenging due to non-simultaneous imaging of rapidly moving objects with two excitation channels. Besides errors due to movement of objects, imaging may also introduce shifting between the image channels, and traditional colocalization methods cannot handle such situations. Our approach to quantifying the association between tagged proteins is to use an object-based method where the exact match of object locations is not assumed. Point-pattern matching provides a measure of correspondence between two point-sets under various changes between the sets. Thus, it can be used for robust quantitative analysis of vesicle association between image channels. Results for a large set of synthetic images shows that the novel association method based on point-pattern matching demonstrates robust capability to detect association of closely located vesicles in live cell-microscopy where traditional colocalization methods fail to produce results. In addition, the method outperforms compared Iterated Closest Points registration method. Results for fixed and live experimental data shows the association method to perform comparably to traditional methods in colocalization studies for fixed cells and to perform favorably in association studies for live cells. PMID:24728133

Mäki, Anita; Huttunen, Heikki; Marjomäki, Varpu

2014-01-01

175

Quantitative analysis of biomedical samples using synchrotron radiation microbeams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using a synchrotron radiation (SR) microbeam was applied to investigate distributions and concentrations of elements in single neurons of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In this paper we introduce a computer code that has been developed to quantify the trace elements and matrix elements at the single cell level. This computer code has been used in studies of several important neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC), as well as in basic biological experiments to determine the elemental changes in cells due to incorporation of foreign metal elements. The substantial nigra (SN) tissue obtained from the autopsy specimens of patients with Guamanian parkinsonism-dementia complex (PDC) and control cases were examined. Quantitative XRF analysis showed that neuromelanin granules of Parkinsonian SN contained higher levels of Fe than those of the control. The concentrations were in the ranges of 2300-3100 ppm and 2000-2400 ppm respectively. On the contrary, Zn and Ni in neuromelanin granules of SN tissue from the PDC case were lower than those of the control. Especially Zn was less than 40 ppm in SN tissue from the PDC case while it was 560-810 ppm in the control. These changes are considered to be closely related to the neuro-degeneration and cell death.

Ektessabi, Ali; Shikine, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Sohei

2001-07-01

176

Quantitative analysis by digital processing of streakline flow visualization images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental technique is described for the quantitative analysis of smoke filament (streakline) flow visualization images. The streakline, smoke droplets emitted by a point source, is illuminated by a sheet of laser light. The 1-2 micron diameter droplets trace the diffusive motions in the flow. Fast photography is performed to record the streaklines using ASA 400 film (an 800 ASA film system is under development). The film frames are scanned by a video camera linked to a mainframe (PDP 11-34) computer to digitize the images within a 256 x 256 pixel grid with 256 gray levels. Sample results are provided from a study of the entrained mixing layer of two plane parallel flows at speeds of 2 and 1 m/sec, respectively. The photography was performed at 600 frames/sec with 1/3000 sec exposures, yielding a spatial resolution of 1.5 mm. The method furnishes data for calculating the probability distribution for the presence of an oil droplet at any point of the flow, as well as recording the turbulent structures which form. Correlations between the vertical displacements of the droplets and the longitudinal speed of the flow permit calculating the frequency of passage of the vortices.

Borleteau, J.-P.; Cognet, G.

1986-01-01

177

Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 ?m width and 100 ?m depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

2012-03-01

178

Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Metabolic Dissipative, Self-Organized Structures  

PubMed Central

One of the most important goals of the postgenomic era is understanding the metabolic dynamic processes and the functional structures generated by them. Extensive studies during the last three decades have shown that the dissipative self-organization of the functional enzymatic associations, the catalytic reactions produced during the metabolite channeling, the microcompartmentalization of these metabolic processes and the emergence of dissipative networks are the fundamental elements of the dynamical organization of cell metabolism. Here we present an overview of how mathematical models can be used to address the properties of dissipative metabolic structures at different organizational levels, both for individual enzymatic associations and for enzymatic networks. Recent analyses performed with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that unicellular organisms display a singular global enzymatic structure common to all living cellular organisms, which seems to be an intrinsic property of the functional metabolism as a whole. Mathematical models firmly based on experiments and their corresponding computational approaches are needed to fully grasp the molecular mechanisms of metabolic dynamical processes. They are necessary to enable the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the cellular catalytic reactions and also to help comprehend the conditions under which the structural dynamical phenomena and biological rhythms arise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic dissipative structures is crucial for unraveling the dynamics of cellular life. PMID:20957111

de la Fuente, Ildefonso Martínez

2010-01-01

179

Quantitative analysis of flagellar proteins in Drosophila sperm tails.  

PubMed

The cilium has a well-defined structure, which can still accommodate some morphological and molecular composition diversity to suit the functional requirements of different cell types. The sperm flagellum of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster appears as a good model to study the genetic regulation of axoneme assembly and motility, due to the wealth of genetic tools publically available for this organism. In addition, the fruit fly's sperm flagellum displays quite a long axoneme (?1.8mm), which may facilitate both histological and biochemical analyses. Here, we present a protocol for imaging and quantitatively analyze proteins, which associate with the fly differentiating, and mature sperm flagella. We will use as an example the quantification of tubulin polyglycylation in wild-type testes and in Bug22 mutant testes, which present defects in the deposition of this posttranslational modification. During sperm biogenesis, flagella appear tightly bundled, which makes it more challenging to get accurate measurements of protein levels from immunostained specimens. The method we present is based on the use of a novel semiautomated, macro installed in the image processing software ImageJ. It allows to measure fluorescence levels in closely associated sperm tails, through an exact distinction between positive and background signals, and provides background-corrected pixel intensity values that can directly be used for data analysis. PMID:25837396

Mendes Maia, Teresa; Paul-Gilloteaux, Perrine; Basto, Renata

2015-01-01

180

Quantitative analysis of carbon in silicon carbide coated with carbon.  

PubMed

Nonconductive specimens for scanning electron microscopy or X-ray microanalysis are coated with conductive carbon in order to reduce charging. But carbon film absorbs X-ray fluxes causing errors in measuring chemical composition. Especially when the carbon content is measured, carbon coating not only blocks X-rays but also becomes a source of carbon X-rays. It is thus necessary to determine how much errors are induced by carbon coating, and how thick coating is allowed for the accurate measurement. In this study, quantitative analysis of carbon on silicon carbide with carbon coating films was attempted by electron probe microanalyzer. It was found that measured carbon content increased in a nonlinear manner up to 40% with a film thickness, whereas silicon content decreased slightly. Carbon X-ray intensity was determined by computer simulation, which increased in a linear manner with the thickness. The discrepancy was due to a nucleation and growth of islands and thus a change of density with a thickening of coating film. PMID:23920162

Lee, Hongrim; Kim, Junsu; Yun, Jondo

2013-08-01

181

Quantitative analysis of enzymatic fractionation of multiple substrate mixtures.  

PubMed

The enzymatic conversion of mixtures of multiple substrates was studied quantitatively, based on established methodology used for the enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures, involving the use of competitive factors: ratios of specificity constants (k(cat)/K(M)) of substrate pairs. The competitive factors of the substrates were defined in relation to a reference substrate. These competitive factors were used to predict the composition of the reaction mixture as a function of the degree of conversion of the reaction. The methodology was evaluated using three different lipases to hydrolyze a model mixture of four fatty acid methyl esters and for the esterification of a mixture of the same fatty acids in free form with ethanol. In most cases, the competitive factors determined from the initial phase of the reactions predicted the product composition during the rest of the reaction very well. The slowest reacting fatty acid was erucic acid (both in free form and as methyl ester), which was thus enriched in the remaining substrate fraction, while the other fatty acids: lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were converted faster. Simulations of the compositions of reaction mixtures with different values of the competitive factors were carried out to provide an overview of what could be achieved using enzymatic enrichment. Possible applications include reactions involving homologous substrates and mixtures of multiple isomers. The analysis presented provides guidelines that can be useful in the screening and development of enzymes for enzymatic enrichment applications. PMID:22811287

Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Adlercreutz, Patrick

2013-01-01

182

Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

2008-08-03

183

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma: quantitative analysis of asbestos burden.  

PubMed

Malignant mesotheliomas develop commonly in the pleural cavity and rarely arise in the peritoneal cavity. It is well established that asbestos exposure is related to malignant pleural mesothelioma, but the asbestos burden in the abdominal cavity in patients with malignant peritoneal mesothelioma has not been well studied. The purpose of the present study was therefore to report on an autopsy case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma with quantitative analysis of the asbestos burden in tissues from the pleura and organs in the abdominal cavity. The patient was a 67-year-old man with a history of asbestos exposure. The peritoneum was thickened with diffuse tumor proliferation. This patient was diagnosed as having malignant peritoneal epithelioid mesothelioma. The number of asbestos fibers was >10,000/g dry tissue in all samples examined except in the small intestine. The number of asbestos fibers in the stomach was 53,000/g, which was higher than that in a control asbestosis subject. The existence of numerous asbestos fibers found in the abdominal cavity suggests that asbestos stimuli are related to the tumorigenesis of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:19883435

Kurimoto, Ryota; Kishimoto, Takashi; Nagai, Yuichiro; Takazawa, Hiroshi; Sakaue, Nobuyuki; Shinohara, Yasushi; Hiroshima, Kenzo

2009-11-01

184

Effectiveness of cleaning surgical implants: quantitative analysis of contaminant removal.  

PubMed

Surgical implants need to be free from contaminants before implantation. The effectiveness of a presently used Clemson bioengineering cleaning (CBC) protocol was evaluated for cleaning three different biomaterials (titanium, aluminum oxide, and polyethylene terephthalate, PET) contaminated with three different contaminants (calcium chloride, zinc chloride, and hexadecane). Radiolabeled tracer analysis (RTA), with the use of liquid scintillation, was used as the surface analytical technique to quantitatively determine the percent contaminant removed from the biomaterial surface. On average, the ultrasonic cleaning step removed 99.96% of all three contaminants from both titanium and aluminum oxide. The CBC protocol did not sufficiently clean PET fabric contaminated with hexadecane leaving 11.76% of the contaminant after the ultrasonic step. With the use of isopropyl alcohol in series with 1% Liquinox, the ultrasonic step cleaned the fabric soiled with hexadecane within 30 min, removing 99.85% of the hexadecane initially on the surface. RTA proved to be an excellent method of quantifying surface contamination on implant materials, and for assessing the effectiveness of cleaning protocols in question. PMID:7703533

Rowland, S A; Shalaby, S W; Latour, R A; von Recum, A F

1995-01-01

185

Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME  

SciTech Connect

To assist the University of Maine in demonstrating a clear pathway to project completion, PNNL has developed visualization models of the Aqua Ventus I project that accurately depict the Aqua Ventus I turbines from various points on Monhegain Island, ME and the surrounding area. With a hub height of 100 meters, the Aqua Ventus I turbines are large and may be seen from many areas on Monhegan Island, potentially disrupting important viewsheds. By developing these visualization models, which consist of actual photographs taken from Monhegan Island and the surrounding area with the Aqua Ventus I turbines superimposed within each photograph, PNNL intends to support the project’s siting and permitting process by providing the Monhegan Island community and various other stakeholders with a probable glimpse of how the Aqua Ventus I project will appear.

Hanna, Luke A.; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

2013-11-27

186

Quantitative petrographic analysis of Cretaceous sandstones from southwest Montana  

SciTech Connect

The Albian Blackleaf Formation and the Cenomanian lower Frontier Formation in southwest Montana lie within or east of the fold and thrust belt in the Cretaceous foreland basin complex. Petrography of these strata record a complex interaction between source-area tectonism, basin subsidence, and sedimentation patterns associated with a cyclic sequence of transgressions and regressions. Because the petrographic data set was large (127 thin sections) and difficult to interpret subjectively, statistical techniques were used to establish sample and variable relationships. Theta-mode cluster and correspondence analysis were used to determine the contributing effect (total variance) of key framework grains. Monocrystalline quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, and sandstone-, limestone-, and volcanic-lithic grain content contribute most to the variation in the framework-grain population. Theta-mode cluster and correspondence analysis were used to identify six petrofacies. Lower Blackleaf petrofacies (I-III) contain abundant monocrystalline quartz (55-90%) and sedimentary lithic grains (10-50%), which are distributed throughout the study area. Petrofacies I-III are differentiated by variable monocrystalline quartz and sedimentary lithic grain content. Upper Blackleaf and lower Frontier petrofacies (IV-VI) exhibit highly variable, sedimentary and volcanic lithic ratios, and contain less monocrystalline quartz (20-50%) than lower Blackleaf petrofacies. Information from quantitative analyses combined with available paleocurrent data indicates that Blackleaf and lower Frontier detritus was derived from variable source areas through time. Lower Blackleaf detritus was derived from Precambrian through Paleozoic sedimentary terranes to the west, north, and east; whereas, upper Blackleaf and lower Frontier detritus was derived from both sedimentary and volcanic terranes to the south.

Dyman, T.S. Krystinik, K.B.; Takahashi, K.I.

1986-05-01

187

Communication about vaccinations in Italian websites: a quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Babies' parents and people who look for information about vaccination often visit anti-vaccine movement's websites, blogs by naturopathic physicians or natural and alternative medicine practitioners. The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative analysis on the type of information available to Italian people regarding vaccination and a quality analysis of websites retrieved through our searches. A quality score was created to evaluate the technical level of websites. A research was performed through Yahoo, Google, and MSN using the keywords "vaccine" and "vaccination," with the function "OR" in order to identify the most frequently used websites. The 2 keywords were input in Italian, and the first 15 pages retrieved by each search engine were analyzed. 149 websites were selected through this methodology. Fifty-three per cent of the websites belonged to associations, groups, or scientific companies, 32.2% (n = 48) consisted of a personal blog and 14.8% (n = 22) belonged to some of the National Health System offices. Among all analyzed websites, 15.4% (n = 23) came from anti-vaccine movement groups. 37.6% reported webmaster name, 67.8% webmaster e-mail, 28.6% indicated the date of the last update and 46.6% the author's name. The quality score for government sites was higher on average than anti-vaccine websites; although, government sites don't use Web 2.0 functions, as the forums.: National Health System institutions who have to promote vaccination cannot avoid investing in web communication because it cannot be managed by private efforts but must be the result of Public Health, private and scientific association, and social movement synergy. PMID:24607988

Tafuri, Silvio; Gallone, Maria S; Gallone, Maria F; Zorico, Ivan; Aiello, Valeria; Germinario, Cinzia

2014-05-01

188

A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

2007-01-01

189

The Trouble With Tailings: How Alteration Mineralogy can Hinder Quantitative Phase Analysis of Mineral Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative phase analysis, using the Rietveld method and X-ray powder-diffraction data, has become a standard technique for analysis of mineral waste from mining operations. This method relies upon the availability of well defined crystal structures for all detectable mineral phases in a sample. An even more basic assumption, central to quantitative mineralogy, is that all significant mineral phases can be

S. A. Wilson; S. J. Mills; G. M. Dipple; M. Raudsepp

2009-01-01

190

Multivariate analysis of allozymic and quantitative trait variation in Alnus rubra  

E-print Network

Multivariate analysis of allozymic and quantitative trait variation in Alnus rubra: geographic (Alnus rubra Bong.). Principal components analysis showed that variation in quantitative traits can ont étudié la différenciation géographique parmi 65 provenances d'aulne rouge (Alnus rubra Bong.) de

Hamann, Andreas

191

Quantitative Analysis by Isotopic Dilution Using Mass Spectroscopy: The Determination of Caffeine by GC-MS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory technique for quantitative analysis of caffeine by an isotopic dilution method for coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Discusses caffeine analysis and experimental methodology. Lists sample caffeine concentrations found in common products. (MVL)

Hill, Devon W.; And Others

1988-01-01

192

Abstract--Combining content analysis of television programs with quantitative audience measurement can  

E-print Network

Abstract-- Combining content analysis of television programs with quantitative audience measurement can provide insights into customer reactions to advertisements and program content. This work environment with metadata from a content-based analysis of recorded programs. Evaluated on a collection

Fisher, Kathleen

193

Quantitative analysis of mycoflora on commercial domestic fruits in Japan.  

PubMed

A comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the mycoflora on the surface of commercial fruit was performed. Nine kinds of fruits grown in Japan were tested. Overall fungal counts on the fruits ranged from 3.1 to 6.5 log CFU/g. The mean percentages of the total yeast counts were higher than those of molds in samples of apples, Japanese pears, and strawberries, ranging from 58.5 to 67.0%, and were lower than those of molds in samples of the other six fruits, ranging from 9.8 to 48.3%. Cladosporium was the most frequent fungus and was found in samples of all nine types of fruits, followed by Penicillium found in eight types of fruits. The fungi with the highest total counts in samples of the various fruits were Acremonium in cantaloupe melons (47.6% of the total fungal count), Aspergillus in grapes (32.2%), Aureobasidium in apples (21.3%), blueberries (63.6%), and peaches (33.6%), Cladosporium in strawberries (38.4%), Cryptococcus in Japanese pears (37.6%), Penicillium in mandarins (22.3%), and Sporobolomyces in lemons (26.9%). These results demonstrated that the mycoflora on the surfaces of these fruits mainly consists of common pre- and postharvest inhabitants of the plants or in the environment; fungi that produce mycotoxins or cause market diseases were not prominent in the mycoflora of healthy fruits. These findings suggest fruits should be handled carefully with consideration given to fungal contaminants, including nonpathogenic fungi, to control the quality of fruits and processed fruit products. PMID:21902918

Watanabe, Maiko; Tsutsumi, Fumiyuki; Konuma, Rumi; Lee, Ken-Ichi; Kawarada, Kensuke; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Kumagai, Susumu; Takatori, Kosuke; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

2011-09-01

194

Quantitative Time-Resolved Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Mast Cell Signaling  

PubMed Central

Mast cells play a central role in type I hypersensitivity reactions and allergic disorders such as anaphylaxis and asthma. Activation of mast cells, through a cascade of phosphorylation events, leads to the release of mediators of the early phase allergic response. Understanding the molecular architecture underlying mast cell signaling may provide possibilities for therapeutic intervention in asthma and other allergic diseases. Although many details of mast cell signaling have been described previously, a systematic, quantitative analysis of the global tyrosine phosphorylation events that are triggered by activation of the mast cell receptor is lacking. In many cases, the involvement of particular proteins in mast cell signaling has been established generally but the precise molecular mechanism of the interaction between known signaling proteins often mediated through phosphorylation is still obscure. Using recently advanced methodologies in mass spectrometry, including automation of phosphopeptide enrichments and detection, we have now substantially characterized, with temporal resolution as short as 10 s, the sites and levels of tyrosine phosphorylation across 10 min of Fc?RI-induced mast cell activation. These results reveal a far more extensive array of tyrosine phosphorylation events than previously known, including novel phosphorylation sites on canonical mast cell signaling molecules, as well as unexpected pathway components downstream of Fc?RI activation. Furthermore, our results, for the first time in mast cells, reveal the sequence of phosphorylation events for 171 modification sites across 121 proteins in the MCP5 mouse mast cell line and 179 modification sites on 117 proteins in mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells. PMID:17947660

Cao, Lulu; Yu, Kebing; Banh, Cindy; Nguyen, Vinh; Ritz, Anna; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Kawakami, Yuko; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Salomon, Arthur R.

2009-01-01

195

Hydrocarbons On Phoebe, Iapetus, And Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-bys of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at 3.28 ?m ( 3050 cm-1), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range 3.36-3.52 ?m ( 2980-2840 cm-1). In these data, the aromatic band, probably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signature among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph 24; for Hyperion the value is 12, while Iapetus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on Iapetus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Clark, R. N.

2012-10-01

196

Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-bys of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at ~3.28 ?m (~3050 cm-1), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range ~3.36-3.52 ?m (~2980-2840 cm-1). In these data, the aromatic band, probably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signature among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph ~24; for Hyperion the value is ~12, while Iapetus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 ~2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on Iapetus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Clark, R. N.

2012-12-01

197

AquaEnv : An Aqua tic Acid–Base Modelling Env ironment in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

AquaEnv\\u000a is an integrated software package for aquatic chemical model generation focused on ocean acidification and antropogenic CO2 uptake. However, the package is not restricted to the carbon cycle or the oceans: it calculates, converts, and visualizes\\u000a information necessary to describe pH, related CO2 air–water exchange, as well as aquatic acid–base chemistry in general for marine, estuarine or freshwater systems.

Andreas F. HofmannKarline; Karline Soetaert; Jack J. Middelburg; Filip J. R. Meysman

2010-01-01

198

New aqua rhenium oxocomplex; synthesis, characterization, thermal studies, DFT calculations and catalytic oxidations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqua rhenium oxocomplex [ReO(OH)(H2O)4]2? (1) has been prepared and characterized by spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and elemental analysis and its reactivity towards triphenylphosphine has been evaluated. Complex (1) acts as a catalyst precursor in the presence of molecular oxygen for the oxidation of PPh3 to OPPh3. This proceeds through complex intermediates like [Re(PPh3)n]3+ (2), and [ReO(PPh3)n]3+ (3). The newly prepared complex

Refat Mahfouz; Eida Al-Frag; M. Rafiq H. Siddiqui; Waed Z. Al-kiali; O. Karama

2011-01-01

199

Overview of the Aqua\\/AMSR-E 2003 soil moisture experiment in Brazil (SMEX03 Brazil)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents an overview of the field design and satellite data analysis strategy of the Brazilian SMEX03 (Soil Moisture Experiment in 2003) campaign. The goal of the SMEX03 Brazil is to validate existing algorithms to retrieve soil moisture from Aqua\\/AMSR-E data under tropical savanna vegetation cover. The test site corresponded to the Barreiras region, located in the western part

E. E. Sano; E. D. Assad; T. J. Jackson; W. Crow; A. Hsu

2004-01-01

200

A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.  

PubMed

Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (?-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected. PMID:23775063

Christopher, Matthew E; Warmenhoeven, John-William; Romolo, Francesco S; Donghi, Matteo; Webb, Roger P; Jeynes, Christopher; Ward, Neil I; Kirkby, Karen J; Bailey, Melanie J

2013-08-21

201

Quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance for the structural and quantitative analysis of atropine sulfate.  

PubMed

This study assessed a general method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) for the calibration of atropine sulfate (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient, API) as reference standard. The spectra were acquired in D2O using maleic acid as the internal standard. Conformational behaviors of tropane ring were observed and studied by means of NMR and ROESY experiments at different temperature, which showed that the azine methyl group was at equilibrium for axial and equatorial conformations at room temperature. Signal delay and monitor signals of qNMR experimentation were optimized for quantification. The study reported here validated the method's linearity, range, limit of quantification, stability and precision. The results were consistent with the results obtained from mass balance approach. PMID:24280740

Shen, Shi; Yao, Jing; Shi, Yaqin

2014-02-01

202

Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis of the Early Domestication of Sunflower  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domes- tication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In

David M. Wills; John M. Burke

2007-01-01

203

Ethnicity and body image: Quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cultural diversity in body image has been studied elsewhere. In this study, we extend previous research by inclusion of (1) multiple ethnic groups for comparison and (2) measures for the assessment of multiple dimensions of body image. Method: Partici- pants were college students who self-identified as African, Asian, Caucasian, or Hispanic- American. Quantitative measures of weight-related body image and

Madeline Altabe

1998-01-01

204

Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive

A M Gotham; R G Brown; C D Marsden

1986-01-01

205

Quantitative analysis of experimental and synthetic microstructures for sedimentary rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative comparison between the experimental microstructure of a sedimentary rock and three theoretical models for the same rock is presented. The microstructure of the rock sample (Fontainebleau sandstone) was obtained by microtomography. Two of the models are stochastic models based on correlation function reconstruction, and one model is based on sedimentation, compaction and diagenesis combined with input from petrographic

B. Biswal; C. Manwart; R. Hilfer; S. Bakke; P. E. Øren

1999-01-01

206

Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor

1988-01-01

207

Quantitative analysis of pyrolytic carbon films by polarized light microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of differently textured pyrolytic carbon films were quantitatively analyzed by polarized light microscopy. The light intensity for the investigation of optically anisotropic and birefringent materials by polarized light microscopy was calculated as a function of the analyzer angle and the orientation of the material. From these calculations the dependence of the extinction angle on the optical properties

Andreas Pfrang; Thomas Schimmel

2004-01-01

208

Quantitative analysis of alternate oil spill response strategies using OSCAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional numerical model of the physical and chemical behavior and fate of spilled oil has been coupled to a model of oil spill response actions. This coupled system of models for Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR), provides a tool for quantitative, objective assessment of alternative oil spill response strategies. Criteria for response effectiveness can be either physical (‘How

Mark Reed; Ole Morten Aamo; Per S. Daling

1995-01-01

209

Quantitative XRD analysis of zirconia-toughened alumina ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation is proposed to give, from XRD data, the tetragonal to monoclinic phase ratio of zirconia in a toughened alumina ceramic material. Using several X-ray wavelengths, with different depths of penetration, quantitative analyses of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase ratio of zirconia as a function of depth were performed, on an as-sintered sample as well as on treated specimens.

R. Fillit; R. P. Homerin; R. J. Schafer; R. H. Bruyas; R. F. Thevenot

1987-01-01

210

Quantitative phase analysis of boron nitride nanotubes using Rietveld refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with an average outer diameter of about 40 nm and several micrometres in length were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition from boron and magnesium oxide. Rietveld refinement and 11B solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to quantitatively determine the phase of synthesized BNNTs. The structural parameters for the BNNTs were determined by Rietveld

Yong-Il Kim; Jae Kap Jung; Kwon-Sang Ryu; Seung-Hoon Nahm; Duncan H. Gregory

2005-01-01

211

Quantitative Analysis of Human Milk Oligosaccharides by Capillary Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human milk oligosaccharides may have important biological activities. 1 We developed a sensitive, convenient, quantitative method for the routine study of sialylated (acidic, negatively charged) oligosaccharides in large numbers of milk samples. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with detection at 205 nm was sensitive to the femtomole level and could resolve and quantify nine acidic oligosaccharides in milk, ranging from tri- to

David S. Newburg; Zuojun Shen; Christopher D. Warren

212

Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  

PubMed

An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M

1995-06-01

213

Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

Boose, David L.

2014-01-01

214

Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch, TCGA Scientitifc Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch, TCGA

215

Multi observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment  

E-print Network

1 Multi observation PET image analysis for patient follow-up quantitation and therapy assessment S Institut Telecom - Telecom Bretagne, Brest, F-29200 France. Abstract. In Positron Emission Tomography (PET-quantitative parameters restricted to maximum SUV measured in PET scans during the treatment. Such measurements do

Brest, Université de

216

An Inexpensive Electrodeposition Device and Its Use in a Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental procedure, using an apparatus that is easy to construct, was developed to incorporate a quantitative electrogravimetric determination of the solution nickel content into an undergraduate or advanced high school quantitative analysis laboratory. This procedure produces results comparable to the procedure used for the gravimetric…

Parker, Richard H.

2011-01-01

217

Quantitative Trait Linkage Analysis by Generalized Estimating Equations: Unification of Variance Components  

E-print Network

Quantitative Trait Linkage Analysis by Generalized Estimating Equations: Unification of Variance with quantitative traits in humans include variance components and Haseman-Elston regression. Previously, these were equations (GEE), for which the variance components and Haseman-Elston methods (including many

Broman, Karl W.

218

Methods for Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial Structure of Dendrites \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Methods for Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial Structure of Dendrites \\Lambda Eyal Ben. Thus, a major goal in neuroscience is to develop the methodology and tools to analyze quantitatively the 3D structure of dendrites. Such tools would be extremely useful to identify and quantify the changes

Katz, Matthew "Matya"

219

Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth - Duration: 116 seconds.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...

220

Calibration Adjustments to the MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the end of the SeaWiFS mission in 2010 and the MERIS mission in 2012, the ocean color products of the MODIS on Aqua are the only remaining source to continue the ocean color climate data record until the VIIRS ocean color products become operational (expected for summer 2013). The MODIS on Aqua is well beyond its expected lifetime, and the calibration accuracy of the short wavelengths (412nm and 443nm) has deteriorated in recent years_ Initially, SeaWiFS data were used to improve the MODIS Aqua calibration, but this solution was not applicable after the end of the SeaWiFS mission_ In 2012, a new calibration methodology was applied by the MODIS calibration and support team using desert sites to improve the degradation trending_ This presentation presents further improvements to this new approach. The 2012 reprocessing of the MODIS Aqua ocean color products is based on the new methodology.

Meister, Gerhard

2012-01-01

221

Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Building No. 905, showing typical aqua medias or rain hoods - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

222

Aqua MODIS 8-Year On-Orbit Operation and Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched in May 2002, the NASA EOS Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for more than 8 years. Observations from Aqua MODIS and its predecessor, Terra MODIS, have generated an unprecedented amount of data products and made significant contributions to studies of changes in the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). It has a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), providing sensor on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization. This paper briefly summarizes Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and illustrates instrument on-orbit performance from launch to present. Discussions are focused on OBC functions and changes in detector radiometric gains, spectral responses, and spatial registrations. With ongoing calibration effort, Aqua MODIS will continue serving the science community with high quality data products

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Choi, Taeyoung; Dodd, Jennifer; Geng, Xu; Wang, Zhipeng; Toller, Gary; Barnes, William

2010-01-01

223

Factors Affecting Akinete Differentiation in Anabaena flos-aquae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pH values, nutrients, and preserving temperature on akinete formation in Anabaena flos-aquae were examined at 30 ± 2 ? exposed to fluorescent light at an intensity of 3000lux. A marked effect of pH 6 and pH 7 on akinete formation was observed. At the third day, A. flos-aquae subjected to pH 6 and pH 7 developed the

Qidong Wan; Xiumin Sun; Rui Chen; Peizhong Zheng; Wenyu Lu; Jianying Shen

2011-01-01

224

Quantitative sectioning and noise analysis for structured illumination microscopy  

PubMed Central

Structured illumination (SI) has long been regarded as a nonquantitative technique for obtaining sectioned microscopic images. Its lack of quantitative results has restricted the use of SI sectioning to qualitative imaging experiments, and has also limited researchers’ ability to compare SI against competing sectioning methods such as confocal microscopy. We show how to modify the standard SI sectioning algorithm to make the technique quantitative, and provide formulas for calculating the noise in the sectioned images. The results indicate that, for an illumination source providing the same spatially-integrated photon flux at the object plane, and for the same effective slice thicknesses, SI sectioning can provide higher SNR images than confocal microscopy for an equivalent setup when the modulation contrast exceeds about 0.09. PMID:22274364

Hagen, Nathan; Gao, Liang; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.

2011-01-01

225

Semi-quantitative spectrographic analysis and rank correlation in geochemistry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The rank correlation coefficient, rs, which involves less computation than the product-moment correlation coefficient, r, can be used to indicate the degree of relationship between two elements. The method is applicable in situations where the assumptions underlying normal distribution correlation theory may not be satisfied. Semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses which are reported as grouped or partly ranked data can be used to calculate rank correlations between elements. ?? 1957.

Flanagan, F.J.

1957-01-01

226

A quantitative performance analysis model for GPU architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a microbenchmark-based performance model for NVIDIA GeForce 200-series GPUs. Our model identifies GPU program bottlenecks and quantitatively analyzes performance, and thus allows programmers and architects to predict the benefits of potential program optimizations and architectural improvements. In particular, we use a microbenchmark-based approach to develop a throughput model for three major components of GPU execution time: the instruction

Yao Zhang; John D. Owens

2011-01-01

227

Automated Quantitative Analysis of Capnogram Shape for COPD–Normal and COPD–CHF Classification  

E-print Network

We develop an approach to quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide concentration in exhaled breath, recorded as a function of time by capnography. The generated waveform – or capnogram – is currently used in clinical practice ...

Mieloszyk, Rebecca J.

228

Formal Specification and Quantitative Analysis of a Constellation of Navigation Satellites  

E-print Network

Formal Specification and Quantitative Analysis of a Constellation of Navigation Satellites a single satellite and a navigation satellite constellation and logical specification of their reliability in satellite constellations Correspondence to: Yu Lu, School of Computing Science, University of Glasgow

Miller, Alice

229

What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite History  

E-print Network

1 What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite History of Communication Satellite History by Zoe Szajnfarber Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics tradeoffs associated with adopting this principle in the context of communication satellites

de Weck, Olivier L.

230

Introduction to the Special Issue: Mineral prospectivity analysis and quantitative resource estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introduction provides an overview of the history, present status, and future perspective of research in the fields of mineral prospectivity analysis and quantitative resource estimation. It also summarizes the papers included in the Special Issue.

Alok K. Porwal; Oliver P. Kreuzer

2010-01-01

231

Optimal climate policy is a utopia: from quantitative to qualitative cost-benefit analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominance of quantitative cost-benefit analysis (CBA) and optimality concepts in the economic analysis of climate policy is criticised. Among others, it is argued to be based in a misplaced interpretation of policy for a complex climate–economy system as being analogous to individual inter-temporal welfare optimisation. The transfer of quantitative CBA and optimality concepts reflects an overly ambitious approach that

2004-01-01

232

Significance analysis of microarray for relative quantitation of LC\\/MS data in proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although fold change is a commonly used criterion in quantitative proteomics for differentiating regulated proteins, it does not provide an estimation of false positive and false negative rates that is often desirable in a large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis. We explore the possibility of applying the Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) method (PNAS 98:5116-5121) to a differential proteomics problem of

Bryan A. P. Roxas; Qingbo Li

2008-01-01

233

Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s?1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is cp = 0.15. The v3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively.

Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

2015-03-01

234

Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently, two nearly identical MODIS instruments are operating in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths covering from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Since launch, MODIS observations and data products have contributed significantly to studies of changes in the Earth system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. To maintain its on-orbit calibration and data product quality, MODIS was built with a comprehensive set of on-board calibrators, consisting of a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and an on-board blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). Both instruments have demonstrated good performance. The primary Level 1 B (LIB) data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for RSB and radiance for TEB This paper provides an overview of MODIS calibration methodologies, activities, lifetime on-orbit performance and challenging issues for each MODIS, the impact on LIB product quality, and lessons learned for future sensors such as the NPOESS VIIRS.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Kuyper, James; Salomonson, Vicent; Barmes. William

2008-01-01

235

Quantitative phenotypic analysis of multistress response in Zygosaccharomyces rouxii complex.  

PubMed

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii complex comprises three yeasts clusters sourced from sugar- and salt-rich environments: haploid Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, diploid Zygosaccharomyces sapae and allodiploid/aneuploid strains of uncertain taxonomic affiliations. These yeasts have been characterized with respect to gene copy number variation, karyotype variability and change in ploidy, but functional diversity in stress responses has not been explored yet. Here, we quantitatively analysed the stress response variation in seven strains of the Z. rouxii complex by modelling growth variables via model and model-free fitting methods. Based on the spline fit as most reliable modelling method, we resolved different interstrain responses to 15 environmental perturbations. Compared with Z. rouxii CBS 732(T) and Z. sapae strains ABT301(T) and ABT601, allodiploid strain ATCC 42981 and aneuploid strains CBS 4837 and CBS 4838 displayed higher multistress resistance and better performance in glycerol respiration even in the presence of copper. ?-based logarithmic phenotypic index highlighted that ABT601 is a slow-growing strain insensitive to stress, whereas ABT301(T) grows fast on rich medium and is sensitive to suboptimal conditions. Overall, the differences in stress response could imply different adaptation mechanisms to sugar- and salt-rich niches. The obtained phenotypic profiling contributes to provide quantitative insights for elucidating the adaptive mechanisms to stress in halo- and osmo-tolerant Zygosaccharomyces yeasts. PMID:24533625

Solieri, Lisa; Dakal, Tikam C; Bicciato, Silvio

2014-06-01

236

iTRAQ-based quantitative secretome analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

The basidiomycete fungi such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium secrete large amount of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and degrade lignocellulosic biomass. The lignin depolymerizing proteins were extensively studied, but cellulose, hemicellulose and pectin hydrolyzing enzymes were poorly explored. In this study P. chrysosporium was grown in cellulose, lignin and mixture of cellulose and lignin, and secretory proteins were quantified by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). An iTRAQ quantified 117 enzymes comprising cellulose hydrolyzing endoglucanases, exoglucanases, beta-glucosidases; hemicelluloses hydrolyzing xylanases, acetylxylan esterases, mannosidases, mannanases; pectin-degrading enzymes polygalacturonase, rhamnogalacturonase, arabinose and lignin degrading protein belonging to oxidoreductase family. Under cellulose and cellulose with lignin culture conditions, enzymes such as endoglucanases, exoglucanases, ?-glucosidases and cellobiose dehydrogenase were significantly upregulated and iTRAQ data suggested hydrolytic and oxidative cellulose degradation. When lignin was used as a major carbon source, enzymes such as copper radical oxidase, isoamyl oxidase, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin peroxidase, quinone oxidoreductase, aryl alcohol oxidase, pyranose 2-oxidase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and alcohol dehydrogenase were expressed and significantly regulated. This study explored cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin degrading enzymes of P. chrysosporium that are valuable for lignocellulosic bioenergy. PMID:21945728

Manavalan, Arulmani; Adav, Sunil S; Sze, Siu Kwan

2011-12-21

237

Technologies of quantitative, color, and dynamic image analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of analysis of objects characterized by wide variety of sizes, shapes, color and type of dynamics are described. Application of automatic video control systems for granulometric analysis of various metal powders and grinded materials used in dispenser elements of electrovacuum devices is illustrated. The results of color analysis of millet seeds images having different color shade are given. The features of optoelectronic detection and computer diagnostics of complex movements of the freshwater crayfish Daphnia eye are considered.

Abramov, Anton V.; Usanov, Dmitry A.; Skripal, Alexander V.; Usanov, Andrey D.; Skripal, Anatoli V.

2002-05-01

238

Quantitative analysis of inhomogeneous luminance effect on visibility of text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, we measured the visibility of several types of Japanese text on a liquid crystal display (LCD) with a spatially inhomogeneous luminance and extended the visibility index function (VIF) to explain the current experimental results with a higher degree of accuracy. We quantitatively analyzed the effect of an inhomogeneous luminance, which was produced by the graphical representation of a background without reflected light and by reflected light on a homogeneous background. These results showed that the visibility of text was influenced by the inhomogeneity of the background luminance in a domain that depended on text size. Then we applied a weighted average background luminance with a two dimensional Gaussian function, whose distribution width was related to the text size, to VIF. Finally, we proposed a modified VIF and showed that the new method was able to precisely estimate the actual visibility of text with an inhomogeneous luminance.

Haraguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Taka-Aki; Okajima, Katsunori

2009-11-01

239

Ethnicity and body image: quantitative and qualitative analysis  

E-print Network

Abstract: Objective: Cultural diversity in body image has been studied elsewhere. In this study, we extend previous research by inclusion of (1) multiple ethnic groups for comparison and (2) measures for the assessment of multiple dimensions of body image. Method: Participants were college students who self-identified as African, Asian, Caucasian, or Hispanic-American. Quantitative measures of weight-related body image and general appearance body image were included. General body image was also assessed qualitatively. Results: Caucasian and Hispanic-Americans showed more weight-related body image disturbance than African-Americans and Asian-Americans. African-Americans had the most positive general appearance body image. Ethnic groups were generally similar in their ideal body image traits but some differences occurred for the valuing of skin color and breast size. Discussion: This study highlights the importance of studying multiple ethnic groups with multiple measures, rather than simply comparing non-Caucasians to Caucasians on weight-related body

Madeline Altabe

1998-01-01

240

MICROFLUIDIC PLATFORM FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEUKOCYTE MIGRATION SIGNATURES  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte migration into tissues is characteristic of inflammation. It is usually measured in vitro as the average displacement of populations of cells towards a chemokine gradient, not acknowledging other patterns of cell migration. Here, we designed and validated a microfluidic migration platform to simultaneously analyze four qualitative migration patterns: chemo-attraction, -repulsion, -kinesis and -inhibition, using single-cell quantitative metrics of direction, speed, persistence, and fraction of cells responding. We find that established chemokines C5a and IL-8 induce chemoattraction and repulsion in equal proportions, resulting in the dispersal of cells. These migration signatures are characterized by high persistence and speed and are independent of the chemokine dose or receptor expression. Furthermore, we find that twice as many T-lymphocytes migrate away than towards SDF-1 and their directional migration patterns are not persistent. Overall, our platform characterizes migratory signature responses and uncovers an avenue for precise characterization of leukocyte migration and therapeutic modulators. PMID:25183261

Wong, Elisabeth; Briscoe, David M.; Irimia, Daniel

2014-01-01

241

Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

1997-08-01

242

Quantitative analysis of CT scans of ceramic candle filters  

SciTech Connect

Candle filters are being developed to remove coal ash and other fine particles (<15{mu}m) from hot (ca. 1000 K) gas streams. In the present work, a color scanner was used to digitize hard-copy CT X-ray images of cylindrical SiC filters, and linear regressions converted the scanned (color) data to a filter density for each pixel. These data, with the aid of the density of SiC, gave a filter porosity for each pixel. Radial averages, density-density correlation functions, and other statistical analyses were performed on the density data. The CT images also detected the presence and depth of cracks that developed during usage of the filters. The quantitative data promise to be a very useful addition to the color images.

Ferer, M.V. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Smith, D.H. [Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

243

Quantitative Analysis of Salivary TNF-? in Oral Lichen Planus Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in oral lichen planus patients and to compare the levels of TNF-? between saliva and serum of OLP and controls. Methods. Serum and whole saliva from 30 patients with active lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) and 30 healthy persons were investigated for the presence of TNF-? by enzyme immunoassay. Student's independent t-test and two-sample binomial proportion test were used to calculate significance of the mean values of TNF-alpha in serum and saliva and to determine the proportions of the detected and nondetected samples in both groups. Results. Proportion of detection and the mean of detectability between saliva and serum of Group B show an almost equal value, which suggests that saliva can be a good alternate to serum to analyze TNF-? in oral lichen planus patients.

Malarkodi, T.; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

2015-01-01

244

Signature lipid biomarker analysis for the quantitative analysis of environmental microbial ecology  

SciTech Connect

The assessment of microbes and their in situ interactions in various environments has proved to be a difficult task requiring the application of non-traditional methodology. Classical microbiological methods, that were so successful with infectious disease, have severe limitations for the analysis of environmental samples. Pure-culture isolation, biochemical testing and/or enumeration by direct microscopic counting or most probable number (MPN) destroy most of the interactions between the various components within the environment. These disruptive methods, which require isolation, are not well suited for the estimation of total biomass or the assessment of community composition within environmental samples. These classical methods provide little insight into the in situ phenotypic activity of the extant microbiota since several of these techniques are dependent on microbial growth and, thus, select against many environmental microorganisms which are non-culturable under a wide range of conditions. An analysis method was developed for quantitatively determining microbial communities in slimes, muds, soils, bioreactors, and sediments.

White, D.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ringelberg, D.B. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1996-12-31

245

Tropospheric Temperature Trends on Decadal Scale from Measurements on Aqua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advance Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) measurements carried out on Aqua satellite in 2002-2011 to infer mid-tropospheric temperature variability on decadal time scale. Since AMSU soundings are independent on the CO2 its measurements track natural climate variability. However the AIRS sounding channels at AMSU comparable levels are sensitive to the changes in CO2. The difference between AIRS and AMSU removes the natural variability and reveals the variability of CO2. The trend in AIRS data is determined accurately. Thus its surface channels drift less than 5 mK/yr based on the validation with sea surface temperatures measured by ocean buys. The AMSU weighing functions do not localized near the sea surface. Comparison of trends in the difference record with the CO2 trends found from the ground stations and with the trends determined directly from the mid-tropospheric global CO2 retrieved from the same satellite data allows us to evaluate the long-term stability of the widely used AMSU measurements, and, once the stability is established, to use the AMSU-AIRS difference records for diagnostic of the atmospheric CO2 data. The analysis of AMSU-AIRS differences reveals different trends over oceans, over localized land regions, and zonally averaged regions, which we interpret as related to CO2 transport effects. This work was supported by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Ruzmaikin, A.; Aumann, H. H.

2011-12-01

246

Quantitative Analysis of the Leakage of Confidential Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Basic information theory is used to analyse the amount of confidential information which may be leaked by programs written in a very simple imperative language. In particular, a detailed analysis is given of the possible leakage due to equality tests and if statements. The analysis is presented as a set of syntax-directed inference rules and can readily be automated.

David Clark; Sebastian Hunt; Pasquale Malacaria

2001-01-01

247

Response Neighborhoods in Online Learning Networks: A Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical foundation of Response mechanisms in networks of online learners are revealed by Statistical Analysis of p* Markov Models for the Networks. Our comparative analysis of two networks shows that the minimal-effort hunt-for-social-capital mechanism controls a major behavior of both networks: negative tendency to respond. Differences in…

Aviv, Reuven; Erlich, Zippy; Ravid, Gilad

2005-01-01

248

Phase analysis in duplex stainless steel: comparison of EBSD and quantitative metallography methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the research was to work out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phases in DSS in as-received state and after thermal aging. For quantitative purposes, SEM observations, EDS analyses and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were employed. Qualitative analysis of phases was performed by two methods: EBSD and classical quantitative metallography. A juxtaposition of different etchants for the revealing of microstructure and brief review of sample preparation methods for EBSD studies were presented. Different ways of sample preparation were tested and based on these results a detailed methodology of DSS phase analysis was developed including: surface finishing, selective etching methods and image acquisition. The advantages and disadvantages of applied methods were pointed out and compared the accuracy of the analysis phase performed by both methods.

Michalska, J.; Chmiela, B.

2014-03-01

249

Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

2004-01-01

250

Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body, a wide variety of technologies was developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development coupled with recent advances in video technology have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System to develop data on shirt-sleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The system is described.

Probe, John D.

1990-01-01

251

Quantitative movement analysis of social behavior in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Group living among fishes has notable biological significance for individual well being and survival. However, group swimming\\u000a dynamics have been historically difficult to quantify due to the complexity of the different movement patterns. This study\\u000a describes and evaluates software developed for the analysis of schooling, shoaling, and solitary behaviors in the mummichog,\\u000a Fundulus heteroclitus. Analysis of simulated data sets indicated

J. D. Salierno; G. T. Gipson; A. S. Kane

2008-01-01

252

A Quantitative Content Analysis of Mercer University MEd, EdS, and Doctoral Theses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative content analysis of a body of research not only helps budding researchers understand the culture, language, and expectations of scholarship, it helps identify deficiencies and inform policy and practice. Because of these benefits, an analysis of a census of 980 Mercer University MEd, EdS, and doctoral theses was conducted. Each thesis…

Randolph, Justus J.; Gaiek, Lura S.; White, Torian A.; Slappey, Lisa A.; Chastain, Andrea; Harris, Rose Prejean

2010-01-01

253

Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

Hess, Amber Victoria Irish

2007-01-01

254

Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative analysis of carbohydrates is a fundamental analytical tool used in many aspects of biology and chemistry. We have adapted a technique developed by Mathews et al. using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity using both the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose. Breakdown…

Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank

2008-01-01

255

Quantitative Analysis of Escherichia coli Metabolic Phenotypes within the Context of Phenotypic Phase Planes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In silico models of Escherichia coli metabolism have been developed to predict metabolic behavior and propose experimentally testable hypotheses. However, a thorough assessment of the metabolic phenotype requires well-designed experimentation and reproducible experimental techniques. A method for the quantitative analysis of E. coli metabolism in vivo within the framework of in silico phenotypic phase plane analysis is presented. Using this

R. U. Ibarra; P. Fu; B. O. Palsson; J. R. DiTonno; J. S. Edwards

2003-01-01

256

Error-tracking clustering gives quantitative statistics to DNA segmentation analysis  

E-print Network

Error-tracking clustering gives quantitative statistics to DNA segmentation analysis Chih-Hao Chen1 Abstract Inferences acquired by applying clustering analysis of microarrays cannot be reliably assessed present a novel and fast clustering technique, pair-wise Gaussian merging (PGM), suited for this purpose

Lee, H.C. Paul

257

A Quantitative Analysis of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Turnover Factors of Relational Database Support Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative analysis explored the intrinsic and extrinsic turnover factors of relational database support specialists. Two hundred and nine relational database support specialists were surveyed for this research. The research was conducted based on Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey. Regression analysis and a univariate ANOVA…

Takusi, Gabriel Samuto

2010-01-01

258

Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Salmonella-lettuce interaction  

PubMed Central

Human pathogens can internalize food crops through root and surface uptake and persist inside crop plants. The goal of the study was to elucidate the global modulation of bacteria and plant protein expression after Salmonella internalizes lettuce. A quantitative proteomic approach was used to analyse the protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and lettuce cultivar Green Salad Bowl 24 h after infiltrating S. Infantis into lettuce leaves. Among the 50 differentially expressed proteins identified by comparing internalized S. Infantis against S. Infantis grown in Luria Broth, proteins involved in glycolysis were down-regulated, while one protein involved in ascorbate uptake was up-regulated. Stress response proteins, especially antioxidant proteins, were up-regulated. The modulation in protein expression suggested that internalized S. Infantis might utilize ascorbate as a carbon source and require multiple stress response proteins to cope with stresses encountered in plants. On the other hand, among the 20 differentially expressed lettuce proteins, proteins involved in defense response to bacteria were up-regulated. Moreover, the secreted effector PipB2 of S. Infantis and R proteins of lettuce were induced after bacterial internalization into lettuce leaves, indicating human pathogen S. Infantis triggered the defense mechanisms of lettuce, which normally responds to plant pathogens. PMID:24512637

Zhang, Yuping; Nandakumar, Renu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Hodges, Laurie; Li, Xu

2014-01-01

259

Quantitative genetic analysis of salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone required for a full resistance against some pathogens in Arabidopsis, and NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1) is the only gene with a strong effect on resistance induced by SA which has been described. There can be additional components of SA perception that escape the traditional approach of mutagenesis. An alternative to that approach is searching in the natural variation of Arabidopsis. Different methods of analyzing the variation between ecotypes have been tried and it has been found that measuring the growth of a virulent isolate of Pseudomonas syringae after the exogenous application of SA is the most effective one. Two ecotypes, Edi-0 and Stw-0, have been crossed, and their F2 has been studied. There are two significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in this population, and there is one QTL in each one of the existing mapping populations Col-4 × Laer-0 and Laer-0 × No-0. They have different characteristics: while one QTL is only detectable at low concentrations of SA, the other acts after the point of crosstalk with methyl jasmonate signalling. Three of the QTLs have candidates described in SA perception as NPR1, its interactors, and a calmodulin binding protein. PMID:21614499

Dobón, Albor; Canet, Juan Vicente; Perales, Lorena; Tornero, Pablo

2011-10-01

260

Quantitative proteomic analysis of amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania infantum  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AmB) in its liposomal form is now considered as either first- or second-line treatment against Leishmania infections in different part of the world. Few cases of AmB resistance have been reported and resistance mechanisms toward AmB are still poorly understood. This paper reports a large-scale comparative proteomic study in the context of AmB resistance. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to better characterize cytoplasmic and membrane-enriched (ME) proteomes of the in vitro generated Leishmania infantum AmB resistant mutant AmB1000.1. In total, 97 individual proteins were found as differentially expressed between the mutant and its parental sensitive strain (WT). More than half of these proteins were either metabolic enzymes or involved in transcription or translation processes. Key energetic pathways such as glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated in the mutant. Interestingly, many proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and heat-shock proteins were also up-regulated in the resistant mutant. This work provides a basis for further investigations to understand the roles of proteins differentially expressed in relation with AmB resistance. PMID:25057462

Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G.; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc

2014-01-01

261

Quantitative analysis of synaptic release at the photoreceptor synapse.  

PubMed

Exocytosis from the rod photoreceptor is stimulated by submicromolar Ca(2+) and exhibits an unusually shallow dependence on presynaptic Ca(2+). To provide a quantitative description of the photoreceptor Ca(2+) sensor for exocytosis, we tested a family of conventional and allosteric computational models describing the final Ca(2+)-binding steps leading to exocytosis. Simulations were fit to two measures of release, evoked by flash-photolysis of caged Ca(2+): exocytotic capacitance changes from individual rods and postsynaptic currents of second-order neurons. The best simulations supported the occupancy of only two Ca(2+) binding sites on the rod Ca(2+) sensor rather than the typical four or five. For most models, the on-rates for Ca(2+) binding and maximal fusion rate were comparable to those of other neurons. However, the off-rates for Ca(2+) unbinding were unexpectedly slow. In addition to contributing to the high-affinity of the photoreceptor Ca(2+) sensor, slow Ca(2+) unbinding may support the fusion of vesicles located at a distance from Ca(2+) channels. In addition, partial sensor occupancy due to slow unbinding may contribute to the linearization of the first synapse in vision. PMID:20483317

Duncan, Gabriel; Rabl, Katalin; Gemp, Ian; Heidelberger, Ruth; Thoreson, Wallace B

2010-05-19

262

Quantitative Analysis of Synaptic Release at the Photoreceptor Synapse  

PubMed Central

Abstract Exocytosis from the rod photoreceptor is stimulated by submicromolar Ca2+ and exhibits an unusually shallow dependence on presynaptic Ca2+. To provide a quantitative description of the photoreceptor Ca2+ sensor for exocytosis, we tested a family of conventional and allosteric computational models describing the final Ca2+-binding steps leading to exocytosis. Simulations were fit to two measures of release, evoked by flash-photolysis of caged Ca2+: exocytotic capacitance changes from individual rods and postsynaptic currents of second-order neurons. The best simulations supported the occupancy of only two Ca2+ binding sites on the rod Ca2+ sensor rather than the typical four or five. For most models, the on-rates for Ca2+ binding and maximal fusion rate were comparable to those of other neurons. However, the off-rates for Ca2+ unbinding were unexpectedly slow. In addition to contributing to the high-affinity of the photoreceptor Ca2+ sensor, slow Ca2+ unbinding may support the fusion of vesicles located at a distance from Ca2+ channels. In addition, partial sensor occupancy due to slow unbinding may contribute to the linearization of the first synapse in vision. PMID:20483317

Duncan, Gabriel; Rabl, Katalin; Gemp, Ian; Heidelberger, Ruth; Thoreson, Wallace B.

2010-01-01

263

Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity  

PubMed Central

Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

2012-01-01

264

Quantitative analysis of in-air output ratio.  

PubMed

Output factor (Scp) is one of the important factors required to calculate monitor unit (MU), and is divided into two components: phantom scatter factor (Sp) and in-air output ratio (Sc). Generally, Sc for arbitrary fields are calculated using several methods based on Sc determined by the absorbed dose measurement for several square fields. However, there are calculation errors when the treatment field has a large aspect ratio and the opening of upper and lower collimator are exchanged. To determine Sc accurately, scattered photons from the treatment head and backscattered particles into the monitor chamber must be analyzed individually. In this report, a simulation model that agreed well with measured Sc was constructed and dose variation by scattered photons from the treatment head and by backscattered particles into the monitor chamber was analyzed quantitatively. The results showed that the contribution of scattered photons from the primary collimator was larger than that of the flattening filter, and backscattered particles were affected by not only the upper jaw but also the lower jaw. In future work, a new Sc determination algorism based on the result of this report will be proposed. PMID:23292148

Miyashita, Hisayuki; Hatanaka, Shogo; Fujita, Yukio; Hashimoto, Shimpei; Myojyoyama, Atsushi; Saitoh, Hidetoshi

2013-05-01

265

Quantitative proteomic analysis of amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania infantum.  

PubMed

Amphotericin B (AmB) in its liposomal form is now considered as either first- or second-line treatment against Leishmania infections in different part of the world. Few cases of AmB resistance have been reported and resistance mechanisms toward AmB are still poorly understood. This paper reports a large-scale comparative proteomic study in the context of AmB resistance. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to better characterize cytoplasmic and membrane-enriched (ME) proteomes of the in vitro generated Leishmania infantum AmB resistant mutant AmB1000.1. In total, 97 individual proteins were found as differentially expressed between the mutant and its parental sensitive strain (WT). More than half of these proteins were either metabolic enzymes or involved in transcription or translation processes. Key energetic pathways such as glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated in the mutant. Interestingly, many proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and heat-shock proteins were also up-regulated in the resistant mutant. This work provides a basis for further investigations to understand the roles of proteins differentially expressed in relation with AmB resistance. PMID:25057462

Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc

2014-08-01

266

Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both the host and pathogen alive. Little is known about the mechanism behind nonlytic exocytosis, but there is evidence that both the fungal and host cells contribute to the process. In this study, we used time-lapse movies of C. neoformans-infected macrophages to delineate the kinetics and quantitative aspects of nonlytic exocytosis. We analyzed approximately 800 macrophages containing intracellular C. neoformans and identified 163 nonlytic exocytosis events that were further characterized into three subcategories: type I (complete emptying of macrophage), type II (partial emptying of macrophage), and type III (cell-to-cell transfer). The majority of type I and II events occurred after several hours of intracellular residence, whereas type III events occurred significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in the course of macrophage infection. Our results show that nonlytic exocytosis is a morphologically and temporally diverse process that occurs relatively rapidly in the course of macrophage infection. PMID:24595144

Stukes, Sabriya A.; Cohen, Hillel W.

2014-01-01

267

Quantitative analysis of TALE–DNA interactions suggests polarity effects  

PubMed Central

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) have revolutionized the field of genome engineering. We present here a systematic assessment of TALE DNA recognition, using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays and reporter gene activation assays. Within TALE proteins, tandem 34-amino acid repeats recognize one base pair each and direct sequence-specific DNA binding through repeat variable di-residues (RVDs). We found that RVD choice can affect affinity by four orders of magnitude, with the relative RVD contribution in the order NG > HD ? NN ? NI > NK. The NN repeat preferred the base G over A, whereas the NK repeat bound G with 103-fold lower affinity. We compared AvrBs3, a naturally occurring TALE that recognizes its target using some atypical RVD-base combinations, with a designed TALE that precisely matches ‘standard’ RVDs with the target bases. This comparison revealed unexpected differences in sensitivity to substitutions of the invariant 5?-T. Another surprising observation was that base mismatches at the 5? end of the target site had more disruptive effects on affinity than those at the 3? end, particularly in designed TALEs. These results provide evidence that TALE–DNA recognition exhibits a hitherto un-described polarity effect, in which the N-terminal repeats contribute more to affinity than C-terminal ones. PMID:23408851

Meckler, Joshua F.; Bhakta, Mital S.; Kim, Moon-Soo; Ovadia, Robert; Habrian, Chris H.; Zykovich, Artem; Yu, Abigail; Lockwood, Sarah H.; Morbitzer, Robert; Elsäesser, Janett; Lahaye, Thomas; Segal, David J.; Baldwin, Enoch P.

2013-01-01

268

Quantitative analysis of virus and plasmid trafficking in cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intracellular transport of DNA carriers is a fundamental step of gene delivery. By combining both theoretical and numerical approaches we study here single and several viruses and DNA particles trafficking in the cell cytoplasm to a small nuclear pore. We present a physical model to account for certain aspects of cellular organization, starting with the observation that a viral trajectory consists of epochs of pure diffusion and epochs of active transport along microtubules. We define a general degradation rate to describe the limitations of the delivery of plasmid or viral particles to a nuclear pore imposed by various types of direct and indirect hydrolysis activity inside the cytoplasm. By replacing the switching dynamics by a single steady state stochastic description, we obtain estimates for the probability and the mean time for the first one of many particles to go from the cell membrane to a small nuclear pore. Computational simulations confirm that our model can be used to analyze and interpret viral trajectories and estimate quantitatively the success of nuclear delivery.

Lagache, Thibault; Dauty, Emmanuel; Holcman, David

2009-01-01

269

Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

Probe, John D.

1993-01-01

270

Quantitative trait locus analysis of the early domestication of sunflower.  

PubMed

Genetic analyses of the domestication syndrome have revealed that domestication-related traits typically have a very similar genetic architecture across most crops, being conditioned by a small number of quantitative trait loci (QTL), each with a relatively large effect on the phenotype. To date, the domestication of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) stands as the only counterexample to this pattern. In previous work involving a cross between wild sunflower (also H. annuus) and a highly improved oilseed cultivar, we found that domestication-related traits in sunflower are controlled by numerous QTL, typically of small effect. To provide insight into the minimum genetic changes required to transform the weedy common sunflower into a useful crop plant, we mapped QTL underlying domestication-related traits in a cross between a wild sunflower and a primitive Native American landrace that has not been the target of modern breeding programs. Consistent with the results of the previous study, our data indicate that the domestication of sunflower was driven by selection on a large number of loci, most of which had small to moderate phenotypic effects. Unlike the results of the previous study, however, nearly all of the QTL identified herein had phenotypic effects in the expected direction, with the domesticated allele producing a more crop-like phenotype and the wild allele producing a more wild-like phenotype. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection during the post-domestication era has resulted in the introduction of apparently maladaptive alleles into the modern sunflower gene pool. PMID:17565965

Wills, David M; Burke, John M

2007-08-01

271

Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics and N-terminal Analysis of Human Metastatic Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Proteomic analysis is helpful in identifying cancer-associated proteins that are differentially expressed and fragmented that can be annotated as dysregulated networks and pathways during metastasis. To examine meta-static process in lung cancer, we performed a proteomics study by label-free quantitative analysis and N-terminal analysis in 2 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines with disparate metastatic potentials—NCI-H1703 (primary cell, stage I) and NCI-H1755 (metastatic cell, stage IV). We identified 2130 proteins, 1355 of which were common to both cell lines. In the label-free quantitative analysis, we used the NSAF normalization method, resulting in 242 differential expressed proteins. For the N-terminal proteome analysis, 325 N-terminal peptides, including 45 novel fragments, were identified in the 2 cell lines. Based on two proteomic analysis, 11 quantitatively expressed proteins and 8 N-terminal peptides were enriched for the focal adhesion pathway. Most proteins from the quantitative analysis were upregulated in metastatic cancer cells, whereas novel fragment of CRKL was detected only in primary cancer cells. This study increases our understanding of the NSCLC metastasis proteome. PMID:24805778

Min, Hophil; Han, Dohyun; Kim, Yikwon; Cho, Jee Yeon; Jin, Jonghwa; Kim, Youngsoo

2014-01-01

272

Quantitative Analysis of Cell Migration Using Optical Flow  

PubMed Central

Neural crest cells exhibit dramatic migration behaviors as they populate their distant targets. Using a line of zebrafish expressing green fluorescent protein (sox10:EGFP) in neural crest cells we developed an assay to analyze and quantify cell migration as a population, and use it here to characterize in detail the subtle defects in cell migration caused by ethanol exposure during early development. The challenge was to quantify changes in the in vivo migration of all Sox10:EGFP expressing cells in the visual field of time-lapse movies. To perform this analysis we used an Optical Flow algorithm for motion detection and combined the analysis with a fit to an affine transformation. Through this analysis we detected and quantified significant differences in the cell migrations of Sox10:EGFP positive cranial neural crest populations in ethanol treated versus untreated embryos. Specifically, treatment affected migration by increasing the left-right asymmetry of the migrating cells and by altering the direction of cell movements. Thus, by applying this novel computational analysis, we were able to quantify the movements of populations of cells, allowing us to detect subtle changes in cell behaviors. Because cranial neural crest cells contribute to the formation of the frontal mass these subtle differences may underlie commonly observed facial asymmetries in normal human populations. PMID:23936049

Boric, Katica; Orio, Patricio; Viéville, Thierry; Whitlock, Kathleen

2013-01-01

273

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Mechanistic insights from a quantitative analysis  

E-print Network

the attractant and how pollen tubes respond to it. Analysis of microscopy images of the semi-in vitro system a gradient of an attractant at 100-150 m, farther than previously reported. Our microscopy images also show. Background In flowering plants, unlike animals, the male and female germ units are multicellular, haploid

Dinner, Aaron

274

INTRODUCTION Quantitative seismotectonic and seismic hazard analysis of  

E-print Network

Quaternary faulting on the Lake Edgar fault, southwest Tasmania, Australia: Implications for hazard and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia ABSTRACT Geomorphic analysis of the ~30-km-long Lake Edgar fault scarp in southwestern Tasmania suggests that three large surface

Sandiford, Mike

275

Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

1984-01-01

276

Corrections to the MODIS Aqua Calibration Derived From MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean color products such as, e.g., chlorophyll-a concentration, can be derived from the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by imaging sensors on earth-orbiting satellites. There are currently three National Aeronautics and Space Administration sensors in orbit capable of providing ocean color products. One of these sensors is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, whose ocean color products are currently the most widely used of the three. A recent improvement to the MODIS calibration methodology has used land targets to improve the calibration accuracy. This study evaluates the new calibration methodology and describes further calibration improvements that are built upon the new methodology by including ocean measurements in the form of global temporally averaged water-leaving reflectance measurements. The calibration improvements presented here mainly modify the calibration at the scan edges, taking advantage of the good performance of the land target trending in the center of the scan.

Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan Alden

2013-01-01

277

Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.

Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

2014-10-01

278

Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

2014-05-01

279

AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

280

AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades K-2. Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades K-2. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART K-2. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The teacher's guide begins with an overview of…

Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

281

77 FR 63801 - Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc., Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...signed in counterparts. AQUA-LEISURE INDUSTRIES, INC. Dated: 8/21/12 By...Steven Berenson, CEO Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc. Dated: 8/21/12 By...Gigounas, Esq. Counsel to Aqua-Leisure Industries, Inc. DLA Piper San Francisco,...

2012-10-17

282

iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis of cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the seventh most common cancer overall and the third among females. To obtain systematic insight into the protein profile that participates in cervical tumor oncogenesis and improve the current target therapies, iTRAQ labeling and NanoLC-MS/MS analysis were utilized to detect differentially expressed proteins in cervical cancer. As a result, 3,647 proteins were identified, among which the expression levels of 294 proteins in cervical cancer samples were distinct from the paired non-tumor samples. Further validation of the differentially expressed proteins, including G6PD, ALDH3A1, STAT1 and HSPB1, was carried out via qRT-PCR, western blot analysis and tissue microarray. Functional analysis of one of the highly expressed proteins, G6PD, was performed using RNA interference. Attenuated G6PD expression reduced the capacity of HeLa cells to migrate and invade in vitro. Our investigation complemented the understanding of cervical cancer progression. Furthermore, the present study supports the notion that suppressing the expression of G6PD may be a promising strategy in developing novel cancer therapeutic drugs. PMID:25633909

Ding, Yibing; Yang, Min; She, Sha; Min, Haiyan; Xv, Xiaoming; Ran, Xiaoping; Wu, Yongzheng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Lei; Yi, Long; Yang, Yixuan; Gao, Qian

2015-04-01

283

Quantitative Analysis of Ligand Migration from Transition Networks  

PubMed Central

In this work we use transition network analysis for the first time to investigate ligand migration in truncated hemoglobin (trHbN) and obtain kinetic information about the docking-site dynamics in the protein. A comparison with explicit water molecular dynamics simulations (100 ns in total) shows that the rate constants derived from the network analysis are realistic. The transition network analysis provides 1) The time-resolved connectivity network in the protein; 2) The half-lives of the docking sites; 3) The transition timescales between two given docking sites; and 4) The extent of population transfer among different docking sites of the protein as a function of lag time. We investigate the role of the Tyr33 and Gln58 residues in ligand migration by studying ligand migration in four mutants of trHbN. The mutation study suggests that residues Tyr33 and Gln58 stabilize the NO ligand in the Xe2 docking site of trHbN, thus facilitating the efficiency of the NO detoxification reaction. PMID:21156139

Mishra, Sabyashachi; Meuwly, Markus

2010-01-01

284

The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.  

PubMed

Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:25123838

Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

2014-12-01

285

Quantitative facial motion analysis after functional free muscle reanimation procedures.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of functional free muscle transfer in patients with chronic facial paralysis using a recently developed quantitative method known as the maximum static response assay of facial motion. A retrospective review of a single surgeon series of six patients with longstanding facial paralysis was performed. The maximum static response assay was performed on all patients preoperatively and serially during the postoperative period. Twenty-seven patients (54 sides) with normal facial function were also evaluated and served as controls. The contralateral normal side in those patients with unilateral facial paralysis (n = 4) also served as a control. Movement of the modiolus during smile was recorded in the x axis and y axis. To determine net smile movement, the vector of movement was calculated by means of the Pythagorean theorem. Vectors were then defined mathematically by calculating direction and magnitude. The average direction of the vector during smile for the normal control population was 58.3 degrees (range 32.5 to 83.1 degrees) from the horizontal through the modioli, and the average magnitude was 10.6 mm (range 4.2 to 20.1 mm). The average preoperative direction for the reanimated sides was 176.8 degrees with a range of 83.3 to 225 degrees. Patients with bilateral paralysis (n = 2) were excluded for calculation of the vectors on the normal contralateral side. The average preoperative direction for the normal contralateral side in patients with facial paralysis was 58.3 degrees with a range of 48.2 to 68.4 degrees. Postoperatively, the average direction of the vector during smile for the reanimated sides improved to a value of 77.6 degrees with a range of 45.7 to 113.8 degrees. The average change in direction of the preoperative reanimated side compared with the postoperative reanimated side was significant (p = 0.01). Postoperatively, the average direction of the vector for the contralateral normal sides was 43 degrees with a range of 11 to 57.2 degrees. The change in direction for the contralateral normal side was not significant (p = 0.18). The average magnitude of the reanimated side improved from a non-anatomic 2.8 mm preoperatively (range 0.8 to 6.8 mm) to an anatomic 4.9 mm postoperatively (p = 0.02). The contralateral normal side magnitude decreased from 9.4 mm (range 7.3 to 11.6 mm) preoperatively to 5.7 mm (range 3.8 to 7.7 mm) postoperatively (p = 0.006). More specifically, the absolute change in movement on the reanimated side during smile for the x axis and y axis was 2.3 mm (p = 0.05) and 4.0 mm (p = 0.002), respectively. This corresponded to an absolute change in the magnitude of the vector of 4.6 mm in an anatomic direction. On the contralateral side the absolute change in magnitude during smile from preoperative to postoperative for the x axis and y axis decreased by 1.5 mm (p = 0.13) and 5.3 mm (p = 0.05), respectively. This reflected an absolute change in the magnitude of the vector of 5.5 mm. Functional free muscle transfer in patients with chronic facial paralysis resulted in anatomic recovery of motion in the majority of patients in this series. The maximum static response assay can be used to objectively assess the results of facial reanimation. PMID:9393468

Johnson, P J; Bajaj-Luthra, A; Llull, R; Johnson, P C

1997-12-01

286

Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences—physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the dynamics of behavior. Behavioral momentum and maximization have received mathematical formulations in behavior analysis. Yet to be worked out are the relations between molar and molecular formulations of behavioral theory. PMID:22478028

Marr, M. Jackson

1989-01-01

287

Quantitative high-resolution melting analysis for detecting adulterations.  

PubMed

Admixtures of different plant species are a common problem in raw materials for medicinal use. Two exemplary assays were developed to admixtures in Helleborus niger with high-resolution melting analysis. HRM proved to be a very sensitive tool in detecting admixtures, able to detect a ratio of 1:1000 with unknown species, and of 1:200,000 with Veratrum nigrum. The example proves the ability of HRM for quantification in multiplex PCR. The method is not limited to detecting adulterations. It can also be used to quantify a specific target by integrating a second amplicon in the assay as internal standard. PMID:20946863

Mader, Eduard; Ruzicka, Joana; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

2011-02-01

288

Quantitative analysis of motor disturbances in schizophrenic patients  

PubMed Central

The presence of neurological signs and disturbed psychomotor performance have been consistently confirmed by clinical studies in schizophrenic patients. These parameters are mainly assessed by using clinical rating scales. In recent years, new approaches such as ultrasonic movement analysis systems have been introduced in order to objectively evaluate motor disturbances in schizophrenic patients. Ultrasonic movement analysis systems calculate the three-dimensional positions of tiny markers, which are attached to moving body parts, with high spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, key parameters of gait and hand movements can be determined precisely. This article summarizes and discusses several studies using these new methods. Results indicate that schizophrenia causes a specific motor deficit pattern, with a predominant disturbance of spatial parameters. Conventional antipsychotic treatment usually worsens these deficits, whereas the effects of atypical antipsychotic treatments are less pronounced. Disturbed motor performance can be normalized by external sensory stimuli, but only when no major attentional processes are required, and it can be enhanced by an attentional strategy, but not to the extent that motor parameters are normalized. PMID:16640123

Putzhammer, Albert; Klein, Helmfried E.

2006-01-01

289

Project #05R: Xiaoping Hu and Jue Zhang: Quantitative fMRI and Network Analysis of Acupuncture Induced Brain Activity  

E-print Network

Project #05R: Xiaoping Hu and Jue Zhang: Quantitative fMRI and Network Analysis of Acupuncture collaboration that have performed a quantitative fMRI study of acupuncture. This collaboration proved fruitful as it allowed us to establish quantitative fMRI as a viable approach to study acupuncture and led to very

Weber, Rodney

290

Analysis of mixed cell cultures with quantitative digital holographic phase microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to study, for example, the influence of pharmaceuticals or pathogens on different cell types under identical measurement conditions and to analyze interactions between different cellular specimens a minimally-invasive quantitative observation of mixed cell cultures is of particular interest. Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM) provides high resolution detection of optical path length changes that is suitable for stain-free minimally-invasive live cell analysis. Due to low light intensities for object illumination, QPM minimizes the interaction with the sample and is in particular suitable for long term time-lapse investigations, e.g., for the detection of cell morphology alterations due to drugs and toxins. Furthermore, QPM has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool for the quantification of cellular growth, the extraction morphological parameters and cell motility. We studied the feasibility of QPM for the analysis of mixed cell cultures. It was explored if quantitative phase images provide sufficient information to distinguish between different cell types and to extract cell specific parameters. For the experiments quantitative phase imaging with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) was utilized. Mixed cell cultures with different types of human pancreatic tumor cells were observed with quantitative DHM phase contrast up to 35 h. The obtained series of quantitative phase images were evaluated by adapted algorithms for image segmentation. From the segmented images the cellular dry mass and the mean cell thickness were calculated and used in the further analysis as parameters to quantify the reliability the measurement principle. The obtained results demonstrate that it is possible to characterize the growth of cell types with different morphologies in a mixed cell culture separately by consideration of specimen size and cell thickness in the evaluation of quantitative DHM phase images.

Kemper, Björn; Wibbeling, Jana; Ketelhut, Steffi

2014-05-01

291

Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake. PMID:25087594

Itskov, Pavel M.; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H.; Ribeiro, Carlos

2014-01-01

292

Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

Myers, D. R.

2011-04-01

293

Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions.  

PubMed

Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed-or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology-to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. PMID:24999044

Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

2014-08-01

294

Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.  

PubMed

X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites. PMID:11261603

Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

2001-01-01

295

Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions  

PubMed Central

Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. PMID:24999044

Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

2014-01-01

296

Analysis of quantitative precipitation forecasts using the Dynamic State Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Weather Service (DWD) has two non-hydrostatic operational weather prediction models with different spatial resolution and precipitation parametrisations. The coarser COSMO-EU model has a spatial resolution of 7 km, whereas the higher-resolution COSMO-DE model has a gridspace of 2.8 km and explicitly resolves deep convection. To improve the numerical weather prediction (NWP) models it is necessary to understand precipitation processes. A central goal is the statistical evaluation of precipitation forecasts with dynamic parameters. Here, the Dynamic State Index ( DSI) is used as a dynamic threshold parameter. The DSI theoretically describes the change of atmospheric flow fields as deviations from a stationary adiabatic solution of the primitive equations (Névir, 2004). For seasonal area means the DSI shows a remarkably high correlation with the precipitation forecasts provided by the COSMO-DE model. This is especially the case for the summer of 2007. The same analysis has been performed with the COSMO-EU forecast data and the results were compared with those from the COSMO-DE model. Moreover, an independent precipitation analysis, with a resolution corresponding to 7 km and 2.8 km, has been compared with respect to modelled precipitation and the DSI. In addition, correlations between the DSI and modelled as well as observed precipitation as a function of the forecast time for the different grid resolutions are also presented. The results show, that after 12 h, the correlation of the persistence forecast with the DSI reaches two thirds of the initial value. Thus, the DSI offers itself as a new dynamic forecast tool for precipitation events.

Claußnitzer, A.; Névir, P.

2009-12-01

297

Analysis of 129I in Groundwater Samples: Direct and Quantitative Results below the Drinking Water Standard  

SciTech Connect

Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years) and relatively unencumbered migration in subsurface environments, 129I has been recognized as a contaminant of concern at numerous federal, private, and international facilities. In order to understand the long-term risk associated with 129I at these locations, quantitative analysis of groundwater samples must be performed. However, the ability to quantitatively assess the 129I content in groundwater samples requires specialized extraction and sophisticated analytical techniques, which are complicated and not always available to the general scientific community. This paper highlights an analytical method capable of directly quantifying 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the MCL without the need for sample pre-concentration. Samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer ELAN DRC II ICP-MS after minimal dilution using O2 as the reaction gas. Analysis of continuing calibration verification standards indicated that the DRC mode could be used for quantitative analysis of 129I in samples below the drinking water standard (0.0057 ng/ml or 1 pCi/L). The low analytical detection limit of 129I analysis in the DRC mode coupled with minimal sample dilution (1.02x) resulted in a final sample limit of quantification of 0.0051 ng/ml. Subsequent analysis of three groundwater samples containing 129I resulted in fully quantitative results in the DRC mode, and spike recovery analyses performed on all three samples confirmed that the groundwater matrix did not adversely impact the analysis of 129I in the DRC mode. This analytical approach has been proven to be a cost-effective, high-throughput technique for the direct, quantitative analysis of 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the current MCL.

Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.

2007-03-03

298

Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod-ucts via Electron Impact and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

1 Complete Quantitative online Analysis of Methanol Electrooxidation Prod- ucts via Electron Impact for application in energy re- lated electrocatalysis is demonstrated using continuous methanol oxidation over

Pfeifer, Holger

299

Machine learning methods for quantitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automated identification and quantification of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of significant importance for law enforcement agencies. This paper explores the use of Machine Learning (ML) methods in comparison with standard statistical regression techniques for developing automated identification methods. In this work, the ML task is broken into two sub-tasks, data reduction and prediction. In well-conditioned data, the number of samples should be much larger than the number of attributes per sample, to limit the degrees of freedom in predictive models. In this spectroscopy data, the opposite is normally true. Predictive models based on such data have a high number of degrees of freedom, which increases the risk of models over-fitting to the sample data and having poor predictive power. In the work described here, an approach to data reduction based on Genetic Algorithms is described. For the prediction sub-task, the objective is to estimate the concentration of a component in a mixture, based on its Raman spectrum and the known concentrations of previously seen mixtures. Here, Neural Networks and k-Nearest Neighbours are used for prediction. Preliminary results are presented for the problem of estimating the concentration of cocaine in solid mixtures, and compared with previously published results in which statistical analysis of the same dataset was performed. Finally, this paper demonstrates how more accurate results may be achieved by using an ensemble of prediction techniques.

Madden, Michael G.; Ryder, Alan G.

2003-03-01

300

Direct quantitative analysis of arsenic in coal fly ash.  

PubMed

A rapid, simple method based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is described for the direct determination of arsenic in coal fly ash. Solid samples were directly introduced into the atomizer without preliminary treatment. The direct analysis method was not always free of spectral matrix interference, but the stabilization of arsenic by adding palladium nitrate (chemical modifier) and the optimization of the parameters in the furnace program (temperature, rate of temperature increase, hold time, and argon gas flow) gave good results for the total arsenic determination. The optimal furnace program was determined by analyzing different concentrations of a reference material (NIST1633b), which showed the best linearity for calibration. The optimized parameters for the furnace programs for the ashing and atomization steps were as follows: temperatures of 500-1200 and 2150°C, heating rates of 100 and 500°C?s(-1), hold times of 90 and 7?s, and medium then maximum and medium argon gas flows, respectively. The calibration plots were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. This method was validated using arsenic-containing raw coal samples in accordance with the requirements of the mass balance calculation; the distribution rate of As in the fly ashes ranged from 101 to 119%. PMID:23251836

Hartuti, Sri; Kambara, Shinji; Takeyama, Akihiro; Kumabe, Kazuhiro; Moritomi, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

301

Quantitative Analysis with Heavy Ion E-TOF ERD  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion TOF ERD combined with energy detection (E-TOF-ERD) is a powerful analytical technique taking advantage of the following facts: the scattering cross section is usually very high ({approximately}10{sup {minus}21} cm{sup 2}/sr) compared to regular He RBS ({approximately}10{sup {minus}25} cm{sup 2}/sr), contrary to what happens with the energy resolution in ordinary surface solid barrier detectors, time resolution is almost independent of the atomic mass of the detected element, and the detection in coincidence of time and energy signals allows for the mass separation of overlapping signals with the same energy (or time of flight). Measurements on several oxides have been performed with the E-TOF-ERD set up at Sandia National Laboratories using an incident beam of 10-15 MeV Au. The information on the composition of the sample is obtained from the time domain spectrum, which is converted to energy domain, and then, using existing software codes, the analysis is performed. During the quantification of the results, they have found problems related to the interaction of the beam with the sample and to the tabulated values of the stopping powers for heavy ions.

Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.; Font, A. Climent

1999-07-23

302

Funtools: Fits Users Need Tools for Quick, Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Funtools project arose out of conversations with astronomers about the decline in their software development efforts over the past decade. A stated reason for this decline is that it takes too much effort to master one of the existing FITS libraries simply in order to write a few analysis programs. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that astronomers typically develop new programs only occasionally, and the long interval between coding efforts often necessitates re-learning the FITS interfaces. We therefore set ourselves the goal of developing a minimal buy-in FITS library for researchers who are occasional (but serious) coders. In this case, "minimal buy-in" meant "easy to learn, easy to use, and easy to re-learn next month". Based on conversations with astronomers interested in writing code, we concluded that this goal could be achieved by emphasizing two essential capabilities. The first was the ability to write FITS programs without knowing much about FITS, i.e., without having to deal with the arcane rules for generating a properly formatted FITS file. The second was to support the use of already-familiar C/Unix facilities, especially C structs and Unix stdio. Taken together, these two capabilities would allow researchers to leverage their existing programming expertise while minimizing the need to learn new and complex coding rules.

Mandel, Eric; Brederkamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

303

Quantitative Analysis of the Microstructure of Auxetic Foams  

SciTech Connect

The auxetic foams first produced by Lakes have been modelled in a variety of ways, each model trying to reproduce some observed feature of the microscale of the foams. Such features include bent or broken ribs or inverted angles between ribs. These models can reproduce the Poisson's ratio or Poisson's function of auxetic foam if the model parameters are carefully chosen. However these model parameters may not actually reflect the internal structure of the foams. A big problem is that measurement of parameters such as lengths and angles is not straightforward within a 3-d sample. In this work a sample of auxetic foam has been imaged by 3-d X-ray computed tomography. The resulting image is translated to a form that emphasises the geometrical structure of connected ribs. This connected rib data are suitably analysed to describe both the microstructural construction of auxetic foams and the statistical spread of structure, that is, the heterogeneity of an auxetic foam. From the analysis of the microstructure, observations are made about the requirements for microstructural models and comparisons made to previous existing models. From the statistical data, measures of heterogeneity are made that will help with future modelling that includes the heterogeneous aspect of auxetic foams.

Gaspar, N.; Smith, C.W.; Miller, E.A.; Seidler, G.T.; Evans, K.E. (Exeter); (UWASH)

2008-07-28

304

Quantitative analysis of the microscale of auxetic foams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The auxetic foams first produced by Lakes have been modelled in a variety of ways, each model trying to reproduce some observed feature of the microscale of the foams. Such features include bent or broken ribs or inverted angles between ribs. These models can reproduce the Poisson's ratio or Poisson's function of auxetic foam if the model parameters are carefully chosen. However these model parameters may not actually reflect the internal structure of the foams. A big problem is that measurement of parameters such as lengths and angles is not straightforward within a 3-d sample. In this work a sample of auxetic foam has been imaged by 3-d X-ray computed tomography. The resulting image is translated to a form that emphasises the geometrical structure of connected ribs. This connected rib data are suitably analysed to describe both the microstructural construction of auxetic foams and the statistical spread of structure, that is, the heterogeneity of an auxetic foam. From the analysis of the microstructure, observations are made about the requirements for microstructural models and comparisons made to previous existing models. From the statistical data, measures of heterogeneity are made that will help with future modelling that includes the heterogeneous aspect of auxetic foams.

Gaspar, N.; Smith, C. W.; Miller, E. A.; Seidler, G. T.; Evans, K. E.

2005-03-01

305

Neurofilament Protein Levels: Quantitative Analysis in Essential Tremor Cerebellar Cortex  

PubMed Central

Essential tremor (ET) is among the most prevalent neurological diseases. A substantial increase in the number of Purkinje cell axonal swellings (torpedoes) has been identified in ET brains. We recently demonstrated that torpedoes in ET contain an over-accumulation of disorganized neurofilament (NF) proteins. This now raises the question whether NF protein composition and/or phosphorylation state in cerebellar tissue might differ between ET cases and controls. We used a Western blot analysis to compare the levels and phosphorylation state of NF proteins and ?-internexin in cerebellar tissue from 47 ET cases vs. 26 controls (2:1 ratio). Cases and controls did not differ with respect to the cerebellar levels of NF-light (NF-L), NF-medium (NF-M), NF-heavy (NF-H), or ?-internexin. However, SMI-31 levels (i.e., phosphorylated NF-H) and SMI-32 levels (i.e., non-phosphorylated NF-H) were significantly higher in ET cases than controls (1.28 ± 0.47 vs. 1.06 ± 0.32, p = 0.02; and 1.38 ± 0.75 vs. 1.00 ± 0.42, p = 0.006). Whether the abnormal phosphorylation state that we observed is a cause of defective axonal transport and/or function of NFs in ET is not known. NF abnormalities have been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Regardless of whether these protein aggregates are the cause or consequence of these diseases, NF abnormalities have been shown to be an important factor in the cellular disruption observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, further analyses of these NF abnormalities and their mechanisms are important to enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis in ET. PMID:22561033

Louis, Elan D.; Karen; Babij, Rachel; Cortés, Etty; Liem, Ronald K.; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G.; Faust, Phyllis L.

2012-01-01

306

Neurofilament protein levels: quantitative analysis in essential tremor cerebellar cortex.  

PubMed

Essential tremor (ET) is among the most prevalent neurological diseases. A substantial increase in the number of Purkinje cell axonal swellings (torpedoes) has been identified in ET brains. We recently demonstrated that torpedoes in ET contain an over-accumulation of disorganized neurofilament (NF) proteins. This now raises the question whether NF protein composition and/or phosphorylation state in cerebellar tissue might differ between ET cases and controls. We used a Western blot analysis to compare the levels and phosphorylation state of NF proteins and ?-internexin in cerebellar tissue from 47 ET cases versus 26 controls (2:1 ratio). Cases and controls did not differ with respect to the cerebellar levels of NF-light (NF-L), NF-medium (NF-M), NF-heavy (NF-H), or ?-internexin. However, SMI-31 levels (i.e., phosphorylated NF-H) and SMI-32 levels (i.e., non-phosphorylated NF-H) were significantly higher in ET cases than controls (1.28±0.47 vs. 1.06±0.32, p=0.02; and 1.38±0.75 vs. 1.00±0.42, p=0.006). Whether the abnormal phosphorylation state that we observed is a cause of defective axonal transport and/or function of NFs in ET is not known. NF abnormalities have been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Regardless of whether these protein aggregates are the cause or consequence of these diseases, NF abnormalities have been shown to be an important factor in the cellular disruption observed in several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, further analyses of these NF abnormalities and their mechanisms are important to enhance our understanding of disease pathogenesis in ET. PMID:22561033

Louis, Elan D; Ma, Karen; Babij, Rachel; Cortés, Etty; Liem, Ronald K; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Faust, Phyllis L

2012-06-14

307

Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

2014-06-01

308

Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production.  

PubMed

ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP(+) and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power. PMID:24805240

Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

2014-06-12

309

Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production  

PubMed Central

ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (e.g., muscle contraction, neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defense and reductive biosynthesis1. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP), with malic enzyme sometimes also important. While the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analyzed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labeled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labeling and mathematical modeling to measure cytosolic NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxPPP. Surprisingly a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, where oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. Since folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG ratios and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, while the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power. PMID:24805240

Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

2014-01-01

310

Adjusting Aqua MODIS TEB nonlinear calibration coefficients using iterative solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric calibration is important for continuity and reliability of any optical sensor data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite has been nominally operating since its launch on May 4, 2002. The MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using a quadratic calibration algorithm and the dominant gain term is determined every scan by reference to a temperature-controlled blackbody (BB) with known emissivity. On a quarterly basis, a BB warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) process is scheduled to provide measurements to determine the offset and nonlinear coefficients used in the TEB calibration algorithm. For Aqua MODIS, the offset and nonlinear terms are based on the results from prelaunch thermal vacuum tests. However, on-orbit trending results show that they have small but noticeable drifts. To maintain data quality and consistency, an iterative approach is applied to adjust the prelaunch based nonlinear terms, which are currently used to produce Aqua MODIS Collection-6 L1B. This paper provides details on how to use an iterative solution to determine these calibration coefficients based on BB WUCD measurements. Validation is performed using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) of Aqua MODIS and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the Metop-A satellite and near surface temperature measurements at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau.

Wu, Aisheng; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian N.; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

2014-11-01

311

Synthesis of quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis in risk-based highway planning.  

PubMed

Accident analysis involves the use of both quantitative and qualitative data in decision-making. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the synthesis of relevant quantitative and qualitative evidence for accident analysis and for planning a large and diverse portfolio of highway investment projects. The proposed analysis and visualization techniques along with traditional mathematical modeling serve as an aid to planners, engineers, and the public in comparing the benefits of current and proposed improvement projects. The analysis uses data on crash rates, average daily traffic, cost estimates from highway agency databases, and project portfolios for regions and localities. It also utilizes up to two motivations out of seven that are outlined in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). Three case studies demonstrate the risk-based approach to accident analysis for short- and long-range transportation plans. The approach is adaptable to other topics in accident analysis and prevention that involve the use of quantitative and qualitative evidence, risk analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making for project portfolio selection. PMID:16730627

Lambert, James H; Peterson, Kenneth D; Joshi, Nilesh N

2006-09-01

312

A Quantitative Features Analysis of Recommended No- and Low-Cost Preschool E-Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, recommended e-books have drawn increasing attention from early childhood education professionals. This study applied a quantitative descriptive features analysis of cost (n = 70) and no-cost (n = 60) e-books recommended by the Texas Computer Education Association. While t tests revealed no statistically significant differences…

Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Luthin, Katie

2015-01-01

313

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

1969-01-01

314

On the Design of IEEE Compliant FloatingPoint Units and Their Quantitative Analysis  

E-print Network

On the Design of IEEE Compliant Floating­Point Units and Their Quantitative Analysis Dissertation addresses the question of which are the important issues in the design of a high­speed floating­point unit (FPU) that is fully compliant with the IEEE floating­point standard 754­1985 [19]. There are a few

Seidel, Peter-Michael

315

Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: the combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate here the application of a single and generalized method for analyzing dose-effect relationships in enzymatic, cellular and whole animal systems. We also examine the problem of quantitating the effects of multiple inhibitors on such systems and provide definitions of summation of effects, and consequently of synergism and antagonism. Since the proposed method of analysis is derived from generalized

TING-CHAO CHOU; P TALALAY

1984-01-01

316

Quantitative Analysis of Pre-and Postsynaptic Sex Differences in the Nucleus Accumbens  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Pre- and Postsynaptic Sex Differences in the Nucleus Accumbens Paul M and reward. While there is ample evidence for sex differences in addiction-related behaviors, little is known measures. Clear but subtle sex differences were identified, namely, in distal dendritic spine density

Woolley, Catherine

317

A Computer Program for Calculation of Calibration Curves for Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a FORTRAN IV program written to supplement a laboratory exercise dealing with quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures of polycrystalline phases in an introductory course in x-ray diffraction. Gives an example of the use of the program and compares calculated and observed calibration data. (Author/GS)

Blanchard, Frank N.

1980-01-01

318

A Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Strategy Usage in the Marking of Two GCSE Examinations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diverse strategies for marking GCSE examinations have been identified, ranging from simple automatic judgements to complex cognitive operations requiring considerable expertise. However, little is known about patterns of strategy usage or how such information could be utilised by examiners. We conducted a quantitative analysis of previous verbal…

Suto, W. M. Irenka; Greatorex, Jackie

2008-01-01

319

Exact Multipoint Quantitative-Trait Linkage Analysis in Pedigrees by Variance Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on variance components are powerful tools for linkage analysis of quantitative traits, because they allow simultaneous consideration of all pedigree members. The central idea is to identify loci making a significant contribution to the population variance of a trait, by use of allele-sharing probabilities derived from genotyped marker loci. The technique is only as powerful as the methods

Stephen C. Pratt; Mark J. Daly; Leonid Kruglyak

2000-01-01

320

The identification and quantitative analysis of abscisic acid in plant extracts by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

New techniques are described which permit the quantitative analysis of microgram quantities of abscisic acid in plant extracts by gas chromatography. Presumptive methyl abscisate peaks on gas chromatograms are positively identified by photosensitised isomerisation to methyl 2-trans-abscisate. Losses of abscisic acid during pre-purification are corrected by using 2-trans-abscisic acid as an internal standard.

J. R. Lenton; V. M. Perry; P. F. Saunders

1971-01-01

321

Quantitative Fatty Acid Analysis of Milk Fat by Gas-Liquid Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure was developed for quantitative analysis of the fatty acids of milk fat. Methyl esters of the acids were prepared by methanolysis, extracted with ethyl chloride, and separated by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), with diethylene glycol succinate as liquid phase. Known mixtures of methyl esters were used in determining factors for correction of peak areas for losses from evaporation of

L. M. Smith

1961-01-01

322

Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: A Simple and Rapid Method for Use in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the procedure for making a quantitative analysis of organic compounds suitable for secondary school chemistry classes. Using the Schoniger procedure, the organic compound, such as PVC, is decomposed in a conical flask with oxygen. The products are absorbed in a suitable liquid and analyzed by titration. (JR)

Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

1973-01-01

323

Quantitative analysis of numerical estimates for the permeability of porous media from lattice-Boltzmann simulations  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of numerical estimates for the permeability of porous media from lattice for the permeability of porous media from lattice-Boltzmann simulations Ariel Narv´aez1,2 , Thomas Zauner2 , Frank the permeability of porous media samples. However, well-known improvements of the original algorithm are often

Harting, Jens

324

A Quantitative Analysis of Agonistic Behavior in Juvenile American Lobsters (Homarus americanus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies a quantitative analysis of agonistic (fighting) behavior in lobsters is presented as a first step in our attempt to relate patterns of behavior to underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The agonistic behavior of juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L.) was studied in laboratory tanks at the New England Aquarium. Using video analyses and statistical techniques: (1) an ethogram of

R. Huber; E. A. Kravitz

1995-01-01

325

THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIPIDS VIA HPLC WITH A CHARGED AEROSOL DETECTOR  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Because most lipids are a mixture of saturated and unsaturated molecules, the most successful strategies for the quantitative analysis of lipids have involved the use of "mass" detectors such as flame ionization detectors (FID) and evaporative light scattering detectors (ELSD). Recently a new type o...

326

QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF GENES AFFECTING MUSCLE GROWTH DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Manuscript Title- Quantitative expression analysis of genes affecting muscle growth during the development of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) The molecular characterization of the hyperplasia and hypertrophy that characterize post-embryonic muscle development in the rainbow trout is of great in...

327

Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds  

DOEpatents

Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

Grindstaff, Quirinus G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01

328

Quantitative analysis of sulfur functional groups in natural organic matter by XANES spectroscopy  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of sulfur functional groups in natural organic matter by XANES spectroscopy sulfur functionalities in natural organic matter from S K-edge XANES spectroscopy are presented-induced errors, inherent to the choice of a particular curve, are typically lower than 5% of total sulfur

329

QUANTITATIVE PCR ANALYSIS OF MOLDS IN THE DUST FROM HOMES OF ASTHMATIC CHILDREN IN NORTH CAROLINA  

EPA Science Inventory

The vacuum bag (VB) dust was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR. These results were compared to the analysis survey calculated for each of the homes. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the ERMI values in the homes of the NC asthmatic children was 16.4 (6.77), compa...

330

Dietary Lipids and Blood Cholesterol: Quantitative Meta-Analysis of Metabolic Ward Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the quantitative importance of dietary fatty acids and dietary cholesterol to blood concentrations of total, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Design: Meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies of solid food diets in healthy volunteers. Subjects: 395 dietary experiments (median duration 1 month) among 129 groups of individuals. Results: Isocaloric replacement of saturated fats by complex

Robert Clarke; Chris Frost; Rory Collins; Paul Appleby; Richard Peto

1997-01-01

331

A simple LIBS method for fast quantitative analysis of fly ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation of quantitative analysis of major elements (Ca, Al, Mg, Si and Fe) present in fly ashes was made using a simple and cost effective LIBS system. LIBS parameters were optimized to obtain best sensitivity and repeatability. In this purpose different binders were compared, leading to best sensitivity and mechanical stability when a binder containing silver and cellulose was

Alice Stankova; Nicole Gilon; Lionel Dutruch; Viktor Kanicky

2010-01-01

332

Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Current  

E-print Network

Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Current Epidemiological on sele- nium and lung cancer and identify sources of heterogeneity among studies. When all studies were.30). Overall, these results suggest that selenium may have some protective effect against lung cancer

California at Berkeley, University of

333

Quantitative Analysis of Electrodermal Activity during Sleep Akane Sano, Rosalind W. Picard  

E-print Network

to deeper sleep stages. Quantitative analysis is needed to clarify the characteristics of the EDA peaks What-based sleep stages (Koumans et al., 1968). Example: EDA raw data with EDA peaks and sleep stages Introduction lasts more than 10 minutes. We analyzed the characteristics of EDA peaks and storms with sleep stages

334

Characterisation of transmission Raman spectroscopy for rapid quantitative analysis of intact multi-component pharmaceutical capsules  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed characterisation of the performance of transmission Raman spectroscopy was performed from the standpoint of rapid quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical capsules using production relevant formulations comprising of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and 3 common pharmaceutical excipients. This research builds on our earlier studies that identified the unique benefits of transmission Raman spectroscopy compared to conventional Raman spectroscopy. These include

Michael D. Hargreaves; Neil A. Macleod; Mark R. Smith; Darren Andrews; Stephen V. Hammond; Pavel Matousek

2011-01-01

335

Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar with x-ray microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar® fibers) with x of Kevlar® fibers. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. S0003-6951 96 02951-8 Near edge x-ray absorption grades of poly p-phenylene terephthalamide Kevlar® fibers for chemical structure see inset of Fig. 1

336

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

2014-03-01

337

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Nutrition and Food Safety Information in School Science Textbooks of India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess quantity and quality of nutrition and food safety information in science textbooks prescribed by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), India for grades I through X. Design: Content analysis. Methods: A coding scheme was developed for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Two investigators independently coded the…

Subba Rao, G. M.; Vijayapushapm, T.; Venkaiah, K.; Pavarala, V.

2012-01-01

338

A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.

2007-01-01

339

Whose American Government? A Quantitative Analysis of Gender and Authorship in American Politics Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

American government textbooks signal to students the kinds of topics that are important and, by omission, the kinds of topics that are not important to the discipline of political science. This article examines portrayals of women in introductory American politics textbooks through a quantitative content analysis of 22 widely used texts. We find…

Cassese, Erin C.; Bos, Angela L.; Schneider, Monica C.

2014-01-01

340

Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus x Bos Taurus cattle: chromosome 10  

E-print Network

M or approximately 3.2% of the estimated 28OOcM genome length. The markers had heterozygosity values ranging from 0.36 to 0.87 and PIC values ranging from 0.39 to 0.83. An interval mapping analysis using regression methods was used to search for quantitative trait...

Lutaaya, Emmanuel

1996-01-01

341

Quantitative Intersectionality: A Critical Race Analysis of the Chicana/o Educational Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the critical race framework of intersectionality, this research reexamines the Chicana/o educational pipeline through a quantitative intersectional analysis. This approach disaggregates data along the intersection of race, class, gender, and citizenship status to provide a detailed portrait of the educational trajectory of Mexican-origin…

Covarrubias, Alejandro

2011-01-01

342

Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis  

E-print Network

1 Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis of how, Andrew J. Dougill and Piers M. Forster August 2010 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 29 #12;2 The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) was established

Rambaut, Andrew

343

Analytical strategies based on multiple headspace extraction for the quantitative analysis of aroma components in mushrooms.  

PubMed

Headspace (HS) and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have been found to be suitable methods for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. The objectives of this paper are to study the possibilities of multiple headspace extraction (MHE) for the quantitative determination of volatile compounds in mushroom samples and to compare the results obtained using three different sample treatment techniques. For this purpose, HS with two different injection techniques (pressure-loop system and gas-tight syringe autosampling system) and HS-SPME have been studied. Three processes were optimized for the analysis of 20 volatile compounds by experimental design technique based on Central Composite Design (CCD) and Full Factorial Design depending on the used methodology. Once the designs were finished, a trade off among optimum conditions for each compound analyzed was reached. At optimum conditions, appropriate extraction time and sample amount for the three techniques used were established. Finally, the methods were validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantitation limits and repeatability. The most suitable method was then applied to the quantitative analysis of seven mushroom samples. A detailed comparison of the analytical performance characteristics of HS and HS-SPME as sample treatment techniques for final GC/MS determination is given. In addition, MHE has been proved to be an adequate technique to avoid matrix effects in complex samples quantitation. Its applicability to the determination of volatile mushroom components, along with its limitations, is discussed in this work. PMID:24725884

San Román, I; Alonso, M L; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, R M; Fañanás, R

2014-06-01

344

Quantitative Analysis of TumorVascularity in Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of TumorVascularity in Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid Nodules Andrej in differentiating malignant and benign solid thyroid nodules using tumor histologic evaluation as the reference standard. Methods. Eighty-six solid thyroid tumors (46 malignant and 40 benign) in 56 consecutive patients

Miga, Michael I.

345

Technical Note A Quantitative Analysis of the Feynman-and Rossi-Alpha Formulas  

E-print Network

Technical Note A Quantitative Analysis of the Feynman- and Rossi-Alpha Formulas with Multiple ­ Recently, analytical formulas have been derived for the Feynman- and Rossi-Alpha measure- ments-Alpha formulas contain additional terms as compared with the traditional cases. A numerical evaluation

Pázsit, Imre

346

Quantitative Analysis of Peristaltic and Segmental Motion In Vivo in the Rat Small Intestine Using Dynamic  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Peristaltic and Segmental Motion In Vivo in the Rat Small Intestine Using of nutrients that takes place within the small intestine. The normal processes of the small intestine are known been used extensively to study segments of the intestine that have been exteriorized from animals

Brasseur, James G.

347

A Quantitative Discourse Analysis of Student-Initiated Checks of Understanding during Teacher-Fronted Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research highlights the paradoxical importance of students' being able to check their understanding with teachers and of teachers' constraining student participation. Using quantitative discourse analysis, this paper examines third graders' discursive strategies in initiating such checks and teachers' strategies in constraining them. The…

Shepherd, Michael A.

2012-01-01

348

QUANTITATIVE MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS (PLS AND PCR) OF CARBAMAZEPINE POLYMORPHIC MIXTURES USING RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis (PLS and PCR) to quantify binary mixtures of polymorphic forms of carbamazepine was investigated. Accurate quantitative models were generated with limits of detection of less than 1%. The polymorphic behaviour of drugs is a major concern of the pharmaceutical industry as it may have considerable formulation, therapeutic, legal and commercial implications

C. J. Strachan; J. A. Zeitler; D. Pratiwi; K. C. Gordon; T. Rades

349

Quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in processed food by PCR-based methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different PCR-based approaches for the quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) – components in foods are presented using Soybean derived samples as an example. The first method – a double competitive PCR – is well suited to determine threshold levels of GMO content in food. The other – PCR on-line measurement – is suited to determine ratios of

A. Wurz; A. Bluth; P. Zeltz; C. Pfeifer; R. Willmund

1999-01-01

350

Quantitative analysis of bristle number in Drosophila mutants identifies genes involved in neural development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The identification of the function of all genes that contribute to specific biological processes and complex traits is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. One approach is to employ forward genetic screens in genetically tractable model organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, P element-mediated insertional mutagenesis is a versatile tool for the dissection of molecular pathways, and there is an ongoing effort to tag every gene with a P element insertion. However, the vast majority of P element insertion lines are viable and fertile as homozygotes and do not exhibit obvious phenotypic defects, perhaps because of the tendency for P elements to insert 5' of transcription units. Quantitative genetic analysis of subtle effects of P element mutations that have been induced in an isogenic background may be a highly efficient method for functional genome annotation. RESULTS: Here, we have tested the efficacy of this strategy by assessing the extent to which screening for quantitative effects of P elements on sensory bristle number can identify genes affecting neural development. We find that such quantitative screens uncover an unusually large number of genes that are known to function in neural development, as well as genes with yet uncharacterized effects on neural development, and novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the use of quantitative trait analysis for functional genome annotation through forward genetics. Similar analyses of quantitative effects of P element insertions will facilitate our understanding of the genes affecting many other complex traits in Drosophila.

Norga, Koenraad K.; Gurganus, Marjorie C.; Dilda, Christy L.; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Lyman, Richard F.; Patel, Prajal H.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Mackay, Trudy F.; Bellen, Hugo J.

2003-01-01

351

Quantitative PIXE and micro-PIXE analysis of thick samples at Fudan University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At Fudan University, the work of quantitative analysis of thick samples had already begun in 1977 (Ref. [1], J. Fudan Univ. (Nat. Sci.) 1 (1977) 73), mainly for the analysis of the sword of Yue Prince Gou Jian. The software TSPIXE for quantitative analysis of thick samples was completed in 1992 (Ref. [2], Chin. J. Nucl. Phys. 15 (1993) 133). In this paper the theory and database of the software are described. The software has been applied to calculate the trace elemental concentrations of biological, geological and archaeological samples. Some results concerning these samples are presented. Compared to the old version, TSPIXE II has incorporated secondary fluorescence. Representative results of the metal analysis considering the secondary fluorescence effect are presented. The new version of the software TSPIXE now under programming deals with multilayer samples. A preliminary result is also presented.

Dai, Zhongning; Ren, Chigang; Ni, Weihong; Yang, Fujia

1995-09-01

352

Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment  

PubMed Central

We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of Kraszewski, in support of their conclusion that SOCT optimization should include window shape, next to choice of window size and analysis algorithm. PMID:25401016

Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk J.

2014-01-01

353

Direct Comparison of GeneChip and SAGE on the Quantitative Accuracy in Transcript Profiling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the high-throughput, comprehensive technological methods used to analyze transcript expression levels, array-based hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) are currently the most common approaches. To compare the quantitative accuracy of oligonucleotide array and SAGE, both methods were carried out on identical RNA specimens prepared from human blood monocytes and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced macrophages. For SAGE analysis,

Masami Ishii; Shin-ichi Hashimoto; Shuichi Tsutsumi; Yoichiro Wada; Kouji Matsushima; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Hiroyuki Aburatani

2000-01-01

354

Direct evidence for the role of light-mediated gas vesicle collapse in the buoyancy regulation of Anabaena flos-aquae (cyanobacteria)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative measurements were made of the changes in gas vacuole volume and the major components of cell mass (protein and carbohydrate) on cultures of Anabaenaflos-aquae which lost buoyancy as they were shifted from low to high light intensity. Assuming densities of 1,300 kg. rn-' for protein and 1,600 for carbohydrate, we calculated the change in ballast brought about by changes

R. L. OLIVER; A. E. WAISBY

1984-01-01

355

In-line quantitative phase imaging for damage detection and analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate quantitative phase imaging as a measurement method for laser damage detection and analysis of laser induced modification of optical materials. Experiments have been conducted with a wavefront sensor based on lateral shearing interferometry technique associated to a high magnification optical microscope. The system has been used for in situ observation of optical thin films and bulk samples irradiated by 500fs pulses. It is shown that the technique realizes high sensitivity, convenient use and can provide quantitative information on the refractive index or surface modification of the samples under test.

Douti, Dam-Bé L.; Aknoun, Sherazade; Monneret, Serge; Hecquet, Christophe; Commandré, Mireille; Gallais, Laurent

2014-10-01

356

Quantitative analysis of the mixtures of illicit drugs using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was proposed to quantitatively inspect the mixtures of illicit drugs with terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technique. The mass percentages of all components in a mixture can be obtained by linear regression analysis, on the assumption that all components in the mixture and their absorption features be known. For illicit drugs were scarce and expensive, firstly we used common chemicals, Benzophenone, Anthraquinone, Pyridoxine hydrochloride and L-Ascorbic acid in the experiment. Then illicit drugs and a common adulterant, methamphetamine and flour, were selected for our experiment. Experimental results were in significant agreement with actual content, which suggested that it could be an effective method for quantitative identification of illicit drugs.

Jiang, Dejun; Zhao, Shusen; Shen, Jingling

2008-03-01

357

Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

2013-01-01

358

A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool (http://www.proteosuite.org/?q=other_resources) to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.

2012-01-01

359

Quantitative Analysis of Pork and Chicken Products by Droplet Digital PCR  

PubMed Central

In this project, a highly precise quantitative method based on the digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) technique was developed to determine the weight of pork and chicken in meat products. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of species-specific DNAs in meat products. However, it is limited in amplification efficiency and relies on standard curves based Ct values, detecting and quantifying low copy number target DNA, as in some complex mixture meat products. By using the dPCR method, we find the relationships between the raw meat weight and DNA weight and between the DNA weight and DNA copy number were both close to linear. This enabled us to establish formulae to calculate the raw meat weight based on the DNA copy number. The accuracy and applicability of this method were tested and verified using samples of pork and chicken powder mixed in known proportions. Quantitative analysis indicated that dPCR is highly precise in quantifying pork and chicken in meat products and therefore has the potential to be used in routine analysis by government regulators and quality control departments of commercial food and feed enterprises. PMID:25243184

Cai, Yicun; Li, Xiang; Lv, Rong; Yang, Jielin; Li, Jian; He, Yuping; Pan, Liangwen

2014-01-01

360

Quantitative analysis of the yeast proteome by incorporation of isotopically labeled leucine.  

PubMed

Quantitative comparison of protein expression levels in 2D gels is complicated by the variables associated with protein separation and mass spectrometric responses. Metabolic labeling allows cells from different experiments to be mixed prior to analysis. This approach has been reported for prokaryotic cells. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic labeling can also be successfully applied to the eukaryote Saccharormyces cerevisiae. Yeast leucine auxotrophs grown on synthetic complete media containing natural abundance Leu or D10-Leu were mixed prior to 2D gel separation and MALDI analysis of the digested proteins. D10-Leu labeling provided an effective internal calibrant for peptide MS analysis, and the number of Leu residues yielded an additional parameter for peptide identification at low mass resolution (1000). Metabolic incorporation of D10-Leu into yeast proteins was found to be quantitative since the intensities of the peptide peaks corresponded to those expected on the basis of the percent label in the media. Thus, D10-Leu labeling should provide reliable data for comparing proteomes both quantitatively and qualitatively from wild-type and nonessential-gene-null-mutant strains of S. cerevisiae. Given the central role played by yeast in our understanding of eukaryotic gene and protein expression, it is anticipated that the quantitative expressional proteomic method outlined here will have widespread applications. PMID:12645890

Jiang, Heng; English, Ann M

2002-01-01

361

Quantitative analysis of estimated scattering coefficient and phase retardation for ovarian tissue characterization  

PubMed Central

In this report, optical scattering coefficient and phase retardation quantitatively estimated from polarization-sensitive OCT (PSOCT) were used for ovarian tissue characterization. A total of 33 ex vivo ovaries (normal: n = 26, malignant: n = 7) obtained from 18 patients were investigated. A specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 86% were achieved by using estimated scattering coefficient alone; and a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 43% were obtained by using phase retardation alone. However, a superior specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 100% were achieved if these two parameters were used together for classifying normal and malignant ovaries. Quantitative measurement of collagen content obtained from Sirius red histology sections shows that it correlates with estimated scattering coefficient and phase retardation. Our initial results demonstrate that quantitative analysis of PSOCT could be a potentially valuable method for distinguishing normal from malignant ovarian tissues during minimally invasive surgery and help guide surgical intervention. PMID:22808427

Yang, Yi; Wang, Tianheng; Wang, Xiaohong; Sanders, Melinda; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

2012-01-01

362

[A multivariate nonlinear model for quantitative analysis in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy].  

PubMed

Most quantitative models used in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are based on the hypothesis that laser-induced plasma approaches the state of local thermal equilibrium (LTE). However, the local equilibrium is possible only at a specific time segment during the evolution. As the populations of each energy level does not follow Boltzmann distribution in non-LTE condition, those quantitative models using single spectral line would be inaccurate. A multivariate nonlinear model, in which the LTE is not required, was proposed in this article to reduce the signal fluctuation and improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis. This multivariate nonlinear model was compared with the internal calibration model which is based on the LTE condition. The content of Mn in steel samples was determined by using the two models, respectively. A minor error and a minor relative standard deviation (RSD) were observed in multivariate nonlinear model. This result demonstrates that multivariate nonlinear model can improve measurement accuracy and repeatability. PMID:25752066

Chen, Xing-Long; Fu, Hong-Bo; Wang, Jing-Ge; Ni, Zhi-Bo; He, Wen-Gan; Xu, Jun; Rao Rui-zhong; Dong, Rui-Zhong

2014-11-01

363

Chemometrics applied to quantitative analysis of ternary mixtures by terahertz spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Chemometrics was applied to qualitative and quantitative analyses of terahertz spectra obtained in transmission mode. A series of mixtures of three pure analytes, namely, citric acid, D-(-)fructose, and ?-lactose monohydrate under various concentrations, was prepared as pressed pellets with polyethylene as binder. Then, terahertz absorbance spectra were recorded by terahertz time domain spectroscopy and analyzed. First, principal component analysis allowed one to correctly locate the samples into a ternary diagram. Second, quantitative analysis was achieved by partial least-squares (PLS) regression and artificial neural networks (ANN). The concentrations were predicted with values of relative mean square error lower than 0.9% for the three constituents. As a conclusion, chemometrics was demonstrated to be very efficient for the analysis of the ternary mixtures prepared for this study. PMID:24738647

El Haddad, Josette; de Miollis, Frederick; Bou Sleiman, Joyce; Canioni, Lionel; Mounaix, Patrick; Bousquet, Bruno

2014-05-20

364

Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ®  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere, waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates. During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential, it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human's themselves in detail. Additionally, there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale. Current standardized test systems are mono species tests, and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance. The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat/facility, called AquaHab ® which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application. The AquaHab ® module can be the home of several fish species, snails, plants, amphipods and bacteria. The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab ® in different fields. Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic levels and ecosystem levels; guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment. Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity (e.g. general biological and water chemical parameters, activity of biotransforming enzymes) result in broad spectra of sensitivity. Combined with residual analyses (including all metabolites), this leads to an extended prospective risk assessment of a chemical on Earth and in a closed Life Support System. The possibility to measure also sensitive "online" parameters (e.g. behavior, respiration/photosynthetic activity) enables a quick and sensitive effect analysis of water contaminants in respective environments. AquaHab ® is currently under development to an early warning biomonitoring system using genetically modified fish and green algae. The implementation of biosensors/biochip in addition is also discussed.

Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.

2008-12-01

365

HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

Cimpoiu, Claudia

366

Comparison of aqua regia digestion with sodium carbonate fusion for the determination of total phosphorus in soils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widely used methods for determination of total phosphorus in soils are sodium carbonate fusion and perchloric acid digestion. The fusion method is unsuitable for routine analysis, whereas the perchloric acid digestion method is potentially hazardous and can give low recovery. This paper compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia, with Na2CO3 fusion, and also compares inductively coupled

A. R. Crosland; F. J. Zhao; S. P. McGrath

1995-01-01

367

Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Human Lung Tumor Xenografts Treated with the Ectopic ATP Synthase Inhibitor Citreoviridin  

PubMed Central

ATP synthase is present on the plasma membrane of several types of cancer cells. Citreoviridin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, selectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of lung cancer without affecting normal cells. However, the global effects of targeting ectopic ATP synthase in vivo have not been well defined. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and provided a comprehensive insight into the complicated regulation by citreoviridin in a lung cancer xenograft model. With high reproducibility of the quantitation, we obtained quantitative proteomic profiling with 2,659 proteins identified. Bioinformatics analysis of the 141 differentially expressed proteins selected by their relative abundance revealed that citreoviridin induces alterations in the expression of glucose metabolism-related enzymes in lung cancer. The up-regulation of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and storage of glucose indicated that citreoviridin may reduce the glycolytic intermediates for macromolecule synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation. Using comprehensive proteomics, the results identify metabolic aspects that help explain the antitumorigenic effect of citreoviridin in lung cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the links between metabolism and tumorigenesis in cancer therapy. PMID:23990911

Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Hu, Chia-Wei; Chien, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yu-Ju; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

2013-01-01

368

Errors in Quantitative Image Analysis due to Platform-Dependent Image Scaling1  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of various software (SW) tools used for quantitative image analysis to properly account for source-specific image scaling employed by magnetic resonance imaging manufacturers. METHODS: A series of gadoteridol-doped distilled water solutions (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% volume concentrations) was prepared for manual substitution into one (of three) phantom compartments to create “variable signal,” whereas the other two compartments (containing mineral oil and 0.25% gadoteriol) were held unchanged. Pseudodynamic images were acquired over multiple series using four scanners such that the histogram of pixel intensities varied enough to provoke variable image scaling from series to series. Additional diffusion-weighted images were acquired of an ice-water phantom to generate scanner-specific apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The resulting pseudodynamic images and ADC maps were analyzed by eight centers of the Quantitative Imaging Network using 16 different SW tools to measure compartment-specific region-of-interest intensity. RESULTS: Images generated by one of the scanners appeared to have additional intensity scaling that was not accounted for by the majority of tested quantitative image analysis SW tools. Incorrect image scaling leads to intensity measurement bias near 100%, compared to nonscaled images. CONCLUSION: Corrective actions for image scaling are suggested for manufacturers and quantitative imaging community. PMID:24772209

Chenevert, Thomas L; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Newitt, David; Li, Xin; Jayatilake, Mohan; Tudorica, Alina; Fedorov, Andriy; Kikinis, Ron; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Muzi, Mark; Oborski, Matthew J; Laymon, Charles M; Li, Xia; Thomas, Yankeelov; Jayashree, Kalpathy-Cramer; Mountz, James M; Kinahan, Paul E; Rubin, Daniel L; Fennessy, Fiona; Huang, Wei; Hylton, Nola; Ross, Brian D

2014-01-01

369

Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis.  

SciTech Connect

To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its’ suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.

Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Moore, Ronald J.; Ramirez Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

2013-05-03

370

Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis  

PubMed Central

To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its' suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated. PMID:23495885

Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Ramirez-Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

2013-01-01

371

Efficient Antifouling Surface for Quantitative Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Biosensor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Non-specific binding to biosensor surfaces is a major obstacle to quantitative analysis of selective retention of analytes at immobilized target molecules. Although a range of chemical antifouling monolayers has been developed to address this problem, many macromolecular interactions still remain refractive to analysis due to the prevalent high degree of non-specific binding. In this manuscript we explore the dynamic process of the formation of self-assembled monolayers and optimize physical and chemical properties thus reducing considerably non-specific binding while maintaining the integrity of the immobilized biomolecules. As a result, analysis of specific binding of analytes to immobilized target molecules is significantly facilitated. PMID:22984487

Nogues, Claude; Leh, Hervé; Lautru, Joseph; Delelis, Olivier; Buckle, Malcolm

2012-01-01

372

Response factor considerations for the quantitative analysis of western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliar monoterpenes.  

PubMed

A method is described for quantitative analysis of monoterpenes in western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliage by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Response factors for monoterpenes identified in redcedar are evaluated to determine similarities among monoterpene responses. Evaluation demonstrates that redcedar monoterpenes yield detector responses that fall into two groups. One monoterpene from each group is used as a standard for quantitative analysis. Redcedar monoterpenes are quantitated by comparing analyte response with the response factor of one of the standards in single-point calibrations. Homogenized foliage samples are extracted with ethyl acetate and the extracts passed through a solid phase extraction column of graphitized carbon to remove plant pigments. Method bias and repeatability are evaluated by fortifying foliage samples with (1S)-(+)-carvone and (1S)-(+)-2-carene and subjecting the samples to the extraction and analysis procedures. Detection limits are also assessed from fortified samples. Excellent recovery (> 95.0%) and precision (< 5%) are obtained from the analysis of 2-carene from fortified samples. Carvone recovery is approximately 80% with excellent precision (< 4%). The method limits of detection obtained from 2-carene and carvone fortified samples are 4.7 and 13.5 microg/g, respectively. PMID:15975244

Kimball, Bruce A; Russell, John H; Griffin, Doreen L; Johnston, John J

2005-01-01

373

Quantitative Analysis of Shotgun Metagenomic Data with the Real Time Genomics Platform  

PubMed Central

Real Time Genomics has developed high performance tools for quantitative analysis of metagenomic experiments on the Illumina, Ion Torrent and Roche 454 platforms. The search algorithms and processing pipeline were created around requirements for analysis of shotgun metagenomics samples from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP). With the configurable metagenomics pipeline, data sets can be analyzed in three separate arms for 1) functional or metabolic profiling using translated nucleotide searches of annotated databases such as KEGG with mapx in conjunction with the gene/metabolic pathway analysis program HUMAnN (HMP and Huttenhower lab), 2) taxonomic profiling with searches of reference genome databases with map followed by quantitative analysis of species abundance and sample composition from alignment data (SAM files) using RTG species, and 3) analysis of differences in bacterial community structure with a RTG's similarity matrix generation tool, used in combination with multivariate analysis (PCA or hierarchical clustering algorithms (SVD, singular value decomposition)). We will present analysis of HMP project data to demonstrate the utility of the pipeline for a series of metagenomic investigations.

Cleary, John G.; Littin, Richard; Trigg, Len; Irvine, Sean; Hilbush, Brian

2013-01-01

374

Quantitative Schlieren analysis applied to holograms of crystals grown on Spacelab 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to extract additional information about crystals grown in the microgravity environment of Spacelab, a quantitative schlieren analysis technique was developed for use in a Holography Ground System of the Fluid Experiment System. Utilizing the Unidex position controller, it was possible to measure deviation angles produced by refractive index gradients of 0.5 milliradians. Additionally, refractive index gradient maps for any recorded time during the crystal growth were drawn and used to create solute concentration maps for the environment around the crystal. The technique was applied to flight holograms of Cell 204 of the Fluid Experiment System that were recorded during the Spacelab 3 mission on STS 51B. A triglycine sulfate crystal was grown under isothermal conditions in the cell and the data gathered with the quantitative schlieren analysis technique is consistent with a diffusion limited growth process.

Brooks, Howard L.

1986-01-01

375

Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of cardiovascular flow and heart wall motions in living zebrafish embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progenitor factors such as blood flow induced mechanical forces play a key role in vertebrate heart development. However, three-dimensional (3-D) characteristics of in vivo cardiovascular flow and heart wall motions are not well understood due to the lack of proper imaging tools with sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions for quantitative analysis. In this study, a real-time high-speed 3-D imaging system based on defocusing digital particle image velocimetry was used to study dynamic cell motions in living zebrafish embryos. 500-nm fluorescent microspheres were injected into the blood stream to label the cardiovascular flow. Cardiac blood flow velocities were measured during a cardiac cycle at various early embryonic stages. The heart wall of a zebrafish embryo was labeled by a few fluorescent microspheres adhered to the wall. 3-D dynamic motions were reconstructed and quantitative analysis such as strain measurement was performed.

Lu, Jian; Fraser, Scott; Gharib, Morteza

2007-11-01

376

Quantitative analysis of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems-A historical perspective  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although much progress has been made toward the mathematical description of saltwater-freshwater relationships in groundwater systems since the late 19th century, the advective and dispersive mechanisms involved are still incompletely understood. This article documents the major historical advances in this subject and summarizes the major direction of current studies. From the time of Badon Ghyben and Herzberg, it has been recognized that density is important in mathematically describing saltwater-freshwater systems. Other mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic dispersion, were identified later and are still not fully understood. Quantitative analysis of a saltwater-freshwater system attempts to mathematically describe the physical system and the important mechanisms using reasonable simplifications and assumptions. This paper, in developing the history of quantitative analysis discusses many of these simplifications and assumptions and their effect on describing and understanding the phenomenon. ?? 1985.

Reilly, T.E.; Goodman, A.S.

1985-01-01

377

Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.

1992-01-01

378

Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent

2011-01-01

379

Computerized quantitative petrographic image analysis of Wilcox sandstone, Louisiana Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computerized quantitative petrographic image analysis measures first-order parameters such as the abundance, cross-sectional area, length, width, diameter, and perimeter of a pore feature very rapidly and with great accuracy and precision. From these first-order parameters, second-order parameters such as shape factors, aspect ratios, specific surfaces, and pore size and roughness distributions can be calculated. These parameters can then be used

J. R. Jr. Garrison; R. E. Gerard; F. M. Manni

1987-01-01

380

Thermodynamic study of Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn systems using quantitative differential thermal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of quantitative differential thermal analysis application in thermodynamic investigation of two gallium-based\\u000a binary systems, Ga-Sn and Ga-Zn, are presented in this paper. Integral molar enthalpies of mixing in liquid state, as well\\u000a as the activities, activity coefficients, and other partial and integral molar quantities were determined at the temperatures\\u000a of 1000, 1073 and 1200 K (for Ga-Sn system)

D. Zivkovic; D. Manasijevic; Z Zivkovic

2003-01-01

381

Quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in ice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on a simple, quick-freeze method for the quantitative analysis of trace metal ions in liquids applying the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. Using this procedure with calibrated samples, well-characterized linear working curves were determined for Na and Al water solutions over the 0.01–1% concentration range. This allowed detection limits of the order of ppm. In addition, optimum

J. O. Cáceres; J. Tornero López; H. H. Telle; A. González Ureña

2001-01-01

382

Quantitative analysis of X-ray absorption spectra using a 2D map representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A promising possibility for the quantitative analysis of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of nanosized electrode materials is demonstrated. We used a 2D map representation technique, which utilizes the values of the first derivatives of the absorbance with respect to the inserted Li+ content plotted over the two-dimensional space defined by the inserted Li+ content (mole) versus photon

Hyun Chul Choi; Sungkoo Lee; Kyeong K. Lee; Isao Noda; Chan Ho Kwon; Young Mee Jung

2008-01-01

383

Quantitative analysis of thymine with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and partial least squares (PLS) regression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silver sol surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was considered as a technique in the quantitative analysis of low-concentration\\u000a thymine. Because of the poor stability and reproducibility of SERS signal, a polymer of polyacrylic acid sodium was selected\\u000a as a stable medium to add into silver sol in order to obtain a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy signal. Assignments of\\u000a Raman shift for solid

Lei Zhang; Qingqing Li; Wei Tao; Bohao Yu; Yiping Du

2010-01-01

384

Quantitative analysis of nargenicin in Nocardia sp. CS682 culture by high performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive HPLC method was developed for the quantitative analysis of nargenicin in the culture broth of Nocardia sp. CS682, isolated from Korean soil. Nargenicin, an unusual macrolide antibiotic with potent anti-MRSA (methicilin-resistant\\u000a Staphylococcus aureus) activity, was extracted from the culture broth with ethylacetate and then analyzed by HPLC using solvent A (0.5 M dipotassium\\u000a phosphate pH 2.5-water:

Seung Sik Cho; Jae Kyung Sohng; Hyo Jeong Lee; Sung Ju Park; Jaya Ram Simkhada; Jin Cheol Yoo

2009-01-01

385

Quantitative analysis of voids in percolating structures in two-dimensional N-body simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in this paper a quantitative method for defining void size in large-scale structure based on percolation threshold density. Beginning with two-dimensional gravitational clustering simulations smoothed to the threshold of nonlinearity, we perform percolation analysis to determine the large scale structure. The resulting objective definition of voids has a natural scaling property, is topologically interesting, and can be applied immediately to redshift surveys.

Harrington, Patrick M.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

1993-01-01

386

Quantitative analysis of 3D coronary modeling in 3D rotational X-ray imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the analysis of the accuracy of modeling approaches to coronary reconstruction based on two or more projections in a calibrated X-ray G-arm system. The results of the study give insight into the quantitative accuracy of the calculated 3D centerline points and the 3D cross sectional areas of reconstructed objects as a function of the angular distance and

B. Movassaghi; V. Rasche; M. A. Viergever; W. Niessen

2002-01-01

387

Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

2014-03-01

388

Evaluation of a Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging System for Whole Body Composition Analysis in Rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the EchoMRI-900 combination rat and mouse quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) body composition method in comparison to traditional whole-body chemical carcass composition analysis (CCA) for measurements of fat and fat-free mass in rodents. Live and postmortem (PM) QMR fat and lean mass measurements were obtained for lean, obese and outbred strains of rats and mice, and compared with measurements

Joshua P. Nixon; Minzhi Zhang; ChuanFeng Wang; Michael A. Kuskowski; Colleen M. Novak; James A. Levine; Charles J. Billington; Catherine M. Kotz

2010-01-01

389

Effects of sample handling and storage on quantitative lipid analysis in human serum  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is sparse information about specific storage and handling protocols that minimize analytical error and variability in\\u000a samples evaluated by targeted metabolomics. Variance components that affect quantitative lipid analysis in a set of human\\u000a serum samples were determined. The effects of freeze-thaw, extraction state, storage temperature, and freeze-thaw prior to\\u000a density-based lipoprotein fractionation were quantified. The quantification of high abundance

Angela M. Zivkovic; Michelle M. Wiest; Uyen Thao Nguyen; Ryan Davis; Steven M. Watkins; J. Bruce German

2009-01-01

390

Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)  

DOE Data Explorer

Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

Trishchenko, Alexander

391

The First Day In The Life of Aqua-MODIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its first day of operations, June 24, 2002, Aqua-MODIS observed significant Earth events occurring all over the globe. As Super Typhoon Chataan was rapidly approaching Japan, there was severe flooding in southeast Texas and a vast, thick pall of smoke from Canadian wildfires blanketed almost the entire U.S. East Coast. MODIS collected and beamed to Earth these images in very near real-time.

Greg Rhodes

2002-08-15

392

Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)  

SciTech Connect

Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

Trishchenko, Alexander

2008-01-15

393

Chromatographic fingerprint and quantitative analysis of seven bioactive compounds of Scutellaria barbata.  

PubMed

Scutellaria barbata D. Don is widely used as a folk antitumor and anti-inflammatory agent in Asia. However, a simple and global quality control method for S. barbata was lacking. In this study, six phenolic compounds, including P-coumaric acid, scutellarin, apigenin 5-O-?-glucopyranoside, luteolin, apigenin and 4'-hydroxywogonin were obtained from S. barbata by phytochemical investigations. The six compounds plus baicalein show cytotoxcities to the nine human cancer cells, K562, MGC-803, HL60, SH-SY5Y, SW1116, SMMC-7221, SW480, HepG2 and KB. Subsequently, a high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed for both fingerprint analysis of S. barbata and quantitative determination of the seven anticancer active compounds in S. barbata. The chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Ultimate™ XB-C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 µm) in 65 min. For fingerprinting, 26 common peaks were found and selected as characteristic peaks to assess the consistency of S. barbata samples. For quantitative analysis, the seven bioactive compounds showed good regression relationship ( R² > 0.999) within test ranges and the recovery of the method was in the range of 90-105 %. In brief, the present study provides the fingerprint analysis and quantitative methods for global and systematical quality control of S. barbata for its anticancer usage. PMID:20862635

Yao, Hong; Li, Shaoguang; Hu, Juan; Chen, Yan; Huang, Liying; Lin, Jianhua; Li, Guangwen; Lin, Xinhua

2011-03-01

394

Toward quantitative deuterium analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using atmospheric-pressure helium gas  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study has been carried out for the development of quantitative deuterium analysis using the neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with atmospheric pressure surrounding He gas by exploring the appropriate experimental condition and special sample cleaning technique. The result demonstrates the achievement of a full resolution between the D and H emission lines from zircaloy-4 samples, which is prerequisite for the desired quantitative analysis. Further, a linear calibration line with zero intercept was obtained for the emission intensity of deuterium from a number of zircaloy samples doped with predetermined concentrations of deuterium. The result is obtained by setting a +4 mm defocusing position for the laser beam, 6 {mu}s detection gating time, and 7 mm imaging position of the plasma for the detection, which is combined with a special procedure of repeated laser cleaning of the samples. This study has thus provided the basis for the development of practical quantitative deuterium analysis by LIBS.

Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Chumakov, Alexander Nikitich [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnastsi Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-01-15

395

Quantitative Analysis of Lung Ultrasonography for the Detection of Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objective. Chest X-ray is recommended for routine use in patients with suspected pneumonia, but its use in emergency settings is limited. In this study, the diagnostic performance of a new method for quantitative analysis of lung ultrasonography was compared with bedside chest X-ray and visual lung ultrasonography for detection of community-acquired pneumonia, using thoracic computed tomography as a gold standard. Methods. Thirty-two spontaneously breathing patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia, undergoing computed tomography examination, were consecutively enrolled. Each hemithorax was evaluated for the presence or absence of abnormalities by chest X-ray and quantitative or visual ultrasonography. Results. Quantitative ultrasonography showed higher sensitivity (93%), specificity (95%), and diagnostic accuracy (94%) than chest X-ray (64%, 80%, and 69%, resp.), visual ultrasonography (68%, 95%, and 77%, resp.), or their combination (77%, 75%, and 77%, resp.). Conclusions. Quantitative lung ultrasonography was considerably more accurate than either chest X-ray or visual ultrasonography in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia and it may represent a useful first-line approach for confirmation of clinical diagnosis in emergency settings.

Corradi, Francesco; Brusasco, Claudia; Garlaschi, Alessandro; Ball, Lorenzo; Pelosi, Paolo; Altomonte, Fiorella; Brusasco, Vito

2015-01-01

396

Chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis of Salvia plebeia R.Br. by high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control the quality of Salvia plebeia R.Br., a simple and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was developed both for fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination of seven bioactive compounds, namely caffeic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, nepetin-7-glucoside, homoplantaginin, luteolin, nepetin and hispidulin. In fingerprint analysis, twelve peaks were selected as characteristic peaks. In quantitative analysis, seven

Xiao-feng Jin; Yan-hua Lu; Dong-zhi Wei; Zheng-tao Wang

2008-01-01

397

A quantitative analysis of the simulated annealing algorithm: A case study for the traveling salesman problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative study is presented of the typical behavior of the simulated annealing algorithm based on a cooling schedule presented previously by the authors. The study is based on the analysis of numerical results obtained by systematically applying the algorithm to a 100-city traveling salesman problem. The expectation and the variance of the cost are analyzed as a function of the control parameter of the cooling schedule. A semiempirical average-case performance analysis is presented from which estimates are obtained on the expectation of the average final result obtained by the simulated annealing algorithm as a function of the distance parameter, which determines the decrement of the control parameter.

Aarts, Emile H. L.; Korst, Jan H. M.; van Laarhoven, Peter J. M.

1988-01-01

398

Quantitative analysis of reptation of partially extended DNA in sub-30 nm nanoslits  

E-print Network

We observed reptation of single DNA molecules in fused silica nanoslits of sub-30 nm height. The reptation behavior and the effect of confinement are quantitatively characterized using orientation correlation and transverse fluctuation analysis. We show tube-like polymer motion arises for a tense polymer under strong quasi-2D confinement and interaction with surface- passivating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules in nanoslits, while etching- induced device surface roughness, chip bonding materials and DNA-intercalated dye-surface interaction, play minor roles. These findings have strong implications for the effect of surface modification in nanofluidic systems with potential applications for single molecule DNA analysis.

Jia-Wei Yeh; K. K. Sriram; Alessandro Taloni; Yeng-Long Chen; Chia-Fu Chou

2015-02-18

399

Significance analysis of microarray for relative quantitation of LC/MS data in proteomics  

PubMed Central

Background Although fold change is a commonly used criterion in quantitative proteomics for differentiating regulated proteins, it does not provide an estimation of false positive and false negative rates that is often desirable in a large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis. We explore the possibility of applying the Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) method (PNAS 98:5116-5121) to a differential proteomics problem of two samples with replicates. The quantitative proteomic analysis was carried out with nanoliquid chromatography/linear iron trap-Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The biological sample model included two Mycobacterium smegmatis unlabeled cell cultures grown at pH 5 and pH 7. The objective was to compare the protein relative abundance between the two unlabeled cell cultures, with an emphasis on significance analysis of protein differential expression using the SAM method. Results using the SAM method are compared with those obtained by fold change and the conventional t-test. Results We have applied the SAM method to solve the two-sample significance analysis problem in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) based quantitative proteomics. We grew the pH5 and pH7 unlabelled cell cultures in triplicate resulting in 6 biological replicates. Each biological replicate was mixed with a common 15N-labeled reference culture cells for normalization prior to SDS/PAGE fractionation and LC/MS analysis. For each biological replicate, one center SDS/PAGE gel fraction was selected for triplicate LC/MS analysis. There were 121 proteins quantified in at least 5 of the 6 biological replicates. Of these 121 proteins, 106 were significant in differential expression by the t-test (p < 0.05) based on peptide-level replicates, 54 were significant in differential expression by SAM with ? = 0.68 cutoff and false positive rate at 5%, and 29 were significant in differential expression by the t-test (p < 0.05) based on protein-level replicates. The results indicate that SAM appears to overcome the false positives one encounters using the peptide-based t-test while allowing for identification of a greater number of differentially expressed proteins than the protein-based t-test. Conclusion We demonstrate that the SAM method can be adapted for effective significance analysis of proteomic data. It provides much richer information about the protein differential expression profiles and is particularly useful in the estimation of false discovery rates and miss rates. PMID:18402702

Roxas, Bryan AP; Li, Qingbo

2008-01-01

400

Quantitative analysis of oils and fats by Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid analysis of fats and oils is of great importance in the food industry. It is shown that Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy may be used for this purpose. Good quality spectra, free of fluorescence, may be obtained and the spectra may be interpreted in terms of changes in total unsaturation, cis/trans isomer ratios and the number of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chains. Quantitative analysis of total unsaturation and cis/trans is possible and offers considerable improvements in speed when compared with conventional methods.

Sadeghi-Jorabchi, H.; Wilson, R. H.; Belton, P. S.; Edwards-Webb, J. D.; Coxon, D. T.

401

Quantitative analysis of tin alloy combined with artificial neural network prediction  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to quantitative analysis of three impurities in Sn alloy. The impurities analysis was based on the internal standard method using the Sn I 333.062-nm line as the reference line to achieve the best reproducible results. Minor-element concentrations (Ag, Cu, Pb) in the alloy were comparatively evaluated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and calibration curves. ANN was found to effectively predict elemental concentrations with a trend of nonlinear growth due to self-absorption. The limits of detection for Ag, Cu, and Pb in Sn alloy were determined to be 29, 197, and 213 ppm, respectively.

Oh, Seong Y.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

2010-05-01

402

Quantitative Analysis of Polymer Additives with MALDI-TOF MS Using an Internal Standard Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

2012-06-01

403

Quantitative analysis of polymer additives with MALDI-TOF MS using an internal standard approach.  

PubMed

MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990. PMID:22451334

Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

2012-06-01

404

Quantitative analysis of reptation of partially extended DNA in sub-30 nm nanoslits  

E-print Network

We observed reptation of single DNA molecules in fused silica nanoslits of sub-30 nm height. The reptation behavior and the effect of confinement are quantitatively characterized using orientation correlation and transverse fluctuation analysis. We show tube-like polymer motion arises for a tense polymer under strong quasi-2D confinement and interaction with surface- passivating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules in nanoslits, while etching- induced device surface roughness, chip bonding materials and DNA-intercalated dye-surface interaction, play minor roles. These findings have strong implications for the effect of surface modification in nanofluidic systems with potential applications for single molecule DNA analysis.

Yeh, Jia-Wei; Taloni, Alessandro; Chen, Yeng-Long; Chou, Chia-Fu

2015-01-01

405

Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of oxides formed on superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods were developed for quantitative analysis by X-ray diffraction of the oxides Al2O3, NiO, Cr2O3, CoO, and CoCr2O4 within a standard deviation of about 10 percent of the weight fraction reported or within 1 percent absolute. These error limits assume that the sample oxides are well characterized and that the physiochemical structure of the oxides in the samples are identical with those in the synthesized standards. Results are given for the use of one of the techniques in the analysis of spalls from a series of oxidation tests of the cobalt base alloy WI-52.

Garlick, R. G.

1972-01-01

406

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of systems and synthetic biology constructs using P systems.  

PubMed

Computational models are perceived as an attractive alternative to mathematical models (e.g., ordinary differential equations). These models incorporate a set of methods for specifying, modeling, testing, and simulating biological systems. In addition, they can be analyzed using algorithmic techniques (e.g., formal verification). This paper shows how formal verification is utilized in systems and synthetic biology through qualitative vs quantitative analysis. Here, we choose two well-known case studies: quorum sensing in P. aeruginosas and pulse generator. The paper reports verification analysis of two systems carried out using some model checking tools, integrated to the Infobiotics Workbench platform, where system models are based on stochastic P systems. PMID:25090609

Konur, Savas; Gheorghe, Marian; Dragomir, Ciprian; Mierla, Laurentiu; Ipate, Florentin; Krasnogor, Natalio

2015-01-16

407

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Bacteria in Er(III) Solution by Thin-Film Magnetopheresis  

PubMed Central

Magnetic deposition, quantitation, and identification of bacteria reacting with the paramagnetic trivalent lanthanide ion, Er3+, was evaluated. The magnetic deposition method was dubbed thin-film magnetopheresis. The optimization of the magnetic deposition protocol was accomplished with Escherichia coli as a model organism in 150 mM NaCl and 5 mM ErCl3 solution. Three gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus faecalis, and four gram-negative bacteria, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, were subsequently investigated. Quantitative analysis consisted of the microscopic cell count and a scattered-light scanning of the magnetically deposited material aided by the computer data acquisition system. Qualitative analysis consisted of Gram stain differentiation and fluorescein isothiocyanate staining in combination with selected antisera against specific types of bacteria on the solid substrate. The magnetic deposition protocol allowed quantitative detection of E. coli down to the concentration of 105 CFU ml-1, significant in clinical diagnosis applications such as urinary tract infections. Er3+ did not interfere with the typical appearance of the Gram-stained bacteria nor with the antigen recognition by the antibody in the immunohistological evaluations. Indirect antiserum-fluorescein isothiocyanate labelling correctly revealed the presence of E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa in the magnetically deposited material obtained from the mixture of these two bacterial species. On average, the reaction of gram-positive organisms was significantly stronger to the magnetic field in the presence of Er3+ than the reaction of gram-negative organisms. The thin-film magnetophoresis offers promise as a rapid method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in solutions such as urine or environmental water. Images PMID:16348916

Zborowski, Maciej; Tada, Yoko; Malchesky, Paul S.; Hall, Geraldine S.

1993-01-01

408

Sensitive quantitative analysis of murine LINE1 DNA methylation using high resolution melt analysis.  

PubMed

We present here the first high resolution melt (HRM) assay to quantitatively analyze differences in murine DNA methylation levels utilizing CpG methylation of Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE1 or L1). By calculating the integral difference in melt temperature between samples and a methylated control, and biasing PCR primers for unmethylated CpGs, the assay demonstrates enhanced sensitivity to detect changes in methylation in a cell line treated with low doses of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza). The L1 assay was confirmed to be a good marker of changes in DNA methylation of L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome when compared with total 5-methyl-cytosine content, measured by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay design was also used to detect changes in methylation at other murine repeat elements (B1 and Intracisternal-A-particle Long-terminal Repeat elements). Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that L1 methylation changes were non-uniform across the CpGs within the L1-HRM target region, demonstrating that the L1 assay can detect small changes in CpG methylation among a large pool of heterogeneously methylated DNA templates. Application of the assay to various tissues from Balb/c and CBA mice, including previously unreported peripheral blood (PB), revealed a tissue hierarchy (from hypermethylated to hypomethylated) of PB > kidney > liver > prostate > spleen. CBA mice demonstrated overall greater methylation than Balb/c mice, and male mice demonstrated higher tissue methylation compared with female mice in both strains. Changes in DNA methylation have been reported to be an early and fundamental event in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Mouse studies designed to identify modulators of DNA methylation, the critical doses, relevant time points and the tissues affected are limited by the low throughput nature and exorbitant cost of many DNA methylation assays. The L1 assay provides a high throughput, inexpensive and sensitive screening tool for identifying and characterizing DNA methylation changes to L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome. PMID:22274612

Newman, Michelle; Blyth, Benjamin J; Hussey, Damian J; Jardine, Daniel; Sykes, Pamela J; Ormsby, Rebecca J

2012-01-01

409

AquaBuOY-the offshore wave energy converter numerical modeling and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes development of the mathematical model simulating ocean performance of an offshore wave energy point absorber device-AquaBuOY. The AquaBuOY is the next generation of the technology, based on the IPS point absorber system and the hose pump, both of Sweden. AquaEnergy Group Ltd., USA, is developing the system in cooperation with RAMBOLL, Denmark. In March 2003 the Danish

Alla Weinstein; Goran Fredrikson; L. Claeson; J. Forsberg; M. J. Parks; K. Nielsen; M. S. Jenses; K. Zandiyeh; P. Frigaard; M. Kramer; T. L. Andersen

2003-01-01

410

MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products: Comparison between Aqua's e-Deep Blue, Dark Target, and "merged" data sets, and usage recommendations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmospheres data product suite includes three algorithms applied to retrieve midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD): the Enhanced Deep Blue (DB) and Dark Target (DT) algorithms over land, and a DT over-water algorithm. All three have been refined in the recent "Collection 6" (C6) MODIS reprocessing. In particular, DB has been expanded to cover vegetated land surfaces as well as brighter desert/urban areas. Additionally, a new "merged" data set which draws from all three algorithms is included in the C6 products. This study is intended to act as a point of reference for new and experienced MODIS data users with which to understand the global and regional characteristics of the C6 DB, DT, and merged data sets, based on MODIS Aqua data. This includes validation against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations at 111 sites, focused toward regional and categorical (surface/aerosol type) analysis. Neither algorithm consistently outperforms the other, although in many cases the retrieved AOD and the level of its agreement with AERONET are very similar. In many regions the DB, DT, and merged data sets are all suitable for quantitative applications, bearing in mind that they cannot be considered independent, while in other cases one algorithm does consistently outperform the other. Usage recommendations and caveats are thus somewhat complicated and regionally dependent.

Sayer, A. M.; Munchak, L. A.; Hsu, N. C.; Levy, R. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.

2014-12-01

411

Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits  

SciTech Connect

Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1995-08-01

412

High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi

2005-02-01

413

Race and Older Mothers’ Differentiation: A Sequential Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a process by which qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined to reveal patterns in the data that are unlikely to be detected and confirmed by either method alone. Specifically, we take a sequential approach to combining qualitative and quantitative data to explore race differences in how mothers differentiate among their adult children. We began with a standard multivariate analysis examining race differences in mothers’ differentiation among their adult children regarding emotional closeness and confiding. Finding no race differences in this analysis, we conducted an in-depth comparison of the Black and White mothers’ narratives to determine whether there were underlying patterns that we had been unable to detect in our first analysis. Using this method, we found that Black mothers were substantially more likely than White mothers to emphasize interpersonal relationships within the family when describing differences among their children. In our final step, we developed a measure of familism based on the qualitative data and conducted a multivariate analysis to confirm the patterns revealed by the in-depth comparison of the mother’s narratives. We conclude that using such a sequential mixed methods approach to data analysis has the potential to shed new light on complex family relations. PMID:21967639

Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Riffin, Catherine; Taylor-Watson, Kadari; Pillemer, Karl

2011-01-01

414

Microscopy environment for quantitative spatial and temporal analysis of multicellular interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative analysis of spatial and temporal concurrent responses of multiple markers in 3-dimensional cell cultures is hampered by the routine mode of sequential image acquisition, measurement and analysis of specific targets. A system was developed for detailed analysis of multi-dimensional, time-sequence responses and in order to relate features in novel and meaningful ways that will further our understanding of basic biology. Optical sectioning of the 3-dimensional structures is achieved with structured light illumination using the Wilson grating as described by Lanni. The automated microscopy system can image multicellular structures and track dynamic events, and is equipped for simultaneous/ sequential imaging of multiple fluorescent markers. Computer-controlled perfusion of external stimuli into the culture system allows (i) real-time observations of multiple cellular responses and (ii) automatic and intelligent adjustment of experimental parameters. This creates a feedback loop in real-time that directs desired responses in a given experiment. On-line image analysis routines provide cell-by-cell measurement results through segmentation and feature extraction (i.e. intensity, localization, etc.), and quantitation of meta-features such as dynamic responses of cells or correlations between different cells. Off-line image and data analysis is used to derive models of the processes involved, which will deepen the understanding of the basic biology.

Sudar, Damir; Parvin, Bahram; Callahan, Daniel E.; Schwarz, Richard I.; Knowles, David W.; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.

2002-05-01

415

High-resolution mass spectrometry for integrated qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals in biological matrices.  

PubMed

Quantitative and qualitative high-resolution (HR) dependent and independent acquisition schemes on a QqTOF MS (with resolving power 20,000-40,000) were investigated for the analysis of pharmaceutical compounds in biological fluids. High-resolution selected reaction monitoring (HR-SRM) was found to be linear over three orders of magnitude for quantitative analysis of paracetamol in human plasma, offering a real alternative to triple quadrupole LC-SRM/MS. Metabolic stability of talinolol in microsomes was characterized by use of three different acquisition schemes: (i) information-dependent acquisition (IDA) with a TOF MS experiment as survey scan and product-ion scan as dependent scan; (ii) MS(ALL) by collecting TOF mass spectra with and without fragmentation by alternating the collision energy of the collision cell between a low (i.e., 10 eV) and high setting (i.e., 40 eV); and (iii) a novel independent acquisition mode referred to as "sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment-ion spectra" (SWATH) or "global precursor ions scan mode" (GPS) in which sequential precursor ions windows (typically 20 u) are used to collect the same spectrum precursor and fragment ions using a collision energy range. SWATH or GPS was found to be superior to IDA or MS(ALL) in combination with UHPLC for qualitative analysis but requires a rapidly acquiring mass spectrometer. Finally, the GPS concept was used for QUAL/QUAN analysis (i.e. integration of qualitative and quantitative analysis) of bosentan and its metabolites in urine over a concentration range from 5 to 2,500 ng mL(-1). PMID:22203371

Hopfgartner, Gérard; Tonoli, David; Varesio, Emmanuel

2012-03-01

416

Investigating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis across four chicken tissues.  

PubMed

Accurate normalization of data is required to correct for different efficiencies and errors during the processing of samples in reverse transcription PCR analysis. The chicken is one of the main livestock species and its genome was one of the first reported and used in large scale transcriptomic analysis. Despite this, the chicken has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the quantitative PCR analysis of growth and fattening genes. In this study, five candidate reference genes (B2M, RPL32, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in the two main commercial muscles (pectoralis major (breast) and biceps femoris (thigh)), liver and abdominal fat. Four statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, CV and BestKeeper) were used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes. Additionally, a comprehensive ranking was established with the RefFinder tool. This analysis identified YWHAZ and TBP as the recommended combination for the analysis of biceps femoris and liver, YWHAZ and RPL32 for pectoralis major and RPL32 and B2M for abdominal fat and across-tissue studies. The final ranking for each tool changed slightly but overall the results, and most particularly the ability to discard the least robust candidates, were consistent between tools. The selection and number of reference genes were validated using SCD, a target gene related to fat metabolism. Overall, the results can be directly used to quantitate target gene expression in different tissues or in validation studies from larger transcriptomic experiments. PMID:25680290

Bagés, S; Estany, J; Tor, M; Pena, R N

2015-04-25

417

Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-ray tomograms of meat emulsions to quantitatively measure micro-structural changes due to heat treatment. The emulsion samples were imaged both in a raw and cooked state. Additionally, different fat types were used

Mosegaard, Klaus

418

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets

Zandstra, Peter W.

419

Rapid determination of lymphogranuloma venereum serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by quantitative high-resolution melt analysis (HRMA).  

PubMed

A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

Twin, Jimmy; Stevens, Matthew P; Garland, Suzanne M; Zaia, Angelo M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

2012-11-01

420

Quantitative Analysis in the General Chemistry Laboratory: Training Students to Analyze Individual Results in the Context of Collective Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Titration experiments are ideal for generating large data sets for use in quantitative-analysis activities that are meaningful and transparent to general chemistry students. We report the successful implementation of a sophisticated quantitative exercise in which the students identify a series of unknown acids by determining their molar masses…

Ling, Chris D.; Bridgeman, Adam J.

2011-01-01

421

Meta-analysis of quantitative diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of breast lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: To determine, in a meta-analysis, the diagnostic performance of quantitative diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging in patients with breast lesions. METHODS: English and Chinese studies published prior to June 2009 to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative DWI in patients with breast lesions were reviewed and summarized with reference to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Methodological quality was assessed by

Xin Chen; Wen-ling Li; Yi-li Zhang; Qian Wu; You-min Guo; Zhi-lan Bai

2010-01-01

422

Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological mark- ers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phe- notypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psy- chiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multi- variate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on

Jeff T. Williams; Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz; Howard J. Edenberg; Tatiana Foroud; Theodore Reich; Alison Goate; Paul Van Eerdewegh; Laura Almasy; John Blangero

1999-01-01

423

Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was ?-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays. PMID:23884629

Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.

2014-01-01

424

Digital analysis of hepatic sections in mice accurately quantitates triglycerides and selected properties of lipid droplets  

PubMed Central

We describe a method for the histologic evaluation of lipid accumulation in the livers of various mouse models of hepatic steatosis based on quantitative digital analysis of Oil Red O (ORO) accumulation in fresh-frozen hepatic sections. The process involves two principal steps: identification and digital photographic imaging of areas appropriate for analysis, followed by digital determination of the fraction of the identified area (Area Fraction) exhibiting ORO staining. The Area Fraction, designated the Digital Steatosis Score, is a valuable aspect of the histologic assessment of the liver, especially in various forms of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. The method is rapid, requiring ~3 min per specimen, and highly reproducible, avoiding the inevitably subjective, semi-quantitative evaluation of lipid content inherent in visual steatosis scoring systems. In normal mice and in six different mouse models of fatty liver, the Area Fraction was highly correlated with hepatic triglyceride content (P < 0.01). The coefficient of variation of repeated determinations of the Area Fraction by two different observers was ±6.4%. If made available in clinical settings rapid, accurate quantitation of liver triglycerides by this method could be very useful in specific conditions such as assessment of donor livers for transplantation. PMID:20975077

Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Zhou, Shengli; Hu, Chunguang; Berk, Paul D

2010-01-01

425

Digital analysis of hepatic sections in mice accurately quantitates triglycerides and selected properties of lipid droplets.  

PubMed

We describe a method for the histologic evaluation of lipid accumulation in the livers of various mouse models of hepatic steatosis based on quantitative digital analysis of Oil Red O (ORO) accumulation in fresh-frozen hepatic sections. The process involves two principal steps: identification and digital photographic imaging of areas appropriate for analysis, followed by digital determination of the fraction of the identified area (Area Fraction) exhibiting ORO staining. The Area Fraction, designated the Digital Steatosis Score, is a valuable aspect of the histologic assessment of the liver, especially in various forms of alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver diseases. The method is rapid, requiring ?3 min per specimen, and highly reproducible, avoiding the inevitably subjective, semi-quantitative evaluation of lipid content inherent in visual steatosis scoring systems. In normal mice and in six different mouse models of fatty liver, the Area Fraction was highly correlated with hepatic triglyceride content (P < 0.01). The coefficient of variation of repeated determinations of the Area Fraction by two different observers was ±6.4%. If made available in clinical settings, rapid, accurate quantitation of liver triglycerides by this method could be very useful in specific conditions such as assessment of donor livers for transplantation. PMID:20975077

Ge, Fengxia; Lobdell, Harrison; Zhou, Shengli; Hu, Chunguang; Berk, Paul D

2010-11-01

426

Power Analysis of Artificial Selection Experiments Using Efficient Whole Genome Simulation of Quantitative Traits  

PubMed Central

Evolve and resequence studies combine artificial selection experiments with massively parallel sequencing technology to study the genetic basis for complex traits. In these experiments, individuals are selected for extreme values of a trait, causing alleles at quantitative trait loci (QTL) to increase or decrease in frequency in the experimental population. We present a new analysis of the power of artificial selection experiments to detect and localize quantitative trait loci. This analysis uses a simulation framework that explicitly models whole genomes of individuals, quantitative traits, and selection based on individual trait values. We find that explicitly modeling QTL provides qualitatively different insights than considering independent loci with constant selection coefficients. Specifically, we observe how interference between QTL under selection affects the trajectories and lengthens the fixation times of selected alleles. We also show that a substantial portion of the genetic variance of the trait (50–100%) can be explained by detected QTL in as little as 20 generations of selection, depending on the trait architecture and experimental design. Furthermore, we show that power depends crucially on the opportunity for recombination during the experiment. Finally, we show that an increase in power is obtained by leveraging founder haplotype information to obtain allele frequency estimates. PMID:25672748

Kessner, Darren; Novembre, John

2015-01-01

427

Quantitative scintigraphy with deconvolutional analysis for the dynamic measurement of hepatic function  

SciTech Connect

A mathematical technique known as deconvolutional analysis was used to provide a critical and previously missing element in the computations required to quantitate hepatic function scintigraphically. This computer-assisted technique allowed for the determination of the time required, in minutes, of a labeled bilirubin analog (/sup 99m/Tc-disofenin) to enter the liver via blood and exit via bile. This interval was referred to as the mean transit time (MTT). The critical process provided for by deconvolution is the mathematical simulation of a bolus injection of tracer directly into the afferent blood supply of the liver. The raw data required for this simulation are obtained from the intravenous injection of labeled disofenin, a member of the HIDA family of radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, we perform experiments which document that the simulation process itself is accurate. We then calculate the MTT under a variety of experimental conditions involving progressive hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury and correlate these results with the results of simultaneously performed BSP determinations and hepatic histology. The experimental group with the most pronounced histologic findings (necrosis, vacuolization, disorganization of hepatic cords) also have the most prolonged MTT and BSP half-life. However, both quantitative imaging and BSP testing are able to identify milder degrees of hepatic ischemic injury not reflected in the histologic evaluation. Quantitative imaging with deconvolutional analysis is a technique easily adaptable to the standard nuclear medicine minicomputer. It provides rapid results and appears to be a sensitive monitor of hepatic functional disturbances resulting from ischemia and reperfusion.

Tagge, E.P.; Campbell, D.A. Jr.; Reichle, R.; Averill, D.R. Jr.; Merion, R.M.; Dafoe, D.C.; Turcotte, J.G.; Juni, J.E.

1987-06-01

428

Quantitative proteome analysis in cardiovascular physiology and pathology. I. Data processing.  

PubMed

Methodological evaluation of the proteomic analysis of cardiovascular-tissue material has been performed with a special emphasis on establishing examinations that allow reliable quantitative analysis of silver-stained readouts. Reliability, reproducibility, robustness and linearity were addressed and clarified. In addition, several types of normalization procedures were evaluated and new approaches are proposed. It has been found that the silver-stained readout offers a convenient approach for quantitation if a linear range for gel loading is defined. In addition, a broad range of a 10-fold input (loading 20-200 microg per gel) fulfills the linearity criteria, although at the lowest input (20 microg) a portion of protein species will remain undetected. The method is reliable and reproducible within a range of 65-200 microg input. The normalization procedure using the sum of all spot intensities from a silver-stained 2D pattern has been shown to be less reliable than other approaches, namely, normalization through median or through involvement of interquartile range. A special refinement of the normalization through virtual segmentation of pattern, and calculation of normalization factor for each stratum provides highly satisfactory results. The presented results not only provide evidence for the usefulness of silver-stained gels for quantitative evaluation, but they are directly applicable to the research endeavor of monitoring alterations in cardiovascular pathophysiology. PMID:19367704

Grussenmeyer, Thomas; Meili-Butz, Silvia; Dieterle, Thomas; Traunecker, Emmanuel; Carrel, Thierry P; Lefkovits, Ivan

2008-12-01

429

Multispectral colour analysis for quantitative evaluation of pseudoisochromatic color deficiency tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral color analysis was used for spectral scanning of Ishihara and Rabkin color deficiency test book images. It was done using tunable liquid-crystal LC filters built in the Nuance II analyzer. Multispectral analysis keeps both, information on spatial content of tests and on spectral content. Images were taken in the range of 420-720nm with a 10nm step. We calculated retina neural activity charts taking into account cone sensitivity functions, and processed charts in order to find the visibility of latent symbols in color deficiency plates using cross-correlation technique. In such way the quantitative measure is found for each of diagnostics plate for three different color deficiency carrier types - protanopes, deutanopes and tritanopes. Multispectral color analysis allows to determine the CIE xyz color coordinates of pseudoisochromatic plate design elements and to perform statistical analysis of these data to compare the color quality of available color deficiency test books.

Ozolinsh, Maris; Fomins, Sergejs

2010-11-01

430

Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft flier Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Boltzmannstasse 14, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

2013-07-01

431

Quantitative quenching evaluation and direct intracellular metabolite analysis in Penicillium chrysogenum.  

PubMed

Sustained progress in metabolic engineering methodologies has stimulated new efforts toward optimizing fungal production strains such as through metabolite analysis of Penicillium chrysogenum industrial-scale processes. Accurate intracellular metabolite quantification requires sampling procedures that rapidly stop metabolism (quenching) and avoid metabolite loss via the cell membrane (leakage). When sampling protocols are validated, the quenching efficiency is generally not quantitatively assessed. For fungal metabolomics, quantitative biomass separation using centrifugation is a further challenge. In this study, P. chrysogenum intracellular metabolites were quantified directly from biomass extracts using automated sampling and fast filtration. A master/slave bioreactor concept was applied to provide industrial production conditions. Metabolic activity during sampling was monitored by 13C tracing. Enzyme activities were efficiently stopped and metabolite leakage was absent. This work provides a reliable method for P. chrysogenum metabolomics and will be an essential base for metabolic engineering of industrial processes. PMID:23541815

Meinert, Sabine; Rapp, Sina; Schmitz, Katja; Noack, Stephan; Kornfeld, Georg; Hardiman, Timo

2013-07-01

432

Cholera Modeling: Challenges to Quantitative Analysis and Predicting the Impact of Interventions  

PubMed Central

Several mathematical models of epidemic cholera have recently been proposed in response to outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti. These models aim to estimate the dynamics of cholera transmission and the impact of possible interventions, with a goal of providing guidance to policy-makers in deciding among alternative courses of action, including vaccination, provision of clean water, and antibiotics. Here we discuss concerns about model misspecification, parameter uncertainty, and spatial heterogeneity intrinsic to models for cholera. We argue for caution in interpreting quantitative predictions, particularly predictions of the effectiveness of interventions. We specify sensitivity analyses that would be necessary to improve confidence in model-based quantitative prediction, and suggest types of monitoring in future epidemic settings that would improve analysis and prediction. PMID:22659546

Grad, Yonatan H.; Miller, Joel C.; Lipsitch, Marc

2012-01-01

433

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied.

Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin

2015-02-01

434

Cholera modeling: challenges to quantitative analysis and predicting the impact of interventions.  

PubMed

Several mathematical models of epidemic cholera have recently been proposed in response to outbreaks in Zimbabwe and Haiti. These models aim to estimate the dynamics of cholera transmission and the impact of possible interventions, with a goal of providing guidance to policy makers in deciding among alternative courses of action, including vaccination, provision of clean water, and antibiotics. Here, we discuss concerns about model misspecification, parameter uncertainty, and spatial heterogeneity intrinsic to models for cholera. We argue for caution in interpreting quantitative predictions, particularly predictions of the effectiveness of interventions. We specify sensitivity analyses that would be necessary to improve confidence in model-based quantitative prediction, and suggest types of monitoring in future epidemic settings that would improve analysis and prediction. PMID:22659546

Grad, Yonatan H; Miller, Joel C; Lipsitch, Marc

2012-07-01

435

Quantitative Analysis of Snake Venoms Using Soluble Polymer-based Isotope Labeling*S?  

PubMed Central

We present the design and synthesis of a new quantitative strategy termed soluble polymer-based isotope labeling (SoPIL) and its application as a novel and inclusive method for the identification and relative quantification of individual proteins in complex snake venoms. The SoPIL reagent selectively captures and isolates cysteine-containing peptides, and the subsequent tagged peptides are released and analyzed using nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The SoPIL strategy was used to quantify venom proteins from two pairs of venomous snakes: Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus type A, C. scutulatus scutulatus type B, Crotalus oreganus helleri, and Bothrops colombiensis. The hemorrhagic, hemolytic, clotting ability, and fibrinogenolytic activities of crude venoms were measured and correlated with difference in protein abundance determined by the SoPIL analysis. The SoPIL approach could provide an efficient and widely applicable tool for quantitative proteomics. PMID:18089550

Galan, Jacob A.; Guo, Minjie; Sanchez, Elda E.; Cantu, Esteban; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis; Perez, John C.; Tao, W. Andy

2008-01-01

436

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components.  

PubMed

Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied. PMID:25459612

Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin

2015-02-01

437

A supramolecular sensing array for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organophosphates in water.  

PubMed

The organophosphate class of compounds includes common herbicides as well as highly toxic nerve gases whose detection is important from an environmental and a public safety perspective. We describe here a fluorescence turn-on sensor array for the rapid detection and quantitation of relevant organophosphates in neutral water. The array elements self-assemble from commercially available dyes and PAMAM dendrimers, and sensing is based on an indicator displacement assay. Data interpretation through pattern recognition methods (PCA, LDA) showed excellent cluster separation and sample classification. In addition, we were also able to use this system for simultaneous differentiation and quantitative analysis of methylphosphonate (a nerve gas byproduct), glyphosate (a ubiquitous herbicide), and inorganic phosphate over a wide range of concentrations (10 ?M to 2 mM). PMID:25246316

Liu, Yuanli; Bonizzoni, Marco

2014-10-01

438

Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

2012-07-01

439

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS  

PubMed Central

Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

2015-01-01

440

Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

Zhou, Zhiping; Yan, Deyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

2015-01-01

441

The Other Half of the Story: Effect Size Analysis in Quantitative Research  

PubMed Central

Statistical significance testing is the cornerstone of quantitative research, but studies that fail to report measures of effect size are potentially missing a robust part of the analysis. We provide a rationale for why effect size measures should be included in quantitative discipline-based education research. Examples from both biological and educational research demonstrate the utility of effect size for evaluating practical significance. We also provide details about some effect size indices that are paired with common statistical significance tests used in educational research and offer general suggestions for interpreting effect size measures. Finally, we discuss some inherent limitations of effect size measures and provide further recommendations about reporting confidence intervals. PMID:24006382

Maher, Jessica Middlemis; Markey, Jonathan C.; Ebert-May, Diane

2013-01-01

442

Quantitative NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a learning module focused on principles and practice of NMR for quantitative analysis, an application less commonly associated with the technique than is structure determination. Links to simulation packages are included.

Korir, Albert K.

443