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Quantitative Determination of Expression of the Prostate Cancer Protein ?-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase Using Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA)  

PubMed Central

Despite years of discovery and attempts at validation, few molecular biomarkers achieve acceptance in the clinical setting. Tissue-based markers evaluated by immunohistochemistry suffer from a high degree of inter- and intraobserver variability. One recent advance in this field that promises to automate this process is the development of AQUA, a molecular-based method of quantitative assessment of protein expression. This system integrates a set of algorithms that allows for the rapid, automated, continuous, and quantitative analysis of tissue samples, including the separation of tumor from stromal elements and the subcellular localization of signals. This study uses the AQUA system to assess a recently described prostate cancer biomarker, ?-methylacyl-CoA-racemase (AMACR), and to determine the effectiveness of the quantitative measurement of this marker as a means for making the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Using a prostate cancer progression tissue microarray containing a wide range of prostate tissues, AQUA was directly compared to standard immunohistochemical evaluation for AMACR protein expression using the p504s monoclonal antibody. Both methods produced similar results showing AMACR protein expression to be strongest in the clinically localized prostate cancer, followed by the metastatic tumor samples. Benign prostate tissue was categorized as negative for most tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. However, AMACR was detectable using the AQUA system at low levels using the standard 1:25 dilution but also at 1:250 dilution, which is not detectable by light microscopy. The AQUA system was also able to discriminate foamy gland prostate cancers, which are known to have a lower AMACR expression than typical acinar prostate cancers, from benign prostate tissue samples. Finally, a receiver-operating-characteristic curve was plotted to determine the specificity of the AMACR AQUA Z-score (normalized AQUA score) to predict that a given tissue microarray sample contains cancer. The area under the curve was calculated at 0.90 (P < 0.00001; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95). At an AMACR AQUA Z-score score of ?0.3, 91% of the 70 samples classified as prostate cancer were correctly categorized without the intervention of a pathologist reviewing the tissue microarray slide. In conclusion, the AQUA system provides a continuous measurement of AMACR on a wide range of prostate tissue samples. In the future, the AMACR AQUA Z-score may be useful in the automated screening and evaluation of prostate tissue biomarkers. PMID:14982837

Rubin, Mark A.; Zerkowski, Maciej P.; Camp, Robert L.; Kuefer, Rainer; Hofer, Matthias D.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Rimm, David L.



AquaLite, a bioluminescent label for immunoassay and nucleic acid detection: quantitative analyses at the attomol level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AquaLiteR is a direct, bioluminescent label capable of detecting attomol levels of analyte in clinical immunoassays and assays for the quantitative measurement of nucleic acids. Bioluminescent immunoassays (BIAs) require no radioisotopes and avoid complex fluorescent measurements and many of the variables of indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). AquaLite, a recombinant form of the photoprotein aequorin from a bioluminescent jellyfish, is coupled directly to antibodies to prepare bioluminescent conjugates for assay development. When the AquaLite-antibody complex is exposed to a solution containing calcium ions, a flash of blue light ((lambda) max equals 469 nm) is generated. The light signal is measured in commercially available luminometers that simultaneously inject a calcium solution and detect subattomol photoprotein levies in either test tubes or microtiter plates. Immunometric or 'sandwich' type assays are available for the quantitative measurement of human endocrine hormones and nucleic acids. The AquaLite TSH assay can detect 1 attomol of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 0.2 mL of human serum and is a useful clinical tool for diagnosing hyperthyroid patients. AquaLite-based nucleic acid detection permits quantifying attomol levels of specific nucleic acid markers and represents possible solution to the difficult problem of quantifying the targets of nucleic acid amplification methods.

Smith, David F.; Stults, Nancy L.



Increasing the Accuracy of MODIS Snow Product using Quantitative Restoration for MODIS Band 6 on Aqua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem in satellite imagery is striping and scan line dropout. While transmission errors are sometimes the cause of this problem, a more frequent source is damage to individual detectors, or to the electronics that record the response of the detectors. Launch, deployment into the harsh environment of space, particle bombardment, radiation, and space dust can result in detector damage at any point of an imager's life cycle. There are many examples of imagers which suffer from periodic line drop. Classical examples include Landsat 4 and 5. More recent examples include the 1.6 micron (Band 6) in MODIS on Aqua and WV 6.2 band on SEVIRI. To use standard image processing operations and off the shelf software, the missing data must be first estimated in some principled way. End users may have little or no knowledge of how to do that. It is important to note that many end users will often work with partial data, selected bands or regions of interest. The damaged bands create uncertainty in the reliability of the results of prediction algorithms that rely on that band. For example, the calculation of the NASA snow mask relies prominently on the Band 6 measurement in determining the likelihood of snow cover on the ground at the location of each pixel in the image. The current NASA-utilized solution to this problem is to use 2.1 micron (Band 7) measurements from MODIS on Aqua with an appropriately-adjusted algorithm. In response to the Band 6 problem, our group has developed an algorithm to recreate the missing Band 6 data from reliable data in the other 500m bands using quantitative restoration techniques. Our algorithm uses values in a spectral/spatial neighborhood of the pixel to be estimated, and proposes a value based on training data from the uncorrupted pixels. Due to the non-parametric nature of the estimator, we avoid the blurring inherent spatial interpolation, which has implicit smoothness priors. Our preliminary work shows this approach not only reduces the RMSE but restores the correct gradient information as well. We have shown that using all the neighboring channels we are able to quantitatively estimate the value at dead or noisy detectors applied to the MODIS band 6 case. We have performed an initial evaluation using MODIS Terra data, to estimate the potential benefit to the Aqua snow product. Since the corresponding band 6 of the MODIS/Terra has no such problem, it makes it possible to evaluate the algorithm by simulating the band 6 MODIS/Aqua damage on MODIS/Terra. Our tests demonstrate that NASA's snow product applied to our restored band 6, better matches the true band 6 snow product than the currently used band 7 proxy. We will present the evaluations based on several standard performance metrics that demonstrate that the use of the original NASA algorithm with the restored Band 6 data generates a more reliable snow mask than the modified algorithm with Band 7 data. In particular, the restored Band 6 data is much more reliable under certain conditions where the Band 7 algorithm tends to run into problems, including the very important border areas between snowy regions and snow-free regions, and areas where tree cover makes determinations of snow on the ground difficult.

Bonev, G.; Gladkova, I.; Grossberg, M.



Quantitative chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative Chemical Analysis is an excellent text for a classical undergraduate course in quantitative analysis. The greatest strengths of the text are the superb organization and the programmed approach toward the presentation of the material. It is directed at an audience with a minimal background in chemistry (i.e., one year of freshman-level chemistry) and provides introductory material (i.e., basic organic chemistry, stoichiometry, and solution equilibria) in the first chapter for those who need it. The book covers the basic principles of the quantitative treatment of data, including the concepts of accuracy, precision, and basic statistical methods. As in any classical text on this subject, the text is biased toward methods involving solution equilibria. Consequently, the bulk of the discussion centers on gravimetric analysis, pH, complexation, and oxidation-reduction titrations. The principles of electroanalytical measurements are explained clearly, and several chapters on potentiometric and amperometric methods are adequately detailed. Supplementary information concerning the basics of the other instrumental techniques is provided in the last 10 chapters.

Manhan, S.L.



Sulfide oxidations for LC-MS analysis of methionine-containing microcystins in Dolichospermum flos-aquae NIVA-CYA 656.  


Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides produced by a range of cyanobacteria. More than 150 microcystin analogues have been reported from cultures, algal blooms, or other contaminated samples. Relatively few analytical standards are available, making identification and quantitation of these toxins a challenge, even with LC-MS technology. We developed a two-step oxidative procedure that allows LC-MS identification of microcystins containing methionine and methionine sulfoxide, and reveals the oxidation state of the methionyl sulfur atom. The procedure was used in parallel with mercaptoethanol derivatization and LC-MS(2) analysis to demonstrate the presence of [Asp(3)]MC-MR (12) and MC-MR (17) in a culture of Dolichospermum flos-aquae, together with low levels of [Asp(3)]MC-M(O)R (5) and MC-M(O)R (7), as well as 20 other microcystins. Fresh culture contained only traces of sulfoxides 5 and 7, but these increased during storage or sample extraction and preparation. This suggests that microcystins containing methionine sulfoxide are primarily postextraction oxidation artifacts, rather than being produced by biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. A simple, rapid extraction under inert gas followed promptly by LC-MS analysis minimized oxidation artifacts for D. flos-aquae. PMID:25333659

Miles, Christopher O; Melanson, Jeremy E; Ballot, Andreas



Quantitative Shape Analysis Radu Rugina  

E-print Network

Quantitative Shape Analysis Radu Rugina Computer Science Department Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 Abstract. This paper presents a static analysis that computes quantitative structures and is able to extract quantitative information about the height and the balancing

Rugina, Radu


Quantitative analysis of software architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analysis of software systems is a critical issue in the development of applications for heterogeneous distributed and mobile systems. It has been recognised that performance analysis should be integrated in the software development life cycle since the early stages. We focus on quantitative analysis of software architectures (SA) and in particular on performance models and languages to represent, evaluate

Simonetta Balsamo; Marco Bernardoand; Vincenzo Grassi


Quantitative analysis of 'calanchi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years (2006 - 2009) of monitoring data from two calanchi sites located in the western Sicilian Appennines are analyzed and discussed: the data comes from two networks of erosion pins and a rainfall gauge station. The aim of the present research is to quantitatively analyze the effects of erosion by water and to investigate their relationships with rainfall trends and specific properties of the two calanchi fronts. Each of the sites was equipped with a grid of randomly distributed erosion pins, made of 41 nodes for the "Catalfimo" site, and 13 nodes for the "Ottosalme" site (in light of the general homogeneity of its geomorphologic conditions); the erosion pins consist in 2 cm graded iron stakes, 100 cm long, with a section having a diameter of 1.6 cm. Repeated readings at the erosion pins allowed to estimate point topographic height variations; a total number of 21 surveys have been made remotely by acquiring high resolution photographs from a fixed view point. Since the two calanchi sites are very close each other (some hundred meters), a single rainfall gauge station was installed, assuming a strict climatic homogeneity of the investigated area. Rainfall data have been processed to derive the rain erosivity index signal, detecting a total number of 27 erosive events. Despite the close distance between the two sites, because of a different geologic setting, the calanchi fronts are characterized by the outcropping of different levels of the same formation (Terravecchia fm., Middle-Late Miocene); as a consequence, both mineralogical, textural and geotechnical (index) properties, as well as the topographic and geomorphologic characteristics, change. Therefore, in order to define the "framework" in which the two erosion pin grids have been installed, 40 samples of rock have been analyzed, and a geomorphologic detailed survey has been carried out; in particular, plasticity index, liquid limit, carbonate, pH, granulometric fractions and their mineralogic properties, electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), have been characterized. The analysis of the data allows to define relationships between the response of each erosion pin and the erosive rainfall events, the micro-hydrologic of its position and lithotechnical properties of the outcropping rocks. The estimations of the mean annual erosion rate and of the erosivity index, as well as results of the terrain analysis, largely agree with available data from literature observed in similar sites affected by calanchi development. Moreover, the gained results well reflect the differences of the morphologic features and their distribution on the two calanchi fronts; of particular interest is the spatial distribution and variability of piping landforms that markedly influence the development of gullies, specially on "Catalfimo" site, where a high frequency of pipes of different typologies can be detected.

Agnesi, Valerio; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Rotigliano, Edoardo



Science Writers' Guide to Aqua  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide provides an overview of the Aqua mission, instruments, research, science teams, and Aqua website. This information is provided to aid the professional science writer in writing stories and articles related to the Aqua mission. Note: this guide was produced before Aqua was launched; for the most recent information on Aqua, go to




E-print Network

and opposite right-turn (please note that vehicles travel along the left side of the road in Japan) traffic caused about 95% of all the traffic accidents, can be considered quantitatively in this model. Very of previous work on traffic accident modeling. Then, we describe our microscopic methodology for modeling AG

Wang, Yinhai


Quantitative analysis using chromatographic techniques  

SciTech Connect

The book is divided into nine contributed chapters. Chapter 1 is an elementary introduction to the concepts of the chromatographic process. Chapter 2 is a brief discussion of the detectors used in liquid chromatography; many similar and more comprehensive reviews exist. Quantitative measurements in liquid chromatography are discussed in Chapter 3 with examples taken from the author's work. The most popular detectors used in gas chromatography are reviewed in Chapter 4, which is followed by a treatment of quantitative analysis with gas chromatography (Chapter 5). A good portion of Chapter 6 dealing with quantitative thin-layer chromatography is taken from an earlier book by one of the authors, but the discussion of errors is new and more complete than those in Chapter 3 and 5. Chapter 7 deals with the application of quantitative chromatographic methods to the analysis of pharmaceuticals. The desiderata of automated analytical methods are discussed in Chapter 8; it concludes with a discussion of the use of robots for the preparation of samples and the loading of them into otherwise fully automated chromatographic systems. In Chapter 9 an introduction is given to the complex matter of extracting information from the shapes of peaks generated by liquid chromatography.

Katz, E.



The curium aqua ion.  


The coordination environment of the hydrated Cm3+ ion is probed both in the solid state and in solution. The analysis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data from [Cm(H2O)9](CF3SO3)3 determines that the Cm species is surrounded by nine coordinating waters with a tricapped-trigonal-prismatic geometry involving six short Cm-O distances at 2.453(1) A and three longer Cm-O distances at 2.545(1) A. The Cm nona-aqua triflate is isostructural with the series of lanthanide and actinide [R(H2O)9](CF3SO3)3 (R=La-Lu, Pu) compounds. A similar nona-aqua geometry is seen for the coordination environment of Cm in aqueous solution, as probed by high-energy X-ray scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, although the splitting in the first coordination shell is increased from 0.092(2) in the solid to 0.16(2) A in solution. This increase in splitting of the Cm-water distances in the first coordination sphere is discussed in terms of its potential relevance to the previously observed decrease in coordinating waters with decreasing ionic radius about the f-ion in solution. PMID:17407283

Skanthakumar, S; Antonio, Mark R; Wilson, Richard E; Soderholm, L



Quantitative analysis of glycated proteins.  


The proposed protocol presents a comprehensive approach for large-scale qualitative and quantitative analysis of glycated proteins (GP) in complex biological samples including biological fluids and cell lysates such as plasma and red blood cells. The method, named glycation isotopic labeling (GIL), is based on the differential labeling of proteins with isotopic [(13)C6]-glucose, which supports quantitation of the resulting glycated peptides after enzymatic digestion with endoproteinase Glu-C. The key principle of the GIL approach is the detection of doublet signals for each glycated peptide in MS precursor scanning (glycated peptide with in vivo [(12)C6]- and in vitro [(13)C6]-glucose). The mass shift of the doublet signals is +6, +3 or +2 Da depending on the peptide charge state and the number of glycation sites. The intensity ratio between doublet signals generates quantitative information of glycated proteins that can be related to the glycemic state of the studied samples. Tandem mass spectrometry with high-energy collisional dissociation (HCD-MS2) and data-dependent methods with collision-induced dissociation (CID-MS3 neutral loss scan) are used for qualitative analysis. PMID:24417557

Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Ramírez-Boo, María; Finamore, Francesco; Gluck, Florent; Sanchez, Jean-Charles



Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Network Protocols \\Lambda  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Network Protocols \\Lambda Oded Goldreich y Amir Herzberg z Adrian Segall x January 3, 1994 Abstract We present a quantitative approach to the analysis of dynamic net­ work is `useful' only after some `warming up' period since it recovered. To compare the quantitative approach

Goldreich, Oded


NASA EOS Aqua Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), the Aqua satellite mission is gathering information on the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface to help scientists understand the role of hydrology and its impact on climate. The website features introductions of the science team, information on the data products, and summaries and fact sheets of the four science groups involved with the Aqua project: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The Cool Science link offers excellent videos to educate the public on Aqua's mission and science. Users can find countless incredible satellite images of Earth's landscapes and physical characteristics. The web provides many Aqua brochures, educational presentations, archived webcasts, press releases, and much more.


Quantitative behavior analysis and human values.  


Many scientists believe that among the virtues of quantitative science are that its facts are free from personal, social, political, economic, and other cultural influences, or at least, if they are not, they should be. Radical behaviorism suggests, however, that a science of behavior must apply to peoples' everyday professional behaviors, including those of quantitative behavior analysts. The behaviors of quantitative behavior analysts, however, like the behaviors of everyone else, depend on the cultures to which they belong. A quantitative science of behavior must therefore describe and explain the cultural and human values of quantitative behavior analysts. In this sense, a quantitative science of behavior must apply to itself. No such "reflexive behavior analysis" currently exists and its development might shed considerable light on the basic nature of behavior analysis. PMID:17418984

Shimp, Charles P



Analysis of Raman Lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October - November, 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolution of the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign resulted in new correction techniques for both Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 measurements that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of those measurement systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.



Quantitative histogram analysis of images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A routine for histogram analysis of images has been written in the object-oriented, graphical development environment LabVIEW. The program converts an RGB bitmap image into an intensity-linear greyscale image according to selectable conversion coefficients. This greyscale image is subsequently analysed by plots of the intensity histogram and probability distribution of brightness, and by calculation of various parameters, including average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of the histogram and the median of the probability distribution. The program allows interactive selection of specific regions of interest (ROI) in the image and definition of lower and upper threshold levels (e.g., to permit the removal of a constant background signal). The results of the analysis of multiple images can be conveniently saved and exported for plotting in other programs, which allows fast analysis of relatively large sets of image data. The program file accompanies this manuscript together with a detailed description of two application examples: The analysis of fluorescence microscopy images, specifically of tau-immunofluorescence in primary cultures of rat cortical and hippocampal neurons, and the quantification of protein bands by Western-blot. The possibilities and limitations of this kind of analysis are discussed. Program summaryTitle of program: HAWGC Catalogue identifier: ADXG_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Mobile Intel Pentium III, AMD Duron Installations: No installation necessary—Executable file together with necessary files for LabVIEW Run-time engine Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: WindowsME/2000/XP Programming language used: LabVIEW 7.0 Memory required to execute with typical data:˜16MB for starting and ˜160MB used for loading of an image No. of bits in a word: 32 No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:138 946 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:15 166 675 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: Quantification of image data (e.g., for discrimination of molecular species in gels or fluorescent molecular probes in cell cultures) requires proprietary or complex software packages, which might not include the relevant statistical parameters or make the analysis of multiple images a tedious procedure for the general user. Method of solution: Tool for conversion of RGB bitmap image into luminance-linear image and extraction of luminance histogram, probability distribution, and statistical parameters (average brightness, standard deviation, variance, minimal and maximal brightness, mode, skewness and kurtosis of histogram and median of probability distribution) with possible selection of region of interest (ROI) and lower and upper threshold levels. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Does not incorporate application-specific functions (e.g., morphometric analysis) Typical running time: Seconds (depending on image size and processor speed) Unusual features of the program: None

Holub, Oliver; Ferreira, Sérgio T.



Quantitative WDS analysis using electron probe microanalyzer  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the procedure for conducting quantitative elemental analysis by ZAF correction method using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) in an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) is elaborated. Analysis of a thermal barrier coating (TBC) system formed on a Ni-based single crystal superalloy is presented as an example to illustrate the analysis of samples consisting of a large number of major and minor elements. The analysis was performed by known standards and measured peak-to-background intensity ratios. The procedure for using separate set of acquisition conditions for major and minor element analysis is explained and its importance is stressed.

Ul-Hamid, Anwar [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail:; Tawancy, Hani M. [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Mohammed, Abdul-Rashid I. [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Jaroudi, Said S. [Saudi Aramco, P.O. Box 65, Tanajib 31311 (Saudi Arabia); Abbas, Nureddin M. [Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1073, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)



A Quantitative Approach to Scar Analysis  

PubMed Central

Analysis of collagen architecture is essential to wound healing research. However, to date no consistent methodologies exist for quantitatively assessing dermal collagen architecture in scars. In this study, we developed a standardized approach for quantitative analysis of scar collagen morphology by confocal microscopy using fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. Full-thickness wounds were created on adult mice, closed by primary intention, and harvested at 14 days after wounding for morphometrics and standard Fourier transform-based scar analysis as well as fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis. In addition, transmission electron microscopy was used to evaluate collagen ultrastructure. We demonstrated that fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis were superior to Fourier transform analysis in discriminating scar versus unwounded tissue in a wild-type mouse model. To fully test the robustness of this scar analysis approach, a fibromodulin-null mouse model that heals with increased scar was also used. Fractal dimension and lacunarity analysis effectively discriminated unwounded fibromodulin-null versus wild-type skin as well as healing fibromodulin-null versus wild-type wounds, whereas Fourier transform analysis failed to do so. Furthermore, fractal dimension and lacunarity data also correlated well with transmission electron microscopy collagen ultrastructure analysis, adding to their validity. These results demonstrate that fractal dimension and lacunarity are more sensitive than Fourier transform analysis for quantification of scar morphology. PMID:21281794

Khorasani, Hooman; Zheng, Zhong; Nguyen, Calvin; Zara, Janette; Zhang, Xinli; Wang, Joyce; Ting, Kang; Soo, Chia



Quantitative methods for ecological network analysi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of networks of ecological trophic transfers is a useful complement to simulation modeling in the quest for understanding whole-ecosystem dynamics. Trophic networks can be studied in quantitative and systematic fashion at several levels. Indirect relationships between any two individual taxa in an ecosystem, which often differ in either nature or magnitude from their direct influences, can be assayed

Robert E. Ulanowicz



Three-Dimensional Quantitative Analysis of Hemispheric  

E-print Network

mediate language perception and cognition in the vast majority of humans. Evi- dence that the putativeThree-Dimensional Quantitative Analysis of Hemispheric Asymmetry in the Human Superior Temporal et al. (1990) and Wrtelson and Kigar (1991, 1992) diverge from earlier findings of leftward asymmetry

Gazzaniga, Michael


Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Manuscript 1463  

E-print Network

Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Manuscript 1463 Estimating Fielding Ability in Baseball ©2012 American Statistical Association. All rights reserved. DOI: 10.1515/1559-0410.1463 Brought to you via posterior predictive validation on hold-out data. Among our choices, we find that a model which

Jensen, Shane T.



E-print Network

QUANTITATIVE PATTERN RECOGNITION USING NONLINEAR MODEL­BASED ANALYSIS A Dissertation Presented and management aspects of a major research pro- gram. I also appreciate his sensitivity and consideration of my in the imaging, robotics, and intelligent systems lab have assisted in various stages of this research and I

Abidi, Mongi A.


*Preliminary* Syllabus1 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis  

E-print Network

*Preliminary* Syllabus1 Introduction to Quantitative Analysis POLI 797 Spring 2012 Th 3:00-3:00 Course Description: This course is an introduction to statistical research methods for political science to understand, evaluate and criticize the use of basic statistical methods for social science research

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of


Christhin: Quantitative Analysis of Thin Layer Chromatography  

E-print Network

Manual for Christhin 0.1.36 Christhin (Chromatography Riser Thin) is software developed for the quantitative analysis of data obtained from thin-layer chromatographic techniques (TLC). Once installed on your computer, the program is very easy to use, and provides data quickly and accurately. This manual describes the program, and reading should be enough to use it properly.

Barchiesi, Maximiliano; Renaudo, Carlos; Rossi, Pablo; Pramparo, María de Carmen; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben; Gayol, María Fernanda



Methods in quantitative image analysis.  


The main steps of image analysis are image capturing, image storage (compression), correcting imaging defects (e.g. non-uniform illumination, electronic-noise, glare effect), image enhancement, segmentation of objects in the image and image measurements. Digitisation is made by a camera. The most modern types include a frame-grabber, converting the analog-to-digital signal into digital (numerical) information. The numerical information consists of the grey values describing the brightness of every point within the image, named a pixel. The information is stored in bits. Eight bits are summarised in one byte. Therefore, grey values can have a value between 0 and 256 (2(8)). The human eye seems to be quite content with a display of 5-bit images (corresponding to 64 different grey values). In a digitised image, the pixel grey values can vary within regions that are uniform in the original scene: the image is noisy. The noise is mainly manifested in the background of the image. For an optimal discrimination between different objects or features in an image, uniformity of illumination in the whole image is required. These defects can be minimised by shading correction [subtraction of a background (white) image from the original image, pixel per pixel, or division of the original image by the background image]. The brightness of an image represented by its grey values can be analysed for every single pixel or for a group of pixels. The most frequently used pixel-based image descriptors are optical density, integrated optical density, the histogram of the grey values, mean grey value and entropy. The distribution of the grey values existing within an image is one of the most important characteristics of the image. However, the histogram gives no information about the texture of the image. The simplest way to improve the contrast of an image is to expand the brightness scale by spreading the histogram out to the full available range. Rules for transforming the grey value histogram of an existing image (input image) into a new grey value histogram (output image) are most quickly handled by a look-up table (LUT). The histogram of an image can be influenced by gain, offset and gamma of the camera. Gain defines the voltage range, offset defines the reference voltage and gamma the slope of the regression line between the light intensity and the voltage of the camera. A very important descriptor of neighbourhood relations in an image is the co-occurrence matrix. The distance between the pixels (original pixel and its neighbouring pixel) can influence the various parameters calculated from the co-occurrence matrix. The main goals of image enhancement are elimination of surface roughness in an image (smoothing), correction of defects (e.g. noise), extraction of edges, identification of points, strengthening texture elements and improving contrast. In enhancement, two types of operations can be distinguished: pixel-based (point operations) and neighbourhood-based (matrix operations). The most important pixel-based operations are linear stretching of grey values, application of pre-stored LUTs and histogram equalisation. The neighbourhood-based operations work with so-called filters. These are organising elements with an original or initial point in their centre. Filters can be used to accentuate or to suppress specific structures within the image. Filters can work either in the spatial or in the frequency domain. The method used for analysing alterations of grey value intensities in the frequency domain is the Hartley transform. Filter operations in the spatial domain can be based on averaging or ranking the grey values occurring in the organising element. The most important filters, which are usually applied, are the Gaussian filter and the Laplace filter (both averaging filters), and the median filter, the top hat filter and the range operator (all ranking filters). Segmentation of objects is traditionally based on threshold grey values. (AB PMID:8781988

Oberholzer, M; Ostreicher, M; Christen, H; Brühlmann, M



Quantitative analysis of blood vessel geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Re-narrowing or restenosis of a human coronary artery occurs within six months in one third of balloon angioplasty procedures. Accurate and repeatable quantitative analysis of vessel shape is important to characterize the progression and type of restenosis, and to evaluate effects new therapies might have. A combination of complicated geometry and image variability, and the need for high resolution and large image size makes visual/manual analysis slow, difficult, and prone to error. The image processing and analysis described here was developed to automate feature extraction of the lumen, internal elastic lamina, neointima, external elastic lamina, and tunica adventitia and to enable an objective, quantitative definition of blood vessel geometry. The quantitative geometrical analysis enables the measurement of several features including perimeter, area, and other metrics of vessel damage. Automation of feature extraction creates a high throughput capability that enables analysis of serial sections for more accurate measurement of restenosis dimensions. Measurement results are input into a relational database where they can be statistically analyzed compared across studies. As part of the integrated process, results are also imprinted on the images themselves to facilitate auditing of the results. The analysis is fast, repeatable and accurate while allowing the pathologist to control the measurement process.

Fuhrman, Michael G.; Abdul-Karim, Othman; Shah, Sujal; Gilbert, Steven G.; Van Bibber, Richard



Method and apparatus for chromatographic quantitative analysis  


An improved apparatus and method for the quantitative analysis of a solution containing a plurality of anion species by ion exchange chromatography which utilizes a single eluent and a single ion exchange bed which does not require periodic regeneration. The solution containing the anions is added to an anion exchange resin bed which is a low capacity macroreticular polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin containing quarternary ammonium functional groups, and is eluted therefrom with a dilute solution of a low electrical conductance organic acid salt. As each anion species is eluted from the bed, it is quantitatively sensed by conventional detection means such as a conductivity cell.

Fritz, James S. (Ames, IA); Gjerde, Douglas T. (Ames, IA); Schmuckler, Gabriella (Haifa, IL)



Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior  

PubMed Central

Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan



Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.  


Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan



Good practices for quantitative bias analysis.  


Quantitative bias analysis serves several objectives in epidemiological research. First, it provides a quantitative estimate of the direction, magnitude and uncertainty arising from systematic errors. Second, the acts of identifying sources of systematic error, writing down models to quantify them, assigning values to the bias parameters and interpreting the results combat the human tendency towards overconfidence in research results, syntheses and critiques and the inferences that rest upon them. Finally, by suggesting aspects that dominate uncertainty in a particular research result or topic area, bias analysis can guide efficient allocation of sparse research resources. The fundamental methods of bias analyses have been known for decades, and there have been calls for more widespread use for nearly as long. There was a time when some believed that bias analyses were rarely undertaken because the methods were not widely known and because automated computing tools were not readily available to implement the methods. These shortcomings have been largely resolved. We must, therefore, contemplate other barriers to implementation. One possibility is that practitioners avoid the analyses because they lack confidence in the practice of bias analysis. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe what we view as good practices for applying quantitative bias analysis to epidemiological data, directed towards those familiar with the methods. We focus on answering questions often posed to those of us who advocate incorporation of bias analysis methods into teaching and research. These include the following. When is bias analysis practical and productive? How does one select the biases that ought to be addressed? How does one select a method to model biases? How does one assign values to the parameters of a bias model? How does one present and interpret a bias analysis?. We hope that our guide to good practices for conducting and presenting bias analyses will encourage more widespread use of bias analysis to estimate the potential magnitude and direction of biases, as well as the uncertainty in estimates potentially influenced by the biases. PMID:25080530

Lash, Timothy L; Fox, Matthew P; MacLehose, Richard F; Maldonado, George; McCandless, Lawrence C; Greenland, Sander



Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis is published by the School of Business Administration at the University of Washington, Seattle. It publishes theoretical and empirical research in financial economics. The web site details the instructions on submitting articles for publications; table of contents and abstracts of previous articles are also accessible. Full text of articles that have been accepted for publication are available in Acrobat format.



Influence analysis in quantitative trait loci detection  

PubMed Central

This paper presents systematic methods for the detection of influential individuals that affect the log odds (LOD) score curve. We derive general formulas of influence functions for profile likelihoods and introduce them into two standard quantitative trait locus detection methods—the interval mapping method and single marker analysis. Besides influence analysis on specific LOD scores, we also develop influence analysis methods on the shape of the LOD score curves. A simulation-based method is proposed to assess the significance of the influence of the individuals. These methods are shown useful in the influence analysis of a real dataset of an experimental population from an F2 mouse cross. By receiver operating characteristic analysis, we confirm that the proposed methods show better performance than existing diagnostics. PMID:24740424

Dou, Xiaoling; Kuriki, Satoshi; Maeno, Akiteru; Takada, Toyoyuki; Shiroishi, Toshihiko



Aqua Satellite Mission Educational Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important component of the Aqua mission, launched into space on May 4, 2002 with a suite of six instruments from the U.S., Japan, and Brazil, is the effort to educate the public about the mission and the science topics that it addresses. This educational outreach includes printed products, web casts, other web-based materials, animations, presentations, and a student contest. The printed products include brochures for the mission as a whole and for the instruments, NASA Fact Sheets on the mission, the water cycle, and weather forecasting, an Aqua Science Writers' Guide, an Aqua lithograph, posters, and trading cards. Animations include animations of the launch, the orbit, instrument deployments, instrument sensing, and several of the data products. Each of these materials is available on the Aqua web site at, as are archived versions of the eight Aqua web casts. The web casts were done live on the internet and focused on the spacecraft, the science, the launch, and the validation efforts. All web casts had key Aqua personnel as live guests and had a web-based chat session allowing viewers to ask questions. Other web-based materials include a "Cool Science" section of the website, with videos of Aqua scientists and engineers speaking about Aqua and the science and engineering behind it, arranged in a framework organized for the convenience of teachers dealing with core curriculum requirements. The web casts and "Cool Science" site were produced by the Special Project Initiatives Office at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Outreach presentations about Aqua have been given at schools, universities, and public forums at many locations around the world, especially in the U.S. A competition was held for high school students during the 2002-03 school year, culminating in April 2003, with five finalist teams competing for the top slots, followed by an awards ceremony. The competition had all the student teams analyzing an anomalous situation encountered by Aqua shortly after launch and the five finalist teams determining how best to handle a hypothetical degradation of the solid state recorder.

Parkinson, C. L.; Graham, S. M.



Quantitative textural analysis of phenocryst zoning patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The textural complexity of phenocrysts has made quantitative analysis of large populations of crystals a challenging study. Because each phenocryst expresses a unique localized event in the volcanic interior, no single crystal necessarily records the complete pre-eruptive history of the magmatic system as a whole. Synthesizing the textural and compositional records of many crystals, however, should provide a more complete understanding of conditions prior to eruption. In this research, we present new techniques for quantitative analysis of individual crystals and across populations of crystals. We apply those techniques to back-scattered electron images of complexly zoned plagioclase from El Chichón volcano, Mexico. Analysis begins with Gaussian filtering to remove noise from the images and create more qualitatively distinct zoning patterns. Because pixel intensity is directly correlated with Anorthite content, compositional anisotropy is then calculated throughout each image by determining the distance from a grid point at which variation in pixel intensity exceeds a pre-determined standard deviation; both regular and adaptive grid spacings are used, and length scales are calculated in 8 directions. The resulting textural maps are analogous to a vector field and quantify 2-dimensional variation in texture. With both types of grid spacing, changes in magnitude and orientation of textural anisotropy and length scale indicate different crystal zones. The adaptive grid spacing, however, describes non-uniform textural variation more completely and has a higher measurement density in regions of high-frequency variation. In general, textural regions commonly described as clean or smooth show longer length scales and aligned anisotropies, whereas shorter length scales with variable anisotropies identify areas commonly described as patchy, dusty, or rough. The comparison and correlation of textural and compositional zoning help determine how different crystals record the same magmatic event. This analytical technique presents a systematic method for quantitative description of crystal textures and permits the evaluation of large populations of crystals.

Niespolo, E.; Andrews, B. J.



Physical foundation of quantitative Auger analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of using an Auger peak height in the dN (E) /dE spectrum and an integrated N (E) spectrum as a measure of the Auger current is discussed and necessary relations are presented. The methods of the background determination are reviewed and discussed. The relation between the Auger current and the atomic cancentration of a corresponding sample component is derived and the state of art in the field of theoretical and experimental determination of factors appearing in this relation (ionization cross-section, Auger transition probability. backscattering factor, and inelastic mean free path of Auger electrons) is presented. Approaches to the quantitative Auger analysis (QAA) of homogeneous, isotropic samples, including corrections for matrix factors, are presented and discussed. Problems arising when heterogeneous samples are analyzed are discussed and practical approaches to such an analysis are presented. The role of crystalline effects (the dependence of the Auger signal from crystalline samples on the direction of the primary electron beam and angular distribution of Auger electron emission from such samples) in QAA is discussed and examples of such crystalline effects are presented together with their physical foundation. Some rules are suggested allowing the quantitative Auger analysis to be performed with the smallest possible error.

Mróz, Stefan



Quantitative analysis of retinal changes in hypertension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arterial hypertension is a high prevalence disease in Western countries and it is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular accidents. Retinal vessel changes are common findings in patients suffering from long-standing hypertensive disease. Morphological evaluations of the fundus oculi represent a fundamental tool for the clinical approach to the patient with hypertension. A qualitative analysis of the retinal lesions is usually performed and this implies severe limitations both in the classification of the different degrees of the pathology and in the follow-up of the disease. A diagnostic system based on a quantitative analysis of the retinal changes could overcome these problems. Our computerized approach was intended for this scope. The paper concentrates on the results and the implications of a computerized approach to the automatic extraction of numerical indexes describing morphological details of the fundus oculi. A previously developed image processing and recognition system, documented elsewhere and briefly described here, was successfully tested in pre-clinical experiments and applied in the evaluation of normal as well as of pathological fundus. The software system was developed to extract indexes such as caliber and path of vessels, local tortuosity of arteries and arterioles, positions and angles of crossings between two vessels. The reliability of the results, justified by their low variability, makes feasible the standardization of quantitative parameters to be used both in the diagnosis and in the prognosis of hypertension, and also allows prospective studies based upon them.

Giansanti, Roberto; Boemi, Massimo; Fumelli, Paolo; Passerini, Giorgio; Zingaretti, Primo



Virtual bronchoscopy for quantitative airway analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new quantitative method for detailed analysis of the major airways. Using a 3D MDCT chest image as input, the method involves three major steps: (1) segmentation of the airway tree, (2) extraction of the central-axis structure of the major airways, and (3) a novel improvement on the standard full-width half-maximum approach for airway-wall delineation. The method produces measurements for all defined tree branches. These measurements include various airway diameters and cross-sectional area values. To facilitate the examination of these measurements, we also demonstrate an integrated virtual-bronchoscopic analysis system that enables flexible interrogation of the airways. Of particular note are techniques for unraveling and viewing the topography of selected airways. A large series of phantom and human tests confirm the efficacy of our methods.

Kiraly, Atilla P.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Hoffman, Eric A.; McLennan, Geoffrey; Higgins, William E.



Quantitative Analysis of Triple Mutant Genetic Interactions  

PubMed Central

The quantitative analysis of genetic interactions between pairs of gene mutations has proven effective for characterizing cellular functions but can miss important interactions for functionally redundant genes. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach termed Triple Mutant Analysis (TMA). The procedure relies on a query strain that contains two deletions in a pair of redundant or otherwise related genes, that is crossed against a panel of candidate deletion strains to isolate triple mutants and measure their growth. A central feature of TMA is to interrogate mutants that are synthetically sick when two other genes are deleted but interact minimally with either single deletion. This approach has been valuable for discovering genes that restore critical functions when the principle actors are deleted. TMA has also uncovered double mutant combinations that produce severe defects because a third protein becomes deregulated and acts in a deleterious fashion, and it has revealed functional differences between proteins presumed to act together. The protocol is optimized for Singer ROTOR pinning robots, takes 3 weeks to complete, and measures interactions for up to 30 double mutants against a library of 1536 single mutants. PMID:25010907

Braberg, Hannes; Alexander, Richard; Shales, Michael; Xu, Jiewei; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E.; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E.; Krogan, Nevan J.



Decomposition and quantitative analysis of clinical electromyographic signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for the quantitative analysis of clinical electromyographic (EMG) signals detected simultaneously using selective or micro and non-selective or macro electrodes are presented. The procedures first involve the decomposition of the micro signals and then the quantitative analysis of the resulting motor unit action potential trains (MUAPTs) in conjunction with the associated macro signal. The decomposition procedures consist of a

Daniel William Stashuk



QAPL 2005 Preliminary Version Quantitative analysis with the probabilistic  

E-print Network

QAPL 2005 Preliminary Version Quantitative analysis with the probabilistic model checker PRISM 1 checking techniques in detecting flaws and un- usual trends, focusing mainly on the quantitative analysis made great advances, becoming a leading research focus as well as standard industrial practice. When

Oxford, University of


The Aqua-Aura Train  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will focus on the afternoon constellation of EOS platforms and the scientific benefits that arise from this formation. The afternoon EOS constellation or the "A-train" will provide unprecedented information on clouds and aerosols. At 1:30 PM crossing time EOS-Aqua begins the train with the MODIS, CERES and AIRS instruments making aerosol, cloud, radiation budget , temperature and water vapor measurements. AMSR-E will also make total column water measurements. Following Aqua by one minute, Cloudsat will make active radar precipitation measurements as and PICASSOCENA will make lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Fourteen minutes later, EOS-Aura will pass through the same space making upper troposphere water vapor and ice profiles as well as some key trace gases associated with convective processes (MLS and HIRDLS). Additional measurements of aerosols will be made by Aura's OMI instrument.

Schoeberl, Mark; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)



Quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra with principal components analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is presented for quantitative analysis of planetary reflectance spectra as mixtures of particles on microscopic and macroscopic scales using principal components analysis. This technique allows for determination of the endmembers being mixed, their abundance, and the scale of mixing, as well as other physical parameters. Eighteen lunar telescopic reflectance spectra of the Copernicus crater region, from 600 nm to 1800 nm in wavelength, are modeled in terms of five likely endmembers: mare basalt, mature mare soil, anorthosite, mature highland soil, and clinopyroxene. These endmembers were chosen from a similar analysis of 92 lunar soil and rock samples. The models fit the data to within 2 percent rms. It is found that the goodness of fit is marginally better for intimate mixing over macroscopic mixing.

Johnson, P. E.; Smith, M. O.; Adams, J. B.



Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors: Quantitative Structureactivity Relationship Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The main purpose of this study is to analyze the quantitative structure-activity relationship of two series of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitors (leflunomide and quinoline carboxylic acid analogues), and to determine the structural requirements for optimum activity of these analogues.

Shijun Ren; Sharon K. Wu; Eric J. Lien



Comparative Analysis of Multidimensional, Quantitative Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

When analyzing multidimensional, quantitative data, the comparison of two or more groups of dimensions is a common task. Typical sources of such data are experiments in biology, physics or engineering, which are conducted in different configurations and use replicates to ensure statistically significant results. One common way to analyze this data is to filter it using statistical methods and then

Alexander Lex; Marc Streit; Christian Partl; Karl Kashofer; Dieter Schmalstieg



ORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantitative lymphatic vessel trait analysis suggests  

E-print Network

of lymphatic vessels in IBD and applied a scoring system to quantify lymphatic vascular changes. Quantitative, immune surveillance, and intestinal lipid absorption.8 Research into the lymphatic system was hamperedORIGINAL ARTICLE Quantitative lymphatic vessel trait analysis suggests Vcam1 as candidate modifier

Broman, Karl W.


QAPL 2004 Preliminary Version On Quantitative Analysis of  

E-print Network

QAPL 2004 Preliminary Version On Quantitative Analysis of Probabilistic Protocols Alessandro Aldini which allows us to quantitatively estimate its fairness degree. Key words: Approximate Noninterference is equally crucial to systems developers and has recently gained a primary importance in the research

Aldini, Alessandro


QAPL 2005 Preliminary Version Quantitative analysis with the probabilistic  

E-print Network

QAPL 2005 Preliminary Version Quantitative analysis with the probabilistic model checker PRISM 1 model checking techniques in detecting aws and un- usual trends, focusing mainly on the quantitative made great advances, becoming a leading research focus as well as standard industrial practice. When

Oxford, University of


In aqua vivo EPID dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: At the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital in vivo dosimetry using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) has been implemented for almost all high-energy photon treatments of cancer with curative intent. Lung cancer treatments were initially excluded, because the original back-projection dose-reconstruction algorithm uses water-based scatter-correction kernels and therefore does not account for tissue inhomogeneities accurately. The aim of this study was to test a new method, in aqua vivo EPID dosimetry, for fast dose verification of lung cancer irradiations during actual patient treatment. Methods: The key feature of our method is the dose reconstruction in the patient from EPID images, obtained during the actual treatment, whereby the images have been converted to a situation as if the patient consisted entirely of water; hence, the method is termed in aqua vivo. This is done by multiplying the measured in vivo EPID image with the ratio of two digitally reconstructed transmission images for the unit-density and inhomogeneous tissue situation. For dose verification, a comparison is made with the calculated dose distribution with the inhomogeneity correction switched off. IMRT treatment verification is performed for each beam in 2D using a 2D {gamma} evaluation, while for the verification of volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments in 3D a 3D {gamma} evaluation is applied using the same parameters (3%, 3 mm). The method was tested using two inhomogeneous phantoms simulating a tumor in lung and measuring its sensitivity for patient positioning errors. Subsequently five IMRT and five VMAT clinical lung cancer treatments were investigated, using both the conventional back-projection algorithm and the in aqua vivo method. The verification results of the in aqua vivo method were statistically analyzed for 751 lung cancer patients treated with IMRT and 50 lung cancer patients treated with VMAT. Results: The improvements by applying the in aqua vivo approach are considerable. The percentage of {gamma} values {<=}1 increased on average from 66.2% to 93.1% and from 43.6% to 97.5% for the IMRT and VMAT cases, respectively. The corresponding mean {gamma} value decreased from 0.99 to 0.43 for the IMRT cases and from 1.71 to 0.40 for the VMAT cases, which is similar to the accepted clinical values for the verification of IMRT treatments of prostate, rectum, and head-and-neck cancers. The deviation between the reconstructed and planned dose at the isocenter diminished on average from 5.3% to 0.5% for the VMAT patients and was almost the same, within 1%, for the IMRT cases. The in aqua vivo verification results for IMRT and VMAT treatments of a large group of patients had a mean {gamma} of approximately 0.5, a percentage of {gamma} values {<=}1 larger than 89%, and a difference of the isocenter dose value less than 1%. Conclusions: With the in aqua vivo approach for the verification of lung cancer treatments (IMRT and VMAT), we can achieve results with the same accuracy as obtained during in vivo EPID dosimetry of sites without large inhomogeneities.

Wendling, Markus; McDermott, Leah N.; Mans, Anton; Olaciregui-Ruiz, Igor; Pecharroman-Gallego, Raul; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Stroom, Joep; Herk, Marcel J.; Mijnheer, Ben van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)



Introduction to quantitative research and analysis.  


We have now gained appreciation for both qualitative and quantitative research. Whichever method we choose can only serve to strengthen our professional identity. It has been said that qualitative research attempts to uncover what needs to be learned while quantitative research seeks to determine the amount. My advice to all PACU nurses is to begin recording observations and keep an inventory. The design of a study can be determined later; it's the research question that bears merit. Above all, do not ever discount a feeling, a hunch, or an instinct. You may well be on the verge of a very important discovery. Carpe diem--or seize the opportunity--it's worth taking! PMID:2921766

Luczun, M E



Interspecific competition between Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabaena flos-aquae from Taihu Lake, China.  


Microcystis and Anabaena are the main cyanobacteria that cause cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake, China. The mechanism of population competition between M. aeruginosa and A. flos-aquae was studied by co-cultivation in the laboratory. The growth of M. aeruginosa was inhibited, while the growth of A. flos-aquae was promoted. The degree of inhibition or promotion was related to the ratio of the initial cell densities. Both cell-free filtrates of A. flos-aquae and co-culture inhibited M. aeruginosa growth, while both cell-free filtrates of M. aeruginosa and co-culture promoted A. flos-aquae growth. Analysis of the cell-free filtrate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry indicated that M. aeruginosa and A. flos-aquae may secrete some extracellular allelochemicals that inhibit (promote) the growth of M. aeruginosa (A. flos-aquae) in co-culture. These compounds included sulfur compounds, naphthalene derivatives, cedrene derivatives, quinones, phenol derivatives, diphenyl derivatives, anthracene derivatives, and phthalate esters. This study can help to understand the characteristics of M. aeruginosa and A. flos-aquae and to provide new concepts for the control of cyanobacterial blooms in Taihu Lake. PMID:24772823

Zhang, Xue-Wei; Fu, Jie; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Xian-Hui; Zhang, Li-Rong; Luo, Yin; Liu, Chang-Hong; Zhu, Hai-Liang



Quantitative Analysis of Cell Nucleus Organisation  

PubMed Central

There are almost 1,300 entries for higher eukaryotes in the Nuclear Protein Database. The proteins' subcellular distribution patterns within interphase nuclei can be complex, ranging from diffuse to punctate or microspeckled, yet they all work together in a coordinated and controlled manner within the three-dimensional confines of the nuclear volume. In this review we describe recent advances in the use of quantitative methods to understand nuclear spatial organisation and discuss some of the practical applications resulting from this work. PMID:17676980

Shiels, Carol; Adams, Niall M; Islam, Suhail A; Stephens, David A; Freemont, Paul S



A Full Snow Season in Yellowstone: A Database of Restored Aqua Band 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The algorithms for estimating snow extent for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) optimally use the 1.6- m channel which is unavailable for MODIS on Aqua due to detector damage. As a test bed to demonstrate that Aqua band 6 can be restored, we chose the area surrounding Yellowstone and Grand Teton national parks. In such rugged and difficult-to-access terrain, satellite images are particularly important for providing an estimation of snow-cover extent. For the full 2010-2011 snow season covering the Yellowstone region, we have used quantitative image restoration to create a database of restored Aqua band 6. The database includes restored radiances, normalized vegetation index, normalized snow index, thermal data, and band-6-based snow-map products. The restored Aqua-band-6 data have also been regridded and combined with Terra data to produce a snow-cover map that utilizes both Terra and Aqua snow maps. Using this database, we show that the restored Aqua-band-6-based snow-cover extent has a comparable performance with respect to ground stations to the one based on Terra. The result of a restored band 6 from Aqua is that we have an additional band-6 image of the Yellowstone region each day. This image can be used to mitigate cloud occlusion, using the same algorithms used for band 6 on Terra. We show an application of this database of restored band-6 images to illustrate the value of creating a cloud gap filling using the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s operational cloud masks and data from both Aqua and Terra.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Bonev, George; Romanov, Peter; Riggs, George; Hall, Dorothy



Aqua's First 10 Years: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Aqua spacecraft was launched at 2:55 a.m. on May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. Aqua carries six Earth-observing instruments to collect data on water in all its forms (liquid, vapor, and solid) and on a wide variety of additional Earth system variables (Parkinson 2003). The design lifetime for Aqua's prime mission was 6 years, and Aqua is now well into its extended mission, approaching 10 years of successful operations. The Aqua data have been used for hundreds of scientific studies and continue to be used for scientific discovery and numerous practical applications.

Parkinson, Claire L.



Towards a Quantitative OCT Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of performance. Therefore, raw images and qualitative data are commonly used in clinical and scientific reports. Here, we assess the value of OCT reflectivity profiles as a basis for a quantitative characterization of the retinal status in a cross-species comparative study. Methods Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), confocal Scanning-La­ser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Fluorescein Angiography (FA) were performed in mice (Mus musculus), gerbils (Gerbillus perpadillus), and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, and additional SLOs and FAs were obtained with the HRA I (same manufacturer). Reflectivity profiles were extracted from 8-bit greyscale OCT images using the ImageJ software package ( Results Reflectivity profiles obtained from OCT scans of all three animal species correlated well with ex vivo histomorphometric data. Each of the retinal layers showed a typical pattern that varied in relative size and degree of reflectivity across species. In general, plexiform layers showed a higher level of reflectivity than nuclear layers. A comparison of reflectivity profiles from specialized retinal regions (e.g. visual streak in gerbils, fovea in non-human primates) with respective regions of human retina revealed multiple similarities. In a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), the value of reflectivity profiles for the follow-up of therapeutic interventions was demonstrated. Conclusions OCT reflectivity profiles provide a detailed, quantitative description of retinal layers and structures including specialized retinal regions. Our results highlight the potential of this approach in the long-term follow-up of therapeutic strategies. PMID:24927180

Garcia Garrido, Marina; Beck, Susanne C.; Mühlfriedel, Regine; Julien, Sylvie; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.



Quantitative auger electron analysis of titanium nitrides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical analysis of titanium nitrides by Auger Electron Spectroscopy is complicated by the fact that the main Auger electron emission from nitrogen occurs at an energy that completely overlaps the transition from titanium. For this reason, most surface analysis of titanium nitride has been semiquantitative, at best. In this paper, Auger spectrum simulation techniques are used to establish that satisfactory

P. T. Dawson; K. K. Tzatzov



A flow cytometer based protocol for quantitative analysis of bloom-forming cyanobacteria (Microcystis) in lake sediments.  


A quantitative protocol for the rapid analysis of Microcystis cells and colonies in lake sediment was developed using a modified flow cytometer, the CytoSense. For cell enumeration, diluted sediment samples containing Microcystis were processed with sonication to disintegrate colonies into single cells. An optimized procedure suggested that 5 mg dw (dry weight)/mL dilution combined with 200 W x 2 min sonication yielded the highest counting efficiency. Under the optimized determination conditions, the quantification limit of this protocol was 3.3 x 10(4) cells/g dw. For colony analysis, Microcystis were isolated from the sediment by filtration. Colony lengths measured by flow cytometry were similar to those measured by microscopy for the size range of one single cell to almost 400 microm in length. Moreover, the relationship between colony size and cell number was determined for three Microcystis species, including Microcystis flos-aquae, M. aeruginosa and M. wessenbergii. Regression formulas were used to calculate the cell numbers in different-sized colonies. The developed protocol was applied to field sediment samples from Lake Taihu. The results indicated the potential and applicability of flow cytometry as a tool for the rapid analysis of benthic Microcystis. This study provided a new capability for the high frequency monitoring of benthic overwintering and population dynamics of this bloom-forming cyanobacterium. PMID:23520881

Zhou, Quan; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huiyong; Peng, Liang; Liu, Liming; Han, Zhiguo; Wan, Neng; Li, Lin; Song, Lirong



Quantitative thermal analysis technique for combustible gas detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Reaction Coulometer gas chromatograph detector was adapted for thermal analysis of solids. Response is predictable for pure standards and is easily calibrated. A quantitative analysis is obtained by measuring the methods of oxygen required for combustion of gases produced by pyrolysis, even though the mixture has unknown or complex products. Therefore, the technique is suited to thermal studies of

R. A. Susott; F. Shafizadeh; T. W. Aanerud



Quantitative Auger electron analysis of gold--copper alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative Auger electron analysis was established for gold (7 to 80 atomic percent)--copper alloys. The procedure for preparing samples must include uniform metallographic polishing and final sputter etching before Auger analysis. A 30-second sputter etch in argon is required to minimize the effects of surface contaminants. Beam current and potential were systematically varied to determine their effects on the resulting

R. L. Hanlin; D. L. Stoltz



Quantitative infrared analysis of hydrogen fluoride  

SciTech Connect

This work was performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant where hydrogen fluoride is produced upon the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}. This poses a problem for in this setting and a method for determining the mole percent concentration was desired. HF has been considered to be a non-ideal gas for many years. D. F. Smith utilized complex equations in his HF studies in the 1950s. We have evaluated HF behavior as a function of pressure from three different perspectives. (1) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of pressure for 100% HF. (2) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of increasing partial pressure HF. Total pressure = 300 mm HgA maintained with nitrogen. (3) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} for constant partial pressure HF. Total pressure is increased to greater than 800 mm HgA with nitrogen. These experiments have shown that at partial pressures up to 35mm HgA, HIF follows the ideal gas law. The absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} can be quantitatively analyzed via infrared methods.

Manuta, D.M.



Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa



Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis  

SciTech Connect

A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa [Division 8.5, BAM Fed. Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)



Quantitative analysis of human cruciate ligament insertions.  


The objective of this study was to provide quantitative data on the insertion sites of the cruciate ligaments. In the first part of the study, we determined the shapes and sizes of the insertions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL), and further compared these data with the midsubstance cross-sectional areas of the ligaments. The cross-sectional area of the ACL and PCL midsubstance of 5 human knees was measured using a laser micrometer system. The insertion sites of each ligament were then digitized and the 2-dimensional insertion site areas were determined. Relative to the ligament midsubstance, the PCL tibial and femoral insertions were approximately 3 times larger, whereas those of the ACL were over 3.5 times larger. In the second part of the study, the ACLs and PCLs of 10 knees were each divided into their 2 components and the areas of each insertion were determined. Each component was approximately 50% of the total ligament insertion area and no significant difference between the 2 could be shown. PMID:10524822

Harner, C D; Baek, G H; Vogrin, T M; Carlin, G J; Kashiwaguchi, S; Woo, S L



Quantitative Analysis of Latent Human Cytomegalovirus  

PubMed Central

Cytomegalovirus latency depends on an interaction with hematopoietic cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood. The distribution of viral DNA was investigated by PCR-driven in situ hybridization (PCR-ISH), and the number of viral genomes per cell was estimated by quantitative competitive PCR during both experimental and natural latent infection. During experimental latent infection of cultured granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, the viral genome was detected in >90% of cells at a copy number of 1 to 8 viral genomes per cell. During natural infection, viral genomes were detected in 0.004 to 0.01% of mononuclear cells from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood or bone marrow from seropositive donors, at a copy number of 2 to 13 genomes per infected cell. When evaluated by reverse transcription–PCR-ISH, only a small proportion of experimentally infected cells (approximately 2%) had detectable latent transcripts. This investigation identifies the small percentage of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells that become latently infected during natural infection and suggests that latency may proceed in some cells that fail to encode currently identified latent transcripts. PMID:10233941

Slobedman, Barry; Mocarski, Edward S.



Quantitative proteomic analysis of dystrophic dog muscle.  


Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by null mutations in the dystrophin gene, leading to progressive and unrelenting muscle loss. Although the genetic basis of DMD is well resolved, the cellular mechanisms associated with the physiopathology remain largely unknown. Increasing evidence suggests that secondary mechanisms, as the alteration of key signaling pathways, may play an important role. In order to identify reliable biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets, and taking advantage of the clinically relevant Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD) dog model, a proteomic study was performed. Isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) profiling was used to compile quantitative changes in protein expression profiles of the vastus lateralis muscles of 4-month old GRMD vs healthy dogs. Interestingly, the set of under-expressed proteins detected appeared primarily composed of metabolic proteins, many of which have been shown to be regulated by the transcriptional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1?). Subsequently, we were able to showed that PGC1-? expression is dramatically reduced in GRMD compared to healthy muscle. Collectively, these results provide novel insights into the molecular pathology of the clinically relevant animal model of DMD, and indicate that defective energy metabolism is a central hallmark of the disease in the canine model. PMID:21410286

Guevel, Laetitia; Lavoie, Jessie R; Perez-Iratxeta, Carolina; Rouger, Karl; Dubreil, Laurence; Feron, Marie; Talon, Sophie; Brand, Marjorie; Megeney, Lynn A



Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bacterial aerosols.  


The objective of this study was to investigate qualitatively and quantitatively the bacterial aerosols before, during, and after clinical work sessions in different areas within a multichair dental clinic, an isolation clinic, the sterilization center, and the prosthetic laboratory in the College of Dentistry, King Saud University. Also, the contributions of aerosols generated by different types of dental procedures were investigated. Air sampling using blood and heart infusion agar plates at four selected areas was performed three times per day over a 2-week period before, during, and after clinical sessions. The concentration of total bacterial aerosols was 5 times higher in the multichair clinic, 3.6 times higher in the prosthetic laboratory, 2 times higher in the sterilization center and isolation clinic during working sessions as compared to before the working sessions. At the end of the working day, aerosols decreased 50-70% in all areas. Staphylococcus epidermidis had the highest prevalence (37.12q%) of colony composition of bacteria examined. This study demonstrates that aerosols increase during and after work sessions and, therefore, increase the chance for infectious agent transmission. Preventive measures should be instituted to reduce or disrupt aerosols as a transmission route in the multichair dental clinic, sterilization center, prosthetic laboratory, and isolation clinic. PMID:15558094

Al Maghlouth, Adnan; Al Yousef, Yousef; Al Bagieh, Nasir



Methods of quantitative fire hazard analysis  

SciTech Connect

Simplified fire hazard analysis methods have been developed as part of the FIVE risk-based fire induced vulnerability evaluation methodology for nuclear power plants. These fire hazard analyses are intended to permit plant fire protection personnel to conservatively evaluate the potential for credible exposure fires to cause critical damage to essential safe-shutdown equipment and thereby screen from further analysis spaces where a significant fire hazard clearly does not exist. This document addresses the technical bases for the fire hazard analysis methods. A separate user's guide addresses the implementation of the fire screening methodology, which has been implemented with three worksheets and a number of look-up tables. The worksheets address different locations of targets relative to exposure fire sources. The look-up tables address fire-induced conditions in enclosures in terms of three stages: a fire plume/ceiling jet period, an unventilated enclosure smoke filling period and a ventilated quasi-steady period.

Mowrer, F.W. (Mowrer (Frederick W.), Adelphi, MD (United States))



The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis  

SciTech Connect

This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

Bennett, C.T.



Techniques of image analysis for quantitative immunohistochemistry.  


The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usefulness of digital image analysis techniques to measure the amount and strength of immunohistochemical markers. The new method, based on the spatial visualization technique, was confronted with methods of colour sampling and grey scale thresholding. Examples of applications of the techniques for apoptosis and proliferation markers are also presented. PMID:15638406

Kaczmarek, E; Górna, A; Majewski, P



Quantitative analysis of chromatin proteomes in disease.  


In the nucleus reside the proteomes whose functions are most intimately linked with gene regulation. Adult mammalian cardiomyocyte nuclei are unique due to the high percentage of binucleated cells,(1) the predominantly heterochromatic state of the DNA, and the non-dividing nature of the cardiomyocyte which renders adult nuclei in a permanent state of interphase.(2) Transcriptional regulation during development and disease have been well studied in this organ,(3-5) but what remains relatively unexplored is the role played by the nuclear proteins responsible for DNA packaging and expression, and how these proteins control changes in transcriptional programs that occur during disease.(6) In the developed world, heart disease is the number one cause of mortality for both men and women.(7) Insight on how nuclear proteins cooperate to regulate the progression of this disease is critical for advancing the current treatment options. Mass spectrometry is the ideal tool for addressing these questions as it allows for an unbiased annotation of the nuclear proteome and relative quantification for how the abundance of these proteins changes with disease. While there have been several proteomic studies for mammalian nuclear protein complexes,(8-13) until recently(14) there has been only one study examining the cardiac nuclear proteome, and it considered the entire nucleus, rather than exploring the proteome at the level of nuclear sub compartments.(15) In large part, this shortage of work is due to the difficulty of isolating cardiac nuclei. Cardiac nuclei occur within a rigid and dense actin-myosin apparatus to which they are connected via multiple extensions from the endoplasmic reticulum, to the extent that myocyte contraction alters their overall shape.(16) Additionally, cardiomyocytes are 40% mitochondria by volume(17) which necessitates enrichment of the nucleus apart from the other organelles. Here we describe a protocol for cardiac nuclear enrichment and further fractionation into biologically-relevant compartments. Furthermore, we detail methods for label-free quantitative mass spectrometric dissection of these fractions-techniques amenable to in vivo experimentation in various animal models and organ systems where metabolic labeling is not feasible. PMID:23299252

Monte, Emma; Chen, Haodong; Kolmakova, Maria; Parvatiyar, Michelle; Vondriska, Thomas M; Franklin, Sarah



Aqua-Net Mate: a Real-time Virtual Channel/Modem Simulator for Aqua-Net  

E-print Network

Aqua-Net Mate: a Real-time Virtual Channel/Modem Simulator for Aqua-Net Yibo Zhu, Son Le, Lina Pu they are implemented. In order to address these issues, we introduce Aqua-Net Mate, a real-time virtual channel/modem-time schedule. More importantly, Aqua- Net Mate emulates real acoustic modems by employing a new state machine

Zhou, Shengli


Control of separation and quantitative analysis by GC-FTIR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Software for 3-D representations of the 'Absorbance-Wavenumber-Retention time' is used to control the quality of the GC separation. Spectral information given by the FTIR detection allows the user to be sure that a chromatographic peak is 'pure.' The analysis of peppermint essential oil is presented as an example. This assurance is absolutely required for quantitative applications. In these conditions, we have worked out a quantitative analysis of caffeine. Correlation coefficients between integrated absorbance measurements and concentration of caffeine are discussed at two steps of the data treatment.

Semmoud, A.; Huvenne, Jean P.; Legrand, P.



Chromatic Image Analysis For Quantitative Thermal Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chromatic image analysis system (CIAS) developed for use in noncontact measurements of temperatures on aerothermodynamic models in hypersonic wind tunnels. Based on concept of temperature coupled to shift in color spectrum for optical measurement. Video camera images fluorescence emitted by phosphor-coated model at two wavelengths. Temperature map of model then computed from relative brightnesses in video images of model at those wavelengths. Eliminates need for intrusive, time-consuming, contact temperature measurements by gauges, making it possible to map temperatures on complex surfaces in timely manner and at reduced cost.

Buck, Gregory M.



Synergism of MODIS Aerosol Remote Sensing from Terra and Aqua  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors, aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites, are showing excellent competence at measuring the global distribution and properties of aerosols. Terra and Aqua were launched on December 18, 1999 and May 4, 2002 respectively, with daytime equator crossing times of approximately 10:30 am and 1:30 pm respectively. Several aerosol parameters are retrieved at 10-km spatial resolution from MODIS daytime data over land and ocean surfaces. The parameters retrieved include: aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.47, 0.55 and 0.66 micron wavelengths over land, and at 0.47, 0.55, 0.66, 0.87, 1.2, 1.6, and 2.1 microns over ocean; Angstrom exponent over land and ocean; and effective radii, and the proportion of AOT contributed by the small mode aerosols over ocean. Since the beginning of its operation, the quality of Terra-MODIS aerosol products (especially AOT) have been evaluated periodically by cross-correlation with equivalent data sets acquired by ground-based (and occasionally also airborne) sunphotometers, particularly those coordinated within the framework of the AErosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). Terra-MODIS AOT data have been found to meet or exceed pre-launch accuracy expectations, and have been applied to various studies dealing with local, regional, and global aerosol monitoring. The results of these Terra-MODIS aerosol data validation efforts and studies have been reported in several scientific papers and conferences. Although Aqua-MODIS is still young, it is already yielding formidable aerosol data products, which are also subjected to careful periodic evaluation similar to that implemented for the Terra-MODIS products. This paper presents results of validation of Aqua-MODIS aerosol products with AERONET, as well as comparative evaluation against corresponding Terra-MODIS data. In addition, we show interesting independent and synergistic applications of MODIS aerosol data from both Terra and Aqua. In certain situations, this combined analysis of Terra- and Aqua-MODIS data offers an insight into the diurnal cycle of aerosol loading.

Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine A.



Quantitative Auger analysis of complex electrical contact alloy materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Addition of elemental Auger spectra has been used to produced several series of Auger lineshapes versus composition for the ovelapping peaks resulting from mixtures of Cu, Pt, Pd or Ag in Au; S in Au or Pt, Cl in Au, Pt or Pd; C (both graphitic and carbidic) in Au, Pt, Ag or Pd. These assorted lineshapes series may be used to obtain semi-quantitative analysis of overlapping peaks by matching lineshapes, but have also been used to calibrate peak ratios versus composition in order to quantitatively separate contributions to overlapping Auger peaks. This procedure is illustrated by application to the quantitative analysis of tw electrical contact alloys - ASTM B541. Advantages and limitations of this procedure are B540 and ASTM B541. Advantages and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

Peebles, D. E.; Pope, L. E.



Analysis of the influence of river discharge and wind on the Ebro turbid plume using MODIS-Aqua and MODIS-Terra data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The turbid plume formed at many river mouths influences the adjacent coastal area because it transports sediments, nutrients, and pollutants. The effects of the main forcings affecting the Ebro turbid plume were analyzed using data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites over the period 2003-2011. Composite images were obtained for days under certain river discharge conditions (different flow regimes) and different types of wind (alongshore and cross-shore winds) in order to obtain a representative plume pattern for each situation. River discharge was the main driver of the Ebro River plume, followed by wind as the secondary force and regional oceanic circulation as the third one. Turbid plume extension increased monotonically with increased river discharge. Under high river discharge conditions (> 355 m3 s- 1), wind distributed the plume in the dominant wind direction. Seaward winds (mistral) produced the largest extension of the plume (1893 km2), whereas southern alongshore winds produced the smallest one (1325 km2). Northern alongshore winds induced the highest mean turbid value of the plume, and southern alongshore winds induced the lowest one. Regardless of the wind condition, more than 70% of the plume extension was located south of the river mouth influenced by the regional oceanic circulation.

Fernández-Nóvoa, D.; Mendes, R.; deCastro, M.; Dias, J. M.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.



Trend Analysis of global AOT based on various Polar Orbiting Satellite Observations: MODIS (Terra), MISR (Terra), SeaWiFS (OrbView-2), and MODIS (Aqua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies have investigated temporal trends of cloud-free AOTs derived from polar orbiting satellite observations since aerosol retrieval accuracy has been improved substantially. However, only few studies have discussed the fundamental limitation of incomplete sampling originated from frequent cloud disturbance and restricted temporal coverage. Furthermore, the AOT trends derived from various polar orbiting satellite observations are hardly comparable due to different sensor calibration, retrieval accuracy, and cloud screening. Therefore, the present paper integrates various analyses of AOT trends derived from multiple observations (i.e. MODIS-Terra (MOD) from 2000/03 to 2009/12, MISR-Terra (MIS) from 2000/03 to 2010/12, SeaWiFS-OrbView-2 (SEA) from 1998/01 to 2007/12, and MODIS-Aqua (MYD) from 2003/01 to 2008/12) using a weighted least squares regression in order to minimize the above mentioned issues. With high statistical confidence, the weighted trends of MOD AOT (550 nm), MIS AOT (558 nm), SEA AOT (510 nm), and MYD AOT (550 nm) over OECD Europe showed a significant decrease (-0.00274±0.00126, -0.00303±0.00169, -0.00077±0.00044, and -0.00530±0.00304 per year respectively) while increasing over East Asia (+0.00727±0.00385, +0.00673±0.00401, +0.00342±0.00171, and +0.01939±0.00986 per year respectively).

Yoon, J.; Vountas, M.; von Hoyningen-Huene, W.; Chang, D. Y.; Burrows, J. P.



De novo sequence analysis and intact mass measurements for characterization of phycocyanin subunit isoforms from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.  


In this work, partial characterization of the primary structure of phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) was achieved by mass spectrometry de novo sequencing with the aid of chemical derivatization. Combining N-terminal sulfonation of tryptic peptides by 4-sulfophenyl isothiocyanate (SPITC) and MALDI-TOF/TOF analyses, facilitated the acquisition of sequence information for AFA phycocyanin subunits. In fact, SPITC-derivatized peptides underwent facile fragmentation, predominantly resulting in y-series ions in the MS/MS spectra and often exhibiting uninterrupted sequences of 20 or more amino acid residues. This strategy allowed us to carry out peptide fragment fingerprinting and de novo sequencing of several peptides belonging to both alpha- and beta-phycocyanin polypeptides, obtaining a sequence coverage of 67% and 75%, respectively. The presence of different isoforms of phycocyanin subunits was also revealed; subsequently Intact Mass Measurements (IMMs) by both MALDI- and ESI-MS supported the detection of these protein isoforms. Finally, we discuss the evolutionary importance of phycocyanin isoforms in cyanobacteria, suggesting the possible use of the phycocyanin operon for a correct taxonomic identity of this species. PMID:19053161

Rinalducci, Sara; Roepstorff, Peter; Zolla, Lello



ILLINOIS -RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting  

E-print Network

Slide 1 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING A Quantitative Analysis of Factors Affecting Broken Rails Darwin H. Schafer II & Christopher P.L. Barkan May 9th, 2008 The William W. Hay Railroad Engineering Seminar Series University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign #12;Slide 2 ILLINOIS - RAILROAD ENGINEERING

Barkan, Christopher P.L.


Quantitative Analysis for Controllability of Symmetric Control Systems  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis for Controllability of Symmetric Control Systems Reiko Tanaka 1 and Kazuo with the controllability of systems possessing symmetries. In partic­ ular, we aim to give a lower bound for the number of functioning modules needed to ensure the controllability of the entire symmetric system. Our concern

Murota, Kazuo


Original article Quantitative analysis of social grooming behavior  

E-print Network

Original article Quantitative analysis of social grooming behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera; We observed social grooming behavior in the Carniolan bee, Apis mellifera carnica. Bouts of grooming-cleaning or social grooming behavior. social grooming/ self-cleaning/ grooming dance / Apis mellifera carnica

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A quantitative approach for medical device Health Hazard Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Hazard Analysis (HHA) is one major type of patient health risk assessment for medical device field performance issue. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has an online form, listing the needed information for HHA. In this paper, we will illustrate a quantitative HHA approach, which is structured in a rigorous risk assessment framework, with several critical steps, concepts and

Mingxiao Jiang; Kathy Herzog; Thomas Pepin; Michael D. Baca




EPA Science Inventory

INTRODUCTION: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK Hugh A. Barton1 and Carey N. Pope2 1US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 2Department of...


Analysis of quantitative trait loci that influence animal behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral differences between in- bred strains of mice and rats have a genetic basis that can now be dissected using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Over the last 10 years, a large number of genetic loci that influence behavior have been mapped. In this article I review what that information has revealed about the genetic architecture of behavior. I show

Jonathan Flint



Quantitative Analysis of Team Size and its Hierarchical Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typically, successful project teams are composed of compact groups of specialists, constituting a hierarchy. Obviously such a hierarchical construction of the project team has a deep rationale as the most desirable from the standpoint of maximizing productivity. This work is devoted to the quantitative study of the problem of justification of the hierarchical structure of project teams through the analysis

Pavel Barseghyan



Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Erosion for Different Soils  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Simulated Erosion for Different Soils Zhongxian Chen chenz5@cs as a function of shear stress over the surface of the soil. This model is appli- cable to small-scale erosion Hurricane Katrina. We present a computer simulation of erosion to study the de- velopment of the rills


Quantitative analysis of XPS (ESCA) intensities for supported catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative analysis of XPS (ESCA) intensities for supported catalysts was based on a model of cubic catalyst crystallites between sheets of support and the assumption that the relative ESCA intensities of the support and catalyst depend on the photoelectron cross section, the atomic ratio of catalyst and support, the escape depths of the electrons, the support surface area, the

F. P. J. M. Kerkhof; J. A. Moulijn



Quantitative spore colour measurement using colour image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour changes that spores exhibit, with increasing depth of burial, are used as a thermal maturity indicator for evaluating hydrocarbon source rocks. Spore colour is determined visually leading to an intrinsic difficulty of unequivocally assessing and recording their colour. Quantitative scales using photometers are available, but are not widely applied. Colour Image Analysis (CIA) is presented here as an

B Yule; S Roberts; J. E. A Marshall; J. A Milton



Quantitative accuracy of PET for image-based kinetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is essential to achieve quantitative accuracy of radioactivity concentrations (Bq\\/ml) when performing compartmental modeling and kinetic analysis of dynamic sequences of reconstructed PET images. Dynamic PET data can be acquired in list mode, and often is preferred over frame mode acquisitions due to the flexibility of reformatting the list mode data into different dynamic image sequences after the acquisition

Youngho Seo; Boon-Keng Teo; Mohiuddin Hadi; Carole Schreck; Stephen L. Bacharach; B. H. Hasegawa



Quantitative analysis of task selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of task selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces Alberto Llera,1 , Vicenc¸ G in practical online scenarios. Keywords: Brain Computer Interface, Task selection, Subject learning. Authors contributed equally. 1 #12;1 Introduction Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) [41] aim to provide humans

Gómez, Vicenç


Poverty, inequality and environmental resources: quantitative analysis of rural households  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rural households have been suspected to rely heavily on goods and services freely provided by environmental resources. However, there has been no adequate quantitative analysis of this issue due to a lack of appropriate household data sets encompassing economic and environmental data. We use a purpose-collected 213 household data set from rural Zimbabwe to investigate the impact of incorporating this

William Cavendish



Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis.  


It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between "ramified resting" and "activated amoeboid" has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F



Quantitative Analysis for Authentication of Low-cost RFID Tags  

E-print Network

Formal analysis techniques are widely used today in order to verify and analyze communication protocols. In this work, we launch a quantitative verification analysis for the low- cost Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) protocol proposed by Song and Mitchell. The analysis exploits a Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) using the well-known PRISM model checker. We have managed to represent up to 100 RFID tags communicating with a reader and quantify each RFID session according to the protocol's computation and transmission cost requirements. As a consequence, not only does the proposed analysis provide quantitative verification results, but also it constitutes a methodology for RFID designers who want to validate their products under specific cost requirements.

Paparrizos, Ioannis; Petridou, Sophia



Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.



Quantitative analysis of amino acid mixtures by mass spectrometry  

E-print Network

QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACID MIXTURES BY MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by DAMES SPENCER BIRD Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AhM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... 1971 Ma j or Subject: Biochemistry QDANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OE AMINO ACID MIXTURES BY MASS SPECTROMETRY A Thesis by JAMES SPENCER BIRD Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman oE Committ ) (Head of- Department. ) (Member) (Member) August...

Bird, James Spencer



Quantitative layer analysis of single crystal surfaces by LEIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantitative interpretation of energy and angle resolved low-energy ion scattering intensity distributions is achieved by comparing the experimental results with those from numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code with extensions for layer selective analysis. The example used is the CuAu(100) alloy crystal surface. For adequate analysis the potential parameter (i.e. the screening length) has to be calibrated. This is

Robert Beikler; Edmund Taglauer



An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules  

PubMed Central

The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng



Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

Anderson, James L.; And Others



Lipid analysis by quantitative thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for the quantitative analysis of lipids using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) are reviewed. The general procedures\\u000a are divided into two groups on the basis of whether or not the methods involve the recovery of substances from chromatoplates.\\u000a \\u000a Recovery methods are elaborated under detection of spots, recovery of substances and quantification. Methods are described\\u000a for the recovery of labile compounds from

O. S. Privett; M. L. Blank; D. W. Codding; E. C. Nickell



Quantitative analysis of food fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superior efficiency of capillary columns is desirable for the gas chromatographic analysis of complex mixtures of fatty\\u000a acids, but there have been some reservations regarding quantitation and reproducibility. This paper discusses the use of wall-coated\\u000a glass capillary columns in a semiautomated system for the determination of food fatty acids. Glass columns coated with SP2340\\u000a were used for extended periods

H. T. Slover; E. Lanza



Quantitative analysis of lipids by thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure is described for the quantitative analysis of neutral and phospholipids by thinlayer chromatography (TLC) employing\\u000a densitometry. The chromatophates are prepared with the usual solvent systems. The spots are charred under standard conditions\\u000a and analyzed with a Photovolt Corp. densitometer equipped with a special stage designed for holding 20×20 cm chromatoplates.\\u000a Each spot on the chromatoplate gives a peak

M. L. Blank; J. A. Schmit; O. S. Privett



Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the adult Drosophila melanogaster proteome.  


Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model organisms in life sciences. Mapping its proteome is of great significance for understanding the biological characteristics and tissue functions of this species. However, the comprehensive coverage of its proteome remains a challenge. Here, we describe a high-coverage analysis of whole fly through a 1D gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS approach. By combining the datasets of two types of SDS-PAGE and two kinds of tagmata, the high-coverage analysis resulted in the identification of 5262 genes, which correspond to 38.23% of the entire coding genes. Moreover, we found that the fly head and body have different molecular weight distributions of their proteomes when the proteins were resolved with SDS-PAGE and image analysis of the stained gel. This phenomenon was further confirmed by both label-free and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-based quantitative approaches. The consistent results of the two different quantitation methods also demonstrated the stability and accuracy of the LC-MS/MS platform. The MS proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD000454 and PXD000455 (; ( PMID:24259522

Xing, Xiaohua; Zhang, Chengpu; Li, Ning; Zhai, Linhui; Zhu, Yunping; Yang, Xiaoming; Xu, Ping



Quantitative analysis of tryptophan analogue incorporation in recombinant proteins.  


Three different methods to quantitate tryptophan (Trp) analogue incorporation into recombinant proteins are described: first, spectroscopic analysis based on a linear combination of the absorption spectra of the aromatic residues in the denatured Trp-containing or analogue-substituted protein; second, chromatographic separation of analogue-substituted and Trp-containing proteins by HPLC; and third, mass spectrum analysis of the mixture of analogue-substituted and Trp-containing proteins. An accurate estimate of analogue incorporation in single-Trp proteins can be obtained directly by either analysis of the absorption spectrum or HPLC chromatography. While analysis of the absorption spectrum or HPLC chromatogram can provide an assessment of the average level of analogue incorporation for proteins that contain two or more Trp residues, mass spectroscopy analysis of peptides generated by protease digestion and separated by HPLC provides a general method for a complete quantitative description of the distribution of analogue incorporation. The more complex analysis by mass spectroscopy becomes important for multi-Trp proteins because the distribution of analogue versus Trp-containing polypeptide chains may not be the same as that predicted on the basis of average level of analogue incorporation. PMID:11743694

Senear, Donald F; Mendelson, Robert A; Stone, Deborah B; Luck, Linda A; Rusinova, Elena; Ross, J B Alexander



Cell poking: quantitative analysis of indentation of thick viscoelastic layers.  

PubMed Central

A recently introduced device, the cell poker, measures the force required to indent the exposed surface of a cell adherent to a rigid substratum. The cell poker has provided phenomenological information about the viscoelastic properties of several different types of cells, about mechanical changes triggered by external stimuli, and about the role of the cytoskeleton in these mechanical functions. Except in special cases, however, it has not been possible to extract quantitative estimates of viscosity and elasticity moduli from cell poker measurements. This paper presents cell poker measurements of well characterized viscoelastic polymeric materials, polydimethylsiloxanes of different degrees of polymerization, in a simple shape, a flat, thick layer, which for our purposes can be treated as a half space. Analysis of the measurements in terms of a linear viscoelasticity theory yields viscosity values for three polymer samples in agreement with those determined by measurements on a macroscopic scale. Theoretical analysis further indicates that the measured limiting static elasticity of the layers may result from the tension generated at the interface between the polymer and water. This work demonstrates the possibility of obtaining quantitative viscoelastic material properties from cell poker measurements and represents the first step in extending these quantitative studies to more complicated structures including cells. PMID:2720066

Duszyk, M; Schwab, B; Zahalak, G I; Qian, H; Elson, E L



A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.



Quantitative analysis of lipid deposits from Schnyder's corneal dystrophy  

PubMed Central

AIM—To report the quantitation of the lipid composition of a corneal button from a Japanese woman in her 60s with clinically and histopathologically proved Schnyder's corneal dystrophy.?METHODS—Total lipids extracted from the corneal button of the patient were analysed by the method of thin layer chromatography flame ionisation detection. Two different solvent systems were used for neutral lipid analysis and phospholipid analysis. Results were compared with three age matched corneal buttons obtained from cadaveric eyes.?RESULTS—The lipids that accumulated in the cornea in Schnyder's dystrophy consisted mainly of unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids. The analysis of phospholipids showed sphingomyelin to be the predominant phospholipid in the patient's cornea.?CONCLUSION—Findings suggest that this disorder involves a disturbance of the metabolism of cholesterol and/or sphingomyelin metabolism that is limited to the cornea.?? Keywords: Schnyder's dystrophy; lipids; unesterified cholesterol; sphingomyelin PMID:9640198

Yamada, M.; Mochizuki, H.; Kamata, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Mashima, Y.



Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.  


Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148-165, 2015. PMID:24889823

Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin



Quantitative analysis of SILAC data sets using spectral counting  

PubMed Central

We report a new quantitative proteomics approach that combines the best aspects of stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) labeling and spectral counting. The SILAC peptide count ratio analysis (SPeCtRA, method relies on MS2 spectra rather than ion chromatograms for quantitation and therefore does not require the use of high mass accuracy mass spectrometers. The inclusion of a stable isotope label allows the samples to be combined before sample preparation and analysis, thus avoiding many of the sources of variability that can plague spectral counting. To validate the SPeCtRA method, we have analyzed samples constructed with known ratios of protein abundance. Finally, we used SPeCtRA to compare endothelial cell protein abundances between high (20 mM) and low (11 mM) glucose culture conditions. Our results demonstrate that SPeCtRA is a protein quantification technique that is accurate and sensitive as well as easy to automate and apply to high-throughput analysis of complex biological samples. PMID:20104619

Parker, Sarah J.; Halligan, Brian D.; Greene, Andrew S.



Methods for linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci in humans.  


This paper reviews linkage analysis methods for detecting loci associated with quantitative traits in humans. All such methods are based on the underlying principle that family members who have similar trait values should have higher than expected levels of sharing of genetic material (identity by descent) near the genes that influence those traits. A number of different statistical methods for testing that association between shared trait values and shared identity by descent have been developed over the past 30 or more years. These different types of tests are reviewed here, with emphasis on their theory and derivations. Robustness and power are also discussed. PMID:11855951

Feingold, E



Aqua Reticulata: topology of liquid water networks  

E-print Network

to explain the physical anomalies of liquid water, the water as a function of temperature. At last count, these number more than sixty distinct anomalies,2 e.g. melting and boiling temperature, with temperature.3 Two145 VI Aqua Reticulata: topology of liquid water networks Stephen T. Hyde department of Applied

Hyde, Stephen


Quantitative analysis of live cells using digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the life time of a cell, it goes through changes to the plasma membrane as well as its internal structures especially distinctive during processes like cell division and death. Different types of microscope are used to fulfill the observation of the cell's variation. In our experiment, Vero cells have been investigated by using phase contrast microscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A comparison of the images obtained for cell division is presented here. The conventional phase contrast microscope provided a good imaging method in the real time analysis of cell division. The off-axis digital hologram recorded by the DHM system can be reconstructed to obtain both the intensity image and phase contrast image of the test object. These can be used for live cell imaging to provide multiple results from a single equipment setup. The DHM system, besides being a qualitative tool, is able to provide quantitative results and 3D images of the cell division process. The ability of DHM to provide quantitative analysis makes it an ideal tool for life science applications.

Lewis, Tan Rongwei; Qu, Weijuan; Chee, Oi Choo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand



Quantitative analysis of live cells using digital holographic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the life time of a cell, it goes through changes to the plasma membrane as well as its internal structures especially distinctive during processes like cell division and death. Different types of microscope are used to fulfill the observation of the cell's variation. In our experiment, Vero cells have been investigated by using phase contrast microscopy and digital holographic microscopy (DHM). A comparison of the images obtained for cell division is presented here. The conventional phase contrast microscope provided a good imaging method in the real time analysis of cell division. The off-axis digital hologram recorded by the DHM system can be reconstructed to obtain both the intensity image and phase contrast image of the test object. These can be used for live cell imaging to provide multiple results from a single equipment setup. The DHM system, besides being a qualitative tool, is able to provide quantitative results and 3D images of the cell division process. The ability of DHM to provide quantitative analysis makes it an ideal tool for life science applications.

Lewis, Tan Rongwei; Qu, Weijuan; Chee, Oi Choo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, Anand



Quantitative Analysis of Genetic and Neuronal Multi-Perturbation Experiments  

PubMed Central

Perturbation studies, in which functional performance is measured after deletion, mutation, or lesion of elements of a biological system, have been traditionally employed in many fields in biology. The vast majority of these studies have been qualitative and have employed single perturbations, often resulting in little phenotypic effect. Recently, newly emerging experimental techniques have allowed researchers to carry out concomitant multi-perturbations and to uncover the causal functional contributions of system elements. This study presents a rigorous and quantitative multi-perturbation analysis of gene knockout and neuronal ablation experiments. In both cases, a quantification of the elements' contributions, and new insights and predictions, are provided. Multi-perturbation analysis has a potentially wide range of applications and is gradually becoming an essential tool in biology. PMID:16322764

Meilijson, Isaac; Kupiec, Martin; Ruppin, Eytan



Fusing Quantitative Requirements Analysis with Model-based Systems Engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A vision is presented for fusing quantitative requirements analysis with model-based systems engineering. This vision draws upon and combines emergent themes in the engineering milieu. "Requirements engineering" provides means to explicitly represent requirements (both functional and non-functional) as constraints and preferences on acceptable solutions, and emphasizes early-lifecycle review, analysis and verification of design and development plans. "Design by shopping" emphasizes revealing the space of options available from which to choose (without presuming that all selection criteria have previously been elicited), and provides means to make understandable the range of choices and their ramifications. "Model-based engineering" emphasizes the goal of utilizing a formal representation of all aspects of system design, from development through operations, and provides powerful tool suites that support the practical application of these principles. A first step prototype towards this vision is described, embodying the key capabilities. Illustrations, implications, further challenges and opportunities are outlined.

Cornford, Steven L.; Feather, Martin S.; Heron, Vance A.; Jenkins, J. Steven



Operational Experiences in Planning and Reconstructing Aqua Inclination Maneuvers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the lead satellite in NASA's growing Earth Observing System (EOS) PM constellation, it is increasingly critical that Aqua maintain its various orbit requirements. The two of interest for this paper are maintaining an orbit inclination that provides for a consistent mean local time and a semi-major Axis (SMA) that allows for ground track repeatability. Maneuvers to adjust the orbit inclination involve several flight dynamics constraints and complexities which make planning such maneuvers challenging. In particular, coupling between the orbital and attitude degrees of freedom lead to changes in SMA when changes in inclination are effected. A long term mission mean local time trend analysis was performed in order to determine the size and placement of the required inclination maneuvers. Following this analysis, detailed modeling of each burn and its Various segments was performed to determine its effects on the immediate orbit state. Data gathered from an inclination slew test of the spacecraft and first inclination maneuver uncovered discrepancies in the modeling method that were investigated and resolved. The new modeling techniques were applied and validated during the second spacecraft inclination maneuver. These improvements should position Aqua to successfully complete a series of inclination maneuvers in the fall of 2004. The following paper presents the events and results related

Rand, David; Reilly, Jacqueline; Schiff, Conrad



Functional Linear Models for Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits  

PubMed Central

Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. PMID:24130119

Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Xiong, Momiao



Analysis of generalized interictal discharges using quantitative EEG.  


Experimental evidence from animal models of the absence seizures suggests a focal source for the initiation of generalized spike-and-wave (GSW) discharges. Furthermore, clinical studies indicate that patients diagnosed with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) exhibit focal electroencephalographic abnormalities, which involve the thalamo-cortical circuitry. This circuitry is a key network that has been implicated in the initiation of generalized discharges, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of GSW discharges. Quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) analysis may be able to detect abnormalities associated with the initiation of GSW discharges. The objective of this study was to determine whether interictal GSW discharges exhibit focal characteristics using qEEG analysis. In this study, 75 EEG recordings from 64 patients were analyzed. All EEG recordings analyzed contained at least one GSW discharge. EEG recordings were obtained by a 22-channel recorder with electrodes positioned according to the international 10-20 system of electrode placement. EEG activity was recorded for 20 min including photic stimulation and hyperventilation. The EEG recordings were visually inspected, and the first unequivocally confirmed generalized spike was marked for each discharge. Three methods of source imaging analysis were applied: dipole source imaging (DSI), classical LORETA analysis recursively applied (CLARA), and equivalent dipole of independent components with cluster analysis. A total of 753 GSW discharges were identified and spatiotemporally analyzed. Source evaluation analysis using all three techniques revealed that the frontal lobe was the principal source of GSW discharges (70%), followed by the parietal and occipital lobes (14%), and the basal ganglia (12%). The main anatomical sources of GSW discharges were the anterior cingulate cortex (36%) and the medial frontal gyrus (23%). Source analysis did not reveal a common focal source of GSW discharges. However, there was a predominance of GSW discharges originating from the cingulate gyrus and the frontal lobe. PMID:25277883

da Silva Braga, Aline Marques; Fujisao, Elaine Keiko; Betting, Luiz Eduardo



Quantitative analysis of multiple sclerosis: a feasibility study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a presumed immune-mediated etiology. For treatment of MS, the measurements of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are often used in conjunction with clinical evaluation to provide a more objective measure of MS burden. In this paper, we apply a new unifying automatic mixture-based algorithm for segmentation of brain tissues to quantitatively analyze MS. The method takes into account the following effects that commonly appear in MR imaging: 1) The MR data is modeled as a stochastic process with an inherent inhomogeneity effect of smoothly varying intensity; 2) A new partial volume (PV) model is built in establishing the maximum a posterior (MAP) segmentation scheme; 3) Noise artifacts are minimized by a priori Markov random field (MRF) penalty indicating neighborhood correlation from tissue mixture. The volumes of brain tissues (WM, GM) and CSF are extracted from the mixture-based segmentation. Experimental results of feasibility studies on quantitative analysis of MS are presented.

Li, Lihong; Li, Xiang; Wei, Xinzhou; Sturm, Deborah; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong



Quantitative analysis of incipient mineral loss in hard tissues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A coupled diffuse-photon-density-wave and thermal-wave theoretical model was developed to describe the biothermophotonic phenomena in multi-layered hard tissue structures. Photothermal Radiometry was applied as a safe, non-destructive, and highly sensitive tool for the detection of early tooth enamel demineralization to test the theory. Extracted human tooth was treated sequentially with an artificial demineralization gel to simulate controlled mineral loss in the enamel. The experimental setup included a semiconductor laser (659 nm, 120 mW) as the source of the photothermal signal. Modulated laser light generated infrared blackbody radiation from teeth upon absorption and nonradiative energy conversion. The infrared flux emitted by the treated region of the tooth surface and sub-surface was monitored with an infrared detector, both before and after treatment. Frequency scans with a laser beam size of 3 mm were performed in order to guarantee one-dimensionality of the photothermal field. TMR images showed clear differences between sound and demineralized enamel, however this technique is destructive. Dental radiographs did not indicate any changes. The photothermal signal showed clear change even after 1 min of gel treatment. As a result of the fittings, thermal and optical properties of sound and demineralized enamel were obtained, which allowed for quantitative differentiation of healthy and non-healthy regions. In conclusion, the developed model was shown to be a promising tool for non-invasive quantitative analysis of early demineralization of hard tissues.

Matvienko, Anna; Mandelis, Andreas; Hellen, Adam; Jeon, Raymond; Abrams, Stephen; Amaechi, Bennett



Operator dependent variability in quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion images.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate variability in the quantification of myocardial perfusion images obtained by a group of experienced operators using two widely used programs. The Cedars Emory quantitative analysis program (CEqual) was used to quantify the size of perfusion defects and the Cedars-Sinai quantitative gated single-photon emission tomography program was used to quantify left ventricular function. Five patients with reversible apical defects, five with fixed apical defects and three patients with normal perfusion were selected. Eight experienced medical laboratory technologists processed the studies from raw projection data. The manual steps consisted of defining two alignment axes parallel to the long axis of the left ventricle, and for the CEqual program selecting apex and base in the short axis slices in the rest and stress studies. Wide variability between the operators in the quantification of reversibility could be seen in all three vascular territories. A range >10% was found in at least one vascular territory for nine of the 13 patients. The differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between operators were <5% for all 13 patients. The large variability in the quantification of reversible apical perfusion defects may influence the clinical interpretation and cause false conclusions. In contrast, inter-operator variability for the quantification of the LVEF was low. PMID:15522047

Akesson, L; Svensson, A; Edenbrandt, L



Confocal microscopic evaluation of cornea after AquaLase liquefaction cataract extraction  

PubMed Central

AIM The most recent and innovative AquaLase liquefaction technology has offered an alternative to lens extraction. Many studies have investigated its functions and advantages. This article focuses on evaluating the in vivo microscopic cornea changes after AquaLase liquefaction by using a laser confocal microscope. METHODS In this perspective, randomized case study, 37 eyes of 35 patients submitted to cataract surgery were chosen to undergo AquaLase liquefaction cataract extraction. Each patient was assessed before the operation, on the 1st, 7th, and 30th postoperative days, and 6 months after the cataract extraction. The morphologies and quantitative comparisons of corneal cells and corneal nerves layer by layer were evaluated in vivo with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph III-Rostock Cornea Module (HRT-III RCM) confocal microscope. ANOVA and Post-Hoc Bonferroni test were carried out to compare the results pre- and post-operation. RESULTS ANOVA results indicated no post-operation changes for epithelium and anterior stroma cells. Irregular segments of sub-basal nerve fiber were most pronounced seven days post-operation. In the mid and posterior stroma, keratocytes were obvious compared with the preoperative condition. Corneal endothelium cells became obviously swollen in cytoplasm and nucleus. The mid and posterior stroma cell density decreased from the 1st to 7th postoperative days (P<0.05). The corneal endothelium cell density decreased (P<0.05) and did not revert to the preoperative level after six months (P<0.05). CONCLUSION Slight microstructural abnormalities were identified in the corneal recovery process after AquaLase liquefaction. AquaLase liquefaction cataract extraction is safe for cornea. PMID:22553665

Zhao, Jiang-Yue; Wang, Ming-Wu; Sun, Qi; Zhang, Jin-Song



Quantitative phase analysis of boron nitride nanotubes using Rietveld refinement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with an average outer diameter of about 40 nm and several micrometres in length were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition from boron and magnesium oxide. Rietveld refinement and 11B solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to quantitatively determine the phase of synthesized BNNTs. The structural parameters for the BNNTs were determined by Rietveld refinement against powder x-ray diffraction data with a model based on the results of NMR analysis. The final weighted R-factor, Rwp, was 6.08% and the goodness-of-fit indicator, S (= Rwp/Re), was 1.52. The BNNTs consisted of hexagonal BN, rhombohedral BN and MgO with refined weight fractions of 76.3%, 21.2% and 2.5%, respectively.

Kim, Yong-Il; Kap Jung, Jae; Ryu, Kwon-Sang; Nahm, Seung-Hoon; Gregory, Duncan H.



Quantitative genetic analysis of injury liability in infants and toddlers  

SciTech Connect

A threshold model of latent liability was applied to infant and toddler twin data on total count of injuries sustained during the interval from birth to 36 months of age. A quantitative genetic analysis of estimated twin correlations in injury liability indicated strong genetic dominance effects, but no additive genetic variance was detected. Because interpretations involving overdominance have little research support, the results may be due to low order epistasis or other interaction effects. Boys had more injuries than girls, but this effect was found only for groups whose parents were prompted and questioned in detail about their children`s injuries. Activity and impulsivity are two behavioral predictors of childhood injury, and the results are discussed in relation to animal research on infant and adult activity levels, and impulsivity in adult humans. Genetic epidemiological approaches to childhood injury should aid in targeting higher risk children for preventive intervention. 30 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Phillips, K.; Matheny, A.P. Jr. [Univ. of Louisville Medical School, KY (United States)



Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.



Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong



Quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine by metalized nanostructured parylene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A highly accurate, real-time multisensor agent monitor for biomarker detection is required for early detection of kidney diseases. Urine creatinine level can provide useful information on the status of the kidney. We prepare nanostructured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates without template or lithography, which provides controllable, well-organized nanostructures on the surface, for the quantitative analysis of creatinine concentration in urine. We present our work on sensitivity of the SERS substrate to urine samples collected from diabetic patients and healthy persons. We report the preparation of a new type of SERS substrate, which provides fast (<10 s), highly sensitive (creatinine concentration <0.5 ?g/mL) and reproducible (<5% variation) detection of urine. Our method to analyze the creatinine level in urine is in good agreement with the enzymatic method.

Wang, Hui; Malvadkar, Niranjan; Koytek, S.; Bylander, J.; Reeves, W. Brian; Demirel, Melik C.



Preparation of Buffers. An Experiment for Quantitative Analysis Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our experience, students who have a solid grounding in the theoretical aspects of buffers, buffer preparation, and buffering capacity are often at a loss when required to actually prepare a buffer in a research setting. However, there are very few published laboratory experiments pertaining to buffers. This laboratory experiment for the undergraduate quantitative analysis lab gives students hands-on experience in the preparation of buffers. By preparing a buffer to a randomly chosen pH value and comparing the theoretical pH to the actual pH, students apply their theoretical understanding of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, activity coefficients, and the effect of adding acid or base to a buffer. This experiment gives students experience in buffer preparation for research situations and helps them in advanced courses such as biochemistry where a fundamental knowledge of buffer systems is essential.

Buckley, P. T.



Quantitative analysis of chromosome localization in the nucleus.  


The spatial organization of the genome within the interphase nucleus is important for mediating genome functions. The radial organization of chromosome territories has been studied traditionally using two-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using labeled whole chromosome probes. Information from 2D-FISH images is analyzed quantitatively and is depicted in the form of the spatial distribution of chromosomes territories. However, to the best of our knowledge no open-access tools are available to delineate the position of chromosome territories from 2D-FISH images. In this chapter we present a methodology termed Image Analysis of Chromosomes for computing their localization (IMACULAT). IMACULAT is an open-access, automated tool that partitions the cell nucleus into shells of equal area or volume and computes the spatial distribution of chromosome territories. PMID:25311133

Chakraborty, Sandeep; Mehta, Ishita; Kulashreshtha, Mugdha; Rao, B J



Quantitative Image Analysis of HIV-1 Infection in Lymphoid Tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productively infected cells Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment.

Haase, Ashley T.; Henry, Keith; Zupancic, Mary; Sedgewick, Gerald; Faust, Russell A.; Melroe, Holly; Cavert, Winston; Gebhard, Kristin; Staskus, Katherine; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Dailey, Peter J.; Balfour, Henry H., Jr.; Erice, Alejo; Perelson, Alan S.



Quantitative immunochromatographic analysis: theory and application to theophylline immunoassay.  


The development of an immunochromatographic technique suitable for rapid analysis of biological fluids is described. Quasi-one-dimensional antibody lattices specific for theophylline were constructed by packing Sepharose beads conjugated with specific antibody into specially designed narrow capillary tubes. The design of these capillary columns was such that they would subtract a preset threshold quantity of antigen (label and analyte) from the total amount presented. Labeled antigen, which appeared in the flowthrough, could then be used to precisely quantitate the analyte present. The ideal format would permit very precise subtraction of 100% of the available antigen up to the threshold amount and none of the remainder. The microcolumn described here comes close to this ideal behavior through the attainment of very high ratios of bound/free antigen. The elevated bound/free ratio could be explained by theoretical analysis of the effect on equilibria of the high antibody concentration in this quasi-one-dimensional system. Lattices containing anti-theophylline antibodies were used to develop a competitive enzyme immunoassay for theophylline which demonstrated a dose-response that was closely similar to that predicted by theoretical treatment. The entire assay procedure was performed in less than 30 min and demonstrated a sensitivity limit of approximately 20 ng/ml. Preliminary studies on clinical serum samples suggest that this assay has potential for the routine analysis of biological fluids. PMID:3674415

Lee, S R; Liberti, P A



Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Clinical Development of Therapeutics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There has been significant progress in development of therapeutics for prevention and management of several disease areas in recent years, leading to increased average life expectancy, as well as of quality of life, globally. However, due to complexity of addressing a number of medical needs and financial burden of development of new class of therapeutics, there is a need for better tools for decision making and validation of efficacy and safety of new compounds. Numerous biological markers (biomarkers) have been proposed either as adjunct to current clinical endpoints or as surrogates. Imaging biomarkers are among rapidly increasing biomarkers, being examined to expedite effective and rational drug development. Clinical imaging often involves a complex set of multi-modality data sets that require rapid and objective analysis, independent of reviewer's bias and training. In this chapter, an overview of imaging biomarkers for drug development is offered, along with challenges that necessitate quantitative and objective image analysis. Examples of automated and semi-automated analysis approaches are provided, along with technical review of such methods. These examples include the use of 3D MRI for osteoarthritis, ultrasound vascular imaging, and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for oncology. Additionally, a brief overview of regulatory requirements is discussed. In conclusion, this chapter highlights key challenges and future directions in this area.

Analoui, Mostafa



NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brochure provides an overview of the Aqua spacecraft, instruments, science, and data products Aqua, Latin for water, is a NASA Earth Science satellite mission named for the large amount of information that the mission is collecting about the Earth's water cycle, including evaporation from the oceans, water vapor in the atmosphere, clouds, precipitation, soil moisture, sea ice, land ice, and snow cover on the land and ice. Additional variables also measured by Aqua include radiative energy fluxes, aerosols, vegetation cover on the land, phytoplankton and dissolved organic matter in the oceans, and air, land, and water temperatures. Note: this guide was produced before Aqua was launched; for the most recent information on Aqua, go to



Comparative Analysis of a Hierarchical Bayesian Method for Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis for the Arabidopsis Thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work performs an analysis on two, quite different, techniques for Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Analysis. Interval Mapping\\u000a (IM) as described by Karl Broman is compared to a Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) technique that reduces the problem of\\u000a QTL analysis down to one of model selection. Simulations were generated for the flowering plant of the Arabidopsis thaliana for evaluation of

Caroline Pearson; Susan J. Simmons; Karl Ricanek Jr; Edward L. Boone



Quantitative analysis of polymorphic mixtures of ranitidine hydrochloride by Raman spectroscopy and principal components analysis.  


Ranitidine hydrochloride exists as two polymorphs, forms I and II, both of which are used to manufacture commercial tablets. Raman spectroscopy can be used to differentiate the two forms but univariate methods of quantitative analysis of one polymorph as an impurity in the other lack sensitivity. We have applied principal components analysis (PCA) of Raman spectra to binary mixtures of the two polymorphs and to binary mixtures prepared by adding one polymorph to powdered tablets of the other. Based on absorption measurements of seven spectral regions, it was found that >97% of the spectral variation was accounted for by three principal components. Quantitative calibration models generated by multiple linear regression predicted a detection limit and quantitation limit for either forms I or II in mixtures of the two of 0.6 and 1.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that PCA of Raman spectroscopic data provides a sensitive method for the quantitative analysis of polymorphic impurities of drugs in commercial tablets with a quantitation limit of less than 2%. PMID:12445565

Pratiwi, Destari; Fawcett, J Paul; Gordon, Keith C; Rades, Thomas



Inside single cells: quantitative analysis with advanced optics and nanomaterials.  


Single-cell explorations offer a unique window to inspect molecules and events relevant to mechanisms and heterogeneity constituting the central dogma of biology. A large number of nucleic acids, proteins, metabolites, and small molecules are involved in determining and fine-tuning the state and function of a single cell at a given time point. Advanced optical platforms and nanotools provide tremendous opportunities to probe intracellular components with single-molecule accuracy, as well as promising tools to adjust single-cell activity. To obtain quantitative information (e.g., molecular quantity, kinetics, and stoichiometry) within an intact cell, achieving the observation with comparable spatiotemporal resolution is a challenge. For single-cell studies, both the method of detection and the biocompatibility are critical factors as they determine the feasibility, especially when considering live-cell analysis. Although a considerable proportion of single-cell methodologies depend on specialized expertise and expensive instruments, it is our expectation that the information content and implication will outweigh the costs given the impact on life science enabled by single-cell analysis. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:25430077

Cui, Yi; Irudayaraj, Joseph



A computational tool for quantitative analysis of vascular networks.  


Angiogenesis is the generation of mature vascular networks from pre-existing vessels. Angiogenesis is crucial during the organism' development, for wound healing and for the female reproductive cycle. Several murine experimental systems are well suited for studying developmental and pathological angiogenesis. They include the embryonic hindbrain, the post-natal retina and allantois explants. In these systems vascular networks are visualised by appropriate staining procedures followed by microscopical analysis. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of angiogenesis is hampered by the lack of readily available, standardized metrics and software analysis tools. Non-automated protocols are being used widely and they are, in general, time--and labour intensive, prone to human error and do not permit computation of complex spatial metrics. We have developed a light-weight, user friendly software, AngioTool, which allows for quick, hands-off and reproducible quantification of vascular networks in microscopic images. AngioTool computes several morphological and spatial parameters including the area covered by a vascular network, the number of vessels, vessel length, vascular density and lacunarity. In addition, AngioTool calculates the so-called "branching index" (branch points/unit area), providing a measurement of the sprouting activity of a specimen of interest. We have validated AngioTool using images of embryonic murine hindbrains, post-natal retinas and allantois explants. AngioTool is open source and can be downloaded free of charge. PMID:22110636

Zudaire, Enrique; Gambardella, Laure; Kurcz, Christopher; Vermeren, Sonja



A Computational Tool for Quantitative Analysis of Vascular Networks  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis is the generation of mature vascular networks from pre-existing vessels. Angiogenesis is crucial during the organism' development, for wound healing and for the female reproductive cycle. Several murine experimental systems are well suited for studying developmental and pathological angiogenesis. They include the embryonic hindbrain, the post-natal retina and allantois explants. In these systems vascular networks are visualised by appropriate staining procedures followed by microscopical analysis. Nevertheless, quantitative assessment of angiogenesis is hampered by the lack of readily available, standardized metrics and software analysis tools. Non-automated protocols are being used widely and they are, in general, time - and labour intensive, prone to human error and do not permit computation of complex spatial metrics. We have developed a light-weight, user friendly software, AngioTool, which allows for quick, hands-off and reproducible quantification of vascular networks in microscopic images. AngioTool computes several morphological and spatial parameters including the area covered by a vascular network, the number of vessels, vessel length, vascular density and lacunarity. In addition, AngioTool calculates the so-called “branching index” (branch points / unit area), providing a measurement of the sprouting activity of a specimen of interest. We have validated AngioTool using images of embryonic murine hindbrains, post-natal retinas and allantois explants. AngioTool is open source and can be downloaded free of charge. PMID:22110636

Zudaire, Enrique; Gambardella, Laure; Kurcz, Christopher; Vermeren, Sonja



Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes.  


Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high-throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with postexcision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches. PMID:25350482

Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Payne, Samuel H; Fujimoto, Grant M; Moore, Ronald J; Fillmore, Thomas L; Schepmoes, Athena A; Levine, Douglas A; Townsend, R Reid; Davies, Sherri R; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D



The protein encoded by gvpC is a minor component of gas vesicles isolated from the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and Microcystis sp.  


The proteins present in gas vesicles of the cyanobacteria Anabaena flos-aquae and Microcystis sp. were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each contained a protein of Mr 22K whose N-terminal amino acid sequences showed homology with that of the Calothrix sp. PCC 7601 gvpC gene product. The gvpC gene from A. flos-aquae was cloned and sequenced. The derived amino acid sequence for the gene product indicated a protein, GVPc, of 193 residues and Mr 21985 containing five highly conserved 33 amino acid repeats. The sequence was identical at the N-terminus to that of the Mr 22K protein present in gas vesicles and showed correspondence to seven tryptic peptides isolated from gas vesicles. This establishes that GVPc forms a second protein component of the gas vesicle, in addition to the main constituent, the 70 residue GVPa. Quantitative amino acid analysis of entire gas vesicles reveals that GVPc accounts for only 2.9% of the protein molecules and 8.2% of the mass present: this is insufficient to form the conical end caps of the gas vesicles. It is suggested that GVPc provides the hydrophilic outer surface of the gas vesicle wall; the 33 amino acid repeats may interact with the periodic structure provided by GVPa. PMID:3141741

Hayes, P K; Lazarus, C M; Bees, A; Walker, J E; Walsby, A E



Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).  


The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created. PMID:25336172

Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K



Quantitative Assessment of Early Diabetic Retinopathy Using Fractal Analysis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12–20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. RESULTS—In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023–1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02–7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21–1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. CONCLUSIONS—Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage. PMID:18835945

Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C.; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L.; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J.; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y.



Quantitative analysis of enzymatic fractionation of multiple substrate mixtures.  


The enzymatic conversion of mixtures of multiple substrates was studied quantitatively, based on established methodology used for the enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures, involving the use of competitive factors: ratios of specificity constants (k(cat)/K(M)) of substrate pairs. The competitive factors of the substrates were defined in relation to a reference substrate. These competitive factors were used to predict the composition of the reaction mixture as a function of the degree of conversion of the reaction. The methodology was evaluated using three different lipases to hydrolyze a model mixture of four fatty acid methyl esters and for the esterification of a mixture of the same fatty acids in free form with ethanol. In most cases, the competitive factors determined from the initial phase of the reactions predicted the product composition during the rest of the reaction very well. The slowest reacting fatty acid was erucic acid (both in free form and as methyl ester), which was thus enriched in the remaining substrate fraction, while the other fatty acids: lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were converted faster. Simulations of the compositions of reaction mixtures with different values of the competitive factors were carried out to provide an overview of what could be achieved using enzymatic enrichment. Possible applications include reactions involving homologous substrates and mixtures of multiple isomers. The analysis presented provides guidelines that can be useful in the screening and development of enzymes for enzymatic enrichment applications. PMID:22811287

Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Adlercreutz, Patrick



Quantitative Analysis of Cellular Metabolic Dissipative, Self-Organized Structures  

PubMed Central

One of the most important goals of the postgenomic era is understanding the metabolic dynamic processes and the functional structures generated by them. Extensive studies during the last three decades have shown that the dissipative self-organization of the functional enzymatic associations, the catalytic reactions produced during the metabolite channeling, the microcompartmentalization of these metabolic processes and the emergence of dissipative networks are the fundamental elements of the dynamical organization of cell metabolism. Here we present an overview of how mathematical models can be used to address the properties of dissipative metabolic structures at different organizational levels, both for individual enzymatic associations and for enzymatic networks. Recent analyses performed with dissipative metabolic networks have shown that unicellular organisms display a singular global enzymatic structure common to all living cellular organisms, which seems to be an intrinsic property of the functional metabolism as a whole. Mathematical models firmly based on experiments and their corresponding computational approaches are needed to fully grasp the molecular mechanisms of metabolic dynamical processes. They are necessary to enable the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the cellular catalytic reactions and also to help comprehend the conditions under which the structural dynamical phenomena and biological rhythms arise. Understanding the molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic dissipative structures is crucial for unraveling the dynamics of cellular life. PMID:20957111

de la Fuente, Ildefonso Martínez



Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Association in Live Biological Fluorescent Samples  

PubMed Central

Determining vesicle localization and association in live microscopy may be challenging due to non-simultaneous imaging of rapidly moving objects with two excitation channels. Besides errors due to movement of objects, imaging may also introduce shifting between the image channels, and traditional colocalization methods cannot handle such situations. Our approach to quantifying the association between tagged proteins is to use an object-based method where the exact match of object locations is not assumed. Point-pattern matching provides a measure of correspondence between two point-sets under various changes between the sets. Thus, it can be used for robust quantitative analysis of vesicle association between image channels. Results for a large set of synthetic images shows that the novel association method based on point-pattern matching demonstrates robust capability to detect association of closely located vesicles in live cell-microscopy where traditional colocalization methods fail to produce results. In addition, the method outperforms compared Iterated Closest Points registration method. Results for fixed and live experimental data shows the association method to perform comparably to traditional methods in colocalization studies for fixed cells and to perform favorably in association studies for live cells. PMID:24728133

Mäki, Anita; Huttunen, Heikki; Marjomäki, Varpu



Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne



Comparison of different surface quantitative analysis methods: Application to corium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of a severe hypothetical accident in a pressurized water reactor, the reactor assembly melts partially or completely. The formed material, named "corium," flows out and spreads at the bottom of the reactor. In order to limit and control the consequences of such an accident, it is necessary to know precisely the specifications of the O-U-Zr basic system. These specifications should lead to the understanding of physico-chemical phenomenon happening at very high temperatures, from the study at room temperature of solidified structures. Toward that goal, a corium mix was processed by a melting by electron bombing at very high temperature (3000 K), followed by a quenching of the ingot in an Isabell[1] evaporator, Metallographical analyses were then necessary in order to validate thermodynamic databases set by the Thermo-Calc software.[2,3] The study consists of setting a global quantitative analysis method of the surface that would be fast and reliable, in order to determine a global composition of corium.

Guilbaud, Nathalie; Blin, Delphine; Pérodeaud, Phllippe; Dugne, Olivier; Guéneau, Christine



Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection  

PubMed Central

Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for various medical applications. Its spectroscopic data might be able to be used to noninvasively detect cancer. Quantitative analysis is often necessary in order to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. We propose the use of an advanced image processing and classification method in order to analyze hyperspectral image data for prostate cancer detection. The spectral signatures were extracted and evaluated in both cancerous and normal tissue. Least squares support vector machines were developed and evaluated for classifying hyperspectral data in order to enhance the detection of cancer tissue. This method was used to detect prostate cancer in tumor-bearing mice and on pathology slides. Spatially resolved images were created to highlight the differences of the reflectance properties of cancer versus those of normal tissue. Preliminary results with 11 mice showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the hyperspectral image classification method are 92.8% to 2.0% and 96.9% to 1.3%, respectively. Therefore, this imaging method may be able to help physicians to dissect malignant regions with a safe margin and to evaluate the tumor bed after resection. This pilot study may lead to advances in the optical diagnosis of prostate cancer using HSI technology. PMID:22894488

Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma V.; Schuster, David M.; Osunkoya, Adeboye; Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter T.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Fei, Baowei



Communication about vaccinations in Italian websites: a quantitative analysis.  


Babies' parents and people who look for information about vaccination often visit anti-vaccine movement's websites, blogs by naturopathic physicians or natural and alternative medicine practitioners. The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative analysis on the type of information available to Italian people regarding vaccination and a quality analysis of websites retrieved through our searches. A quality score was created to evaluate the technical level of websites. A research was performed through Yahoo, Google, and MSN using the keywords "vaccine" and "vaccination," with the function "OR" in order to identify the most frequently used websites. The 2 keywords were input in Italian, and the first 15 pages retrieved by each search engine were analyzed. 149 websites were selected through this methodology. Fifty-three per cent of the websites belonged to associations, groups, or scientific companies, 32.2% (n = 48) consisted of a personal blog and 14.8% (n = 22) belonged to some of the National Health System offices. Among all analyzed websites, 15.4% (n = 23) came from anti-vaccine movement groups. 37.6% reported webmaster name, 67.8% webmaster e-mail, 28.6% indicated the date of the last update and 46.6% the author's name. The quality score for government sites was higher on average than anti-vaccine websites; although, government sites don't use Web 2.0 functions, as the forums.: National Health System institutions who have to promote vaccination cannot avoid investing in web communication because it cannot be managed by private efforts but must be the result of Public Health, private and scientific association, and social movement synergy. PMID:24607988

Tafuri, Silvio; Gallone, Maria S; Gallone, Maria F; Zorico, Ivan; Aiello, Valeria; Germinario, Cinzia



Image processing techniques for quantitative analysis of skin structures.  


Computer-based image processing and analysis techniques were developed for quantitative analysis of skin structures in color histological sections. Performance was compared with traditional non-image processing counting methods. Skin sections were stained with Masson's trichrome, hematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius red, or one of several elastin stains. The image processing software identified the top of the cellular epidermis and the dermal-epidermal junction and then calculated the volume of the cellular layer of the epidermis, epidermal thickness, and the ratio of the dermal-epidermal junction surface area to the in-plane surface area. It also identified cells and collagen and calculated cellular densities and collagen densities in the papillary and reticular layers of the dermis. Attempts to computationally process elastin-stained sections to determine elastin density were unsuccessful. The described techniques were used in a preliminary study to compare mechanically stressed skin with control skin. Results showed significant differences in cellular density in the papillary dermis and collagen density in the reticular dermis for skin subjected to combined shear/compression or tension compared with an unstressed control. Measurements made with the computer technique and traditional technique showed comparable results; the mean difference in measurements for epidermal features was 5.33% while for dermal features it was 2.76%. Significance testing between control and experimental groups showed similar results, though for three of the 28 comparisons the computer method identified a significant difference while the traditional method did not. The computer method took longer to conduct than the traditional method, though with recent advances in computer hardware this time difference would be eliminated. PMID:10386766

Sanders, J E; Goldstein, B S; Leotta, D F; Richards, K A



Earth Science Reference Handbook [ Missions: Aqua ] 73 Aqua is a major international Earth Science satellite mis-  

E-print Network

) · Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Points of Contact · Aqua Project Scientist: Claire and Location: May 4, 2002, from Vandenberg Air Force Base, California · Vehicle: Delta II 7920-10L rocket to two orbits of data Data Relay Methods: Direct downlink from the SSR to polar ground stations; direct


A Quantitative Analysis of the Speedup Factors of FPGAs over Processors  

E-print Network

analyze the remaining components of the speedup. We compare the performance of image processing speedup. Rather, it is to present an analysis, both quantitative and qualitative, of the componentsA Quantitative Analysis of the Speedup Factors of FPGAs over Processors Zhi Guo Electrical

Najjar, Walid A.


PFabrication of gold tips by chemical etching in aqua regia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method to produce sharp gold tips for applications in apertureless near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy. Thin gold wires are tapered by chemical etching in aqua regia, covered by an isooctane protective layer. Tips with apical radii of curvature of <50 nm are obtained with a 40% yield. The tip performances have been checked by shear-force imaging of amyloid fibrils samples and compared to optical fiber probes. The analysis of the tip morphology, carried out by scanning electron microscopy, shows the existence of two different etching processes occurring in bulk and at the liquid-liquid interface. A simple analytical model is presented to describe the dynamics of the tip formation at the liquid-liquid meniscus interface that fits remarkably well the experimental results in terms of tip shape and length.

Bonaccorso, F.; Calogero, G.; Di Marco, G.; Maragò, O. M.; Gucciardi, P. G.; Giorgianni, U.; Channon, K.; Sabatino, G.



Quantitative Analysis by Isotopic Dilution Using Mass Spectroscopy: The Determination of Caffeine by GC-MS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a laboratory technique for quantitative analysis of caffeine by an isotopic dilution method for coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Discusses caffeine analysis and experimental methodology. Lists sample caffeine concentrations found in common products. (MVL)

Hill, Devon W.; And Others



A multiband statistical restoration of the Aqua MODIS 1.6 micron band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the MODIS instrument on the Aqua satellite has a number of broken detectors resulting in unreliable data for 1.6 micron band (band 6) measurements. Damaged detectors, transmission errors, and electrical failure are all vexing but seemingly unavoidable problems leading to line drop and data loss. Standard interpolation can often provide an acceptable solution if the loss is sparse. Interpolation, however, introduces a-priori assumptions about the smoothness of the data. When the loss is significant, as it is on MODIS/Aqua, interpolation creates statistically or physically implausible image values and visible artifacts. We have previously developed an algorithm to recreate the missing band 6 data from reliable data in the other 500m bands using a quantitative restoration. Our algorithm uses values in a spectral/spatial neighborhood of the pixel to be estimated, and proposes a value based on training data from the uncorrupted pixels. In this paper, we will present extensions of that algorithm that both improve the performance and robustness of the algorithm. We compare with prior work that just restores band 6 from band 7, and present statistical evidence that data from bands 3, 4, and 5 are also pertinent. We will demonstrate that the increased accuracy from our multi-band statistical estimate has significant consequences at the product level. As an example we show that the restored band 6 has potential benefit to the NASA snow mask for MODIS/Aqua when compared with using band 7 as a replacement for the damaged band 6.

Gladkova, Irina; Grossberg, Michael; Bonev, George; Shahriar, Fazlul



Quantitative analysis of the dentin adhesive interface by Auger spectroscopy.  


The ultimate success of a dentin adhesive bond is dependent in large part on specific conditions at the interface between the tooth and the adhesive. Most current dentin adhesive systems use some sort of pre-treatment to demineralize the first few microns of the dentin surface, leaving a meshwork of collagen into which the adhesive resin can penetrate, infiltrate, and polymerize. The general hypothesis tested in this experiment was that the penetration and distribution of adhesive resin into the demineralized zone are a function of the conditioner used as a pre-treatment for the adhesive application. Four commercially available adhesive systems were modified to incorporate hydroxyethylthiomethacrylate (HETMA), a sulfur-substituted, traceable analogue of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), thereby allowing for a qualitative measurement of the amount and distribution of monomer in the treated dentin substrate by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and a quantitative measurement by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The dentin pre-treatments investigated were: (1) 10% citric acid/3% ferric chloride, (2) 10% maleic acid, (3) 2.5% nitric acid, and (4) an alcoholic solution of HEMA with a phosphorus acid ester. These pre-treatments were applied to freshly extracted teeth that had been sectioned to expose the dentin and ground to simulate the smeared layer. After the appropriate pre-treatment was applied, a 10% (v/v) solution of HETMA in acetone was applied to the surface, followed by the corresponding adhesive resin, which was then polymerized. The samples were then processed for observation by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), AES, and STEM/EDS analysis. The results indicated significant differences in the ability of HETMA to penetrate the dentin surface conditioned by the four pretreatments investigated here. This study also demonstrated that AES and STEM/EDS could be used in a correlative fashion to determine the distribution of HETMA within or adjacent to the treated dentin surface. PMID:8708132

Eick, J D; Miller, R G; Robinson, S J; Bowles, C Q; Gutshall, P L; Chappelow, C C



Quantitative Analysis of Urban Expansion in Central China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying urban expansion forms is important to understanding regional urbanization processes and urban planning. For this purpose, conventional landscape indices are commonly used for quantitative analysis of urban landscape patterns. However, these landscape indices only reflect information for one particular temporal phase of landscape patterns. This paper studies and quantifies the dynamic changes of urban landscape from 1993 to 2006 in Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan metropolitan areas in Hunan province of China using landscape expansion index (LEI), which contains information of the formation processes of landscape patterns. The results indicate that there are three types of urban expansions: infilling, edge-expansion and outlying in the study area. The change of proportion of the three urban expansion types reveals that urban expansion patterns have changed from a messy, dispersed early development phase to more compact and reasonable layout from 1993 to 2006. Moreover, the urban expansion modes varied in different periods. From 1993 to 1996, the edge-expansion and outlying were the main types of urban expansion forms, indicating an early stage of rapid urban developments. Comparing with the edge-expansion, the outlying expansion increased rapidly in this period, which indicates urban development is messy and dispersion. Overall, the edge-expansion was the major type of urban expansion form during the study period with outlying as the second and rapidly-increasing major form of expansion prior to 1998, which indicates urbanization is in the early stage of rapid urban developments, and infilling as the second and rapidly-increasing major form of expansion after 1998.

Zeng, Y.; Xu, Y.; Li, S.; He, L.; Yu, F.; Zhen, Z.; Cai, C.



Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Inborn Errors of Cholesterol Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) and lathosterolosis are malformation syndromes with cognitive deficits caused by mutations of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR7) and lathosterol 5-desaturase (SC5D), respectively. DHCR7 encodes the last enzyme in the Kandutsch-Russel cholesterol biosynthetic pathway, and impaired DHCR7 activity leads to a deficiency of cholesterol and an accumulation of 7-dehydrocholesterol. SC5D catalyzes the synthesis of 7-dehydrocholesterol from lathosterol. Impaired SC5D activity leads to a similar deficiency of cholesterol but an accumulation of lathosterol. Although the genetic and biochemical causes underlying both syndromes are known, the pathophysiological processes leading to the developmental defects remain unclear. To study the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying SLOS and lathosterolosis neurological symptoms, we performed quantitative proteomics analysis of SLOS and lathosterolosis mouse brain tissue and identified multiple biological pathways affected in Dhcr7?3–5/?3–5 and Sc5d?/? E18.5 embryos. These include alterations in mevalonate metabolism, apoptosis, glycolysis, oxidative stress, protein biosynthesis, intracellular trafficking, and cytoskeleton. Comparison of proteome alterations in both Dhcr7?3–5/?3–5 and Sc5d?/? brain tissues helps elucidate whether perturbed protein expression was due to decreased cholesterol or a toxic effect of sterol precursors. Validation of the proteomics results confirmed increased expression of isoprenoid and cholesterol synthetic enzymes. This alteration of isoprenoid synthesis may underlie the altered posttranslational modification of Rab7, a small GTPase that is functionally dependent on prenylation with geranylgeranyl, that we identified and validated in this study. These data suggested that although cholesterol synthesis is impaired in both Dhcr7?3–5/?3–5 and Sc5d?/? embryonic brain tissues the synthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids may be increased and thus contribute to SLOS and lathosterolosis pathology. This proteomics study has provided insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms of SLOS and lathosterolosis, and understanding these pathophysiological changes will help guide clinical therapy for SLOS and lathosterolosis. PMID:20305089

Jiang, Xiao-Sheng; Backlund, Peter S.; Wassif, Christopher A.; Yergey, Alfred L.; Porter, Forbes D.



Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis  

PubMed Central

The understanding of the effective functionality that governs the enzymatic self-organized processes in cellular conditions is a crucial topic in the post-genomic era. In recent studies, Transfer Entropy has been proposed as a rigorous, robust and self-consistent method for the causal quantification of the functional information flow among nonlinear processes. Here, in order to quantify the functional connectivity for the glycolytic enzymes in dissipative conditions we have analyzed different catalytic patterns using the technique of Transfer Entropy. The data were obtained by means of a yeast glycolytic model formed by three delay differential equations where the enzymatic rate equations of the irreversible stages have been explicitly considered. These enzymatic activity functions were previously modeled and tested experimentally by other different groups. The results show the emergence of a new kind of dynamical functional structure, characterized by changing connectivity flows and a metabolic invariant that constrains the activity of the irreversible enzymes. In addition to the classical topological structure characterized by the specific location of enzymes, substrates, products and feedback-regulatory metabolites, an effective functional structure emerges in the modeled glycolytic system, which is dynamical and characterized by notable variations of the functional interactions. The dynamical structure also exhibits a metabolic invariant which constrains the functional attributes of the enzymes. Finally, in accordance with the classical biochemical studies, our numerical analysis reveals in a quantitative manner that the enzyme phosphofructokinase is the key-core of the metabolic system, behaving for all conditions as the main source of the effective causal flows in yeast glycolysis. PMID:22393350

De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.



Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Status  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since launch, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than 10 years and Aqua MODIS for more than 8 years. Together, they have produced an unprecedentedly large amount of data products from their complementary morning and afternoon observations, over a wide spectral range from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), and significantly benefited the science community for studies of changes in the Earth’s system and environment. On-orbit changes in sensor radiometric responses, spectral, and spatial characteristics are constantly monitored by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), which include a solar diffuse, a solar diffuser stability monitor, a blackbody, and a spectroradiometric calibration assembly. In addition to using the OBC, lunar observations have been regularly scheduled and implemented in order to independently monitor changes in sensor radiometric responses. The MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) at NASA/GSFC is responsible for the operation and calibration of both MODIS instruments, including their Level 1B algorithm maintenance and improvements. This paper reports current status of both Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and summaries their long-term radiometric, spectral, and spatial performance. Existing challenges, lessons learned, and future calibration efforts are also discussed.

Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Barnes, W.



A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.  


Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (?-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected. PMID:23775063

Christopher, Matthew E; Warmenhoeven, John-William; Romolo, Francesco S; Donghi, Matteo; Webb, Roger P; Jeynes, Christopher; Ward, Neil I; Kirkby, Karen J; Bailey, Melanie J



Quantitative analysis of epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila oogenesis: New insights based on morphometric analysis and mechanical modeling  

E-print Network

Quantitative analysis of epithelial morphogenesis in Drosophila oogenesis: New insights based morphogenesis Drosophila melanogaster oogenesis Mechanics Morphometric analysis Computational modeling development. During stages 8 to 10 of oogenesis, the FC epithelium transitions between simple geometries

Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.


Farnesyltransferase inhibitors: a comprehensive review based on quantitative structural analysis.  


Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) have mainly been used in cancer therapy. However, more recently, investigations on these inhibitors revealed that FTIs can be used for the treatment of other diseases such as Progeria, P. falciparum resistant malaria, Trypnosomatid, etc. Hence the development of novel FTIs is an important task for the drug discovery program. Initially, numerous peptidomimetic FTIs were developed from the template of CAAX (CVIM was the first pharmacophore model used as a peptidomimetic). Later, many non-peptidomimetic FTIs have been discovered with the structural modification of the peptidomimetics. The structural analysis of those developed FTIs by various researchers suggested that the presence of a heterocycle or a polar group in place of the thiol group is required for interaction with the Zn(2+) ion. The bulky naphthyl, quinolinyl, phenyl, phenothazine, etc in this position provide better hydrophobicity to the molecules which interact with the aromatic amino acid moieties in the hydrophobic pocket. A hydrophilic region with polar groups is necessary for the polar or hydrogen bonding interactions with the amino acids or water molecules in the active site. Many FTIs have been isolated from natural products, which possessed inhibitory activity against farnesyltransferase (FTase). Among them, pepticinnamin E (9R), fusidienol (9T), gliotoxin (9V), cylindrol A (9X), etc possessed potential FTase inhibitory activities and their structural features are comparable to those of the synthetic molecules. The clinical studies progressing on FTIs showed that tipifarnib in combination with bortezomib is used for the treatment of patients with advanced acute leukemias. Successful phase I and II studies are undergoing for tipifarnib alone or in combination with other drugs/radiation for the treatment of multiple myeloma, AML, breast cancer, mantle cell lymphoma, solid tumors, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer, glioblastoma, etc. Phase I pharmacokinetic (maximum tolerated dose, toxicity) and pharmacodynamic studies of AZD3409 (an orally active double prodrug) is progressing on patients with solid malignancies taking 500 mg once a day. A phase II study is undergoing on lonafarnib alone and in combination with zoledronic acid and pravastatin for the treatment of Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (HGPS) and progeroid laminopathies. Lonafarnib therapy improved cardiovascular status of children with HGPS, by improved peripheral arterial stiffness, bone structure and audiological status in the patients. Other important FTIs such as BMS-214662, LB42908, LB42708, etc are under clinical studies for the treatment of various cancers. This review concluded that the quantitative structural analysis report with an elaborative study on the natural product compounds provides ideas for development of novel molecules for the FTase inhibitory activity. The fragment based analysis is also needed to select the substituents, which provides significant inhibitory activities and can also have good pharmacokinetic properties in the clinical studies. PMID:24059235

Moorthy, N S H N; Sousa, S F; Ramos, M J; Fernandes, P A



Quantitative analysis of sensor for pressure waveform measurement  

PubMed Central

Background Arterial pressure waveforms contain important diagnostic and physiological information since their contour depends on a healthy cardiovascular system [1]. A sensor was placed at the measured artery and some contact pressure was used to measure the pressure waveform. However, where is the location of the sensor just about enough to detect a complete pressure waveform for the diagnosis? How much contact pressure is needed over the pulse point? These two problems still remain unresolved. Method In this study, we propose a quantitative analysis to evaluate the pressure waveform for locating the position and applying the appropriate force between the sensor and the radial artery. The two-axis mechanism and the modified sensor have been designed to estimate the radial arterial width and detect the contact pressure. The template matching method was used to analyze the pressure waveform. In the X-axis scan, we found that the arterial diameter changed waveform (ADCW) and the pressure waveform would change from small to large and then back to small again when the sensor was moved across the radial artery. In the Z-axis scan, we also found that the ADCW and the pressure waveform would change from small to large and then back to small again when the applied contact pressure continuously increased. Results In the X-axis scan, the template correlation coefficients of the left and right boundaries of the radial arterial width were 0.987 ± 0.016 and 0.978 ± 0.028, respectively. In the Z-axis scan, when the excessive contact pressure was more than 100 mm Hg, the template correlation was below 0.983. In applying force, when using the maximum amplitude as the criteria level, the lower contact pressure (r = 0.988 ± 0.004) was better than the higher contact pressure (r = 0.976 ± 0.012). Conclusions Although, the optimal detective position has to be close to the middle of the radial arterial, the pressure waveform also has a good completeness with a template correlation coefficient of above 0.99 when the position was within ± 1 mm of the middle of the radial arterial range. In applying force, using the maximum amplitude as the criteria level, the lower contact pressure was better than the higher contact pressure. PMID:20092621



Aqua splint suture technique in isolated zygomatic arch fractures.  


Various methods have been used to treat zygomatic arch fractures, but no optimal modality exists for reducing these fractures and supporting the depressed bone fragments without causing esthetic problems and discomfort for life. We developed a novel aqua splint and suture technique for stabilizing isolated zygomatic arch fractures. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of novel aqua splint and suture technique in isolated zygomatic arch fractures. Patients with isolated zygomatic arch fractures were treated by a single surgeon in a single center from January 2000 through December 2012. Classic Gillies approach without external fixation was performed from January 2000 to December 2003, while the novel technique has been performed since 2004. 67 consecutive patients were included (Classic method, n = 32 and Novel method, n = 35). An informed consent was obtained from all patients. The novel aqua splint and suture technique was performed by the following fashion: first, we evaluated intraoperatively the bony alignment by ultrasonography and then, reduced the depressed fracture surgically using the Gillies approach. Thereafter, to stabilize the fracture and obtain the smooth facial figure, we made an aqua splint that fit the facial contour and placed monofilament nonabsorbable sutures around the fractured zygomatic arch. The novel aqua splint and suture technique showed significantly correlated with better cosmetic and functional results. In conclusion, the aqua splint suture technique is very simple, quick, safe, and effective for stabilizing repositioned zygomatic arch fractures. The aqua splint suture technique can be a good alternative procedure in isolated zygomatic arch fractures. PMID:23793598

Kim, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Seung Kyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Chan Hum



Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch, TCGA Scientitifc Symposium 2012

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch, TCGA


Quantitative phase analysis of boron nitride nanotubes using Rietveld refinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystalline boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) with an average outer diameter of about 40 nm and several micrometres in length were synthesized by chemical vapour deposition from boron and magnesium oxide. Rietveld refinement and 11B solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were employed to quantitatively determine the phase of synthesized BNNTs. The structural parameters for the BNNTs were determined by Rietveld

Yong-Il Kim; Jae Kap Jung; Kwon-Sang Ryu; Seung-Hoon Nahm; Duncan H. Gregory



Quantitative analysis of a Schaffer collateral Simon Schultz  

E-print Network

. Hancock and P. F¨oldi'ak (Eds.) Information Theory and the Brain, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U of quantitative aspects of hippocampal organisation is essential to an understanding of why evolutionary pressures al., 1996; Stephan, 1983; Witter and Groenewegen, 1992). Such an under­ standing will require

Treves, Alessandro


Quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of phenolic antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses of substituted phenols, vitamin E derivatives and flavonoids are presented. Two models have been derived using calculated parameters such as the heat of formation (Hf), the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of radicals (Elumo-r), the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital of the parent compounds (Ehomo) and the

Eric J. Lien; Shijun Ren; Huynh-Hoa Bui; Rubin Wang



Quantitative analysis of experimental and synthetic microstructures for sedimentary rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative comparison between the experimental microstructure of a sedimentary rock and three theoretical models for the same rock is presented. The microstructure of the rock sample (Fontainebleau sandstone) was obtained by microtomography. Two of the models are stochastic models based on correlation function reconstruction, and one model is based on sedimentation, compaction and diagenesis combined with input from petrographic

B. Biswal; C. Manwart; R. Hilfer; S. Bakke; P. E. Øren



Issues in qualitative and quantitative risk analysis for developmental toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of risk in developmental toxicology has been discussed in several recent publications. A number of issues still are to be resolved in this area. The qualitative evaluation and interpretation of end points in developmental toxicology depends on an understanding of the biological events leading to the end points observed, the relationships among end points, and

Carole A. Kimmel; David W. Gaylor



Quantitative FRAP in Analysis of Molecular Binding Dynamics In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) reveals the dynamics of fluorescently tagged molecules within live cells. These molecular dynamics are governed by diffusion of the molecule and its in vivo binding interactions. As a result, quantitative estimates of the association and dissociation rates of binding can be extracted from the FRAP. This chapter describes a systematic procedure to acquire the FRAP

James G. McNally



Quantitative analysis and parametric display of regional myocardial mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative assessment of regional heart motion has significant potential for more accurate diagnosis of heart disease and\\/or cardiac irregularities. Local heart motion may be studied from medical imaging sequences. Using functional parametric mapping, regional myocardial motion during a cardiac cycle can be color mapped onto a deformable heart model to obtain better understanding of the structure- to-function relationships in the

Christian D. Eusemann; Matthias E. Bellemann; Richard A. Robb



Quantitative Analysis and Parametric Display of Regional Myocardial Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative assessment of regional heart motion has significant potential for more accurate diagnosis of heart disease and \\/ or cardiac irregularities. Local heart motion may be studied from medical imaging sequences. Using functional parametric mapping, regional myocardial motion during a cardiac cycle can be color mapped onto a deformable heart model to obtain better understanding of the structure-to-function relationships in

Christian. D. Eusemann; Matthias E. Bellemann; Richard A. Robb; B Tatzendpromenade


Quantitative HPLC analysis of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves.  


An analytical method for the determination of cardiac glycosides in Digitalis purpurea leaves by hplc was developed. Quantitation was carried out by the incorporation of lanatoside A as an internal standard. The present method is sufficiently precise and relatively simple. PMID:7673934

Ikeda, Y; Fujii, Y; Nakaya, I; Yamazaki, M



Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a common feature of Parkinson's disease, a fact of both clinical and theoretical significance. Assessment of depression in Parkinson's disease is complicated by overlapping symptomatology in the two conditions, making global assessments based on observer or self-ratings of doubtful validity. The present study aimed to provide both a quantitative and qualitative description of the nature of the depressive

A M Gotham; R G Brown; C D Marsden



Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

Boose, David L.



AquaEnv : An Aqua tic Acid–Base Modelling Env ironment in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

AquaEnv\\u000a is an integrated software package for aquatic chemical model generation focused on ocean acidification and antropogenic CO2 uptake. However, the package is not restricted to the carbon cycle or the oceans: it calculates, converts, and visualizes\\u000a information necessary to describe pH, related CO2 air–water exchange, as well as aquatic acid–base chemistry in general for marine, estuarine or freshwater systems.

Andreas F. HofmannKarline; Karline Soetaert; Jack J. Middelburg; Filip J. R. Meysman



An Inexpensive Electrodeposition Device and Its Use in a Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Exercise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experimental procedure, using an apparatus that is easy to construct, was developed to incorporate a quantitative electrogravimetric determination of the solution nickel content into an undergraduate or advanced high school quantitative analysis laboratory. This procedure produces results comparable to the procedure used for the gravimetric…

Parker, Richard H.



Quantitative Analysis of a Hybrid Replication with Forwarding Strategy for Efficient and  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of a Hybrid Replication with Forwarding Strategy for Efficient and Uniform as different system support mechanisms must be applied to different users. In this paper, we quantitatively as the basic HLR/VLR two-tier scheme. An important research issue for location management is minimizing

Chen, Ing-Ray


Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Annotators' Agreement in the Development of  

E-print Network

Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Annotators' Agreement in the Development of Cast3LB ¡TALP Research Centre (UPC) Jordi Girona no 3 08034 Barcelona ¢ Departamento de a qualitative and quantitative analy- sis of disagreement among annotators in the development of the syntactic

Ageno, Alicia


Quantitative PCR analysis of DNA aptamer pharmacokinetics in mice.  


DNA aptamer oligonucleotides and their protein conjugates show promise as therapeutics in animal models of diseases such as multiple sclerosis. These molecules are large and highly charged, raising questions about their biodistribution and pharmacokinetics in mammals. Here we exploit the power of quantitative polymerase chain reaction to accurately quantitate the tissue distribution of 40-nucleotide DNA aptamers and their streptavidin conjugates after intraperitoneal injection in mice. We show remarkably rapid distribution to peripheral tissues including the central nervous system. Modeling of tissue distribution data reveals the importance of DNA aptamer sequence, 3' modification, and protein conjugation in enhancing tissue exposure. These data help to interpret the previously observed effectiveness of aptamer conjugates, as opposed to free aptamers, in stimulating central nervous system remyelination in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:25536292

Perschbacher, Katherine; Smestad, John A; Peters, Justin P; Standiford, Miranda M; Denic, Aleksandar; Wootla, Bharath; Warrington, Arthur E; Rodriguez, Moses; Maher, L James



Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.  


An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A



Quantitative analysis of the phospholipids of some marine bioluminescent bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative analyses of the phospholipids of three strains of marine bioluminescent bacteria were carried out after separation\\u000a by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The phospholipids of all three species consisted of about 75% phosphatidyl ethanolamine,\\u000a 13% phosphatidyl glycerol and 7% cardiolipin. The composition was only slightly affected by drastic changes in the growth\\u000a conditions. One of the species contained poly-?-hydroxybutyrate. The

Anatol Eberhard; George Rouser



Quantitative analysis of the electroencephalogram during cranial electrotherapy stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Normal individuals were used to quantitate electroencephalographic (EEG) changes during concurrent administration of 0.5 and 100 Hz cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES).Methods: Twelve normal, right-handed males were used in a randomized, double-blind crossover design study. A 3 amplifier system incorporating noise-cancellation was used to collect one channel of EEG (O1-Cz configuration) for 30 min. Either 0.5, 100 Hz, or sham

M. j. Schroeder; R. e. Barr



A quantitative analysis of monochromaticity in genetic interaction networks  

PubMed Central

Background A genetic interaction refers to the deviation of phenotypes from the expected when perturbing two genes simultaneously. Studying genetic interactions help clarify relationships between genes, such as compensation and masking, and identify gene groups of functional modules. Recently, several genome-scale experiments for measuring quantitative (positive and negative) genetic interactions have been conducted. The results revealed that genes in the same module usually interact with each other in a consistent way (pure positive or negative); this phenomenon was designated as monochromaticity. Monochromaticity might be the underlying principle that can be utilized to unveil the modularity of cellular networks. However, no appropriate quantitative measurement for this phenomenon has been proposed. Results In this study, we propose the monochromatic index (MCI), which is able to quantitatively evaluate the monochromaticity of potential functional modules of genes, and the MCI was used to study genetic landscapes in different cellular subsystems. We demonstrated that MCI not only amend the deficiencies of MP-score but also properly incorporate the background effect. The results showed that not only within-complex but also between-complex connections present significant monochromatic tendency. Furthermore, we also found that significantly higher proportion of protein complexes are connected by negative genetic interactions in metabolic network, while transcription and translation system adopts relatively even number of positive and negative genetic interactions to link protein complexes. Conclusion In summary, we demonstrate that MCI improves deficiencies suffered by MP-score, and can be used to evaluate monochromaticity in a quantitative manner. In addition, it also helps to unveil features of genetic landscapes in different cellular subsystems. Moreover, MCI can be easily applied to data produced by different types of genetic interaction methodologies such as Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA), and epistatic miniarray profile (E-MAP). PMID:22372977



Morphological analysis of the proximal femur using quantitative computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anatomy of the proximal femur was studied in 35 specimens using quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and compared with\\u000a anatomical sections studied by plane radiography and gross dissection. We found the primary supporting structure of the femoral\\u000a head to be the primary compressive strut, which is a dense column of trabecular bone projecting from the pressure buttress\\u000a of the medial

James B. Stiehl; Donald Jacobson; Guilermo Carrera



Automated Quantitative Analysis of Capnogram Shape for COPD–Normal and COPD–CHF Classification  

E-print Network

We develop an approach to quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide concentration in exhaled breath, recorded as a function of time by capnography. The generated waveform – or capnogram – is currently used in clinical practice ...

Mieloszyk, Rebecca J.


What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite History  

E-print Network

1 What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite History of Communication Satellite History by Zoe Szajnfarber Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics tradeoffs associated with adopting this principle in the context of communication satellites

de Weck, Olivier L.


Quantitative Computed Tomography Analysis of Local Chemotherapy in Liver Tissue After  

E-print Network

Quantitative Computed Tomography Analysis of Local Chemotherapy in Liver Tissue After livers before and following radiofrequency ablation. Materials and Methods. Polymer matrixes containing carboplatin (a platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent) were implanted into rat livers either immediately

Gao, Jinming


Quantitative Analysis of the GAL4/UAS System in Drosophila Oogenesis  

E-print Network

ARTICLE Quantitative Analysis of the GAL4/UAS System in Drosophila Oogenesis Lea A. Goentoro,1 in Drosophila oogenesis, discuss the issues associated with the interpretation of the quantita- tive data

Shvartsman, Stanislav "Stas"



EPA Science Inventory

Porous polymer packings have been used successfully in many applications of direct aqueous injection gas chromatography. The authors have expanded the use of aqueous injection to the quantitative analysis of 68 alcohols, acetates, ketones, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, diols, dion...


Significance analysis of microarray for relative quantitation of LC\\/MS data in proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although fold change is a commonly used criterion in quantitative proteomics for differentiating regulated proteins, it does not provide an estimation of false positive and false negative rates that is often desirable in a large-scale quantitative proteomic analysis. We explore the possibility of applying the Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) method (PNAS 98:5116-5121) to a differential proteomics problem of

Bryan A. P. Roxas; Qingbo Li



Calibration Adjustments to the MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Bands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the end of the SeaWiFS mission in 2010 and the MERIS mission in 2012, the ocean color products of the MODIS on Aqua are the only remaining source to continue the ocean color climate data record until the VIIRS ocean color products become operational (expected for summer 2013). The MODIS on Aqua is well beyond its expected lifetime, and the calibration accuracy of the short wavelengths (412nm and 443nm) has deteriorated in recent years_ Initially, SeaWiFS data were used to improve the MODIS Aqua calibration, but this solution was not applicable after the end of the SeaWiFS mission_ In 2012, a new calibration methodology was applied by the MODIS calibration and support team using desert sites to improve the degradation trending_ This presentation presents further improvements to this new approach. The 2012 reprocessing of the MODIS Aqua ocean color products is based on the new methodology.

Meister, Gerhard



Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth - Duration: 1:56.  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation shows the Aqua satellite orbiting the Earth on August 27, 2005 by revealing MODIS true-color imagery for that day. This animation is on a cartesian map projection, so the satellite w...


Aqua MODIS 8-Year On-Orbit Operation and Calibration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launched in May 2002, the NASA EOS Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for more than 8 years. Observations from Aqua MODIS and its predecessor, Terra MODIS, have generated an unprecedented amount of data products and made significant contributions to studies of changes in the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). It has a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), providing sensor on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization. This paper briefly summarizes Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and illustrates instrument on-orbit performance from launch to present. Discussions are focused on OBC functions and changes in detector radiometric gains, spectral responses, and spatial registrations. With ongoing calibration effort, Aqua MODIS will continue serving the science community with high quality data products

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Choi, Taeyoung; Dodd, Jennifer; Geng, Xu; Wang, Zhipeng; Toller, Gary; Barnes, William



Aqua MODIS 8-year on-orbit operation and calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launched in May 2002, the NASA EOS Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for more than 8 years. Observations from Aqua MODIS and its predecessor, Terra MODIS, have generated an unprecedented amount of data products and made significant contributions to studies of changes in the Earth's system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). It has a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), providing sensor on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization. This paper briefly summarizes Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and illustrates instrument onorbit performance from launch to present. Discussions are focused on OBC functions and changes in detector radiometric gains, spectral responses, and spatial registrations. With ongoing calibration effort, Aqua MODIS will continue serving the science community with high quality data products.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Choi, Taeyoung; Dodd, Jennifer; Geng, Xu; Wang, Zhipeng; Toller, Gary; Barnes, William



Structure of Fe( 3 1 0 ) studied by quantitative LEED analysis and pseudopotential DFT calculations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the discrepancy in the literature with regard to the structure of Fe(310), we have investigated this surface by a refined quantitative LEED analysis and a pseudopotential DFT study. Similar results to a previous LEED analysis have been obtained by our new LEED analysis. Our pseudopotential calculations have reproduced the relaxation sequence of the interlayer spacings determined by

Y. Y Sun; H Xu; Y. P Feng; A. C. H Huan; A. T. S Wee



The reliability of quantitative analysis on digital images of the scoliotic spine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although analysis of scoliotic deformity is still studied extensively by means of conventional roentgenograms, computer-assisted digital analysis may allow a faster, more accurate and more complete evaluation of the scoliotic spine. In this study, a new computer-assisted measurement method was evaluated. This method uses digital reconstruction images for quantitative analysis of the scoliotic spine. The aim of the current study

John Cheung; Dirk J. Wever; Albert G. Veldhuizen; Jean P. Klein; Bert Verdonck; Rutger Nijlunsing; Jan C. Cool; Jim R. Van Horn



Cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia: a quantitative analysis of controlled studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Cognitive rehabilitation is now recognized as an important tool in the treatment of schizophrenia, and findings in this area\\u000a are emerging rapidly. There is a need for a systematic review of the effects of the different training programs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To review quantitatively the controlled studies on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia for the effect of training on\\u000a performance on tasks other than

Lydia Krabbendam; André Aleman



Qualitative and quantitative analysis of fibrosis in the kidney.  


Renal fibrosis results from an excess accumulation of connective tissue, primarily collagen, in response to tissue injury-associated aberrant wound healing, which is over-expressed in the renal vascular, glomerular and tubulointerstitial compartments. Despite being the final common pathway of end stage kidney disease, there is a lack of consensus on standardized approaches to measure fibrosis. In this article we therefore describe how a combination of immunohistochemical staining and biochemical measurement of hydroxyproline can be used to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the different forms of fibrosis. These techniques provide measures of both the composition of fibrosis, and a means of evaluating interventions in this significant process. PMID:25196487

Hewitson, Tim D; Smith, Edward R; Samuel, Chrishan S



Quantitative analysis of intrusion detection systems: Snort and Suricata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given competing claims, an objective head-to-head comparison of the performance of both the Snort R and Suricata Intrusion Detection Systems is needed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive quantitative comparison of the two systems. We have developed a rigorous testing framework that examines the performance of both systems as we scale system resources. Our results show that a single instance of Suricata is able to deliver substantially higher performance than a corresponding single instance of Snort. This paper describes in detail both the testing framework capabilities, tests performed and results found.

White, Joshua S.; Fitzsimmons, Thomas; Matthews, Jeanna N.



Risk assessment of microcystin in dietary Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.  


Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a cyanobacterium that is marketed as a health food supplement, is harvested from natural blooms in Klamath Lake (Oregon) that are occasionally contaminated by Microcystis spp. Regulatory agencies in several countries are developing regulations to control the amount of microcystin in drinking water and other products, including products produced from A. flos-aquae. Regulation of microcystin (MC), a toxin produced by Microcystis spp. that is potentially present in natural culture of A. flos-aquae, should be based on studies in which a test species is exposed to the natural mixture of these cyanobacteria. A 1984 feeding trial to determine the effects of high dietary levels of A. flos-aquae on reproduction and development of mice is reanalyzed in light of recent analyses for microcystin-LR (MCLR) in the diets of those mice. Young adult mice consuming up to 333 microg MCLR/kg body weight (bw)/day exhibited no adverse effects on growth and reproduction, fetal development, and survival and organ weights of neonates. Based on a NOAEL of 333 microg MCLR/kg bw/day, a safety factor of 1000, consumption of 2 g/day of A. flos-aquae by a 60-kg adult, the safe level of MCLR as a contaminant of A. flos-aquae products is calculated to be 10.0 microg MCLR/g. PMID:10499991

Schaeffer, D J; Malpas, P B; Barton, L L



Quantitative Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of carrot bioactives.  


Rapid quantitative near-infrared Fourier transform Raman analyses of the key phytonutrients in carrots, polyacetylenes and carotenoids, are reported here for the first time. Solvent extracts of 31 carrot lines were analyzed for these phytonutrients by conventional methods, polyacetylenes by GC-FID and carotenoids by visible spectrophotometry. Carotenoid concentrations were 0-5586 ?g g(-1) dry weight (DW). Polyacetylene concentrations were 74-4846 ?g g(-1) DW, highest in wild carrots. The polyacetylenes were falcarinol, 6-1237 ?g g(-1) DW; falcarindiol, 42-3475 ?g g(-1) DW; and falcarindiol 3-acetate, 27-649 ?g g(-1) DW. Strong Raman bands for carotenoids gave good correlation to results by visible spectrophotometry. A chemometric model capable of quantitating carotenoids from Raman data was developed. A classification model for rapidly distinguishing carrots with high and low polyacetylene (limit of detection = 1400 ?g g(-1)) concentrations based on Raman spectral intensity in the region of 2250 cm(-1) was produced. PMID:23441972

Killeen, Daniel P; Sansom, Catherine E; Lill, Ross E; Eason, Jocelyn R; Gordon, Keith C; Perry, Nigel B



Copper in silicon: Quantitative analysis of internal and proximity gettering  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of copper in the presence of a proximity gettering mechanism and a standard internal gettering mechanism in silicon was studied. He implantation-induced cavities in the near surface region were used as a proximity gettering mechanism and oxygen precipitates in the bulk of the material provided internal gettering sites. Moderate levels of copper contamination were introduced by ion implantation such that the copper was not supersaturated during the anneals, thus providing realistic copper contamination/gettering conditions. Copper concentrations at cavities and internal gettering sites were quantitatively measured after the annealings. In this manner, the gettering effectiveness of cavities was measured when in direct competition with internal gettering sites. The cavities were found to be the dominant gettering mechanism with only a small amount of copper gettered at the internal gettering sites. These results reveal the benefits of a segregation-type gettering mechanism for typical contamination conditions.

McHugo, S.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Flink, C.; Weber, E.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others



Quantitative estimation of uncertainty in human risk analysis.  


This paper is aimed to candidate the use of an ISO standard procedure (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, GUM) for quantitative evaluation of uncertainty in Human Risk estimation under chronic exposure to a hazardous chemical compound. Risk was evaluated by using the usual methodologies: the deterministic reasonable maximum exposure (RME) and the statistical Monte Carlo method; in both cases the procedures to evaluate the uncertainty on risk values are detailed. The paper put in evidence that the procedure is able to single out the variables that contribute mostly to the uncertainty. The obtained results show that the application of GUM procedure is easy and straightforward to estimate the uncertainty value on the results of risk estimation. The procedure is applied to a real case concerning the ingestion of milk contaminated by dioxins in a northern part of Italy; the risk value resulted to be over the minimal threshold of 10(-6) with 20-80% confidence. PMID:17175099

Sassi, G; Vernai, A Magnetti; Ruggeri, B



Response Neighborhoods in Online Learning Networks: A Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theoretical foundation of Response mechanisms in networks of online learners are revealed by Statistical Analysis of p* Markov Models for the Networks. Our comparative analysis of two networks shows that the minimal-effort hunt-for-social-capital mechanism controls a major behavior of both networks: negative tendency to respond. Differences in…

Aviv, Reuven; Erlich, Zippy; Ravid, Gilad



Phase analysis in duplex stainless steel: comparison of EBSD and quantitative metallography methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the research was to work out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phases in DSS in as-received state and after thermal aging. For quantitative purposes, SEM observations, EDS analyses and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were employed. Qualitative analysis of phases was performed by two methods: EBSD and classical quantitative metallography. A juxtaposition of different etchants for the revealing of microstructure and brief review of sample preparation methods for EBSD studies were presented. Different ways of sample preparation were tested and based on these results a detailed methodology of DSS phase analysis was developed including: surface finishing, selective etching methods and image acquisition. The advantages and disadvantages of applied methods were pointed out and compared the accuracy of the analysis phase performed by both methods.

Michalska, J.; Chmiela, B.



Original Research Introducing simulated cellular architecture to the quantitative analysis  

E-print Network

c l e i n f o Article history: Available online 21 July 2009 Keywords: FRAP Smoldyn Spatial hard to interpret. Using the example of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.3. FRAP microscopy and analysis

Vale, Ronald D.


Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body, a wide variety of technologies was developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development coupled with recent advances in video technology have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System to develop data on shirt-sleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The system is described.

Probe, John D.



A Quantitative Analysis of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Turnover Factors of Relational Database Support Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative analysis explored the intrinsic and extrinsic turnover factors of relational database support specialists. Two hundred and nine relational database support specialists were surveyed for this research. The research was conducted based on Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey. Regression analysis and a univariate ANOVA…

Takusi, Gabriel Samuto



Supplementary information for Label-free Quantitative Analysis of Lipid Metabolism in  

E-print Network

Supplementary information for Label-free Quantitative Analysis of Lipid Metabolism in Living, USA #12;Identification and analysis of autofluorescent lipid species. We observed both CARS and TPEF signal for each autofluorescent lipid species. However, TPEF signals were significantly higher than CARS

Cheng, Ji-Xin


Scout: A Hardware-Accelerated System for Quantitatively Driven Visualization and Analysis  

E-print Network

Scout: A Hardware-Accelerated System for Quantitatively Driven Visualization and Analysis Patrick S techniques for visualization are critical to the success- ful analysis of both acquired and simulated scientific data. Many visualization techniques rely on indirect mappings, such as transfer functions

Utah, University of


Kinetic Analysis of Amylase Using Quantitative Benedict's and Iodine Starch Reagents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative analysis of carbohydrates is a fundamental analytical tool used in many aspects of biology and chemistry. We have adapted a technique developed by Mathews et al. using an inexpensive scanner and open-source image analysis software to quantify amylase activity using both the breakdown of starch and the appearance of glucose. Breakdown…

Cochran, Beverly; Lunday, Deborah; Miskevich, Frank



Digitally Enhanced Thin-Layer Chromatography: An Inexpensive, New Technique for Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study conducted shows that if digital photography is combined with regular thin-layer chromatography (TLC), it could perform highly improved qualitative analysis as well as make accurate quantitative analysis possible for a much lower cost than commercial equipment. The findings suggest that digitally enhanced TLC (DE-TLC) is low-cost and easy…

Hess, Amber Victoria Irish



Quantitative Auger electron spectroscopic analysis of carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for the quantitative evaluation of Auger electron spectra based on peak areas is presented. Sample and reference spectra in integral mode are filtered by an area conserving digital filter. This transforms the peak shapes influenced by chemical effects into standard peak shapes. After filtering a linear combination of reference spectra, differentiated spectra accounting for peak shifts and some low order polynomials to account for variations in the background is fitted to the sample spectrum by a least squares method. The need to approximate the spectrum of the secondary electron background explicitly for direct calculation of peak areas is thus eliminated. Filters of different widths are applied to reduce errors by chemical effects. The composition of the sample is computed from the composition of the reference samples and the coefficients obtained from the fit. To demonstrate the validity of this technique it has been applied to both, Gaussian model peaks and spectra of titanium carbonitrides. A further test on an alloy series is under investigation. The results show that the method works as predicted and gives accurate quantification.

Puchhammer, M.; Riahi, A.; Störi, H.


Quantitative proteomic analysis of amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania infantum  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AmB) in its liposomal form is now considered as either first- or second-line treatment against Leishmania infections in different part of the world. Few cases of AmB resistance have been reported and resistance mechanisms toward AmB are still poorly understood. This paper reports a large-scale comparative proteomic study in the context of AmB resistance. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to better characterize cytoplasmic and membrane-enriched (ME) proteomes of the in vitro generated Leishmania infantum AmB resistant mutant AmB1000.1. In total, 97 individual proteins were found as differentially expressed between the mutant and its parental sensitive strain (WT). More than half of these proteins were either metabolic enzymes or involved in transcription or translation processes. Key energetic pathways such as glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated in the mutant. Interestingly, many proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and heat-shock proteins were also up-regulated in the resistant mutant. This work provides a basis for further investigations to understand the roles of proteins differentially expressed in relation with AmB resistance. PMID:25057462

Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G.; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc



Quantitative analysis of task selection for brain-computer interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. To assess quantitatively the impact of task selection in the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Approach. We consider the task-pairs derived from multi-class BCI imagery movement tasks in three different datasets. We analyze for the first time the benefits of task selection on a large-scale basis (109 users) and evaluate the possibility of transferring task-pair information across days for a given subject. Main results. Selecting the subject-dependent optimal task-pair among three different imagery movement tasks results in approximately 20% potential increase in the number of users that can be expected to control a binary BCI. The improvement is observed with respect to the best task-pair fixed across subjects. The best task-pair selected for each subject individually during a first day of recordings is generally a good task-pair in subsequent days. In general, task learning from the user side has a positive influence in the generalization of the optimal task-pair, but special attention should be given to inexperienced subjects. Significance. These results add significant evidence to existing literature that advocates task selection as a necessary step towards usable BCIs. This contribution motivates further research focused on deriving adaptive methods for task selection on larger sets of mental tasks in practical online scenarios.

Llera, Alberto; Gómez, Vicenç; Kappen, Hilbert J.



Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity  

PubMed Central

Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.



Videokeratography for quantitative surface analysis of used soft contact lenses.  


The greater utilization of soft contact lenses calls for the development of new and objective methods of evaluating the optical performance of the different lens types, in situ. We used videokeratography to examine the surface topography of soft contact lenses that had been worn for more than 1 year on 27 eyes of 23 patients, and compared the resulting color-coded maps and topographic indices as well as contact lens-corrected visual acuities, with those obtained with new replacement lenses on the same eyes. Visual inspection of the color-coded maps revealed differences in the surface characteristics of the used and new lenses. Comparison of quantitative indices including the SAI (Surface Asymmetry Index), IAI (Irregular Astigmatism Index), SRI (Surface Regularity Index), and SDP (Standard Deviation of Powers) showed that asymmetry, surface irregularity, potential visual acuity (derived from the SRI), and corneal power distribution were significantly poorer with the used lenses than with the new (P = 0.0001). The videokeratoscope is useful for evaluating the soft contact lens surface in situ, as an indicator of optical quality; it also permits the objective evaluation of lens cleaning techniques. PMID:9304437

Maeda, N; Klyce, S D; Smolek, M K; Hamano, H; Mitsunaga, S; Watanabe, K



Children's overregularization of English plurals: a quantitative analysis.  


This paper brings a quantitative study of children's noun plural overregularizations (foots, mans) to bear on recent comparisons of connectionist and symbolic models of language. The speech of 10 English-speaking children (aged 1;3 to 5;2) from the CHILDES database (MacWhinney & Snow, 1985, 1990) were analysed. The rate of noun overregularization is low, mean = 8.5%, demonstrating that children prefer correct to overregularized forms. Rates of noun overregularization are not significantly different from their rates of past tense overregularization, and noun plurals, like verb past tenses, follow a U-shaped developmental curve in which correct irregulars precede the first overregularized forms. These facts suggest that plural and past tense overregularizations are caused by similar underlying processes. The results pose challenges to connectionist models, but are consistent with Marcus et al.'s (1992) blocking-and-retrieval-failure model in which regulars are generated by a default rule while irregulars are retrieved from the lexicon. PMID:8550732

Marcus, G F



Quantitative XRD analysis of {110} twin density in biotic aragonites.  


{110} Twin densities in biotic aragonite have been estimated quantitatively from the peak widths of specific reflections in powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, as well as direct confirmation of the twins using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Influence of the twin density on the peak widths in the XRD pattern was simulated using DIFFaX program, regarding (110) twin as interstratification of two types of aragonite unit layers with mirrored relationship. The simulation suggested that the twin density can be estimated from the difference of the peak widths between 111 and 021, or between 221 and 211 reflections. Biotic aragonite in the crossed-lamellar microstructure (three species) and nacreous microstructure (four species) of molluscan shells, fish otoliths (two species), and a coral were investigated. The XRD analyses indicated that aragonite crystals in the crossed-lamellar microstructure of the three species contain high density of the twins, which is consistent with the TEM examination. On the other hand, aragonite in the nacre of the four species showed almost no difference of the peak widths between the paired reflections, indicating low twin densities. The results for the fish otoliths were varied between the species. Such variation of the twin density in biotic aragonites may reflect different schemes of crystal growth in biomineralization. PMID:22989562

Suzuki, Michio; Kim, Hyejin; Mukai, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro



Quantitative proteomic analysis of the Salmonella-lettuce interaction  

PubMed Central

Human pathogens can internalize food crops through root and surface uptake and persist inside crop plants. The goal of the study was to elucidate the global modulation of bacteria and plant protein expression after Salmonella internalizes lettuce. A quantitative proteomic approach was used to analyse the protein expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis and lettuce cultivar Green Salad Bowl 24 h after infiltrating S. Infantis into lettuce leaves. Among the 50 differentially expressed proteins identified by comparing internalized S. Infantis against S. Infantis grown in Luria Broth, proteins involved in glycolysis were down-regulated, while one protein involved in ascorbate uptake was up-regulated. Stress response proteins, especially antioxidant proteins, were up-regulated. The modulation in protein expression suggested that internalized S. Infantis might utilize ascorbate as a carbon source and require multiple stress response proteins to cope with stresses encountered in plants. On the other hand, among the 20 differentially expressed lettuce proteins, proteins involved in defense response to bacteria were up-regulated. Moreover, the secreted effector PipB2 of S. Infantis and R proteins of lettuce were induced after bacterial internalization into lettuce leaves, indicating human pathogen S. Infantis triggered the defense mechanisms of lettuce, which normally responds to plant pathogens. PMID:24512637

Zhang, Yuping; Nandakumar, Renu; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Hodges, Laurie; Li, Xu



Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis  

PubMed Central

Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both the host and pathogen alive. Little is known about the mechanism behind nonlytic exocytosis, but there is evidence that both the fungal and host cells contribute to the process. In this study, we used time-lapse movies of C. neoformans-infected macrophages to delineate the kinetics and quantitative aspects of nonlytic exocytosis. We analyzed approximately 800 macrophages containing intracellular C. neoformans and identified 163 nonlytic exocytosis events that were further characterized into three subcategories: type I (complete emptying of macrophage), type II (partial emptying of macrophage), and type III (cell-to-cell transfer). The majority of type I and II events occurred after several hours of intracellular residence, whereas type III events occurred significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in the course of macrophage infection. Our results show that nonlytic exocytosis is a morphologically and temporally diverse process that occurs relatively rapidly in the course of macrophage infection. PMID:24595144

Stukes, Sabriya A.; Cohen, Hillel W.



Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Ribosome Assembly and Turnover In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Although high-resolution structures of the ribosome have been solved in a series of functional states, relatively little is known about how the ribosome assembles, particularly in vivo. Here, a general method is presented for studying the dynamics of ribosome assembly and ribosomal assembly intermediates. Since significant quantities of assembly intermediates are not present under normal growth conditions, the antibiotic neomycin is used to perturb wild type E. coli. Treatment of E. coli with the antibiotic neomycin results in the accumulation of a continuum of assembly intermediates for both the 30S and 50S subunits. The protein composition and the protein stoichiometry of these intermediates were determined by quantitative mass spectrometry using purified unlabeled and 15N-labeled wild type ribosomes as external standards. The intermediates throughout the continuum are heterogeneous and are largely depleted of late-binding proteins. Pulse labeling with 15N-labeled medium timestamps the ribosomal proteins based on their time of synthesis. The assembly intermediates contain both newly synthesized proteins and proteins that originated in previously synthesized intact subunits. This observation requires either a significant amount of ribosome degradation, or the exchange or reuse of ribosomal proteins. These specific methods can be applied to any system where ribosomal assembly intermediates accumulate, including strains with deletions or mutations of assembly factors. This general approach can be applied to study the dynamics of assembly and turnover of other macromolecular complexes that can be isolated from cells. PMID:20709079

Sykes, Michael T.; Shajani, Zahra; Sperling, Edit; Beck, Andrea H.; Williamson, James R.



The Quantitative Analysis of an Analgesic Tablet: An NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Course  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantitative analysis experiment is outlined that uses 13C NMR. Initial work utilizes a known compound (acenapthene) to assess the type of NMR experiment necessary to achieve a proportional response from all of the carbons in the compound. Both gated decoupling and inverse gated decoupling routines with a variety of delay times are inspected, in addition to investigation of paramagnetic additives in conjunction with inverse gated decoupling. Once the experiments with the known compound have illuminated the merits of the differing strategies for obtaining a proportional carbon response, a quantitative assessment of an unknown analgesic tablet is undertaken. The amounts of the two major components of the tablet, acetaminophen and aspirin, are determined following addition of an internal standard to the mixture. The carbon resonances emanating from each compound can be identified using spectra of the pure analgesic components and internal standard. Knowing the concentration of the internal standard and assuming a proportional response to all carbons in the sample allows calculation of the amount of both analytes in the analgesic tablets. Data from an initial laboratory trial is presented that illustrates the accuracy of the procedure.

Schmedake, Thomas A.; Welch, Lawrence E.



Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

Probe, John D.



Quantitative spectroscopy for the analysis of GOME data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Accurate analysis of the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) data to obtain atmospheric constituents requires reliable, traceable spectroscopic parameters for atmospheric absorption and scattering. Results are summarized for research that includes: the re-determination of Rayleigh scattering cross sections and phase functions for the 200 nm to 1000 nm range; the analysis of solar spectra to obtain a high-resolution reference spectrum with excellent absolute vacuum wavelength calibration; Ring effect cross sections and phase functions determined directly from accurate molecular parameters of N2 and O2; O2 A band line intensities and pressure broadening coefficients; and the analysis of absolute accuracies for ultraviolet and visible absorption cross sections of O3 and other trace species measurable by GOME.

Chance, K.



Dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis for quantitative microcirculation research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on analyses of various types of digital microcirculatory image (DMCI), we summed up the image features of DMCI, the digitizing demands for digital microcirculatory imaging, and the basic characteristics of the DMCI processing. A dynamic and still imaging separation processing (DSISP) mode was designed for developing a DMCI workstation and the DMCI processing. Original images in this study were clinical microcirculatory images from human finger nail-bed and conjunctiva microvasculature, and intravital microvascular network images from animal tissue or organs. A series of dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis functions were developed in this study. The experimental results indicate most of the established analog video image analysis methods for microcirculatory measurement could be realized in a more flexible way based on the DMCI. More information can be rapidly extracted from the quality improved DMCI by employing intelligence digital image analysis methods. The DSISP mode is very suitable for building a DMCI workstation.

Ying, Xiaoyou; Xiu, Rui-juan



Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS on Terra and Aqua  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft on April 26, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from each polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.



Quantitative analysis of wrist electrodermal activity during sleep.  


We present the first quantitative characterization of electrodermal activity (EDA) patterns on the wrists of healthy adults during sleep using dry electrodes. We compare the new results on the wrist to the prior findings on palmar or finger EDA by characterizing data measured from 80 nights of sleep consisting of 9 nights of wrist and palm EDA from 9 healthy adults sleeping at home, 56 nights of wrist and palm EDA from one healthy adult sleeping at home, and 15 nights of wrist EDA from 15 healthy adults in a sleep laboratory, with the latter compared to concurrent polysomnography. While high frequency patterns of EDA called "storms" were identified by eye in the 1960s, we systematically compare thresholds for automatically detecting EDA peaks and establish criteria for EDA storms. We found that more than 80% of the EDA peaks occurred in non-REM sleep, specifically during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and non-REM stage 2 sleep (NREM2). Also, EDA amplitude is higher in SWS than in other sleep stages. Longer EDA storms were more likely to occur in the first two quarters of sleep and during SWS and NREM2. We also found from the home studies (65 nights) that EDA levels were higher and the skin conductance peaks were larger and more frequent when measured on the wrist than when measured on the palm. These EDA high frequency peaks and high amplitude were sometimes associated with higher skin temperature, but more work is needed looking at neurological and other EDA elicitors in order to elucidate their complete behavior. PMID:25286449

Sano, Akane; Picard, Rosalind W; Stickgold, Robert



Quantitative Change and Use Analysis of Agricultural Land in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climatic change, economic and scientific development and political guidance irritate the change of land use. With the index of crop sown area, this paper mainly explores the agricultural land use situation in these years of China. Accumulated temperature and urbanization rate are used to analyze space-time difference and its impact mechanism of crop sown area, for the quantitative change of agricultural land. While cropping index reflected agricultural land use is considered to obtain the actual use of cultivated land and its surplus capacity. Some results are concluded as follows: (1) from 1949 to 2010, crop sown area has a generally slow growth in China, however, with obvious space diversity. Most quickly increase and decrease are reflected in Xinjiang and North China, and the size of agricultural land ranks from the midland to the east and to the west of China. (2) Based on the relationship of accumulated temperature and cropping system, effect of climatic change, urbanization and other factors aggregated on crop sown area increase are considered. It is confirmed that warming promotes much little, urbanization restrains mainly in South China, northeast China, Xinjiang and southwest China, and other factors aggregated accelerate agricultural land of the rest of China. (3) From 1980 to 2009, agricultural land use degree keeps unceasing deepening. By the common influence of decreased cultivated area and less potential cropping index than actual cropping index, surplus capacity of cultivated area induces, from 6.27*107 hm2 in 1980 to 3.85*107 hm2 in 2009. However, it still accounts for about 20 percent of agricultural land to the full potential, which verifies the necessary of sufficient and reasonable use in further.

Fu, Y.; Chou, J.; Dong, W.



A quantitative analysis of extraocular muscle cooperation and squint.  


The mechanical properties of human extraocular muscles have recently been described. This allows one to use the force-balance equation of mechanics to solve for the complete mechanical state of all six extraocular muscles and the passive orbital tissues in any eye position. This includes each muscle's force, length, innervation, and unit action vector, which describes how its force is distributed to act horizontally, vertically, and in torsion. Most important, this calculation method allows one to predict the tropias that occur in an eye subject to any imaginable form of peripheral pathology. It also permitts, by calculation, an estimation of the correction that might be expected from any sort of muscle surgery. The tight lateral rectus syndrome is used to illustrate the application of the method in diagnosis and surgery. It also offers, for the first time, a quantitative estimate of the multitude of ways in which muscles can interact and interfere with each other when they hold the globe. Two of the results are interesting: because muscles have different lengths and sizes, their innervational participation in a movement can appear to be quite different than their mechanical participation. From an innervational standpoint, the vertical recti and obliques participate equally in vertical gaze. Muscles interfere with each other a good deal and necessitate changes of innervation to counteract these cross-couplings. This causes unexpected dependencies of innervation on eye position and leads, for example, to the fact that the superior rectus innervation in up gaze is just as large in adduction as in abduction. PMID:1184315

Robinson, D A



Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics and N-terminal Analysis of Human Metastatic Lung Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Proteomic analysis is helpful in identifying cancer-associated proteins that are differentially expressed and fragmented that can be annotated as dysregulated networks and pathways during metastasis. To examine meta-static process in lung cancer, we performed a proteomics study by label-free quantitative analysis and N-terminal analysis in 2 human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines with disparate metastatic potentials—NCI-H1703 (primary cell, stage I) and NCI-H1755 (metastatic cell, stage IV). We identified 2130 proteins, 1355 of which were common to both cell lines. In the label-free quantitative analysis, we used the NSAF normalization method, resulting in 242 differential expressed proteins. For the N-terminal proteome analysis, 325 N-terminal peptides, including 45 novel fragments, were identified in the 2 cell lines. Based on two proteomic analysis, 11 quantitatively expressed proteins and 8 N-terminal peptides were enriched for the focal adhesion pathway. Most proteins from the quantitative analysis were upregulated in metastatic cancer cells, whereas novel fragment of CRKL was detected only in primary cancer cells. This study increases our understanding of the NSCLC metastasis proteome. PMID:24805778

Min, Hophil; Han, Dohyun; Kim, Yikwon; Cho, Jee Yeon; Jin, Jonghwa; Kim, Youngsoo



Quantitative analysis by mid-infrared spectrometry in food and agro-industrial fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to what has been achieved by the Fourier transform, infrared spectroscopy can now become a state of the art device in the quality control laboratories if we consider its precision and the gain in time it ensures compared to traditional analysis methods such as HPLC chromatography. Moreover, the increasing number of new mathematical regression methods such as Partial Least Square ( PLS) regression allows the multicomponent quantitative analysis in mixtures. Nevertheless, the efficiency of infrared spectrometry as a quantitative analysis method often depends on the choice of an adequate presentation for the sample. In this document, we shall demonstrate several techniques such as diffuse reflectance and Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) which can be according to the various physical states of the mixtures. The quantitative analysis of real samples from the food industry enables us to estimate its precision. For instance, the analysis of the three main components (glucose, fructose and maltose) in the glucose syrups can be done (using ATR) with a precision in the region of 3% whereas the time required to obtain an analysis report is about 5 minutes. Finally multicomponent quantitative analysis is quite feasable by mid-IR spectroscopy.

Dupuy, Nathalie; Huvenne, J. P.; Sombret, B.; Legrand, P.



Quantitative factor analysis of forest resources in Changbai mountain areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine forest characteristic indicators are developed for differentiating the features and laws of the forest geographical distribution of the 22 cities (or counties) in Changbai mountain areas by factor analysis. It can be found from the factor eigenvalue and cumulative contribution rate that the basic characteristics of forest composition can be conveyed by three main factors, that is, the natural

Lingbin Yang; Xia Zhang; Jin Wu; Bin Zou; Le Chang



Identification and quantitative analysis of tissue particulate burden  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of particles in tissue samples, especially in lung tissue samples, has been of great use diagnostically and in the search for more precise information on the etiology of occupational/environmental diseases. There is a strong need for an interdisciplinary approach involving patients, epidemiologists, clinicians, pathologists, toxicologists, and microscopists if advancement in the recognition, diagnosis, and prevention of disease is to proceed.

Abraham, J.L.



A standard form of spectra for quantitative ESCA-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transmission of an electron energy analyzer depends on the parameters of operation. Therefore the intensity ratios of the ESCA peaks within a spectrum vary with the values of pass energy, angular acceptance, and analysis area chosen by the operator. A simple correction is possible if the transmission does not directly depend on the kinetic energy of the electrons, but

K. Berresheim; M. Mattern-Klosson; M. Wilmers



Quantitative analysis of volume images -electron microscopic tomography of HIV  

E-print Network

viruses to non-infectious ones. 2 THE APPLICATION The HIV has the geometry of a sphere with a diameter to assist in the structural analysis of the causative virus of the AIDS disease, HIV. Especially interesting is a study of the internal morphology of the virus at di#11;erent stages and a comparison of infectious

Nyström, Ingela


Quantitative analysis of particulate burden in lung tissue  

SciTech Connect

Numerous methods have been used in the preparation and analysis of the particulate matter deposited in human lungs. Preparation techniques include those for particle isolation and for in situ analysis. Analytical techniques include bulk and particle-by-particle analysis. In this paper, a general discussion of many of these methods is presented along with examples of how two specific techniques have been used. In one study, individual particles from the lungs of 75 randomly selected autopsy cases were analyzed using an automated scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) system. An average of 613 million particles, of exogenous origin, per gram of dry lung tissue were found, the major classes of particles being silica, talc, aluminum silicates, and rutile. In the second study, lungs from 50 randomly selected autopsy cases were analyzed using gravimetric and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The median total particulate material was 0.33 grams, for cases in which samples were prepared by high temperature ashing, and 0.41 grams, for those in which nitric acid digestion was used. The median amount of quartz for all cases, was 0.044 grams. Samples of eighteen of the 75 lungs previously analyzed by automated SEM/EDX were also analyzed using gravimetric and XRD analysis. A good correlation was seen between the results of the two procedures (r = 0.91 for number of exogenous particles versus grams of particulate matter and r = 0.97 for number of silica particles versus amount of quartz). 121 references.

Mastin, J.P.; Stettler, L.E.; Shelburne, J.D.



Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph



Quantitative spatiotemporal image analysis of fluorescein angiography in age-related macular degeneration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation and analysis of retinal angiographic studies has been largely qualitative. Quantitative analysis of pathologic fundus features will facilitate interpretation and potentiate clinical studies where precise image metrology is vital. Fluorescein angiography studies of patients with age- related macular degeneration were digitized. Sequential temporal images were spatially-registered with polynomial warping algorithms, allowing for the construction of a three- dimensional (two spatial and one temporal) angiogram vector. Temporal profiles through spatially-registered, temporally- sequential pixels were computed. Characteristic temporal profiles for fundus background, retinal vasculature, retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, and choroidal neovascular (CNV) membranes were observed, allowing for pixel assignment and fundus feature quantitation. Segmentation and quantitation of fundus features including geographic atrophy and CNV is facilitated by spatio-temporal image analysis.

Berger, Jeffrey W.



AQUA© as predictor of allergy in elite marathon runners  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of allergy in athletes is increasing, and its risk varies across sports. The risk is dependent mainly on the ventilation rate and environmental factors; however, the prevalence of allergy in elite runners remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen allergy symptoms in elite marathon runners by using a validated questionnaire for screening allergy in athletes. Methods Two hundred and one elite marathoners, who participated in the most competitive Brazilian marathons and half-marathons during 2011, were invited to complete a validated self-report Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA©), with additional questions pertaining to training history, such as running experience, running distance per week and their best race time in marathon or half-marathon events. Results Sixty percent of the assessed athletes reported allergy symptoms as defined by a positive AQUA outcome (score [greater than or equal to] 5). No significant differences (p?>?0.05) between groups (AQUA?+?and AQUA-) were observed for gender, age, running experience, weekly training volume and best performance time in the half-marathon and marathon. The most frequently reported symptoms were related to the respiratory tract and physical effort. Conclusions This study demonstrates that AQUA© can be used to predict allergy in elite marathon runners. In addition, these athletes have a higher prevalence of allergy symptoms to elite athletes from other sports. PMID:24708728



Response of the cyanobacterium Microcystis flos-aquae to levofloxacin.  


The effects of levofloxacin (LEV) on Microcystis flos-aquae and its mechanism were investigated by determining the responses of some parameters of M. flos-aquae to LEV stress, including growth inhibition ratio, chlorophyll a content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, F v/F 0 and F v/F m, etc. The results indicated that LEV at 0.001-0.1 ?g L(-1) could stimulate the growth of M. flos-aquae and increase the chlorophyll a content but did not induce a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT) and the content of MDA. When the LEV concentration exceeds 10 ?g L(-1), the growth of M. flos-aquae could be significantly inhibited (the highest inhibition ratio can be up to 88.38 % at 100 ?g L(-1)) and chlorophyll a content, SOD and CAT activities, and MDA content also significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that high concentrations of LEV caused a severe oxidative stress on algal cells, resulting in a large number of reactive oxygen species produced in algal cells and thereby inhibiting the growth of algae. At the same time, the F v/F m and F v/F 0 values of M. flos-aquae decreased significantly with both exposure time and increasing test concentration of LEV, showing that the process of photosynthesis was inhibited. PMID:24288061

Wan, Jinjin; Guo, Peiyong; Zhang, Shengxiang



Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.

Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio



Concentration analysis: A quantitative assessment of student states  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiple-choice tests such as the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) provide useful instruments to probe the distribution of student difficulties on a large scale. However, traditional analysis often relies solely on scores (number of students giving the correct answer). This ignores what can be significant and important information: The distribution of wrong answers given by the class. In this paper we introduce a new method, concentration analysis, to measure how students' responses on multiple-choice questions are distributed. This information can be used to study if the students have common incorrect models or if the question is effective in detecting student models. When combined with information obtained from qualitative research, the method allows us to identify cleanly what FCI results are telling us about student knowledge.

Bao, Lei; Redish, Edward F.



Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.



Cancer Signaling Network Analysis by Quantitative Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Global analysis of protein phosphorylation by mass spectrometry (MS) provides unbiased, discovery-based, site-specific monitoring\\u000a of phosphorylation sites governing cell signaling networks involved in cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. In this\\u000a chapter, advances in MS instrumentation and methodology for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation\\u000a are discussed. These topics include (1) advantages and limitations of current MS-based protocols, (2) fundamentals

Jason R. Neil; Forest M. White


Quantitative Analysis of Calcium Spikes in Noisy Fluorescent Background  

PubMed Central

Intracellular calcium signals are studied by laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. The required spatio-temporal resolution makes description of calcium signals difficult because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. We designed a new procedure of calcium spike analysis based on their fitting with a model. The accuracy and precision of calcium spike description were tested on synthetic datasets generated either with randomly varied spike parameters and Gaussian noise of constant amplitude, or with constant spike parameters and Gaussian noise of various amplitudes. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the performance of spike fitting algorithms. The procedure was optimized for reliable estimation of calcium spike parameters and for dismissal of false events. A new algorithm was introduced that corrects the acquisition time of pixels in line-scan images that is in error due to sequential acquisition of individual pixels along the space coordinate. New software was developed in Matlab and provided for general use. It allows interactive dissection of temporal profiles of calcium spikes from x-t images, their fitting with predefined function(s) and acceptance of results on statistical grounds, thus allowing efficient analysis and reliable description of calcium signaling in cardiac myocytes down to the in situ function of ryanodine receptors. PMID:23741324

Janicek, Radoslav; Hotka, Matej; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Zahradník, Ivan



Quantitative PIXE analysis using a scanning proton microbeam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PIXE analysis is often quoted as being simple, fast, accurate and multielemental. In practice, however, especially if a wide range of samples is analysed, the measurements are adversely affected by uncertainty about the sample matrix composition, thickness and homogeneity. This is particularly true for thick samples, where major corrections to the X-ray yield can depend on knowledge of the chemical composition of the specimen. This can often be circumvented by techniques such as determination of bulk composition by other methods, or comparison with standards, but all these additional processes add to the analysis time and complexity. In addition, it is necessary to assume that the sample composition is uniform over the full area of the beam spot, not necessarily true even for carefully homogenised materials. This paper describes how the use of a scanning proton microbeam (SPM) with simultaneous PIXE, backscattered particle spectroscopy and secondary electron detection can enhance the accuracy of PIXE analysis by allowing the selection of a uniform region of the sample and the determination of the matrix composition. System calibration procedures are described and examples of analyses of standard reference materials and experimental samples are presented.

Jakši?, M.; Grime, G. W.; Henderson, J.; Watt, F.



Atmospheric Gravity Wave Processes from Aqua Measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although not originally designed for this purpose, the high spatial resolution of AIRS and AMSU measurements have revealed new details of small-scale atmospheric gravity waves and their many effects on climate processes during the last decade. Gravity waves themselves drive localized temperature fluctuations with important impacts on clouds, precipitation, and atmospheric chemistry. Drag forces associated with gravity wave breaking drive circulation changes in climate models with additional wide-ranging effects. Models used for global weather forecasting now resolve some gravity wave features with scales of several hundred km, but many other gravity waves remain unresolved, while climate models resolve only some of the largest scale gravity waves. Understanding these waves, how they are generated, and how their climate effects can be best parameterized have become important issues both for testing current models and improving next generation climate predictions. Our research focuses both on waves from convection and mountain waves. AIRS radiance measurements provide the highest resolution, and we use these data to quantify wave generation by small mountainous islands and the effects of these waves on the general circulation. We also estimate the relative importance of the smallest-resolvable versus larger-scale mountain waves to the circulation directly from AIRS measurements. Details of wave generation within convective clouds are also examined, where AIRS measurements provide the constraints for simulations of their generation and propagation. These studies allow us to test assumptions employed in current parameterization methods. We will also show how the local-time sampling of Aqua is an important limitation for studies of gravity waves generated by convection.

Alexander, M.; Eckermann, S. D.; Grimsdell, A.; Hoffmann, L.; Teitelbaum, H.



A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out on a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscope. The image analysis system (QEM ? SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the

Robert A. Creelman; Colin R. Ward



The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.  


Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The diagnostic results of CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were not significantly different (P > 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P < 0.05). CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis can both dynamically monitor the liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer. PMID:25123838

Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian



Quantitative facial motion analysis after functional free muscle reanimation procedures.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success of functional free muscle transfer in patients with chronic facial paralysis using a recently developed quantitative method known as the maximum static response assay of facial motion. A retrospective review of a single surgeon series of six patients with longstanding facial paralysis was performed. The maximum static response assay was performed on all patients preoperatively and serially during the postoperative period. Twenty-seven patients (54 sides) with normal facial function were also evaluated and served as controls. The contralateral normal side in those patients with unilateral facial paralysis (n = 4) also served as a control. Movement of the modiolus during smile was recorded in the x axis and y axis. To determine net smile movement, the vector of movement was calculated by means of the Pythagorean theorem. Vectors were then defined mathematically by calculating direction and magnitude. The average direction of the vector during smile for the normal control population was 58.3 degrees (range 32.5 to 83.1 degrees) from the horizontal through the modioli, and the average magnitude was 10.6 mm (range 4.2 to 20.1 mm). The average preoperative direction for the reanimated sides was 176.8 degrees with a range of 83.3 to 225 degrees. Patients with bilateral paralysis (n = 2) were excluded for calculation of the vectors on the normal contralateral side. The average preoperative direction for the normal contralateral side in patients with facial paralysis was 58.3 degrees with a range of 48.2 to 68.4 degrees. Postoperatively, the average direction of the vector during smile for the reanimated sides improved to a value of 77.6 degrees with a range of 45.7 to 113.8 degrees. The average change in direction of the preoperative reanimated side compared with the postoperative reanimated side was significant (p = 0.01). Postoperatively, the average direction of the vector for the contralateral normal sides was 43 degrees with a range of 11 to 57.2 degrees. The change in direction for the contralateral normal side was not significant (p = 0.18). The average magnitude of the reanimated side improved from a non-anatomic 2.8 mm preoperatively (range 0.8 to 6.8 mm) to an anatomic 4.9 mm postoperatively (p = 0.02). The contralateral normal side magnitude decreased from 9.4 mm (range 7.3 to 11.6 mm) preoperatively to 5.7 mm (range 3.8 to 7.7 mm) postoperatively (p = 0.006). More specifically, the absolute change in movement on the reanimated side during smile for the x axis and y axis was 2.3 mm (p = 0.05) and 4.0 mm (p = 0.002), respectively. This corresponded to an absolute change in the magnitude of the vector of 4.6 mm in an anatomic direction. On the contralateral side the absolute change in magnitude during smile from preoperative to postoperative for the x axis and y axis decreased by 1.5 mm (p = 0.13) and 5.3 mm (p = 0.05), respectively. This reflected an absolute change in the magnitude of the vector of 5.5 mm. Functional free muscle transfer in patients with chronic facial paralysis resulted in anatomic recovery of motion in the majority of patients in this series. The maximum static response assay can be used to objectively assess the results of facial reanimation. PMID:9393468

Johnson, P J; Bajaj-Luthra, A; Llull, R; Johnson, P C



Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences—physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the dynamics of behavior. Behavioral momentum and maximization have received mathematical formulations in behavior analysis. Yet to be worked out are the relations between molar and molecular formulations of behavioral theory. PMID:22478028

Marr, M. Jackson



Quantitative Analysis and Validation of Method Using HPTLC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High performance thin layer chromatography is an emerging alternative analytical technique in comparison with conventional column chromatography because of its simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, robustness, and cost effectiveness. Choice of vast array of supporting matrices and solvent systems resulted in separation of almost all types of analytes except volatiles. First step of a robust method development for routine quantification is to check the stability of analyte during various steps of chromatographic development followed by preparation of calibration curves. Thereafter, various validation aspects of analysis namely peak purity, linearity and range, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness, and accuracy have to be measured.

Dhandhukia, Pinakin C.; Thakker, Janki N.


Project #05R: Xiaoping Hu and Jue Zhang: Quantitative fMRI and Network Analysis of Acupuncture Induced Brain Activity  

E-print Network

Project #05R: Xiaoping Hu and Jue Zhang: Quantitative fMRI and Network Analysis of Acupuncture collaboration that have performed a quantitative fMRI study of acupuncture. This collaboration proved fruitful as it allowed us to establish quantitative fMRI as a viable approach to study acupuncture and led to very

Weber, Rodney


Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Objective: To explore the potential of quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 34 cases of FNH and 66 cases of HCC (all lesions <5?cm) were studied using CEUS to evaluate enhancement patterns and using analytic software Sonoliver® (Image-Arena™ v.4.0, TomTec Imaging Systems, Munich, Germany) to obtain quantitative features of CEUS in the region of interest. The quantitative features of maximum of intensity (IMAX), rise slope (RS), rise time (RT) and time to peak (TTP) were compared between the two groups and applied to further characterise both FNH and HCC with hypoenhancing patterns in the late phase on CEUS. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS for diagnosis of FNH were 67.6% and 93.9%, respectively. For quantitative analysis, IMAX and RS in FNHs were significantly higher than those in HCCs (p<0.05), while RT and TTP in FNHs were significantly shorter (p<0.05). Both the 11 FNHs and 62 HCCs with hypo-enhancing patterns in the late phase were further characterised with their quantitative features, and the sensitivity and specificity of IMAX for diagnosis of FNH were 90.9% and 43.5%, RS 81.8% and 80.6%, RT 90.9% and 71.0%, and TTP 90.9% and 71.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The quantitative features of CEUS in FNH and HCC were significantly different, and they could further differentiate FNH from HCC following conventional CEUS. Advances in knowledge: Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of CEUS can improve the accuracy of differentiating FNH from HCC. PMID:23392189

Pei, X-Q; Liu, L-Z; Xiong, Y-H; Zou, R-H; Chen, M-S; Cai, M-Y



Quantitative analysis of caffeine applied to pharmaceutical industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The direct determination of some compounds like caffeine in pharmaceutical samples without sample pretreatment and without the separation of these compounds from the matrix (acetyl salicylic acid, paracetamol,…) is very worthwhile. It enables analysis to be performed quickly and without the problems associated with sample manipulation. The samples were diluted directly in KBr powder. We used both diffuse reflectance (DRIFT) and transmission techniques in order to measure the intensity of the peaks of the caffeine in the pharmaceutical matrix. Limits of detection, determination, relative standard deviation and recovery using caffeine in the same matrix as in the pharmaceutical product are related. Two methods for the quantification of caffeine were used: calibration line and standard addition techniques.

Baucells, M.; Ferrer, N.; Gómez, P.; Lacort, G.; Roura, M.



Quantitative Analysis of Gray and White Matter in Williams Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Williams Syndrome is a developmental disorder with a genetic basis, which results in an uneven cognitive profile with relatively strong language skills and severely impaired visuospatial abilities. To better understand the brain structure underlying this profile, we compared individuals with Williams Syndrome to controls using multimodal neuroimaging data and new analytic methods (diffeomorphic mapping and atlas-based analysis). People with Williams Syndrome had basal ganglia atrophy, while the fusiform, the medium temporal gyri, and the cerebellar cortex were relatively preserved. The right superior longitudinal fasciculus, the left fronto-occipital fasciculus, the caudate, and the cingulum demonstrated increased fractional anisotropy, while the corticospinal tract revealed decreased values. These findings may be linked to the uneven cognitive profile evident in Williams Syndrome. PMID:22410548

Faria, Andreia Vasconcellos; Landau, Barbara; O’Hearn, Kirsten M.; Li, Xin; Jiang, Hangyi; Oishi, Kenichi; Zhang, Jiangyang; Mori, Susumu



Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

Myers, D. R.



Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake. PMID:25087594

Itskov, Pavel M.; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H.; Ribeiro, Carlos



Quantitative analysis of the debonding structure of soft adhesives  

E-print Network

We experimentally investigate the growth dynamics of cavities nucleating during the first stages of debonding of three different model adhesives. The material properties of these adhesives range from a more liquid-like material to a soft viscoelastic solid and are carefully characterized by small strain oscillatory shear rheology as well as large strain uniaxial extension. The debonding experiments are performed on a probe tack set-up. Using high contrast images of the debonding process and precise image analysis tools we quantify the total projected area of the cavities, the average cavity shape and growth rate and link these observations to the material properties. These measurements are then used to access corrected effective stress and strain curves that can be directly compared to the results from the uniaxial extension.

François Tanguy; Matteo Nicoli; Anke Lindner; Costantino Creton



Pixel compounding: resolution-enhanced ultrasound imaging for quantitative analysis.  


Accurate measurement of structural features represented in medical images is important in clinical trials and patient diagnosis. A key factor for precision is spatial resolution, which in ultrasonic imaging is limited by transducer array arrangements, transmitting frequency, and data acquisition firmware. In this paper, a variation of pixel compounding is proposed to enhance ultrasound resolution using acquired cine loops. The technique operates on a sequence of ultrasound B-scan images acquired with random motion. Subpixel registration is estimated and a maximum a posteriori (MAP) approach with the shift information is used to reconstruct a high-resolution single image. A nonhomogeneous anisotropic diffusion algorithm follows from the estimation process and is implemented to enhance the high-resolution edges. Preliminary tests using simulations and phantom studies show promising results. Pixel compounding can be a powerful preprocessing tool to assure accurate segmentation, measurement, and analysis of ultrasound images. PMID:17467150

Yang, Zhi; Tuthill, Theresa A; Raunig, David L; Fox, Martin D; Analoui, Mostafa



Quantitative space-bandwidth product analysis in digital holography.  


The space-bandwidth product (SBP) is a measure for the information capacity an optical system possesses. The two information processing steps in digital holography, recording, and reconstruction are analyzed with respect to the SBP. The recording setups for a Fresnel hologram, Fourier hologram, and image-plane hologram, which represent the most commonly used setup configurations in digital holography, are investigated. For the recording process, the required SBP to ensure the recording of the entire object information is calculated. This is accomplished by analyzing the recorded interference pattern in the hologram-plane. The paraxial diffraction model is used in order to simulate the light propagation from the object to hologram-plane. The SBP in the reconstruction process is represented by the product of the reconstructed field-of-view and spatial frequency bandwidth. The outcome of this analysis results in the best SBP adapted digital holographic setup. PMID:22192996

Claus, Daniel; Iliescu, Daciana; Bryanston-Cross, Peter



Quantitative analysis of highly parallel transfection in cell microarrays  

PubMed Central

As more genomes are sequenced, we are facing the challenge of rapidly unraveling the functions of genes. To that end, cell microarrays have recently been described that transfect thousands of nucleic acids in parallel and can be used to analyze the phenotypic consequences of such perturbations. As many parameters can influence the efficacy of transfection in such a format, we describe some important features in manufacturing cell microarrays that may improve reliability and efficiency of both plasmid DNA and siRNA transfection. We have also developed image analysis software that allows automatic detection of cell clusters, quantification of transfection efficiency and levels of expression/extinction of genes. Along with cell microarrays, this bioinformatic tool should expedite functional exploration of the human genome. PMID:15155824

Baghdoyan, Sandrine; Roupioz, Yoann; Pitaval, Amandine; Castel, David; Khomyakova, Elena; Papine, Alexandre; Soussaline, Françoise; Gidrol, Xavier



Quantitative interferometric microscopic flow cytometer with expanded principal component analysis method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative interferometric microscopy is used in biological and medical fields and a wealth of applications are proposed in order to detect different kinds of biological samples. Here, we develop a phase detecting cytometer based on quantitative interferometric microscopy with expanded principal component analysis phase retrieval method to obtain phase distributions of red blood cells with a spatial resolution ~1.5 ?m. Since expanded principal component analysis method is a time-domain phase retrieval algorithm, it could avoid disadvantages of traditional frequency-domain algorithms. Additionally, the phase retrieval method realizes high-speed phase imaging from multiple microscopic interferograms captured by CCD camera when the biological cells are scanned in the field of view. We believe this method can be a powerful tool to quantitatively measure the phase distributions of different biological samples in biological and medical fields.

Wang, Shouyu; Jin, Ying; Yan, Keding; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Li, Zhenhua



Corrections to the MODIS Aqua Calibration Derived From MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ocean color products such as, e.g., chlorophyll-a concentration, can be derived from the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by imaging sensors on earth-orbiting satellites. There are currently three National Aeronautics and Space Administration sensors in orbit capable of providing ocean color products. One of these sensors is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Aqua satellite, whose ocean color products are currently the most widely used of the three. A recent improvement to the MODIS calibration methodology has used land targets to improve the calibration accuracy. This study evaluates the new calibration methodology and describes further calibration improvements that are built upon the new methodology by including ocean measurements in the form of global temporally averaged water-leaving reflectance measurements. The calibration improvements presented here mainly modify the calibration at the scan edges, taking advantage of the good performance of the land target trending in the center of the scan.

Meister, Gerhard; Franz, Bryan Alden



Quantitative Analysis of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms within Copy Number Variation  

PubMed Central

Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been used extensively in genetics and epidemiology studies. Traditionally, SNPs that did not pass the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test were excluded from these analyses. Many investigators have addressed possible causes for departure from HWE, including genotyping errors, population admixture and segmental duplication. Recent large-scale surveys have revealed abundant structural variations in the human genome, including copy number variations (CNVs). This suggests that a significant number of SNPs must be within these regions, which may cause deviation from HWE. Results We performed a Bayesian analysis on the potential effect of copy number variation, segmental duplication and genotyping errors on the behavior of SNPs. Our results suggest that copy number variation is a major factor of HWE violation for SNPs with a small minor allele frequency, when the sample size is large and the genotyping error rate is 0?1%. Conclusions Our study provides the posterior probability that a SNP falls in a CNV or a segmental duplication, given the observed allele frequency of the SNP, sample size and the significance level of HWE testing. PMID:19093001

Lee, Soohyun; Kasif, Simon; Weng, Zhiping; Cantor, Charles R.



Biochemical and quantitative analysis of Tamm Horsfall protein in rats.  


The involvement of Tamm Horsfall protein (THP) in nephrolithiasis is currently under investigation in several laboratories. Although rat is a commonly used species as an in vivo model for such studies, there is only limited information available about the biochemical properties and excretion profile of THP in normal rats. In order to characterize rat THP, we purified and analyzed normal male rat THP, and compared it with normal human male urinary THP by gel electrophoresis. Both THPs migrated at approximately 90 KDa, and stained similarly for protein (Coomassie blue) as well as carbohydrates (periodic acid Schiff reagent). Compositional analysis revealed that rat THP was largely similar to human THP in amino acid and carbohydrate contents but showed differences in the individual sugar components from other mammals. There was considerable variation in the day-to-day urinary excretion of THP in normal rats, with values ranging from 552.96 micrograms to 2865.60 micrograms and a mean value of 1679.54 micrograms per 24 h. It was concluded from this study that rat THP did not contain any unusual biochemical components and was primarily similar to human THP in composition and mean urinary concentration. PMID:9373916

Gokhale, J A; Glenton, P A; Khan, S R



Funtools: Fits Users Need Tools for Quick, Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Funtools project arose out of conversations with astronomers about the decline in their software development efforts over the past decade. A stated reason for this decline is that it takes too much effort to master one of the existing FITS libraries simply in order to write a few analysis programs. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that astronomers typically develop new programs only occasionally, and the long interval between coding efforts often necessitates re-learning the FITS interfaces. We therefore set ourselves the goal of developing a minimal buy-in FITS library for researchers who are occasional (but serious) coders. In this case, "minimal buy-in" meant "easy to learn, easy to use, and easy to re-learn next month". Based on conversations with astronomers interested in writing code, we concluded that this goal could be achieved by emphasizing two essential capabilities. The first was the ability to write FITS programs without knowing much about FITS, i.e., without having to deal with the arcane rules for generating a properly formatted FITS file. The second was to support the use of already-familiar C/Unix facilities, especially C structs and Unix stdio. Taken together, these two capabilities would allow researchers to leverage their existing programming expertise while minimizing the need to learn new and complex coding rules.

Mandel, Eric; Brederkamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)



Molecular quantitative analysis of human viruses in California stormwater.  


Many human pathogenic viruses are transmitted via the oral-fecal route and water is one possible vector, representing a risk for public health. Sixty-one large-volume water samples from storm drains in California were processed by a two-step hollow fiber ultrafiltration procedure followed by molecular analysis for human enterovirus and adenovirus types. Each sample was spiked with a surrogate, the benign bacteriophage PP7. Both surrogate and human viruses were quantified by newly designed TaqMan PCR assays. Equations were developed that account for the main variables in the procedure: recovery of the ultrafiltration, efficiency of nucleic acid extraction, and effect of inhibitors on the amplification of viral targets. Adenovirus 40/41 was detected in one sample at 230 genomes per liter, and no other adenovirus or enterovirus types were found. Samples that resulted in nondetects are reported together with the corresponding sample-specific limit of detection (S(LOD)), a useful tool when estimating the public health risk associated with the contact or ingestion of water. Virus concentrations did not correlate with traditional viable indicator concentrations or any of the physicochemical parameters measured. In contrast, coliform concentrations were correlated with total suspended solids. To our knowledge, this is the first study where all factors known to influence limits of detection have been investigated and integrated into equations that are widely applicable to the quantification of viruses or other microbial targets by PCR. PMID:17628629

Rajal, V B; McSwain, B S; Thompson, D E; Leutenegger, C M; Wuertz, S



Machine learning methods for quantitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The automated identification and quantification of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of significant importance for law enforcement agencies. This paper explores the use of Machine Learning (ML) methods in comparison with standard statistical regression techniques for developing automated identification methods. In this work, the ML task is broken into two sub-tasks, data reduction and prediction. In well-conditioned data, the number of samples should be much larger than the number of attributes per sample, to limit the degrees of freedom in predictive models. In this spectroscopy data, the opposite is normally true. Predictive models based on such data have a high number of degrees of freedom, which increases the risk of models over-fitting to the sample data and having poor predictive power. In the work described here, an approach to data reduction based on Genetic Algorithms is described. For the prediction sub-task, the objective is to estimate the concentration of a component in a mixture, based on its Raman spectrum and the known concentrations of previously seen mixtures. Here, Neural Networks and k-Nearest Neighbours are used for prediction. Preliminary results are presented for the problem of estimating the concentration of cocaine in solid mixtures, and compared with previously published results in which statistical analysis of the same dataset was performed. Finally, this paper demonstrates how more accurate results may be achieved by using an ensemble of prediction techniques.

Madden, Michael G.; Ryder, Alan G.



Quantitative image analysis of histological sections of coronary arteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of coronary arteries has evolved from examining gross anatomy and morphology to scrutinizing micro-anatomy and cellular composition. Technological advances such as high- resolution digital microscopes and high precision cutting devices have allowed examination of coronary artery morphology and pathology at micron resolution. We have developed a software toolkit to analyze histological sections. In particular, we are currently engaged in examining normal coronary arteries in order to provide the foundation for study of remodeled tissue. The first of two coronary arteries was stained for elastin and collagen. The second coronary artery was sectioned and stained for cellular nuclei and smooth muscle. High resolution light microscopy was used to image the sections. Segmentation was accomplished initially with slice- to-slice thresholding algorithms. These segmentation techniques choose optimal threshold values by modeling the tissue as one or more distributions. Morphology and image statistics were used to further differentiate the thresholded data into different tissue categories therefore refine the results of the segmentation. Specificity/sensitivity analysis suggests that automatic segmentation can be very effective. For both tissue samples, greater than 90% specificity was achieved. Summed voxel projection and maximum intensity projection appear to be effective 3-D visualization tools. Shading methods also provide useful visualization, however it is important to incorporate combined 2-D and 3-D displays. Surface rendering techniques (e.g. color mapping) can be used for visualizing parametric data. Preliminary results are promising, but continued development of algorithms is needed.

Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.



Quantitative Analysis of Colonoscopy Skills Using the KAIST-Ewha Colonoscopy Simulator II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a clinical evaluation of the KAIST-Ewha colonoscopy simulator II, which includes quantitative analysis of colonoscopy experts' and trainees' profiles during simulation. This version of the colonoscopy simulator employs an actual colonoscope with added electronics for simulation, and succeeds the previous version of the colonoscopy simulator with the specialized haptic device and proprietary colon modeler. Five colonoscopy experts

Sun Young Yi; Kum Hei Ryu; Hyun Soo Woo; Woojin Ahn; Woo Seok Kim; Doo Yong Lee



Quantitative analysis of melt elongational behavior of LLDPE\\/LDPE blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shear and elongational data of blends of linear (LLDPE) and branched (LDPE) polyethylene are reported. Blends show thermo-rheological complex behavior. Also, in unidirectional shear or elongational flow, the linear-viscoelastic deformation regime of the blends is significantly reduced, and the terminal relaxation times of the blends are shifted in the direction of the LDPE homopolymer. Quantitative analysis of elongational viscosity data

Manfred H. Wagner; Saeid Kheirandish; Masayuki Yamaguchi



NgViz: Detecting DNS Tunnels through N-Gram Visualization and Quantitative Analysis  

E-print Network

This paper introduced NgViz, a tool that examines DNS traffic and shows anomalies in n-gram frequencies. This is accomplished by comparing input files against a fingerprint of legitimate traffic. Both quantitative analysis and visual aids are provided that allow the user to make determinations about the legitimacy of the DNS traffic.

Born, Kenton



A Quantitative Discourse Analysis of Student-Initiated Checks of Understanding during Teacher-Fronted Lessons  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research highlights the paradoxical importance of students' being able to check their understanding with teachers and of teachers' constraining student participation. Using quantitative discourse analysis, this paper examines third graders' discursive strategies in initiating such checks and teachers' strategies in constraining them. The…

Shepherd, Michael A.



A Quantitative Analysis of Agonistic Behavior in Juvenile American Lobsters (Homarus americanus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies a quantitative analysis of agonistic (fighting) behavior in lobsters is presented as a first step in our attempt to relate patterns of behavior to underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The agonistic behavior of juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L.) was studied in laboratory tanks at the New England Aquarium. Using video analyses and statistical techniques: (1) an ethogram of

R. Huber; E. A. Kravitz



The Database of Quantitative Cellular Signaling: management and analysis of chemical kinetic models of signaling networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Analysis of cellular signaling interactions is expected to pose an enormous informatics challenge, per- haps even larger than analyzing the genome. The complex networks arising from signaling processes are traditionally represented as block diagrams. A key step in the evolu- tion toward a more quantitative understanding of signal- ing is to explicitly specify the kinetics of all chemical reac-

Sudhir Sivakumaran; Sridhar Hariharaputran; Jyoti Mishra; Upinder S. Bhalla



Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds  


Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

Grindstaff, Quirinus G. (Oak Ridge, TN)



Universal Drag Tag for Direct Quantitative Analysis of Multiple David W. Wegman,  

E-print Network

Universal Drag Tag for Direct Quantitative Analysis of Multiple MicroRNAs David W. Wegman, Leonid T drag tags are built into the probes to introduce significant differential mobility between their respective hybrids. For the method to be practical it requires a universal extendable drag tag. Polymers

Krylov, Sergey


Distribution of cortical neurofibrillary tangles in progressive supranuclear palsy: A quantitative analysis of six cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive supranuclear palsy is characterized neuropathologically by the presence of high densities of neurofibrillary tangles in several subcortical structures. In some cases, neurofibrillary tangles have also been described in the cerebral cortex. We performed a quantitative regional and laminar analysis of the distribution of these lesions in six cases of progressive supranuclear palsy. We observed that the neurofibrillary tangle distribution

P. R. Hof; A. Delacourte; C. Bouras



C emQUANT ® software Mathematical modeling in quantitative phase analysis of Portland cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is necessary to determine a complete mineralogy of clinker cement to correctly understand, interpret, and predict the outcome of any plant production process. The cement industry's standard method (ASTM C 150) used in quantitative phase analysis of alite, belite, aluminate, and ferrite has long been known to provide approximate concentrations. The wet chemical and optical microscopy methods are too

B. Feret; C. F. Feret



Quantitative Analysis of TumorVascularity in Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid  

E-print Network

vascular indices (VIs). The accura- cy of sonographic criteria for thyroid cancer was evaluated to be an efficient tool for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Despite the advantages, this is an invasive procedureQuantitative Analysis of TumorVascularity in Benign and Malignant Solid Thyroid Nodules Andrej

Miga, Michael I.


Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

Furner, Jonathan



Toward a Quantitative Analysis of Online Pornography Antoine Mazires (SenS-INRA)  

E-print Network

1 Deep Tags Toward a Quantitative Analysis of Online Pornography Antoine Mazières (Sen available for further study. Keywords: online pornography; computational social sciences; sexual categories of pornography, revealing a proliferation of `diff'rent strokes for diff'rent folks' (Williams 1992), she shed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Deep tags: toward a quantitative analysis of online pornography Antoine Maziresa,d  

E-print Network

Deep tags: toward a quantitative analysis of online pornography Antoine Mazièresa,d *, Mathieu available for further study. Keywords: online pornography; computational social sciences; sexual categories Linda Williams compared different kinds of pornography, revealing a proliferation of `diff'rent strokes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


A Quantitative Features Analysis of Recommended No- and Low-Cost Preschool E-Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, recommended e-books have drawn increasing attention from early childhood education professionals. This study applied a quantitative descriptive features analysis of cost (n = 70) and no-cost (n = 60) e-books recommended by the Texas Computer Education Association. While t tests revealed no statistically significant differences…

Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Luthin, Katie



Quantitative Analysis of Histopathological Features of Precancerous Lesion and Condition Using Image Processing Technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims at quantitative analysis of histopathological features of precancerous lesion and condition using image processing technique. The algorithm involves median and low pass filtering, segmentation by adaptive region growing, optimal and local thresholding, morphological operations such as opening and closing of gray scale and binary images and some numerical methods. Differentiation on the basis of type and level

Abhijeet Jadhav; Swapna Banerjee; P. K. Dutta; R. R. Paul; Mausami Pal; P. Banerjee; K. Chaudhuri; J. Chatterjee



A Quantitative Categorical Analysis of Metadata Elements in Image-Applicable Metadata Schemas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a quantitative categorical analysis of metadata elements in the Dublin Core, VRA (Visual Resource Association) Core, REACH (Record Export for Art and Cultural Heritage), and EAD (Encoded Archival Description) metadata schemas, all of which can be used for organizing and describing images. Introduces a new schema comparison methodology…

Greenberg, Jane



Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Current  

E-print Network

Selenium and Lung Cancer: A Quantitative Analysis of Heterogeneity in the Current Epidemiological on sele- nium and lung cancer and identify sources of heterogeneity among studies. When all studies were.30). Overall, these results suggest that selenium may have some protective effect against lung cancer

California at Berkeley, University of


Formal Specification and Quantitative Analysis of a Constellation of Navigation Satellites  

E-print Network

Formal Specification and Quantitative Analysis of a Constellation of Navigation Satellites Navigation satellites are a core component of navigation satellite based sys- tems such as GPS, GLONASS and Galileo which provide location and timing information for a variety of uses. Such satellites are designed

Miller, Alice


Computerized rapid high resolution quantitative analysis of plasma lipoproteins based upon single vertical spin centrifugation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for rapidly quantitating the cholesterol concentration of normal and certain variant li- poproteins in a large number of patients (over 240 in one week). The method employs a microcomputer interfaced to the vertical autoprofiler (VAP) described earlier (Chung et al. 1981. 1. Lipid Res. 22 1003-1014). Software developed to accomplish rapid on-line analysis of the

John T. Cone; Jere P. Segrest; Byung H. Chung; James B. Ragland; Seymour M. Sabesin; Alice Glasscock


Quantitative Intersectionality: A Critical Race Analysis of the Chicana/o Educational Pipeline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Utilizing the critical race framework of intersectionality, this research reexamines the Chicana/o educational pipeline through a quantitative intersectional analysis. This approach disaggregates data along the intersection of race, class, gender, and citizenship status to provide a detailed portrait of the educational trajectory of Mexican-origin…

Covarrubias, Alejandro




E-print Network

GINI COEFFICIENTS, SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS, AND MARKOV CHAINS: QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR ANA- LYZING Carolina, 1994 Research Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Faculty of Environment Project No. 538 © Gregory Kelly 2012 SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY Summer 2012 All rights


Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis  

E-print Network

1 Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis of how, Andrew J. Dougill and Piers M. Forster August 2010 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 29 #12;2 The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) was established

Rambaut, Andrew


A Quantitative Genetic Analysis of Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Structured Populations of Silene vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gynodioecy, the coexistence of functionally female and hermaphroditic morphs within plant popula- tions, often has a complicated genetic basis involving several cytoplasmic male-sterility factors and nuclear restorers. This complexity has made it difficult to study the genetics and evolution of gynodioecy in natural populations. We use a quantitative genetic analysis of crosses within and among populations of Silene vulgaris to

Douglas R. Taylor; Matthew S. Olson; David E. McCauley


The identification and quantitative analysis of abscisic acid in plant extracts by gas-liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

New techniques are described which permit the quantitative analysis of microgram quantities of abscisic acid in plant extracts by gas chromatography. Presumptive methyl abscisate peaks on gas chromatograms are positively identified by photosensitised isomerisation to methyl 2-trans-abscisate. Losses of abscisic acid during pre-purification are corrected by using 2-trans-abscisic acid as an internal standard.

J. R. Lenton; V. M. Perry; P. F. Saunders



Systematic review of quantitative clinical gait analysis in patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Introduction: Diminished mobility often accompanies dementia and has a great impact on independence and quality of life. New treatment strategies for dementia are emerging, but the effects on gait remains to be studied objectively. In this review we address the general effects of dementia on gait as revealed by quantitative gait analysis. Methods: A systematic literature search with the

M. B. van Iersel; W. Hoefsloot; M. Munneke; B. R. Bloem; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert



A Colorimetric Analysis Experiment Not Requiring a Spectrophotometer: Quantitative Determination of Albumin in Powdered Egg White  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general science experiment for high school chemistry students might serve as an excellent review of the concepts of solution preparation, solubility, pH, and qualitative and quantitative analysis of a common food product. The students could learn to use safe laboratory techniques, collect and analyze data using proper scientific methodology and…

Charlton, Amanda K.; Sevcik, Richard S.; Tucker, Dorie A.; Schultz, Linda D.



Mixed General Linear Model Analysis of Quantitative Electroencephalographic (qEEG) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a mixed general linear analysis of the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG). The modeling is similar to regression, which builds a regression or ‘best-fit’ model for the data structure but, in addition, provides for correlations between observations. A mixed linear model states that data consists of two parts: fixed effects and random effects. Fixed effects determine the expected values

Donald R. Bars; Christian Schindler



ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya



Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Volume 6, Issue 3 2010 Article 8  

E-print Network

Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Volume 6, Issue 3 2010 Article 8 A Point-Mass Mixture, Blakeley B. McShane, and Shane T. Jensen Abstract A plethora of statistics have been proposed to measure), some have gained currency only recently (e.g., WHIP, K/BB). Some of these metrics may have predictive

Jensen, Shane T.


Volume 2, Issue 4 2006 Article 1 Journal of Quantitative Analysis in  

E-print Network

, Sidney (2006) "Parity and Predictability of Competitions," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports.2202/1559-0410.1034 ©2006 American Statistical Association. All rights reserved. #12;Parity and Predictability, and it can be used to estimate the upset frequency from standings data. KEYWORDS: sports statistics, parity

Redner, Sidney


Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning.  

E-print Network

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine is the identification of solvents into chlorinated or non-chlorinated. In this work we have used Raman spectroscopy. Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, hazardous materials, chlorinated solvents, non-chlorinated solvents

Madden, Michael


Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar with x-ray microspectroscopy  

E-print Network

%, respectively.15 Kevlar® 149 and 49 are known to have a radial lateral structure, and radial morphologicalQuantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar® fibers) with x of Kevlar® fibers. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. S0003-6951 96 02951-8 Near edge x-ray absorption


Fiber tract-oriented statistics for quantitative diffusion tensor MRI analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become the major imaging modality to study properties of white matter and the geometry of fiber tracts of the human brain. Clinical studies mostly focus on regional statistics of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) derived from tensors. Existing analysis techniques do not sufficiently take into account that the measurements are tensors, and

Isabelle Corouge; P. Thomas Fletcher; Sarang C. Joshi; Sylvain Gouttard; Guido Gerig



Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: the combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate here the application of a single and generalized method for analyzing dose-effect relationships in enzymatic, cellular and whole animal systems. We also examine the problem of quantitating the effects of multiple inhibitors on such systems and provide definitions of summation of effects, and consequently of synergism and antagonism. Since the proposed method of analysis is derived from generalized




Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.



Analytical strategies based on multiple headspace extraction for the quantitative analysis of aroma components in mushrooms.  


Headspace (HS) and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have been found to be suitable methods for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. The objectives of this paper are to study the possibilities of multiple headspace extraction (MHE) for the quantitative determination of volatile compounds in mushroom samples and to compare the results obtained using three different sample treatment techniques. For this purpose, HS with two different injection techniques (pressure-loop system and gas-tight syringe autosampling system) and HS-SPME have been studied. Three processes were optimized for the analysis of 20 volatile compounds by experimental design technique based on Central Composite Design (CCD) and Full Factorial Design depending on the used methodology. Once the designs were finished, a trade off among optimum conditions for each compound analyzed was reached. At optimum conditions, appropriate extraction time and sample amount for the three techniques used were established. Finally, the methods were validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantitation limits and repeatability. The most suitable method was then applied to the quantitative analysis of seven mushroom samples. A detailed comparison of the analytical performance characteristics of HS and HS-SPME as sample treatment techniques for final GC/MS determination is given. In addition, MHE has been proved to be an adequate technique to avoid matrix effects in complex samples quantitation. Its applicability to the determination of volatile mushroom components, along with its limitations, is discussed in this work. PMID:24725884

San Román, I; Alonso, M L; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, R M; Fañanás, R



Quantitative analysis of bristle number in Drosophila mutants identifies genes involved in neural development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: The identification of the function of all genes that contribute to specific biological processes and complex traits is one of the major challenges in the postgenomic era. One approach is to employ forward genetic screens in genetically tractable model organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, P element-mediated insertional mutagenesis is a versatile tool for the dissection of molecular pathways, and there is an ongoing effort to tag every gene with a P element insertion. However, the vast majority of P element insertion lines are viable and fertile as homozygotes and do not exhibit obvious phenotypic defects, perhaps because of the tendency for P elements to insert 5' of transcription units. Quantitative genetic analysis of subtle effects of P element mutations that have been induced in an isogenic background may be a highly efficient method for functional genome annotation. RESULTS: Here, we have tested the efficacy of this strategy by assessing the extent to which screening for quantitative effects of P elements on sensory bristle number can identify genes affecting neural development. We find that such quantitative screens uncover an unusually large number of genes that are known to function in neural development, as well as genes with yet uncharacterized effects on neural development, and novel loci. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish the use of quantitative trait analysis for functional genome annotation through forward genetics. Similar analyses of quantitative effects of P element insertions will facilitate our understanding of the genes affecting many other complex traits in Drosophila.

Norga, Koenraad K.; Gurganus, Marjorie C.; Dilda, Christy L.; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Lyman, Richard F.; Patel, Prajal H.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Mackay, Trudy F.; Bellen, Hugo J.



Quantitative analysis of ciliary beating in primary ciliary dyskinesia: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare congenital respiratory disorder characterized by abnormal ciliary motility leading to chronic airway infections. Qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern based on digital high-speed videomicroscopy analysis has been proposed in the diagnosis process of PCD. Although this evaluation is easy in typical cases, it becomes difficult when ciliary beating is partially maintained. We postulated that a quantitative analysis of beat pattern would improve PCD diagnosis. We compared quantitative parameters with the qualitative evaluation of ciliary beat pattern in patients in whom the diagnosis of PCD was confirmed or excluded. Methods Nasal nitric oxide measurement, nasal brushings and biopsies were performed prospectively in 34 patients with suspected PCD. In combination with qualitative analysis, 12 quantitative parameters of ciliary beat pattern were determined on high-speed videomicroscopy recordings of beating ciliated edges. The combination of ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities on transmission electron microscopy analysis with low nasal nitric oxide levels was the “gold standard” used to establish the diagnosis of PCD. Results This “gold standard” excluded PCD in 15 patients (non-PCD patients), confirmed PCD in 10 patients (PCD patients) and was inconclusive in 9 patients. Among the 12 parameters, the distance traveled by the cilium tip weighted by the percentage of beating ciliated edges presented 96% sensitivity and 95% specificity. Qualitative evaluation and quantitative analysis were concordant in non-PCD patients. In 9/10 PCD patients, quantitative analysis was concordant with the “gold standard”, while the qualitative evaluation was discordant with the “gold standard” in 3/10 cases. Among the patients with an inconclusive “gold standard”, the use of quantitative parameters supported PCD diagnosis in 4/9 patients (confirmed by the identification of disease-causing mutations in one patient) and PCD exclusion in 2/9 patients. Conclusions When the beat pattern is normal or virtually immotile, the qualitative evaluation is adequate to study ciliary beating in patients suspected for PCD. However, when cilia are still beating but with moderate alterations (more than 40% of patients suspected for PCD), quantitative analysis is required to precise the diagnosis and can be proposed to select patients eligible for TEM. PMID:23057704



Quantitative analysis of long-chain trans -monoenes originating from hydrogenated marine oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas chromatography (GC) is used for the analysis of trans-fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Although trans-isomers of C18 carbon length predominate in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, trans-isomers of C20 and C22 carbon length occur in partially hydrogenated fish oil. We report a simple silver ion chromatographic combined with capillary\\u000a GC technique for quantitative analysis of trans-monoenes derived from

Robert Wilson; Karin Lyall; J. Anne Payne; Rudolph A. Riemersma



Direct Comparison of GeneChip and SAGE on the Quantitative Accuracy in Transcript Profiling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the high-throughput, comprehensive technological methods used to analyze transcript expression levels, array-based hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) are currently the most common approaches. To compare the quantitative accuracy of oligonucleotide array and SAGE, both methods were carried out on identical RNA specimens prepared from human blood monocytes and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced macrophages. For SAGE analysis,

Masami Ishii; Shin-ichi Hashimoto; Shuichi Tsutsumi; Yoichiro Wada; Kouji Matsushima; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Hiroyuki Aburatani



Quantitative trait loci analysis of powdery mildew disease resistance in the Arabidopsis thaliana accession kashmir-1.  

PubMed Central

Powdery mildew diseases are economically important diseases, caused by obligate biotrophic fungi of the Erysiphales. To understand the complex inheritance of resistance to the powdery mildew disease in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, quantitative trait loci analysis was performed using a set of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the resistant accession Kashmir-1 and the susceptible accession Columbia glabrous1. We identified and mapped three independent powdery mildew quantitative disease resistance loci, which act additively to confer disease resistance. The locus with the strongest effect on resistance was mapped to a 500-kbp interval on chromosome III. PMID:11454776

Wilson, I W; Schiff, C L; Hughes, D E; Somerville, S C



A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis  

PubMed Central

Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool ( to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.



Quantitative image analysis for the characterization of microbial aggregates in biological wastewater treatment: a review.  


Quantitative image analysis techniques have gained an undeniable role in several fields of research during the last decade. In the field of biological wastewater treatment (WWT) processes, several computer applications have been developed for monitoring microbial entities, either as individual cells or in different types of aggregates. New descriptors have been defined that are more reliable, objective, and useful than the subjective and time-consuming parameters classically used to monitor biological WWT processes. Examples of this application include the objective prediction of filamentous bulking, known to be one of the most problematic phenomena occurring in activated sludge technology. It also demonstrated its usefulness in classifying protozoa and metazoa populations. In high-rate anaerobic processes, based on granular sludge, aggregation times and fragmentation phenomena could be detected during critical events, e.g., toxic and organic overloads. Currently, the major efforts and needs are in the development of quantitative image analysis techniques focusing on its application coupled with stained samples, either by classical or fluorescent-based techniques. The use of quantitative morphological parameters in process control and online applications is also being investigated. This work reviews the major advances of quantitative image analysis applied to biological WWT processes. PMID:23716077

Costa, J C; Mesquita, D P; Amaral, A L; Alves, M M; Ferreira, E C



Quantitative ferromagnetic resonance analysis of CD 133 stem cells labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to provide a quantitative method for analysis of the concentration of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), determined by means of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), with the nanoparticles coupled to a specific antibody (AC 133), and thus to express the antigenic labeling evidence for the stem cells CD 133+. The FMR efficiency and sensitivity were proven adequate for detecting and quantifying the low amounts of iron content in the CD 133+ cells (~6.16 × 105 pg in the volume of 2 µl containing 4.5 × 1011 SPION). The quantitative method led to the result of 1.70 × 10-13 mol of Fe (9.5 pg), or 7.0 × 106 nanoparticles per cell. For the quantification analysis via the FMR technique it was necessary to carry out a preliminary quantitative visualization of iron oxide-labeled cells in order to ensure that the nanoparticles coupled to the antibodies are indeed tied to the antigen at the stem cell surface and that the cellular morphology was conserved, as proof of the validity of this method. The quantitative analysis by means of FMR is necessary for determining the signal intensity for the study of molecular imaging by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Gamarra, L. F.; Pavon, L. F.; Marti, L. C.; Pontuschka, W. M.; Mamani, J. B.; Costa-Filho, A. J.; Vieira, E. D.; Moreira-Filho, C. A.; Amaro, E., Jr.



Adjusting Aqua MODIS TEB nonlinear calibration coefficients using iterative solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric calibration is important for continuity and reliability of any optical sensor data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite has been nominally operating since its launch on May 4, 2002. The MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using a quadratic calibration algorithm and the dominant gain term is determined every scan by reference to a temperature-controlled blackbody (BB) with known emissivity. On a quarterly basis, a BB warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) process is scheduled to provide measurements to determine the offset and nonlinear coefficients used in the TEB calibration algorithm. For Aqua MODIS, the offset and nonlinear terms are based on the results from prelaunch thermal vacuum tests. However, on-orbit trending results show that they have small but noticeable drifts. To maintain data quality and consistency, an iterative approach is applied to adjust the prelaunch based nonlinear terms, which are currently used to produce Aqua MODIS Collection-6 L1B. This paper provides details on how to use an iterative solution to determine these calibration coefficients based on BB WUCD measurements. Validation is performed using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) of Aqua MODIS and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the Metop-A satellite and near surface temperature measurements at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau.

Wu, Aisheng; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian N.; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong



Aqua Licentiate Theses 2013:2 Licentiate Thesis  

E-print Network

Communities Mechanisms to Explain Spatial Distribution of Perch, Roach, and Vendace AquaLicentiateTheses2013 Spatial Distribution of Perch, Roach, and Vendace Ulrika Beier Faculty of Natural Resources Spatial Distribution of Perch, Roach, and Vendace Abstract To increase the understanding of freshwater


[Quantitative surface analysis of Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag alloy films by XPS and AES].  


In order to improve the quantitative analysis accuracy of AES, We associated XPS with AES and studied the method to reduce the error of AES quantitative analysis, selected Pt-Co, Cu-Au and Cu-Ag binary alloy thin-films as the samples, used XPS to correct AES quantitative analysis results by changing the auger sensitivity factors to make their quantitative analysis results more similar. Then we verified the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of AES when using the revised sensitivity factors by other samples with different composition ratio, and the results showed that the corrected relative sensitivity factors can reduce the error in quantitative analysis of AES to less than 10%. Peak defining is difficult in the form of the integral spectrum of AES analysis since choosing the starting point and ending point when determining the characteristic auger peak intensity area with great uncertainty, and to make analysis easier, we also processed data in the form of the differential spectrum, made quantitative analysis on the basis of peak to peak height instead of peak area, corrected the relative sensitivity factors, and verified the accuracy of quantitative analysis by the other samples with different composition ratio. The result showed that the analytical error in quantitative analysis of AES reduced to less than 9%. It showed that the accuracy of AES quantitative analysis can be highly improved by the way of associating XPS with AES to correct the auger sensitivity factors since the matrix effects are taken into account. Good consistency was presented, proving the feasibility of this method. PMID:24555396

Li, Lian-Zhong; Zhuo, Shang-Jun; Shen, Ru-Xiang; Qian, Rong; Gao, Jie



Identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds based on multiscale linear fitting of terahertz spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy is considered as an attractive tool for the analysis of chemical composition. The traditional methods for identification and quantitative analysis of chemical compounds by THz spectroscopy are all based on full-spectrum data. However, intrinsic features of the THz spectrum only lie in absorption peaks due to existence of disturbances, such as unexpected components, scattering effects, and barrier materials. We propose a strategy that utilizes Lorentzian parameters of THz absorption peaks, extracted by a multiscale linear fitting method, for both identification of pure chemicals and quantitative analysis of mixtures. The multiscale linear fitting method can automatically remove background content and accurately determine Lorentzian parameters of the absorption peaks. The high recognition rate for 16 pure chemical compounds and the accurate predicted concentrations for theophylline-lactose mixtures demonstrate the practicability of our approach.

Qiao, Lingbo; Wang, Yingxin; Zhao, Ziran; Chen, Zhiqiang



Accuracy improvement of quantitative analysis in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using modified wavelet transform.  


A modified algorithm of background removal based on wavelet transform was developed for spectrum correction in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The optimal type of wavelet function, decomposition level and scaling factor ? were determined by the root-mean-square error of calibration (RMSEC) of the univariate regression model of the analysis element, which is considered as the optimization criteria. After background removal by this modified algorithm with RMSEC, the root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and the average relative error (ARE) criteria, the accuracy of quantitative analysis on chromium (Cr), vanadium (V), cuprum (Cu), and manganese (Mn) in the low alloy steel was all improved significantly. The results demonstrated that the algorithm developed is an effective pretreatment method in LIBS to significantly improve the accuracy in the quantitative analysis. PMID:24921726

Zou, X H; Guo, L B; Shen, M; Li, X Y; Hao, Z Q; Zeng, Q D; Lu, Y F; Wang, Z M; Zeng, X Y



Automated analysis of tissue microarrays.  


The analysis of protein expression in tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC) presents three significant challenges. They are (1) the time-consuming nature of pathologist-based scoring of slides; (2) the need for objective quantification and localization of protein expression; and (3) the need for a highly reproducible measurement to limit intra- and inter-observer variability. While there are a variety of commercially available platforms for automated chromagen-based and fluorescence-based image acquisition of tissue microarrays, this chapter is focused on the analysis of fluorescent images by AQUA(R) analysis (Automated QUantitative Analysis) and the solutions offered by such a method for research and diagnostics. AQUA analysis is a method for molecularly defining regions of interest or "compartments" within a tissue section. The methodology can be utilized with tissue microarrays to provide rapid, quantitative, localized, and reproducible protein expression data that can then be used to identify statistically relevant correlations in populations. Ultimately this allows for a multiplexed, objective and standardized quantitative approach for biomarker research and diagnostic assay development for protein expression in tissue. PMID:20690061

Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Gustavson, Mark; Camp, Robert L; Rimm, David L; Tonkinson, John L; Christiansen, Jason



HPTLC Hyphenated with FTIR: Principles, Instrumentation and Qualitative Analysis and Quantitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, much effort has been devoted to the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) with spectrometric methods because of the robustness and simplicity of HPTLC and the need for detection techniques that provide identification and determination of sample constituents. IR is one of the spectroscopic methods that have been coupled with HPTLC. IR spectroscopy has a high potential for the elucidation of molecular structures, and the characteristic absorption bands can be used for compound-specific detection. HPTLC-FTIR coupled method has been widely used in the modern laboratories for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The potential of this method is demonstrated by its application in different fields of analysis such as drug analysis, forensic analysis, food analysis, environmental analysis, biological analysis, etc. The hyphenated HPTLC-FTIR technique will be developed in the future with the aim of taking full advantage of this method.

Cimpoiu, Claudia


Effects of heavy-metal stress on cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae.  


The influence of two metals, copper and cadmium, was studied on the growth and ultrastructures of cyanobacterium Anabaena flos-aquae grown at three different temperatures: 10 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 30 degrees C. The highest concentration of chlorophyll a was observed at 20 degrees C and the lowest at 10 degrees C. Both toxic metal ions, Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), inhibited growth of the tested cyanobacterium. Chlorophyll a concentration decreased with the increase of metal concentration. A 50% decrease in the growth of A. flos-aquae population, compared with the control, was reached at 0.61 mg l(-1) cadmium and at 0.35 mg l(-1) copper (at 20 degrees C). Copper at all temperatures tested was proven to be more toxic than cadmium. At 3 mg l(-1), the lysis and distortion of cells was observed; however, after incubation at 9 mg l(-1) cadmium, most of the cells were still intact, and only intrathylakoidal spaces started to appear. Copper caused considerably greater changes in the protein system of A. flos-aquae than did cadmium; in this case, not only phycobilins but also total proteins were destructed. The aim of this study was also to identify the place of metal accumulation and sorption in the tested cyanobacterium. Analysis of the energy-dispersion spectra of the characteristic x-ray radiation of trichomes and their sheaths showed that cadmium was completely accumulated in cells but was not found in the sheath. Spectrum of the isolated sheath after treatment with copper exhibited only traces of the metal, but isolated cells without a sheath showed a high peak of copper. PMID:15657804

Surosz, W; Palinska, K A



Errors in Quantitative Image Analysis due to Platform-Dependent Image Scaling1  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability of various software (SW) tools used for quantitative image analysis to properly account for source-specific image scaling employed by magnetic resonance imaging manufacturers. METHODS: A series of gadoteridol-doped distilled water solutions (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% volume concentrations) was prepared for manual substitution into one (of three) phantom compartments to create “variable signal,” whereas the other two compartments (containing mineral oil and 0.25% gadoteriol) were held unchanged. Pseudodynamic images were acquired over multiple series using four scanners such that the histogram of pixel intensities varied enough to provoke variable image scaling from series to series. Additional diffusion-weighted images were acquired of an ice-water phantom to generate scanner-specific apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. The resulting pseudodynamic images and ADC maps were analyzed by eight centers of the Quantitative Imaging Network using 16 different SW tools to measure compartment-specific region-of-interest intensity. RESULTS: Images generated by one of the scanners appeared to have additional intensity scaling that was not accounted for by the majority of tested quantitative image analysis SW tools. Incorrect image scaling leads to intensity measurement bias near 100%, compared to nonscaled images. CONCLUSION: Corrective actions for image scaling are suggested for manufacturers and quantitative imaging community. PMID:24772209

Chenevert, Thomas L; Malyarenko, Dariya I; Newitt, David; Li, Xin; Jayatilake, Mohan; Tudorica, Alina; Fedorov, Andriy; Kikinis, Ron; Liu, Tiffany Ting; Muzi, Mark; Oborski, Matthew J; Laymon, Charles M; Li, Xia; Thomas, Yankeelov; Jayashree, Kalpathy-Cramer; Mountz, James M; Kinahan, Paul E; Rubin, Daniel L; Fennessy, Fiona; Huang, Wei; Hylton, Nola; Ross, Brian D



Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis  

PubMed Central

To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its' suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated. PMID:23495885

Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Ramirez-Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.



Identification of bovine sperm head for morphometry analysis in quantitative phase-contrast holographic microscopy.  


An investigation is reported of the identification and measurement of region of interest (ROI) in quantitative phase-contrast maps of biological cells by digital holographic microscopy. In particular, two different methods have been developed for in vitro bull sperm head morphometry analysis. We show that semen analysis can be accomplished by means of the proposed techniques . Extraction and measurement of various parameters are performed. It is demonstrated that both proposed methods are efficient to skim the data set in a preselective analysis for discarding anomalous data. PMID:22109200

Memmolo, P; Di Caprio, G; Distante, C; Paturzo, M; Puglisi, R; Balduzzi, D; Galli, A; Coppola, G; Ferraro, P



Response factor considerations for the quantitative analysis of western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliar monoterpenes.  


A method is described for quantitative analysis of monoterpenes in western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliage by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Response factors for monoterpenes identified in redcedar are evaluated to determine similarities among monoterpene responses. Evaluation demonstrates that redcedar monoterpenes yield detector responses that fall into two groups. One monoterpene from each group is used as a standard for quantitative analysis. Redcedar monoterpenes are quantitated by comparing analyte response with the response factor of one of the standards in single-point calibrations. Homogenized foliage samples are extracted with ethyl acetate and the extracts passed through a solid phase extraction column of graphitized carbon to remove plant pigments. Method bias and repeatability are evaluated by fortifying foliage samples with (1S)-(+)-carvone and (1S)-(+)-2-carene and subjecting the samples to the extraction and analysis procedures. Detection limits are also assessed from fortified samples. Excellent recovery (> 95.0%) and precision (< 5%) are obtained from the analysis of 2-carene from fortified samples. Carvone recovery is approximately 80% with excellent precision (< 4%). The method limits of detection obtained from 2-carene and carvone fortified samples are 4.7 and 13.5 microg/g, respectively. PMID:15975244

Kimball, Bruce A; Russell, John H; Griffin, Doreen L; Johnston, John J



Simultaneous, sequential quantitative achiral-chiral analysis by two-dimensional liquid chromatography.  


In general, chromatographic analysis of chiral compounds involves a minimum of two methods; a primary achiral method for assay and impurity analysis and a secondary chiral method for assessing chiral purity. Achiral method resolves main enantiomeric pairs of component from potential impurities and degradation products and chiral method resolves enantiomeric pairs of the main component and diastereomer pairs. Reversed-phase chromatographic methods are preferred for assay and impurity analysis (high efficiency and selectivity) whereas chiral separation is performed by reverse phase, normal phase, or polar organic mode. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of heart-cutting (LC-LC) and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) in simultaneous, sequential achiral and chiral analysis and quantitation of minor, undesired enantiomer in the presence of major, desired enantiomer using phenylalanine as an example. The results were comparable between LC-LC and LC × LC with former offering better sensitivity and accuracy. The quantitation range was over three orders of magnitude with undesired D-phenylalanine detected at approximately 0.3% in the presence of predominant, desired L-phenylalanine (99.7%). The limit of quantitation was comparable to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography. A reversed-phase C18 achiral column in the primary and reversed-phase Chirobiotic Tag chiral column in the secondary dimension were used with a compatible mobile phase. PMID:22807357

Venkatramani, Cadapakam J; Wigman, Larry; Mistry, Kavita; Chetwyn, Nicholas



Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.  


Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. PMID:23892044

Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y



Quantitative analysis of terahertz spectra for illicit drugs using adaptive-range micro-genetic algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the field of anti-illicit drug applications, many suspicious mixture samples might consist of various drug components—for example, a mixture of methamphetamine, heroin, and amoxicillin—which makes spectral identification very difficult. A terahertz spectroscopic quantitative analysis method using an adaptive range micro-genetic algorithm with a variable internal population (ARVIP??GA) has been proposed. Five mixture cases are discussed using ARVIP??GA driven quantitative terahertz spectroscopic analysis in this paper. The devised simulation results show agreement with the previous experimental results, which suggested that the proposed technique has potential applications for terahertz spectral identifications of drug mixture components. The results show agreement with the results obtained using other experimental and numerical techniques.

Chen, Yi; Ma, Yong; Lu, Zheng; Peng, Bei; Chen, Qin



GC-FID coupled with chemometrics for quantitative and chemical fingerprinting analysis of Alpinia oxyphylla oil.  


Analytical methods for quantitative analysis and chemical fingerprinting of volatile oils from Alpinia oxyphylla were established. The volatile oils were prepared by hydrodistillation, and the yields were between 0.82% and 1.33%. The developed gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method showed good specificity, linearity, reproducibility, stability and recovery, and could be used satisfactorily for quantitative analysis. The results showed that the volatile oils contained 2.31-77.30?L/mL p-cymene and 12.38-99.34mg/mL nootkatone. A GC-FID fingerprinting method was established, and the profiles were analyzed using chemometrics. GC-MS was used to identify the principal compounds in the GC-FID profiles. The profiles of almost all the samples were consistent and stable. The harvesting time and source were major factors that affected the profile, while the volatile oil yield and the nootkatone content had minor secondary effects. PMID:25459943

Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Zhao, Xiangsheng; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua



Quantitative analysis of surface characteristics and morphology in Death Valley, California using AIRSAR data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (JPL-AIRSAR) is used to collect full polarimetric measurements at P-, L-, and C-bands. These data are analyzed using the radar analysis and visualization environment (RAVEN). The AIRSAR data are calibrated using in-scene corner reflectors to allow for quantitative analysis of the radar backscatter. RAVEN is used to extract surface characteristics. Inversion models are used to calculate quantitative surface roughness values and fractal dimensions. These values are used to generate synthetic surface plots that represent the small-scale surface structure of areas in Death Valley. These procedures are applied to a playa, smooth salt-pan, and alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley. Field measurements of surface roughness are used to verify the accuracy.

Kierein-Young, K. S.; Kruse, F. A.; Lefkoff, A. B.



Biomonitoring and risk assessment on earth and during exploratory missions using AquaHab ®  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bioregenerative closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) will be necessary in the exploration context revitalizing atmosphere, waste water and producing food for the human CELSS mates. During these long-term space travels and stays far away from Earth in an hostile environment as well as far for example from any hospital and surgery potential, it will be necessary to know much more about chemical and drug contamination in the special sense and by human's themselves in detail. Additionally, there is a strong need on Earth for more relevant standardized test systems including aquatic ones for the prospective risk assessment of chemicals and drugs in general on a laboratory scale. Current standardized test systems are mono species tests, and thus do not represent system aspects and have reduced environmental relevance. The experience gained during the last years in our research group lead to the development of a self-sustaining closed aquatic habitat/facility, called AquaHab ® which can serve regarding space exploration and Earth application. The AquaHab ® module can be the home of several fish species, snails, plants, amphipods and bacteria. The possibility to use different effect endpoints with certain beneficial characteristics is the basis for the application of AquaHab ® in different fields. Influence of drugs and chemicals can be tested on several trophic levels and ecosystem levels; guaranteeing a high relevance for aquatic systems in the real environment. Analyses of effect parameters of different complexity (e.g. general biological and water chemical parameters, activity of biotransforming enzymes) result in broad spectra of sensitivity. Combined with residual analyses (including all metabolites), this leads to an extended prospective risk assessment of a chemical on Earth and in a closed Life Support System. The possibility to measure also sensitive "online" parameters (e.g. behavior, respiration/photosynthetic activity) enables a quick and sensitive effect analysis of water contaminants in respective environments. AquaHab ® is currently under development to an early warning biomonitoring system using genetically modified fish and green algae. The implementation of biosensors/biochip in addition is also discussed.

Slenzka, K.; Dünne, M.; Jastorff, B.



A Method for Accurate Quantitative XPS Analysis of Multimetallic or Multiphase Catalysts on Support Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical formalism for the quantitative analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) intensities for supported, multiphase catalysts is presented. Such powdered catalysts are modeled as spherical support particles, covered in regions (islands) by different stratified layers of phases. It specifically considers the variation in photoelectron take-off angle over the surface of the particles, by integrating the signal over the particle?s

A. Frydman; D. G. Castner; M. Schmal; C. T. Campbell



Developing methods for qualitative and quantitative analysis of Chelidonium majus herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure compound has been isolated and identified as coptisine on the basis of UV and NMR spectroscopy data using preparative\\u000a separation of the extract from greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) herbs by column chromatography over short columns of silica gel. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of the total\\u000a alkaloid contents in C. majus is performed using TLC analysis and spectrophotometry

E. S. Artamonova; V. A. Kurkin



New ways in qualitative and quantitative protein analysis: Nano chromatography coupled to element mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), which allows element-specific detection of heteroelements (e.g. Se and S) incorporated in protein structures, is highlighted for sensitive qualitative and quantitative protein analysis. ICP-MS coupled to separation techniques such as size exclusion chromatography and gel electrophoresis (via laser ablation) can be employed at different steps in the proteomic workflow. Special emphasis is

Dirk Schaumlöffel



Precision of milk fat quantitation in mixed fats by analysis of butyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Quantitation of the milk fat content in mixed fats is of interest in food analysis. It can be achieved by calculation from\\u000a the butyric acid (C4) content in the mixed fat and a mean C4 content for pure milk fats. Alternatively, instead of applying\\u000a a C4 mean value, the C4 content in the actual milk fat can be used if

J. Molkentin; D. Precht



Quantitative analysis of voids in percolating structures in two-dimensional N-body simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present in this paper a quantitative method for defining void size in large-scale structure based on percolation threshold density. Beginning with two-dimensional gravitational clustering simulations smoothed to the threshold of nonlinearity, we perform percolation analysis to determine the large scale structure. The resulting objective definition of voids has a natural scaling property, is topologically interesting, and can be applied immediately to redshift surveys.

Harrington, Patrick M.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.



NgViz: Detecting DNS Tunnels through N-Gram Visualization and Quantitative Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduced NgViz, a tool that examines DNS traffic and shows\\u000aanomalies in n-gram frequencies. This is accomplished by comparing input files\\u000aagainst a fingerprint of legitimate traffic. Both quantitative analysis and\\u000avisual aids are provided that allow the user to make determinations about the\\u000alegitimacy of the DNS traffic.

Kenton Born; David Gustafson



The Science of Sports: Combining Quantitative Analysis and Sports Applications in an Undergraduate Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

I present the development of a one-semester undergraduate course devoted to operations research (O.R.) and statistical methodologies in sports, specifically targeted for first-year collegiate students. In particular, this class explores decision analysis and linear regression using sports as the sole basis of application. Term projects and oral presentations permit student groups the opportunity to investigate specific quantitative applications in this

Keith A. Willoughby


Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.



Quantitative thermogravimetric-mass spectrometric analysis for monitoring the effects of fire retardants on cellulose pyrolysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two fire retardant materials, (NH4)2SO4 and (NH4)2HPO4, on cellulose pyrolysis studied using thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS) analysis. In order to determine quantitatively H2O and CO2 during pure and fire retarded cellulose pyrolysis, the MS signal was calibrated using KHCO3 decomposition. The MS signal calibration in relation to the flow stability through TG-MS interface was examined. The influence of

M. Statheropoulos; S. A. Kyriakou



Quantitative analysis of glycerophospholipids by LC-MS: acquisition, data handling, and interpretation  

PubMed Central

As technology expands what it is possible to accurately measure, so too the challenges faced by modern mass spectrometry applications expand. A high level of accuracy in lipid quantitation across thousands of chemical species simultaneously is demanded. While relative changes in lipid amounts with varying conditions may provide initial insights or point to novel targets, there are many questions that require determination of lipid analyte absolute quantitation. Glycerophospholipids present a significant challenge in this regard, given the headgroup diversity, large number of possible acyl chain combinations, and vast range of ionization efficiency of species. Lipidomic output is being used more often not just for profiling of the masses of species, but also for highly-targeted flux-based measurements which put additional burdens on the quantitation pipeline. These first two challenges bring into sharp focus the need for a robust lipidomics workflow including deisotoping, differentiation from background noise, use of multiple internal standards per lipid class, and the use of a scriptable environment in order to create maximum user flexibility and maintain metadata on the parameters of the data analysis as it occurs. As lipidomics technology develops and delivers more output on a larger number of analytes, so must the sophistication of statistical post-processing also continue to advance. High-dimensional data analysis methods involving clustering, lipid pathway analysis, and false discovery rate limitation are becoming standard practices in a maturing field. PMID:21683157

Myers, David S.; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Brown, H. Alex



Semi-quantitative fluorescence analysis of calcein binding as a measurement of in vitro mineralization.  


We describe a new, highly sensitive semiquantitative method for rapid measurement of in vitro mineralization using calcein. Fluorescence analysis of the calcein bound to the calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite) allows direct quantitation of extracellular matrix mineral content in monolayer cultures of bone-forming cells such as primary osteoblasts or osteosarcoma cells. Osteosarcoma cell lines UMR 106 and SaOS-2 were used to demonstrate that qualitatively, calcein was bound to the same regions of the mineralized cell monolayer as seen by conventional histological staining with von Kossa or Alizarin Red S. Moreover, total bound calcein could be quantitated by direct fluorescence analysis using a Cytofluor II plate reader. Changes in cell monolayer calcein fluorescence were shown to correlate well with direct colorimetric measurement of acid-solubilized Ca+2 from parallel cultures. Relative mineral quantitation by calcein fluorescence is rapid and more sensitive than colorimetric Ca+2 assays, can be performed directly on unfixed or fixed cell monolayers, and does not require the use of radioisotopes. The cell monolayer remains intact and potentially available for further analysis. PMID:10908418

Hale, L V; Ma, Y F; Santerre, R F



Accuracy improvement of quantitative analysis by spatial confinement in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  


To improve the accuracy of quantitative analysis in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, the plasma produced by a Nd:YAG laser from steel targets was confined by a cavity. A number of elements with low concentrations, such as vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), and manganese (Mn), in the steel samples were investigated. After the optimization of the cavity dimension and laser fluence, significant enhancement factors of 4.2, 3.1, and 2.87 in the emission intensity of V, Cr, and Mn lines, respectively, were achieved at a laser fluence of 42.9 J/cm(2) using a hemispherical cavity (diameter: 5 mm). More importantly, the correlation coefficient of the V I 440.85/Fe I 438.35 nm was increased from 0.946 (without the cavity) to 0.981 (with the cavity); and similar results for Cr I 425.43/Fe I 425.08 nm and Mn I 476.64/Fe I 492.05 nm were also obtained. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the accuracy of quantitative analysis with low concentration elements in steel samples was improved, because the plasma became uniform with spatial confinement. The results of this study provide a new pathway for improving the accuracy of quantitative analysis of LIBS. PMID:23938689

Guo, L B; Hao, Z Q; Shen, M; Xiong, W; He, X N; Xie, Z Q; Gao, M; Li, X Y; Zeng, X Y; Lu, Y F



Development of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.  


A duplex real-time PCR method was developed for quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. The duplex real-time PCR simultaneously detected two GM-specific segments, namely the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter (P35S) segment and an event-specific segment for GA21 maize which does not contain P35S. Calibration was performed with a plasmid calibrant specially designed for the duplex PCR. The result of an in-house evaluation suggested that the analytical precision of the developed method was almost equivalent to those of simplex real-time PCR methods, which have been adopted as ISO standard methods for the analysis of GMOs in foodstuffs and have also been employed for the analysis of GMOs in Japan. In addition, this method will reduce both the cost and time requirement of routine GMO analysis by half. The high analytical performance demonstrated in the current study would be useful for the quantitative screening analysis of GM maize. We believe the developed method will be useful for practical screening analysis of GM maize, although interlaboratory collaborative studies should be conducted to confirm this. PMID:19602858

Oguchi, Taichi; Onishi, Mari; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Kurosawa, Yasunori; Kasahara, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Futo, Satoshi; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi



Novel analysis for improved validity in semi-quantitative 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic imaging.  


The original [(14)C]-2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic imaging technique allows for the quantitative determination of local cerebral glucose utilisation (LCMRglu) [Sokoloff L, Reivich, M, Kennedy C, Desrosiers M, Patlak C, Pettigrew K, et al. The 2-deoxyglucose-C-14 method for measurement of local cerebral glucose utilisation-theory, procedure and normal values in conscious and anestherized albino rats. J Neurochem 1977;28:897-916]. The range of applications to which the quantitative method can be readily applied is limited, however, by the requirement for the intermittent measurement of arterial radiotracer and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment, via intravascular cannulation. Some studies have applied a modified, semi-quantitative approach to estimate LCMRglu while circumventing the requirement for intravascular cannulation [Kelly S, Bieneman A, Uney J, McCulloch J. Cerebral glucose utilization in transgenic mice over-expressing heat shock protein 70 is altered by dizocilpine. Eur J Neurosci 2002;15(6):945-52; Jordan GR, McCulloch J, Shahid M, Hill DR, Henry B, Horsburgh K. Regionally selective and dose-dependent effects of the ampakines Org 26576 and Org 24448 on local cerebral glucose utilisation in the mouse as assessed by C-14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. Neuropharmacology 2005;49(2):254-64]. In this method only a terminal blood sample is collected for the determination of plasma [(14)C] and [glucose] and the rate of LCMRglu in each brain region of interest (RoI) is estimated by comparing the [(14)C] concentration in each region relative to a selected control region, which is proposed to demonstrate metabolic stability between the experimental groups. Here we show that the semi-quantitative method has reduced validity in the measurement of LCMRglu as compared to the quantitative method and that the validity of this technique is further compromised by the inability of the methods applied within the analysis to appropriately determine metabolic stability in the selected standard region. To address these issues we have developed a novel form of analysis that provides an index of LCMRglu (iLCMRglu) for application when using the semi-quantitative approach. Provided that the methodological constraints inherent in 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography (e.g. normoglycaemia) are met this analytical technique both increases the validity of LCMRglu estimation by the semi-quantitative method and also allows for its broader experimental application. PMID:18762213

Dawson, Neil; Ferrington, Linda; Olverman, Henry J; Kelly, Paul A T



MALDI-MS-Based Quantitative Analysis for Ketone Containing Homoserine Lactones in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  


N-Acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs), quorum sensing molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria, are used as important secondary metabolites for antibacterial drug development and cell-to-cell communication. Although various analytical techniques have been developed for detection and quantitation of AHLs from more complex bacterial culture media, only a few methods have been applied to AHL identification in physiological samples. Here, we developed a highly sensitive and reliable MALDI-based 3-oxo AHL quantitation method by employing Girard's reagent T (GT) to produce a permanent cationic charge state [M](+) at the ketone group of AHLs. After extracting AHLs from the supernatant of bacterial cultures using ethyl acetate, the extracts were subsequently derivatized with GT without any additional purification or desalting steps. The chemical derivatization of 3-oxo AHLs dramatically enhanced sensitivity (up to 60?000 times) by lowering the limit of detection (LOD, ?0.5 fmol)/limit of quantitation (LOQ, ?2.5 fmol). Additionally, the GT-derivatized 3-oxo AHLs allowed more accurate quantitative analysis from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 culture supernatants. This method may be applied for developing high-throughput and sensitive detection methods of quorum sensing signal molecules in biofilm-related clinical applications such as virulence factor characterization and antibacterial drug development. PMID:25525717

Kim, Yoon-Woo; Sung, Changmin; Lee, Seulee; Kim, Kyoung-Jin; Yang, Yung-Hun; Kim, Byung-Gee; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Ryu, Hee Wook; Kim, Yun-Gon



Software for quantitative proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling and data independent acquisition.  


Many software tools have been developed for analyzing stable isotope labeling (SIL)-based quantitative proteomic data using data dependent acquisition (DDA). However, programs for analyzing SIL-based quantitative proteomics data obtained with data independent acquisition (DIA) have yet to be reported. Here, we demonstrated the development of a new software for analyzing SIL data using the DIA method. Performance of the DIA on SYNAPT G2MS was evaluated using SIL-labeled complex proteome mixtures with known heavy/light ratios (H/L = 1:1, 1:5, and 1:10) and compared with the DDA on linear ion trap (LTQ)-Orbitrap MS. The DIA displays relatively high quantitation accuracy for peptides cross all intensity regions, while the DDA shows an intensity dependent distribution of H/L ratios. For the three proteome mixtures, the number of detected SIL-peptide pairs and dynamic range of protein intensities using DIA drop stepwise, whereas no significant changes in these aspects using DDA were observed. The new software was applied to investigate the proteome difference between mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and MEF-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using (16)O/(18)O labeling. Our study expanded the capacities of our UNiquant software pipeline and provided valuable insight into the performance of the two cutting-edge MS platforms for SIL-based quantitative proteomic analysis today. PMID:21834580

Huang, Xin; Liu, Miao; Nold, Michael J; Tian, Changhai; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Jialin; Geromanos, Scott J; Ding, Shi-Jian



Allele-specific PCR for quantitative analysis of mutants in live viral vaccines.  


Monitoring consistency of genetic composition of oral polio vaccine (OPV) is a part of its quality control. It is performed by mutant analysis by PCR and restriction enzyme cleavage (MAPREC) used to quantify neurovirulent revertants in the viral genome. Here an alternative method based on quantitative PCR is proposed. Allele-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (asqPCR) uses a "tethered" oligonucleotide primer consisting of two specific parts connected by a polyinosine stretch. Homogeneous DNA from plasmids containing wild Leon/37 and attenuated Sabin 3 sequences with 100% 472(C) and 100% 472(T) could only be amplified using homologous primers. Real-time implementation of the allele-specific PCR resulted in sensitive detection of 472(C) revertants with the limit of quantitation of less than 0.05%. Monovalent vaccine batches and international viral references for MAPREC test were used to validate the method. asqPCR performed with the WHO references and monovalent batches of vaccine showed that the new method could measure accurately and reproducibly the content of revertants producing values comparable to MAPREC results. This suggests that asqPCR could be used as an alternative to MAPREC for lot release of OPV. The method could also be used for the quantitation of other mutants in populations of microorganisms. PMID:24607431

Bidzhieva, Bella; Laassri, Majid; Chumakov, Konstantin



Quantitative analysis of slurry sample by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  


Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been employed for the analysis of slurry samples. Quantitative analysis of slurry samples is crucial and challenging. The problems associated with slurry samples include splashing, surface turbulence, and the difficulties of obtaining reproducible samples due to sedimentation. The LIBS analysis has achieved limited success due to inherent disadvantages when applied to slurry samples. In order to achieve improved measurement precision and accuracy, a spin-on-glass sampling method was evaluated. Five elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Si) were examined in five slurry simulants containing varying amounts of each ion. Three calibration models were developed by using univariate calibration, multiple linear regression, and partial least square regression. LIBS analysis results obtained from the partial least square regression model were determined to be the best fit to results obtained from inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis. PMID:21424178

Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K; Dikshit, Vivek; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P; Smith, Laura T



Quantitative analysis of reptation of partially extended DNA in sub-30 nm nanoslits  

E-print Network

We observed reptation of single DNA molecules in fused silica nanoslits of sub-30 nm height. The reptation behavior and the effect of confinement are quantitatively characterized using orientation correlation and transverse fluctuation analysis. We show tube-like polymer motion arises for a tense polymer under strong quasi-2D confinement and interaction with surface- passivating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules in nanoslits, while etching- induced device surface roughness, chip bonding materials and DNA-intercalated dye-surface interaction, play minor roles. These findings have strong implications for the effect of surface modification in nanofluidic systems with potential applications for single molecule DNA analysis.

Yeh, Jia-Wei; Taloni, Alessandro; Chen, Yeng-Long; Chou, Chia-Fu



Quantitative analysis of reptation of partially extended DNA in sub-30 nm nanoslits  

E-print Network

We observed reptation of single DNA molecules in fused silica nanoslits of sub-30 nm height. The reptation behavior and the effect of confinement are quantitatively characterized using orientation correlation and transverse fluctuation analysis. We show tube-like polymer motion arises for a tense polymer under strong quasi-2D confinement and interaction with surface- passivating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules in nanoslits, while etching- induced device surface roughness, chip bonding materials and DNA-intercalated dye-surface interaction, play minor roles. These findings have strong implications for the effect of surface modification in nanofluidic systems with potential applications for single molecule DNA analysis.

Jia-Wei Yeh; K. K. Sriram; Alessandro Taloni; Yeng-Long Chen; Chia-Fu Chou



Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Systems and Synthetic Biology Constructs using P Systems.  


Computational models are perceived as an attractive alternative to mathematical models (e.g., ordinary differential equations). These models incorporate a set of methods for specifying, modeling, testing, and simulating biological systems. In addition, they can be analyzed using algorithmic techniques (e.g., formal verification). This paper shows how formal verification is utilized in systems and synthetic biology through qualitative vs quantitative analysis. Here, we choose two well-known case studies: quorum sensing in P. aeruginosas and pulse generator. The paper reports verification analysis of two systems carried out using some model checking tools, integrated to the Infobiotics Workbench platform, where system models are based on stochastic P systems. PMID:25090609

Konur, Savas; Gheorghe, Marian; Dragomir, Ciprian; Mierla, Laurentiu; Ipate, Florentin; Krasnogor, Natalio



Quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis of oxides formed on superalloys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods were developed for quantitative analysis by X-ray diffraction of the oxides Al2O3, NiO, Cr2O3, CoO, and CoCr2O4 within a standard deviation of about 10 percent of the weight fraction reported or within 1 percent absolute. These error limits assume that the sample oxides are well characterized and that the physiochemical structure of the oxides in the samples are identical with those in the synthesized standards. Results are given for the use of one of the techniques in the analysis of spalls from a series of oxidation tests of the cobalt base alloy WI-52.

Garlick, R. G.



Stable-isotope dilution LC–MS for quantitative biomarker analysis  

PubMed Central

The ability to conduct validated analyses of biomarkers is critically important in order to establish the sensitivity and selectivity of the biomarker in identifying a particular disease. The use of stable-isotope dilution (SID) methodology in combination with LC–MS/MS provides the highest possible analytical specificity for quantitative determinations. This methodology is now widely used in the discovery and validation of putative exposure and disease biomarkers. This review will describe the application of SID LC–MS methodology for the analysis of small-molecule and protein biomarkers. It will also discuss potential future directions for the use of this methodology for rigorous biomarker analysis. PMID:20352077

Ciccimaro, Eugene; Blair, Ian A



Quantitative analysis of lunar crater's landscape: automatic detection, classification and geological applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar craters are the most important geological tectonic features on the moon; they are among the most studied subjects when it comes to the analysis of the surface of the moon since they provide us with the relative age of the surface unit and more information about lunar geology. Quantitative analysis of landscape on lunar crater is an important approach in lunar geological unit dating which plays a key role in understanding and reconstruction of lunar geological evolution. In this paper, a new approach of automatic crater detection and classification is proposed based on the quantitative analysis of crater's landscape with different spatial resolution digital terrain models. The approach proposed in this paper includes the following key points: 1) A new crater detection method which selects profile similarity parameters as the distinguishing marks is presented. The new method overcomes the high error defect of former DTM based crater detection algorithm; 2) Craters are sorted by the morphological characteristics of profiles. The new quantitative classification method overcomes the subjectivity of the previously descriptive classification method. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed method the pre-selected landing area of China's Chang'e-III lunar satellite-Sinus Iridum is chosen as the experimental zone. DTM with different resolutions from the Chang'e-I Laser Altimeter, the Chang'e-I Stereoscopic Camera and the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) are used for crater detection and classification. Dating results of each geological unit are gotten using crater size-frequency distribution method (CSFD). By comparing the former dating and manual classification data, we found that the results obtained by our method and the former results have the strong consistency. With the combination of automatic crater detection and classification, this paper basically provided a quantitative approach which can analyze the lunar crater's landscape and get geological information from it. And the approach can be widely used on other planets like Mars.

Li, Ke; Chen, Jianping; He, Shujun; Zhang, Mingchao



Sensitive quantitative analysis of murine LINE1 DNA methylation using high resolution melt analysis  

PubMed Central

We present here the first high resolution melt (HRM) assay to quantitatively analyze differences in murine DNA methylation levels utilizing CpG methylation of Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE1 or L1). By calculating the integral difference in melt temperature between samples and a methylated control, and biasing PCR primers for unmethylated CpGs, the assay demonstrates enhanced sensitivity to detect changes in methylation in a cell line treated with low doses of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza). The L1 assay was confirmed to be a good marker of changes in DNA methylation of L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome when compared with total 5-methyl-cytosine content, measured by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay design was also used to detect changes in methylation at other murine repeat elements (B1 and Intracisternal-A-particle Long-terminal Repeat elements). Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that L1 methylation changes were non-uniform across the CpGs within the L1-HRM target region, demonstrating that the L1 assay can detect small changes in CpG methylation among a large pool of heterogeneously methylated DNA templates. Application of the assay to various tissues from Balb/c and CBA mice, including previously unreported peripheral blood (PB), revealed a tissue hierarchy (from hypermethylated to hypomethylated) of PB > kidney > liver > prostate > spleen. CBA mice demonstrated overall greater methylation than Balb/c mice, and male mice demonstrated higher tissue methylation compared with female mice in both strains. Changes in DNA methylation have been reported to be an early and fundamental event in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Mouse studies designed to identify modulators of DNA methylation, the critical doses, relevant time points and the tissues affected are limited by the low throughput nature and exorbitant cost of many DNA methylation assays. The L1 assay provides a high throughput, inexpensive and sensitive screening tool for identifying and characterizing DNA methylation changes to L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome. PMID:22274612

Newman, Michelle; Blyth, Benjamin J.; Hussey, Damian J.; Jardine, Daniel; Ormsby, Rebecca J.



Race and Older Mothers’ Differentiation: A Sequential Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a process by which qualitative and quantitative approaches are combined to reveal patterns in the data that are unlikely to be detected and confirmed by either method alone. Specifically, we take a sequential approach to combining qualitative and quantitative data to explore race differences in how mothers differentiate among their adult children. We began with a standard multivariate analysis examining race differences in mothers’ differentiation among their adult children regarding emotional closeness and confiding. Finding no race differences in this analysis, we conducted an in-depth comparison of the Black and White mothers’ narratives to determine whether there were underlying patterns that we had been unable to detect in our first analysis. Using this method, we found that Black mothers were substantially more likely than White mothers to emphasize interpersonal relationships within the family when describing differences among their children. In our final step, we developed a measure of familism based on the qualitative data and conducted a multivariate analysis to confirm the patterns revealed by the in-depth comparison of the mother’s narratives. We conclude that using such a sequential mixed methods approach to data analysis has the potential to shed new light on complex family relations. PMID:21967639

Sechrist, Jori; Suitor, J. Jill; Riffin, Catherine; Taylor-Watson, Kadari; Pillemer, Karl



Complete multipoint sib-pair analysis of qualitative and quantitative traits  

SciTech Connect

Sib-pair analysis is an increasingly important tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. Current methods for sib-pair analysis are primarily based on studying individual genetic markers one at a time and thus fail to use the full inheritance information provided by multipoint linkage analysis. In this paper, we describe how to extract the complete multipoint inheritance information for each sib pair. We then describe methods that use this information to map loci affecting traits, thereby providing a unified approach to both qualitative and quantitative traits. Specifically, complete multipoint approaches are presented for (1) exclusion mapping of qualitative traits; (2) maximum-likelihood mapping of qualitative traits; (3) information-content mapping, showing the extent to which all inheritance information has been extracted at each location in the genome; and (4) quantitative-trait mapping, by two parametric methods and one nonparametric method. In addition, we explore the effects of marker density, marker polymorphism, and availability of parents on the information content of a study. We have implemented the analysis methods in a new computer package, MAPMAKER/SIBS. With this computer package, complete multipoint analysis with dozens of markers in hundreds of sib pairs can be carried out in minutes. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Kruglyak, L.; Lander, E.S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)



Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS Long-Term Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized regularly by a set of on-board calibrators (OBC). Nearly 40 science products, supporting a variety of land, ocean, and atmospheric applications, are continuously derived from the calibrated reflectances and radiances of each MODIS instrument and widely distributed to the world-wide user community. Following an overview of MODIS instrument operation and calibration activities, this paper provides a summary of both Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance. Special considerations that are critical to maintaining MODIS data quality and beneficial for future missions are also discussed.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong (Jack); Wenny, Brian N.; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent



Rapid Determination of Lymphogranuloma Venereum Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis by Quantitative High-Resolution Melt Analysis (HRMA)  

PubMed Central

A quantitative high-resolution melt analysis assay was developed to differentiate lymphogranuloma venereum-causing serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (L1 to L3) from other C. trachomatis serovars (D to K). The detection limit of this assay is approximately 10 copies per reaction, comparable to the limits of other quantitative-PCR-based methods. PMID:22933594

Stevens, Matthew P.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Zaia, Angelo M.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.



Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological mark- ers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phe- notypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psy- chiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multi- variate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on

Jeff T. Williams; Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz; Howard J. Edenberg; Tatiana Foroud; Theodore Reich; Alison Goate; Paul Van Eerdewegh; Laura Almasy; John Blangero



Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-Ray  

E-print Network

Quantitative Analysis of Micro-Structure in Meat Emulsions from Grating-Based Multimodal X-ray tomograms of meat emulsions to quantitatively measure micro-structural changes due to heat treatment and protein in meat products and air voids in bread products. This limitation is mainly due to the contrast

Mosegaard, Klaus


[Quantitative image analysis as a scanning method in histopathological routine diagnostics applied for instance to chronical liver diseases (author's transl)].  


A method is given by means of which histological image contents can quantitatively be determined with the help of electronic image analysis. A case of a chronical liver disease is quoted as instance for the application of the method in routine diagnosis. A possibility is shown to open quantitative and reproducible computation to descriptive histopathology. PMID:1107750

Schwalbach, G



Quantitative analysis of volatiles in edible oils following accelerated oxidation using broad spectrum isotope standards.  


Analysis of food volatiles generated by processing are widely reported but comparisons across studies is challenging in part because most reports are inherently semi-quantitative for most analytes due to limited availability of chemical standards. We recently introduced a novel strategy for creation of broad spectrum isotopic standards for accurate quantitative food chemical analysis. Here we apply the principle to quantification of 25 volatiles in seven thermally oxidised edible oils. After extended oxidation, total volatiles of high n-3 oils (flax, fish, cod liver) were 120-170 mg/kg while low n-3 vegetable oils were <50mg/kg. Separate experiments on thermal degradation of d5-ethyl linolenate indicate that off-aroma volatiles originate throughout the n-3 molecule and not solely the n-3 terminal end. These data represent the first report using broad-spectrum isotopically labelled standards for quantitative characterisation of processing-induced volatile generation across related foodstuffs, and verify the origin of specific volatiles from parent n-3 fatty acids. PMID:25529686

Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; Sacks, Gavin L; Brenna, J Thomas



Quantitative analysis of phytosterols in edible oils using APCI liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Previous methods for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols have usually used GC-MS and require elaborate sample preparation including chemical derivatization. Other common methods such as HPLC with absorbance detection do not provide information regarding the identity of the analytes. To address the need for an assay that utilizes mass selectivity while avoiding derivatization, a quantitative method based on LC-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the measurement of six abundant dietary phytosterols and structurally related triterpene alcohols including brassicasterol, campesterol, cycloartenol, ?-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lupeol in edible oils. Samples were saponified, extracted with hexane and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry and selected reaction monitoring. The utility of the LC-MS-MS method was demonstrated by analyzing 14 edible oils. All six compounds were present in at least some of the edible oils. The most abundant phytosterol in all samples was ?-sitosterol, which was highest in corn oil at 4.35 ± 0.03 mg/g, followed by campesterol in canola oil at 1.84 ± 0.01 mg/g. The new LC-MS-MS method for the quantitative analysis of phytosterols provides a combination of speed, selectivity and sensitivity that exceed those of previous assays. PMID:23884629

Mo, Shunyan; Dong, Linlin; Hurst, W. Jeffrey; van Breemen, Richard B.



Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)  

DOE Data Explorer

Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

Trishchenko, Alexander


Surface Albedo/BRDF Parameters (Terra/Aqua MODIS)  

SciTech Connect

Spatially and temporally complete surface spectral albedo/BRDF products over the ARM SGP area were generated using data from two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on Terra and Aqua satellites. A landcover-based fitting (LBF) algorithm is developed to derive the BRDF model parameters and albedo product (Luo et al., 2004a). The approach employs a landcover map and multi-day clearsky composites of directional surface reflectance. The landcover map is derived from the Landsat TM 30-meter data set (Trishchenko et al., 2004a), and the surface reflectances are from MODIS 500m-resolution 8-day composite products (MOD09/MYD09). The MOD09/MYD09 data are re-arranged into 10-day intervals for compatibility with other satellite products, such as those from the NOVA/AVHRR and SPOT/VGT sensors. The LBF method increases the success rate of the BRDF fitting process and enables more accurate monitoring of surface temporal changes during periods of rapid spring vegetation green-up and autumn leaf-fall, as well as changes due to agricultural practices and snowcover variations (Luo et al., 2004b, Trishchenko et al., 2004b). Albedo/BRDF products for MODIS on Terra and MODIS on Aqua, as well as for Terra/Aqua combined dataset, are generated at 500m spatial resolution and every 10-day since March 2000 (Terra) and July 2002 (Aqua and combined), respectively. The purpose for the latter product is to obtain a more comprehensive dataset that takes advantages of multi-sensor observations (Trishchenko et al., 2002). To fill data gaps due to cloud presence, various interpolation procedures are applied based on a multi-year observation database and referring to results from other locations with similar landcover property. Special seasonal smoothing procedure is also applied to further remove outliers and artifacts in data series.

Trishchenko, Alexander



Inter-Comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been operating on-board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites since their launches in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Each MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with center wavelengths ranging from 0.41 to 2.1 micrometers and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB) from 3.7 to 14.4 micrometers. The absolute radiometric accuracy requirements (1 sigma) at the typical spectral radiance levels are plus or minus 2% for the RSB for the RSB reflectance factors and plus or minus 5% for the RSB radiance products. With few exceptions, the TEB requirements are plus or minus 1%. The sensor's on-orbit radiometric calibration is performed by the on-board calibrators, including a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) system for the RSB and a V-groove flat panel blackbody (BB) for the TEB. In addition, the Moon has been extensively used by both Terra and Aqua MODIS to support their on-orbit calibration and characterization. This paper presents MODIS lunar calibration methodology and inter-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS in the VIS/NIR spectral regions. Current results from lunar observations show that the calibration difference between the two sensors is less than plus or minus 1%. Also discussed in this paper are the approaches and results of inter-comparison of Terra and Aqua MODIS in the TEB using closely matched thermal infrared (TIR) channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) at 11 and 12 micrometers.

Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V. V.; Sun, J.; Wu, A.; Barnes, W.; Guenther, B.



The First Day In The Life of Aqua-MODIS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In its first day of operations, June 24, 2002, Aqua-MODIS observed significant Earth events occurring all over the globe. As Super Typhoon Chataan was rapidly approaching Japan, there was severe flooding in southeast Texas and a vast, thick pall of smoke from Canadian wildfires blanketed almost the entire U.S. East Coast. MODIS collected and beamed to Earth these images in very near real-time.

Rhodes, Greg; Herring, David



Analysis of nuclear organization with TANGO, software for high-throughput quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence microscopy images.  


The cell nucleus is a highly organized cellular organelle that contains the genome. An important step to understand the relationships between genome positioning and genome functions is to extract quantitative data from three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence imaging. However, such approaches are limited by the requirement for processing and analyzing large sets of images. Here we present a practical approach using TANGO (Tools for Analysis of Nuclear Genome Organization), an image analysis tool dedicated to the study of nuclear architecture. TANGO is a generic tool able to process large sets of images, allowing quantitative study of nuclear organization. In this chapter a practical description of the software is drawn in order to give an overview of its different concepts and functionalities. This description is illustrated with a precise example that can be performed step-by-step on experimental data provided on the website PMID:25311132

Ollion, Jean; Cochennec, Julien; Loll, François; Escudé, Christophe; Boudier, Thomas



Improvements to Direct Quantitative Analysis of Multiple MicroRNAs Facilitating Faster Analysis  

E-print Network

these methods are invaluable for semi- quantitative screening of miRNA expression profiles, their rates, Canada § Sunnybrook-Odette Cancer Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave., Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada # Keenan as cancer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. Establishing a "miRNA finger- print"-based diagnostic

Krylov, Sergey


Zebrafish locomotor capacity and brain acetylcholinesterase activity is altered by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins.  


Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (A. flos-aquae) is a source of neurotoxins known as aphantoxins or paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) that present a major threat to the environment and to human health. Generally, altered neurological function is reflected in behavior. Although the molecular mechanism of action of PSPs is well known, its neurobehavioral effects on adult zebrafish and its relationship with altered neurological functions are poorly understood. Aphantoxins purified from a natural isolate of A. flos-aquae DC-1 were analyzed by HPLC. The major analogs found in the toxins were the gonyautoxins 1 and 5 (GTX1 and GTX5; 34.04% and 21.28%, respectively) and the neosaxitoxin (neoSTX, 12.77%). Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were intraperitoneally injected with 5.3 and 7.61 ?g STXeq/kg (low and high dose, respectively) of A. flos-aquae DC-1 aphantoxins. The swimming activity was investigated by observation combined with video at 6 timepoints from 1 to 24 h post-exposure. Both aphantoxin doses were associated with delayed touch responses, reduced head-tail locomotory abilities, inflexible turning of head, and a tailward-shifted center of gravity. The normal S-pattern (or undulating) locomotor trajectory was replaced by a mechanical motor pattern of swinging the head after wagging the tail. Finally, these fish principally distributed at the top and/or bottom water of the aquarium, and showed a clear polarized distribution pattern at 12 h post-exposure. Further analysis of neurological function demonstrated that both aphantoxin doses inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase activity. All these changes were dose- and time-dependent. These results demonstrate that aphantoxins can alter locomotor capacity, touch responses and distribution patterns by damaging the cholinergic system of zebrafish, and suggest that zebrafish locomotor behavior and acetylcholinesterase can be used as indicators for investigating aphantoxins and blooms in nature. PMID:23792258

Zhang, De Lu; Hu, Chun Xiang; Li, Dun Hai; Liu, Yong Ding



Optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices using Taguchi methods.  


This paper presents the optimisation of Lime-Soda process parameters for the reduction of hardness in aqua-hatchery practices in the context of M. rosenbergii. The fresh water in the development of fisheries needs to be of suitable quality. Lack of desirable quality in available fresh water is generally the confronting restraint. On the Indian subcontinent, groundwater is the only source of raw water, having varying degree of hardness and thus is unsuitable for the fresh water prawn hatchery practices (M. rosenbergii). In order to make use of hard water in the context of aqua-hatchery, Lime-Soda process has been recommended. The efficacy of the various process parameters like lime, soda ash and detention time, on the reduction of hardness needs to be examined. This paper proposes to determine the parameter settings for the CIFE well water, which is pretty hard by using Taguchi experimental design method. Orthogonal Arrays of Taguchi, Signal-to-Noise Ratio, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been applied to determine their dosage and analysed for their effect on hardness reduction. The tests carried out with optimal levels of Lime-Soda process parameters confirmed the efficacy of the Taguchi optimisation method. Emphasis has been placed on optimisation of chemical doses required to reduce the total hardness using Taguchi method and ANOVA, to suit the available raw water quality for aqua-hatchery practices, especially for fresh water prawn M. rosenbergii. PMID:24749379

Yavalkar, S P; Bhole, A G; Babu, P V Vijay; Prakash, Chandra



Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied.

Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin



A Voxel-Map Quantitative Analysis Approach for Atherosclerotic Noncalcified Plaques of the Coronary Artery Tree  

PubMed Central

Noncalcified plaques (NCPs) are associated with the presence of lipid-core plaques that are prone to rupture. Thus, it is important to detect and monitor the development of NCPs. Contrast-enhanced coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is a potential imaging technique to identify atherosclerotic plaques in the whole coronary tree, but it fails to provide information about vessel walls. In order to overcome the limitations of coronary CTA and provide more meaningful quantitative information for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we proposed a Voxel-Map based on mathematical morphology to quantitatively analyze the noncalcified plaques on a three-dimensional coronary artery wall model (3D-CAWM). This approach is a combination of Voxel-Map analysis techniques, plaque locating, and anatomical location related labeling, which show more detailed and comprehensive coronary tree wall visualization. PMID:24348749

Li, Ying; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yonglin; Chu, Chun; Fang, Bingji; Tan, Liwen



Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

Zhou, Zhiping; Yan, Deyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang



Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy quantitative analysis of SF6 partial discharge decomposition components.  


Gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) internal SF6 gas produces specific decomposition components under partial discharge (PD). By detecting these characteristic decomposition components, such information as the type and level of GIS internal insulation deterioration can be obtained effectively, and the status of GIS internal insulation can be evaluated. SF6 was selected as the background gas for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) detection in this study. SOF2, SO2F2, SO2, and CO were selected as the characteristic decomposition components for system analysis. The standard infrared absorption spectroscopy of the four characteristic components was measured, the optimal absorption peaks were recorded and the corresponding absorption coefficient was calculated. Quantitative detection experiments on the four characteristic components were conducted. The volume fraction variation trend of four characteristic components at different PD time were analyzed. And under five different PD quantity, the quantitative relationships among gas production rate, PD time, and PD quantity were studied. PMID:25459612

Zhang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Heng; Ren, Jiangbo; Li, Jian; Li, Xin



Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS  

PubMed Central

Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats.

Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei



Identification, quantitation, and characterization of biomolecules by capillary electrophoretic analysis of binding interactions.  


The high resolving power of capillary electrophoresis combined with the specificity of binding interactions may be used with advantage to characterize the structure-function relationship of biomolecules, to quantitate specific analytes in complex sample matrices, and to determine the purity of pharmaceutical and other molecules. We here review recent and innovative methodologies and applications of high resolution affinity electrophoresis within the fields of binding constant determination, structure-activity studies, quantitative microassays, analysis of drug purity and protein conformation, and immobilized affinity ligands. Despite the virtues of these approaches with respect to applicability, resolving power, speed, and low sample consumption, problems remain with respect to analyte identification and low concentration limits of detection. The ongoing development of new detector technologies for capillary electrophoresis such as mass spectrometry, and possibly nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopic methods, is therefore very promising for the continued increased use of affinity capillary electrophoresis. PMID:10596820

Heegaard, N H; Kennedy, R T



Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji



Quantitative Analysis of Snake Venoms Using Soluble Polymer-based Isotope Labeling*S?  

PubMed Central

We present the design and synthesis of a new quantitative strategy termed soluble polymer-based isotope labeling (SoPIL) and its application as a novel and inclusive method for the identification and relative quantification of individual proteins in complex snake venoms. The SoPIL reagent selectively captures and isolates cysteine-containing peptides, and the subsequent tagged peptides are released and analyzed using nanoflow liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The SoPIL strategy was used to quantify venom proteins from two pairs of venomous snakes: Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus type A, C. scutulatus scutulatus type B, Crotalus oreganus helleri, and Bothrops colombiensis. The hemorrhagic, hemolytic, clotting ability, and fibrinogenolytic activities of crude venoms were measured and correlated with difference in protein abundance determined by the SoPIL analysis. The SoPIL approach could provide an efficient and widely applicable tool for quantitative proteomics. PMID:18089550

Galan, Jacob A.; Guo, Minjie; Sanchez, Elda E.; Cantu, Esteban; Rodriguez-Acosta, Alexis; Perez, John C.; Tao, W. Andy



Quantitative uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of a PWR control rod ejection accident  

SciTech Connect

The paper describes the results of the quantitative Uncertainty and Sensitivity (U/S) Analysis of a Rod Ejection Accident (REA) which is simulated by the coupled system code ATHLET-QUABOX/CUBBOX applying the GRS tool for U/S analysis SUSA/XSUSA. For the present study, a UOX/MOX mixed core loading based on a generic PWR is modeled. A control rod ejection is calculated for two reactor states: Hot Zero Power (HZP) and 30% of nominal power. The worst cases for the rod ejection are determined by steady-state neutronic simulations taking into account the maximum reactivity insertion in the system and the power peaking factor. For the U/S analysis 378 uncertain parameters are identified and quantified (thermal-hydraulic initial and boundary conditions, input parameters and variations of the two-group cross sections). Results for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are presented for safety important global and local parameters. (authors)

Pasichnyk, I.; Perin, Y.; Velkov, K. [Gesellschaft flier Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Boltzmannstasse 14, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)



Quantitative NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a learning module focused on principles and practice of NMR for quantitative analysis, an application less commonly associated with the technique than is structure determination. Links to simulation packages are included.

Korir, Albert K.; Larive, Cynthia K.



Quantitative Gene Expression Analysis in Microdissected Archival Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tumor Tissue  

PubMed Central

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is the most widely available material for retrospective clinical studies. In combination with the potential of genomics, these tissues represent an invaluable resource for the elucidation of disease mechanisms and validation of differentially expressed genes as novel therapeutic targets or prognostic indicators. We describe here an approach that, in combination with laser-assisted microdissection allows quantitative gene expression analysis in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissue. Using an optimized RNA microscale extraction procedure in conjunction with real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction based on fluorogenic TaqMan methodology, we analyzed the expression of a panel of cancer-relevant genes, EGF-R, HER-2/neu, FGF-R4, p21/WAF1/Cip1, MDM2, and HPRT and PGK as controls. We demonstrate that expression level determinations from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues are accurate and reproducible. Measurements were comparable to those obtained with matching fresh-frozen tissue and neither fixation grade nor time significantly affected the results. Laser microdissection studies with 5-?m thick sections and defined numbers of tumor cells demonstrated that reproducible quantitation of specific mRNAs can be achieved with only 50 cells. We applied our approach to HER-2/neu quantitative gene expression analysis in 54 microdissected tumor and nonneoplastic archival samples from patients with Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma and showed that the results matched those obtained in parallel by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Thus, the combination of laser-assisted microdissection and real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction opens new avenues for the investigation and clinical validation of gene expression changes in archival tissue specimens. PMID:11159180

Specht, Katja; Richter, Thomas; Müller, Ulrike; Walch, Axel; Werner, Martin; Höfler, Heinz



Noninvasive Characterization of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Textural Analysis of Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: The identification of tumor pathologic characteristics is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning but currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, we investigated a noninvasive quantitative ultrasound method for the characterization of breast tumors in terms of their histologic grade, which can be used with clinical diagnostic ultrasound data. METHODS: Tumors of 57 locally advanced breast cancer patients were analyzed as part of this study. Seven quantitative ultrasound parameters were determined from each tumor region from the radiofrequency data, including mid-band fit, spectral slope, 0-MHz intercept, scatterer spacing, attenuation coefficient estimate, average scatterer diameter, and average acoustic concentration. Parametric maps were generated corresponding to the region of interest, from which four textural features, including contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation, were determined as further tumor characterization parameters. Data were examined on the basis of tumor subtypes based on histologic grade (grade I versus grade II to III). RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis of the means of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 79%. On the other hand, the linear combination of the texture features of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 82%. Finally, when both the means and textures of the parametric maps were combined, the best classification accuracy was obtained (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provided discriminant information about different types of breast tumors. The use of texture features significantly improved the results of ultrasonic tumor characterization compared to conventional mean values. Thus, this study suggests that texture-based quantitative ultrasound analysis of in vivo breast tumors can provide complementary diagnostic information about tumor histologic characteristics. PMID:25500086

Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.



MODIS Collection 6 aerosol products: Comparison between Aqua's e-Deep Blue, Dark Target, and "merged" data sets, and usage recommendations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Atmospheres data product suite includes three algorithms applied to retrieve midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD): the Enhanced Deep Blue (DB) and Dark Target (DT) algorithms over land, and a DT over-water algorithm. All three have been refined in the recent "Collection 6" (C6) MODIS reprocessing. In particular, DB has been expanded to cover vegetated land surfaces as well as brighter desert/urban areas. Additionally, a new "merged" data set which draws from all three algorithms is included in the C6 products. This study is intended to act as a point of reference for new and experienced MODIS data users with which to understand the global and regional characteristics of the C6 DB, DT, and merged data sets, based on MODIS Aqua data. This includes validation against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations at 111 sites, focused toward regional and categorical (surface/aerosol type) analysis. Neither algorithm consistently outperforms the other, although in many cases the retrieved AOD and the level of its agreement with AERONET are very similar. In many regions the DB, DT, and merged data sets are all suitable for quantitative applications, bearing in mind that they cannot be considered independent, while in other cases one algorithm does consistently outperform the other. Usage recommendations and caveats are thus somewhat complicated and regionally dependent.

Sayer, A. M.; Munchak, L. A.; Hsu, N. C.; Levy, R. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M.-J.



An artificial neural network approach to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy quantitative analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usual approach to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) quantitative analysis is based on the use of calibration curves, suitably built using appropriate reference standards. More recently, statistical methods relying on the principles of artificial neural networks (ANN) are increasingly used. However, ANN analysis is often used as a ‘black box’ system and the peculiarities of the LIBS spectra are not exploited fully. An a priori exploration of the raw data contained in the LIBS spectra, carried out by a neural network to learn what are the significant areas of the spectrum to be used for a subsequent neural network delegated to the calibration, is able to throw light upon important information initially unknown, although already contained within the spectrum. This communication will demonstrate that an approach based on neural networks specially taylored for dealing with LIBS spectra would provide a viable, fast and robust method for LIBS quantitative analysis. This would allow the use of a relatively limited number of reference samples for the training of the network, with respect to the current approaches, and provide a fully automatizable approach for the analysis of a large number of samples.

D'Andrea, Eleonora; Pagnotta, Stefano; Grifoni, Emanuela; Lorenzetti, Giulia; Legnaioli, Stefano; Palleschi, Vincenzo; Lazzerini, Beatrice



Automated quantitative analysis of capnogram shape for COPD-normal and COPD-CHF classification.  


We develop an approach to quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide concentration in exhaled breath, recorded as a function of time by capnography. The generated waveform--or capnogram--is currently used in clinical practice to establish the presence of respiration as well as determine respiratory rate and end-tidal CO 2 concentration. The capnogram shape also has diagnostic value, but is presently assessed qualitatively, by visual inspection. Prior approaches to quantitatively characterizing the capnogram shape have explored the correlation of various geometric parameters with pulmonary function tests. These studies attempted to characterize the capnogram in normal subjects and patients with cardiopulmonary disease, but no consistent progress was made, and no translation into clinical practice was achieved. We apply automated quantitative analysis to discriminate between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF), and between COPD and normal. Capnograms were collected from 30 normal subjects, 56 COPD patients, and 53 CHF patients. We computationally extract four physiologically based capnogram features. Classification on a hold-out test set was performed by an ensemble of classifiers employing quadratic discriminant analysis, designed through cross validation on a labeled training set. Using 80 exhalations of each capnogram record in the test set, performance analysis with bootstrapping yields areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.72-0.96) for COPD/CHF classification, and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.82-1.0) for COPD/normal classification. This classification performance is obtained with a run time sufficiently fast for real-time monitoring. PMID:24967981

Mieloszyk, Rebecca J; Verghese, George C; Deitch, Kenneth; Cooney, Brendan; Khalid, Abdullah; Mirre-Gonzalez, Milciades A; Heldt, Thomas; Krauss, Baruch S



AquaBuOY-the offshore wave energy converter numerical modeling and optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes development of the mathematical model simulating ocean performance of an offshore wave energy point absorber device-AquaBuOY. The AquaBuOY is the next generation of the technology, based on the IPS point absorber system and the hose pump, both of Sweden. AquaEnergy Group Ltd., USA, is developing the system in cooperation with RAMBOLL, Denmark. In March 2003 the Danish

Alla Weinstein; Goran Fredrikson; L. Claeson; J. Forsberg; M. J. Parks; K. Nielsen; M. S. Jenses; K. Zandiyeh; P. Frigaard; M. Kramer; T. L. Andersen




EPA Science Inventory

A simple method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur on oxidized sulfide minerals is described. Extraction of elemental sulfur in perchloroethylene and subsequent analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography were used to ascertain the total elemental ...


Application of multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to the quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical and agricultural samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS), for the resolution and quantification of different analytes in different type of pharmaceutical and agricultural samples is shown. In particular, MCR-ALS is applied first to the UV spectrophotometric quantitative analysis of mixtures of commercial steroid drugs, and second to the near-infrared (NIR) spectrophotometric quantitative analysis of humidity and protein contents in

T. Azzouz; R. Tauler



Quantitative modal analysis of optical power flow and energy loss in photonic structures with a dipole emission source.  


Fourier modal method based quantitative analysis method of optical power flow and energy loss in general multi-block photonic structures with an internal dipole emitter is described. The analytic expressions of modal power flow and loss are derived for accurate and efficient quantitative analysis. It is revealed that a few dominating excited photonic modes substantially govern the internal energy flow and energy loss. The optical characteristics of the dominant modes are investigated. PMID:25089469

Choi, Sujin; Baek, Seungin; Im, Dajeong; Kahng, Hyun Kook; Kim, Hwi



Quantitative analysis of markers of podocyte injury in the rat puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy model.  


Podocytes are an essential component of the renal glomerular filtration barrier, their injury playing an early and important role in progressive renal dysfunction. This makes quantification of podocyte marker immunoreactivity important for early detection of glomerular histopathological changes. Here we have specifically applied a state-of-the-art automated computational method of glomerulus recognition, which we have recently developed, to study quantitatively podocyte markers in a model with selective podocyte injury, namely the rat puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephropathy model. We also retrospectively investigated mRNA expression levels of these markers in glomeruli which were isolated from the same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney samples by laser microdissection. Among the examined podocyte markers, the immunopositive area and mRNA expression level of both podoplanin and synaptopodin were decreased in PAN glomeruli. The immunopositive area of podocin showed a slight decrease in PAN glomeruli, while its mRNA level showed no change. We have also identified a novel podocyte injury marker ?-enolase, which was increased exclusively by podocytes in PAN glomeruli, similarly to another widely used marker, desmin. Thus, we have shown the specific application of a state-of-the-art computational method and retrospective mRNA expression analysis to quantitatively study the changes of various podocyte markers. The proposed methods will open new avenues for quantitative elucidation of renal glomerular histopathology. PMID:25481214

Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Okada, Kinya; Fujitaka, Keisuke; Nishio, Masashi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Fukunari, Atsushi; Utsumi, Hiroyuki



High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.  


The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q



Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen




PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the inter-observer reproducibility (IOR) of quantitative measures of meniscus size and position, and to compare the IOR and agreement between a double echo steady state (DESS) water excitation and an intermediately-weighted turbo spin-echo (IWTSE) sequence. Eight knees (4 healthy, 4 with radiographic knee OA) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort were studied. Manual segmentation of the menisci was performed by 3 observers and quantitative measures of meniscus size and position (i.e. extrusion) computed using image analysis software. The root mean square IOR error (e.g. 5.4% for medial meniscus volume with DESS and 8.4% with IWTSE) was found considerably smaller than the inter-subject variability (average ratio approximately 1:3). The lowest IOR error for meniscus extrusion was obtained for the central 5 coronal slices across the tibial surface. Quantitative meniscus measures from DESS and IWTSE were highly correlated (r=0.71 to 0.99 for the medial meniscus). PMID:22135245

Siorpaes, Kristina; Wenger, Andrea; Bloecker, Katja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hudelmaier, Martin; Eckstein, Felix



Quantitative analysis of real-time tissue elastography for evaluation of liver fibrosis  

PubMed Central

The present study aimed to investigate the feasibility of quantitative analysis of liver fibrosis using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) and its pathological and molecule biological basis. Methods: Fifty-four New Zealand rabbits were subcutaneously injected with thioacetamide (TAA) to induce liver fibrosis as the model group, and another eight New Zealand rabbits served as the normal control group. Four rabbits were randomly taken every two weeks for real-time tissue elastography (RTE) and quantitative analysis of tissue diffusion. The obtained twelve characteristic quantities included relative mean value (MEAN), standard deviation (SD), blue area % (% AREA), complexity (COMP), kurtosis (KURT), skewness (SKEW), contrast (CONT), entropy (ENT), inverse different moment (IDM), angular secon moment (ASM), correlation (CORR) and liver fibrosis index (LF Index). Rabbits were executed and liver tissues were taken for pathological staging of liver fibrosis (grouped by pathological stage into S0 group, S1 group, S2 group, S3 group and S4 group). In addition, the collagen I (Col I) and collagen III (Col III) expression levels in liver tissue were detected by Western blot. Results: Except for KURT, there were significant differences among the other eleven characteristic quantities (P < 0.05). LF Index, Col I and Col III expression levels showed a rising trend with increased pathological staging of liver fibrosis, presenting a positive correlation with the pathological staging of liver fibrosis (r = 0.718, r = 0.693, r = 0.611, P < 0.05). Conclusion: RTE quantitative analysis is expected for noninvasive evaluation of the pathological staging of liver fibrosis. PMID:24955175

Shi, Ying; Wang, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Huan-Hu; Zhang, Hai-Qing; Tu, Ji-Zheng; Wei, Kun; Li, Juan; Liu, Xiao-Li



Quantitative Analysis of Food and Feed Samples with Droplet Digital PCR  

PubMed Central

In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies) of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR) approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed. PMID:23658750

Morisset, Dany; Štebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Žel, Jana



Quantitative analysis of food and feed samples with droplet digital PCR.  


In this study, the applicability of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for routine analysis in food and feed samples was demonstrated with the quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is currently used for quantitative molecular analysis of the presence of GMOs in products. However, its use is limited for detecting and quantifying very small numbers of DNA targets, as in some complex food and feed matrices. Using ddPCR duplex assay, we have measured the absolute numbers of MON810 transgene and hmg maize reference gene copies in DNA samples. Key performance parameters of the assay were determined. The ddPCR system is shown to offer precise absolute and relative quantification of targets, without the need for calibration curves. The sensitivity (five target DNA copies) of the ddPCR assay compares well with those of individual qPCR assays and of the chamber digital PCR (cdPCR) approach. It offers a dynamic range over four orders of magnitude, greater than that of cdPCR. Moreover, when compared to qPCR, the ddPCR assay showed better repeatability at low target concentrations and a greater tolerance to inhibitors. Finally, ddPCR throughput and cost are advantageous relative to those of qPCR for routine GMO quantification. It is thus concluded that ddPCR technology can be applied for routine quantification of GMOs, or any other domain where quantitative analysis of food and feed samples is needed. PMID:23658750

Morisset, Dany; Štebih, Dejan; Milavec, Mojca; Gruden, Kristina; Žel, Jana



Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional Chinese medicine.  


Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang



Multiple nuclei tracking using integer programming for quantitative cancer cell cycle analysis.  


Automated cell segmentation and tracking are critical for quantitative analysis of cell cycle behavior using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. However, the complex, dynamic cell cycle behavior poses new challenges to the existing image segmentation and tracking methods. This paper presents a fully automated tracking method for quantitative cell cycle analysis. In the proposed tracking method, we introduce a neighboring graph to characterize the spatial distribution of neighboring nuclei, and a novel dissimilarity measure is designed based on the spatial distribution, nuclei morphological appearance, migration, and intensity information. Then, we employ the integer programming and division matching strategy, together with the novel dissimilarity measure, to track cell nuclei. We applied this new tracking method for the tracking of HeLa cancer cells over several cell cycles, and the validation results showed that the high accuracy for segmentation and tracking at 99.5% and 90.0%, respectively. The tracking method has been implemented in the cell-cycle analysis software package, DCELLIQ, which is freely available. PMID:19643704

Li, Fuhai; Zhou, Xiaobo; Ma, Jinwen; Wong, Stephen T C



Application of relativistic electrons for the quantitative analysis of trace elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle induced X-ray emission methods (PIXE) have been extended to relativistic electrons to induce X-ray emission (REIXE) for quantitative trace-element analysis. The electron beam (20 ? E0? 70 MeV) was supplied by the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator DALINAC. Systematic measurements of absolute K-, L- and M-shell ionization cross sections revealed a scaling behaviour of inner-shell ionization cross sections from which X-ray production cross sections can be deduced for any element of interest for a quantitative sample investigation. Using a multielemental mineral monazite sample from Malaysia the sensitivity of REIXE is compared to well established methods of trace-element analysis like proton- and X-ray-induced X-ray fluorescence analysis. The achievable detection limit for very heavy elements amounts to about 100 ppm for the REIXE method. As an example of an application the investigation of a sample prepared from manganese nodules — picked up from the Pacific deep sea — is discussed, which showed the expected high mineral content of Fe, Ni, Cu and Ti, although the search for aliquots of Pt did not show any measurable content within an upper limit of 250 ppm.

Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Brendel, C.; Genz, H.; Löw, W.; Richter, A.



Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle internalization in mammalian cells by high resolution X-ray microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative analysis of nanoparticle uptake at the cellular level is critical to nanomedicine procedures. In particular, it is required for a realistic evaluation of their effects. Unfortunately, quantitative measurements of nanoparticle uptake still pose a formidable technical challenge. We present here a method to tackle this problem and analyze the number of metal nanoparticles present in different types of cells. The method relies on high-lateral-resolution (better than 30 nm) transmission x-ray microimages with both absorption contrast and phase contrast -- including two-dimensional (2D) projection images and three-dimensional (3D) tomographic reconstructions that directly show the nanoparticles. Results Practical tests were successfully conducted on bare and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanoparticles obtained by x-ray irradiation. Using two different cell lines, EMT and HeLa, we obtained the number of nanoparticle clusters uptaken by each cell and the cluster size. Furthermore, the analysis revealed interesting differences between 2D and 3D cultured cells as well as between 2D and 3D data for the same 3D specimen. Conclusions We demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of our method, proving that it is accurate enough to measure the nanoparticle uptake differences between cells as well as the sizes of the formed nanoparticle clusters. The differences between 2D and 3D cultures and 2D and 3D images stress the importance of the 3D analysis which is made possible by our approach. PMID:21477355



Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

PubMed Central

Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang



A method for quantitative analysis of aquatic humic substances in clear water based on carbon concentration.  


Aquatic humic substances (AHSs) are major constituents of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in freshwater, where they perform a number of important ecological and geochemical functions, yet no method exists for quantifying all AHSs. We have developed a method for the quantitative analysis of AHSs based on their carbon concentration. Our approach includes: (1) the development of techniques for clear-water samples with low AHS concentrations, which normally complicate quantification; (2) avoiding carbon contamination in the laboratory; and (3) optimizing the AHS adsorption conditions. PMID:23060000

Tsuda, Kumiko; Takata, Akihiro; Shirai, Hidekado; Kozaki, Katsutoshi; Fujitake, Nobuhide



Quantitative phase detection with expanded principal component analysis method on interferometric microscopic cytometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on interferometric microscopy, we develop a quantitative interferometric microscopic cytometer with expanded principal component analysis (PCA) phase retrieval method to obtain phase distributions of numerous biological samples with spatial resolution ~1.5 ?m. The expanded PCA method realizes high-speed phase imaging from multiple microscopic interferograms captured by CCD camera when the biological samples are scanned in the field of view. This method is a time-domain algorithm which calculates faster than traditional frequency-domain algorithms and overcomes drawbacks induced by fast Fourier transform. The potential of this phase detecting system for studying biological systems is demonstrated with simulations and phase measurement of red blood cells in experiments.

Wang, Shouyu; Xue, Liang; Li, Hailong; Lai, Jiancheng; Song, Yang; Li, Zhenhua



Gene expression analysis in early embryos through reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).  


Real-time, reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and reproducible technology for the analysis of gene expression patterns. Its ability to detect minute quantities of nucleic acid from multifarious sources makes it an ideal technique for embryonic transcript quantification. However, complex cellular diversity and active transcriptome dynamics in early embryos necessitate particular caution to avoid erroneous results. This chapter is intended to outline basic methodology to design and execute RT-qPCR experiments in pre-implantation embryos. PMID:25287347

Peynot, Nathalie; Duranthon, Véronique; Khan, Daulat Raheem



Uranium Isotopic and Quantitative Analysis Using a Mechanically-Cooled HPGe Detector  

SciTech Connect

A new, portable high-resolution spectroscopy system based on a high-purity germanium detector cooled with a miniature Stirling-cycle cooler, ORTEC trans-SPEC, has recently become commercially available. The use of a long-life mechanical cooling system eliminates the need for liquid nitrogen. The purpose of this study was to determine the applicability of this new instrument for isotopic and quantitative analyses of uranium samples. The results of the performance of the trans-SPEC with the combination of PC-FRAM and ISOTOPIC software packages are described in this paper. An optimal set of analysis parameters for uranium measurements is proposed.

Solodov, Alexander A [ORNL



Modular isotopomer synthesis of ?-hydroxybutyric acid for a quantitative analysis of metabolic fates.  


Herein we report a study combining metabolomics and mass isotopomer analysis used for investigation of the biochemical fate of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Using various (13)C incorporation labeling patterns into GHB, we have discovered that GHB is catabolized by previously unknown processes that include (i) direct ?-oxidation to acetyl-CoA and glycolate, (ii) ?-oxidation to 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA and formate, and (iii) cleavage of C-4 to yield 3-hydroxypropionate and CO2. We further utilized the unique attributes of our labeling patterns and the resultant isotopomers to quantitate relative flux down the identified pathways. PMID:24933109

Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Tochtrop, Gregory P



Characterizing Aging in the Human Brainstem Using Quantitative Multimodal MRI Analysis  

PubMed Central

Aging is ubiquitous to the human condition. The MRI correlates of healthy aging have been extensively investigated using a range of modalities, including volumetric MRI, quantitative MRI (qMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging. Despite this, the reported brainstem related changes remain sparse. This is, in part, due to the technical and methodological limitations in quantitatively assessing and statistically analyzing this region. By utilizing a new method of brainstem segmentation, a large cohort of 100 healthy adults were assessed in this study for the effects of aging within the human brainstem in vivo. Using qMRI, tensor-based morphometry (TBM), and voxel-based quantification (VBQ), the volumetric and quantitative changes across healthy adults between 19 and 75?years were characterized. In addition to the increased R2* in substantia nigra corresponding to increasing iron deposition with age, several novel findings were reported in the current study. These include selective volumetric loss of the brachium conjunctivum, with a corresponding decrease in magnetization transfer and increase in proton density (PD), accounting for the previously described “midbrain shrinkage.” Additionally, we found increases in R1 and PD in several pontine and medullary structures. We consider these changes in the context of well-characterized, functional age-related changes, and propose potential biophysical mechanisms. This study provides detailed quantitative analysis of the internal architecture of the brainstem and provides a baseline for further studies of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by early, pre-clinical involvement of the brainstem, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. PMID:23970860

Lambert, Christian; Chowdhury, Rumana; FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Fleming, Stephen M.; Lutti, Antoine; Hutton, Chloe; Draganski, Bogdan; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John



Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry  

E-print Network

Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics emitters for analysis. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection was per- formed using a fully autonomous four samples in less than 15 min from (dried) sample to analysis. The figures of merit for the new

Zandstra, Peter W.


Simultaneous quantitative analysis of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants in water by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with flow injection analysis.  


A rapid method is described for the quantitative analysis of anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants in water samples by flow injection analysis coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FIA/ESI-MS). All surfactants were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction and quantified using labeled triethoxylated nonylphenol ([13C6]-NP3EO) and sodium dibutylnaphthalenesulfonate as internal standards. FIA/ESI-MS was performed by alternating both positive and negative ionization modes, which allows simultaneous analysis of most common surfactants in a short time. Quality parameters of the method, such as linear range, repeatability, reproducibility, and limits of detection were studied. This method was applied to the analysis of wastewater treatment plant effluents from Catalonia (NE Spain). PMID:14708787

Barco, Mónica; Planas, Carles; Palacios, Oscar; Ventura, Francesc; Rivera, Josep; Caixach, Josep



Solar aqua-ammonia absorption refrigerator simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermodynamic analysis of an Ammonia-water absorption refrigeration cycle performance, using solar energy in the generator, is simulated by means of a PC program. The economic feasibility of the system for ice production is studied in two southern locations of Spain. For the solar energy collection unit, a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) is considered. The optimal value of the Coefficient of

E. Elegido; J. M. De Juana; M. A. Herrero




PubMed Central

Image data are increasingly encountered and are of growing importance in many areas of science. Much of these data are quantitative image data, which are characterized by intensities that represent some measurement of interest in the scanned images. The data typically consist of multiple images on the same domain and the goal of the research is to combine the quantitative information across images to make inference about populations or interventions. In this paper, we present a unified analysis framework for the analysis of quantitative image data using a Bayesian functional mixed model approach. This framework is flexible enough to handle complex, irregular images with many local features, and can model the simultaneous effects of multiple factors on the image intensities and account for the correlation between images induced by the design. We introduce a general isomorphic modeling approach to fitting the functional mixed model, of which the wavelet-based functional mixed model is one special case. With suitable modeling choices, this approach leads to efficient calculations and can result in flexible modeling and adaptive smoothing of the salient features in the data. The proposed method has the following advantages: it can be run automatically, it produces inferential plots indicating which regions of the image are associated with each factor, it simultaneously considers the practical and statistical significance of findings, and it controls the false discovery rate. Although the method we present is general and can be applied to quantitative image data from any application, in this paper we focus on image-based proteomic data. We apply our method to an animal study investigating the effects of opiate addiction on the brain proteome. Our image-based functional mixed model approach finds results that are missed with conventional spot-based analysis approaches. In particular, we find that the significant regions of the image identified by the proposed method frequently correspond to subregions of visible spots that may represent post-translational modifications or co-migrating proteins that cannot be visually resolved from adjacent, more abundant proteins on the gel image. Thus, it is possible that this image-based approach may actually improve the realized resolution of the gel, revealing differentially expressed proteins that would not have even been detected as spots by modern spot-based analyses. PMID:22408711

Morris, Jeffrey S.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Herrick, Richard C.; Sanna, Pietro; Gutstein, Howard



Quantitative proteomic analysis of sphere-forming stem-like oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The purpose of this study is to identify target proteins that may play important functional roles in oral cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) using mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics. Methods Sphere-formation assays were performed on highly invasive UM1 and lowly invasive UM2 oral cancer cell lines, which were derived from the same tongue squamous cell carcinoma, to enrich CSCs. Quantitative proteomic analysis of CSC-like and non-CSC UM1 cells was carried out using tandem mass tagging and two-dimensional liquid chromatography with Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Results CSC-like cancer cells were found to be present in the highly invasive UM1 cell line but absent in the lowly invasive UM2 cell line. Stem cell markers SOX2, OCT4, SOX9 and CD44 were up-regulated, whereas HIF-1 alpha and PGK-1 were down-regulated in CSC-like UM1 cells versus non-CSC UM1 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that many proteins in cell cycle, metabolism, G protein signal transduction, translational elongation, development, and RNA splicing pathways were differentially expressed between the two cell phenotypes. Both CREB-1-binding protein (CBP) and phosphorylated CREB-1 were found to be significantly over-expressed in CSC-like UM1 cells. Conclusions CSC-like cells can be enriched from the highly invasive UM1 oral cancer cell line but not from the lowly invasive UM2 oral cancer cell line. There are significant proteomic alterations between CSC-like and non-CSC UM1 cells. In particular, CBP and phosphorylated CREB-1 were significantly up-regulated in CSC-like UM1 cells versus non-CSC UM1 cells, suggesting that the CREB pathway is activated in the CSC-like cells. PMID:24423398



Dissection of genotype-phenotype associations in rice grains using metabolome quantitative trait loci analysis.  


A comprehensive and large-scale metabolome quantitative trait loci (mQTL) analysis was performed to investigate the genetic backgrounds associated with metabolic phenotypes in rice grains. The metabolome dataset consisted of 759?metabolite signals obtained from the grains of 85 lines of rice (Oryza sativa, Sasanishiki?×?Habataki back-crossed inbred lines). Metabolome analysis was performed using four mass spectrometry pipelines to enhance detection of different classes of metabolites. This mQTL analysis of a wide range of metabolites highlighted an uneven distribution of 802 mQTLs on the rice genome, as well as different modes of metabolic trait (m-trait) control among various types of metabolites. The levels of most metabolites within rice grains were highly sensitive to environmental factors, but only weakly associated with mQTLs. Coordinated control was observed for several groups of metabolites, such as amino acids linked to the mQTL hotspot on chromosome?3. For flavonoids, m-trait variation among the experimental lines was tightly governed by genetic factors that alter the glycosylation of flavones. Many loci affecting levels of metabolites were detected by QTL analysis, and plausible gene candidates were evaluated by in silico analysis. Several mQTLs profoundly influenced metabolite levels, providing insight into the control of rice metabolism. The genomic region and genes potentially responsible for the biosynthesis of apigenin-6,8-di-C-?-l-arabinoside are presented as an example of a critical mQTL identified by the analysis. PMID:22229385

Matsuda, Fumio; Okazaki, Yozo; Oikawa, Akira; Kusano, Miyako; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Kikuchi, Jun; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Ebana, Kaworu; Yano, Masahiro; Saito, Kazuki



Growth mixture modeling as an exploratory analysis tool in longitudinal quantitative trait loci analysis  

PubMed Central

We examined the properties of growth mixture modeling in finding longitudinal quantitative trait loci in a genome-wide association study. Two software packages are commonly used in these analyses: Mplus and the SAS TRAJ procedure. We analyzed the 200 replicates of the simulated data with these programs using three tests: the likelihood-ratio test statistic, a direct test of genetic model coefficients, and the chi-square test classifying subjects based on the trajectory model's posterior Bayesian probability. The Mplus program was not effective in this application due to its computational demands. The distributions of these tests applied to genes not related to the trait were sensitive to departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The likelihood-ratio test statistic was not usable in this application because its distribution was far from the expected asymptotic distributions when applied to markers with no genetic relation to the quantitative trait. The other two tests were satisfactory. Power was still substantial when we used markers near the gene rather than the gene itself. That is, growth mixture modeling may be useful in genome-wide association studies. For markers near the actual gene, there was somewhat greater power for the direct test of the coefficients and lesser power for the posterior Bayesian probability chi-square test. PMID:20017977



Analysis of Fungal Flora in Indoor Dust by Ribosomal DNA Sequence Analysis, Quantitative PCR, and Culture? †  

PubMed Central

In recent years increasing attention has been given to the potential health effects of fungal exposure in indoor environments. We used large-scale sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA to describe the mycoflora of two office buildings over the four seasons. DNA sequencing was complemented by cultivation, ergosterol determination, and quantitative PCR analyses. Sequences of 1,339 clones were clustered into 394 nonredundant fungal operational taxonomical units containing sequences from 18 fungal subclasses. The observed flora differed markedly from that recovered by cultivation, the major differences being the near absence of several typical indoor mold genera such as Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. and a high prevalence of basidiomycetes in clone libraries. A total of 55% of the total diversity constituted of unidentifiable ITS sequences, some of which may represent novel fungal species. Dominant species were Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. herbarum, Cryptococcus victoriae, Leptosphaerulina americana and L. chartarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Thekopsora areolata, Phaeococcomyces nigricans, Macrophoma sp., and several Malassezia species. Seasonal differences were observed for community composition, with ascomycetous molds and basidiomycetous yeasts predominating in the winter and spring and Agaricomycetidae basidiomycetes predominating in the fall. The comparison of methods suggested that the cloning, cultivation, and quantitative PCR methods complemented each other, generating a more comprehensive picture of fungal flora than any of the methods would give alone. The current restrictions of the methods are discussed. PMID:17981947

Pitkäranta, M.; Meklin, T.; Hyvärinen, A.; Paulin, L.; Auvinen, P.; Nevalainen, A.; Rintala, H.



Quantitative endogenous formate analysis in plasma using headspace gas chromatography without a headspace analyzer.  


The objective was to develop a simple routine method for quantitative measurement of endogenous formic acid in plasma and whole blood using headspace gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. (GC-FID). Two-hundred microliters of sample was placed in a 1-mL glass vial. Fifty microliters of aqueous ethanol (10%) was added as an internal standard and a derivatizing agent. Ethylformate formation was enhanced by addition of 200 microL concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The vials were then sealed immediately and placed in a water bath for 15 min at 60 degrees C. One milliliter of this headspace gas was siphoned using a gas-tight syringe and injected into a GC-FID fitted with a capillary column. Ethanol eluted at approximately 3.0 min, and ethylformate eluted around 4.7 min. The limit of quantitation for ethylformate was 0.026 mmol/L, and the limit of detection was 0.020 mmol/L. Imprecisions for spiked plasma samples at 0.25 and 1 mmol/L were 10% and 9%, respectively and recoveries were at 100% and 108%, respectively. A simple, reliable, and highly specific headspace analysis method for quantifying endogenous formate without the use of a headspace analyzer was developed. This method enables the routine clinical analysis of formate in plasma and whole blood samples. PMID:17725880

Sokoro, AbdulRazaq; Lehotay, Denis; Eichhorst, Jeff; Treble, Ronald



Histogram Analysis of Hepatobiliary Phase MR Imaging as a Quantitative Value for Liver Cirrhosis: Preliminary Observations  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate whether histogram analysis of the hepatobiliary phase on gadoxetate enhanced-MRI could be used as a quantitative index for determination of liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods A total of 63 patients [26 in a normal liver function (NLF) group and 37 in a cirrhotic group] underwent gadoxetate-enhanced MRI, and hepatobiliary phase images were obtained at 20 minutes after contrast injection. The signal intensity of the hepatic parenchyma was measured at four different regions of interest (ROI) of the liver, avoiding vessels and bile ducts. Standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and corrected CV were calculated on the histograms at the ROIs. The distributions of CVs calculated from the ROI histogram were examined and statistical analysis was carried out. Results The CV value was 0.041±0.009 (mean CV±SD) in the NLF group, while that of cirrhotic group was 0.071±0.020. There were statistically significant differences in the CVs and corrected CV values between the NLF and cirrhotic groups (p<0.001). The most accurate cut-off value among CVs for distinguishing normal from cirrhotic group was 0.052 (sensitivity 83.8% and specificity 88.5%). There was no statistically significant differences in SD between NLF and cirrhotic groups (p=0.307). Conclusion The CV of histograms of the hepatobiliary phase on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI may be useful as a quantitative value for determining the presence of liver cirrhosis. PMID:24719131

Kim, Honsoul; Sun, Mark; Sirlin, Claude B.



A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang



Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Primary Cell Wall Composition in Arabidopsis1  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was used to identify genes underlying natural variation in primary cell wall composition in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). The cell walls of dark-grown seedlings of a Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred line population were analyzed using three miniaturized global cell wall fingerprinting techniques: monosaccharide composition analysis by gas chromatography, xyloglucan oligosaccharide mass profiling, and whole-wall Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. Heritable variation and transgression were observed for the arabinose-rhamnose ratio, xyloglucan side-chain composition (including O-acetylation levels), and absorbance for a subset of Fourier-transform infrared wavenumbers. In total, 33 QTL, corresponding to at least 11 different loci controlling dark-grown hypocotyl length, pectin composition, and levels of xyloglucan fucosylation and O-acetylation, were identified. One major QTL, accounting for 51% of the variation in the arabinose-rhamnose ratio, affected the number of arabinan side chains presumably attached to the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I, paving the way to positional cloning of the first gene underlying natural variation in pectin structure. Several QTL were found to be colocalized, which may have implications for the regulation of xyloglucan metabolism. These results demonstrate the feasibility of combining fingerprinting techniques, natural variation, and quantitative genetics to gain original insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the structure and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides. PMID:16714406

Mouille, Grégory; Witucka-Wall, Hanna; Bruyant, Marie-Pierre; Loudet, Olivier; Pelletier, Sandra; Rihouey, Christophe; Lerouxel, Olivier; Lerouge, Patrice; Höfte, Herman; Pauly, Markus



In-depth quantitative analysis of the microstructures produced by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT)  

SciTech Connect

Electron BackScattered Diffraction (EBSD) maps are used to characterize quantitatively the graded microstructure formed by Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment (SMAT) and applied here to the 316L stainless steel. In particular, the analysis of GNDs – coupled with relevant and reliable criteria – was used to depict the thickness of each zone identified in the SMAT-affected layers: (i) the “ultrafine grain” (UFG) zone present at the extreme top surface, (ii), the “transition zone” where grains were fragmented under the heavy plastic deformation and, finally, (iii) the “deformed zone” where initial grains are simply deformed. The interest of this procedure is illustrated through the comparative analysis of the effect of some SMAT processing parameters (amplitude of vibration and treatment duration). The UFG and transition zones are more significantly modified than the overall affected thickness under our tested conditions. - Highlights: • EBSD maps are used to characterize quantitatively the microstructure of SMAT treated samples. • Calculation of the GND density to quantify strain gradients • A new method to depict the different zone thicknesses in the SMAT affected layer • Effects of SMAT processing parameters on the surface microstructure evolution.

Samih, Y., E-mail: [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Metz F-57045 (France); Beausir, B. [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Metz F-57045 (France); Bolle, B. [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Metz F-57045 (France); Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs de Metz, Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Metz F-57045 (France); Grosdidier, T., E-mail: [Université de Lorraine, Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Metz F-57045 (France); Université de Lorraine, Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Metz F-57045 (France)



An integrated microfluidic culture device for quantitative analysis of human embryonic stem cells.  


We have successfully designed and fabricated an integrated microfluidic platform, the hESC-microChip, which is capable of reproducible and quantitative culture and analysis of individual hESC colonies in a semi-automated fashion. In this device, a serpentine microchannel allows pre-screening of dissociated hESC clusters, and six individually addressable cell culture chambers enable parallel hESC culture, as well as multiparameter analyses in sequence. In order to quantitatively monitor hESC proliferation and pluripotency status in real time, knock-in hESC lines with EGFP driven by the endogenous OCT4 promoter were constructed. On-chip immunoassays of several pluripotency markers were carried out to confirm that the hESC colonies maintained their pluripotency. For the first time, our studies demonstrated well characterized hESC culture and analysis in a microfluidic setting, as well as a proof-of-concept demonstration of parallel/multiparameter/real-time/automated examination of self-renewal and differentiation in the same device. PMID:19190791

Kamei, Ken-Ichiro; Guo, Shuling; Yu, Zeta Tak For; Takahashi, Hiroko; Gschweng, Eric; Suh, Carol; Wang, Xiaopu; Tang, Jinghua; McLaughlin, Jami; Witte, Owen N; Lee, Ki-Bum; Tseng, Hsian-Rong



Quantitative CMMI Assessment for Offshoring through the Analysis of Project Management Repositories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nature of distributed teams and the existence of multiple sites in offshore software development projects pose a challenging setting for software process improvement. Often, the improvement and appraisal of software processes is achieved through a turnkey solution where best practices are imposed or transferred from a company’s headquarters to its offshore units. In so doing, successful project health checks and monitoring for quality on software processes requires strong project management skills, well-built onshore-offshore coordination, and often needs regular onsite visits by software process improvement consultants from the headquarters’ team. This paper focuses on software process improvement as guided by the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) and proposes a model to evaluate the status of such improvement efforts in the context of distributed multi-site projects without some of this overhead. The paper discusses the application of quantitative CMMI assessment through the collection and analysis of project data gathered directly from project repositories to facilitate CMMI implementation and reduce the cost of such implementation for offshore-outsourced software development projects. We exemplify this approach to quantitative CMMI assessment through the analysis of project management data and discuss the future directions of this work in progress.

Sunetnanta, Thanwadee; Nobprapai, Ni-On; Gotel, Olly


Chromosome mechanics in vivo: quantitative analysis of nonrigid 3D chromosome motion in Drosophila embryos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chromosomes are often arranged into specific configurations. One example is the metaphase plate of the Drosophila embryo in which chromosomes are arranged into a parallel bundle. How is this configuration established and maintained? Quantitative analysis of chromosomes motion in vivo should help answer this question by providing a measure of the relevant mechanical properties of the chromosomes themselves. In addition, motion analysis will allow us to study interactions of chromosomes with the mitotic spindle. In order to analyze moving mitotic chromosomes, we acquire time-lapse 3D images of chromosomes in living Drosophila embryos, and then interactively model the chromosome configuration at each time point. A model-based motion estimation algorithm is then applied. From the motion estimate, we can visualize trajectories of different regions on the chromosomes, such as centromeres and telomeres, during metaphase and during prometaphase congression. In addition, quantitative estimates of mechanical properties such as mobility and flexibility can be computed. In this preliminary report we describe computational tools for tracking and visualizing 3D chromosome motion, and for detecting oscillations in position along the mitotic spindle.

Marshall, Wallace F.; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.



Simple algorithm for quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed comparison of two different physical approaches for quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS) is presented. The Tougaard-Chorkendorff (TC) algorithm [S. Tougaard, I. Chorkendorff, Phys. Rev. B35 (1987) 6570] is analyzed theoretically and applied to experimental spectra of four elemental solids (Si, Cu, Ag, and Au). A closed expression is derived for the quantity retrieved by the TC-algorithm, the so-called "effective" cross section, which was originally only given as a recursive procedure. Single scattering loss distributions are derived from the experimental spectra using the bivariate reversal method [W.S.M. Werner, Phys. Rev. B74 (2006) 075421]. The latter agree satisfactorily with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and other data found in the literature. Using these single scattering loss distributions, the TC "effective" cross section can be perfectly reproduced if the fact is taken into account that the effective cross section is not a single scattering loss distribution and is governed to a significant extent by elastic scattering. On the basis of the above results, a dramatically simplified deconvolution scheme for quantitative analysis of REELS is developed.

Werner, Wolfgang S. M.



Dissecting eukaryotic cells by coherent phase microscopy: quantitative analysis of quiescent and activated T lymphocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a concept for quantitative characterization of a functional state of an individual eukaryotic cell based on interference imaging. The informative parameters of the phase images of quiescent and mitogen-activated T lymphocytes included the phase thickness, phase volume, the area, and the size of organelles. These parameters were obtained without a special hypothesis about cell structure. Combinations of these parameters generated a ``phase portrait'' of the cell. A simplified spherical multilayer optic model of a T lymphocyte was used to calculate the refractivity profile, to identify structural elements of the image with the organelles, and to interpret the parameters of the phase portrait. The values of phase image parameters underwent characteristic changes in the course of mitogenic stimulation of T cells; thereby, the functional state of individual cells can be described using these parameters. Because the values of the components of the phase portrait are measured in absolute units, it is possible to compare the parameters of images obtained with different interference microscopes. Thus, the analysis of phase portraits provides a new and perspective approach for quantitative, real-time analysis of subcellular structure and physiologic state of an individual cell.

Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kretushev, Alexander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatiana V.; Shtil, Alexander A.



Quantitative and rapid analysis of transglutaminase activity using protein arrays in mammalian cells.  


We developed a novel on-chip activity assay using protein arrays for quantitative and rapid analysis of transglutami-nase activity in mammalian cells. Transglutaminases are a family of Ca2+-dependent enzymes involved in cell regulation as well as human diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory diseases and tumor progression. We fabricated the protein arrays by immobilizing N,N'-dimethylcasein (a substrate) on the amine surface of the arrays. We initiated transamidating reaction on the protein arrays and determined the transglutaminase activity by analyzing the fluorescence intensity of biotinylated casein. The on-chip transglutaminase activity assay was proved to be much more sensitive than the [3H]putrescine-incorporation assay. We successfully applied the on-chip assay to a rapid and quantitative analysis of the transgluta-minase activity in all-trans retinoic acid-treated NIH 3T3 and SH-SY5Y cells. In addition, the on-chip transglutaminase activity assay was sufficiently sensitive to determine the transglutaminase activity in eleven mammalian cell lines. Thus, this novel on-chip transglutaminase activity assay was confirmed to be a sensitive and high-throughput approach to investigating the roles of transglutaminase in cellular signaling, and, moreover, it is likely to have a strong potential for monitoring human diseases. PMID:19326081

Kwon, Mi-Hye; Jung, Jae-Wan; Jung, Se-Hui; Park, Jin-Young; Kim, Young-Myeong; Ha, Kwon-Soo



Digital Holographic Microscopy: Quantitative Phase Imaging and Applications in Live Cell Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of complex processes in living cells creates a high demand for fast and label-free methods for online monitoring. Widely used fluorescence methods require specific labeling and are often restricted to chemically fixated samples. Thus, methods that offer label-free and minimally invasive detection of live cell processes and cell state alterations are of particular interest. In combination with light microscopy, digital holography provides label-free, multi-focus quantitative phase imaging of living cells. In overview, several methods for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) are presented. First, different experimental setups for the recording of digital holograms and the modular integration of DHM into common microscopes are described. Then the numerical processing of digitally captured holograms is explained. This includes the description of spatial and temporal phase shifting techniques, spatial filtering based reconstruction, holographic autofocusing, and the evaluation of self-interference holograms. Furthermore, the usage of partial coherent light and multi-wavelength approaches is discussed. Finally, potentials of digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell imaging are illustrated by results from selected applications. It is shown that DHM can be used for automated tracking of migrating cells and cell thickness monitoring as well as for refractive index deter