Sample records for quantitative analysis aqua

  1. Quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nevin, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative analysis permits the isolation of invariant relations in the study of behavior. The parameters of these relations can serve as higher-order dependent variables in more extensive analyses. These points are illustrated by reference to quantitative descriptions of performance maintained by concurrent schedules, multiple schedules, and signal-detection procedures. Such quantitative descriptions of empirical data may be derived from mathematical theories, which in turn can lead to novel empirical analyses so long as their terms refer to behavioral and environmental events. Thus, quantitative analysis is an integral aspect of the experimental analysis of behavior. PMID:16812400

  2. Analysis of leaf area index products from combination of MODIS Terra and Aqua data

    E-print Network

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board NASA's Terra and Aqua platforms is designed for monitoring of the Earth 2002 to the present in the case of AquaMODIS. The product suite of both instruments includes vegetationAnalysis of leaf area index products from combination of MODIS Terra and Aqua data W. Yang a,, N

  3. AquaLite, a bioluminescent label for immunoassay and nucleic acid detection: quantitative analyses at the attomol level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David F.; Stults, Nancy L.

    1996-04-01

    AquaLiteR is a direct, bioluminescent label capable of detecting attomol levels of analyte in clinical immunoassays and assays for the quantitative measurement of nucleic acids. Bioluminescent immunoassays (BIAs) require no radioisotopes and avoid complex fluorescent measurements and many of the variables of indirect enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). AquaLite, a recombinant form of the photoprotein aequorin from a bioluminescent jellyfish, is coupled directly to antibodies to prepare bioluminescent conjugates for assay development. When the AquaLite-antibody complex is exposed to a solution containing calcium ions, a flash of blue light ((lambda) max equals 469 nm) is generated. The light signal is measured in commercially available luminometers that simultaneously inject a calcium solution and detect subattomol photoprotein levies in either test tubes or microtiter plates. Immunometric or 'sandwich' type assays are available for the quantitative measurement of human endocrine hormones and nucleic acids. The AquaLite TSH assay can detect 1 attomol of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in 0.2 mL of human serum and is a useful clinical tool for diagnosing hyperthyroid patients. AquaLite-based nucleic acid detection permits quantifying attomol levels of specific nucleic acid markers and represents possible solution to the difficult problem of quantifying the targets of nucleic acid amplification methods.

  4. Terra and Aqua MODIS calibration algorithms and uncertainty analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxiong Xiong; Junqiang Sun; Aisheng Wu; Kwo-Fu Chiang; Joe Esposito; William Barnes

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra spacecraft was launched in December 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft in May 2002. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is one of the key instruments for NASA's EOS missions, currently operated on both the Terra and Aqua spacecrafts. Together they have made continuous global observations for more than 8 years and led to many

  5. Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, Vonnie M.

    2000-01-01

    The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

  6. Towards energy decomposition analysis for open and closed shell f-elements mono aqua complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjolin, A.; Gourlaouen, C.; Clavaguéra, C.; Dognon, J.-P.; Piquemal, J.-P.

    2013-03-01

    We propose an energy decomposition analysis of mono aqua systems of both open and closed shell lanthanide and actinide cations using the CSOV scheme. We compared the values obtained with either large f-in-core or small core quasi relativistic pseudopotentials and computed the unpaired electrons contribution to the polarization energy component. Through a quasi-systematic approach on a number of chosen f-element cations, we quantified the different trends across both series for each contribution. This work is an important preliminary step for the acquisition of reference ab initio data for further parameterization of polarizable force fields for lanthanides and actinides.

  7. Quantitative analysis of software architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonetta Balsamo; Marco Bernardoand; Vincenzo Grassi

    Quantitative analysis of software systems is a critical issue in the development of applications for heterogeneous distributed and mobile systems. It has been recognised that performance analysis should be integrated in the software development life cycle since the early stages. We focus on quantitative analysis of software architectures (SA) and in particular on performance models and languages to represent, evaluate

  8. Sulfide oxidations for LC-MS analysis of methionine-containing microcystins in Dolichospermum flos-aquae NIVA-CYA 656.

    PubMed

    Miles, Christopher O; Melanson, Jeremy E; Ballot, Andreas

    2014-11-18

    Microcystins are cyclic heptapeptides produced by a range of cyanobacteria. More than 150 microcystin analogues have been reported from cultures, algal blooms, or other contaminated samples. Relatively few analytical standards are available, making identification and quantitation of these toxins a challenge, even with LC-MS technology. We developed a two-step oxidative procedure that allows LC-MS identification of microcystins containing methionine and methionine sulfoxide, and reveals the oxidation state of the methionyl sulfur atom. The procedure was used in parallel with mercaptoethanol derivatization and LC-MS(2) analysis to demonstrate the presence of [Asp(3)]MC-MR (12) and MC-MR (17) in a culture of Dolichospermum flos-aquae, together with low levels of [Asp(3)]MC-M(O)R (5) and MC-M(O)R (7), as well as 20 other microcystins. Fresh culture contained only traces of sulfoxides 5 and 7, but these increased during storage or sample extraction and preparation. This suggests that microcystins containing methionine sulfoxide are primarily postextraction oxidation artifacts, rather than being produced by biosynthesis in cyanobacteria. A simple, rapid extraction under inert gas followed promptly by LC-MS analysis minimized oxidation artifacts for D. flos-aquae. PMID:25333659

  9. Software for quantitative trait analysis

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of software currently available for the genetic analysis of quantitative traits in humans. Programs that implement variance components, Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), Haseman-Elston (H-E) and penetrance model-based linkage analyses are discussed, as are programs for measured genotype association analyses and quantitative trait transmission disequilibrium tests. The software compared includes LINKAGE, FASTLINK, PAP, SOLAR, SEGPATH, ACT, Mx, MERLIN, GENEHUNTER, Loki, Mendel, SAGE, QTDT and FBAT. Where possible, the paper provides URLs for acquiring these programs through the internet, details of the platforms for which the software is available and the types of analyses performed. PMID:16197737

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Breast Cancer Tissue Microarrays Shows High Cox2 Expression Is Associated with Poor Outcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maciej P. Zerkowski; Robert L. Camp; Barbara A. Burtness; David L. Rimm; Gina G. Chung

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic and preclinical studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) may promote tumor growth and spread by affecting angiogenesis and apoptosis in breast cancer. Using a tissue microarray (TMA), we analyzed the expression and subcellular localization of Cox-2 by AQUA and X-tile, our algorithms for quantitative analysis of protein expression and determi- nation of optimal cutpoints. Our TMA consisted of 669 Stage

  11. Science Writers' Guide to Aqua

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-03-01

    This guide provides an overview of the Aqua mission, instruments, research, science teams, and Aqua website. This information is provided to aid the professional science writer in writing stories and articles related to the Aqua mission. Note: this guide was produced before Aqua was launched; for the most recent information on Aqua, go to http://aqua.nasa.gov.

  12. Development of DNA Damage Response Signaling Biomarkers using Automated, Quantitative Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaishvilli-Feinberg, Nana; Cohen, Stephanie M.; Midkiff, Bentley; Zhou, Yingchun; Olorvida, Mark; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Omolo, Bernard; Shields, Janiel M.; Thomas, Nancy E.; Groben, Pamela A.; Kaufmann, William K.

    2014-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates DNA repair with cell cycle checkpoints to ameliorate or mitigate the pathological effects of DNA damage. Automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) and Tissue Studio are commercial technologies that use digitized immunofluorescence microscopy images to quantify antigen expression in defined tissue compartments. Because DDR is commonly activated in cancer and may reflect genetic instability within the lesion, a method to quantify DDR in cancer offers potential diagnostic and/or prognostic value. In this study, both AQUA and Tissue Studio algorithms were used to quantify the DDR in radiation-damaged skin fibroblasts, melanoma cell lines, moles, and primary and metastatic melanomas. Digital image analysis results for three markers of DDR (?H2AX, P-ATM, P-Chk2) correlated with immunoblot data for irradiated fibroblasts, whereas only ?H2AX and P-Chk2 correlated with immunoblot data in melanoma cell lines. Melanoma cell lines displayed substantial variation in ?H2AX and P-Chk2 expression, and P-Chk2 expression was significantly correlated with radioresistance. Moles, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases in brain, lung and liver displayed substantial variation in ?H2AX expression, similar to that observed in melanoma cell lines. Automated digital analysis of immunofluorescent images stained for DDR biomarkers may be useful for predicting tumor response to radiation and chemotherapy. PMID:24309508

  13. Development of DNA damage response signaling biomarkers using automated, quantitative image analysis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaishvilli-Feinberg, Nana; Cohen, Stephanie M; Midkiff, Bentley; Zhou, Yingchun; Olorvida, Mark; Ibrahim, Joseph G; Omolo, Bernard; Shields, Janiel M; Thomas, Nancy E; Groben, Pamela A; Kaufmann, William K; Miller, C Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates DNA repair with cell cycle checkpoints to ameliorate or mitigate the pathological effects of DNA damage. Automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) and Tissue Studio are commercial technologies that use digitized immunofluorescence microscopy images to quantify antigen expression in defined tissue compartments. Because DDR is commonly activated in cancer and may reflect genetic instability within the lesion, a method to quantify DDR in cancer offers potential diagnostic and/or prognostic value. In this study, both AQUA and Tissue Studio algorithms were used to quantify the DDR in radiation-damaged skin fibroblasts, melanoma cell lines, moles, and primary and metastatic melanomas. Digital image analysis results for three markers of DDR (?H2AX, P-ATM, P-Chk2) correlated with immunoblot data for irradiated fibroblasts, whereas only ?H2AX and P-Chk2 correlated with immunoblot data in melanoma cell lines. Melanoma cell lines displayed substantial variation in ?H2AX and P-Chk2 expression, and P-Chk2 expression was significantly correlated with radioresistance. Moles, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases in brain, lung and liver displayed substantial variation in ?H2AX expression, similar to that observed in melanoma cell lines. Automated digital analysis of immunofluorescent images stained for DDR biomarkers may be useful for predicting tumor response to radiation and chemotherapy. PMID:24309508

  14. Image analysis combined with quantitative cytochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Ploem; A. M. J. Driel-Kulker; L. Goyarts-Veldstra; J. J. Ploem-Zaaijer; N. P. Verwoerd; M. Zwan

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the application of image analysis combined with a quantitative staining method for the analysis of cervical specimens. The image analysis is carried out with the Leyden Television Analysis System, LEYTAS, of which two versions are described. LEYTAS-1 as well as LEYTAS-2 have both been designed with a high degree of flexibility and interaction facilities. A much wider

  15. Aqua-Thrusters!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

    In this activity, students construct their own rocket-powered boat called an "aqua-thruster." These aqua-thrusters will be made from a film canister and will use carbon dioxide gas — produced from a chemical reaction between an antacid tablet and water — to propel it. Students observe the effect that surface area of this simulated solid rocket fuel has on thrust.

  16. Analysis of Raman lidar and radiosonde measurements from the AWEX-G field campaign and its relation to Aqua validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. N. Whiteman; F. Russo; B. Demoz; L. M. Miloshevich; I. Veselovskii; S. Hannon; Z. Wang; H. Vömel; F. Schmidlin; B. Lesht; P. J. Moore; A. S. Beebe; A. Gambacorta; C. Barnet

    2006-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde.

  17. NASA EOS Aqua Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), the Aqua satellite mission is gathering information on the Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface to help scientists understand the role of hydrology and its impact on climate. The website features introductions of the science team, information on the data products, and summaries and fact sheets of the four science groups involved with the Aqua project: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E), and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). The Cool Science link offers excellent videos to educate the public on Aqua's mission and science. Users can find countless incredible satellite images of Earth's landscapes and physical characteristics. The web provides many Aqua brochures, educational presentations, archived webcasts, press releases, and much more.

  18. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE IN VERTEBRATES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    i QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MASTICATORY PERFORMANCE IN VERTEBRATES By SRIKANTH KANNAN August, 2008 reproduce the mastication motion. Reproduction of the mastication motion of a vertebrate with a robotic capture system was used for capture the 3D mastication motion of different vertebrates. 3D laser scanning

  19. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SURFACE BARKHAUSEN NOISE MEASUREMENTS

    E-print Network

    Clapham, Lynann

    permeability-independent measurements of Barkhausen noise, made possible by directly controlling the magneticQUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF SURFACE BARKHAUSEN NOISE MEASUREMENTS S. White^ T. Krause% andL. Clapham in many other studies, significantly reduces sensitivity to lift-off, improves on measurement

  20. Progress in quantitative analysis of plant hormones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JiHong Fu; XiaoHong Sun; JiDe Wang; JinFang Chu; CunYu Yan

    2011-01-01

    Plant hormones are small molecular natural products that regulate all plant developmental processes at low concentrations.\\u000a Quantitative analysis of plant hormones is increasingly important for in-depth study of their biosynthesis, transport, metabolism\\u000a and molecular regulatory mechanisms. Although plant hormone analysis remains a bottleneck in plant scientific research owing\\u000a to the trace concentrations and complex components in plant crude extracts, much

  1. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis on Privacy Leak Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  2. Comprehensive quantitative analysis on privacy leak behavior.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lejun; Wang, Yuanzhuo; Jin, Xiaolong; Li, Jingyuan; Cheng, Xueqi; Jin, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Privacy information is prone to be leaked by illegal software providers with various motivations. Privacy leak behavior has thus become an important research issue of cyber security. However, existing approaches can only qualitatively analyze privacy leak behavior of software applications. No quantitative approach, to the best of our knowledge, has been developed in the open literature. To fill this gap, in this paper we propose for the first time four quantitative metrics, namely, possibility, severity, crypticity, and manipulability, for privacy leak behavior analysis based on Privacy Petri Net (PPN). In order to compare the privacy leak behavior among different software, we further propose a comprehensive metric, namely, overall leak degree, based on these four metrics. Finally, we validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach using real-world software applications. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can quantitatively analyze the privacy leak behaviors of various software types and reveal their characteristics from different aspects. PMID:24066046

  3. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  4. Good practices for quantitative bias analysis.

    PubMed

    Lash, Timothy L; Fox, Matthew P; MacLehose, Richard F; Maldonado, George; McCandless, Lawrence C; Greenland, Sander

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative bias analysis serves several objectives in epidemiological research. First, it provides a quantitative estimate of the direction, magnitude and uncertainty arising from systematic errors. Second, the acts of identifying sources of systematic error, writing down models to quantify them, assigning values to the bias parameters and interpreting the results combat the human tendency towards overconfidence in research results, syntheses and critiques and the inferences that rest upon them. Finally, by suggesting aspects that dominate uncertainty in a particular research result or topic area, bias analysis can guide efficient allocation of sparse research resources. The fundamental methods of bias analyses have been known for decades, and there have been calls for more widespread use for nearly as long. There was a time when some believed that bias analyses were rarely undertaken because the methods were not widely known and because automated computing tools were not readily available to implement the methods. These shortcomings have been largely resolved. We must, therefore, contemplate other barriers to implementation. One possibility is that practitioners avoid the analyses because they lack confidence in the practice of bias analysis. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe what we view as good practices for applying quantitative bias analysis to epidemiological data, directed towards those familiar with the methods. We focus on answering questions often posed to those of us who advocate incorporation of bias analysis methods into teaching and research. These include the following. When is bias analysis practical and productive? How does one select the biases that ought to be addressed? How does one select a method to model biases? How does one assign values to the parameters of a bias model? How does one present and interpret a bias analysis?. We hope that our guide to good practices for conducting and presenting bias analyses will encourage more widespread use of bias analysis to estimate the potential magnitude and direction of biases, as well as the uncertainty in estimates potentially influenced by the biases. PMID:25080530

  5. Quantitative Electron Diffraction Structure Analysis (EDSA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Avilov

    The modern state of EDSA in combination with topological analysis of the ESP and electron density allows to obtain reliable\\u000a and quantitative information about chemical bonding and properties.\\u000a \\u000a The electrostatic field in a crystal is good characterized, the determining factor is however, the introduction of cations\\u000a in the ESP of NaCl type structures. Thus precise EDSA data for calculating the

  6. Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis (JFQA)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis is published by the School of Business Administration at the University of Washington, Seattle. It publishes theoretical and empirical research in financial economics. The web site details the instructions on submitting articles for publications; table of contents and abstracts of previous articles are also accessible. Full text of articles that have been accepted for publication are available in Acrobat format.

  7. Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)

    2009-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

  8. Analysis of Raman Lidar and Radiosonde Measurements from the AWEX-G Field Campaign and Its Relation to Aqua Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Russo, F.; Demoz, B.; Miloshevich, L. M.; Veselovskii, I.; Hannon, S.; Wang, Z.; Vomel, H.; Schmidlin, F.; Lesht, B.; Moore, P. J.; Beebe, A. S.; Gambacorta, A.; Barnet, C.

    2006-01-01

    Early work within the Aqua validation activity revealed there to be large differences in water vapor measurement accuracy among the various technologies in use for providing validation data. The validation measurements were made at globally distributed sites making it difficult to isolate the sources of the apparent measurement differences among the various sensors, which included both Raman lidar and radiosonde. Because of this, the AIRS Water Vapor Experiment-Ground (AWEX-G) was held in October-November 2003 with the goal of bringing validation technologies to a common site for intercomparison and resolving the measurement discrepancies. Using the University of Colorado Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) as the water vapor reference, the AWEX-G field campaign permitted correction techniques to be validated for Raman lidar, Vaisala RS80-H and RS90/92 that significantly improve the absolute accuracy of water vapor measurements from these systems particularly in the upper troposphere. Mean comparisons of radiosondes and lidar are performed demonstrating agreement between corrected sensors and the CFH to generally within 5% thereby providing data of sufficient accuracy for Aqua validation purposes. Examples of the use of the correction techniques in radiance and retrieval comparisons are provided and discussed.

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Software: Challenges and Recent Advances

    E-print Network

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    discusses the main challenges for quantitative analysis of software in cyber-physical systems. It alsoQuantitative Analysis of Software: Challenges and Recent Advances Sanjit A. Seshia EECS Department these is the verification of quantitative properties of software such as execution time or energy usage. This paper

  10. Quantitative architectural analysis of bronchial intraepithelial neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.; Le Riche, Jean C.; Dawe, Chris; Korbelik, Jagoda; Lam, Stephen

    2000-04-01

    Considerable variation exists among pathologist in the interpretation of intraepithelial neoplasia making it difficult to determine the natural history of these lesion and to establish management guidelines for chemoprevention. The aim of the study is to evaluate architectural features of pre-neoplastic progression in lung cancer, and to search for a correlation between architectural index and conventional pathology. Quantitative architectural analysis was performed on a series of normal lung biopsies and Carcinoma In Situ (CIS). Centers of gravity of the nuclei within a pre-defined region of interest were used as seeds to generate a Voronoi Diagram. About 30 features derived from the Voronoi diagram, its dual the Delaunay tessellation, and the Minimum Spanning Tree were extracted. A discriminant analysis was performed to separate between the two groups. The architectural Index was calculated for each of the bronchial biopsies that were interpreted as hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild, moderate or severe dysplasia by conventional histopathology criteria. As a group, lesions classified as CIS by conventional histopathology criteria could be distinguished from dysplasia using the architectural Index. Metaplasia was distinct from hyperplasia and hyperplasia from normal. There was overlap between severe and moderate dysplasia but mild dysplasia could be distinguished form moderate dysplasia. Bronchial intraepithelial neoplastic lesions can be degraded objectively by architectural features. Combination of architectural features and nuclear morphometric features may improve the quantitation of the changes occurring during the intra-epithelial neoplastic process.

  11. Quantitative analysis of NMR spectra with chemometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winning, H.; Larsen, F. H.; Bro, R.; Engelsen, S. B.

    2008-01-01

    The number of applications of chemometrics to series of NMR spectra is rapidly increasing due to an emerging interest for quantitative NMR spectroscopy e.g. in the pharmaceutical and food industries. This paper gives an analysis of advantages and limitations of applying the two most common chemometric procedures, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR), to a designed set of 231 simple alcohol mixture (propanol, butanol and pentanol) 1H 400 MHz spectra. The study clearly demonstrates that the major advantage of chemometrics is the visualisation of larger data structures which adds a new exploratory dimension to NMR research. While robustness and powerful data visualisation and exploration are the main qualities of the PCA method, the study demonstrates that the bilinear MCR method is an even more powerful method for resolving pure component NMR spectra from mixtures when certain conditions are met.

  12. Quantitative analysis of spirality in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dojcsak, Levente; Shamir, Lior

    2014-04-01

    We use an automated galaxy morphology analysis method to quantitatively measure the spirality of galaxies classified manually as elliptical. The data set used for the analysis consists of 60,518 galaxy images with redshift obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and classified manually by Galaxy Zoo, as well as the RC3 and NA10 catalogues. We measure the spirality of the galaxies by using the Ganalyzer method, which transforms the galaxy image to its radial intensity plot to detect galaxy spirality that is in many cases difficult to notice by manual observation of the raw galaxy image. Experimental results using manually classified elliptical and S0 galaxies with redshift <0.3 suggest that galaxies classified manually as elliptical and S0 exhibit a nonzero signal for the spirality. These results suggest that the human eye observing the raw galaxy image might not always be the most effective way of detecting spirality and curves in the arms of galaxies.

  13. Quantitative biometric phenotype analysis in mouse lenses

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    The disrupted morphology of lenses in mouse models for cataracts precludes accurate in vitro assessment of lens growth by weight. To overcome this limitation, we developed morphometric methods to assess defects in eye lens growth and shape in mice expressing the ?A-crystallin R49C (?A-R49C) mutation. Our morphometric methods determine quantitative shape and dry weight of the whole lens from histological sections of the lens. This method was then used to quantitatively compare the biometric growth patterns of lenses of different genotypes of mice from birth to 12 months. The wild type dry lens weights determined using the morphometric method were comparable to previously reported weights. Next we applied the method to assessing the lenses of ?A-R49C knock-in mice, which exhibit decreased ?A-crystallin protein solubility, resulting in a variety of growth abnormalities including early cataract formation, decreased eye and lens size, failure to form the equatorial bow region, and continued lens cell death, sometimes resulting in the entire loss of the lens and eye. Our morphometric methods reproducibly quantified these defects by combining histology, microscopy, and image analysis. The volume measurement accurately represented the total growth of the lens, whereas the geometric shape of the lens more accurately quantified the differences between the growth of the mutant and wild-type lenses. These methods are robust tools for measuring dry lens weight and quantitatively comparing the growth of small lenses that are difficult to weigh accurately such as those from very young mice and mice with developmental lens defects. PMID:20606707

  14. Automated quantitative image analysis of nanoparticle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Chaitanya R.; Gao, Bo; Tao, Andrea R.; Arya, Gaurav

    2015-05-01

    The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly.The ability to characterize higher-order structures formed by nanoparticle (NP) assembly is critical for predicting and engineering the properties of advanced nanocomposite materials. Here we develop a quantitative image analysis software to characterize key structural properties of NP clusters from experimental images of nanocomposites. This analysis can be carried out on images captured at intermittent times during assembly to monitor the time evolution of NP clusters in a highly automated manner. The software outputs averages and distributions in the size, radius of gyration, fractal dimension, backbone length, end-to-end distance, anisotropic ratio, and aspect ratio of NP clusters as a function of time along with bootstrapped error bounds for all calculated properties. The polydispersity in the NP building blocks and biases in the sampling of NP clusters are accounted for through the use of probabilistic weights. This software, named Particle Image Characterization Tool (PICT), has been made publicly available and could be an invaluable resource for researchers studying NP assembly. To demonstrate its practical utility, we used PICT to analyze scanning electron microscopy images taken during the assembly of surface-functionalized metal NPs of differing shapes and sizes within a polymer matrix. PICT is used to characterize and analyze the morphology of NP clusters, providing quantitative information that can be used to elucidate the physical mechanisms governing NP assembly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Derivation and implementation of unbiased feature measurement, calculation of empirical distribution of single particle areas, calculation of self-similarity dimensions by regression on cluster data, and validation of image analysis algorithms. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00809c

  15. Materials characterization through quantitative digital image analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Philliber; B. Antoun; B. Somerday; N. Yang

    2000-07-01

    A digital image analysis system has been developed to allow advanced quantitative measurement of microstructural features. This capability is maintained as part of the microscopy facility at Sandia, Livermore. The system records images digitally, eliminating the use of film. Images obtained from other sources may also be imported into the system. Subsequent digital image processing enhances image appearance through the contrast and brightness adjustments. The system measures a variety of user-defined microstructural features--including area fraction, particle size and spatial distributions, grain sizes and orientations of elongated particles. These measurements are made in a semi-automatic mode through the use of macro programs and a computer controlled translation stage. A routine has been developed to create large montages of 50+ separate images. Individual image frames are matched to the nearest pixel to create seamless montages. Results from three different studies are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the system.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Tremors in Welders

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ramos, Juan; Reimer, Dacy; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Sullivan, Kelly; Nausieda, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Workers chronically exposed to manganese in welding fumes may develop an extra-pyramidal syndrome with postural and action tremors. Objectives: To determine the utility of tremor analysis in distinguishing tremors among workers exposed to welding fumes, patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD) and Essential Tremor (ET). Methods: Retrospective study of recorded tremor in subjects from academic Movement Disorders Clinics and Welders. Quantitative tremor analysis was performed and associated with clinical status. Results: Postural tremor intensity was increased in Welders and ET and was associated with visibly greater amplitude of tremor with arms extended. Mean center frequencies (Cf) of welders and patients with ET were significantly higher than the mean Cf of PD subjects. Although both the welders and the ET group exhibited a higher Cf with arms extended, welders could be distinguished from the ET subjects by a significantly lower Cf of the rest tremor than that measured in ET subjects. Conclusions: In the context of an appropriate exposure history and neurological examination, tremor analysis may be useful in the diagnosis of manganese-related extra-pyramidal manifestations. PMID:21655131

  17. Quantitative risk analysis of urban flooding in lowland areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. E. Ten Veldhuis

    2010-01-01

    Urban flood risk analyses suffer from a lack of quantitative historical data on flooding incidents. Data collection takes place on an ad hoc basis and is usually restricted to severe events. The resulting data deficiency renders quantitative assessment of urban flood risks uncertain. The study reported in this thesis reviews existing approaches to quantitative flood risk analysis and evaluation of

  18. Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure

    E-print Network

    Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells by the analysis of Ni-YSZ and LSC-CGO electrode samples. Automatic methods for preprocessing the raw 3D image data variation in the 3D image data. Routine use of quantitative three dimensional analysis of microstructure

  19. Quantitative surface structure analysis by low-energy ion scattering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aono

    1984-01-01

    A review is presented of low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) as a tool for surface atomic structure analysis. Especially, quantitative surface atomic structure analysis by ISS is highlighted. An important difference between ISS and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), a specialization of ISS for quantitative surface atomic structure analysis, and a general feature of the shadow cone in the energy range

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Triple Mutant Genetic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Braberg, Hannes; Alexander, Richard; Shales, Michael; Xu, Jiewei; Franks-Skiba, Kathleen E.; Wu, Qiuqin; Haber, James E.; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of genetic interactions between pairs of gene mutations has proven effective for characterizing cellular functions but can miss important interactions for functionally redundant genes. To address this limitation, we have developed an approach termed Triple Mutant Analysis (TMA). The procedure relies on a query strain that contains two deletions in a pair of redundant or otherwise related genes, that is crossed against a panel of candidate deletion strains to isolate triple mutants and measure their growth. A central feature of TMA is to interrogate mutants that are synthetically sick when two other genes are deleted but interact minimally with either single deletion. This approach has been valuable for discovering genes that restore critical functions when the principle actors are deleted. TMA has also uncovered double mutant combinations that produce severe defects because a third protein becomes deregulated and acts in a deleterious fashion, and it has revealed functional differences between proteins presumed to act together. The protocol is optimized for Singer ROTOR pinning robots, takes 3 weeks to complete, and measures interactions for up to 30 double mutants against a library of 1536 single mutants. PMID:25010907

  1. QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS ANALYSIS AND METABOLIC PATHWAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of molecular markers for crop plants has enabled research on the genetic basis of quantitative traits. However, despite more than a decade of these studies, called quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, the molecular basis for variation in most agronomic traits is still largely unk...

  2. Arms control agreements: A quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koubi, V.V.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the arms control phenomenon by examining in a rigorous, quantitative manner the military and political environment surrounding the introduction of the treaties in the period 1816-1987. The thesis uses formal statistical analysis to examine military and enmity developments preceding and following arms control agreements. Differences are uncovered in the pattern of military spending and international conflict across two broadly defined types of treaties: (1) treaties that prepare for war by establishing humanitarian rules for its conduct; and (2) treaties that aim at promoting peace by controlling the level and quality of armaments. The main empirical findings include: peace' treaties tend to be introduced in periods of low military spending relative to war' treaties; military spending experiences a decrease (increase) in the short run before a peace' ( war') treaty. While both types of treaties seem effective in restraining military expenditures in the short run (three years) after the treaty, these gains are short lived with reversal to a pattern of military buildups in the longer run. Similarly, peace' treaties tend to both follow and be followed by low levels of international tensions (as reflected in serious disputes) relative to war' treaties.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Jesus

    Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis Ildefonso M. De la glycolysis. Citation: De la Fuente IM, Cortes JM (2012) Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis. PLoS ONE 7(2): e30162. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0030162 Editor: Christos A

  4. Quantitative Fault Propagation Analysis for Networked Cyber-Physical Systems

    E-print Network

    Briesemeister, Linda

    Quantitative Fault Propagation Analysis for Networked Cyber-Physical Systems Linda Briesemeister an approach to ana- lyzing a model of networked cyber-physical systems for fault propagation. We present as numeric evaluation to perform a quantitative fault analysis. Our models are built from a few building

  5. Quantitative Analysis of Hypoperfusion in Acute Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Nael, Kambiz; Meshksar, Arash; Liebeskind, David S.; Coull, Bruce M.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Villablanca, J. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose This study compares the concordance between arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) for the identification of regional hypoperfusion and diffusion-perfusion mismatch tissue classification using a quantitative method. Methods The inclusion criteria for this retrospective study were as follows: patients with acute ischemic syndrome with symptom onset <24 hours and acquisition of both ASL and DSC MR perfusion. The volumes of infarction and hypoperfused lesions were calculated on ASL and DSC multi-parametric maps. Patients were classified into reperfused, matched, or mismatch groups using time to maximum >6 sec as the reference. In a subset of patients who were successfully recanalized, the identical analysis was performed and the infarction and hypoperfused lesion volumes were used for paired pre- and posttreatment comparisons. Results Forty-one patients met our inclusion criteria. Twenty patients underwent successful endovascular revascularization (TICI>2a), resulting in a total of 61 ASL-DSC data pairs for comparison. The hypoperfusion volume on ASL-cerebral blood flow best approximated the DSC-time to peak volume (r=0.83) in pretreatment group and time to maximum (r=0.46) after recanalization. Both ASL-cerebral blood flow and DSC-TTP overestimated the hypoperfusion volume compared with time to maximum volume in pretreatment (F=27.41, P<0.0001) and recanalized patients (F=8.78, P<0.0001). Conclusions ASL-cerebral blood flow overestimates the DSC time to maximum hypoperfusion volume and mismatch classification in patients with acute ischemic syndrome. Continued overestimation of hypoperfused volume after recanalization suggests flow pattern and velocity changes in addition to arterial transit delay can affects the performance of ASL. PMID:23988646

  6. Quantitative risk analysis of oil storage facilities in seismic areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Fabbrocino; Iunio Iervolino; Francesca Orlando; Ernesto Salzano

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative risk analysis (QRA) of industrial facilities has to take into account multiple hazards threatening critical equipment. Nevertheless, engineering procedures able to evaluate quantitatively the effect of seismic action are not well established. Indeed, relevant industrial accidents may be triggered by loss of containment following ground shaking or other relevant natural hazards, either directly or through cascade effects (‘domino effects’).The

  7. The Nagios community: An extended quantitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is to quantitatively assess the health of an Open Source community (Crowston and Howison 2006). A number of studies and Howison 2005) and mailing lists (Kamei et al. 2008). We have chosen to analyse social networks derived Open Source project are users, developers, core developers and project leaders (Crowston and Howison

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Human Cruciate Ligament Insertions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher D. Harner; Goo Hyun Baek; Tracy M. Vogrin; Gregory J. Carlin; Shinji Kashiwaguchi; Savio L. Y. Woo

    1999-01-01

    Summary: The objective of this study was to provide quantitative data on the insertion sites of the cruciate ligaments. In the first part of the study, we determined the shapes and sizes of the insertions of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL), and further compared these data with the midsubstance cross-sectional areas of the ligaments. The cross-sectional

  9. Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis Short Course. Introduction to X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometry and Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This course will cover practical applications of the energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) to x-ray microanalysis. Topics covered will include detector technology, advances in pulse processing, resolution and performance monitoring, detector modeling, peak deconvolution and fitting, qualitative and quantitative analysis, compositional mapping, and standards. An emphasis will be placed on use of the EDS for quantitative analysis, with discussion of typical problems encountered in the analysis of a wide range of materials and sample geometries.

  10. Quantitative analysis of comparative genomic hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Manoir, S. du; Bentz, M.; Joos, S. [Abteilung Organisation komplexer Genome, Heidelberg (Germany)]|[Institut fuer Humangenetik, Heidelberg (Germany)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a new molecular cytogenetic method for the detection of chromosomal imbalances. Following cohybridization of DNA prepared from a sample to be studied and control DNA to normal metaphase spreads, probes are detected via different fluorochromes. The ratio of the test and control fluorescence intensities along a chromosome reflects the relative copy number of segments of a chromosome in the test genome. Quantitative evaluation of CGH experiments is required for the determination of low copy changes, e.g., monosomy or trisomy, and for the definition of the breakpoints involved in unbalanced rearrangements. In this study, a program for quantitation of CGH preparations is presented. This program is based on the extraction of the fluorescence ratio profile along each chromosome, followed by averaging of individual profiles from several metaphase spreads. Objective parameters critical for quantitative evaluations were tested, and the criteria for selection of suitable CGH preparations are described. The granularity of the chromosome painting and the regional inhomogeneity of fluorescence intensities in metaphase spreads proved to be crucial parameters. The coefficient of variation of the ratio value for chromosomes in balanced state (CVBS) provides a general quality criterion for CGH experiments. Different cutoff levels (thresholds) of average fluorescence ratio values were compared for their specificity and sensitivity with regard to the detection of chromosomal imbalances. 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Quantitative analysis of volume images -electron microscopic tomography of HIV

    E-print Network

    Nyström, Ingela

    Quantitative analysis of volume images - electron microscopic tomography of HIV Ingela Nystr to assist in the structural analysis of the causative virus of the AIDS disease, HIV. Especially interestingom, Ewert Bengtsson, Bo Nordin Centre for Image Analysis Uppsala University, Sweden Gunilla Borgefors Centre

  12. The quantitative analysis approach for a heart sound information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cao Zehan; Zhou Shiyong; Fu Li; Pei Yuli; Xiao Shouzhong

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative heart sound analysis, based on which the Heart Sound Information System (HSIS) has been built. Heart sound analysis provides important information of cardiovascular diseases so it has been a basic requirement for every doctor and medical student. We use objective measurement and analysis in terms of physiology and pathology of heart sound and approaches of knowledge

  13. Quantitative selection of hedge funds using data envelopment analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantitative selection of hedge funds using data envelopment analysis Huyen Nguyen-Thi-Thanh First15 KEYWORDS: hedge funds, data envelopment analysis, performance measures, Sharpe ratio, fund Envelopment Analysis (DEA) could be a good tool to evaluate fund performance, especially the performance

  14. Quantitative bacterial analysis of comparative wound irrigations.

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, M L; Robson, M C; Krizek, T J; Southwick, W O

    1975-01-01

    It is a biologic fact that all open wounds contain bacteria and remain contaminated with varying levels of bacteria until successful wound closure has been accomplished. The sine qua non in the management of the contaminated wound has been and remains adequate sharp debridement. In a standardized experimental model, three methods of irrigation were compared employing quantitative bacteriology of tissue to evaluate their effectiveness at decreasing bacterial levels and reducing wound infection. The pulsating jet lavate was found to be significantly better than gravity flow irrigation or wound irrigation with a bulb syringe. These data on tissue biopsies support previous reports using surface and wound exudate cultures. PMID:1094969

  15. Structural and quantitative analysis of Equisetum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Luise; Ernst, Ludger; Lubienski, Marcus; Papke, Uli; Schiebel, Hans-Martin; Jerz, Gerold; Beuerle, Till

    2015-08-01

    Equisetum palustre L. is known for its toxicity for livestock. Several studies in the past addressed the isolation and identification of the responsible alkaloids. So far, palustrine (1) and N(5)-formylpalustrine (2) are known alkaloids of E. palustre. A HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method in combination with simple sample work-up was developed to identify and quantitate Equisetum alkaloids. Besides the two known alkaloids six related alkaloids were detected in different Equisetum samples. The structure of the alkaloid palustridiene (3) was derived by comprehensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. N(5)-Acetylpalustrine (4) was also thoroughly characterized by NMR for the first time. The structure of N(5)-formylpalustridiene (5) is proposed based on mass spectrometry results. Twenty-two E. palustre samples were screened by a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method after development of a simple sample work-up and in most cases the set of all eight alkaloids were detected in all parts of the plant. A high variability of the alkaloid content and distribution was found depending on plant organ, plant origin and season ranging from 88 to 597mg/kg dried weight. However, palustrine (1) and the alkaloid palustridiene (3) always represented the main alkaloids. For the first time, a comprehensive identification, quantitation and distribution of Equisetum alkaloids was achieved. PMID:25823584

  16. Towards a Quantitative OCT Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Garcia Garrido, Marina; Beck, Susanne C.; Mühlfriedel, Regine; Julien, Sylvie; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Seeliger, Mathias W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an invaluable diagnostic tool for the detection and follow-up of retinal pathology in patients and experimental disease models. However, as morphological structures and layering in health as well as their alterations in disease are complex, segmentation procedures have not yet reached a satisfactory level of performance. Therefore, raw images and qualitative data are commonly used in clinical and scientific reports. Here, we assess the value of OCT reflectivity profiles as a basis for a quantitative characterization of the retinal status in a cross-species comparative study. Methods Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), confocal Scanning-La­ser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and Fluorescein Angiography (FA) were performed in mice (Mus musculus), gerbils (Gerbillus perpadillus), and cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) using the Heidelberg Engineering Spectralis system, and additional SLOs and FAs were obtained with the HRA I (same manufacturer). Reflectivity profiles were extracted from 8-bit greyscale OCT images using the ImageJ software package (http://rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/). Results Reflectivity profiles obtained from OCT scans of all three animal species correlated well with ex vivo histomorphometric data. Each of the retinal layers showed a typical pattern that varied in relative size and degree of reflectivity across species. In general, plexiform layers showed a higher level of reflectivity than nuclear layers. A comparison of reflectivity profiles from specialized retinal regions (e.g. visual streak in gerbils, fovea in non-human primates) with respective regions of human retina revealed multiple similarities. In a model of Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), the value of reflectivity profiles for the follow-up of therapeutic interventions was demonstrated. Conclusions OCT reflectivity profiles provide a detailed, quantitative description of retinal layers and structures including specialized retinal regions. Our results highlight the potential of this approach in the long-term follow-up of therapeutic strategies. PMID:24927180

  17. Quantitative Image Analysis with Mathematical Morphology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Ledda; Wilfried Philips; Pieter Samyn; Patrick De Baets

    This papers deals with the analysis of shape and size of the debris particles obtained from wear exper- iments on polymers using image processing. Two analysis techniques that are very promising in this respect are the morphological pattern spectrum and the Fourier spectrum. They can be used to extract parameters that relate to par- ticle size and shape. We experimentally

  18. A Quantitative Analysis of the Historical Present Tense in Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    This paper presents the results of a quantitative analysis of the historical present tense (HP) in English. The tokens of HP in narrative clauses, such as "he's smiling, an' he picks up the card," are referentially equivalent to their past tense alternants in the phrases, "he was smiling an' he picked up the card." Previous analysis of HP view it…

  19. Quantitative analysis of anatase in Georgia kaolins using Raman spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Schroeder; Nathan D. Melear; Robert J. Pruett

    2003-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy of Georgia kaolins ubiquitously show a strong Eg frequency near 144 cm?1. Analysis of the band intensity shows that under specific source, sample, and optical conditions, peak area measurements are predictable and reproducible. Using standard additions, successful quantitative techniques have been developed that allow analysis of 25% solids water slurries, which achieve anatase detection limits down to 0.3%

  20. Quantitative infrared analysis of hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Manuta, D.M.

    1997-04-01

    This work was performed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant where hydrogen fluoride is produced upon the hydrolysis of UF{sub 6}. This poses a problem for in this setting and a method for determining the mole percent concentration was desired. HF has been considered to be a non-ideal gas for many years. D. F. Smith utilized complex equations in his HF studies in the 1950s. We have evaluated HF behavior as a function of pressure from three different perspectives. (1) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of pressure for 100% HF. (2) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} as a function of increasing partial pressure HF. Total pressure = 300 mm HgA maintained with nitrogen. (3) Absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} for constant partial pressure HF. Total pressure is increased to greater than 800 mm HgA with nitrogen. These experiments have shown that at partial pressures up to 35mm HgA, HIF follows the ideal gas law. The absorbance at 3877 cm{sup -1} can be quantitatively analyzed via infrared methods.

  1. Quantitative multi-modal NDT data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heideklang, René; Shokouhi, Parisa

    2014-02-01

    A single NDT technique is often not adequate to provide assessments about the integrity of test objects with the required coverage or accuracy. In such situations, it is often resorted to multi-modal testing, where complementary and overlapping information from different NDT techniques are combined for a more comprehensive evaluation. Multi-modal material and defect characterization is an interesting task which involves several diverse fields of research, including signal and image processing, statistics and data mining. The fusion of different modalities may improve quantitative nondestructive evaluation by effectively exploiting the augmented set of multi-sensor information about the material. It is the redundant information in particular, whose quantification is expected to lead to increased reliability and robustness of the inspection results. There are different systematic approaches to data fusion, each with its specific advantages and drawbacks. In our contribution, these will be discussed in the context of nondestructive materials testing. A practical study adopting a high-level scheme for the fusion of Eddy Current, GMR and Thermography measurements on a reference metallic specimen with built-in grooves will be presented. Results show that fusion is able to outperform the best single sensor regarding detection specificity, while retaining the same level of sensitivity.

  2. Aqua Satellite Mission Educational Outreach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Parkinson; S. M. Graham

    2003-01-01

    An important component of the Aqua mission, launched into space on May 4, 2002 with a suite of six instruments from the U.S., Japan, and Brazil, is the effort to educate the public about the mission and the science topics that it addresses. This educational outreach includes printed products, web casts, other web-based materials, animations, presentations, and a student contest.

  3. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  4. A Quantitative Analysis of Countries' Research Strengths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxena, Anurag; Brazer, S. David; Gupta, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a multidimensional analysis to evaluate transnational patterns of scientific research to determine relative research strengths among widely varying nations. Findings from this study may inform national policy with regard to the most efficient use of scarce national research resources, including government and private funding.…

  5. Differential analysis of high-throughput quantitative genetic interaction data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic genetic arrays have been very effective at measuring genetic interactions in yeast in a high-throughput manner and recently have been expanded to measure quantitative changes in interaction, termed 'differential interactions', across multiple conditions. Here, we present a strategy that leverages statistical information from the experimental design to produce a novel, quantitative differential interaction score, which performs favorably compared to previous differential scores. We also discuss the added utility of differential genetic-similarity in differential network analysis. Our approach is preferred for differential network analysis, and our implementation, written in MATLAB, can be found at http://chianti.ucsd.edu/~gbean/compute_differential_scores.m. PMID:23268787

  6. Quantitative analysis of heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kurths; A. Voss; P. Saparin; A. Witt; H. J. Kleiner; N. Wessel

    1995-01-01

    In the modern industrialized countries every year several hundred thousands of people diedue to the sudden cardiac death. The individual risk for this sudden cardiac death cannot bedefined precisely by common available, non-invasive diagnostic tools like Holter-monitoring,highly amplified ECG and traditional linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Therefore,we apply some rather unconventional methods of nonlinear dynamics to analyse the

  7. Quantitative atom probe analysis of carbides.

    PubMed

    Thuvander, M; Weidow, J; Angseryd, J; Falk, L K L; Liu, F; Sonestedt, M; Stiller, K; Andrén, H-O

    2011-05-01

    Compared to atom probe analysis of metallic materials, the analysis of carbide phases results in an enhanced formation of molecular ions and multiple events. In addition, many multiple events appear to consist of two or more ions originating from adjacent sites in the material. Due to limitations of the ion detectors measurements generally underestimate the carbon concentration. Analyses using laser-pulsed atom probe tomography have been performed on SiC, WC, Ti(C,N) and Ti(2)AlC grains in different materials as well as on large M(23)C(6) precipitates in steel. Using standard evaluation methods, the obtained carbon concentration was 6-24% lower than expected from the known stoichiometry. The results improved remarkably by using only the (13)C isotope, and calculating the concentration of (12)C from the natural isotope abundance. This confirms that the main reason for obtaining a too low carbon concentration is the dead time of the detector, mainly affecting carbon since it is more frequently evaporated as multiple ions. In the case of Ti(C,N) and Ti(2)AlC an additional difficulty arises from the overlap between C(2)(+), C(4)(2+) and Ti(2+) at the mass-to-charge 24 Da. PMID:21237570

  8. Quantitative Auger analysis of complex electrical contact alloy materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, D. E.; Pope, L. E.

    1987-07-01

    Addition of elemental Auger spectra has been used to produced several series of Auger lineshapes versus composition for the ovelapping peaks resulting from mixtures of Cu, Pt, Pd or Ag in Au; S in Au or Pt, Cl in Au, Pt or Pd; C (both graphitic and carbidic) in Au, Pt, Ag or Pd. These assorted lineshapes series may be used to obtain semi-quantitative analysis of overlapping peaks by matching lineshapes, but have also been used to calibrate peak ratios versus composition in order to quantitatively separate contributions to overlapping Auger peaks. This procedure is illustrated by application to the quantitative analysis of tw electrical contact alloys - ASTM B541. Advantages and limitations of this procedure are B540 and ASTM B541. Advantages and limitations of this procedure are discussed.

  9. Some results of a quantitative analysis of the SETI literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, V. V.

    A preliminary quantitative analysis of the SETI literature is presented, with 974 publications (1959-1979) scanned. Consideration is given to the 'dynamics' of the number of publications, and to the productivity of authors and sources. Conclusions are drawn as to the present state of the SETI literature. In particular, the need for an international multidisciplinary SETI journal is emphasized.

  10. CUMULATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    INTRODUCTION: GETTING FROM TOXICOLOGY TO QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR CUMULATIVE RISK Hugh A. Barton1 and Carey N. Pope2 1US EPA, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 2Department of...

  11. A quantitative approach for medical device Health Hazard Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingxiao Jiang; Kathy Herzog; Thomas Pepin; Michael D. Baca

    2011-01-01

    Health Hazard Analysis (HHA) is one major type of patient health risk assessment for medical device field performance issue. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has an online form, listing the needed information for HHA. In this paper, we will illustrate a quantitative HHA approach, which is structured in a rigorous risk assessment framework, with several critical steps, concepts and

  12. Issues Related to Data Analysis and Quantitative Methods in PER

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meltzer, David (David Elliott)

    This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, offers authors' discussion of some issues that always arise, implicitly or explicitly, when conducting quantitative research and carrying out data analysis in Physics Education Research. (Most are relevant for qualitative research as well.)

  13. Quantitative Analysis for Controllability of Symmetric Control Systems

    E-print Network

    Murota, Kazuo

    Quantitative Analysis for Controllability of Symmetric Control Systems Reiko Tanaka 1 and Kazuo with the controllability of systems possessing symmetries. In partic­ ular, we aim to give a lower bound for the number of functioning modules needed to ensure the controllability of the entire symmetric system. Our concern

  14. Analysis of quantitative trait loci that influence animal behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Flint

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral differences between in- bred strains of mice and rats have a genetic basis that can now be dissected using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Over the last 10 years, a large number of genetic loci that influence behavior have been mapped. In this article I review what that information has revealed about the genetic architecture of behavior. I show

  15. Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph

    E-print Network

    Quantitative Analysis of the Full Bitcoin Transaction Graph Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir Department.ron,adi.shamir}@weizmann.ac.il Abstract. The Bitcoin scheme is a rare example of a large scale global payment system in which all and how they spend their bitcoins, the balance of bitcoins they keep in their accounts, and how they move

  16. RETINAL DISORDERS Quantitative analysis of central visual field defects

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    RETINAL DISORDERS Quantitative analysis of central visual field defects in macular edema using levels of contrast in one eye of 37 patients with diabetic macular edema (DME, n=16) and exudative age . Amslergrid . Contrast sensitivity. Diabetic macular edema . Macular edema . Scotomas Introduction Amsler grid

  17. Quantitative estimation of calcite in limestones by differential thermal analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jehan; M. A. Qaiser; A. H. Khan

    1972-01-01

    A quantitative method is presented for the estimation of calcite in limestones by differential thermal analysis, using calcium hydroxide as an internal standard. The effects of variations due to particle size and impurities such as quartz, iron oxide, organic material, dolomite, magnesite, gypsum and phosphates are discussed.

  18. Quantitative Methods Inquires ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    Quantitative Methods Inquires 1 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD MORTALITY BETWEEN RURAL Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Abstract: Knowledge of factors that affect the under-five year child from rich family and the 2nd or 3rd child have lower risk of death compared to poor and 1st child

  19. Quantitative analysis using remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Davies; H. H. Telle; D. J. Montgomery; R. E. Corbett

    1995-01-01

    A measurement system for quantitative, remote materials analysis has been realised. It is based on the method of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), utilising an optical fibre system, both to deliver the laser radiation to the sample specimen and to collect the light emission from the luminous plasma plume. Distances of up to 100 m between the remote location and the

  20. Qualitative and quantitative thermoluminescence analysis on irradiated oregano

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. D’Oca; A. Bartolotta; M. C. Cammilleri; M. Brai; M. Marrale; A. Triolo; A. Parlato

    2007-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry is one of the physical methods used for the identification of irradiated food, suitable for foods from which silicate minerals can be extracted. The aims of the present work were to apply the TL analysis for a qualitative identification of irradiated oregano, and to set up a quantitative procedure to estimate the original treatment dose on the

  1. Quantitative analysis of paper coatings using artificial neural networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ludmila Dolmatova; Cyril Ruckebusch; Nathalie Dupuy; Jean-Pierre Huvenne; Pierre Legrand

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a neural network approach to the quantitative analysis of paper coatings. Infrared spectra of samples of coated paper were used as input data for the different types of artificial neural networks. Unsupervised learning was applied to obtain the clustering of samples with respect to similarities in the spectra. The self-organizing artificial neural network of Kohonen type produced

  2. Original article Quantitative analysis of social grooming behavior

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Quantitative analysis of social grooming behavior of the honey bee Apis mellifera; We observed social grooming behavior in the Carniolan bee, Apis mellifera carnica. Bouts of grooming their own mouth parts and antennae. The grooming behavior removed dust and pollen from the wing bases

  3. Qualitative and quantitative cost analysis for sheet metal stamping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dunbing Tang; Walter Eversheim; Günther Schuh

    2004-01-01

    This research paper presents a qualitative and quantitative cost analysis system for sheet metal stamping development at an early design stage. First, the authors identify problems in the traditional metal stamping part and die development processes and outline the need for performance of concurrent stamping part design in order to achieve cost effectiveness that accommodates the concept of concurrent engineering.

  4. Quantitating the subtleties of microglial morphology with fractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Karperien, Audrey; Ahammer, Helmut; Jelinek, Herbert F.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that microglial form and function are inextricably linked. In recent years, the traditional view that microglial form ranges between “ramified resting” and “activated amoeboid” has been emphasized through advancing imaging techniques that point to microglial form being highly dynamic even within the currently accepted morphological categories. Moreover, microglia adopt meaningful intermediate forms between categories, with considerable crossover in function and varying morphologies as they cycle, migrate, wave, phagocytose, and extend and retract fine and gross processes. From a quantitative perspective, it is problematic to measure such variability using traditional methods, but one way of quantitating such detail is through fractal analysis. The techniques of fractal analysis have been used for quantitating microglial morphology, to categorize gross differences but also to differentiate subtle differences (e.g., amongst ramified cells). Multifractal analysis in particular is one technique of fractal analysis that may be useful for identifying intermediate forms. Here we review current trends and methods of fractal analysis, focusing on box counting analysis, including lacunarity and multifractal analysis, as applied to microglial morphology. PMID:23386810

  5. Simultaneous quantitative analysis of N-acylethanolamides in clinical samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aliye Ozalp; Begona Barroso

    2009-01-01

    A simple and rapid analytical method is described for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of three different N-acylethanolamides in human biological samples: anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA), and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). The method is based on a new hybrid solid phase extraction–precipitation technology followed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (UPLC\\/MS) analysis using d4-AEA as the internal standard. The method is linear up to

  6. Quantitative analysis of sugar constituents of glycoproteins by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fu-Tai A. Chen; Thomas S. Dobashi; Ramon A. Evangelista

    1998-01-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of monosaccharides including N-acetylneuraminic acid derived from sialic acid- containing oligosaccharides and glycoproteins is presented. The analysis is based on the combination of chemical and enzymatic methods coupled with capillary electrophoretic (CE) separation and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. The present method utilizes a simplified acid hydrolysis procedure consisting of mild hydrolysis (0.1 M TFA) to

  7. Quantitative analysis of regional myocardial performance in coronary artery disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. K.; Dodge, H. T.; Frimer, M.

    1975-01-01

    Findings from a group of subjects with significant coronary artery stenosis are given. A group of controls determined by use of a quantitative method for the study of regional myocardial performance based on the frame-by-frame analysis of biplane left ventricular angiograms are presented. Particular emphasis was placed upon the analysis of wall motion in terms of normalized segment dimensions, timing and velocity of contraction. The results were compared with the method of subjective assessment used clinically.

  8. Quantitative analysis of culture using millions of digitized books.

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Shen, Yuan Kui; Aiden, Aviva Presser; Veres, Adrian; Gray, Matthew K; Pickett, Joseph P; Hoiberg, Dale; Clancy, Dan; Norvig, Peter; Orwant, Jon; Pinker, Steven; Nowak, Martin A; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2011-01-14

    We constructed a corpus of digitized texts containing about 4% of all books ever printed. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate cultural trends quantitatively. We survey the vast terrain of 'culturomics,' focusing on linguistic and cultural phenomena that were reflected in the English language between 1800 and 2000. We show how this approach can provide insights about fields as diverse as lexicography, the evolution of grammar, collective memory, the adoption of technology, the pursuit of fame, censorship, and historical epidemiology. Culturomics extends the boundaries of rigorous quantitative inquiry to a wide array of new phenomena spanning the social sciences and the humanities. PMID:21163965

  9. Quantitative layer analysis of single crystal surfaces by LEIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beikler, Robert; Taglauer, Edmund

    2002-06-01

    The quantitative interpretation of energy and angle resolved low-energy ion scattering intensity distributions is achieved by comparing the experimental results with those from numerical simulations using the MARLOWE code with extensions for layer selective analysis. The example used is the CuAu(1 0 0) alloy crystal surface. For adequate analysis the potential parameter (i.e. the screening length) has to be calibrated. This is done by using elemental single crystal standards. Anisotropic thermal vibrations are taken into account in correspondence with published Debye temperature values. Neutralization effects are found to be of minor importance for Na + and He + scattering from CuAu. A quantitative analysis of the first and second layer composition of CuAu(1 0 0) as a function of temperature could thus be obtained, the results being in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  10. An analysis of critical factors for quantitative immunoblotting.

    PubMed

    Janes, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    Immunoblotting (also known as Western blotting) combined with digital image analysis can be a reliable method for analyzing the abundance of proteins and protein modifications, but not every immunoblot-analysis combination produces an accurate result. I illustrate how sample preparation, protocol implementation, detection scheme, and normalization approach profoundly affect the quantitative performance of immunoblotting. This study implemented diagnostic experiments that assess an immunoblot-analysis workflow for accuracy and precision. The results showed that ignoring such diagnostics can lead to pseudoquantitative immunoblot data that markedly overestimate or underestimate true differences in protein abundance. PMID:25852189

  11. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  12. Mini-Column Ion-Exchange Separation and Atomic Absorption Quantitation of Nickel, Cobalt, and Iron: An Undergraduate Quantitative Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate quantitative analysis experiment, describing an atomic absorption quantitation scheme that is fast, sensitive and comparatively simple relative to other titration experiments. (CS)

  13. Quantitative analysis of pedestrian counterflow in a cellular automaton model.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Stefan; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Pedestrian dynamics exhibits various collective phenomena. Here, we study bidirectional pedestrian flow in a floor field cellular automaton model. Under certain conditions, lane formation is observed. Although it has often been studied qualitatively, e.g., as a test for the realism of a model, there are almost no quantitative results, either empirically or theoretically. As basis for a quantitative analysis, we introduce an order parameter which is adopted from the analysis of colloidal suspensions. This allows us to determine a phase diagram for the system where four different states (free flow, disorder, lanes, gridlock) can be distinguished. Although the number of lanes formed is fluctuating, lanes are characterized by a typical density. It is found that the basic floor field model overestimates the tendency towards a gridlock compared to experimental bounds. Therefore, an anticipation mechanism is introduced which reduces the jamming probability. PMID:23005183

  14. Water property monitoring and assessment for China's inland Lake Taihu from MODIS-Aqua measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Menghua Wang; Wei Shi; Junwu Tang

    2011-01-01

    We provide results of quantitative measurements and characterization for inland freshwater Lake Taihu from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellite Aqua. China's Lake Taihu, which is located in the Yangtze River delta in one of the world's most urbanized and heavily populated areas, contains consistently highly turbid waters in addition to frequent large seasonal algae blooms in

  15. Quantitative correlative proton and electron microprobe analysis of biological specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Forslind; L. Kunst; K. G. Malmqvist; L. E. Carlsson; G. M. Roomans

    1985-01-01

    Summary  To investigate the possibility of quantitative correlative proton microprobe (PMP) and electron microprobe (EMP) analysis\\u000a of biological soft tissue, model specimens were analyzed by both techniques. The specimens consisted of freeze-dried sections\\u000a of gelatin containing known concentrations of nickel chloride. Both for PMP and for EMP, the signal was expressed as the ratio\\u000a of the characteristic intensity and the continuum

  16. Quantitative analysis of food fatty acids by capillary gas chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. T. Slover; E. Lanza

    1979-01-01

    The superior efficiency of capillary columns is desirable for the gas chromatographic analysis of complex mixtures of fatty\\u000a acids, but there have been some reservations regarding quantitation and reproducibility. This paper discusses the use of wall-coated\\u000a glass capillary columns in a semiautomated system for the determination of food fatty acids. Glass columns coated with SP2340\\u000a were used for extended periods

  17. Multipoint Quantitative-Trait Linkage Analysis in General Pedigrees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Almasy; John Blangero

    1998-01-01

    Summary Multipoint linkage analysis of quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) has previously been restricted to sibships and small pedigrees. In this article, we show how variance- component linkage methods can be used in pedigrees of arbitrary size and complexity, and we develop a general framework for multipoint identity-by-descent (IBD) probability calculations. We extend the sib-pair multi- point mapping approach of Fulker et

  18. Quantitative analysis of information security interdependency between industrial sectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideyuki Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    This paper employs Input-Output analysis to quantitatively analyze cross-sectoral security interdependency in terms of economic activity. Previous studies using the Inoperability Input-Output Model (IIM) have demonstrated the impact of cross-sectoral security incidents from the viewpoint of interdependency. However, the two primary limitations of these studies are that (1) they do not consider each sector's features in terms of information technology

  19. Wheat from Chaff: Meta-analysis as Quantitative Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. D. Stanley

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents and develops a quantitative method of literature reviewing and evaluating empirical research, meta-regression analysis or MRA. Economics is theory-driven. Yet, we must learn empirically if economics is to advance. MRA offers a more objective statistical method to summarize our empirical knowledge and to explain the wide study-to-study variation in economic research. MRA is used to assess the

  20. Computerized image analysis for quantitative neuronal phenotyping in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianming; Lu, Jianfeng; Wang, Ye; Campbell, William A; Huang, Ling; Zhu, Jinmin; Xia, Weiming; Wong, Stephen T C

    2006-06-15

    An integrated microscope image analysis pipeline is developed for automatic analysis and quantification of phenotypes in zebrafish with altered expression of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-linked genes. We hypothesize that a slight impairment of neuronal integrity in a large number of zebrafish carrying the mutant genotype can be detected through the computerized image analysis method. Key functionalities of our zebrafish image processing pipeline include quantification of neuron loss in zebrafish embryos due to knockdown of AD-linked genes, automatic detection of defective somites, and quantitative measurement of gene expression levels in zebrafish with altered expression of AD-linked genes or treatment with a chemical compound. These quantitative measurements enable the archival of analyzed results and relevant meta-data. The structured database is organized for statistical analysis and data modeling to better understand neuronal integrity and phenotypic changes of zebrafish under different perturbations. Our results show that the computerized analysis is comparable to manual counting with equivalent accuracy and improved efficacy and consistency. Development of such an automated data analysis pipeline represents a significant step forward to achieve accurate and reproducible quantification of neuronal phenotypes in large scale or high-throughput zebrafish imaging studies. PMID:16364449

  1. American Indian Doctorate Receipt 1980-200: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    E-print Network

    Lintner, Timothy

    2003-03-01

    This research presents a quantitative and qualitative analysis of American Indian doctorate receipt between 1980-2000. A quantitative analysis of American Indian doctorate receipt by sex and by broadfield category is initially presented...

  2. PET kinetic analysis: error consideration of quantitative analysis in dynamic studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Ikoma; Hiroshi Watabe; Miho Shidahara; Mika Naganawa; Yuichi Kimura

    2008-01-01

    Positron emission tomography dynamic studies have been performed to quantify several biomedical functions. In a quantitative\\u000a analysis of these studies, kinetic parameters were estimated by mathematical methods, such as a nonlinear least-squares algorithm\\u000a with compartmental model and graphical analysis. In this estimation, the uncertainty in the estimated kinetic parameters depends\\u000a on the signal-to-noise ratio and quantitative analysis method. This review

  3. Quantitative analysis of patient-specific dosimetric IMRT verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budgell, G. J.; Perrin, B. A.; Mott, J. H. L.; Fairfoul, J.; Mackay, R. I.

    2005-01-01

    Patient-specific dosimetric verification methods for IMRT treatments are variable, time-consuming and frequently qualitative, preventing evidence-based reduction in the amount of verification performed. This paper addresses some of these issues by applying a quantitative analysis parameter to the dosimetric verification procedure. Film measurements in different planes were acquired for a series of ten IMRT prostate patients, analysed using the quantitative parameter, and compared to determine the most suitable verification plane. Film and ion chamber verification results for 61 patients were analysed to determine long-term accuracy, reproducibility and stability of the planning and delivery system. The reproducibility of the measurement and analysis system was also studied. The results show that verification results are strongly dependent on the plane chosen, with the coronal plane particularly insensitive to delivery error. Unexpectedly, no correlation could be found between the levels of error in different verification planes. Longer term verification results showed consistent patterns which suggest that the amount of patient-specific verification can be safely reduced, provided proper caution is exercised: an evidence-based model for such reduction is proposed. It is concluded that dose/distance to agreement (e.g., 3%/3 mm) should be used as a criterion of acceptability. Quantitative parameters calculated for a given criterion of acceptability should be adopted in conjunction with displays that show where discrepancies occur. Planning and delivery systems which cannot meet the required standards of accuracy, reproducibility and stability to reduce verification will not be accepted by the radiotherapy community.

  4. Quantitative multivariate analysis of dynamic multicellular morphogenic trajectories.

    PubMed

    White, Douglas E; Sylvester, Jonathan B; Levario, Thomas J; Lu, Hang; Todd Streelman, J; McDevitt, Todd C; Kemp, Melissa L

    2015-07-01

    Interrogating fundamental cell biology principles that govern tissue morphogenesis is critical to better understanding of developmental biology and engineering novel multicellular systems. Recently, functional micro-tissues derived from pluripotent embryonic stem cell (ESC) aggregates have provided novel platforms for experimental investigation; however elucidating the factors directing emergent spatial phenotypic patterns remains a significant challenge. Computational modelling techniques offer a unique complementary approach to probe mechanisms regulating morphogenic processes and provide a wealth of spatio-temporal data, but quantitative analysis of simulations and comparison to experimental data is extremely difficult. Quantitative descriptions of spatial phenomena across multiple systems and scales would enable unprecedented comparisons of computational simulations with experimental systems, thereby leveraging the inherent power of computational methods to interrogate the mechanisms governing emergent properties of multicellular biology. To address these challenges, we developed a portable pattern recognition pipeline consisting of: the conversion of cellular images into networks, extraction of novel features via network analysis, and generation of morphogenic trajectories. This novel methodology enabled the quantitative description of morphogenic pattern trajectories that could be compared across diverse systems: computational modelling of multicellular structures, differentiation of stem cell aggregates, and gastrulation of cichlid fish. Moreover, this method identified novel spatio-temporal features associated with different stages of embryo gastrulation, and elucidated a complex paracrine mechanism capable of explaining spatiotemporal pattern kinetic differences in ESC aggregates of different sizes. PMID:26095427

  5. Universal quantitative NMR analysis of complex natural samples.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F

    2014-02-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a universal and quantitative analytical technique. Being a unique structural tool, NMR also competes with metrological techniques for purity determination and reference material analysis. In pharmaceutical research, applications of quantitative NMR (qNMR) cover mostly the identification and quantification of drug and biological metabolites. Offering an unbiased view of the sample composition, and the possibility to simultaneously quantify multiple compounds, qNMR has become the method of choice for metabolomic studies and quality control of complex natural samples such as foods, plants or herbal remedies, and biofluids. In this regard, NMR-based metabolomic studies, dedicated to both the characterization of herbal remedies and clinical diagnosis, have increased considerably. PMID:24484881

  6. Quantitative analysis of microtubule orientation in interdigitated leaf pavement cells.

    PubMed

    Akita, Kae; Higaki, Takumi; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Hasezawa, Seiichiro

    2015-05-01

    Leaf pavement cells are shaped like a jigsaw puzzle in most dicotyledon species. Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes required for pavement cells morphogenesis and proposed that microtubules play crucial roles in the interdigitation of pavement cells. In this study, we performed quantitative analysis of cortical microtubule orientation in leaf pavement cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. We captured confocal images of cortical microtubules in cotyledon leaf epidermis expressing GFP-tubulin? and quantitatively evaluated the microtubule orientations relative to the pavement cell growth axis using original image processing techniques. Our results showed that microtubules kept parallel orientations to the growth axis during pavement cell growth. In addition, we showed that immersion treatment of seed cotyledons in solutions containing tubulin polymerization and depolymerization inhibitors decreased pavement cell complexity. Treatment with oryzalin and colchicine inhibited the symmetric division of guard mother cells. PMID:26039484

  7. Universal Quantitative NMR Analysis of Complex Natural Samples

    PubMed Central

    Simmler, Charlotte; Napolitano, José G.; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a universal and quantitative analytical technique. Being a unique structural tool, NMR also competes with metrological techniques for purity determination and reference material analysis. In pharmaceutical research, applications of quantitative NMR (qNMR) cover mostly the identification and quantification of drug and biological metabolites. Offering an unbiased view of the sample composition, and the possibility to simultaneously quantify multiple compounds, qNMR has become the method of choice for metabolomic studies and quality control of complex natural samples such as foods, plants or herbal remedies, and biofluids. In this regard, NMR-based metabolomic studies, dedicated to both the characterization of herbal remedies and clinical diagnosis, have increased considerably. PMID:24484881

  8. Aqua-Net Mate: a Real-time Virtual Channel/Modem Simulator for Aqua-Net

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    Aqua-Net Mate: a Real-time Virtual Channel/Modem Simulator for Aqua-Net Yibo Zhu, Son Le, Lina Pu they are implemented. In order to address these issues, we introduce Aqua-Net Mate, a real-time virtual channel/modem-time schedule. More importantly, Aqua- Net Mate emulates real acoustic modems by employing a new state machine

  9. Variability in quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bratis, K.

    2013-01-01

    By taking advantage of its high spatial resolution, noninvasive and nontoxic nature first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has rendered an indispensable tool for the noninvasive detection of reversible myocardial ischemia. A potential advantage of perfusion CMR is its ability to quantitatively assess perfusion reserve within a myocardial segment, as expressed semi- quantitatively by myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) and fully- quantitatively by absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF). In contrast to the high accuracy and reliability of CMR in evaluating cardiac function and volumes, perfusion CMR is adversely affected by multiple potential reasons during data acquisition as well as post-processing. Various image acquisition techniques, various contrast agents and doses as well as variable blood flow at rest as well as variable reactions to stress all influence the acquired data. Mechanisms underlying the variability in perfusion CMR post processing, as well as their clinical significance, are yet to be fully elucidated. The development of a universal, reproducible, accurate and easily applicable tool in CMR perfusion analysis remains a challenge and will substantially enforce the role of perfusion CMR in improving clinical care. PMID:23825774

  10. A quantitative analysis of IRAS maps of molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.; Adams, Fred C.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps: this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100 and 60 micrometer(s) to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the 'output' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental 'complexity' of these star-forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star-formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more 'complex' environments.

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of IRAS Maps of Molecular Clouds

    E-print Network

    Jennifer J. Wiseman; Fred C. Adams

    1994-04-20

    We present an analysis of IRAS maps of five molecular clouds: Orion, Ophiuchus, Perseus, Taurus, and Lupus. For the classification and description of these astrophysical maps, we use a newly developed technique which considers all maps of a given type to be elements of a pseudometric space. For each physical characteristic of interest, this formal system assigns a distance function (a pseudometric) to the space of all maps; this procedure allows us to measure quantitatively the difference between any two maps and to order the space of all maps. We thus obtain a quantitative classification scheme for molecular clouds. In this present study we use the IRAS continuum maps at 100$\\mu$m and 60$\\mu$m to produce column density (or optical depth) maps for the five molecular cloud regions given above. For this sample of clouds, we compute the ``output'' functions which measure the distribution of density, the distribution of topological components, the self-gravity, and the filamentary nature of the clouds. The results of this work provide a quantitative description of the structure in these molecular cloud regions. We then order the clouds according to the overall environmental ``complexity'' of these star forming regions. Finally, we compare our results with the observed populations of young stellar objects in these clouds and discuss the possible environmental effects on the star formation process. Our results are consistent with the recently stated conjecture that more massive stars tend to form in more ``complex'' environments.

  12. Quantitative analysis of lipid deposits from Schnyder's corneal dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, M.; Mochizuki, H.; Kamata, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Mashima, Y.

    1998-01-01

    AIM—To report the quantitation of the lipid composition of a corneal button from a Japanese woman in her 60s with clinically and histopathologically proved Schnyder's corneal dystrophy.?METHODS—Total lipids extracted from the corneal button of the patient were analysed by the method of thin layer chromatography flame ionisation detection. Two different solvent systems were used for neutral lipid analysis and phospholipid analysis. Results were compared with three age matched corneal buttons obtained from cadaveric eyes.?RESULTS—The lipids that accumulated in the cornea in Schnyder's dystrophy consisted mainly of unesterified cholesterol and phospholipids. The analysis of phospholipids showed sphingomyelin to be the predominant phospholipid in the patient's cornea.?CONCLUSION—Findings suggest that this disorder involves a disturbance of the metabolism of cholesterol and/or sphingomyelin metabolism that is limited to the cornea.?? Keywords: Schnyder's dystrophy; lipids; unesterified cholesterol; sphingomyelin PMID:9640198

  13. Multivariate calibration applied to the quantitative analysis of infrared spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Multivariate calibration methods are very useful for improving the precision, accuracy, and reliability of quantitative spectral analyses. Spectroscopists can more effectively use these sophisticated statistical tools if they have a qualitative understanding of the techniques involved. A qualitative picture of the factor analysis multivariate calibration methods of partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) is presented using infrared calibrations based upon spectra of phosphosilicate glass thin films on silicon wafers. Comparisons of the relative prediction abilities of four different multivariate calibration methods are given based on Monte Carlo simulations of spectral calibration and prediction data. The success of multivariate spectral calibrations is demonstrated for several quantitative infrared studies. The infrared absorption and emission spectra of thin-film dielectrics used in the manufacture of microelectronic devices demonstrate rapid, nondestructive at-line and in-situ analyses using PLS calibrations. Finally, the application of multivariate spectral calibrations to reagentless analysis of blood is presented. We have found that the determination of glucose in whole blood taken from diabetics can be precisely monitored from the PLS calibration of either mind- or near-infrared spectra of the blood. Progress toward the non-invasive determination of glucose levels in diabetics is an ultimate goal of this research. 13 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Quantitative analysis on electrooculography (EOG) for neurodegenerative disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Chia; Chaovalitwongse, W. Art; Pardalos, Panos M.; Seref, Onur; Xanthopoulos, Petros; Sackellares, J. C.; Skidmore, Frank M.

    2007-11-01

    Many studies have documented abnormal horizontal and vertical eye movements in human neurodegenerative disease as well as during altered states of consciousness (including drowsiness and intoxication) in healthy adults. Eye movement measurement may play an important role measuring the progress of neurodegenerative diseases and state of alertness in healthy individuals. There are several techniques for measuring eye movement, Infrared detection technique (IR). Video-oculography (VOG), Scleral eye coil and EOG. Among those available recording techniques, EOG is a major source for monitoring the abnormal eye movement. In this real-time quantitative analysis study, the methods which can capture the characteristic of the eye movement were proposed to accurately categorize the state of neurodegenerative subjects. The EOG recordings were taken while 5 tested subjects were watching a short (>120 s) animation clip. In response to the animated clip the participants executed a number of eye movements, including vertical smooth pursued (SVP), horizontal smooth pursued (HVP) and random saccades (RS). Detection of abnormalities in ocular movement may improve our diagnosis and understanding a neurodegenerative disease and altered states of consciousness. A standard real-time quantitative analysis will improve detection and provide a better understanding of pathology in these disorders.

  15. The quantitative detection analysis to infrared polarization characteristics of targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ji-yong; Li, Fan-ming

    2015-04-01

    We made quantitative detection analysis to infrared polarization characteristics of target using a non-real time infrared polarization detection system. First, the detection system must be calibrated, so according to our detection system, we presented a calibration method of doing radiometric calibration in four polarization detection channels. Second, based on the analysis of the infrared polarized mechanism, we made some theoretical simulation models. The target infrared radiation include spontaneous radiation and reflected radiation, and the combination of them lead to depolarization effect. The energy distribution between spontaneous and reflected radiation of the target is affected by target temperature, light conditions etc. So we created a experimental environment of low temperature and reflected radiation to validate theoretical model of spontaneous radiation, and found the experimental data has good consistency with theoretical prediction in a certain error range.

  16. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of IL-33-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sneha M; Nirujogi, Raja Sekhar; Rojas, Pamela Leal; Patil, Arun H; Manda, Srikanth S; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Roa, Juan Carlos; Chatterjee, Aditi; Prasad, T S Keshava; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a novel member of the IL-1 family of cytokines that plays diverse roles in the regulation of immune responses. IL-33 exerts its effects through a heterodimeric receptor complex resulting in the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines. A detailed understanding of the signaling pathways activated by IL-33 is still unclear. To gain insights into the IL-33-mediated signaling mechanisms, we carried out a SILAC-based global quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis that resulted in the identification of 7191 phosphorylation sites derived from 2746 proteins. We observed alterations in the level of phosphorylation in 1050 sites corresponding to 672 proteins upon IL-33 stimulation. We report, for the first time, phosphorylation of multiple protein kinases, including mitogen-activated protein kinase activated protein kinase 2 (Mapkapk2), receptor (TNFRSF) interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (Ripk1), and NAD kinase (Nadk) that are induced by IL-33. In addition, we observed IL-33-induced phosphorylation of several protein phosphatases including protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor-type 12 (Ptpn12), and inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase D (Inpp5d), which have not been reported previously. Network analysis revealed an enrichment of actin binding and cytoskeleton reorganization that could be important in macrophage activation induced by IL-33. Our study is the first quantitative analysis of IL-33-regulated phosphoproteome. Our findings significantly expand the understanding of IL-33-mediated signaling events and have the potential to provide novel therapeutic targets pertaining to immune-related diseases such as asthma where dysregulation of IL-33 is observed. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000984 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000984). PMID:25367039

  17. Functional Linear Models for Association Analysis of Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruzong; Wang, Yifan; Mills, James L.; Wilson, Alexander F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Xiong, Momiao

    2014-01-01

    Functional linear models are developed in this paper for testing associations between quantitative traits and genetic variants, which can be rare variants or common variants or the combination of the two. By treating multiple genetic variants of an individual in a human population as a realization of a stochastic process, the genome of an individual in a chromosome region is a continuum of sequence data rather than discrete observations. The genome of an individual is viewed as a stochastic function that contains both linkage and linkage disequilibrium (LD) information of the genetic markers. By using techniques of functional data analysis, both fixed and mixed effect functional linear models are built to test the association between quantitative traits and genetic variants adjusting for covariates. After extensive simulation analysis, it is shown that the F-distributed tests of the proposed fixed effect functional linear models have higher power than that of sequence kernel association test (SKAT) and its optimal unified test (SKAT-O) for three scenarios in most cases: (1) the causal variants are all rare, (2) the causal variants are both rare and common, and (3) the causal variants are common. The superior performance of the fixed effect functional linear models is most likely due to its optimal utilization of both genetic linkage and LD information of multiple genetic variants in a genome and similarity among different individuals, while SKAT and SKAT-O only model the similarities and pairwise LD but do not model linkage and higher order LD information sufficiently. In addition, the proposed fixed effect models generate accurate type I error rates in simulation studies. We also show that the functional kernel score tests of the proposed mixed effect functional linear models are preferable in candidate gene analysis and small sample problems. The methods are applied to analyze three biochemical traits in data from the Trinity Students Study. PMID:24130119

  18. Volume 7, Issue 3 2011 Article 5 Journal of Quantitative Analysis in

    E-print Network

    Davis, Donald M.

    Volume 7, Issue 3 2011 Article 5 Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Markov Analysis of APBA) "Markov Analysis of APBA, a Baseball Simulation Game," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports: Vol. 7 major league player is represented by a card, which has numbers on it that reflect his performance

  19. Quantitative colorimetric-imaging analysis of nickel in iron meteorites.

    PubMed

    Zamora, L Lahuerta; López, P Alemán; Fos, G M Antón; Algarra, R Martín; Romero, A M Mellado; Calatayud, J Martínez

    2011-02-15

    A quantitative analytical imaging approach for determining the nickel content of metallic meteorites is proposed. The approach uses a digital image of a series of standard solutions of the nickel-dimethylglyoxime coloured chelate and a meteorite sample solution subjected to the same treatment as the nickel standards for quantitation. The image is processed with suitable software to assign a colour-dependent numerical value (analytical signal) to each standard. Such a value is directly proportional to the analyte concentration, which facilitates construction of a calibration graph where the value for the unknown sample can be interpolated to calculate the nickel content of the meteorite. The results thus obtained were validated by comparison with the official, ISO-endorsed spectrophotometric method for nickel. The proposed method is fairly simple and inexpensive; in fact, it uses a commercially available digital camera as measuring instrument and the images it provides are processed with highly user-friendly public domain software (specifically, ImageJ, developed by the National Institutes of Health and freely available for download on the Internet). In a scenario dominated by increasingly sophisticated and expensive equipment, the proposed method provides a cost-effective alternative based on simple, robust hardware that is affordable and can be readily accessed worldwide. This can be especially advantageous for countries were available resources for analytical equipment investments are scant. The proposed method is essentially an adaptation of classical chemical analysis to current, straightforward, robust, cost-effective instrumentation. PMID:21238754

  20. Quantitative analysis of ribosome binding sites in E.coli.

    PubMed Central

    Barrick, D; Villanueba, K; Childs, J; Kalil, R; Schneider, T D; Lawrence, C E; Gold, L; Stormo, G D

    1994-01-01

    185 clones with randomized ribosome binding sites, from position -11 to 0 preceding the coding region of beta-galactosidase, were selected and sequenced. The translational yield of each clone was determined; they varied by more than 3000-fold. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the contribution to translation initiation activity of each base at each position. Features known to be important for translation initiation, such as the initiation codon, the Shine/Dalgarno sequence, the identity of the base at position -3 and the occurrence of alternative ATGs, are all found to be important quantitatively for activity. No other features are found to be of general significance, although the effects of secondary structure can be seen as outliers. A comparison to a large number of natural E.coli translation initiation sites shows the information profile to be qualitatively similar although differing quantitatively. This is probably due to the selection for good translation initiation sites in the natural set compared to the low average activity of the randomized set. PMID:8165145

  1. Quantitative analysis of multiple sclerosis: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihong; Li, Xiang; Wei, Xinzhou; Sturm, Deborah; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-03-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with a presumed immune-mediated etiology. For treatment of MS, the measurements of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are often used in conjunction with clinical evaluation to provide a more objective measure of MS burden. In this paper, we apply a new unifying automatic mixture-based algorithm for segmentation of brain tissues to quantitatively analyze MS. The method takes into account the following effects that commonly appear in MR imaging: 1) The MR data is modeled as a stochastic process with an inherent inhomogeneity effect of smoothly varying intensity; 2) A new partial volume (PV) model is built in establishing the maximum a posterior (MAP) segmentation scheme; 3) Noise artifacts are minimized by a priori Markov random field (MRF) penalty indicating neighborhood correlation from tissue mixture. The volumes of brain tissues (WM, GM) and CSF are extracted from the mixture-based segmentation. Experimental results of feasibility studies on quantitative analysis of MS are presented.

  2. Step-by-step quantitative analysis of focal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Horzum, Utku; Ozdil, Berrin; Pesen-Okvur, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are specialized adhesive structures which serve as cellular communication units between cells and the surrounding extracellular matrix. FAs are involved in signal transduction and actin cytoskeleton organization. FAs mediate cell adhesion, which is a critical phenomenon in cancer research. Since cells can form many and micrometer scale FAs, their quantitative analysis demands well-optimized image analysis approaches [1–3]. Here, we have optimized the analysis of FAs of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The optimization is based on proper processing of immunofluorescence images of vinculin, which is one of the markers of FAs. All image processing steps are carried out using the ImageJ software, which is freely available and in the public domain. The advantages of our method are:•The analysis steps are simplified by combining different plugins of the ImageJ program.•FAs are better detected with minimal false negatives due to optimized processing of fluorescent images.•This approach can be applied to quantify a variety of fluorescent images comprising focal and/or localized signals within a high background such as FAs, one of the many complex signaling structures in a cell.

  3. A Novel Quantitative Analysis Model for Information System Survivability Based on Conflict Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Wang; Huiqiang Wang; Guosheng Zhao

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a novel quantitative analysis model for system survivability based on conflict analysis, which provides a direct-viewing survivable situation. Based on the three-dimensional state space of conflict, each player's efficiency matrix on its credible motion set can be obtained. The player whose desire is the strongest in all initiates the moving and the overall state transition matrix of

  4. Large-scale quantitative analysis of painting arts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances. PMID:25501877

  5. Quantitative analysis of chromosome localization in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Mehta, Ishita; Kulashreshtha, Mugdha; Rao, B J

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of the genome within the interphase nucleus is important for mediating genome functions. The radial organization of chromosome territories has been studied traditionally using two-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using labeled whole chromosome probes. Information from 2D-FISH images is analyzed quantitatively and is depicted in the form of the spatial distribution of chromosomes territories. However, to the best of our knowledge no open-access tools are available to delineate the position of chromosome territories from 2D-FISH images. In this chapter we present a methodology termed Image Analysis of Chromosomes for computing their localization (IMACULAT). IMACULAT is an open-access, automated tool that partitions the cell nucleus into shells of equal area or volume and computes the spatial distribution of chromosome territories. PMID:25311133

  6. Quantitative analysis of gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Vivek K.; Singh, Vinita; Rai, Awadhesh K.; Thakur, Surya N.; Rai, Pradeep K.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2008-11-01

    The utility of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for categorizing different types of gallbladder stone has been demonstrated by analyzing their major and minor constituents. LIBS spectra of three types of gallstone have been recorded in the 200-900 nm spectral region. Calcium is found to be the major element in all types of gallbladder stone. The spectrophotometric method has been used to classify the stones. A calibration-free LIBS method has been used for the quantitative analysis of metal elements, and the results have been compared with those obtained from inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) measurements. The single-shot LIBS spectra from different points on the cross section (in steps of 0.5 mm from one end to the other) of gallstones have also been recorded to study the variation of constituents from the center to the surface. The presence of different metal elements and their possible role in gallstone formation is discussed.

  7. Quantitative image analysis of WE43-T6 cracking behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, A.; Yahya, Z.

    2013-06-01

    Environment-assisted cracking of WE43 cast magnesium (4.2 wt.% Yt, 2.3 wt.% Nd, 0.7% Zr, 0.8% HRE) in the T6 peak-aged condition was induced in ambient air in notched specimens. The mechanism of fracture was studied using electron backscatter diffraction, serial sectioning and in situ observations of crack propagation. The intermetallic (rare earthed-enriched divorced intermetallic retained at grain boundaries and predominantly at triple points) material was found to play a significant role in initiating cracks which leads to failure of this material. Quantitative measurements were required for this project. The populations of the intermetallic and clusters of intermetallic particles were analyzed using image analysis of metallographic images. This is part of the work to generate a theoretical model of the effect of notch geometry on the static fatigue strength of this material.

  8. Large-Scale Quantitative Analysis of Painting Arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Daniel; Son, Seung-Woo; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-12-01

    Scientists have made efforts to understand the beauty of painting art in their own languages. As digital image acquisition of painting arts has made rapid progress, researchers have come to a point where it is possible to perform statistical analysis of a large-scale database of artistic paints to make a bridge between art and science. Using digital image processing techniques, we investigate three quantitative measures of images - the usage of individual colors, the variety of colors, and the roughness of the brightness. We found a difference in color usage between classical paintings and photographs, and a significantly low color variety of the medieval period. Interestingly, moreover, the increment of roughness exponent as painting techniques such as chiaroscuro and sfumato have advanced is consistent with historical circumstances.

  9. Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Clinical Development of Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa

    There has been significant progress in development of therapeutics for prevention and management of several disease areas in recent years, leading to increased average life expectancy, as well as of quality of life, globally. However, due to complexity of addressing a number of medical needs and financial burden of development of new class of therapeutics, there is a need for better tools for decision making and validation of efficacy and safety of new compounds. Numerous biological markers (biomarkers) have been proposed either as adjunct to current clinical endpoints or as surrogates. Imaging biomarkers are among rapidly increasing biomarkers, being examined to expedite effective and rational drug development. Clinical imaging often involves a complex set of multi-modality data sets that require rapid and objective analysis, independent of reviewer's bias and training. In this chapter, an overview of imaging biomarkers for drug development is offered, along with challenges that necessitate quantitative and objective image analysis. Examples of automated and semi-automated analysis approaches are provided, along with technical review of such methods. These examples include the use of 3D MRI for osteoarthritis, ultrasound vascular imaging, and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for oncology. Additionally, a brief overview of regulatory requirements is discussed. In conclusion, this chapter highlights key challenges and future directions in this area.

  10. Multiple trait analysis of genetic mapping for quantitative trait loci

    SciTech Connect

    Changjian Jiang [Jiangsu Agricultural College (China)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zhao-Bang Zeng, [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis provides formal procedures to test a number of biologically interesting hypotheses concerning the nature of genetic correlations between different traits. Among the testing procedures considered are those for joint mapping, pleiotropy, QTL by environment interaction, and pleiotropy vs. close linkage. The test of pleiotropy (one pleiotropic QTL at a genome position) vs. close linkage (multiple nearby nonpleiotropic QTL) can have important implications for our understanding of the nature of genetic correlations between different traits in certain regions of a genome and also for practical applications in animal and plant breeding because one of the major goals in breeding is to break unfavorable linkage. Results of extensive simulation studies are presented to illustrate various properties of the analyses. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Volume 2, Issue 4 2006 Article 1 Journal of Quantitative Analysis in

    E-print Network

    Redner, Sidney

    analysis of the results of all sports competitions in five major sports leagues in England and the UnitedVolume 2, Issue 4 2006 Article 1 Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports Parity, Sidney (2006) "Parity and Predictability of Competitions," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports

  12. Quantitative DNA methylation analysis of candidate genes in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Erin M; Riggs, Bridget M; Delmas, Amber L; Koch, Abby; Hakam, Ardeshir; Brown, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been observed in cervical cancer; however, most studies have used non-quantitative approaches to measure DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to quantify methylation within a select panel of genes previously identified as targets for epigenetic silencing in cervical cancer and to identify genes with elevated methylation that can distinguish cancer from normal cervical tissues. We identified 49 women with invasive squamous cell cancer of the cervix and 22 women with normal cytology specimens. Bisulfite-modified genomic DNA was amplified and quantitative pyrosequencing completed for 10 genes (APC, CCNA, CDH1, CDH13, WIF1, TIMP3, DAPK1, RARB, FHIT, and SLIT2). A Methylation Index was calculated as the mean percent methylation across all CpG sites analyzed per gene (~4-9 CpG site) per sequence. A binary cut-point was defined at >15% methylation. Sensitivity, specificity and area under ROC curve (AUC) of methylation in individual genes or a panel was examined. The median methylation index was significantly higher in cases compared to controls in 8 genes, whereas there was no difference in median methylation for 2 genes. Compared to HPV and age, the combination of DNA methylation level of DAPK1, SLIT2, WIF1 and RARB with HPV and age significantly improved the AUC from 0.79 to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.97-1.00, p-value = 0.003). Pyrosequencing analysis confirmed that several genes are common targets for aberrant methylation in cervical cancer and DNA methylation level of four genes appears to increase specificity to identify cancer compared to HPV detection alone. Alterations in DNA methylation of specific genes in cervical cancers, such as DAPK1, RARB, WIF1, and SLIT2, may also occur early in cervical carcinogenesis and should be evaluated. PMID:25826459

  13. Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W.; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Payne, Samuel H.; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Moore, Ronald J.; Fillmore, Thomas L.; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Levine, Douglas; Townsend, Reid; Davies, Sherri; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification, and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, and which is suitable for high throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with post-excision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics, and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.

  14. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of ovarian and breast cancer tumor peptidomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhe; Wu, Chaochao; Xie, Fang; Slysz, Gordon W; Tolic, Nikola; Monroe, Matthew E; Petyuk, Vladislav A; Payne, Samuel H; Fujimoto, Grant M; Moore, Ronald J; Fillmore, Thomas L; Schepmoes, Athena A; Levine, Douglas A; Townsend, R Reid; Davies, Sherri R; Li, Shunqiang; Ellis, Matthew; Boja, Emily; Rivers, Robert; Rodriguez, Henry; Rodland, Karin D; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high-throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with postexcision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches. PMID:25350482

  15. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    PubMed

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created. PMID:25336172

  16. Quantitative analysis of coal and coal components by scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. R. Karner; H. H. Schobert; C. J. Zygarlicke; J. L. Hoff; T. P. Huber

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative compositional data for coal typically consists of bulk chemical data for organic elements and analyses of the inorganic elements in ash. This paper focuses on bringing together procedures primarily using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) to obtain the inorganic element content of bulk coal samples; the inorganic element content of specific lithotypes and macerals in

  17. Quantitative Trait Nucleotide Analysis Using Bayesian Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Blangero; Harald H. H. GÃring; Jack W. Kent Jr; Jeff T. Williams; Charles P. Peterson; Laura Almasy; Thomas D. Dyer

    2009-01-01

    :Although much attention has been given to statistical genetic methods for the initial localization and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), little methodological work has been done to date on the problem of statistically identifying the most likely functional polymorphisms using sequence data. In this paper we provide a general statistical genetic framework, called Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN)

  18. Quantitative Trait Nucleotide Analysis Using Bayesian Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Blangero; Harald H. H. Göring; Kent Jr. Jack W; Jeff T. Williams; Charles P. Peterson; Laura Almasy; Thomas D. Dyer

    2009-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to statistical genetic methods for the initial localization and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), little methodological work has been done to date on the problem of statistically identifying the most likely functional polymorphisms using sequence data. In this paper we provide a general statistical genetic framework, called Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN)

  19. Quantitative Trait Nucleotide Analysis Using Bayesian Model Selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Blangero; Harald H. H. Goring; Kent Jr. Jack W; Jeff T. Williams; Charles P. Peterson; Laura Almasy; Thomas D. Dyer

    2005-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to statistical genetic methods for the initial localization and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), little methodological work has been done to date on the problem of statistically identifying the most likely functional polymorphisms using sequence data. In this paper we provide a general statistical genetic framework, called Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN)

  20. Quantitative analysis of chromosome motion in Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Wallace F.; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.

    1995-03-01

    We present an algorithm for estimating nonrigid motion of chromosomes in 4D microscopic images. Chromosomes are represented by a graph and motion estimation is formulated as a graph matching problem. All chromosomes within the graph are located, and then simulated annealing is used to find the mapping of chromosomes at time t onto chromosomes at time t+1 that minimizes the integrated displacement along each chromosome. Results with actual 4D images indicate that this model-based approach is sufficiently robust to correctly track the motion of chromosomes under conditions of limited spatial and temporal resolution. Using the motion estimate, previously developed methods for the quantitative analysis of 3D structure are extended to four dimensions, allowing chromosome mobility, flexibility, and interactions to be measured. Application of these algorithms to 4D images of Drosophila metaphase chromosomes in vivo allows visualization of clearly defined domains of high chromosomal flexibility, as well as other regions of distinctly lower chromosomal mobility which may coincide with centrometers.

  1. Quantitative analysis of brain magnetic resonance imaging for hepatic encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syh, Hon-Wei; Chu, Wei-Kom; Ong, Chin-Sing

    1992-06-01

    High intensity lesions around ventricles have recently been observed in T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance images for patients suffering hepatic encephalopathy. The exact etiology that causes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) gray scale changes has not been totally understood. The objective of our study was to investigate, through quantitative means, (1) the amount of changes to brain white matter due to the disease process, and (2) the extent and distribution of these high intensity lesions, since it is believed that the abnormality may not be entirely limited to the white matter only. Eleven patients with proven haptic encephalopathy and three normal persons without any evidence of liver abnormality constituted our current data base. Trans-axial, sagittal, and coronal brain MRI were obtained on a 1.5 Tesla scanner. All processing was carried out on a microcomputer-based image analysis system in an off-line manner. Histograms were decomposed into regular brain tissues and lesions. Gray scale ranges coded as lesion were then brought back to original images to identify distribution of abnormality. Our results indicated the disease process involved pallidus, mesencephalon, and subthalamic regions.

  2. Hyperspectral imaging and quantitative analysis for prostate cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbari, Hamed; Halig, Luma V.; Schuster, David M.; Osunkoya, Adeboye; Master, Viraj; Nieh, Peter T.; Chen, Georgia Z.; Fei, Baowei

    2012-07-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is an emerging modality for various medical applications. Its spectroscopic data might be able to be used to noninvasively detect cancer. Quantitative analysis is often necessary in order to differentiate healthy from diseased tissue. We propose the use of an advanced image processing and classification method in order to analyze hyperspectral image data for prostate cancer detection. The spectral signatures were extracted and evaluated in both cancerous and normal tissue. Least squares support vector machines were developed and evaluated for classifying hyperspectral data in order to enhance the detection of cancer tissue. This method was used to detect prostate cancer in tumor-bearing mice and on pathology slides. Spatially resolved images were created to highlight the differences of the reflectance properties of cancer versus those of normal tissue. Preliminary results with 11 mice showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the hyperspectral image classification method are 92.8% to 2.0% and 96.9% to 1.3%, respectively. Therefore, this imaging method may be able to help physicians to dissect malignant regions with a safe margin and to evaluate the tumor bed after resection. This pilot study may lead to advances in the optical diagnosis of prostate cancer using HSI technology.

  3. Quantitative texture analysis of talc in mantle hydrated mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez-Perez, J. M.; Gomez Barreiro, J.; Wenk, H. R.; Vogel, S. C.; Soda, Y.; Voltolini, M.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    A quantitative texture analysis of talc-serpentinite mylonites developed in highly deformed ultramafic rocks from different orogenic contexts have been done with neutorn diffraction at HIPPO (Los Álamos National Laboratory). Mineral assemblage, metamorphic evolution and deformative fabric of these samples could be correlated with those verified along the shallow levels (<100km; <5GPa) of a subduction zone. The hydration of mantle (ultramafic) rocks at those levels it is likely to occur dynamically, with important implications on seismogenesis. Given the high anisotropy of the major phases in the samples (i.e. talc and antigorite) it is expected to influence seismic anisotropy of the whole system, in the presence of texture. However to date there was no data on the crystallographic preferred orientation of talc and examples of antigorite textures are very limited. We explore the contribution of talc texture to the seismic anisotropy of mantle hydrated mylonites. Acknowledgements: This work has been funded by research project CGL2011-22728 of Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. JGB and JMBP are grateful to the Ramón y Cajal and FPI funding programs. Access to HIPPO (LANSCE) to conduct diffraction experiments is kindly acknowledged.

  4. Quantitative image analysis of HIV-1 infection in lymphoid tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Haase, A.T.; Zupancic, M.; Cavert, W. [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN (United States); and others

    1996-11-08

    Tracking human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection at the cellular level in tissue reservoirs provides opportunities to better understand the pathogenesis of infection and to rationally design and monitor therapy. A quantitative technique was developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid developed to determine viral burden in two important cellular compartments in lymphoid tissues. Image analysis and in situ hybridization were combined to show that in the presymptomatic stages of infection there is a large, relatively stable pool of virions on the surfaces of follicular dendritic cells and a smaller pool of productivity infected cells. Despite evidence of constraints on HIV-1 replication in the infected cell population in lymphoid tissues, estimates of the numbers of these cells and the virus they could produce are consistent with the quantities of virus that have been detected in the bloodstream. The cellular sources of virus production and storage in lymphoid tissues can now be studied with this approach over the course of infection and treatment. 22 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Neutrophil extracellular traps in bronchial aspirates: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Hirose, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Naoya; Akeda, Yukihiro; Irisawa, Taro; Seki, Masafumi; Hosotsubo, Hideo; Yamamoto, Kouji; Tasaki, Osamu; Oishi, Kazunori; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tomono, Kazunori

    2014-06-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are structures composed of DNA and granular proteins, which rapidly trap and kill pathogens. The formation of NETs has been detected during infection in animal experiments, but their role in humans is unclear. The purposes of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the production of NETs during acute respiratory infection and to study the relationship between the NET length and various inflammatory mediators. We examined bronchial aspirates collected from nine intubated patients in an intensive care unit. Samples were collected at the onset of acute respiratory infection (day 0) and on days 1, 3-5, and 6-8. The NET length was visualised by immunohistochemistry and quantified using computer tracing software. The NET length was measured and compared at each time point. The length differed significantly between time points (p<0.001). NETs were significantly longer on day 1 than on day 0 (p<0.001). Neutrophils released NETs abundantly in response to respiratory infection and regression analysis showed that NET length correlated with six clinical parameters (white blood cells, platelets, lactate, CXC ligand-2, interleukin-8, and procalcitonin) as the explanatory variables. NETs in bronchial aspirates may reflect disease progression of respiratory infections. Quantification of NETs in bronchial aspirates may provide a new indicator of inflammation. PMID:24603817

  6. Quantitative sum rule analysis of low-temperature spectral functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Nathan P. M.; Hohler, Paul M.; Rapp, Ralf

    2013-04-01

    We analyze QCD and Weinberg-type sum rules in a low-temperature pion gas using vector and axial-vector spectral functions following from the model-independent chiral-mixing scheme. Toward this end we employ recently constructed vacuum spectral functions with ground and first-excited states in both channels and a universal perturbative continuum; they quantitatively describe hadronic ?-decay data and satisfy vacuum sum rules. These features facilitate the implementation of chiral mixing without further assumptions, and lead to in-medium spectral functions which exhibit a mutual tendency of compensating resonance and dip structures, suggestive for an approach toward structureless distributions. In the sum rule analysis, we account for pion mass corrections, which turn out to be significant. While the Weinberg sum rules remain satisfied even at high temperatures, the numerical evaluation of the QCD sum rules for vector and axial-vector channels reveals significant deviations setting in for temperatures beyond ˜140MeV, suggestive of additional physics beyond low-energy chiral pion dynamics.

  7. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  8. Quantitative analysis of enzymatic fractionation of multiple substrate mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Adlercreutz, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of mixtures of multiple substrates was studied quantitatively, based on established methodology used for the enzymatic kinetic resolution of racemic mixtures, involving the use of competitive factors: ratios of specificity constants (k(cat)/K(M)) of substrate pairs. The competitive factors of the substrates were defined in relation to a reference substrate. These competitive factors were used to predict the composition of the reaction mixture as a function of the degree of conversion of the reaction. The methodology was evaluated using three different lipases to hydrolyze a model mixture of four fatty acid methyl esters and for the esterification of a mixture of the same fatty acids in free form with ethanol. In most cases, the competitive factors determined from the initial phase of the reactions predicted the product composition during the rest of the reaction very well. The slowest reacting fatty acid was erucic acid (both in free form and as methyl ester), which was thus enriched in the remaining substrate fraction, while the other fatty acids: lauric acid, palmitic acid and oleic acid were converted faster. Simulations of the compositions of reaction mixtures with different values of the competitive factors were carried out to provide an overview of what could be achieved using enzymatic enrichment. Possible applications include reactions involving homologous substrates and mixtures of multiple isomers. The analysis presented provides guidelines that can be useful in the screening and development of enzymes for enzymatic enrichment applications. PMID:22811287

  9. Quantitative analysis of carbon in silicon carbide coated with carbon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongrim; Kim, Junsu; Yun, Jondo

    2013-08-01

    Nonconductive specimens for scanning electron microscopy or X-ray microanalysis are coated with conductive carbon in order to reduce charging. But carbon film absorbs X-ray fluxes causing errors in measuring chemical composition. Especially when the carbon content is measured, carbon coating not only blocks X-rays but also becomes a source of carbon X-rays. It is thus necessary to determine how much errors are induced by carbon coating, and how thick coating is allowed for the accurate measurement. In this study, quantitative analysis of carbon on silicon carbide with carbon coating films was attempted by electron probe microanalyzer. It was found that measured carbon content increased in a nonlinear manner up to 40% with a film thickness, whereas silicon content decreased slightly. Carbon X-ray intensity was determined by computer simulation, which increased in a linear manner with the thickness. The discrepancy was due to a nucleation and growth of islands and thus a change of density with a thickening of coating film. PMID:23920162

  10. Global Tractography with Embedded Anatomical Priors for Quantitative Connectivity Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lemkaddem, Alia; Skiöldebrand, Didrik; Dal Palú, Alessandro; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Daducci, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Tractography algorithms provide us with the ability to non-invasively reconstruct fiber pathways in the white matter (WM) by exploiting the directional information described with diffusion magnetic resonance. These methods could be divided into two major classes, local and global. Local methods reconstruct each fiber tract iteratively by considering only directional information at the voxel level and its neighborhood. Global methods, on the other hand, reconstruct all the fiber tracts of the whole brain simultaneously by solving a global energy minimization problem. The latter have shown improvements compared to previous techniques but these algorithms still suffer from an important shortcoming that is crucial in the context of brain connectivity analyses. As no anatomical priors are usually considered during the reconstruction process, the recovered fiber tracts are not guaranteed to connect cortical regions and, as a matter of fact, most of them stop prematurely in the WM; this violates important properties of neural connections, which are known to originate in the gray matter (GM) and develop in the WM. Hence, this shortcoming poses serious limitations for the use of these techniques for the assessment of the structural connectivity between brain regions and, de facto, it can potentially bias any subsequent analysis. Moreover, the estimated tracts are not quantitative, every fiber contributes with the same weight toward the predicted diffusion signal. In this work, we propose a novel approach for global tractography that is specifically designed for connectivity analysis applications which: (i) explicitly enforces anatomical priors of the tracts in the optimization and (ii) considers the effective contribution of each of them, i.e., volume, to the acquired diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. We evaluated our approach on both a realistic diffusion MRI phantom and in vivo data, and also compared its performance to existing tractography algorithms. PMID:25452742

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of the Behavioral Checklist of the Movement ABC Motor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Luis Miguel; Gomez, Marta; Graupera, Jose Luis; Gutierrez, Melchor; Linaza, Jose Luis

    2007-01-01

    The fifth section of the Henderson and Sugden's Movement ABC Checklist is part of the general Checklist that accompanies The Movement ABC Battery. The authors maintain that the analysis of this section must be mainly qualitative instead of quantitative. The main objective of this study was to employ a quantitative analysis of this behavioural…

  12. DTI Fiber Tract-Oriented Quantitative and Visual Analysis of White Matter Integrity

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jun

    DTI Fiber Tract-Oriented Quantitative and Visual Analysis of White Matter Integrity Xuwei Liang@cs.uky.edu. Abstract. A new fiber tract-oriented quantitative and visual analysis scheme using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is developed to study the regional micro structural white matter changes along major fiber bun

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models

    E-print Network

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Environmental Data and Models Volume 1 ........................................6 1.3 Is A Probabilistic Analysis Necessary ...................................................................................13 2.1.4 Weibull Distribution

  14. Quantitative analysis of LISA pathfinder test-mass noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraioli, Luigi; Congedo, Giuseppe; Hueller, Mauro; Vitale, Stefano; Hewitson, Martin; Nofrarias, Miquel; Armano, Michele

    2011-12-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is a mission aiming to test the critical technology for the forthcoming space-based gravitational-wave detectors. The main scientific objective of the LPF mission is to demonstrate test masses free falling with residual accelerations below 3×10-14ms-2/Hz at 1 mHz. Reaching such an ambitious target will require a significant amount of system optimization and characterization, which will in turn require accurate and quantitative noise analysis procedures. In this paper, we discuss two main problems associated with the analysis of the data from LPF: i) excess noise detection and ii) noise parameter identification. The mission is focused on the low-frequency region ([0.1, 10] mHz) of the available signal spectrum. In such a region, the signal is dominated by the force noise acting on test masses. At the same time, the mission duration is limited to 90 days and typical data segments will be 24 hours in length. Considering those constraints, noise analysis is expected to deal with a limited amount of non-Gaussian data, since the spectrum statistics will be far from Gaussian and the lowest available frequency is limited by the data length. In this paper, we analyze the details of the expected statistics for spectral data and develop two suitable excess noise estimators. One is based on the statistical properties of the integrated spectrum, the other is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity of the estimators is discussed theoretically for independent data, then the algorithms are tested on LPF synthetic data. The test on realistic LPF data allows the effect of spectral data correlations on the efficiency of the different noise excess estimators to be highlighted. It also reveals the versatility of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov approach, which can be adapted to provide reasonable results on correlated data from a modified version of the standard equations for the inversion of the test statistic. Closely related to excess noise detection, the problem of noise parameter identification in non-Gaussian data is approached in two ways. One procedure is based on the maximum-likelihood estimator and another is based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit estimator. Both approaches provide unbiased and accurate results for noise parameter estimation and demonstrate superior performance with respect to standard weighted least squares and Huber’s norm. We also discuss the advantages of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov formalism for the estimation of confidence intervals of parameter values in correlated data.

  15. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; MoreauDalleOre, Cristina; Pendleton, Yvonne J.; Clark, Roger Nelson

    2012-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iaperus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-by's of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at approximately 3.28 micrometers (approximately 3050 per centimeter), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range approximately 3.36-3.52 micrometers (approximately 2980- 2840 per centimeter) bably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signarure among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph approximately 24; for Hyperion the value is approximately 12, while laperus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 approximately 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on laperus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  16. Hydrocarbons On Phoebe, Iapetus, And Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Clark, R. N.

    2012-10-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-bys of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at 3.28 ?m ( 3050 cm-1), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range 3.36-3.52 ?m ( 2980-2840 cm-1). In these data, the aromatic band, probably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signature among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph 24; for Hyperion the value is 12, while Iapetus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on Iapetus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  17. Hydrocarbons on Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion: Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Clark, R. N.

    2012-12-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the hydrocarbon spectral bands measured on three of Saturn's satellites, Phoebe, Iapetus, and Hyperion. These bands, measured with the Cassini Visible-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on close fly-bys of these satellites, are the C-H stretching modes of aromatic hydrocarbons at ~3.28 ?m (~3050 cm-1), and the are four blended bands of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3 in the range ~3.36-3.52 ?m (~2980-2840 cm-1). In these data, the aromatic band, probably indicating the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), is unusually strong in comparison to the aliphatic bands, resulting in a unique signature among Solar System bodies measured so far, and as such offers a means of comparison among the three satellites. The ratio of the C-H bands in aromatic molecules to those in aliphatic molecules in the surface materials of Phoebe, NAro:NAliph ~24; for Hyperion the value is ~12, while Iapetus shows an intermediate value. In view of the trend of the evolution (dehydrogenation by heat and radiation) of aliphatic complexes toward more compact molecules and eventually to aromatics, the relative abundances of aliphatic -CH2- and -CH3- is an indication of the lengths of the molecular chain structures, hence the degree of modification of the original material. We derive CH2:CH3 ~2.2 in the spectrum of low-albedo material on Iapetus; this value is the same within measurement errors to the ratio in the diffuse interstellar medium. The similarity in the spectral signatures of the three satellites, plus the apparent weak trend of aromatic/aliphatic abundance from Phoebe to Hyperion, is consistent with, and effectively confirms that the source of the hydrocarbon-bearing material is Phoebe, and that the appearance of that material on the other two satellites arises from the deposition of the inward-spiraling dust that populates the Phoebe ring.

  18. Quantitative image analysis of cell colocalization in murine bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Zeinab; Mech, Franziska; Zehentmeier, Sandra; Hauser, Anja E; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-06-01

    Long-term antibody production is a key property of humoral immunity and is accomplished by long-lived plasma cells. They mainly reside in the bone marrow, whose importance as an organ hosting immunological memory is becoming increasingly evident. Signals provided by stromal cells and eosinophils may play an important role for plasma cell maintenance, constituting a survival microenvironment. In this joint study of experiment and theory, we investigated the spatial colocalization of plasma cells, eosinophils and B cells by applying an image-based systems biology approach. To this end, we generated confocal fluorescence microscopy images of histological sections from murine bone marrow that were subsequently analyzed in an automated fashion. This quantitative analysis was combined with computer simulations of the experimental system for hypothesis testing. In particular, we tested the observed spatial colocalization of cells in the bone marrow against the hypothesis that cells are found within available areas at positions that were drawn from a uniform random number distribution. We find that B cells and plasma cells highly colocalize with stromal cells, to an extent larger than in the simulated random situation. While B cells are preferentially in contact with each other, i.e., form clusters among themselves, plasma cells seem to be solitary or organized in aggregates, i.e., loosely defined groups of cells that are not necessarily in direct contact. Our data suggest that the plasma cell bone marrow survival niche facilitates colocalization of plasma cells with stromal cells and eosinophils, respectively, promoting plasma cell longevity. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25652548

  19. Quantitative Analysis of the Effective Functional Structure in Yeast Glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    De la Fuente, Ildefonso M.; Cortes, Jesus M.

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of the effective functionality that governs the enzymatic self-organized processes in cellular conditions is a crucial topic in the post-genomic era. In recent studies, Transfer Entropy has been proposed as a rigorous, robust and self-consistent method for the causal quantification of the functional information flow among nonlinear processes. Here, in order to quantify the functional connectivity for the glycolytic enzymes in dissipative conditions we have analyzed different catalytic patterns using the technique of Transfer Entropy. The data were obtained by means of a yeast glycolytic model formed by three delay differential equations where the enzymatic rate equations of the irreversible stages have been explicitly considered. These enzymatic activity functions were previously modeled and tested experimentally by other different groups. The results show the emergence of a new kind of dynamical functional structure, characterized by changing connectivity flows and a metabolic invariant that constrains the activity of the irreversible enzymes. In addition to the classical topological structure characterized by the specific location of enzymes, substrates, products and feedback-regulatory metabolites, an effective functional structure emerges in the modeled glycolytic system, which is dynamical and characterized by notable variations of the functional interactions. The dynamical structure also exhibits a metabolic invariant which constrains the functional attributes of the enzymes. Finally, in accordance with the classical biochemical studies, our numerical analysis reveals in a quantitative manner that the enzyme phosphofructokinase is the key-core of the metabolic system, behaving for all conditions as the main source of the effective causal flows in yeast glycolysis. PMID:22393350

  20. Aquaculture Network Information Center (AquaNIC)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Links to national and international level electronic resources for aquaculture information including: scientific institutions, agencies, industries, news, newsletters, job listings, discussion groups, courses, species, publications, and commercial products. Goals include: providing self-paced aquaculture instruction to the aquaculture industry, and obtaining user input in directing AquaNIC services. A version in Spanish is being prepared.

  1. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xiong; B. N. Wenny; J. R. Kuyper; V. V. Salomonson; W. L. Barnes

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two nearly identical MODIS instruments are operating in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths covering from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Since launch, MODIS observations and data products have contributed significantly to studies of changes in the

  2. Status of terra MODIS and aqua modis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. L. Barnes; X. Xiong; V. V. Salomonson

    2003-01-01

    Nearly identical copies of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been operating onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites for 34 and 5 months respectively. Both are performing as designed. Sensitivities, with minor exceptions, are better than specified. Short- and long-term stability is very good. Trending of the Terra sensor has revealed degradation of the solar

  3. Terra and Aqua MODIS Instrument Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xiong; B. Wenny; J. Sun; A. Angal; W. Barnes

    2010-01-01

    Since launch, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for more than 10 years and Aqua MODIS for more than 8 years. Together, they have produced an unprecedentedly large amount of data products from their complementary morning and afternoon observations, over a wide spectral range from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), and significantly benefited the science community for studies of changes

  4. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxiong Xiong; Brian Wenny; Tiejun Chang; Junqiang Sun; Hongda Chen; Aisheng Wu; William Barnes; Vince Salomonson

    2010-01-01

    Since launch, Terra and Aqua MODIS have successfully operated for more than 10 years and 8 years, respectively. Data products derived from MODIS observations have been widely distributed to the science and user community, enabling a broad range of applications. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). They are calibrated on-orbit

  5. Quantitative live cell fluorescence-microscopy analysis of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Bjerling, Pernilla; Olsson, Ida; Meng, Xi'nan

    2012-01-01

    Several microscopy techniques are available today that can detect a specific protein within the cell. During the last decade live cell imaging using fluorochromes like Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) directly attached to the protein of interest has become increasingly popular. Using GFP and similar fluorochromes the subcellular localisations and movements of proteins can be detected in a fluorescent microscope. Moreover, also the subnuclear localisation of a certain region of a chromosome can be studied using this technique. GFP is fused to the Lac Repressor protein (LacR) and ectopically expressed in the cell where tandem repeats of the lacO sequence has been inserted into the region of interest on the chromosome. The LacR-GFP will bind to the lacO repeats and that area of the genome will be visible as a green dot in the fluorescence microscope. Yeast is especially suited for this type of manipulation since homologous recombination is very efficient and thereby enables targeted integration of the lacO repeats and engineered fusion proteins with GFP. Here we describe a quantitative method for live cell analysis of fission yeast. Additional protocols for live cell analysis of fission yeast can be found, for example on how to make a movie of the meiotic chromosomal behaviour. In this particular experiment we focus on subnuclear organisation and how it is affected during gene induction. We have labelled a gene cluster, named Chr1, by the introduction of lacO binding sites in the vicinity of the genes. The gene cluster is enriched for genes that are induced early during nitrogen starvation of fission yeast. In the strain the nuclear membrane (NM) is labelled by the attachment of mCherry to the NM protein Cut11 giving rise to a red fluorescent signal. The Spindle Pole body (SPB) compound Sid4 is fused to Red Fluorescent Protein (Sid4-mRFP). In vegetatively growing yeast cells the centromeres are always attached to the SPB that is embedded in the NM. The SPB is identified as a large round structure in the NM. By imaging before and 20 minutes after depletion of the nitrogen source we can determine the distance between the gene cluster (GFP) and the NM/SPB. The mean or median distances before and after nitrogen depletion are compared and we can thus quantify whether or not there is a shift in subcellular localisation of the gene cluster after nitrogen depletion. PMID:22297579

  6. Universal platform for quantitative analysis of DNA transposition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Completed genome projects have revealed an astonishing diversity of transposable genetic elements, implying the existence of novel element families yet to be discovered from diverse life forms. Concurrently, several better understood transposon systems have been exploited as efficient tools in molecular biology and genomics applications. Characterization of new mobile elements and improvement of the existing transposition technology platforms warrant easy-to-use assays for the quantitative analysis of DNA transposition. Results Here we developed a universal in vivo platform for the analysis of transposition frequency with class II mobile elements, i.e., DNA transposons. For each particular transposon system, cloning of the transposon ends and the cognate transposase gene, in three consecutive steps, generates a multifunctional plasmid, which drives inducible expression of the transposase gene and includes a mobilisable lacZ-containing reporter transposon. The assay scores transposition events as blue microcolonies, papillae, growing within otherwise whitish Escherichia coli colonies on indicator plates. We developed the assay using phage Mu transposition as a test model and validated the platform using various MuA transposase mutants. For further validation and to illustrate universality, we introduced IS903 transposition system components into the assay. The developed assay is adjustable to a desired level of initial transposition via the control of a plasmid-borne E. coli arabinose promoter. In practice, the transposition frequency is modulated by varying the concentration of arabinose or glucose in the growth medium. We show that variable levels of transpositional activity can be analysed, thus enabling straightforward screens for hyper- or hypoactive transposase mutants, regardless of the original wild-type activity level. Conclusions The established universal papillation assay platform should be widely applicable to a variety of mobile elements. It can be used for mechanistic studies to dissect transposition and provides a means to screen or scrutinise transposase mutants and genes encoding host factors. In succession, improved versions of transposition systems should yield better tools for molecular biology and offer versatile genome modification vehicles for many types of studies, including gene therapy and stem cell research. PMID:21110848

  7. Self-calibrated quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy: application to pigment analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilaria Borgia; Lucia M. F Burgio; Michela Corsi; Roberta Fantoni; Vincenzo Palleschi; Azenio Salvetti; Maria Cristina Squarcialupi; Elisabetta Tognoni

    2000-01-01

    A new laser-based spectroscopic technique, called calibration-free LIPS (laser-induced plasma spectroscopy), is proposed for fast and precise elemental analysis in the field of cultural heritage conservation and study. Quantitative stratigraphic results, obtained by CF-LIPS on ancient Roman frescoe samples, are shown. The application of this calibration-free procedure frees the LIPS technique from the need of reference samples or an internal

  8. Quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance for the structural and quantitative analysis of atropine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shi; Yao, Jing; Shi, Yaqin

    2014-02-01

    This study assessed a general method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) for the calibration of atropine sulfate (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient, API) as reference standard. The spectra were acquired in D2O using maleic acid as the internal standard. Conformational behaviors of tropane ring were observed and studied by means of NMR and ROESY experiments at different temperature, which showed that the azine methyl group was at equilibrium for axial and equatorial conformations at room temperature. Signal delay and monitor signals of qNMR experimentation were optimized for quantification. The study reported here validated the method's linearity, range, limit of quantification, stability and precision. The results were consistent with the results obtained from mass balance approach. PMID:24280740

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch, TCGA Scientitifc Symposium 2012

    Cancer.gov

    Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch Genome-Wide Analysis of Expression Quantitative Trait Loci in Breast Cancer - Nicholas Knoblauch, TCGA

  10. Quantitative analysis of localized surface plasmons based on molecular probing.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Claire; Bachelot, Renaud; Plain, Jérôme; Baudrion, Anne-Laure; Jradi, Safi; Bouhelier, Alexandre; Soppera, Olivier; Jain, Prashant K; Huang, Libai; Ecoffet, Carole; Balan, Lavinia; Royer, Pascal

    2010-08-24

    We report on the quantitative characterization of the plasmonic optical near-field of a single silver nanoparticle. Our approach relies on nanoscale molecular molding of the confined electromagnetic field by photoactivated molecules. We were able to directly image the dipolar profile of the near-field distribution with a resolution better than 10 nm and to quantify the near-field depth and its enhancement factor. A single nanoparticle spectral signature was also assessed. This quantitative characterization constitutes a prerequisite for developing nanophotonic applications. PMID:20687536

  11. Genomic Analysis in the sting-2 Quantitative Trait Locus for Defensive Behavior in the Honey Bee,

    E-print Network

    Hunt, Greg

    Letter Genomic Analysis in the sting-2 Quantitative Trait Locus for Defensive Behavior in the Honey from the honey bee, Apis mellifera, associated with a quantitative trait locus (QTL) sting-2 for aggressive behavior. This sequence represents the first extensive study of the honey-bee genome structure

  12. Unfolding of time Petri nets for quantitative time analysis Medesu Sogbohossou and David Delfieu

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Unfolding of time Petri nets for quantitative time analysis Medesu Sogbohossou and David Delfieu://www.irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Abstract. The verification of properties on a Time Petri net is often based on the state class graph of the exhaustive set of scenarios on a safe time Petri net. Moreover, the method allows various quantitative time

  13. Quantitative determination of antiphase boundary profiles in long period superstructures. I : real space analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jérôme Planès; Annick Loiseau; François Ducastelle

    1992-01-01

    We present a method combining chemical lattice imaging, using high resolution electron microscopy, and statistical analysis of numerically processed micrographs for determining, at least semi-quantitatively, the modulation function in any long period antiphase boundary structure (LPS) with wide APB generating a chemical disorder in their neighborhood. It is shown that these structures can be quantitatively represented by a generic modulation

  14. An Inexpensive Electrodeposition Device and Its Use in a Quantitative Analysis Laboratory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental procedure, using an apparatus that is easy to construct, was developed to incorporate a quantitative electrogravimetric determination of the solution nickel content into an undergraduate or advanced high school quantitative analysis laboratory. This procedure produces results comparable to the procedure used for the gravimetric…

  15. Quantitative threat analysis via a logical service 1 Michael Huth and Jim Huan-Pu Kuo

    E-print Network

    Oxford, University of

    Quantitative threat analysis via a logical service 1 Michael Huth and Jim Huan-Pu Kuo Department September 2014 Abstract It is increasingly important to analyze system security quantitatively using.g. a random process modeling life expectancy of a light bulb) and not as active agents (e.g. a cyber 1 Please

  16. Computational Analysis and Comparison of Continuous and Count-based Label-free Quantitative Proteomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Searle, Brian; Chen, Yao-Yi; Li, Ming; Nesvizhskii, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Current proteomics workflows are very diverse in terms of experimental approaches, methods of extracting quantitative information, and how this quantitative information is utilized in the experiment. This presentation will start with a brief overview of quantitative proteomics, with a focus on label-free strategies and accurate computational analysis of the data. We will discuss both continuous (e.g. peptide intensity-based) and count-based (spectral counting) quantitative strategies. In comparing these two approaches, we will focus on practical aspects of quantitative proteomics, such as most critical data analysis steps, computational strategies and tools that are available, and how various factors (e.g. mass accuracy) affect the quality of quantitative data. We will also discuss specific challenges of quantitative proteomic experiments, including: 1) The problem of small number of replicates, and how it affects the accuracy of quantitation; 2) How to use quantitative information from shared peptides, i.e. peptides whose sequence is present in multiple proteins. 3) How to determine where to draw the threshold for calling a protein to be enriched/differentially expressed 4) Methods to estimate false discovery rates in the context of quantitation. To address these challenges, we developed a suite of freely available computational tools. These tools include ABACUS and QSPEC for processing and statistically modeling spectral count data, and more recently QPROT for continuous data. QPROT extends the Bayesian hierarchical model of QSPEC for applications to precursor ion intensity data as well as continuously normalized count data, while accounting for the missing data properly. We demonstrate QPROT and perform comparisons with other methods using data from a recent clinical proteomic technology assessment for cancer (CPTAC) study. We will also present the results of comparative analysis of different label-free quantitation methods, and comparative analysis of absolute protein and mRNA data, using publicly available proteomic and transcriptomic data on mouse mitochondria.

  17. Routine quantitative phase analysis of niobium-bearing lateritic ores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dona Kampata; Jean Naud; Philippe Sonnet

    Routine quantitative analyses by Rietveld full-pattern fitting have been carried out on more than one thousand niobium ore samples originating from four pyrochlore deposits: Lueshe and Bingo (D.R. Congo), Mabounie (Gabon), and Sokli (Finland). The ore samples were characterized by a highly variable mineral content, the presence of mineral phases with a wide range of compositions and a high amorphous

  18. Teaching Quantitative Reasoning for Nonscience Majors through Carbon Footprint Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boose, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative reasoning is a key intellectual skill, applicable across disciplines and best taught in the context of authentic, relevant problems. Here, I describe and assess a laboratory exercise that has students calculate their "carbon footprint" and evaluate the impacts of various behavior choices on that footprint. Students gather…

  19. Toward Quantitative Process Management With Exploratory Data Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark C. Paulk

    1999-01-01

    The Capability Maturity Model ® for Software is a model for building organizational capability that has been widely adopted in the software community and beyond. The Software CMM ® is a five-level model that prescribes process improvement priorities for software organizations. Level 4 in the CMM focuses on using quantitative techniques, particularly statistical techniques, for controlling the software process. In

  20. Accelerated Articles Quantitative Analysis of Protein Phosphorylation in

    E-print Network

    Chait, Brian T.

    reported hypothesis-driven multistage MS (HMS-MS) method (Chang, E. J.; Archambault, V.; McLachlin, D. T of the dominant loss of H3PO4 during MS/MS from singly charged phosphopeptide ions produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) in the ion trap mass spectrometer. In the present work, quantitation

  1. Quantitative analysis of cell adhesion on aligned micro- and nanofibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Furong Tian; Hossein Hosseinkhani; Mohsen Hosseinkhani; Ali Khademhosseini; Yoshiro Yokoyama; Giovani Gomez Estrada; Hisatoshi Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the af- finity of cell adhesion to aligned nanofibers composed of composites of poly(glycolic acid) (PGA) and collagen. Elec- trospun composite fibers were fabricated at various PGA\\/ collagen weight mixing ratio (7, 18, 40, 67, and 86%) to generate fibers that ranged in diameter from 10 l mt o 500 nm. Scanning electron microscopy

  2. Original article I. A bibliographic database for quantitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    because of high animal husbandry concentrations in restricted areas [1]. Lowering pollution is the current of quantitative reviewing has been widely used in human health care [5] and veterinary science [6]. Digestive flux of 2 982 animals: 414 lambs (33 references), 1 078 sheep (37 references), 64 pregnant ewes (3 refer

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomarkers in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a combination HPLC-DART-TOF-MS system was utilized to identify and quantitatively analyze carbohydrates in wild type and mutant strains of Fusarium verticillioides. Carbohydrate fractions were isolated from F. verticillioides cellular extracts by HPLC using a cation-exchange size-excl...

  4. 75 FR 16732 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ...COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security Action...Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co. In the Matter...Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co. The Bureau of Industry and Security, U...Aqua-Loop Cooling Towers, Co....

  5. Developing quantitative models for contraction at wound edges using finite element analysis

    E-print Network

    Obi, Chidinma C

    2005-01-01

    Finite element analysis was applied to develop a quantitative tool for studying contraction at wound edges. Two models showing contraction at the edges of a cylindrical liver wound were employed. The first model assumed ...

  6. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF 68 POLAR COMPOUNDS FROM TEN CHEMICAL CLASSES BY DIRECT AQUEOUS INJECTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Porous polymer packings have been used successfully in many applications of direct aqueous injection gas chromatography. The authors have expanded the use of aqueous injection to the quantitative analysis of 68 alcohols, acetates, ketones, ethers, sulfides, aldehydes, diols, dion...

  7. What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite History

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite History of Communication Satellite History by Zoe Szajnfarber Submitted to the Department of Aeronautics tradeoffs associated with adopting this principle in the context of communication satellites

  8. Fluorescent microscopy approaches of quantitative soil microbial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Konstantin; Polyanskaya, Lubov

    2015-04-01

    Classical fluorescent microscopy method was used during the last decades in various microbiological studies of terrestrial ecosystems. The method provides representative results and simple application which is allow to use it both as routine part of amplitudinous research and in small-scaled laboratories. Furthermore, depending on research targets a lot of modifications of fluorescent microscopy method were established. Combination and comparison of several approaches is an opportunity of quantitative estimation of microbial community in soil. The first analytical part of the study was dedicated to soil bacterial density estimation by fluorescent microscopy in dynamic of several 30-days experiments. The purpose of research was estimation of changes in soil bacterial community on the different soil horizons under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with adding nutrients in two experimental sets: cellulose and chitin. Was modified the nalidixic acid method for inhibition of DNA division of gram-negative bacteria, and the method provides the quantification of this bacterial group by fluorescent microscopy. Established approach allowed to estimate 3-4 times more cells of gram-negative bacteria in soil. The functions of actinomyces in soil polymer destruction are traditionally considered as dominant in comparison to gram-negative bacterial group. However, quantification of gram-negative bacteria in chernozem and peatland provides underestimation of classical notion for this bacterial group. Chitin introduction had no positive effect to gram-negative bacterial population density changes in chernozem but concurrently this nutrient provided the fast growing dynamics at the first 3 days of experiment both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This is confirming chitinolytic activity of gram-negative bacteria in soil organic matter decomposition. At the next part of research modified method for soil gram-negative bacteria quantification was compared to fluorescent in situ hybridization method (FISH). This approach was used for evaluation of contribution of each gram-negative bactera group. No significant difference between the main soil gram-negative bacterial groups (phylum Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) was found both under anaerobic and anaerobic conditions in chernozem in the topsoil. Thus soil gram-negative bacteria play an important ecological role in natural polymer degradation as common group of microorganisms. Another approach with using cascade filtration technique for bacterial population density estimation in chernozem was compared to classical method of fluorescent microscopy. Quantification of soil bacteria with cascade filtration provided by filters with different diameters and filtering of soil suspension in fixed amount. In comparison to the classical fluorescent microscopy method the modification with filtration of soil suspension provided to quantify more bacterial cells. Thus biomass calculation results of soil bacteria by using classical fluorescent microscopy could be underestimated and combination with cascade filtration technique allow to avoid potential experimental error. Thereby, combination and comparison of several fluorescent microscopy methods modifications established during the research provided miscellaneous approaches in soil bacteria quantification and analysis of ecological roles of soil microorganisms.

  9. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus x Bos Taurus cattle: chromosome 10

    E-print Network

    Lutaaya, Emmanuel

    1996-01-01

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major Subject: Animal Breethng MAPPING AND ANALYSIS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI IN IJOS UVDICUS x IJOS TAURUS CATTLE: CHROMOSOME 10 A Thesis by EMMANUEL LUTAAYA Submitted to Texas AkM University... (Member) December l996 Major Subject Animal Breeding ABSTRACT Mapping and Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci in Bos indi ctts x Bos taurus Cattle: Chromosome 10. (December 1996) Emmanuel Lutaays, B. Sc. , Makerere University Chair of Connnittee: Dr...

  10. Gas chromatographic analysis of myo-inositol for quantitative determination of phytate 

    E-print Network

    Daly, John Clifton

    1989-01-01

    GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF MYO-INOSITOL FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PHYTATE A Thesis by JOHN CLIFTON DALY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1989 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF MYO-INOSITOL FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF PHYTATE A Thesis by JOHN CLIFTON DALY Approved as to style and content by Khee C. Rhee (Chairman...

  11. Comprehensive objective maps of macromolecular conformations by quantitative SAXS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hura, Greg L.; Budworth, Helen; Dyer, Kevin N.; Rambo, Robert P.; Hammel, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive perspectives of macromolecular conformations are required to connect structure to biology. Here we present a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) Structural Similarity Map (SSM) and Volatility of Ratio (VR) metric providing comprehensive, quantitative and objective (superposition-independent) perspectives on solution state conformations. We validate VR and SSM utility on human MutS?, a key ABC ATPase and chemotherapeutic target, by revealing MutS? DNA sculpting and identifying multiple conformational states for biological activity. PMID:23624664

  12. Quantitative analysis of the human T cell palmitome.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eliot; Kuropka, Benno; Kliche, Stefanie; Brügger, Britta; Krause, Eberhard; Freund, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification used to inducibly compartmentalize proteins in cellular membranes, affecting the function of receptors and intracellular signaling proteins. The identification of protein "palmitomes" in several cell lines raises the question to what extent this modification is conserved in primary cells. Here we use primary T cells with acyl-biotin exchange and quantitative mass spectrometry to identify a pool of proteins previously unreported as palmitoylated in vivo. PMID:26111759

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Hydration Using Nitrogen-14 Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance.

    PubMed

    Gregorovi?, Alan

    2015-07-01

    Hydration is a quite common process in pharmaceutical solids. Sometimes it is desirable, as it stabilizes the crystal structure; in other cases it is unwanted, as it changes the physical and chemical properties of drugs. We here use (14)N NQR spectroscopy to quantitatively analyze hydration of a model compound, 5-aminotetrazole. (14)N NQR has some great advantages compared to other routinely used techniques to study hydration, like a very simple spectrum, single point calibration, and no need for special sample preparation, but the method's great disadvantage is a rather small sensitivity. Nevertheless, here we demonstrate that (14)N NQR, although being significantly less sensitive than XRD, NIR, and also (35)Cl NQR, is still capable of providing excellent quantitative accuracies. We can achieve errors <1% of the total amount, provided good temperature stabilization is implemented, which then allows long experimental times. We also present results obtained with a SLSE pulse sequence, which is a less robust approach but allows the use of much shorter measuring times (?200×) and could be used for quantitative real time monitoring of hydration or dehydration. PMID:26008906

  14. The reliability of quantitative analysis on digital images of the scoliotic spine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Cheung; Dirk J. Wever; Albert G. Veldhuizen; Jean P. Klein; Bert Verdonck; Rutger Nijlunsing; Jan C. Cool; Jim R. Van Horn

    2002-01-01

    Although analysis of scoliotic deformity is still studied extensively by means of conventional roentgenograms, computer-assisted digital analysis may allow a faster, more accurate and more complete evaluation of the scoliotic spine. In this study, a new computer-assisted measurement method was evaluated. This method uses digital reconstruction images for quantitative analysis of the scoliotic spine. The aim of the current study

  15. Quantitative analysis of biopolymers by matrix-assisted laser desorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, K.; Allman, S.L.; Jones, R.B.; Chen, C.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-08-01

    During the past few years, major efforts have been made to use mass spectrometry to measure biopolymers because of the great potential benefit to biological and medical research. Although the theoretical details of laser desorption and ionization mechanisms of MALDI are not yet fully understood, several models have been presented to explain the production of large biopolymer ions. In brief, it is very difficult to obtain reliable measurements of the absolute quantity of analytes by MALDI. If MALDI is going to become a routine analytical tool, it is obvious that quantitative measurement capability must be pursued. Oligonucleotides and protein samples used in this work were purchased from commercial sources. Nicotinic acid was used as matrix for both types of biopolymers. From this experiment, it is seen that it is difficult to obtain absolute quantitative measurements of biopolymers using MALDI. However, internal calibration with molecules having similar chemical properties can be used to resolve these difficulties. Chemical reactions between biopolymers must be avoided to prevent the destruction of the analyte materials. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Salivary TNF-? in Oral Lichen Planus Patients.

    PubMed

    Malarkodi, T; Sathasivasubramanian, S

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the salivary tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) level in oral lichen planus patients and to compare the levels of TNF-? between saliva and serum of OLP and controls. Methods. Serum and whole saliva from 30 patients with active lesions of oral lichen planus (OLP) and 30 healthy persons were investigated for the presence of TNF-? by enzyme immunoassay. Student's independent t-test and two-sample binomial proportion test were used to calculate significance of the mean values of TNF-alpha in serum and saliva and to determine the proportions of the detected and nondetected samples in both groups. Results. Proportion of detection and the mean of detectability between saliva and serum of Group B show an almost equal value, which suggests that saliva can be a good alternate to serum to analyze TNF-? in oral lichen planus patients. PMID:25861271

  17. Empirical research in bioethical journals. A quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Borry, P; Schotsmans, P; Dierickx, K

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this research is to analyse the evolution and nature of published empirical research in the fields of medical ethics and bioethics. Design Retrospective quantitative study of nine peer reviewed journals in the field of bioethics and medical ethics (Bioethics, Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, Hastings Center Report, Journal of Clinical Ethics, Journal of Medical Ethics, Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, Nursing Ethics, Christian Bioethics, andTheoretical Medicine and Bioethics). Results In total, 4029 articles published between 1990 and 2003 were retrieved from the journals studied. Over this period, 435 (10.8%) studies used an empirical design. The highest percentage of empirical research articles appeared in Nursing Ethics (n?=?145, 39.5%), followed by the Journal of Medical Ethics (n?=?128, 16.8%) and the Journal of Clinical Ethics (n?=?93, 15.4%). These three journals account for 84.1% of all empirical research in bioethics published in this period. The results of the ?2 test for two independent samples for the entire dataset indicate that the period 1997–2003 presented a higher number of empirical studies (n?=?309) than did the period 1990–1996 (n?=?126). This increase is statistically significant (?2?=?49.0264, p<.0001). Most empirical studies employed a quantitative paradigm (64.6%, n?=?281). The main topic of research was prolongation of life and euthanasia (n?=?68). Conclusions We conclude that the proportion of empirical research in the nine journals increased steadily from 5.4% in 1990 to 15.4% in 2003. It is likely that the importance of empirical methods in medical ethics and bioethics will continue to increase. PMID:16574880

  18. Understanding Maneuver Uncertainties during Inclination Maneuvers of the Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinley, David P.

    2007-01-01

    During the Fall 2006 inclination campaign for the Aqua spacecraft it was discovered that there was significant uncertainty in the prediction of the semimajor axis change during a maneuver. The low atmospheric drag environment at the time of the maneuvers amplified the effects of this uncertainty leading to a potential violation of the spacecraft ground-track requirements. In order to understand the uncertainty, a Monte Carlo simulation was developed to characterize the expected semi-major axis change uncertainty given the observed behavior of the spacecraft propulsion and attitude control systems during a maneuver. This expected uncertainty was then used to develop new analysis tools to ensure that future inclination maneuver plans will .meet ground-track control requirements in the presence of the error.

  19. Aqua: A Fast Decision Support System Using Approximate Query Answers

    E-print Network

    Gibbons, Phillip B.

    Aqua: A Fast Decision Support System Using Approximate Query Answers Swarup Acharya Phillip B Murray Hill NJ 07974 Abstract Aqua is a system for providing fast, approxi- mate answers to aggregate-to-date as the database changes. 1 Motivation Traditional query processing has focused solely on provid- ing exact answers

  20. A new method for retrieving band 6 of aqua MODIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingli Wang; John J. Qu; Xiaoxiong Xiong; Xianjun Hao; Yong Xie; Nianzeng Che

    2006-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key research instrument for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. It was successfully launched onboard the Terra satellite in December 1999 and Aqua satellite in May 2002. Both MODIS instruments have been working well except that 15 of the 20 detectors in Aqua MODIS band 6 (1.628-1.652 ?m) are either nonfunctional

  1. Four years of Aqua MODIS on-orbit radiometric calibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Barnes; X. Xiong; X. Xie; A. Wu; K. Chiang; J. Sun; V. Salomonson; B. Guenther

    2006-01-01

    MODIS is currently onboard NASA's EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. Together, Terra and Aqua MODIS have generated over 10 years of global observations for the study of changes in the Earth's land, oceans, and atmosphere. Each sensor produces more than 40 science data products using measurements from 36 spectral bands with wavelengths

  2. Using quantitative analysis to make risk-based decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Farquharson; J. L. McDuffee

    2003-01-01

    Often the purpose of performing a qualitative hazard analysis is to judge the acceptability of, or offer improvements to, an engineered system. Many papers and techniques exist that describe the well-defined hazard analysis philosophy of (1) defining the hazards, (2) identifying the potential accident scenarios and causes, and (3) listing the preventive and mitigative safeguards. However, qualitative studies alone are

  3. Quantitative Analysis of the Leakage of Confidential Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Clark; Sebastian Hunt; Pasquale Malacaria

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Basic information theory is used to analyse the amount of confidential information which may be leaked by programs written in a very simple imperative language. In particular, a detailed analysis is given of the possible leakage due to equality tests and if statements. The analysis is presented as a set of syntax-directed inference rules and can readily be automated.

  4. A comparison of three techniques for quantitative carbohydrate analysis used in characterization of therapeutic antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Siemiatkoski; Yelena Lyubarskaya; Damian Houde; Samnang Tep; Rohin Mhatre

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of three techniques for quantitative analysis of galactosylation present on immunoglobulins is described. ESIMS, MALDI-TOF MS, and anion-exchange chromatography with fluorescence detection were evaluated in terms of repeatability, limit of quantitation, selectivity, and linearity. A recombinant monoclonal IgG was enzymatically modified in vitro to produce essentially completely galactosylated and degalactosylated forms of the immunoglobulin. Samples of known galactosylation

  5. Measurement of DNA Copy Number at Microsatellite Loci Using Quantitative PCR Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Ginzinger; Tony E. Godfrey; Janice Nigro; Dan H. Moore; Seiji Suzuki; Maria G. Pallavicini; Joe W. Gray; Ronald H. Jensen

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of quantitative microsatellite analysis (QuMA) for rapid measurement of relative DNA sequence copy number. In QuMA, the copy number of a test locus relative to a pooled reference is assessed using quantitative, real-time PCR am- plification of loci carrying simple sequence repeats. Use of simple sequence repeats is advantageous because of the large

  6. Quantitative analysis of single aerosol particles with confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guangfu; Zhu, Guanghua; Xu, Qing; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Liu, Hui; Ding, Xunliang

    2010-10-01

    A laboratory confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer based on polycapillary X-ray optics (PXRO) was proposed to carry out the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles with smaller sizes than that of focal spot of the PXRO. The PXRO in the detection channel can both increase the collecting angle of the detector and lower the minimum detection limits of the XRF spectrometer. In order to reduce the effects of the PXRO on the analysis results, the sensitivities were corrected using a Gaussian function for the quantitative XRF analysis of single aerosol particles.

  7. Earth Science Reference Handbook [ Missions: Aqua ] 73 Aqua is a major international Earth Science satellite mis-

    E-print Network

    -A) · Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES; two copies) · Humidity Sounder for Brazil (HSB, with a 10-ft diameter stretched fairing Key Aqua Facts Joint with Brazil and Japan Orbit: Type: Near polar water, evaporation from the oceans, water vapor in the atmosphere, clouds, precipitation, soil moisture

  8. A quantitative and qualitative historical analysis of the scientific discipline of agroecology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wezel; V. Soldat

    2009-01-01

    At present, agroecology can be interpreted as a scientific discipline, as a movement or as a practice. In this paper we analyse the historical evolution of the scientific discipline of agroecology with a quantitative bibliometric analysis of 711 publications using the term agroecology and the derived term agroecological, as well as a qualitative analysis of definitions, topics and scales, where

  9. Robust local PCR and its application in NIR spectral quantitative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyu Zhang; Liankui Dai

    2008-01-01

    Local principle component regression (PCR) is a widely-used nonlinear calibration method in near infrared (NIR) spectral quantitative analysis. However, it is more sensitive to outliers than global PCR. An algorithm which combines robust PCR and local regression is proposed in this paper. Local training samples are selected according to Mahalanobis distances and the two stages of PCR, principle component analysis

  10. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gigi Luk; David W. Green; Jubin Abutalebi; Cheryl Grady

    2011-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model originally proposed as a qualitative analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, 10 neuroimaging studies met our

  11. Quantitative analysis of decay transients applied to a multimode pulsed cavity ringdown experiment

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Quantitative analysis of decay transients applied to a multimode pulsed cavity ringdown experiment of decay transients obtained in a generic pulsed cavity ringdown experiment are analyzed experimentally and theoretically. A weighted nonlinear least-squares analysis of digitized decay transients is shown that avoids

  12. A fully automated method for quantitative cerebral hemodynamic analysis using DSC–MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnerud, Atle; Emblem, Kyrre E

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-based perfusion analysis from MR images has become an established method for analysis of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in glioma patients. To date, little emphasis has, however, been placed on quantitative perfusion analysis of these patients, mainly due to the associated increased technical complexity and lack of sufficient stability in a clinical setting. The aim of our study was to develop a fully automated analysis framework for quantitative DSC-based perfusion analysis. The method presented here generates quantitative hemodynamic maps without user interaction, combined with automatic segmentation of normal-appearing cerebral tissue. Validation of 101 patients with confirmed glioma after surgery gave mean values for CBF, CBV, and MTT, extracted automatically from normal-appearing whole-brain white and gray matter, in good agreement with literature values. The measured age- and gender-related variations in the same parameters were also in agreement with those in the literature. Several established analysis methods were compared and the resulting perfusion metrics depended significantly on method and parameter choice. In conclusion, we present an accurate, fast, and automatic quantitative perfusion analysis method where all analysis steps are based on raw DSC data only. PMID:20087370

  13. A Quantitative Content Analysis of Mercer University MEd, EdS, and Doctoral Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Justus J.; Gaiek, Lura S.; White, Torian A.; Slappey, Lisa A.; Chastain, Andrea; Harris, Rose Prejean

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative content analysis of a body of research not only helps budding researchers understand the culture, language, and expectations of scholarship, it helps identify deficiencies and inform policy and practice. Because of these benefits, an analysis of a census of 980 Mercer University MEd, EdS, and doctoral theses was conducted. Each thesis…

  14. Quantitative Surface Atomic Structure Analysis by Low-Energy Ion Scattering Spectroscopy (ISS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masakazu Aono; Ryutaro Souda

    1985-01-01

    Surface atomic structure analysis by low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS) is reviewed, with particular emphasis on quantitative surface atomic structure analysis by ISS. The important differences between ISS and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), some basic characteristics of ISS, a special type of ISS called impact-collision ion scattering spectroscopy (ICISS), and the general features of the shadow cone in the energy

  15. Quantitative Analysis of UML Models Florian Leitner-Fischer and Stefan Leue

    E-print Network

    Leue, Stefan

    Quantitative Analysis of UML Models Florian Leitner-Fischer and Stefan Leue florian level models, for instance given as UML diagrams. Our approach bridges this gap and improves the integration of quan- titative safety analysis methods into the development process. We propose a UML profile

  16. Quantitative proteomics analysis of adsorbed plasma proteins classifies nanoparticles with different surface properties and size

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Burnum, Kristin E.; Luna, Maria L.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Kim, Jong Seo; Qian, Weijun; Moore, Ronald J.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Thrall, Brian D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pounds, Joel G.; Liu, Tao

    2011-12-01

    In biofluids (e.g., blood plasma) nanoparticles are readily embedded in layers of proteins that can affect their biological activity and biocompatibility. Herein, we report a study on the interactions between human plasma proteins and nanoparticles with a controlled systematic variation of properties using stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based quantitative proteomics. Novel protocol has been developed to simplify the isolation of nanoparticle bound proteins and improve the reproducibility. Plasma proteins associated with polystyrene nanoparticles with three different surface chemistries and two sizes as well as for four different exposure times (for a total of 24 different samples) were identified and quantified by LC-MS analysis. Quantitative comparison of relative protein abundances were achieved by spiking an 18 O-labeled 'universal reference' into each individually processed unlabeled sample as an internal standard, enabling simultaneous application of both label-free and isotopic labeling quantitation across the sample set. Clustering analysis of the quantitative proteomics data resulted in distinctive pattern that classifies the nanoparticles based on their surface properties and size. In addition, data on the temporal study indicated that the stable protein 'corona' that was isolated for the quantitative analysis appeared to be formed in less than 5 minutes. The comprehensive results obtained herein using quantitative proteomics have potential implications towards predicting nanoparticle biocompatibility.

  17. Visual Modeling for Aqua Ventus I off Monhegan Island, ME

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Luke A.; Whiting, Jonathan M.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-27

    To assist the University of Maine in demonstrating a clear pathway to project completion, PNNL has developed visualization models of the Aqua Ventus I project that accurately depict the Aqua Ventus I turbines from various points on Monhegain Island, ME and the surrounding area. With a hub height of 100 meters, the Aqua Ventus I turbines are large and may be seen from many areas on Monhegan Island, potentially disrupting important viewsheds. By developing these visualization models, which consist of actual photographs taken from Monhegan Island and the surrounding area with the Aqua Ventus I turbines superimposed within each photograph, PNNL intends to support the project’s siting and permitting process by providing the Monhegan Island community and various other stakeholders with a probable glimpse of how the Aqua Ventus I project will appear.

  18. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probe, John D.

    1990-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body, a wide variety of technologies was developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development coupled with recent advances in video technology have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System to develop data on shirt-sleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The system is described.

  19. Quantitative Brightness Analysis of Fluorescence Intensity Fluctuations in E. Coli

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Kwang-Ho; Mueller, Joachim D.

    2015-01-01

    The brightness measured by fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy specifies the average stoichiometry of a labeled protein in a sample. Here we extended brightness analysis, which has been mainly applied in eukaryotic cells, to prokaryotic cells with E. coli serving as a model system. The small size of the E. coli cell introduces unique challenges for applying brightness analysis that are addressed in this work. Photobleaching leads to a depletion of fluorophores and a reduction of the brightness of protein complexes. In addition, the E. coli cell and the point spread function of the instrument only partially overlap, which influences intensity fluctuations. To address these challenges we developed MSQ analysis, which is based on the mean Q-value of segmented photon count data, and combined it with the analysis of axial scans through the E. coli cell. The MSQ method recovers brightness, concentration, and diffusion time of soluble proteins in E. coli. We applied MSQ to measure the brightness of EGFP in E. coli and compared it to solution measurements. We further used MSQ analysis to determine the oligomeric state of nuclear transport factor 2 labeled with EGFP expressed in E. coli cells. The results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying the stoichiometry of proteins by brightness analysis in a prokaryotic cell. PMID:26099032

  20. [Quantitative spectrum analysis of characteristic gases of spontaneous combustion coal].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yun-Tao; Tang, Xiao-Jun; Luo, Hai-Zhu; Sun, Yong

    2011-09-01

    Aimed at the characteristics of spontaneous combustion gas such as a variety of gases, lou limit of detection, and critical requirement of safety, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis is presented to analyze characteristic gases of spontaneous combustion In this paper, analysis method is introduced at first by combing characteristics of absorption spectra of analyte and analysis requirement. Parameter setting method, sample preparation, feature variable abstract and analysis model building are taken into consideration. The methods of sample preparation, feature abstraction and analysis model are introduced in detail. And then, eleven kinds of gases were tested with Tensor 27 spectrometer. CH4, C2H6, C3H8, iC4H10, nC4H10, C2 H4, C3 H6, C3 H2, SF6, CO and CO2 were included. The optical path length was 10 cm while the spectra resolution was set as 1 cm(-1). The testing results show that the detection limit of all analytes is less than 2 x 10(-6). All the detection limits fit the measurement requirement of spontaneous combustion gas, which means that FTIR may be an ideal instrument and the analysis method used in this paper is competent for spontaneous combustion gas measurement on line. PMID:22097853

  1. Is the new AquaTrainer® snorkel valid for VO2 assessment in swimming?

    PubMed

    Baldari, C; Fernandes, R J; Meucci, M; Ribeiro, J; Vilas-Boas, J P; Guidetti, L

    2013-04-01

    The Cosmed AquaTrainer® snorkel, in connection with the K4b2 analyzer, is the most recent instrument used for real time gas analysis during swimming. This study aimed to test if a new AquaTrainer® snorkel with 2 (SV2) or 4 (SV4) valves is comparable to a standard face mask (Mask) being valid for real time gas analysis under controlled laboratory and swimming pool conditions. 9 swimmers performed 2 swimming and 3 cycling tests at 3 different workloads on separate days. Tests were performed in random order, at constant exercise load with direct turbine temperature measurements, breathing with Mask, SV4 and SV2 while cycling, and with SV2 and SV4 while swimming. A high agreement was obtained using Passing - Bablok regression analysis in oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, tidal volumes, pulmonary ventilation, expiratory fraction of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and heart rate comparing different conditions in swimming and cycling. Proportional and fixed differences were always rejected (95% CI always contained the value 1 for the slope and the 0 for the intercept). In conclusion, the new SV2 AquaTrainer® snorkel, can be considered a valid device for gas analysis, being comparable to the Mask and the SV4 in cycling, and to the SV4 in swimming. PMID:23041962

  2. Quantitative analysis of chaperone network throughput in budding yeast

    PubMed Central

    Brownridge, Philip; Lawless, Craig; Payapilly, Aishwarya B; Lanthaler, Karin; Holman, Stephen W; Harman, Victoria M; Grant, Christopher M; Beynon, Robert J; Hubbard, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The network of molecular chaperones mediates the folding and translocation of the many proteins encoded in the genome of eukaryotic organisms, as well as a response to stress. It has been particularly well characterised in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where 63 known chaperones have been annotated and recent affinity purification and MS/MS experiments have helped characterise the attendant network of chaperone targets to a high degree. In this study, we apply our QconCAT methodology to directly quantify the set of yeast chaperones in absolute terms (copies per cell) via SRM MS. Firstly, we compare these to existing quantitative estimates of these yeast proteins, highlighting differences between approaches. Secondly, we cast the results into the context of the chaperone target network and show a distinct relationship between abundance of individual chaperones and their targets. This allows us to characterise the ‘throughput’ of protein molecules passing through individual chaperones and their groups on a proteome-wide scale in an unstressed model eukaryote for the first time. The results demonstrate specialisations of the chaperone classes, which display different overall workloads, efficiencies and preference for the sub-cellular localisation of their targets. The novel integration of the interactome data with quantification supports re-estimates of the level of protein throughout going through molecular chaperones. Additionally, although chaperones target fewer than 40% of annotated proteins we show that they mediate the folding of the majority of protein molecules (?62% of the total protein flux in the cell), highlighting their importance. PMID:23420633

  3. Temporal Kinetics and Quantitative Analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans Nonlytic Exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stukes, Sabriya A.; Cohen, Hillel W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of cryptococcosis, a disease that is often fatal to those with compromised immune systems. C. neoformans has the capacity to escape phagocytic cells through a process known as nonlytic exocytosis whereby the cryptococcal cell is released from the macrophage into the extracellular environment, leaving both the host and pathogen alive. Little is known about the mechanism behind nonlytic exocytosis, but there is evidence that both the fungal and host cells contribute to the process. In this study, we used time-lapse movies of C. neoformans-infected macrophages to delineate the kinetics and quantitative aspects of nonlytic exocytosis. We analyzed approximately 800 macrophages containing intracellular C. neoformans and identified 163 nonlytic exocytosis events that were further characterized into three subcategories: type I (complete emptying of macrophage), type II (partial emptying of macrophage), and type III (cell-to-cell transfer). The majority of type I and II events occurred after several hours of intracellular residence, whereas type III events occurred significantly (P < 0.001) earlier in the course of macrophage infection. Our results show that nonlytic exocytosis is a morphologically and temporally diverse process that occurs relatively rapidly in the course of macrophage infection. PMID:24595144

  4. [Device for quantitative analysis of perception and pain sensation].

    PubMed

    Arita, Hideko; Kato, Jitsu; Ogawa, Setsuro; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    The article describes an analysing device that measures the perception and intensity of pain quantitatively. While it is not necessarily true that psychological aspect is totally irrelevant to pain measurement, this device is remarkable in that it is capable of measuring the intensity of pain felt by the patient more objectively by using electric stimuli. The feature of this device is that it uses a non-pain heteresthesia for measuring the intensity of pain. The device is compact, light-weight, and portable. Unlike VAS that requires only a scale, the device requires a person to carry out the measurement. Nevertheless, as the National Health Insurance (NHI) coverage has been approved, introduction of the device may be facilitated in terms of budget for the purchase and labor. The device is useful to better understand not only the intensity of pain but also the pathological conditions, resulting in more appropriate treatment, by (1) comparing degree of pain or VAS values taken by a multicenter study with those of a patient; (2) using both degree of pain and VAS; and (3) multiple measurements of degree of pain and VAS in one case. PMID:25098132

  5. Quantitative analysis of virus and plasmid trafficking in cells.

    PubMed

    Lagache, Thibault; Dauty, Emmanuel; Holcman, David

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport of DNA carriers is a fundamental step of gene delivery. By combining both theoretical and numerical approaches we study here single and several viruses and DNA particles trafficking in the cell cytoplasm to a small nuclear pore. We present a physical model to account for certain aspects of cellular organization, starting with the observation that a viral trajectory consists of epochs of pure diffusion and epochs of active transport along microtubules. We define a general degradation rate to describe the limitations of the delivery of plasmid or viral particles to a nuclear pore imposed by various types of direct and indirect hydrolysis activity inside the cytoplasm. By replacing the switching dynamics by a single steady state stochastic description, we obtain estimates for the probability and the mean time for the first one of many particles to go from the cell membrane to a small nuclear pore. Computational simulations confirm that our model can be used to analyze and interpret viral trajectories and estimate quantitatively the success of nuclear delivery. PMID:19257083

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Chromosome Condensation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Boryana; Dehler, Sascha; Kruitwagen, Tom; Hériché, Jean-Karim; Miura, Kota

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomes undergo extensive conformational rearrangements in preparation for their segregation during cell divisions. Insights into the molecular mechanisms behind this still poorly understood condensation process require the development of new approaches to quantitatively assess chromosome formation in vivo. In this study, we present a live-cell microscopy-based chromosome condensation assay in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. By automatically tracking the three-dimensional distance changes between fluorescently marked chromosome loci at high temporal and spatial resolution, we analyze chromosome condensation during mitosis and meiosis and deduct defined parameters to describe condensation dynamics. We demonstrate that this method can determine the contributions of condensin, topoisomerase II, and Aurora kinase to mitotic chromosome condensation. We furthermore show that the assay can identify proteins required for mitotic chromosome formation de novo by isolating mutants in condensin, DNA polymerase ?, and F-box DNA helicase I that are specifically defective in pro-/metaphase condensation. Thus, the chromosome condensation assay provides a direct and sensitive system for the discovery and characterization of components of the chromosome condensation machinery in a genetically tractable eukaryote. PMID:23263988

  7. Quantitative analysis of task selection for brain-computer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llera, Alberto; Gómez, Vicenç; Kappen, Hilbert J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. To assess quantitatively the impact of task selection in the performance of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). Approach. We consider the task-pairs derived from multi-class BCI imagery movement tasks in three different datasets. We analyze for the first time the benefits of task selection on a large-scale basis (109 users) and evaluate the possibility of transferring task-pair information across days for a given subject. Main results. Selecting the subject-dependent optimal task-pair among three different imagery movement tasks results in approximately 20% potential increase in the number of users that can be expected to control a binary BCI. The improvement is observed with respect to the best task-pair fixed across subjects. The best task-pair selected for each subject individually during a first day of recordings is generally a good task-pair in subsequent days. In general, task learning from the user side has a positive influence in the generalization of the optimal task-pair, but special attention should be given to inexperienced subjects. Significance. These results add significant evidence to existing literature that advocates task selection as a necessary step towards usable BCIs. This contribution motivates further research focused on deriving adaptive methods for task selection on larger sets of mental tasks in practical online scenarios.

  8. Quantitative genetic analysis of salicylic acid perception in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dobón, Albor; Canet, Juan Vicente; Perales, Lorena; Tornero, Pablo

    2011-10-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a phytohormone required for a full resistance against some pathogens in Arabidopsis, and NPR1 (Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis Related Genes 1) is the only gene with a strong effect on resistance induced by SA which has been described. There can be additional components of SA perception that escape the traditional approach of mutagenesis. An alternative to that approach is searching in the natural variation of Arabidopsis. Different methods of analyzing the variation between ecotypes have been tried and it has been found that measuring the growth of a virulent isolate of Pseudomonas syringae after the exogenous application of SA is the most effective one. Two ecotypes, Edi-0 and Stw-0, have been crossed, and their F2 has been studied. There are two significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in this population, and there is one QTL in each one of the existing mapping populations Col-4 × Laer-0 and Laer-0 × No-0. They have different characteristics: while one QTL is only detectable at low concentrations of SA, the other acts after the point of crosstalk with methyl jasmonate signalling. Three of the QTLs have candidates described in SA perception as NPR1, its interactors, and a calmodulin binding protein. PMID:21614499

  9. Quantitative analysis of virus and plasmid trafficking in cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagache, Thibault; Dauty, Emmanuel; Holcman, David

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport of DNA carriers is a fundamental step of gene delivery. By combining both theoretical and numerical approaches we study here single and several viruses and DNA particles trafficking in the cell cytoplasm to a small nuclear pore. We present a physical model to account for certain aspects of cellular organization, starting with the observation that a viral trajectory consists of epochs of pure diffusion and epochs of active transport along microtubules. We define a general degradation rate to describe the limitations of the delivery of plasmid or viral particles to a nuclear pore imposed by various types of direct and indirect hydrolysis activity inside the cytoplasm. By replacing the switching dynamics by a single steady state stochastic description, we obtain estimates for the probability and the mean time for the first one of many particles to go from the cell membrane to a small nuclear pore. Computational simulations confirm that our model can be used to analyze and interpret viral trajectories and estimate quantitatively the success of nuclear delivery.

  10. Quantitative analysis of pheromone-binding protein specificity

    PubMed Central

    Katti, S.; Lokhande, N.; González, D.; Cassill, A.; Renthal, R.

    2012-01-01

    Many pheromones have very low water solubility, posing experimental difficulties for quantitative binding measurements. A new method is presented for determining thermodynamically valid dissociation constants for ligands binding to pheromone-binding proteins (OBPs), using ?-cyclodextrin as a solubilizer and transfer agent. The method is applied to LUSH, a Drosophila OBP that binds the pheromone 11-cis vaccenyl acetate (cVA). Refolding of LUSH expressed in E. coli was assessed by measuring N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) binding and Förster resonance energy transfer between LUSH tryptophan 123 (W123) and NPN. Binding of cVA was measured from quenching of W123 fluorescence as a function of cVA concentration. The equilibrium constant for transfer of cVA between ?-cyclodextrin and LUSH was determined from a linked equilibria model. This constant, multiplied by the ?-cyclodextrin-cVA dissociation constant, gives the LUSH-cVA dissociation constant: ~100 nM. It was also found that other ligands quench W123 fluorescence. The LUSH-ligand dissociation constants were determined to be ~200 nM for the silk moth pheromone bombykol and ~90 nM for methyl oleate. The results indicate that the ligand-binding cavity of LUSH can accommodate a variety ligands with strong binding interactions. Implications of this for the pheromone receptor model proposed by Laughlin et al. (Cell 133: 1255–65, 2008) are discussed. PMID:23121132

  11. Global kinetic analysis of proteolysis via quantitative targeted proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Agard, Nicholas J.; Mahrus, Sami; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Lynn, Aenoch; Burlingame, Alma L.; Wells, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool for identifying hundreds to thousands of posttranslational modifications in complex mixtures. However, it remains enormously challenging to simultaneously assess the intrinsic catalytic efficiencies (kcat/KM) of these modifications in the context of their natural interactors. Such fundamental enzymological constants are key to determining substrate specificity and for establishing the timing and importance of cellular signaling. Here, we report the use of selected reaction monitoring (SRM) for tracking proteolysis induced by human apoptotic caspases-3, -7, -8, and -9 in lysates and living cells. By following the appearance of the cleaved peptides in lysate as a function of time, we were able to determine hundreds of catalytic efficiencies in parallel. Remarkably, we find the rates of substrate hydrolysis for individual caspases vary greater than 500-fold indicating a sequential process. Moreover, the rank-order of substrate cutting is similar in apoptotic cells, suggesting that cellular structures do not dramatically alter substrate accessibility. Comparisons of extrinsic (TRAIL) and intrinsic (staurosporine) inducers of apoptosis revealed similar substrate profiles, suggesting the final proteolytic demolitions proceed by similarly ordered plans. Certain biological processes were rapidly targeted by the caspases, including multiple components of the endocyotic pathway and miRNA processing machinery. We believe this massively parallel and quantitative label-free approach to obtaining basic enzymological constants will facilitate the study of proteolysis and other posttranslational modifications in complex mixtures. PMID:22308409

  12. Quantitative proteomic analysis of amphotericin B resistance in Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Brotherton, Marie-Christine; Bourassa, Sylvie; Légaré, Danielle; Poirier, Guy G.; Droit, Arnaud; Ouellette, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) in its liposomal form is now considered as either first- or second-line treatment against Leishmania infections in different part of the world. Few cases of AmB resistance have been reported and resistance mechanisms toward AmB are still poorly understood. This paper reports a large-scale comparative proteomic study in the context of AmB resistance. Quantitative proteomics using stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) was used to better characterize cytoplasmic and membrane-enriched (ME) proteomes of the in vitro generated Leishmania infantum AmB resistant mutant AmB1000.1. In total, 97 individual proteins were found as differentially expressed between the mutant and its parental sensitive strain (WT). More than half of these proteins were either metabolic enzymes or involved in transcription or translation processes. Key energetic pathways such as glycolysis and TCA cycle were up-regulated in the mutant. Interestingly, many proteins involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and heat-shock proteins were also up-regulated in the resistant mutant. This work provides a basis for further investigations to understand the roles of proteins differentially expressed in relation with AmB resistance. PMID:25057462

  13. Aqua-Sim: An NS-2 Based Simulator for Underwater Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Shi, Zhijie Jerry

    1 Aqua-Sim: An NS-2 Based Simulator for Underwater Sensor Networks Peng Xie, Zhong Zhou, Zheng Peng, Aqua-Sim, for underwater sensor networks. Aqua-Sim is based on NS-2, one of the most widely used Aqua-Sim, for under- water sensor networks. We choose NS-2 as the development platform since NS-2

  14. Restoration of Aqua MODIS Band 6 Using Histogram Matching and Local Least Squares Fitting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preesan Rakwatin; Wataru Takeuchi; Yoshifumi Yasuoka

    2009-01-01

    The MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) aboard Terra and Aqua platforms is performing well overall, except for Aqua MODIS band 6. Fifteen of the 20 detectors in Aqua MODIS band 6 are nonfunctional or noisy. Without correction, it will cause problems in the higher MODIS products. This paper develops a restoration algorithm to restore the missing data of Aqua MODIS

  15. The Quantitative Analysis of an Analgesic Tablet: An NMR Experiment for the Instrumental Analysis Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmedake, Thomas A.; Welch, Lawrence E.

    1996-11-01

    A quantitative analysis experiment is outlined that uses 13C NMR. Initial work utilizes a known compound (acenapthene) to assess the type of NMR experiment necessary to achieve a proportional response from all of the carbons in the compound. Both gated decoupling and inverse gated decoupling routines with a variety of delay times are inspected, in addition to investigation of paramagnetic additives in conjunction with inverse gated decoupling. Once the experiments with the known compound have illuminated the merits of the differing strategies for obtaining a proportional carbon response, a quantitative assessment of an unknown analgesic tablet is undertaken. The amounts of the two major components of the tablet, acetaminophen and aspirin, are determined following addition of an internal standard to the mixture. The carbon resonances emanating from each compound can be identified using spectra of the pure analgesic components and internal standard. Knowing the concentration of the internal standard and assuming a proportional response to all carbons in the sample allows calculation of the amount of both analytes in the analgesic tablets. Data from an initial laboratory trial is presented that illustrates the accuracy of the procedure.

  16. Quantitative assessment of human motion using video motion analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probe, John D.

    1993-01-01

    In the study of the dynamics and kinematics of the human body a wide variety of technologies has been developed. Photogrammetric techniques are well documented and are known to provide reliable positional data from recorded images. Often these techniques are used in conjunction with cinematography and videography for analysis of planar motion, and to a lesser degree three-dimensional motion. Cinematography has been the most widely used medium for movement analysis. Excessive operating costs and the lag time required for film development, coupled with recent advances in video technology, have allowed video based motion analysis systems to emerge as a cost effective method of collecting and analyzing human movement. The Anthropometric and Biomechanics Lab at Johnson Space Center utilizes the video based Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS) to develop data on shirtsleeved and space-suited human performance in order to plan efficient on-orbit intravehicular and extravehicular activities. APAS is a fully integrated system of hardware and software for biomechanics and the analysis of human performance and generalized motion measurement. Major components of the complete system include the video system, the AT compatible computer, and the proprietary software.

  17. The electrophoretic characterization of ribosomes from the blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Carlton; Diane S. Herson

    1972-01-01

    0946 091.Ribosomes of the blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae, were isolated using a rapid lysis method and by grinding with alumina.2.Analysis of ribosomes obtained by rapid lysis on sucrose gradients and electrophoretic gels indicated the presence of 30S, 50S, 70S, and 100S sibosomes as well as polysomes.3.Dissociation of algal 70S and 100S ribosomes into their 30S and 50S subunits was demonstrated

  18. Dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis for quantitative microcirculation research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Xiaoyou; Xiu, Rui-juan

    1994-05-01

    Based on analyses of various types of digital microcirculatory image (DMCI), we summed up the image features of DMCI, the digitizing demands for digital microcirculatory imaging, and the basic characteristics of the DMCI processing. A dynamic and still imaging separation processing (DSISP) mode was designed for developing a DMCI workstation and the DMCI processing. Original images in this study were clinical microcirculatory images from human finger nail-bed and conjunctiva microvasculature, and intravital microvascular network images from animal tissue or organs. A series of dynamic and still microcirculatory image analysis functions were developed in this study. The experimental results indicate most of the established analog video image analysis methods for microcirculatory measurement could be realized in a more flexible way based on the DMCI. More information can be rapidly extracted from the quality improved DMCI by employing intelligence digital image analysis methods. The DSISP mode is very suitable for building a DMCI workstation.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Shoot Development and Branching Patterns in Actinidia

    PubMed Central

    SELEZNYOVA, ALLA N.; THORP, T. GRANT; BARNETT, ANDREW M.; COSTES, EVELYNE

    2002-01-01

    We developed a framework for the quantitative description of Actinidia vine architecture, classifying shoots into three types (short, medium and long) corresponding to the modes of node number distribution and the presence/absence of neoformed nodes. Short and medium shoots were self?terminated and had only preformed nodes. Based on the cut?off point between their two modes of node number distribution, short shoots were defined as having nine or less nodes, and medium shoots as having more than nine nodes. Long shoots were non?terminated and had a number of neoformed nodes; the total number of nodes per shoot was up to 90. Branching patterns for each parent shoot type were represented by a succession of branching zones. Probabilities of different types of axillary production (latent bud, short, medium or long shoot) and the distributions of length for each branching zone were estimated from experimental data using hidden semi?Markov chain stochastic models. Branching was acrotonic on short and medium parent shoots, with most axillary shoots being located near the shoot tip. For long parent shoots, branching was mesotonic, with most long axillary shoots being located in the transition zone between the preformed and neoformed part of the parent shoot. Although the shoot classification is based on node number distribution there was a marked difference in average (per shoot) internode length between the shoot types, with mean values of 9, 27 and 47 mm for short, medium and long shoots, respectively. Bud and shoot development is discussed in terms of environmental controls. PMID:12096808

  20. Quantitative analysis of nailfold capillary morphology in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dug-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Nailfold capillaroscopy (NFC) has been used to examine morphological and functional microcirculation changes in connective tissue diseases. It has been demonstrated that NFC patterns reflect abnormal microvascular dynamics, which may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine NFC patterns in FM, and their association with clinical features of FM. Methods A total of 67 patients with FM, and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were included. Nailfold capillary patterns were quantitatively analyzed using computerized NFC. The parameters of interest were as follows: number of capillaries within the central 3 mm, deletion score, apical limb width, capillary width, and capillary dimension. Capillary dimension was determined by calculating the number of capillaries using the Adobe Photoshop version 7.0. Results FM patients had a lower number of capillaries and higher deletion scores on NFC compared to healthy controls (17.3 ± 1.7 vs. 21.8 ± 2.9, p < 0.05; 2.2 ± 0.9 vs. 0.7 ± 0.6, p < 0.05, respectively). Both apical limb width (µm) and capillary width (µm) were significantly decreased in FM patients (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 3.7 ± 0.6; 5.4 ± 0.5 vs. 7.5 ± 1.4, respectively), indicating that FM patients have abnormally decreased digital capillary diameter and density. Interestingly, there was no difference in capillary dimension between the two groups, suggesting that the length or tortuosity of capillaries in FM patients is increased to compensate for diminished microcirculation. Conclusions FM patients had altered capillary density and diameter in the digits. Diminished microcirculation on NFC may alter capillary density and increase tortuosity.

  1. Reflectance spectroscopy: quantitative analysis techniques for remote sensing applications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, R.N.; Roush, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented.-from Authors

  2. Reflectance Spectroscopy: Quantitative Analysis Techniques for Remote Sensing Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger N. Clark; Ted L. Roush

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for the analysis of remotely sensed reflectance data are compared, including empirical methods and scattering theories, both of which are important for solving remote sensing problems. The concept of the photon mean optical path length and the implications for use in modeling reflectance spectra are presented. It is shown that the mean optical path length in a particulate

  3. Quantitative analysis on stability for deep foundation pit support structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyang Yuan; Dajun Zhao

    2011-01-01

    The size of the reliability index can reflect the stability of excavation. This paper analyzes the engineering structure that is derived the reliability index, and the engineering model of structural reliability methods. The different types of supporting structure are taken into account, including the additional load, earth pressure, a variety of loads, the analysis of the main failure mode of

  4. Trace Environmental Quantitative Analysis: Principles, Techniques and Applications, 2nd

    E-print Network

    Zubarev, Eugene

    liked the addition of specific laboratory experiments in Part 5. Such material would be a valuable-based chemical sensing techniques that are vital in modern trace environmental analysis. Such tech- niques provide the high temporal and spatial resolution data needed to study environmental system dynamics. I

  5. Quantitative analysis of sea ice remote sensing imagery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Korsnes

    1993-01-01

    Abstract. Mathematical morphology seems to provide a consistent framework for an automatic analysis and description of sea ice geometry that is accessible from remote sensing imagery. This paper reviews basic concepts of the actual theory used and illustrates it by several examples based on a digitized video image, a digitized aerial photograph and a SPOT image. By means of morphological

  6. Microarrays for quantitative analysis of sequence copy numbers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe R. Müller

    2001-01-01

    The recent introduction of microarrays represents a significant leap forward in the analysis of biologic specimens. Through multiplexing and miniaturization they afford the possibility of working with very small amounts of precious sample or costly reagents, increase the potential for multiplexing by at least 2 logs and lend themselves to full automation through combination with microfluidics. For cytogenetic applications the

  7. Carbon nanotube probe resolution: a quantitative analysis using Fourier Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Gutiérrez; D. Nakabayashi; P. C. Silva; J. R. R. Bortoleto; V. Rodrigues; J. H. Clerici; M. A. Cotta; D. Ugarte

    2004-01-01

    A method to quantify the resolution of atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes using Fourier analysis of the AFM images is proposed. The maximum detectable spatial frequency obtained from the power spectrum was used to estimate the lateral resolution. Carbon nanotube tips were successfully used to study very dense arrays of semiconductor nanostructures. In particular, accurate measurements of shallow facet angles

  8. Procedures for Quantitative Analysis of Change Facilitator Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Shirley M.; Hall, Gene E.

    The procedures and coding schema that have been developed by the Research on the Improvement Process (RIP) Program for analyzing the frequency of interventions and for examining their internal characteristics are described. In two in-depth ethnographic studies of implementation efforts, interventions were the focus of data collection and analysis.…

  9. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Creelman; Colin R. Ward

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out on a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscope. The image analysis system (QEM ? SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the

  10. Development of a method for automated quantitative analysis of ores using LIBS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rosenwasser; G Asimellis; B Bromley; R Hazlett; J Martin; T Pearce; A Zigler

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for real-time automated quantitative analysis of mineral ores using a commercial laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument, TRACER™ 2100, fitted with a recently developed computer controlled auto-sampler. The auto-sampler permits the execution of methods for performing calibrations and analysis of multiple elements on multiple samples. Furthermore, the analysis is averaged over multiple locations on

  11. Quantitative analysis of night skyglow amplification under cloudy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Solano Lamphar, Héctor Antonio

    2014-10-01

    The radiance produced by artificial light is a major source of nighttime over-illumination. It can, however, be treated experimentally using ground-based and satellite data. These two types of data complement each other and together have a high information content. For instance, the satellite data enable upward light emissions to be normalized, and this in turn allows skyglow levels at the ground to be modelled under cloudy or overcast conditions. Excessive night lighting imposes an unacceptable burden on nature, humans and professional astronomy. For this reason, there is a pressing need to determine the total amount of downwelling diffuse radiation. Undoubtedly, cloudy periods can cause a significant increase in skyglow as a result of amplification owing to diffuse reflection from clouds. While it is recognized that the amplification factor (AF) varies with cloud cover, the effects of different types of clouds, of atmospheric turbidity and of the geometrical relationships between the positions of an individual observer, the cloud layer, and the light source are in general poorly known. In this paper the AF is quantitatively analysed considering different aerosol optical depths (AODs), urban layout sizes and cloud types with specific albedos and altitudes. The computational results show that the AF peaks near the edges of a city rather than at its centre. In addition, the AF appears to be a decreasing function of AOD, which is particularly important when modelling the skyglow in regions with apparent temporal or seasonal variability of atmospheric turbidity. The findings in this paper will be useful to those designing engineering applications or modelling light pollution, as well as to astronomers and environmental scientists who aim to predict the amplification of skyglow caused by clouds. In addition, the semi-analytical formulae can be used to estimate the AF levels, especially in densely populated metropolitan regions for which detailed computations may be CPU-intensive. These new results are of theoretical and experimental significance as they will motivate experimentalists to collect data from various regions to build an overall picture of the AF, and will encourage modellers to test the consistency with theoretical predictions.

  12. Integrated quantitative fractal polarimetric analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Suman; Zhang, Lin; Quang, Tri; Farrahi, Tannaz; Narayan, Chaya; Deshpande, Aditi; Na, Ying; Blinzler, Adam; Ma, Junyu; Liu, Bo; Giakos, George C.

    2014-05-01

    Digital diagnostic pathology has become one of the most valuable and convenient advancements in technology over the past years. It allows us to acquire, store and analyze pathological information from the images of histological and immunohistochemical glass slides which are scanned to create digital slides. In this study, efficient fractal, wavelet-based polarimetric techniques for histological analysis of monolayer lung cancer cells will be introduced and different monolayer cancer lines will be studied. The outcome of this study indicates that application of fractal, wavelet polarimetric principles towards the analysis of squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma cancer cell lines may be proved extremely useful in discriminating among healthy and lung cancer cells as well as differentiating among different lung cancer cells.

  13. Functionally oriented and clinically feasible quantitative gait analysis method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Frigo; M. Rabuffetti; D. C. Kerrigan; L. C. Deming; A. Pedotti

    1998-01-01

    A protocol for clinical gait analysis is described, and data from 30 normal adult female subjects are presented. Extensive\\u000a application to pathologic subjects has proven to be feasible and sufficiently accurate. The method is based on a particular\\u000a location and attachment of retro-reflective markers on the body and on a particular arrangement of four TV cameras. A motion\\u000a analyser measures

  14. Synthetic microvascular networks for quantitative analysis of particle adhesion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian; Kapil Pant; Robert C. Scott; Christopher B. Patillo; Daniel Irimia; Mohammad F. Kiani; Shivshankar Sundaram

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a methodology to study particle adhesion in the microvascular environment using microfluidic, image-derived\\u000a microvascular networks on a chip accompanied by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of fluid flow and particle adhesion.\\u000a Microfluidic networks, obtained from digitization of in vivo microvascular topology were prototyped using soft-lithography techniques to obtain semicircular cross sectional microvascular\\u000a networks in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Dye

  15. Quantitative analysis of PMLA nanoconjugate components after backbone cleavage.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Patil, Rameshwar; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Black, Keith L; Ljubimova, Julia Y; Holler, Eggehard

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional polymer nanoconjugates containing multiple components show great promise in cancer therapy, but in most cases complete analysis of each component is difficult. Polymalic acid (PMLA) based nanoconjugates have demonstrated successful brain and breast cancer treatment. They consist of multiple components including targeting antibodies, Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), and endosome escape moieties. The component analysis of PMLA nanoconjugates is extremely difficult using conventional spectrometry and HPLC method. Taking advantage of the nature of polyester of PMLA, which can be cleaved by ammonium hydroxide, we describe a method to analyze the content of antibody and AON within nanoconjugates simultaneously using SEC-HPLC by selectively cleaving the PMLA backbone. The selected cleavage conditions only degrade PMLA without affecting the integrity and biological activity of the antibody. Although the amount of antibody could also be determined using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, our selective cleavage method gives more reliable results and is more powerful. Our approach provides a new direction for the component analysis of polymer nanoconjugates and nanoparticles. PMID:25894227

  16. Quantitative Analysis of PMLA Nanoconjugate Components after Backbone Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hui; Patil, Rameshwar; Portilla-Arias, Jose; Black, Keith L.; Ljubimova, Julia Y.; Holler, Eggehard

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional polymer nanoconjugates containing multiple components show great promise in cancer therapy, but in most cases complete analysis of each component is difficult. Polymalic acid (PMLA) based nanoconjugates have demonstrated successful brain and breast cancer treatment. They consist of multiple components including targeting antibodies, Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (AONs), and endosome escape moieties. The component analysis of PMLA nanoconjugates is extremely difficult using conventional spectrometry and HPLC method. Taking advantage of the nature of polyester of PMLA, which can be cleaved by ammonium hydroxide, we describe a method to analyze the content of antibody and AON within nanoconjugates simultaneously using SEC-HPLC by selectively cleaving the PMLA backbone. The selected cleavage conditions only degrade PMLA without affecting the integrity and biological activity of the antibody. Although the amount of antibody could also be determined using the bicinchoninic acid (BCA) method, our selective cleavage method gives more reliable results and is more powerful. Our approach provides a new direction for the component analysis of polymer nanoconjugates and nanoparticles. PMID:25894227

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Calcium Spikes in Noisy Fluorescent Background

    PubMed Central

    Janicek, Radoslav; Hotka, Matej; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Zahradníková, Alexandra; Zahradník, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular calcium signals are studied by laser-scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. The required spatio-temporal resolution makes description of calcium signals difficult because of the low signal-to-noise ratio. We designed a new procedure of calcium spike analysis based on their fitting with a model. The accuracy and precision of calcium spike description were tested on synthetic datasets generated either with randomly varied spike parameters and Gaussian noise of constant amplitude, or with constant spike parameters and Gaussian noise of various amplitudes. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the performance of spike fitting algorithms. The procedure was optimized for reliable estimation of calcium spike parameters and for dismissal of false events. A new algorithm was introduced that corrects the acquisition time of pixels in line-scan images that is in error due to sequential acquisition of individual pixels along the space coordinate. New software was developed in Matlab and provided for general use. It allows interactive dissection of temporal profiles of calcium spikes from x-t images, their fitting with predefined function(s) and acceptance of results on statistical grounds, thus allowing efficient analysis and reliable description of calcium signaling in cardiac myocytes down to the in situ function of ryanodine receptors. PMID:23741324

  18. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pei, X-Q; Liu, L-Z; Xiong, Y-H; Zou, R-H; Chen, M-S; Cai, M-Y

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the potential of quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: 34 cases of FNH and 66 cases of HCC (all lesions <5?cm) were studied using CEUS to evaluate enhancement patterns and using analytic software Sonoliver® (Image-Arena™ v.4.0, TomTec Imaging Systems, Munich, Germany) to obtain quantitative features of CEUS in the region of interest. The quantitative features of maximum of intensity (IMAX), rise slope (RS), rise time (RT) and time to peak (TTP) were compared between the two groups and applied to further characterise both FNH and HCC with hypoenhancing patterns in the late phase on CEUS. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of CEUS for diagnosis of FNH were 67.6% and 93.9%, respectively. For quantitative analysis, IMAX and RS in FNHs were significantly higher than those in HCCs (p<0.05), while RT and TTP in FNHs were significantly shorter (p<0.05). Both the 11 FNHs and 62 HCCs with hypo-enhancing patterns in the late phase were further characterised with their quantitative features, and the sensitivity and specificity of IMAX for diagnosis of FNH were 90.9% and 43.5%, RS 81.8% and 80.6%, RT 90.9% and 71.0%, and TTP 90.9% and 71.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The quantitative features of CEUS in FNH and HCC were significantly different, and they could further differentiate FNH from HCC following conventional CEUS. Advances in knowledge: Our findings suggest that quantitative analysis of CEUS can improve the accuracy of differentiating FNH from HCC. PMID:23392189

  19. Quantitative analysis of laryngeal mechanosensitivity in the cat and rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, P J; Nail, B S

    1987-01-01

    1. Single afferent fibres in the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve which responded to light touch or gentle probing of discrete areas of the exposed epithelium of the opened larynx were identified in anaesthetized, paralysed cats (148 fibres) and rabbits (58 fibres). 2. A quantitative examination of the sensitivity of these laryngeal mechanoreceptors to both static (step indentations) and dynamic (vibratory) forms of mechanical stimulation was undertaken using a servo-controlled mechanical stimulator. 3. In both species two predominant classes of mechanoreceptors were observed (Boushey, Richardson, Widdicombe & Wise, 1974). One class was distinguished by a regular and continuous pattern of activity at a frequency of 10-70 Hz (tonic fibres, sixty-six in cat, thirty-five in rabbit). The other class was silent or (more rarely) irregularly active at a very low frequency (silent fibres, eighty-two in cat, twenty-three in rabbit). 4. The location of the receptive fields was determined by manual probing. Inter-species and regional variations in receptive field location were observed for the two fibre groups. 5. Conduction velocity was measured for twenty-one tonic and seven silent fibres in the rabbit by a pre-triggered averaging technique. The results obtained (tonic: range 10.8-30.0, mean +/- S.E. of mean 21.4 +/- 1.2 m/s; silent: 14.8-28.6, 20.4 +/- 1.8 m/s) were characteristic of group III afferent fibres but were not significantly different for the two classes. 6. Both classes of receptor showed a response at the onset of a step indentation of the region of the mucosa that corresponded to their receptive field. Subsequent to this brief initial response the behaviour of the two classes diverged markedly. Tonic fibres were invariably slowly adapting whereas most (forty-four out of fifty-five in cat; twenty-two out of twenty-three in rabbit) silent fibres were rapidly adapting, at least for smaller indentation amplitudes. 7. Receptors of both classes were readily entrained to discharge at the same frequency as the probe stimulator (1:1 entrainment) when this was made to vibrate upon the receptive area for test periods of 0.5 or 1.0 s. Tuning curves were constructed of the minimum amplitudes required to elicit 1:1 entrainment throughout an entire test period at various frequencies. 8. Individual fibres in the two classes could be entrained at frequencies up to 400 Hz or more at sensitive (e.g. less than 100 microns) vibratory amplitudes. However, all fibres were less sensitive at these higher frequencies than at some lower point on the frequency scale.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3656197

  20. Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Marr, M. Jackson

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences—physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the dynamics of behavior. Behavioral momentum and maximization have received mathematical formulations in behavior analysis. Yet to be worked out are the relations between molar and molecular formulations of behavioral theory. PMID:22478028

  1. Some remarks on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    PubMed

    Marr, M J

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses similarities between the mathematization of operant behavior and the early history of the most mathematical of sciences-physics. Galileo explored the properties of motion without dealing with the causes of motion, focusing on changes in motion. Newton's dynamics were concerned with the action of forces as causes of change. Skinner's rationale for using rate to describe behavior derived from an interest in changes in rate. Reinforcement has played the role of force in the dynamics of behavior. Behavioral momentum and maximization have received mathematical formulations in behavior analysis. Yet to be worked out are the relations between molar and molecular formulations of behavioral theory. PMID:22478028

  2. Subspace techniques to remove artifacts from EEG: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A R; Tome, A M; Lang, E W; Martins da Silva, A

    2008-01-01

    In this work we discuss and apply projective subspace techniques to both multichannel as well as single channel recordings. The single-channel approach is based on singular spectrum analysis(SSA) and the multichannel approach uses the extended infomax algorithm which is implemented in the opensource toolbox EEGLAB. Both approaches will be evaluated using artificial mixtures of a set of selected EEG signals. The latter were selected visually to contain as the dominant activity one of the characteristic bands of an electroencephalogram (EEG). The evaluation is performed both in the time and frequency domain by using correlation coefficients and coherence function, respectively. PMID:19163688

  3. Quantitative high-resolution melting analysis for detecting adulterations.

    PubMed

    Mader, Eduard; Ruzicka, Joana; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2011-02-01

    Admixtures of different plant species are a common problem in raw materials for medicinal use. Two exemplary assays were developed to admixtures in Helleborus niger with high-resolution melting analysis. HRM proved to be a very sensitive tool in detecting admixtures, able to detect a ratio of 1:1000 with unknown species, and of 1:200,000 with Veratrum nigrum. The example proves the ability of HRM for quantification in multiplex PCR. The method is not limited to detecting adulterations. It can also be used to quantify a specific target by integrating a second amplicon in the assay as internal standard. PMID:20946863

  4. A quantitative analysis of baroclinic instability in extratropical cyclogenesis 

    E-print Network

    Gold, David Arthur

    1996-01-01

    TENDENCY ACRONYMS . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 11 DATA AND METHODOLOGY. 1. Data set. 2. Definition of basic state 3. PV inversion. . 4. PV doing. . 5. Nomenclature. 111 ANALYSIS OF CYCLOGENESIS EVENTS . . . . . 1. The cyclone of December 20-23, 1993... V11 LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1 3 10 Observed heights &? (m) at (a) 925 mb; (b) as in (a) @I but at 300 mb; (c) filtered small-scale heights?& at 925 mb; (d) as in (c) but at 300 mb. . Observed, total balanced, and perturbation balanced...

  5. Software packages for quantitative microarray-based gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dresen, I M Gana; Hüsing, J; Kruse, E; Boes, T; Jöckel, K-H

    2003-12-01

    Microarray technology enables researchers to investigate the expression of several thousand genes simultaneously. The whole transcriptional response of these genes in normal cells or tissue, in disease condition, as an response to biological, genetical or chemical stimuli or during normal biological processes such as cell cycle or embryonic development can be investigated. This leads to a huge amount of data, from which the relevant information has to be extracted by statistical and computational methods. Several software packages for the analysis of gene expression data are available, both commercially and freely. They differ particularly with regard to the implemented analytical methods, the graphical display and the manageability. In this paper the commercial software packages arraySCOUT, GeneSpring and Spotfire DecisionSite for Functional Genomics are compared and their applicability for analysis of gene expression data is studied. Small artificial and application test datasets are used to compare the computational results of the software packages. As far as possible results are verified with standard statistical software package SAS. PMID:14683435

  6. Analysis of 129I in Groundwater Samples: Direct and Quantitative Results below the Drinking Water Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2007-03-03

    Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years) and relatively unencumbered migration in subsurface environments, 129I has been recognized as a contaminant of concern at numerous federal, private, and international facilities. In order to understand the long-term risk associated with 129I at these locations, quantitative analysis of groundwater samples must be performed. However, the ability to quantitatively assess the 129I content in groundwater samples requires specialized extraction and sophisticated analytical techniques, which are complicated and not always available to the general scientific community. This paper highlights an analytical method capable of directly quantifying 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the MCL without the need for sample pre-concentration. Samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer ELAN DRC II ICP-MS after minimal dilution using O2 as the reaction gas. Analysis of continuing calibration verification standards indicated that the DRC mode could be used for quantitative analysis of 129I in samples below the drinking water standard (0.0057 ng/ml or 1 pCi/L). The low analytical detection limit of 129I analysis in the DRC mode coupled with minimal sample dilution (1.02x) resulted in a final sample limit of quantification of 0.0051 ng/ml. Subsequent analysis of three groundwater samples containing 129I resulted in fully quantitative results in the DRC mode, and spike recovery analyses performed on all three samples confirmed that the groundwater matrix did not adversely impact the analysis of 129I in the DRC mode. This analytical approach has been proven to be a cost-effective, high-throughput technique for the direct, quantitative analysis of 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the current MCL.

  7. Possibility of quantitative estimation of blood cell forms by the spatial-frequency spectrum analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, Igor N.; Safonova, Larisa P.; Samorodov, Andrey V.

    2000-05-01

    At present in hematology there are no quantitative estimates of such important for the cell classification parameters: cell form and nuclear form. Due to the absence of the correlation between morphological parameters and parameters measured by hemoanalyzers, both flow cytometers and computer recognition systems, do not provide the completeness of the clinical blood analysis. Analysis of the spatial-frequency spectra of blood samples (smears and liquid probes) permit the estimate the forms quantitatively. On the results of theoretical and experimental researches carried out an algorithm of the form quantitative estimation by means of SFS parameters has been created. The criteria of the quality of these estimates have been proposed. A test bench based on the coherent optical and digital processors. The received results could be applied for the automated classification of ether normal or pathological blood cells in the standard blood smears.

  8. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    PubMed

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites. PMID:11261603

  9. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions.

    PubMed

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed-or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology-to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. PMID:24999044

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Bloggers Collective Behavior Powered by Emotions

    E-print Network

    Mitrovi?, Marija; Tadi?, Bosiljka

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study emergence of the emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite network of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion-classifier developed for this type of texts. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and tempo...

  11. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions

    PubMed Central

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed—or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology—to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification. PMID:24999044

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Spectral Impacts on Silicon Photodiode Radiometers: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D. R.

    2011-04-01

    Inexpensive broadband pyranometers with silicon photodiode detectors have a non-uniform spectral response over the spectral range of 300-1100 nm. The response region includes only about 70% to 75% of the total energy in the terrestrial solar spectral distribution from 300 nm to 4000 nm. The solar spectrum constantly changes with solar position and atmospheric conditions. Relative spectral distributions of diffuse hemispherical irradiance sky radiation and total global hemispherical irradiance are drastically different. This analysis convolves a typical photodiode response with SMARTS 2.9.5 spectral model spectra for different sites and atmospheric conditions. Differences in solar component spectra lead to differences on the order of 2% in global hemispherical and 5% or more in diffuse hemispherical irradiances from silicon radiometers. The result is that errors of more than 7% can occur in the computation of direct normal irradiance from global hemispherical irradiance and diffuse hemispherical irradiance using these radiometers.

  13. Quantitative Analysis of Genealogy Using Digitised Family Trees

    E-print Network

    Fire, Micheal; Elovici, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the popularity of television shows such as Who Do You Think You Are? many millions of users have uploaded their family tree to web projects such as WikiTree. Analysis of this corpus enables us to investigate genealogy computationally. The study of heritage in the social sciences has led to an increased understanding of ancestry and descent but such efforts are hampered by difficult to access data. Genealogical research is typically a tedious process involving trawling through sources such as birth and death certificates, wills, letters and land deeds. Decades of research have developed and examined hypotheses on population sex ratios, marriage trends, fertility, lifespan, and the frequency of twins and triplets. These can now be tested on vast datasets containing many billions of entries using machine learning tools. Here we survey the use of genealogy data mining using family trees dating back centuries and featuring profiles on nearly 7 million individuals based in over 160 countries. These data a...

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Single Particle Trajectories: Mean Maximal Excursion Method

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Vincent; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Jungmann, Ralf; Simmel, Friedrich; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Oddershede, Lene B.; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of experimental studies employ single particle tracking to probe the physical environment in complex systems. We here propose and discuss what we believe are new methods to analyze the time series of the particle traces, in particular, for subdiffusion phenomena. We discuss the statistical properties of mean maximal excursions (MMEs), i.e., the maximal distance covered by a test particle up to time t. Compared to traditional methods focusing on the mean-squared displacement we show that the MME analysis performs better in the determination of the anomalous diffusion exponent. We also demonstrate that combination of regular moments with moments of the MME method provides additional criteria to determine the exact physical nature of the underlying stochastic subdiffusion processes. We put the methods to test using experimental data as well as simulated time series from different models for normal and anomalous dynamics such as diffusion on fractals, continuous time random walks, and fractional Brownian motion. PMID:20371337

  15. Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Itskov, Pavel M.; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H.; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake. PMID:25087594

  16. Quantitative Analysis with Heavy Ion E-TOF ERD

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, J.C.; Doyle, B.L.; Font, A. Climent

    1999-07-23

    Heavy ion TOF ERD combined with energy detection (E-TOF-ERD) is a powerful analytical technique taking advantage of the following facts: the scattering cross section is usually very high ({approximately}10{sup {minus}21} cm{sup 2}/sr) compared to regular He RBS ({approximately}10{sup {minus}25} cm{sup 2}/sr), contrary to what happens with the energy resolution in ordinary surface solid barrier detectors, time resolution is almost independent of the atomic mass of the detected element, and the detection in coincidence of time and energy signals allows for the mass separation of overlapping signals with the same energy (or time of flight). Measurements on several oxides have been performed with the E-TOF-ERD set up at Sandia National Laboratories using an incident beam of 10-15 MeV Au. The information on the composition of the sample is obtained from the time domain spectrum, which is converted to energy domain, and then, using existing software codes, the analysis is performed. During the quantification of the results, they have found problems related to the interaction of the beam with the sample and to the tabulated values of the stopping powers for heavy ions.

  17. Quantitative analysis of bloggers' collective behavior powered by emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrovi?, Marija; Paltoglou, Georgios; Tadi?, Bosiljka

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale data resulting from users' online interactions provide the ultimate source of information to study emergent social phenomena on the Web. From individual actions of users to observable collective behaviors, different mechanisms involving emotions expressed in the posted text play a role. Here we combine approaches of statistical physics with machine-learning methods of text analysis to study the emergence of emotional behavior among Web users. Mapping the high-resolution data from digg.com onto bipartite networks of users and their comments onto posted stories, we identify user communities centered around certain popular posts and determine emotional contents of the related comments by the emotion classifier developed for this type of text. Applied over different time periods, this framework reveals strong correlations between the excess of negative emotions and the evolution of communities. We observe avalanches of emotional comments exhibiting significant self-organized critical behavior and temporal correlations. To explore the robustness of these critical states, we design a network-automaton model on realistic network connections and several control parameters, which can be inferred from the dataset. Dissemination of emotions by a small fraction of very active users appears to critically tune the collective states.

  18. Direct Quantitative Analysis of Arsenic in Coal Fly Ash

    PubMed Central

    Hartuti, Sri; Kambara, Shinji; Takeyama, Akihiro; Kumabe, Kazuhiro; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple method based on graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry is described for the direct determination of arsenic in coal fly ash. Solid samples were directly introduced into the atomizer without preliminary treatment. The direct analysis method was not always free of spectral matrix interference, but the stabilization of arsenic by adding palladium nitrate (chemical modifier) and the optimization of the parameters in the furnace program (temperature, rate of temperature increase, hold time, and argon gas flow) gave good results for the total arsenic determination. The optimal furnace program was determined by analyzing different concentrations of a reference material (NIST1633b), which showed the best linearity for calibration. The optimized parameters for the furnace programs for the ashing and atomization steps were as follows: temperatures of 500–1200 and 2150°C, heating rates of 100 and 500°C?s?1, hold times of 90 and 7?s, and medium then maximum and medium argon gas flows, respectively. The calibration plots were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9699. This method was validated using arsenic-containing raw coal samples in accordance with the requirements of the mass balance calculation; the distribution rate of As in the fly ashes ranged from 101 to 119%. PMID:23251836

  19. Funtools: Fits Users Need Tools for Quick, Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Brederkamp, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Funtools project arose out of conversations with astronomers about the decline in their software development efforts over the past decade. A stated reason for this decline is that it takes too much effort to master one of the existing FITS libraries simply in order to write a few analysis programs. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that astronomers typically develop new programs only occasionally, and the long interval between coding efforts often necessitates re-learning the FITS interfaces. We therefore set ourselves the goal of developing a minimal buy-in FITS library for researchers who are occasional (but serious) coders. In this case, "minimal buy-in" meant "easy to learn, easy to use, and easy to re-learn next month". Based on conversations with astronomers interested in writing code, we concluded that this goal could be achieved by emphasizing two essential capabilities. The first was the ability to write FITS programs without knowing much about FITS, i.e., without having to deal with the arcane rules for generating a properly formatted FITS file. The second was to support the use of already-familiar C/Unix facilities, especially C structs and Unix stdio. Taken together, these two capabilities would allow researchers to leverage their existing programming expertise while minimizing the need to learn new and complex coding rules.

  20. Segmentation and learning in the quantitative analysis of microscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Christy; Ross, Amy; Porter, Reid

    2015-02-01

    In material science and bio-medical domains the quantity and quality of microscopy images is rapidly increasing and there is a great need to automatically detect, delineate and quantify particles, grains, cells, neurons and other functional "objects" within these images. These are challenging problems for image processing because of the variability in object appearance that inevitably arises in real world image acquisition and analysis. One of the most promising (and practical) ways to address these challenges is interactive image segmentation. These algorithms are designed to incorporate input from a human operator to tailor the segmentation method to the image at hand. Interactive image segmentation is now a key tool in a wide range of applications in microscopy and elsewhere. Historically, interactive image segmentation algorithms have tailored segmentation on an image-by-image basis, and information derived from operator input is not transferred between images. But recently there has been increasing interest to use machine learning in segmentation to provide interactive tools that accumulate and learn from the operator input over longer periods of time. These new learning algorithms reduce the need for operator input over time, and can potentially provide a more dynamic balance between customization and automation for different applications. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area, provides a unified view of these algorithms, and compares the segmentation performance of various design choices.

  1. Synthetic microvascular networks for quantitative analysis of particle adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil; Scott, Robert C.; Patillo, Christopher B.; Irimia, Daniel; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Sundaram, Shivshankar

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a methodology to study particle adhesion in the microvascular environment using microfluidic, image-derived microvascular networks on a chip accompanied by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of fluid flow and particle adhesion. Microfluidic networks, obtained from digitization of in vivo microvascular topology were prototyped using soft-lithography techniques to obtain semicircular cross sectional microvascular networks in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Dye perfusion studies indicated the presence of well-perfused as well as stagnant regions in a given network. Furthermore, microparticle adhesion to antibody coated networks was found to be spatially non-uniform as well. These findings were broadly corroborated in the CFD analyses. Detailed information on shear rates and particle fluxes in the entire network, obtained from the CFD models, were used to show global adhesion trends to be qualitatively consistent with current knowledge obtained using flow chambers. However, in comparison with a flow chamber, this method represents and incorporates elements of size and complex morphology of the microvasculature. Particle adhesion was found to be significantly localized near the bifurcations in comparison with the straight sections over the entire network, an effect not observable with flow chambers. In addition, the microvascular network chips are resource effective by providing data on particle adhesion over physiologically relevant shear range from even a single experiment. The microfluidic microvascular networks developed in this study can be readily used to gain fundamental insights into the processes leading to particle adhesion in the microvasculature. PMID:18327641

  2. Association of polarized light metallography with quantitative image analysis for the characterization of microstructures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Calvo; E. Gautier; A. Simon

    1991-01-01

    Some alloys, such as titanium alloys, exhibit microstructures difficult to etch and consequently difficult to characterize quantitatively. A new method is presented to solve such problems, consisting of associating polarized light microscopy with the techniques of image analysis. The problems set and the solutions obtained by the method are discussed in the case of acicular a-titanium microstructures. The method can

  3. Multiple Regression Analysis of Sib-Pair Data on Reading to Detect Quantitative Trait Loci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulker, D. W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Applies an extension of an earlier multiple regression model for twin analysis to the problem of detecting linkage in a quantitative trait. Detects a number of possible linkages, indicating that the approach is effective. Discusses detecting genotype-environment interaction and the issue of power. (RS)

  4. Quantitative Intersectionality: A Critical Race Analysis of the Chicana/o Educational Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the critical race framework of intersectionality, this research reexamines the Chicana/o educational pipeline through a quantitative intersectional analysis. This approach disaggregates data along the intersection of race, class, gender, and citizenship status to provide a detailed portrait of the educational trajectory of Mexican-origin…

  5. Multifactorial geneticsMapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca W. Doerge

    2002-01-01

    Simple statistical methods for the study of quantitative trait loci (QTL), such as analysis of variance, have given way to methods that involve several markers and high-resolution genetic maps. As a result, the mapping community has been provided with statistical and computational tools that have much greater power than ever before for studying and locating multiple and interacting QTL. Apart

  6. hal-00110659,version1-31Oct2006 Quantitative AFM analysis of phase separated

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    we performed AFM measurement on the phase separated glass surfaces. A quantitative roughness analysis roughness measurements, AFM has been applied to study the glass structure, corrosion, fracture, polishing from detailed studies of the scale invariant character of the roughness of fracture surfaces[4

  7. Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar with x-ray microspectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Quantitative orientational analysis of a polymeric material (Kevlar® fibers) with x of Kevlar® fibers. © 1996 American Institute of Physics. S0003-6951 96 02951-8 Near edge x-ray absorption grades of poly p-phenylene terephthalamide Kevlar® fibers for chemical structure see inset of Fig. 1

  8. Quantitative MRI Analysis of Brain Volume Changes due to Controlled Cortical Impact

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall C. Colgan; Michelle M. Cronin; Oliviero L. Gobbo; Shane M. O'Mara; William T. O'Connor; Michael D. Gilchrist

    2010-01-01

    More than 85% of reported brain traumas are classified clinically as ''mild'' using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS); qualitative MRI findings are scarce and provide little correspondence to clinical symptoms. Our goal, therefore, was to establish in vivo sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI) following lower and higher levels of impact to the frontal lobe using quantitative MRI analysis and

  9. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grindstaff; Quirinus G

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC\\/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC\\/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  10. Analytical strategies based on multiple headspace extraction for the quantitative analysis of aroma components in mushrooms.

    PubMed

    San Román, I; Alonso, M L; Bartolomé, L; Alonso, R M; Fañanás, R

    2014-06-01

    Headspace (HS) and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) have been found to be suitable methods for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. The objectives of this paper are to study the possibilities of multiple headspace extraction (MHE) for the quantitative determination of volatile compounds in mushroom samples and to compare the results obtained using three different sample treatment techniques. For this purpose, HS with two different injection techniques (pressure-loop system and gas-tight syringe autosampling system) and HS-SPME have been studied. Three processes were optimized for the analysis of 20 volatile compounds by experimental design technique based on Central Composite Design (CCD) and Full Factorial Design depending on the used methodology. Once the designs were finished, a trade off among optimum conditions for each compound analyzed was reached. At optimum conditions, appropriate extraction time and sample amount for the three techniques used were established. Finally, the methods were validated in terms of linearity, detection and quantitation limits and repeatability. The most suitable method was then applied to the quantitative analysis of seven mushroom samples. A detailed comparison of the analytical performance characteristics of HS and HS-SPME as sample treatment techniques for final GC/MS determination is given. In addition, MHE has been proved to be an adequate technique to avoid matrix effects in complex samples quantitation. Its applicability to the determination of volatile mushroom components, along with its limitations, is discussed in this work. PMID:24725884

  11. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHOTOSYNTHATE UNLOADING IN DEVELOPING SEEDS OF Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Erle C.

    QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHOTOSYNTHATE UNLOADING IN DEVELOPING SEEDS OF Phaseolus vulgaris L SEEDS OF Phaseolus vulgaris l. Erie Christopher Ellis, Ph.D. Cornell University 1990 The pathway and kinetics of photosynthate unloading in developing seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris were investigated using

  12. The Database of Quantitative Cellular Signaling: management and analysis of chemical kinetic models of signaling networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudhir Sivakumaran; Sridhar Hariharaputran; Jyoti Mishra; Upinder S. Bhalla

    2003-01-01

    Motivation: Analysis of cellular signaling interactions is expected to pose an enormous informatics challenge, per- haps even larger than analyzing the genome. The complex networks arising from signaling processes are traditionally represented as block diagrams. A key step in the evolu- tion toward a more quantitative understanding of signal- ing is to explicitly specify the kinetics of all chemical reac-

  13. QUANTITATIVE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF GENES AFFECTING MUSCLE GROWTH DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manuscript Title- Quantitative expression analysis of genes affecting muscle growth during the development of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) The molecular characterization of the hyperplasia and hypertrophy that characterize post-embryonic muscle development in the rainbow trout is of great in...

  14. The identification and quantitative analysis of abscisic acid in plant extracts by gas-liquid chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Lenton; V. M. Perry; P. F. Saunders

    1971-01-01

    New techniques are described which permit the quantitative analysis of microgram quantities of abscisic acid in plant extracts by gas chromatography. Presumptive methyl abscisate peaks on gas chromatograms are positively identified by photosensitised isomerisation to methyl 2-trans-abscisate. Losses of abscisic acid during pre-purification are corrected by using 2-trans-abscisic acid as an internal standard.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Sexual Dimorphism and Sex Ratio in Hyphydrus ovatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    E-print Network

    Juliano, Steven A.

    : Dytiscidae) Steven A. Juliano Ecography, Vol. 15, No. 3. (Jul. - Sep., 1992), pp. 308-313. Stable URL: http dimorphism and sex ratio in Hyphydrus ovatus (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) Steven A. Juliano Juliano, S. A. 1992. Quantitative analysis of sexual dimorphism and sex ratio in Hyphydrus ovatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Spectroscopy's Study for Engine Oil Degradation Monitoring Due to Temperature Effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. M. Idros; Sawal Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the quantitative analysis of spectroscopy measurement for engine oil degradation prediction due to the temperature effect. The main objective of this project is to study the behavior of engine oil if the continues high temperature are applied to the engine oil as compared to the effect of running condition. Two types of engine oil were used as

  17. QUANTITATIVE METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Analysis of MultiplicativeCombination RulesWhen

    E-print Network

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    sumer psychology is Fishbein and Ajzen's Utility of each outcome, summed across (1975) model: AttitudeQUANTITATIVE METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Analysis of MultiplicativeCombination RulesWhen the Causal University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at Indianapolis A variety of theories in psychology postulate

  18. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  19. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of compounds containing both hydrogen and deuterium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespi, H. L.; Harkness, L.; Katz, J. J.; Norman, G.; Saur, W.

    1969-01-01

    Method allows qualitative and quantitative analysis of mixtures of partially deuterated compounds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy determines location and amount of deuterium in organic compounds but not fully deuterated compounds. Mass spectroscopy can detect fully deuterated species but not the location.

  20. A Quantitative Features Analysis of Recommended No- and Low-Cost Preschool E-Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Blum, Craig; Luthin, Katie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, recommended e-books have drawn increasing attention from early childhood education professionals. This study applied a quantitative descriptive features analysis of cost (n = 70) and no-cost (n = 60) e-books recommended by the Texas Computer Education Association. While t tests revealed no statistically significant differences…

  1. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in living adult neural stem cells by gene trapping

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Quantitative analysis of gene expression in living adult neural stem cells by gene trapping John R Scheel1, Jasodhara Ray1, Fred H Gage1 & Carrolee Barlow1,2 The potential of neural stem cells (NSCs in neural stem cell responses therapeutically important. Although technologies exist for measuring gene

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of the Performance Impact of Specialized Bytecodes in Java

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    A Quantitative Analysis of the Performance Impact of Specialized Bytecodes in Java Ben Stephenson London, Ontario, Canada wade@csd.uwo.ca Abstract Java is implemented by 201 bytecodes that serve the same of core bytecodes provide critical and independent functionality while a collection of specialized

  3. Quantitative analysis of dose-effect relationships: the combined effects of multiple drugs or enzyme inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TING-CHAO CHOU; P TALALAY

    1984-01-01

    We demonstrate here the application of a single and generalized method for analyzing dose-effect relationships in enzymatic, cellular and whole animal systems. We also examine the problem of quantitating the effects of multiple inhibitors on such systems and provide definitions of summation of effects, and consequently of synergism and antagonism. Since the proposed method of analysis is derived from generalized

  4. Multiple regression analysis of sib-pair data on reading to detect quantitative trait loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. W. Fulker; L. R. Cardon; J. C. Defries; W. J. Kimberling; B. F. Pennington; S. D. Smith

    1991-01-01

    A simple extension of the DeFries and Fulker multiple regression model for twin analysis is applied to the problem of detecting linkage in a quantitative trait. The method, employing sib pairs, is based on that of Haseman and Elston. Reading data from 19 extended pedigrees were analyzed employing RLFPs as markers on chromosome 15 and using the widely available statistical

  5. Detection of pleiotropic effects of quantitative trait loci in outbred populations using regression analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Schrooten; H. Bovenhuis

    2002-01-01

    In this paper a method is presented to determine pleiotropic quantitative trait loci (QTL) or closely linked QTL in an outbred population. The method is based on results from single-trait analyses for different traits and is derived for a granddaughter design. The covariance between estimated contrasts of grandsires obtained in single-trait regression analysis is computed. When there is no pleiotropic

  6. Genuine power curves in forgetting: A quantitative analysis of individual subject

    E-print Network

    Wixted, John T.

    Genuine power curves in forgetting: A quantitative analysis of individual subject forgetting described by the power function, at b, where a and b are free parameters. However, all of their analyses that the power law of forgetting may be an artifact of arithmetically averaging individual subject forgetting

  7. August 30, 1999 1 An Approach to Quantitative Software Architecture Sensitivity Analysis1

    E-print Network

    Lung, Chung-Horng

    and industry. The main reasons are the increasing complexity of software systems, the need to analyzeAugust 30, 1999 1 An Approach to Quantitative Software Architecture Sensitivity Analysis1 Abstract Software architectures are often claimed to be robust. However, there is no explicit and concrete

  8. Inverse perspective mapping and optic flow: A calibration method and a quantitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Alan

    Inverse perspective mapping and optic flow: A calibration method and a quantitative analysis Sovira perspective mapping; Optic flow; Calibration methods 1. Introduction Obtaining information about the external difficult. We investigate the effects of perspective on optic flow in a driver assistance application

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Fault Trees based on the Structure Function

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Fault Trees based on the Structure Function G. Merle , J of any Dynamic Fault Tree (DFT) from its structure function. Both these probabilistic models events. We illustrate our approach on a DFT example from the literature. Keywords: Dynamic fault tree

  10. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine learning.

    E-print Network

    Madden, Michael

    models were developed to identify the presence of chlorinated solvents in mixtures at levels of ~5 solvent waste is chlorinated or not will determine firstly how it is transported for disposal and secondlyQualitative and quantitative analysis of chlorinated solvents using Raman spectroscopy and machine

  11. Quantitative Analysis of Faults and Failures in a Complex Software System

    E-print Network

    Fenton, Norman

    Quantitative Analysis of Faults and Failures in a Complex Software System Norman E. Fenton, Member of faults and failures in two releases of a major commercial system. We tested a range of basic software engineering hypotheses relating to: The Pareto principle of distribution of faults and failures; the use

  12. Clinical applications of a quantitative analysis of regional lift ventricular wall motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighton, R. F.; Rich, J. M.; Pollack, M. E.; Altieri, P. I.

    1975-01-01

    Observations were summarized which may have clinical application. These were obtained from a quantitative analysis of wall motion that was used to detect both hypokinesis and tardokinesis in left ventricular cineangiograms. The method was based on statistical comparisons with normal values for regional wall motion derived from the cineangiograms of patients who were found not to have heart disease.

  13. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Preliminary Determination: Quantitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Xie, YuLong; Hart, Reid; Goel, Supriya

    2014-03-01

    This report provides a preliminary quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in energy savings compared with buildings constructed to ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010.

  14. Quantitative analysis of fretting fatigue degradation in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sachin R. Shinde; Charles B. Elliott; David W. Hoeppner

    2007-01-01

    Fretting fatigue failures are commonly observed in the aviation industry. The objective of this study was to understand the fretting fatigue mechanism by characterization of fretting fatigue degradation to gain insight into the process of crack formation from pits in 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. This paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of fretting fatigue degradation in terms of pit depths and

  15. UML-Extensions for Quantitative Analysis? Konstantinos Kosmidis1 and Huszerl Gabor2

    E-print Network

    Fey, Dietmar

    UML-Extensions for Quantitative Analysis? Konstantinos Kosmidis1 and Huszerl Gabor2 1 University The Uni ed Modeling Language (UML) nds more and more applications. It is not only used for software), or Business Pro- cess Modeling). While the static diagrams of UML were changed marginal in the latest versions

  16. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Grindstaff, Quirinus G. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    Described is a new gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) system and method for quantitative analysis of reactive chemical compounds. All components of such a GC/MS system external to the oven of the gas chromatograph are programmably temperature controlled to operate at a volatilization temperature specific to the compound(s) sought to be separated and measured.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Colonoscopy Skills Using the KAIST-Ewha Colonoscopy Simulator II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Young Yi; Kum Hei Ryu; Hyun Soo Woo; Woojin Ahn; Woo Seok Kim; Doo Yong Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a clinical evaluation of the KAIST-Ewha colonoscopy simulator II, which includes quantitative analysis of colonoscopy experts' and trainees' profiles during simulation. This version of the colonoscopy simulator employs an actual colonoscope with added electronics for simulation, and succeeds the previous version of the colonoscopy simulator with the specialized haptic device and proprietary colon modeler. Five colonoscopy experts

  18. Quantitative Analysis of Peristaltic and Segmental Motion In Vivo in the Rat Small Intestine Using Dynamic

    E-print Network

    Brasseur, James G.

    Quantitative Analysis of Peristaltic and Segmental Motion In Vivo in the Rat Small Intestine Using of nutrients that takes place within the small intestine. The normal processes of the small intestine are known been used extensively to study segments of the intestine that have been exteriorized from animals

  19. Carbon-13 Labeling for Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Movement in Heterogeneous Organic

    E-print Network

    ,22,23 and therefore, techniques such as isotopic labeling have been utilized in an attempt to overcome these drawbacksCarbon-13 Labeling for Quantitative Analysis of Molecular Movement in Heterogeneous Organic of macromolecules in heterogeneous or- ganic systems. Using 13C tracer labeling and two model systems, polystyrene

  20. Quantitative Videographic Analysis of Blinking in Normal Subjects and Patients With Dry Eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Tsubota; Seiichiro Hata; Yukio Okusawa; Fuminobu Egami; Tomohiro Ohtsuki; Katsu Nakamori

    Objective: To study patterns of eye blinking in normal subjects and patients with dry eye. Methods: We developed an automated, noninvasive blink monitor that permits quantitative analysis of 6 pa- rameters of blinking. We used this method under nor- mal conditions and then examined the effects on the pat- terns of blinking in patients with dry eye; several steps in

  1. To appear in the J. Functional Programming 1 Quantitative Static Analysis of

    E-print Network

    Di Pierro, Alessandra

    on Probabilistic Abstract Interpretation and is characterised by compositional aspects which greatly simplify the inspection of the nodes interaction and the detection of the information propagation through a computer.g. expected average damage. This leads to a quantitative risk or vulnerability analysis rather than

  2. Quantitative Fatty Acid Analysis of Milk Fat by Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Smith

    1961-01-01

    A procedure was developed for quantitative analysis of the fatty acids of milk fat. Methyl esters of the acids were prepared by methanolysis, extracted with ethyl chloride, and separated by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), with diethylene glycol succinate as liquid phase. Known mixtures of methyl esters were used in determining factors for correction of peak areas for losses from evaporation of

  3. Fuzzy Information Fusion Based Quantitative HAZOP Analysis for Gas Compressor Units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Wei; Zhang Laibin; Hu Jinqiu

    2009-01-01

    An improved HAZOP modeling and reasoning approach for machine safety assessment based on fuzzy information fusion is proposed in this paper to solve the problems of the quantitative information loss and the safety decision making difficulty in mechanical system existing multihazard sources. HAZOP graph analysis model is established to extract the interaction information among components and elements in mechanical system

  4. Development of motion analysis system for quantitative evaluation of teamwork in soccer games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Taki; Jun-ichi Hasegawa; Teruo Fukumura

    1996-01-01

    We present a motion analysis system of soccer games. The purpose of this system is to evaluate the teamwork quantitatively based on the movement of all the players in a game. Space management and cooperative movement by the players are two major factors for teamwork evaluation. To quantify them from motion images, we propose two new features; “minimum moving time

  5. On the Design of IEEE Compliant FloatingPoint Units and Their Quantitative Analysis

    E-print Network

    Seidel, Peter-Michael

    On the Design of IEEE Compliant Floating­Point Units and Their Quantitative Analysis Dissertation (FPU) that is fully compliant with the IEEE floating­point standard 754­1985 [19]. There are a few choices that need to be made when designing an IEEE compliant FPU, among them: the internal representation

  6. Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    1 Climate change and the socioeconomics of global food production: A quantitative analysis of how, Andrew J. Dougill and Piers M. Forster August 2010 Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Working Paper No. 29 #12;2 The Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP) was established

  7. Quantitative analysis of experiments on bacterial chemotaxis to naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Pedit, Joseph A; Marx, Randall B; Miller, Cass T; Aitken, Michael D

    2002-06-20

    A mathematical model was developed to quantify chemotaxis to naphthalene by Pseudomonas putida G7 (PpG7) and its influence on naphthalene degradation. The model was first used to estimate the three transport parameters (coefficients for naphthalene diffusion, random motility, and chemotactic sensitivity) by fitting it to experimental data on naphthalene removal from a discrete source in an aqueous system. The best-fit value of naphthalene diffusivity was close to the value estimated from molecular properties with the Wilke-Chang equation. Simulations applied to a non-chemotactic mutant strain only fit the experimental data well if random motility was negligible, suggesting that motility may be lost rapidly in the absence of substrate or that gravity may influence net random motion in a vertically oriented experimental system. For the chemotactic wild-type strain, random motility and gravity were predicted to have a negligible impact on naphthalene removal relative to the impact of chemotaxis. Based on simulations using the best-fit value of the chemotactic sensitivity coefficient, initial cell concentrations for a non-chemotactic strain would have to be several orders of magnitude higher than for a chemotactic strain to achieve similar rates of naphthalene removal under the experimental conditions we evaluated. The model was also applied to an experimental system representing an adaptation of the conventional capillary assay to evaluate chemotaxis in porous media. Our analysis suggests that it may be possible to quantify chemotaxis in porous media systems by simply adjusting the model's transport parameters to account for tortuosity, as has been suggested by others. PMID:11992528

  8. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (e.g., muscle contraction, neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defense and reductive biosynthesis1. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (oxPPP), with malic enzyme sometimes also important. While the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analyzed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labeled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labeling and mathematical modeling to measure cytosolic NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxPPP. Surprisingly a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, where oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. Since folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and GSH/GSSG ratios and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, while the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power. PMID:24805240

  9. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.

    2014-06-01

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP+ to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP+ and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power.

  10. Quantitative flux analysis reveals folate-dependent NADPH production.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Ye, Jiangbin; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Shlomi, Tomer; Thompson, Craig B; Rabinowitz, Joshua D

    2014-06-12

    ATP is the dominant energy source in animals for mechanical and electrical work (for example, muscle contraction or neuronal firing). For chemical work, there is an equally important role for NADPH, which powers redox defence and reductive biosynthesis. The most direct route to produce NADPH from glucose is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, with malic enzyme sometimes also important. Although the relative contribution of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to ATP production has been extensively analysed, similar analysis of NADPH metabolism has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the ability to directly track, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the passage of deuterium from labelled substrates into NADPH, and combine this approach with carbon labelling and mathematical modelling to measure NADPH fluxes. In proliferating cells, the largest contributor to cytosolic NADPH is the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. Surprisingly, a nearly comparable contribution comes from serine-driven one-carbon metabolism, in which oxidation of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate is coupled to reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH. Moreover, tracing of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism revealed complete oxidation of 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate to make NADPH. As folate metabolism has not previously been considered an NADPH producer, confirmation of its functional significance was undertaken through knockdown of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) genes. Depletion of either the cytosolic or mitochondrial MTHFD isozyme resulted in decreased cellular NADPH/NADP(+) and reduced/oxidized glutathione ratios (GSH/GSSG) and increased cell sensitivity to oxidative stress. Thus, although the importance of folate metabolism for proliferating cells has been long recognized and attributed to its function of producing one-carbon units for nucleic acid synthesis, another crucial function of this pathway is generating reducing power. PMID:24805240

  11. [Quantitative analysis of the genes determining spinal muscular atrophy].

    PubMed

    Nagymihály, Mariann; Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Tímár, László; Karcagi, Veronika

    2009-11-30

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is one of the most common autosomal recessive diseases, affecting approximately one in 10,000 live births and with a carrier frequency of approximately one in 35. The disease is caused by a deficiency of the ubiquitous protein survival of motor neuron (SMN), which is encoded by the SMN1 and SMN2 genes. Due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in exon 7, SMN2 produces less full-length transcript than SMN1 and cannot prevent neuronal cell death at physiologic gene dosages. On the other hand, the copy number of SMN2 affects the amount of SMN protein produced and the severity of the SMA phenotype. SMN gene dosage analysis can determine the copy number of SMN1 to detect carriers and patients heterozygous for the absence of SMN1 exon 7. This study provides copy number estimation of SMN1 gene by real-time PCR technique in 56 SMA type I., II., III. patients, 159 parents and healthy relatives and in 152 undefined SMA patients. Among the family members, 91 carriers have been detected and in 56 patients homozygous deletion of SMN1 exon 7 has been confirmed. Moreover, in 12 patients compound heterozygosity of SMN1 exon 7 mutation has been detected, thus providing the possible diagnosis of SMA. In 94 patients, copy number of SMN2 has also been evaluated and a good correlation has been found with the phenotype of the disease. Due to the genetic complexity and the high carrier frequency, accurate risk assessment and genetic counselling are particularly important for the families. These new results provide improvement of the diagnostic service in SMA in Hungary with focus on proper genetic counselling and possible enrolment of the patients in future therapeutic interventions. PMID:20025129

  12. A Software Tool for Quantitative Seismicity Analysis - ZMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiemer, S.; Gerstenberger, M.

    2001-12-01

    Earthquake catalogs are probably the most basic product of seismology, and remain arguably the most useful for tectonic studies. Modern seismograph networks can locate up to 100,000 earthquakes annually, providing a continuous and sometime overwhelming stream of data. ZMAP is a set of tools driven by a graphical user interface (GUI), designed to help seismologists analyze catalog data. ZMAP is primarily a research tool suited to the evaluation of catalog quality and to addressing specific hypotheses; however, it can also be useful in routine network operations. Examples of ZMAP features include catalog quality assessment (artifacts, completeness, explosion contamination), interactive data exploration, mapping transients in seismicity (rate changes, b-values, p-values), fractal dimension analysis and stress tensor inversions. Roughly 100 scientists worldwide have used the software at least occasionally. About 30 peer-reviewed publications have made use of ZMAP. ZMAP code is open source, written in the commercial software language Matlab by the Mathworks, a widely used software in the natural sciences. ZMAP was first published in 1994, and has continued to grow over the past 7 years. Recently, we released ZMAP v.6. The poster will introduce the features of ZMAP. We will specifically focus on ZMAP features related to time-dependent probabilistic hazard assessment. We are currently implementing a ZMAP based system that computes probabilistic hazard maps, which combine the stationary background hazard as well as aftershock and foreshock hazard into a comprehensive time dependent probabilistic hazard map. These maps will be displayed in near real time on the Internet. This poster is also intended as a forum for ZMAP users to provide feedback and discuss the future of ZMAP.

  13. Quantitative ultrasound texture analysis for clinical decision making support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jie Ying; Beland, Michael; Konrad, Joseph; Tuomi, Adam; Glidden, David; Grand, David; Merck, Derek

    2015-03-01

    We propose a general ultrasound (US) texture-analysis and machine-learning framework for detecting the presence of disease that is suitable for clinical application across clinicians, disease types, devices, and operators. Its stages are image selection, image filtering, ROI selection, feature parameterization, and classification. Each stage is modular and can be replaced with alternate methods. Thus, this framework is adaptable to a wide range of tasks. Our two preliminary clinical targets are hepatic steatosis and adenomyosis diagnosis. For steatosis, we collected US images from 288 patients and their pathology-determined values of steatosis (%) from biopsies. Two radiologists independently reviewed all images and identified the region of interest (ROI) most representative of the hepatic echotexture for each patient. To parameterize the images into comparable quantities, we filter the US images at multiple scales for various texture responses. For each response, we collect a histogram of pixel features within the ROI, and parameterize it as a Gaussian function using its mean, standard deviation, kurtosis, and skew to create a 36-feature vector. Our algorithm uses a support vector machine (SVM) for classification. Using a threshold of 10%, we achieved 72.81% overall accuracy, 76.18% sensitivity, and 65.96% specificity in identifying steatosis with leave-ten-out cross-validation (p<0.0001). Extending this framework to adenomyosis, we identified 38 patients with MR-confirmed findings of adenomyosis and previous US studies and 50 controls. A single rater picked the best US-image and ROI for each case. Using the same processing pipeline, we obtained 76.14% accuracy, 86.00% sensitivity, and 63.16% specificity with leave-one-out cross-validation (p<0.0001).

  14. Quantitative analysis of long-chain trans -monoenes originating from hydrogenated marine oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Wilson; Karin Lyall; J. Anne Payne; Rudolph A. Riemersma

    2000-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) is used for the analysis of trans-fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils. Although trans-isomers of C18 carbon length predominate in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, trans-isomers of C20 and C22 carbon length occur in partially hydrogenated fish oil. We report a simple silver ion chromatographic combined with capillary\\u000a GC technique for quantitative analysis of trans-monoenes derived from

  15. Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) method for bone and whole-body-composition analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gersh Z. Taicher; Frank C. Tinsley; Arcady Reiderman; Mark L. Heiman

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the applicability, precision, and accuracy of the new EchoMRI quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) method for in-vitro bovine bone analysis and in-vivo whole-body-composition analysis of conscious live mice. Research methods and procedures: bovine tibia bone samples were measured by QMR and dual-energy X-ray adsorptiometry (DEXA). Repeated measures of whole-body composition were made using live and dead mice with

  16. Direct Comparison of GeneChip and SAGE on the Quantitative Accuracy in Transcript Profiling Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masami Ishii; Shin-ichi Hashimoto; Shuichi Tsutsumi; Yoichiro Wada; Kouji Matsushima; Tatsuhiko Kodama; Hiroyuki Aburatani

    2000-01-01

    Among the high-throughput, comprehensive technological methods used to analyze transcript expression levels, array-based hybridization and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) are currently the most common approaches. To compare the quantitative accuracy of oligonucleotide array and SAGE, both methods were carried out on identical RNA specimens prepared from human blood monocytes and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced macrophages. For SAGE analysis,

  17. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    PubMed Central

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of Kraszewski, in support of their conclusion that SOCT optimization should include window shape, next to choice of window size and analysis algorithm. PMID:25401016

  18. Quantitative analysis of valence electron energy-loss spectra of aluminium nitride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorneich; Mullejans; Loughin; M. RUHLE

    1998-01-01

    Summary The optical properties and electronic structure of alumin- ium nitride are determined using valence electron energy- loss spectroscopy in a dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope. Quantitative analysis of the experi- mental valence electron energy-loss spectra to determine the electronic structure encompasses single scattering deconvolution of the valence electron energy-loss spectra to calculate the energy-loss function, Kramers-Kronig analysis of the

  19. Assessment of the Suomi NPP/VIIRS aerosol products using the collocated Aqua/MODIS aerosol products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oo, M. M.; Holz, R.; Cureton, G. P.; Laszlo, I.; Kondragunta, S.; Huang, J.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Following the successful launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the VIIRS sensor collects daily global aerosol coverage to provide aerosol Intermediate Products (IPs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs) to the user community. We validate the IPs and EDRs of the VIIRS Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and Angström Exponent (AE) against the collocated well-characterized MODIS aerosol products from the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. Both sensors are on the early afternoon orbit, which provides us an excellent opportunity to cross validate these operational satellite aerosol observations. Qualitative and quantitative assessments are conducted to characterize the VIIRS aerosol products. In the direct comparison, global aerosol maps of the collocated VIIRS-MODIS aerosol products are presented based on various match-up criteria based on quality flags, viewing geometries, AOT and AE data ranges etc. VIIRS AOT appears to match MODIS well over ocean, but is biased high against MODIS over land, except in desert regions. VIIRS AOT appears to correlate best with MODIS for high AE, and less well for coarse particle sizes. These results are based on a very limited analysis period of one month, and could change seasonally. The similarities and differences of the collocated VIIRS and MODIS aerosol products are discussed in details. Statistics of VIIRS vs. MODIS AOT where ?? = ?VIIRS -?MODIS;

  20. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples. PMID:25993858

  1. Analysis of focal adhesion turnover: A quantitative live cell imaging example

    PubMed Central

    Stehbens, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in optical and fluorescent protein technology have rapidly raised expectations in cell biology, allowing quantitative insights into dynamic intracellular processes like never before. However, quantitative live cell imaging comes with many challenges including how best to translate dynamic microscopy data into numerical outputs that can be used to make meaningful comparisons rather than relying on representative data sets. Here we use analysis of focal adhesion turnover dynamics as a straight-forward specific example on how to image, measure and analyze intracellular dynamics, but we believe this outlines a thought process and can provide guidance on how to understand dynamic microcopy data of other intracellular structures. PMID:24974036

  2. The quantitative discrimination between shrinkage and gas microporosity in cast aluminum alloys using spatial data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anson, J.P.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    1999-11-01

    Microporosity in cast aluminum alloys may originate from hydrogen gas evolution, microshrinkage, or a combination of both. A spatial analysis method for the quantitative discrimination between shrinkage and gas porosity is presented and explained. It is shown that shrinkage pores can be selected and analyzed separately from gas pores by nearest-neighbor analysis. The principles of spatial statistics are discussed, and the types of spatial point patterns, complete spatial randomness, and nearest-neighbor cluster analysis are reviewed with respect to microporosity analysis. The pore distribution of a cast Al-7% Si (A356) foundry alloy is used as an example.

  3. A Critical Appraisal of Techniques, Software Packages, and Standards for Quantitative Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lawless, Craig; Hubbard, Simon J.; Fan, Jun; Bessant, Conrad; Hermjakob, Henning; Jones, Andrew R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract New methods for performing quantitative proteome analyses based on differential labeling protocols or label-free techniques are reported in the literature on an almost monthly basis. In parallel, a correspondingly vast number of software tools for the analysis of quantitative proteomics data has also been described in the literature and produced by private companies. In this article we focus on the review of some of the most popular techniques in the field and present a critical appraisal of several software packages available to process and analyze the data produced. We also describe the importance of community standards to support the wide range of software, which may assist researchers in the analysis of data using different platforms and protocols. It is intended that this review will serve bench scientists both as a useful reference and a guide to the selection and use of different pipelines to perform quantitative proteomics data analysis. We have produced a web-based tool (http://www.proteosuite.org/?q=other_resources) to help researchers find appropriate software for their local instrumentation, available file formats, and quantitative methodology. PMID:22804616

  4. Aqua MODIS 8-Year On-Orbit Operation and Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Angal, Amit; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Choi, Taeyoung; Dodd, Jennifer; Geng, Xu; Wang, Zhipeng; Toller, Gary; Barnes, William

    2010-01-01

    Launched in May 2002, the NASA EOS Aqua MODIS has successfully operated for more than 8 years. Observations from Aqua MODIS and its predecessor, Terra MODIS, have generated an unprecedented amount of data products and made significant contributions to studies of changes in the Earth s system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands: 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) and 16 thermal emissive bands (TEB). It has a set of on-board calibrators (OBC), providing sensor on-orbit radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization. This paper briefly summarizes Aqua MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and illustrates instrument on-orbit performance from launch to present. Discussions are focused on OBC functions and changes in detector radiometric gains, spectral responses, and spatial registrations. With ongoing calibration effort, Aqua MODIS will continue serving the science community with high quality data products

  5. Quantitative end qualitative analysis of the electrical activity of rectus abdominis muscle portions.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Bérzin, F; Souza, G da Cunha

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrical behavior pattern of the Rectus abdominis muscle by qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electromyographic signal obtained from its superior, medium and inferior portions during dynamic and static activities. Ten voluntaries (aged X = 17.8 years, SD = 1.6) athletic males were studied without history of muscle skeletal disfunction. For the quantitative analysis the RMS (Root Mean Square) values obtained in the electromyographic signal during the isometric exercises were normalized and expressed in maximum voluntary isometric contraction percentages. For the qualitative analysis of the dynamic activity the electromyographic signal was processed by full-wave rectification, linear envelope and normalization (amplitude and time), so that the resulting curve of the processed signal was submitted to descriptive graphic analysis. The results of the quantitative study show that there is not a statistically significant difference among the portions of the muscle. Qualitative analysis demonstrated two aspects: the presence of a common activation electric pattern in the portions of Rectus abdominis muscle and the absence of significant difference in the inclination angles in the electrical activity curve during the isotonic exercises. PMID:12964259

  6. Sources of Technical Variability in Quantitative LC-MS Proteomics: Human Brain Tissue Sample Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Piehowski, Paul D.; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Orton, Daniel J.; Xie, Fang; Ramirez-Restrepo, Manuel; Engel, Anzhelika; Lieberman, Andrew P.; Albin, Roger L.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Myers, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE clean-up (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its' suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated. PMID:23495885

  7. Models and methods for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Nyagilo, James O; Dave, Digant P; Gao, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman spectra using scattering nanoparticles has shown the potential and promising applications in in vivo molecular imaging. The diverse approaches have been used for quantitative analysis of Raman pectra information, which can be categorized as direct classical least squares models, full spectrum multivariate calibration models, selected multivariate calibration models, and latent variable regression (LVR) models. However, the working principle of these methods in the Raman spectra application remains poorly understood and a clear picture of the overall performance of each model is missing. Based on the characteristics of the Raman spectra, in this paper, we first provide the theoretical foundation of the aforementioned commonly used models and show why the LVR models are more suitable for quantitative analysis of the Raman spectra. Then, we demonstrate the fundamental connections and differences between different LVR methods, such as principal component regression, reduced-rank regression, partial least square regression (PLSR), canonical correlation regression, and robust canonical analysis, by comparing their objective functions and constraints.We further prove that PLSR is literally a blend of multivariate calibration and feature extraction model that relates concentrations of nanotags to spectrum intensity. These features (a.k.a. latent variables) satisfy two purposes: the best representation of the predictor matrix and correlation with the response matrix. These illustrations give a new understanding of the traditional PLSR and explain why PLSR exceeds other methods in quantitative analysis of the Raman spectra problem. In the end, all the methods are tested on the Raman spectra datasets with different evaluation criteria to evaluate their performance. PMID:24058035

  8. Response factor considerations for the quantitative analysis of western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliar monoterpenes.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Bruce A; Russell, John H; Griffin, Doreen L; Johnston, John J

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for quantitative analysis of monoterpenes in western redcedar (Thuja plicata) foliage by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. Response factors for monoterpenes identified in redcedar are evaluated to determine similarities among monoterpene responses. Evaluation demonstrates that redcedar monoterpenes yield detector responses that fall into two groups. One monoterpene from each group is used as a standard for quantitative analysis. Redcedar monoterpenes are quantitated by comparing analyte response with the response factor of one of the standards in single-point calibrations. Homogenized foliage samples are extracted with ethyl acetate and the extracts passed through a solid phase extraction column of graphitized carbon to remove plant pigments. Method bias and repeatability are evaluated by fortifying foliage samples with (1S)-(+)-carvone and (1S)-(+)-2-carene and subjecting the samples to the extraction and analysis procedures. Detection limits are also assessed from fortified samples. Excellent recovery (> 95.0%) and precision (< 5%) are obtained from the analysis of 2-carene from fortified samples. Carvone recovery is approximately 80% with excellent precision (< 4%). The method limits of detection obtained from 2-carene and carvone fortified samples are 4.7 and 13.5 microg/g, respectively. PMID:15975244

  9. Quantitative Schlieren analysis applied to holograms of crystals grown on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to extract additional information about crystals grown in the microgravity environment of Spacelab, a quantitative schlieren analysis technique was developed for use in a Holography Ground System of the Fluid Experiment System. Utilizing the Unidex position controller, it was possible to measure deviation angles produced by refractive index gradients of 0.5 milliradians. Additionally, refractive index gradient maps for any recorded time during the crystal growth were drawn and used to create solute concentration maps for the environment around the crystal. The technique was applied to flight holograms of Cell 204 of the Fluid Experiment System that were recorded during the Spacelab 3 mission on STS 51B. A triglycine sulfate crystal was grown under isothermal conditions in the cell and the data gathered with the quantitative schlieren analysis technique is consistent with a diffusion limited growth process.

  10. Quantitative wake analysis of a freely swimming fish using 3D synthetic aperture PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra H.

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic aperture PIV (SAPIV) is used to quantitatively analyze the wake behind a giant danio ( Danio aequipinnatus) swimming freely in a seeded quiescent tank. The experiment is designed with minimal constraints on animal behavior to ensure that natural swimming occurs. The fish exhibits forward swimming and turning behaviors at speeds between 0.9 and 1.5 body lengths/second. Results show clearly isolated and linked vortex rings in the wake structure, as well as the thrust jet coming off of a visual hull reconstruction of the fish body. As a benchmark for quantitative analysis of volumetric PIV data, the vortex circulation and impulse are computed using methods consistent with those applied to planar PIV data. Volumetric momentum analysis frameworks are discussed for linked and asymmetric vortex structures, laying a foundation for further volumetric studies of swimming hydrodynamics with SAPIV. Additionally, a novel weighted refocusing method is presented as an improvement to SAPIV reconstruction.

  11. Key Parameters Affecting Quantitative Analysis of STEM-EDS Spectrum Images

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, Luke [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Parish, Chad M [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we use simulated and experimental data to explore how three operator-controllable parameters - (1) signal level, (2) detector resolution, and (3) number of factors chosen for analysis - affect quantitative analyses of scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy spectrum images processed by principal component analysis (PCA). We find that improvements in both signal level and detector resolution improve the precision of quantitative analyses, but that signal level is the most important. We also find that if the rank of the PCA solution is not chosen properly, it may be possible to improperly fit the underlying data and degrade the accuracy of results. Additionally, precision is degraded in the case when too many factors are included in the model.

  12. Quantitative analysis on the urban flood mitigation effect by the extensive green roof system.

    PubMed

    Lee, J Y; Moon, H J; Kim, T I; Kim, H W; Han, M Y

    2013-10-01

    Extensive green-roof systems are expected to have a synergetic effect in mitigating urban runoff, decreasing temperature and supplying water to a building. Mitigation of runoff through rainwater retention requires the effective design of a green-roof catchment. This study identified how to improve building runoff mitigation through quantitative analysis of an extensive green-roof system. Quantitative analysis of green-roof runoff characteristics indicated that the extensive green roof has a high water-retaining capacity response to rainfall of less than 20 mm/h. As the rainfall intensity increased, the water-retaining capacity decreased. The catchment efficiency of an extensive green roof ranged from 0.44 to 0.52, indicating reduced runoff comparing with efficiency of 0.9 for a concrete roof. Therefore, extensive green roofs are an effective storm water best-management practice and the proposed parameters can be applied to an algorithm for rainwater-harvesting tank design. PMID:23892044

  13. [A local regression method for near-infrared spectral quantitative analysis of tobacco samples].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xue-Guang

    2008-11-01

    A local regression method based on distance criterion in principal component (PC) space for near-infrared (NIR) spectral quantitative analysis was proposed. In this method, principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly utilized to extract the information of the NIR spectra, and then, the calibration subsets are individually selected for each prediction sample according to the distance between the sample and calibration samples in the PCs space. Finally, the PLS local model for every prediction sample is established individually and the prediction of the sample is done with the local model. It was found that the Euclidean distance can more effectively measure the similarity of the samples than Mahalanobis distance. With an application of the local regression method to the quantitative determination of chlorine and nicotine in tobacco samples, it is proved that the prediction precision of local regression method is better than that of global regression methods, especially in the situation of predicting the low concentration components. PMID:19271490

  14. Quantitative thermographic analysis method for evaluating the thermal properties of PET irradiated by ultra-violet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae Young Choi; Jung Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    A thermograph is used to determine the real-time temperature distribution on the skin temperature wearing clothing treated\\u000a by different ultra-violet (UV) energy. The thermogram images of body wearing clothing with the 4-channel PET knit fabric irradiated\\u000a by UV, were compared visually with each other and analyzed quantitatively with image analysis. We analyzed the thermogram\\u000a in a color image. For image

  15. Network analysis of quantitative proteomics on asthmatic bronchi: effects of inhaled glucocorticoid treatment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Proteomic studies of respiratory disorders have the potential to identify protein biomarkers for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Utilisation of sensitive quantitative proteomic methods creates opportunities to determine individual patient proteomes. The aim of the current study was to determine if quantitative proteomics of bronchial biopsies from asthmatics can distinguish relevant biological functions and whether inhaled glucocorticoid treatment affects these functions. Methods Endobronchial biopsies were taken from untreated asthmatic patients (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 3). Asthmatic patients were randomised to double blind treatment with either placebo or budesonide (800 ?g daily for 3 months) and new biopsies were obtained. Proteins extracted from the biopsies were digested and analysed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with a nanoLC-LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. Spectra obtained were used to identify and quantify proteins. Pathways analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to identify significant biological pathways in asthma and determine how the expression of these pathways was changed by treatment. Results More than 1800 proteins were identified and quantified in the bronchial biopsies of subjects. The pathway analysis revealed acute phase response signalling, cell-to-cell signalling and tissue development associations with proteins expressed in asthmatics compared to controls. The functions and pathways associated with placebo and budesonide treatment showed distinct differences, including the decreased association with acute phase proteins as a result of budesonide treatment compared to placebo. Conclusions Proteomic analysis of bronchial biopsy material can be used to identify and quantify proteins using highly sensitive technologies, without the need for pooling of samples from several patients. Distinct pathophysiological features of asthma can be identified using this approach and the expression of these features is changed by inhaled glucocorticoid treatment. Quantitative proteomics may be applied to identify mechanisms of disease that may assist in the accurate and timely diagnosis of asthma. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01378039 PMID:21939520

  16. Quantitative analysis of microstructure and its related electrical property of SOFC anode, Ni–YSZ cermet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-H Lee; H Moon; H.-W Lee; J Kim; J.-D Kim; K.-H Yoon

    2002-01-01

    The microstructural and electrical properties of Ni–YSZ composite anode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) were investigated. We measured the electrical conductivity via 4-probe DC technique as a function of Ni content (10–70 vol.%) in order to examine the correlation with the microstructure of Ni–YSZ cermet. Image analysis based on quantitative microscopic theory was performed to quantify the microstructure of

  17. Quantitative analysis of voids in percolating structures in two-dimensional N-body simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Patrick M.; Melott, Adrian L.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1993-01-01

    We present in this paper a quantitative method for defining void size in large-scale structure based on percolation threshold density. Beginning with two-dimensional gravitational clustering simulations smoothed to the threshold of nonlinearity, we perform percolation analysis to determine the large scale structure. The resulting objective definition of voids has a natural scaling property, is topologically interesting, and can be applied immediately to redshift surveys.

  18. Quantitative analysis of particles, genomes and infectious particles in supernatants of haemorrhagic fever virus cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manfred Weidmann; Amadou A Sall; Jean-Claude Manuguerra; Lamine Koivogui; Aime Adjami; Faye Fatou Traoré; Kjell-Olof Hedlund; Gunnel Lindegren; Ali Mirazimi

    2011-01-01

    Information on the replication of viral haemorrhagic fever viruses is not readily available and has never been analysed in\\u000a a comparative approach. Here, we compared the cell culture growth characteristics of haemorrhagic fever viruses (HFV), of\\u000a the Arenaviridae, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Flavivridae virus families by performing quantitative analysis of cell culture supernatants by (i) electron microscopy for the quantification\\u000a of

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Microstructural Constituents in Welded Transformation-Induced-Plasticity Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Amirthalingam; M. J. M. Hermans; L. Zhao; I. M. Richardson

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of retained austenite and nonmetallic inclusions in gas tungsten arc (GTA)–welded aluminum-containing\\u000a transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels is presented. The amount of retained austenite in the heat-affected and fusion\\u000a zones of welded aluminum-containing TRIP steel with different base metal austenite fractions has been measured by magnetic\\u000a saturation measurements, to study the effect of weld thermal cycles on the stabilization

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Microstructural Constituents in Welded Transformation-Induced-Plasticity Steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Amirthalingam; M. J. M. Hermans; L. Zhao; I. M. Richardson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of retained austenite and nonmetallic inclusions in gas tungsten arc (GTA)–welded aluminum-containing transformation-induced-plasticity (TRIP) steels is presented. The amount of retained austenite in the heat-affected and fusion zones of welded aluminum-containing TRIP steel with different base metal austenite fractions has been measured by magnetic saturation measurements, to study the effect of weld thermal cycles on the stabilization

  1. Detection of Abnormalities for Diagnosing of Children with Autism Disorders Using of Quantitative Electroencephalography Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Sheikhani; Hamid Behnam; Mohammad Reza Mohammadi; Maryam Noroozian

    Quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) has been used as a tool for neurophysiologic diagnostic. We used spectrogram and\\u000a coherence values for evaluating qEEG in 17 children (13 boys and 4 girls aged between 6 and 11) with autism disorders (ASD)\\u000a and 11 control children (7 boys and 4 girls with the same age range). Evaluation of qEEG with statistical analysis demonstrated\\u000a that

  2. Distribution of ions in Neurospora crassa determined by quantitative electron microprobe analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Roomans; A. Boekestein

    1978-01-01

    Summary It was investigated whether the low membrane potential at the tip of hyphae ofNeurospora crassa could be described as a diffusion potential. The distribution of Na, K and P inNeurospora was measured by electron microprobe analysis of freeze-dried hyphae. Quantitative determinations were made with freeze-dried gelatin standards and with crystalline standards. The local concentrations of Na and K were

  3. Quantitative analysis of S-hydroxyguanine in peripheral blood cells: An application for asbestosis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Hanaoka; Shoichiro Tsugane; Yuko Yamano; Tosei Takahashil; Hiroshi Kasai; Yuji Natori; Shaw Watanabe

    1993-01-01

    Summary The quantitative analysis of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (oh8dG) in human peripheral blood cells was carried out to find integrated biomarkers for estimating cancer risk. The change of the oh8dG levels over time in two healthy volunteers was measured to evaluate a intraindividual variance and each individual value was confirmed to be almost constant when they maintained usual life style. We applied

  4. Quantitative analysis of erythropoietin in human plasma by tandem mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Xuereb; Stéphane Chaignepain; Dominique Breilh; Frédéric Godde; Marie-Claude Saux; Christof Lenz; Matthias Glueckmann; Jean-Marie Schmitter

    2011-01-01

    The extended use of protein drugs in therapeutics has created the need for their quantification in human plasma. A methodology\\u000a using the therapeutic protein itself as internal standard for quantitative analysis by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)\\u000a has been designed and applied to epoetin beta, a recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). After depletion of major proteins,\\u000a plasma samples were desalted and enriched

  5. Quantitative analysis of retromer complex-related genes during embryo development in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang-Je Park; Jae-Won Huh; Young-Hyun Kim; Ji-Su Kim; Bong-Seok Song; Sang-Rae Lee; Sun-Uk Kim; Heui-Soo Kim; Kazuhiko Imakawa; Kyu-Tae Chang

    2011-01-01

    The retromer complex is a heteropentameric protein unit associated with retrograde transport of cargo proteins from endosomes\\u000a to the trans-Golgi network. Functional silencing study of the Vps26a gene indicated the important role of the retromer complex during\\u000a early developmental stages in the mouse. However, individual expression patterns and quantitative analysis of individual members\\u000a of the retromer complex during the early

  6. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  7. Pore3D: A software library for quantitative analysis of porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Brun; Lucia Mancini; Parnian Kasae; Stefano Favretto; Diego Dreossi; Giuliana Tromba

    2010-01-01

    In recent years great interest has been posed in imaging techniques like X-ray computed microtomography which in a nondestructive way produce three-dimensional (3D) images of the internal structure of, e.g. porous media. A major challenge lies in the quantitative analysis of the resulting images that allows a more comprehensive and objective characterization of the sample under investigation. A software able

  8. Strengthening CMMI Maturity Levels with a Quantitative Approach to Root-Cause Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Buglione

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses and analyses the opportunity to approach a typical TQM qualitative technique such as Root-Cause Analysis (RCA), expressed with the well-known Ishikawa (or Fishbone) diagrams, in a quantitative manner. Adding a control measure at the end of each 'cause bone' can help decision-makers in their determination of corrective\\/improvement actions to take in terms of how much to introduce

  9. Evaluation of mRNA by Q-RTPCR and Protein Expression by AQUA of the M2 Subunit of Ribonucleotide Reductase (RRM2) in Human Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kolesar, Jill; Huang, Wei; Eickhoff, Jens; Hahn, Kristine; Alberti, Dona; Attia, Steve; Schelman, William; Holen, Kyle; Traynor, Anne; Ivy, Percy; Wilding, George

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate baseline RRM2 protein and gene expression in tumors of patients receiving 3-AP. Experimental Design Tumor blocks from patients enrolled in phase I and II clinical studies using 3-AP, were evaluated for RRM2 gene and protein expression by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-RTPCR) and automated quantitative analysis, (AQUA). Results Esophageal and gastric cancers overexpressed RRM2 protein when compared to prostate cancer (Z-score, 0.68 ± 0.94 SD, vs 0.41 ± 0.84SD, respectively,; p=0.04). Esophageal and gastric cancers also overexpressed RRM2 mRNA when compared to prostate cancer (relative gene expression 2.56 ± 1.49 SD, vs 0.29 ± 0.20 SD, respectively,; p=0.02). Protein and gene expression were moderately associated (Spearman's rank correlation =0.30; p=0.12). Conclusion RRM2 gene and protein expression varies by tumor type and may predict response to 3-AP. PMID:18941749

  10. Toward quantitative deuterium analysis with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using atmospheric-pressure helium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik [Research Center of Maju Makmur Mandiri Foundation, 40/80 Srengseng Raya, Kembangan, Jakarta Barat 11630 (Indonesia); Chumakov, Alexander Nikitich [B. I. Stepanov Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 68 Nezalezhnastsi Ave., Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kagawa, Kiichiro [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education and Regional Studies, Fukui University, 9-1 bunkyo 3-chome, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan); Tjia, May On [Physics of Magnetism and Photonics Research Group, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bandung Institute of Technology, 10 Ganesha, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2010-01-15

    An experimental study has been carried out for the development of quantitative deuterium analysis using the neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with atmospheric pressure surrounding He gas by exploring the appropriate experimental condition and special sample cleaning technique. The result demonstrates the achievement of a full resolution between the D and H emission lines from zircaloy-4 samples, which is prerequisite for the desired quantitative analysis. Further, a linear calibration line with zero intercept was obtained for the emission intensity of deuterium from a number of zircaloy samples doped with predetermined concentrations of deuterium. The result is obtained by setting a +4 mm defocusing position for the laser beam, 6 {mu}s detection gating time, and 7 mm imaging position of the plasma for the detection, which is combined with a special procedure of repeated laser cleaning of the samples. This study has thus provided the basis for the development of practical quantitative deuterium analysis by LIBS.

  11. Quantitative chemical analysis of ocular melanosomes in stained and non-stained tissues.

    PubMed

    Biesemeier, Antje; Schraermeyer, Ulrich; Eibl, Oliver

    2011-07-01

    Energy-filtered Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) was used to image the ultrastructure and determine quantitatively the chemical composition of rat melanosomes of the choroid and the Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE). For the first time, the effect of staining in elemental analysis of melanosomes was investigated. Detection limits and accuracies of the applied methods were determined. Compared to previous work applying only quantitative Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in the TEM (Eibl, O., et al., 2006. Micron 37, 262), here we present a combined quantitative EDX and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) analysis, including N. This yields the fraction of eumelanin and pheomelanin in melanosomes by the S/N mole fraction ratio. Melanosomes of the sepia ink sac, used as eumelanin standard, showed an S/N mole fraction ratio of <0.004. Thus, they consist primarily of eumelanin as reported by degradation analysis. In contrast, melanosomes of the rats contained mixed melanin with significant amounts of pheomelanin (S/N 0.02) in the RPE and the choroid. Consistent with the previous publication, it was shown that oxygen mole fractions are especially large in melanosomes (7-10 at.%) compared to other cell compartments, e.g. 2-4 at.% oxygen in the cytoplasm. In the melanosomes of non-stained tissue, the oxygen mole fraction clearly correlated with the Ca mole fraction. EDX spectra used for quantitative analysis had about 15,000 net counts under the oxygen peak, which is necessary to obtain (i) a small statistical error for oxygen and (ii) optimum minimum detectable mole fractions for S, Ca and transition metals. The precise determination of the oxygen mole fraction in melanosomes is important for understanding metabolism. Therefore, a detailed analysis was carried out on the possible errors affecting quantification. While O, S, and N mole fractions yielded similar results in stained and non-stained ocular melanosomes of rats, transition metals can only be determined reliably in non-stained tissues. High-precision EDX analysis of melanosomes yielded minimum detectable mole fractions of less than 0.04 at.% for Cu and Zn, these elements were present in melanosomes with mole fractions of about 0.3 at.% and 0.1at.%, respectively. Zn is of great importance for metabolism and for age related macular degeneration. Its mole fraction in melanosomes of rats is large enough to be detected and to be quantitatively analyzed by EDX spectroscopy. Ultrastructural information can now be correlated to the elemental composition. This is important to better understand the physical and chemical properties of melanosomal metabolism and turnover. PMID:21330141

  12. Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Analysis for Next-Generation Sequencing with the Functional Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Li; Zhu, Yun; Xiong, Momiao

    2012-01-01

    Background Although in the past few years we have witnessed the rapid development of novel statistical methods for association studies of qualitative traits using next Generation Sequencing (NGS) data, only a few statistics are proposed for testing the association of rare variants with quantitative traits. The QTL analysis of rare variants remains challenging. Analysis from low dimensional data to high dimensional genomic data demands changes in statistical methods from multivariate data analysis to functional data analysis. Methods In this paper, we propose a functional linear model (FLM) as a general principle for developing novel and powerful QTL analysis methods designed for resequencing data. By simulations we calculate the type I error rates and evaluate the power of the FLM and other eight existing statistical methods even in the presence of both positive and negative signs of effects. Results Since the FLM retains all of the genetic information in the data and explores the merits of both variant-by-variant and collective analysis and overcomes their limitation, the FLM has a much higher power than other existing statistics in all the scenarios considered. To further evaluate its performance, the FLM is applied to association analysis of six quantitative traits in the Dallas Heart Study, and RNA-seq eQTL analysis with genetic variation in the low coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project. Real data analysis shows that the FLM has much smaller P-values to identify significantly associated variants than other existing methods. Conclusions The FLM is expected to open a new route for QTL analysis. PMID:22889854

  13. Quantitative analysis of reptation of partially extended DNA in sub-30 nm nanoslits

    E-print Network

    Yeh, Jia-Wei; Taloni, Alessandro; Chen, Yeng-Long; Chou, Chia-Fu

    2015-01-01

    We observed reptation of single DNA molecules in fused silica nanoslits of sub-30 nm height. The reptation behavior and the effect of confinement are quantitatively characterized using orientation correlation and transverse fluctuation analysis. We show tube-like polymer motion arises for a tense polymer under strong quasi-2D confinement and interaction with surface- passivating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules in nanoslits, while etching- induced device surface roughness, chip bonding materials and DNA-intercalated dye-surface interaction, play minor roles. These findings have strong implications for the effect of surface modification in nanofluidic systems with potential applications for single molecule DNA analysis.

  14. Renal geology (quantitative renal stone analysis) by ‘Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iqbal Singh

    2008-01-01

    Aim  To prospectively determine the precise stone composition (quantitative analysis) by using infrared spectroscopy in patients\\u000a with urinary stone disease presenting to our clinic. To determine an ideal method for stone analysis suitable for use in a\\u000a clinical setting.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  After routine and a detailed metabolic workup of all patients of urolithiasis, stone samples of 50 patients of urolithiasis\\u000a satisfying the entry

  15. Quantitative analysis of reptation of partially extended DNA in sub-30 nm nanoslits

    E-print Network

    Jia-Wei Yeh; K. K. Sriram; Alessandro Taloni; Yeng-Long Chen; Chia-Fu Chou

    2015-02-18

    We observed reptation of single DNA molecules in fused silica nanoslits of sub-30 nm height. The reptation behavior and the effect of confinement are quantitatively characterized using orientation correlation and transverse fluctuation analysis. We show tube-like polymer motion arises for a tense polymer under strong quasi-2D confinement and interaction with surface- passivating polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) molecules in nanoslits, while etching- induced device surface roughness, chip bonding materials and DNA-intercalated dye-surface interaction, play minor roles. These findings have strong implications for the effect of surface modification in nanofluidic systems with potential applications for single molecule DNA analysis.

  16. Quantitative analysis of tin alloy combined with artificial neural network prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seong Y.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to quantitative analysis of three impurities in Sn alloy. The impurities analysis was based on the internal standard method using the Sn I 333.062-nm line as the reference line to achieve the best reproducible results. Minor-element concentrations (Ag, Cu, Pb) in the alloy were comparatively evaluated by artificial neural networks (ANNs) and calibration curves. ANN was found to effectively predict elemental concentrations with a trend of nonlinear growth due to self-absorption. The limits of detection for Ag, Cu, and Pb in Sn alloy were determined to be 29, 197, and 213 ppm, respectively.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Polymer Additives with MALDI-TOF MS Using an Internal Standard Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzinger, Clemens; Gabriel, Stefan; Beißmann, Susanne; Buchberger, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    MALDI-TOF MS is used for the qualitative analysis of seven different polymer additives directly from the polymer without tedious sample pretreatment. Additionally, by using a solid sample preparation technique, which avoids the concentration gradient problems known to occur with dried droplets and by adding tetraphenylporphyrine as an internal standard to the matrix, it is possible to perform quantitative analysis of additives directly from the polymer sample. Calibration curves for Tinuvin 770, Tinuvin 622, Irganox 1024, Irganox 1010, Irgafos 168, and Chimassorb 944 are presented, showing coefficients of determination between 0.911 and 0.990.

  18. Quantitative spectral and orientational analysis in surface sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hong-Fei; Gan, Wei; Lu, Rong; Rao, Yi; Wu, Bao-Hua

    Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS) has been proven to be a uniquely effective spectroscopic technique in the investigation of molecular structure and conformations, as well as the dynamics of molecular interfaces. However, the ability to apply SFG-VS to complex molecular interfaces has been limited by the ability to abstract quantitative information from SFG-VS experiments. In this review, we try to make assessments of the limitations, issues and techniques as well as methodologies in quantitative orientational and spectral analysis with SFG-VS. Based on these assessments, we also try to summarize recent developments in methodologies on quantitative orientational and spectral analysis in SFG-VS, and their applications to detailed analysis of SFG-VS data of various vapour/neat liquid interfaces. A rigorous formulation of the polarization null angle (PNA) method is given for accurate determination of the orientational parameter D = /, and comparison between the PNA method with the commonly used polarization intensity ratio (PIR) method is discussed. The polarization and incident angle dependencies of the SFG-VS intensity are also reviewed, in the light of how experimental arrangements can be optimized to effectively abstract crucial information from the SFG-VS experiments. The values and models of the local field factors in the molecular layers are discussed. In order to examine the validity and limitations of the bond polarizability derivative model, the general expressions for molecular hyperpolarizability tensors and their expression with the bond polarizability derivative model for C3v, C2v and C?v molecular groups are given in the two appendixes. We show that the bond polarizability derivative model can quantitatively describe many aspects of the intensities observed in the SFG-VS spectrum of the vapour/neat liquid interfaces in different polarizations. Using the polarization analysis in SFG-VS, polarization selection rules or guidelines are developed for assignment of the SFG-VS spectrum. Using the selection rules, SFG-VS spectra of vapour/diol, and vapour/n-normal alcohol (n˜ 1-8) interfaces are assigned, and some of the ambiguity and confusion, as well as their implications in previous IR and Raman assignment, are duly discussed. The ability to assign a SFG-VS spectrum using the polarization selection rules makes SFG-VS not only an effective and useful vibrational spectroscopy technique for interface studies, but also a complementary vibrational spectroscopy method in general condensed phase studies. These developments will put quantitative orientational and spectral analysis in SFG-VS on a more solid foundation. The formulations, concepts and issues discussed in this review are expected to find broad applications for investigations on molecular interfaces in the future.

  19. 1997 Oxford University Press850860 Nucleic Acids Research, 1997, Vol. 25, No. 4 Quantitative analysis of electrophoresis data: novel

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    © 1997 Oxford University Press850­860 Nucleic Acids Research, 1997, Vol. 25, No. 4 Quantitative is employed for the separation of proteins and nucleic acids. Methods available for quantitation analysis of electrophoresis data: novel curve fitting methodology and its application to the determination

  20. Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics and Miniature Mass Spectrometry

    E-print Network

    Zandstra, Peter W.

    Analysis on the Go: Quantitation of Drugs of Abuse in Dried Urine with Digital Microfluidics the development of a method coupling microfluidics and a miniature mass spectrometer, applied to quantitation of drugs of abuse in urine. A custom digital microfluidic system was designed to deliver droplets

  1. Project #05R: Xiaoping Hu and Jue Zhang: Quantitative fMRI and Network Analysis of Acupuncture Induced Brain Activity

    E-print Network

    Weber, Rodney

    Project #05R: Xiaoping Hu and Jue Zhang: Quantitative fMRI and Network Analysis of Acupuncture and holds great potential for biomedical applications. Drs. Hu and Zhang are both conducting researchMRI and in expanding quantitative fMRI to the study of alternative medicine, Dr. Hu is interested in applying several

  2. Review of Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) Schools. Volume II: Quantitative Analysis of Educational Quality. IDA Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lowell Bruce; Bracken, Jerome; Bracken, Marilyn C.

    This volume compiles, and presents in integrated form, the Institute for Defense Analyses' (IDA) quantitative analysis of educational quality provided by the Department of Defense's dependent schools. It covers the quantitative aspects of volume 1 in greater detail and presents some analyses deemed too technical for that volume. The first task in…

  3. Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff T. Williams; Henri Begleiter; Bernice Porjesz; Howard J. Edenberg; Tatiana Foroud; Theodore Reich; Alison Goate; Paul Van Eerdewegh; Laura Almasy; John Blangero

    1999-01-01

    Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological mark- ers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phe- notypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psy- chiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multi- variate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on

  4. Ammonia quantitative analysis model based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rongfei

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, ammonia quantitative analysis based on miniaturized Al ionization gas sensor and non-linear bistable dynamic model was proposed. Al plate anodic gas-ionization sensor was used to obtain the current-voltage (I-V) data. Measurement data was processed by non-linear bistable dynamics model. Results showed that the proposed method quantitatively determined ammonia concentrations. PMID:25975362

  5. Psychology 815 Quantitative Research Design & Analysis in Psychology -Fall 2013 Instructor: Dr. Debby Kashy Office Hours: Arranged via email

    E-print Network

    Liu, Taosheng

    . Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. D. (2004) Design and Analysis: A Researcher's Handbook (4th Edition). Prentice with the statistical analysis of data from experimental and nonexperimental research. We will begin with Analysis1 Psychology 815 ­ Quantitative Research Design & Analysis in Psychology - Fall 2013 Instructor: Dr

  6. Quantitative comparison of performance analysis techniques for modular and generic network-on-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenhahn, M. C.; Schleifer, J.; Blume, H.; Noll, T. G.

    2009-05-01

    NoC-specific parameters feature a huge impact on performance and implementation costs of NoC. Hence, performance and cost evaluation of these parameter-dependent NoC is crucial in different design-stages but the requirements on performance analysis differ from stage to stage. In an early design-stage an analysis technique featuring reduced complexity and limited accuracy can be applied, whereas in subsequent design-stages more accurate techniques are required. In this work several performance analysis techniques at different levels of abstraction are presented and quantitatively compared. These techniques include a static performance analysis using timing-models, a Colored Petri Net-based approach, VHDL- and SystemC-based simulators and an FPGA-based emulator. Conducting NoC-experiments with NoC-sizes from 9 to 36 functional units and various traffic patterns, characteristics of these experiments concerning accuracy, complexity and effort are derived. The performance analysis techniques discussed here are quantitatively evaluated and finally assigned to the appropriate design-stages in an automated NoC-design-flow.

  7. Sensitive quantitative analysis of murine LINE1 DNA methylation using high resolution melt analysis

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Michelle; Blyth, Benjamin J.; Hussey, Damian J.; Jardine, Daniel; Ormsby, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    We present here the first high resolution melt (HRM) assay to quantitatively analyze differences in murine DNA methylation levels utilizing CpG methylation of Long Interspersed Elements-1 (LINE1 or L1). By calculating the integral difference in melt temperature between samples and a methylated control, and biasing PCR primers for unmethylated CpGs, the assay demonstrates enhanced sensitivity to detect changes in methylation in a cell line treated with low doses of 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (5-aza). The L1 assay was confirmed to be a good marker of changes in DNA methylation of L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome when compared with total 5-methyl-cytosine content, measured by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The assay design was also used to detect changes in methylation at other murine repeat elements (B1 and Intracisternal-A-particle Long-terminal Repeat elements). Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that L1 methylation changes were non-uniform across the CpGs within the L1-HRM target region, demonstrating that the L1 assay can detect small changes in CpG methylation among a large pool of heterogeneously methylated DNA templates. Application of the assay to various tissues from Balb/c and CBA mice, including previously unreported peripheral blood (PB), revealed a tissue hierarchy (from hypermethylated to hypomethylated) of PB > kidney > liver > prostate > spleen. CBA mice demonstrated overall greater methylation than Balb/c mice, and male mice demonstrated higher tissue methylation compared with female mice in both strains. Changes in DNA methylation have been reported to be an early and fundamental event in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including cancer. Mouse studies designed to identify modulators of DNA methylation, the critical doses, relevant time points and the tissues affected are limited by the low throughput nature and exorbitant cost of many DNA methylation assays. The L1 assay provides a high throughput, inexpensive and sensitive screening tool for identifying and characterizing DNA methylation changes to L1 elements at multiple regions across the genome. PMID:22274612

  8. Investigating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis across four chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Bagés, S; Estany, J; Tor, M; Pena, R N

    2015-04-25

    Accurate normalization of data is required to correct for different efficiencies and errors during the processing of samples in reverse transcription PCR analysis. The chicken is one of the main livestock species and its genome was one of the first reported and used in large scale transcriptomic analysis. Despite this, the chicken has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the quantitative PCR analysis of growth and fattening genes. In this study, five candidate reference genes (B2M, RPL32, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in the two main commercial muscles (pectoralis major (breast) and biceps femoris (thigh)), liver and abdominal fat. Four statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, CV and BestKeeper) were used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes. Additionally, a comprehensive ranking was established with the RefFinder tool. This analysis identified YWHAZ and TBP as the recommended combination for the analysis of biceps femoris and liver, YWHAZ and RPL32 for pectoralis major and RPL32 and B2M for abdominal fat and across-tissue studies. The final ranking for each tool changed slightly but overall the results, and most particularly the ability to discard the least robust candidates, were consistent between tools. The selection and number of reference genes were validated using SCD, a target gene related to fat metabolism. Overall, the results can be directly used to quantitate target gene expression in different tissues or in validation studies from larger transcriptomic experiments. PMID:25680290

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Blood Plasma Metabolites Using Isotope Enhanced NMR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Tayyari, Fariba; Ye, Tao; Suryani, Yuliana; Wei, Siwei; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. However, accurate quantitative analysis in complex fluids such as human blood plasma is challenging, and analysis using one-dimensional NMR is limited by signal overlap. It is impractical to use heteronuclear experiments involving natural abundance 13C on a routine basis due to low sensitivity, despite their improved resolution. Focusing on circumventing such bottlenecks, this study demonstrates the utility of a combination of isotope tagged NMR experiments to analyze metabolites in human blood plasma. 1H-15N HSQC and 1H-13C HSQC experiments on the isotope tagged samples combined with the conventional 1H one-dimensional and 1H-1H TOCSY experiments provide quantitative information on a large number of metabolites in plasma. The methods were first tested on a mixture of 28 synthetic analogues of metabolites commonly present in human blood; twenty-seven metabolites in a standard NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) human blood plasma were then identified and quantified with an average coefficient of variation of 2.4 % for 17 metabolites and 5.6% when all the metabolites were considered. Carboxylic acids and amines represent a majority of the metabolites in body fluids and their analysis by isotope tagging enables a significant enhancement of the metabolic pool for biomarker discovery applications. Improved sensitivity and resolution of NMR experiments imparted by 15N and 13C isotope tagging is attractive for both the enhancement of the detectable metabolic pool and accurate analysis of plasma metabolites. The approach can be easily extended to many additional metabolites in almost any biological mixture. PMID:20879716

  10. Quantitative analysis of three chiral pesticide enantiomers by high-performance column liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Gu, Xu; Jiang, Shuren; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Methods for the enantiomeric quantitative determination of 3 chiral pesticides, paclobutrazol, myclobutanil, and uniconazole, and their residues in soil and water are reported. An effective chiral high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC)-UV method using an amylose-tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate; AD) column was developed for resolving the enantiomers and quantitative determination. The enantiomers were identified by a circular dichroism detector. Validation involved complete resolution of each of the 2 enantiomers, plus determination of linearity, precision, and limit of detection (LOD). The pesticide enantiomers were isolated by solvent extraction from soil and C18 solid-phase extraction from water. The 2 enantiomers of the 3 pesticides could be completely separated on the AD column using n-hexane isopropanol mobile phase. The linearity and precision results indicated that the method was reliable for the quantitative analysis of the enantiomers. LODs were 0.025, 0.05, and 0.05 mg/kg for each enantiomer of paclobutrazol, myclobutanil, and uniconazole, respectively. Recovery and precision data showed that the pretreatment procedures were satisfactory for enantiomer extraction and cleanup. This method can be used for optical purity determination of technical material and analysis of environmental residues. PMID:18980112

  11. Quantitative analysis of volatiles in edible oils following accelerated oxidation using broad spectrum isotope standards.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortés, Pilar; Sacks, Gavin L; Brenna, J Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of food volatiles generated by processing are widely reported but comparisons across studies is challenging in part because most reports are inherently semi-quantitative for most analytes due to limited availability of chemical standards. We recently introduced a novel strategy for creation of broad spectrum isotopic standards for accurate quantitative food chemical analysis. Here we apply the principle to quantification of 25 volatiles in seven thermally oxidised edible oils. After extended oxidation, total volatiles of high n-3 oils (flax, fish, cod liver) were 120-170 mg/kg while low n-3 vegetable oils were <50mg/kg. Separate experiments on thermal degradation of d5-ethyl linolenate indicate that off-aroma volatiles originate throughout the n-3 molecule and not solely the n-3 terminal end. These data represent the first report using broad-spectrum isotopically labelled standards for quantitative characterisation of processing-induced volatile generation across related foodstuffs, and verify the origin of specific volatiles from parent n-3 fatty acids. PMID:25529686

  12. Quantitative risk analysis and the production of microbiologically safe food: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Notermans, S; Teunis, P

    1996-06-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of quantitative risk analysis (QRA) in the production of microbiologically safe food products. QRA can be defined as a stepwise analysis of health risks which may be associated with a particular type of food product, resulting in an estimation of the probability of occurrence of negative health effects following the consumption of that food and the nature of these risks. Starting with this definition, the following successive components can be recognised: (1) hazard identification, which is a qualitative indication of the potential microbial hazards that may be associated with the consumption of a particular food product; (2) exposure assessment, which is the quantitative estimation of the dose of potentially hazardous organisms to which the consumer is exposed at the time of consumption of the food; (3) dose response assessment, which is the process of obtaining quantitative information on the negative effects of different levels of exposure to potentially hazardous organisms on the health of the consumer; (4) risk characterization, which comprises the activities that are carried out to rank the disorders according to severity, perception, economic and social consequences etc., enabling a decision to be made about the acceptance of a particular risk; and (5) risk management, which is the complex of analyses and judgements to reduce the probability of occurrence of unacceptable risks. PMID:8856370

  13. Power Analysis of Artificial Selection Experiments Using Efficient Whole Genome Simulation of Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Kessner, Darren; Novembre, John

    2015-01-01

    Evolve and resequence studies combine artificial selection experiments with massively parallel sequencing technology to study the genetic basis for complex traits. In these experiments, individuals are selected for extreme values of a trait, causing alleles at quantitative trait loci (QTL) to increase or decrease in frequency in the experimental population. We present a new analysis of the power of artificial selection experiments to detect and localize quantitative trait loci. This analysis uses a simulation framework that explicitly models whole genomes of individuals, quantitative traits, and selection based on individual trait values. We find that explicitly modeling QTL provides qualitatively different insights than considering independent loci with constant selection coefficients. Specifically, we observe how interference between QTL under selection affects the trajectories and lengthens the fixation times of selected alleles. We also show that a substantial portion of the genetic variance of the trait (50–100%) can be explained by detected QTL in as little as 20 generations of selection, depending on the trait architecture and experimental design. Furthermore, we show that power depends crucially on the opportunity for recombination during the experiment. Finally, we show that an increase in power is obtained by leveraging founder haplotype information to obtain allele frequency estimates. PMID:25672748

  14. Status of Terra and Aqua MODIS Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Kuyper, James; Salomonson, Vicent; Barmes. William

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two nearly identical MODIS instruments are operating in space: one on the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and another on the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with wavelengths covering from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR). Since launch, MODIS observations and data products have contributed significantly to studies of changes in the Earth system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. To maintain its on-orbit calibration and data product quality, MODIS was built with a comprehensive set of on-board calibrators, consisting of a solar diffuser (SD) and a solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM) for the reflective solar bands (RSB) and an on-board blackbody (BB) for the thermal emissive bands (TEB). Both instruments have demonstrated good performance. The primary Level 1 B (LIB) data products are top of the atmosphere (TOA) reflectance for RSB and radiance for TEB This paper provides an overview of MODIS calibration methodologies, activities, lifetime on-orbit performance and challenging issues for each MODIS, the impact on LIB product quality, and lessons learned for future sensors such as the NPOESS VIIRS.

  15. AQUA© as predictor of allergy in elite marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of allergy in athletes is increasing, and its risk varies across sports. The risk is dependent mainly on the ventilation rate and environmental factors; however, the prevalence of allergy in elite runners remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen allergy symptoms in elite marathon runners by using a validated questionnaire for screening allergy in athletes. Methods Two hundred and one elite marathoners, who participated in the most competitive Brazilian marathons and half-marathons during 2011, were invited to complete a validated self-report Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes (AQUA©), with additional questions pertaining to training history, such as running experience, running distance per week and their best race time in marathon or half-marathon events. Results Sixty percent of the assessed athletes reported allergy symptoms as defined by a positive AQUA outcome (score [greater than or equal to] 5). No significant differences (p?>?0.05) between groups (AQUA?+?and AQUA-) were observed for gender, age, running experience, weekly training volume and best performance time in the half-marathon and marathon. The most frequently reported symptoms were related to the respiratory tract and physical effort. Conclusions This study demonstrates that AQUA© can be used to predict allergy in elite marathon runners. In addition, these athletes have a higher prevalence of allergy symptoms to elite athletes from other sports. PMID:24708728

  16. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades K-2. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades K-2. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART K-2. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The teacher's guide begins with an overview of…

  17. AquaSMART: Water & Boating Safety, Grades 3-5. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This teacher's guide accompanies a program designed to teach water and boating safety to students in grades 3-5. The written curriculum accompanies a video, AquaSMART 3-5. The theme of the curriculum is AquaSMART. To become AquaSMART, students must learn 10 basic lessons for water and boating safety. The written curriculum begins with an overview…

  18. Demonstration Web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for Aqua-Lab

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Shengli

    Demonstration Web-based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for Aqua-Lab Zheng Peng, Guelson Fostine- based graphical user interface (GUI) has been implemented for Aqua-Lab [3]. Aqua-Lab is an underwater environment. The GUI is developed to better utilize this testbed and provide user-friendly interface

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Eclipta prostrata L. by LC/MS

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lifeng; Liu, Erwei; Kojo, Agyemang; Zhao, Jing; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Eclipta prostrata L. is one of the Chinese medicinal tonics which are usually used for treating loose teeth, dizziness, tinnitus, hemoptysis, hematuria, and uterine bleeding. However, quality control of this herbal medicine has been not satisfactory. This study reported its qualitative and quantitative analyses based on LC/MS method. UHPLC-DAD-Q-TOF-MS fingerprinting and MS fragmentation cleavage pathway were investigated for qualitative analysis. Furthermore, a method for simultaneous quantitative determination of nine compounds, luteolin 7-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, ecliptasaponin C, luteolin, eclalbasaponin IV, apigenin, ecliptasaponin A, echinocystic acid 28-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, echinocystic acid, and 3-oxo-16?-hydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid in E. prostrata, was established. The method was validated for samples of E. prostrata from different habitats. The results showed good linear correlation, precision, accuracy, and repeatability that could be used for contents determination of the nine compounds in E. prostrata from different habitats. PMID:25667939

  20. Quantitative Immunologic Analysis of the Methanogenic Flora of Digestors Reveals a Considerable Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Macario, Alberto J. L.; de Macario, Everly Conway

    1988-01-01

    To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance. Images PMID:16347541

  1. qCMA: a desktop application for quantitative collective cell migration analysis.

    PubMed

    Zeisel, Amit; Yitzhaky, Assif; Koerner, Cindy; Lauriola, Mattia; Cohen-Dvashi, Hadas; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Yarden, Yosef; Wiemann, Stefan; Domany, Eytan

    2013-03-01

    Collective migration is an important cellular trait, which is intensely studied by both basic and translational researchers. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms necessitates high-throughput assays and computational algorithms capable of generating reproducible quantitative measurements of cell migration. We present a desktop tool that can be used easily by any researcher, to quantify both fluorescent and phase-contrast images produced in the course of commonly used gap closure ("scratch," "wound healing") collective migration assays. The software has a simple graphical interface that allows the user to tune the relevant parameters and process large numbers of images (or movies). The output contains segmented images and the numerical values inferred from them, allowing easy quantitative analysis of the results. PMID:23042078

  2. Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images: initial results for liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnaz, Alexander S.; Snider, James; Chibuzor, Eneh; Esposito, Giuseppe; Wilson, Emmanuel; Yaniv, Ziv; Cohen, Emil; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images is increasingly being proposed for monitoring patient response during chemotherapy trials. An integrated MATLAB GUI has been developed for an oncology trial at Georgetown University Hospital. This GUI allows for the calculation and visualization of the volume of a lesion. The GUI provides an estimate of the volume of the tumor using a semi-automatic segmentation technique. This software package features a fixed parameter adaptive filter from the ITK toolkit and a tumor segmentation algorithm to reduce inter-user variability and to facilitate rapid volume measurements. The system also displays a 3D rendering of the segmented tumor, allowing the end user to have not only a quantitative measure of the tumor volume, but a qualitative view as well. As an initial validation test, several clinical cases were hand-segmented, and then compared against the results from the tool, showing good agreement.

  3. Quantitative immunologic analysis of the methanogenic flora of digestors reveals a considerable diversity.

    PubMed

    Macario, A J; Conway de Macario, E

    1988-01-01

    To determine which methanogens occur in digestors, we performed a quantitative immunologic analysis of a variety of samples. A comprehensive panel of calibrated polyclonal antibody probes of predefined specificity spectra was used. This allowed precise identification of bacteria by antigenic fingerprinting. A considerable diversity of methanogens was uncovered, much larger than previously reported, encompassing at least 14 strains of 11 species. Strategies were developed to measure the load of any given methanogen in a sample and to compare samples quantitatively. Two methanogens were found to predominate which were antigenically closely related with either Methanobacterium formicicum MF or Methanobrevibacter arboriphilus AZ. Fundamental data, probes, and methods are now available to monitor methanogenic subpopulations during digestor operation and thus learn about their respective roles and predictive significance. PMID:16347541

  4. Kinetics analysis and quantitative calculations for the successive radioactive decay process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiping; Yan, Deyue; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang

    2015-01-01

    The general radioactive decay kinetics equations with branching were developed and the analytical solutions were derived by Laplace transform method. The time dependence of all the nuclide concentrations can be easily obtained by applying the equations to any known radioactive decay series. Taking the example of thorium radioactive decay series, the concentration evolution over time of various nuclide members in the family has been given by the quantitative numerical calculations with a computer. The method can be applied to the quantitative prediction and analysis for the daughter nuclides in the successive decay with branching of the complicated radioactive processes, such as the natural radioactive decay series, nuclear reactor, nuclear waste disposal, nuclear spallation, synthesis and identification of superheavy nuclides, radioactive ion beam physics and chemistry, etc.

  5. Quantitative analysis of virgin coconut oil in cream cosmetics preparations using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rohman, A; Man, Yb Che; Sismindari

    2009-10-01

    Today, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is becoming valuable oil and is receiving an attractive topic for researchers because of its several biological activities. In cosmetics industry, VCO is excellent material which functions as a skin moisturizer and softener. Therefore, it is important to develop a quantitative analytical method offering a fast and reliable technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with sample handling technique of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) can be successfully used to analyze VCO quantitatively in cream cosmetic preparations. A multivariate analysis using calibration of partial least square (PLS) model revealed the good relationship between actual value and FTIR-predicted value of VCO with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998. PMID:19783522

  6. A supramolecular sensing array for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organophosphates in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanli; Bonizzoni, Marco

    2014-10-01

    The organophosphate class of compounds includes common herbicides as well as highly toxic nerve gases whose detection is important from an environmental and a public safety perspective. We describe here a fluorescence turn-on sensor array for the rapid detection and quantitation of relevant organophosphates in neutral water. The array elements self-assemble from commercially available dyes and PAMAM dendrimers, and sensing is based on an indicator displacement assay. Data interpretation through pattern recognition methods (PCA, LDA) showed excellent cluster separation and sample classification. In addition, we were also able to use this system for simultaneous differentiation and quantitative analysis of methylphosphonate (a nerve gas byproduct), glyphosate (a ubiquitous herbicide), and inorganic phosphate over a wide range of concentrations (10 ?M to 2 mM). PMID:25246316

  7. Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

    2012-07-01

    Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

  8. High Specificity of Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR Analysis for MGMT Promoter Hypermethylation Detection in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Parrella, Paola; la Torre, Antonella; Copetti, Massimiliano; Valori, Vanna M.; Barbano, Raffaela; Notarangelo, Angelo; Bisceglia, Michele; Gallo, Antonietta Pia; Balsamo, Teresa; Poeta, Maria Luana; Carella, Massimo; Catapano, Domenico; Parisi, Salvatore; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Maiello, Evaristo; D'Angelo, Vincenzo; Fazio, Vito Michele

    2009-01-01

    Normal brain tissue from 28 individuals and 50 glioma samples were analyzed by real-time Quantitative Methylation-Specific PCR (QMSP). Data from this analysis were compared with results obtained on the same samples by MSP. QMSP analysis demonstrated a statistically significant difference in both methylation level (P = .000009 Mann Whitney Test) and frequencies (P = .0000007, Z-test) in tumour samples as compared with normal brain tissues. Although QMSP and MSP showed similar sensitivity, the specificity of QMSP analysis was significantly higher (93%; CI95%: 84%–100%) as compared with MSP (64%; 95%CI: 46%–82%). Our results suggest that QMSP analysis may represent a powerful tool to identify glioma patients that will benefit from alkylating agents chemotherapy. PMID:19503806

  9. Skeletal and muscular system for quantitative movement analysis in 4D space [MRI data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi YAMASAKI; Naoki SUZUKI; A. Hattori; Akihiro TAKATSU; Akihiko UCHIYAMA

    2000-01-01

    Under the present circumstances, it is problematic to comprehend the connection and interaction between the human skeleton and the human muscle or between human muscles themselves. The authors aimed to develop a method to quantitatively visualize them in space and time sequential domains by utilizing computer graphic techniques and 4D imaging

  10. Noninvasive Characterization of Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Using Textural Analysis of Quantitative Ultrasound Parametric Images

    PubMed Central

    Tadayyon, Hadi; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The identification of tumor pathologic characteristics is an important part of breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning but currently requires biopsy as its standard. Here, we investigated a noninvasive quantitative ultrasound method for the characterization of breast tumors in terms of their histologic grade, which can be used with clinical diagnostic ultrasound data. METHODS: Tumors of 57 locally advanced breast cancer patients were analyzed as part of this study. Seven quantitative ultrasound parameters were determined from each tumor region from the radiofrequency data, including mid-band fit, spectral slope, 0-MHz intercept, scatterer spacing, attenuation coefficient estimate, average scatterer diameter, and average acoustic concentration. Parametric maps were generated corresponding to the region of interest, from which four textural features, including contrast, energy, homogeneity, and correlation, were determined as further tumor characterization parameters. Data were examined on the basis of tumor subtypes based on histologic grade (grade I versus grade II to III). RESULTS: Linear discriminant analysis of the means of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 79%. On the other hand, the linear combination of the texture features of the parametric maps resulted in classification accuracy of 82%. Finally, when both the means and textures of the parametric maps were combined, the best classification accuracy was obtained (86%). CONCLUSIONS: Textural characteristics of quantitative ultrasound spectral parametric maps provided discriminant information about different types of breast tumors. The use of texture features significantly improved the results of ultrasonic tumor characterization compared to conventional mean values. Thus, this study suggests that texture-based quantitative ultrasound analysis of in vivo breast tumors can provide complementary diagnostic information about tumor histologic characteristics. PMID:25500086

  11. Quantitative multivariate analytical strategy for paleoenvironmental analysis of mixed benthic foraminiferal assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Lagoe, M.B. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Fossil assemblages of benthic foraminifera commonly contain taxa that were not associated together during life. A variety of processes act to modify living assemblages during the transition to fossil assemblages-transport of tests by traction and gravity currents, taphonomic filtering, and rapid shifting of environments in response to sea level fluctuations, to name a few. Unraveling the nature of faunal mixing can provide insights into depositional processes and paleoenvironmental history of particular lithofacies. A quantitative multivariate analytical strategy is presented to address these problems, using the late Cenozoic Yakataga Formation, Gulf of Alaska as a specific example. A variety of lithofacies are present within the Yakataga Formation including normal marine mudstones, sandstones, coquinas and conglomerates and glaciomarine diamictites. Comparison of fossil assemblages with modern foraminiferal distributions indicates significant faunal mixing in most lithofacies, particularly the diamictites. Quantitative analysis includes cluster analysis to define broad patterns in faunal similarity, R-mode factor analysis to define species interrelationships, and Q-mode polytopic vector analysis to 'unmix' the assemblages into their component biofacies. Two broad patterns of faunal mixing are identified: (1) comprehensive mixing of all possible biofacies within a particular bathymetric range and (2) mixing of very shallow (innermost neritic) with deeper (upper bathyal) assemblages, bypassing environments from outer neritic areas. Diamictites are shown to form in a variety of water depths from inner neritic to upper bathyal.

  12. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of calcium-based microfillers using terahertz spectroscopy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Abina, Andreja; Puc, Uroš; Jegli?, Anton; Prah, Jana; Venckevi?ius, Rimvydas; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras; Zidanšek, Aleksander

    2015-10-01

    In different industrial applications, several strictly defined parameters of calcium-based microfillers such as average particle size, particle size distribution, morphology, specific surface area, polymorphism and chemical purity, play a key role in the determination of its usefulness and effectiveness. Therefore, an analytical tool is required for rapid and non-destructive characterization of calcium-based microfillers during the synthesis process or before its use in a further manufacturing process. Since spectroscopic techniques are preferred over microscopy and thermogravimetry, particularly due to its non-destructive nature and short analysis time, we applied terahertz (THz) spectroscopy to analyse calcite microfillers concentration in polymer matrix, its granulation and chemical treatment. Based on the analysis of peak absorbance amplitude, peak frequency position, and the appearance of additional spectral features, quantitative and qualitative analysis was successfully achieved. In addition, THz imaging was also applied for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of calcium-based microfillers. By using spatial distribution map, the inhomogeneity in concentration of calcium carbonate in polymer matrix was characterized. Moreover, by THz spectroscopy and imaging different calcium compounds were detected in binary mixtures. Finally, we demonstrated that the applied spectroscopic technique offers valuable results and can be, in combination with other spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, converted to a powerful rapid analytical tool. PMID:26078145

  13. Incorporation of elements of quantitative risk analysis in the HACCP system.

    PubMed

    Notermans, S; Mead, G C

    1996-06-01

    Foodborne bacterial diseases cause considerable morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Preventive measures such as good manufacturing practices (GMP), supplemented by the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, have been introduced as a means of ensuring the production of safe food. However, their use does not necessarily provide quantitative information on the risks associated with the consumption of a particular food product. To obtain such information, elements of quantitative risk analysis (QRA) need to be used. QRA is defined as a stepwise analysis of the health risks associated with a specific type of food product, resulting in an estimation of the probability of occurrence of adverse effects on health following consumption of the food in question. It also includes an analysis of the nature of the risks. Taking this definition, five successive steps can be recognized: hazard identification, exposure assessment, dose response assessment, risk characterization and risk management. Food production is a dynamic activity, involving changes in, e.g. the composition and microbial quality of raw materials due to seasonal variation. Also, there may be continuing changes in processing conditions and in product composition due to consumer demands. Therefore, it will be desirable to incorporate QRA in existing safety assurance systems, such as HACCP, when sufficient information is available to permit this approach. PMID:8856381

  14. SILAC-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rüetschi, Ulla; Stenson, Martin; Hasselblom, Sverker; Nilsson-Ehle, Herman; Hansson, Ulrika; Fagman, Henrik; Andersson, Per-Ola

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common lymphoma, is a heterogeneous disease where the outcome for patients with early relapse or refractory disease is very poor, even in the era of immunochemotherapy. In order to describe possible differences in global protein expression and network patterns, we performed a SILAC-based shotgun (LC-MS/MS) quantitative proteomic analysis in fresh-frozen tumor tissue from two groups of DLBCL patients with totally different clinical outcome: (i) early relapsed or refractory and (ii) long-term progression-free patients. We could identify over 3,500 proteins; more than 1,300 were quantified in all patients and 87 were significantly differentially expressed. By functional annotation analysis on the 66 proteins overexpressed in the progression-free patient group, we found an enrichment of proteins involved in the regulation and organization of the actin cytoskeleton. Also, five proteins from actin cytoskeleton regulation, applied in a supervised regression analysis, could discriminate the two patient groups. In conclusion, SILAC-based shotgun quantitative proteomic analysis appears to be a powerful tool to explore the proteome in DLBCL tumor tissue. Also, as progression-free patients had a higher expression of proteins involved in the actin cytoskeleton protein network, such a pattern indicates a functional role in the sustained response to immunochemotherapy.

  15. Dosimetry for quantitative analysis of the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in radiation therapy patients

    E-print Network

    2006-01-01

    Dosimetry for Quantitative Analysis of the Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation in Radiation Therapy Patientspatients can be a study population if the phys- ics and dosimetrydosimetry. The phantom measurements had demonstrated that patient

  16. Direct evidence for the role of light-mediated gas vesicle collapse in the buoyancy regulation of Anabaena flos-aquae (cyanobacteria)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. OLIVER; A. E. WAISBY

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative measurements were made of the changes in gas vacuole volume and the major components of cell mass (protein and carbohydrate) on cultures of Anabaenaflos-aquae which lost buoyancy as they were shifted from low to high light intensity. Assuming densities of 1,300 kg. rn-' for protein and 1,600 for carbohydrate, we calculated the change in ballast brought about by changes

  17. CERES Edition2 Cloud Property Retrievals Using TRMM VIRS and Terra and Aqua MODIS Data—Part II: Examples of Average Results and Comparisons With Other Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Minnis; Szedung Sun-Mack; Yan Chen; Mandana M. Khaiyer; Yuhong Yi; J. Kirk Ayers; Ricky R. Brown; Xiquan Dong; Sharon C. Gibson; Patrick W. Heck; Bing Lin; Michele L. Nordeen; Louis Nguyen; Rabindra Palikonda; William L. Smith; Douglas A. Spangenberg; Qing Z. Trepte; Baike Xi

    2011-01-01

    Cloud properties were retrieved by applying the Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project Edition-2 algorithms to 3.5 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Visible and Infrared Scanner data and 5.5 and 8 years of MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from Aqua and Terra, respectively. The cloud products are consistent quantitatively from all three imagers; the greatest dis-

  18. Quantitative analysis of markers of podocyte injury in the rat puromycin aminonucleoside nephropathy model.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Okada, Kinya; Fujitaka, Keisuke; Nishio, Masashi; Kato, Tsuyoshi; Fukunari, Atsushi; Utsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    Podocytes are an essential component of the renal glomerular filtration barrier, their injury playing an early and important role in progressive renal dysfunction. This makes quantification of podocyte marker immunoreactivity important for early detection of glomerular histopathological changes. Here we have specifically applied a state-of-the-art automated computational method of glomerulus recognition, which we have recently developed, to study quantitatively podocyte markers in a model with selective podocyte injury, namely the rat puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) nephropathy model. We also retrospectively investigated mRNA expression levels of these markers in glomeruli which were isolated from the same formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney samples by laser microdissection. Among the examined podocyte markers, the immunopositive area and mRNA expression level of both podoplanin and synaptopodin were decreased in PAN glomeruli. The immunopositive area of podocin showed a slight decrease in PAN glomeruli, while its mRNA level showed no change. We have also identified a novel podocyte injury marker ?-enolase, which was increased exclusively by podocytes in PAN glomeruli, similarly to another widely used marker, desmin. Thus, we have shown the specific application of a state-of-the-art computational method and retrospective mRNA expression analysis to quantitatively study the changes of various podocyte markers. The proposed methods will open new avenues for quantitative elucidation of renal glomerular histopathology. PMID:25481214

  19. Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of Proteins Involved in Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Rieko; Nakamura, Yasushi; Takami, Tomonori; Sanke, Tokio; Tozuka, Zenzaburo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the analysis of proteins involved in metastasis of breast cancer for diagnosis and determining disease prognosis, as well as to further our understand of metastatic mechanisms. We have previously demonstrated that the protein type XIV collagen may be specifically expressed in metastatic tissues by two dimensional LC-MS/MS. In this study, we developed quantitative LC-MS/MS methods for type XIV collagen. Type XIV collagen was quantified by analyzing 2 peptides generated by digesting type XIV collagen using stable isotope-labeled peptides. The individual concentrations were equivalent between 2 different peptides of type XIV collagen by evaluation of imprecise transitions and using the best transition for the peptide concentration. The results indicated that type XIV collagen is highly expressed in metastatic tissues of patients with massive lymph node involvement compared to non-metastatic tissues. These findings were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Further studies on type XIV collagen are desired to verify its role as a prognostic factor and diagnosis marker for metastasis. PMID:26176947

  20. INTER-OBSERVER REPRODUCIBILITY OF QUANTITATIVE MENISCUS ANALYSIS USING CORONAL MULTIPLANAR DESS AND IWTSE MR IMAGING

    PubMed Central

    Siorpaes, Kristina; Wenger, Andrea; Bloecker, Katja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hudelmaier, Martin; Eckstein, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inter-observer reproducibility (IOR) of quantitative measures of meniscus size and position, and to compare the IOR and agreement between a double echo steady state (DESS) water excitation and an intermediately-weighted turbo spin-echo (IWTSE) sequence. Eight knees (4 healthy, 4 with radiographic knee OA) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative cohort were studied. Manual segmentation of the menisci was performed by 3 observers and quantitative measures of meniscus size and position (i.e. extrusion) computed using image analysis software. The root mean square IOR error (e.g. 5.4% for medial meniscus volume with DESS and 8.4% with IWTSE) was found considerably smaller than the inter-subject variability (average ratio approximately 1:3). The lowest IOR error for meniscus extrusion was obtained for the central 5 coronal slices across the tibial surface. Quantitative meniscus measures from DESS and IWTSE were highly correlated (r=0.71 to 0.99 for the medial meniscus). PMID:22135245

  1. Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing “Mountains of Words” for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data. PMID:20222777

  2. PIQMIe: a web server for semi-quantitative proteomics data management and analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzniar, Arnold; Kanaar, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We present the Proteomics Identifications and Quantitations Data Management and Integration Service or PIQMIe that aids in reliable and scalable data management, analysis and visualization of semi-quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics experiments. PIQMIe readily integrates peptide and (non-redundant) protein identifications and quantitations from multiple experiments with additional biological information on the protein entries, and makes the linked data available in the form of a light-weight relational database, which enables dedicated data analyses (e.g. in R) and user-driven queries. Using the web interface, users are presented with a concise summary of their proteomics experiments in numerical and graphical forms, as well as with a searchable protein grid and interactive visualization tools to aid in the rapid assessment of the experiments and in the identification of proteins of interest. The web server not only provides data access through a web interface but also supports programmatic access through RESTful web service. The web server is available at http://piqmie.semiqprot-emc.cloudlet.sara.nl or http://www.bioinformatics.nl/piqmie. This website is free and open to all users and there is no login requirement. PMID:24861615

  3. Qualitative and quantitative environmental analysis by capillary column gas chromatography/lightpipe Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gurka, D.F.; Pyle, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    A new state-of-art commercial gas chromatography/Fourier transform infrared (GC/FT-IR) lightpipe-containing system has been evaluated for its applicability to qualitative and quantitative environmental analysis of typical environmental contaminants. This system exhibited minimum identifiable quantities, for many compounds, in the 10-50-ng range. On a wide-bore capillary column, quantitation curves generated from chromatogram peak areas were linear over the 10-250-ng range. The mean correlation coefficient for 38 quantitation calibration curves on 24 standards was 0.976. The selectivity of the new system was evaluated with standards, soil, and still-bottom samples. It was demonstrated with 27 standards that no discernible loss in identification selectivity occurred when a narrow-band infrared detector (spectral cutoff 750 cm/sup -1/) was used in place of a midband detector (cutoff 700 cm/sup -1/). This allows the meaningful utilization of the extra sensitivity associated with narrower frequency range infrared detectors.

  4. Capillary nano-immunoassays: advancing quantitative proteomics analysis, biomarker assessment, and molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Qiu; Wakefield, Lalage M; Goldstein, David J

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging demand for the use of molecular profiling to facilitate biomarker identification and development, and to stratify patients for more efficient treatment decisions with reduced adverse effects. In the past decade, great strides have been made to advance genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to address these demands. While there has been much progress with these large scale approaches, profiling at the protein level still faces challenges due to limitations in clinical sample size, poor reproducibility, unreliable quantitation, and lack of assay robustness. A novel automated capillary nano-immunoassay (CNIA) technology has been developed. This technology offers precise and accurate measurement of proteins and their post-translational modifications using either charge-based or size-based separation formats. The system not only uses ultralow nanogram levels of protein but also allows multi-analyte analysis using a parallel single-analyte format for increased sensitivity and specificity. The high sensitivity and excellent reproducibility of this technology make it particularly powerful for analysis of clinical samples. Furthermore, the system can distinguish and detect specific protein post-translational modifications that conventional Western blot and other immunoassays cannot easily capture. This review will summarize and evaluate the latest progress to optimize the CNIA system for comprehensive, quantitative protein and signaling event characterization. It will also discuss how the technology has been successfully applied in both discovery research and clinical studies, for signaling pathway dissection, proteomic biomarker assessment, targeted treatment evaluation and quantitative proteomic analysis. Lastly, a comparison of this novel system with other conventional immuno-assay platforms is performed. PMID:26048678

  5. Portland Cement (KS and API Class G) and Relative Quantitative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, Seung-Woo; CHAE, Gi-Tak; KIM, Taehee

    2015-04-01

    Portland cement is a common component consisting of a sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon storage to prevent vertical fluid migration and provide mechanical support. Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate a cement-CO2 reaction along the wellbore from the carbon injection depth to the near surface. The reaction of the cement phase with CO2 can lead to important changes in its structure and properties. In this study, two types of cement were used: KS Portland cement and API Class G Portland cement. The hydrated cement sample columns (14 mm diameter X 90 mm long; water-to-cement ratio = 0.5) were reacted with CO2 in the saturated and the unsaturated condition. Fly-ash was used as additives to promote carbonation. These conditions were maintained under high pressure (8 MPa) and temperature (40 degree Celsius) for 10 and 100 days. To analyze the degree of carbonation after cement carbonation, relative quantitative analysis was proposed. And Rietveld method were conducted to evaluate a relative quantitative analysis (RQA) with an aragonite-calcite equation. This method can be an alternative to the general quantitative analysis method to identify the state of cement carbonation between Portland cement and CO2. Based on an understanding of cement carbonation and its relative quantification, we propose that our method should be used to select the optimized cement for CO2 storage. Using our method, KS (Korea Standard) Portland cement (type I) and API Class G Portland cement have been compared with respect to the characterization of each cement and to the cement carbonation of each cement.

  6. Patterning and transferring hydrogel-encapsulated bacterial cells for quantitative analysis of synthetically engineered genetic circuits.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woon Sun; Kim, Minseok; Park, Seongyong; Lee, Sung Kuk; Kim, Taesung

    2012-01-01

    We describe a hydrogel patterning and transferring (HPT) method that facilitates the quantitative analysis of synthetically engineered genetic circuits within bacterial cells. The HPT method encapsulates cells in the alginate hydrogel patterns by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) template. Then, the hydrogel-encapsulated cell patterns are transferred onto an agarose hydrogel substrate that encapsulates inducer chemicals or bacterial cells. Using the HPT method, we demonstrate that inducers in the agarose hydrogel substrate regulate gene expression of the patterned cells for qualitative analysis by activating the promoters of fluorescence protein genes. In addition, we demonstrate that the HPT method can be used for the analysis of the cross-talk between genetic circuits and the concentration-dependent gene expression and regulation because the agarose hydrogel substrate can produce concentration gradients of inducers. Lastly, we demonstrate that the HPT method can be applied to investigating intercellular communication between neighboring cells with a wide range of cell densities. Since the HPT method is simple to deal with but versatile and powerful to quantitatively analyze genetic circuits in living cells in many controllable manners, we believe that the method can be widely used for the rapid advancement of synthetic, molecular, and systems biology. PMID:22014463

  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

  8. iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of the Initiation of Head Regeneration in Planarians

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiaofang; Wang, Gaiping; Qin, Yanli; Zang, Xiayan; Li, Pengfei; Geng, Zhi; Xue, Deming; Dong, Zimei; Ma, Kexue; Chen, Guangwen; Xu, Cunshuan

    2015-01-01

    The planarian Dugesia japonica has amazing ability to regenerate a head from the anterior ends of the amputated stump with maintenance of the original anterior-posterior polarity. Although planarians present an attractive system for molecular investigation of regeneration and research has focused on clarifying the molecular mechanism of regeneration initiation in planarians at transcriptional level, but the initiation mechanism of planarian head regeneration (PHR) remains unclear at the protein level. Here, a global analysis of proteome dynamics during the early stage of PHR was performed using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy, and our data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002100. The results showed that 162 proteins were differentially expressed at 2 h and 6 h following amputation. Furthermore, the analysis of expression patterns and functional enrichment of the differentially expressed proteins showed that proteins involved in muscle contraction, oxidation reduction and protein synthesis were up-regulated in the initiation of PHR. Moreover, ingenuity pathway analysis showed that predominant signaling pathways such as ILK, calcium, EIF2 and mTOR signaling which were associated with cell migration, cell proliferation and protein synthesis were likely to be involved in the initiation of PHR. The results for the first time demonstrated that muscle contraction and ILK signaling might played important roles in the initiation of PHR at the global protein level. The findings of this research provide a molecular basis for further unraveling the mechanism of head regeneration initiation in planarians. PMID:26131905

  9. IsobarPTM: A software tool for the quantitative analysis of post-translationally modified proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Breitwieser, Florian P.; Colinge, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The establishment of extremely powerful proteomics platforms able to map thousands of modification sites, e.g. phosphorylations or acetylations, over entire proteomes calls for equally powerful software tools to effectively extract useful and reliable information from such complex datasets. We present a new quantitative PTM analysis platform aimed at processing iTRAQ or Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) labeled peptides. It covers a broad range of needs associated with proper PTM ratio analysis such as PTM localization validation, robust ratio computation and statistical assessment, and navigable user report generation. IsobarPTM is made available as an R Bioconductor package and it can be run from the command line by non R specialists. Biological significance “IsobarPTM is a new software tool facilitating the quantitative analysis of protein modification regulation streamlining important issues related to PTM localization and statistical modeling. Users are provided with a navigable spreadsheet report, which also annotate already public modification sites.” This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: From Genome to Proteome: Open Innovations. PMID:23470796

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis for Facial Complexion in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-zheng; Li, Fufeng; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Facial diagnosis is an important and very intuitive diagnostic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative and experience-based subjective property, traditional facial diagnosis has a certain limitation in clinical medicine. The computerized inspection method provides classification models to recognize facial complexion (including color and gloss). However, the previous works only study the classification problems of facial complexion, which is considered as qualitative analysis in our perspective. For quantitative analysis expectation, the severity or degree of facial complexion has not been reported yet. This paper aims to make both qualitative and quantitative analysis for facial complexion. We propose a novel feature representation of facial complexion from the whole face of patients. The features are established with four chromaticity bases splitting up by luminance distribution on CIELAB color space. Chromaticity bases are constructed from facial dominant color using two-level clustering; the optimal luminance distribution is simply implemented with experimental comparisons. The features are proved to be more distinctive than the previous facial complexion feature representation. Complexion recognition proceeds by training an SVM classifier with the optimal model parameters. In addition, further improved features are more developed by the weighted fusion of five local regions. Extensive experimental results show that the proposed features achieve highest facial color recognition performance with a total accuracy of 86.89%. And, furthermore, the proposed recognition framework could analyze both color and gloss degrees of facial complexion by learning a ranking function. PMID:24967342

  11. Fiber tract-oriented statistics for quantitative diffusion tensor MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Corouge, Isabelle; Fletcher, P Thomas; Joshi, Sarang; Gouttard, Sylvain; Gerig, Guido

    2006-10-01

    Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has become the major imaging modality to study properties of white matter and the geometry of fiber tracts of the human brain. Clinical studies mostly focus on regional statistics of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) derived from tensors. Existing analysis techniques do not sufficiently take into account that the measurements are tensors, and thus require proper interpolation and statistics of tensors, and that regions of interest are fiber tracts with complex spatial geometry. We propose a new framework for quantitative tract-oriented DTI analysis that systematically includes tensor interpolation and averaging, using nonlinear Riemannian symmetric space. A new measure of tensor anisotropy, called geodesic anisotropy (GA) is applied and compared with FA. As a result, tracts of interest are represented by the geometry of the medial spine attributed with tensor statistics (average and variance) calculated within cross-sections. Feasibility of our approach is demonstrated on various fiber tracts of a single data set. A validation study, based on six repeated scans of the same subject, assesses the reproducibility of this new DTI data analysis framework. PMID:16926104

  12. Measuring quantitative virulence in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici using high-throughput automated image analysis.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ethan L; McDonald, Bruce A

    2014-09-01

    Zymoseptoria tritici, causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch on wheat, produces pycnidia in chlorotic and necrotic lesions on infected leaves. A high-throughput phenotyping method was developed based on automated digital image analysis that accurately measures the percentage of leaf area covered by lesions (PLACL) as well as pycnidia size and number. A seedling inoculation assay was conducted using 361 Z. tritici isolates originating from a controlled cross and two different winter wheat cultivars. Pycnidia size and density were found to be quantitative traits that showed a continuous distribution in the progeny. There was a weak correlation between pycnidia density and size (r = -0.27) and between pycnidia density and PLACL (r = 0.37). There were significant differences in PLACL and pycnidia density on resistant and susceptible cultivars. In all, >20% of the offspring exhibited significantly different pycnidia density on the two cultivars, consistent with host specialization. Automated image analysis provided greater accuracy and precision compared with traditional visual estimates of virulence. These results show that digital image analysis provides a powerful tool for measuring differences in quantitative virulence among strains of Z. tritici. PMID:24624955

  13. Quantitative Analysis Tools and Digital Phantoms for Deformable Image Registration Quality Assurance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haksoo; Park, Samuel B; Monroe, James I; Traughber, Bryan J; Zheng, Yiran; Lo, Simon S; Yao, Min; Mansur, David; Ellis, Rodney; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W

    2014-10-21

    This article proposes quantitative analysis tools and digital phantoms to quantify intrinsic errors of deformable image registration (DIR) systems and establish quality assurance (QA) procedures for clinical use of DIR systems utilizing local and global error analysis methods with clinically realistic digital image phantoms. Landmark-based image registration verifications are suitable only for images with significant feature points. To address this shortfall, we adapted a deformation vector field (DVF) comparison approach with new analysis techniques to quantify the results. Digital image phantoms are derived from data sets of actual patient images (a reference image set, R, a test image set, T). Image sets from the same patient taken at different times are registered with deformable methods producing a reference DVFref. Applying DVFref to the original reference image deforms T into a new image R'. The data set, R', T, and DVFref, is from a realistic truth set and therefore can be used to analyze any DIR system and expose intrinsic errors by comparing DVFref and DVFtest. For quantitative error analysis, calculating and delineating differences between DVFs, 2 methods were used, (1) a local error analysis tool that displays deformation error magnitudes with color mapping on each image slice and (2) a global error analysis tool that calculates a deformation error histogram, which describes a cumulative probability function of errors for each anatomical structure. Three digital image phantoms were generated from three patients with a head and neck, a lung and a liver cancer. The DIR QA was evaluated using the case with head and neck. PMID:25336380

  14. Modular isotopomer synthesis of ?-hydroxybutyric acid for a quantitative analysis of metabolic fates.

    PubMed

    Sadhukhan, Sushabhan; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Tochtrop, Gregory P

    2014-08-15

    Herein we report a study combining metabolomics and mass isotopomer analysis used for investigation of the biochemical fate of ?-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB). Using various (13)C incorporation labeling patterns into GHB, we have discovered that GHB is catabolized by previously unknown processes that include (i) direct ?-oxidation to acetyl-CoA and glycolate, (ii) ?-oxidation to 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA and formate, and (iii) cleavage of C-4 to yield 3-hydroxypropionate and CO2. We further utilized the unique attributes of our labeling patterns and the resultant isotopomers to quantitate relative flux down the identified pathways. PMID:24933109

  15. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry: A quantitative technique for chemical and structural analysis of surfaces and thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, C.W.; Hewitt, L.R.

    1986-06-01

    This review paper on Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) presents the basics of MeV helium-ion scattering from solids. The instrumentation used in RBS is discussed, as well as some of the mathematical formalism needed by the user of the technique to understand and have confidence in the great quantitative power of RBS. Examples are included to illustrate the application of the technique to (1) surface analysis, (2) the determination of thin-film elemental composition, and (3) crystal-structure investigation of single-crystal thin films.

  16. Multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic tissue Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei

    2013-12-01

    We report a novel method making use of multivariate reference signals of fused silica and sapphire Raman signals generated from a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of in vivo tissue Raman measurements in real time. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression modeling is applied to extract the characteristic internal reference Raman signals (e.g., shoulder of the prominent fused silica boson peak (~130 cm(-1)); distinct sapphire ball-lens peaks (380, 417, 646, and 751 cm(-1))) from the ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy. To evaluate the analytical value of this novel multivariate reference technique, a rapid Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe is used for in vivo oral tissue Raman measurements (n = 25 subjects) under 785 nm laser excitation powers ranging from 5 to 65 mW. An accurate linear relationship (R(2) = 0.981) with a root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.5 mW can be obtained for predicting the laser excitation power changes based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation, which is superior to the normal univariate reference method (RMSE = 6.2 mW). A root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.4 mW (R(2) = 0.985) can also be achieved for laser power prediction in real time when we applied the multivariate method independently on the five new subjects (n = 166 spectra). We further apply the multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of gelatin tissue phantoms that gives rise to an RMSEP of ~2.0% (R(2) = 0.998) independent of laser excitation power variations. This work demonstrates that multivariate reference technique can be advantageously used to monitor and correct the variations of laser excitation power and fiber coupling efficiency in situ for standardizing the tissue Raman intensity to realize quantitative analysis of tissue Raman measurements in vivo, which is particularly appealing in challenging Raman endoscopic applications. PMID:24160634

  17. The Government Finance Database: A Common Resource for Quantitative Research in Public Financial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierson, Kawika; Hand, Michael L.; Thompson, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative public financial management research focused on local governments is limited by the absence of a common database for empirical analysis. While the U.S. Census Bureau distributes government finance data that some scholars have utilized, the arduous process of collecting, interpreting, and organizing the data has led its adoption to be prohibitive and inconsistent. In this article we offer a single, coherent resource that contains all of the government financial data from 1967-2012, uses easy to understand natural-language variable names, and will be extended when new data is available. PMID:26107821

  18. Quantitative Texture Analysis and Transesophageal Echocardiography to Characterize the Acute Myocardial Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Amichi, Abdelaziz; Laugier, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial contusion (MC) is a common injury following blunt chest trauma without any specific symptoms. Several techniques such as electrocardiogram, estimation of myocardial band fraction of creatine phosphokinase, chest radiography and the scintiscanning missed efficiency to characterize the MC. Another technique based on transesophageal echocardiography [TEE] allows to visualize the structures of the heart with a good spatial resolution. We postulated that the quantitative texture analysis of regional image texture in two- dimensional [2D] TEE echocardiograms would be an accurate method to differentiate normal from abnormal myocardial wall. This preliminary experimental study demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed technique. PMID:19587806

  19. [Study on the UV-quantitative analysis of theabrownins in Pu-Erh tea].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Peng, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Hua-Rong; Sheng, Jun; Gong, Jia-Shun

    2013-07-01

    An UV-quantitative analysis method for the theabrownin (TB) in Pu-erh tea and its derived products was established in the present study. The results showed that the Pu-erh tea shows characteristic absorption at the wavelength of 270 nm, which can be used as wavelength for the content determination of TB. The preparation methods of standard TB and standard curve were also established. The determination results show that the method is simple, the results have certain credibility, and the established method can be used for the determination of TB in Pu-erh tea and its derived products. PMID:24059188

  20. Quantitative accuracy of PET?CT for image-based kinetic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Youngho; Teo, Boon-Keng; Hadi, Mohiuddin; Schreck, Carole; Bacharach, Stephen L.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-01-01

    Accuracy in quantification of activity concentrations (e.g., in Bq?ml) is essential for compartment modeling and kinetic analysis of dynamic reconstructed PET images. Dynamic PET data can be acquired in list-mode, and often are preferred over frame mode acquisitions due to the flexibility of reformatting the list-mode data into different dynamic image sequences after the acquisition is complete. However, most PET data are acquired as static frames. It therefore is important to evaluate the quantitative accuracy of list-mode or dynamic PET acquisitions prior to their use for clinical or research applications. The quantitative accuracy of list-mode acquisitions obtained with a Siemens Biograph 16 PET?CT scanner at our institution was evaluated; the image data were acquired from an anthropomorphic phantom (Data Spectrum, Hillsborough, NC) filled with an aqueous solution of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET data were acquired with the phantom for the following three different configurations: (1) with nonradioactive water in the body compartment and aqueous solution of 18F-FDG in only a fillable cylindrical insert to simulate the first several seconds of highly concentrated radioactivity within the field of view such as that in major venous or pulmonary vessels or in the cardiac ventricles, (2) with radioactivity throughout the entire body compartment and imaged with 3 min static frames and 12 min in list-mode that was reformatted into four 3-min frames, and (3) with radioactivity throughout the body compartment and imaged in list-mode and reformatted into sequential time frames having durations of 3, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 67 s, respectively (i.e., total of 180 s). All measured concentration values were compared against values acquired from static images or against the actual activity concentrations calculated from the calibrated activities dispensed into the phantom corrected for physical decay of 18F. These analyses demonstrated that the count rate limitation is minimal or negligible as long as there is no more than 370–440 MBq (10?12 mCi) activity entirely within the axial FOV and that list-mode acquisition yields accurate quantitation of activity concentrations over a clinically realistic range of activities. In addition, reformatting a single list-mode acquisition into frames of different durations retains quantitative accuracy with respect to static frame data and compared to the known radionuclide concentration in the phantom. Within these constraints, the list-mode data acquired with the Biograph 16 PET?CT system are quantitatively accurate for image-based kinetic analysis. PMID:18697532

  1. Pleiotropy Analysis of Quantitative Traits at Gene Level by Multivariate Functional Linear Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Liu, Aiyi; Mills, James L.; Boehnke, Michael; Wilson, Alexander F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Xiong, Momiao; Wu, Colin O.; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    In genetics, pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. A common approach is to analyze the phenotypic traits separately using univariate analyses and combine the test results through multiple comparisons. This approach may lead to low power. Multivariate functional linear models are developed to connect genetic variant data to multiple quantitative traits adjusting for covariates for a unified analysis. Three types of approximate F-distribution tests based on Pillai–Bartlett trace, Hotelling–Lawley trace, and Wilks’s Lambda are introduced to test for association between multiple quantitative traits and multiple genetic variants in one genetic region. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and optimal sequence kernel association test (SKAT-O). Extensive simulations were performed to evaluate the false positive rates and power performance of the proposed models and tests. We show that the approximate F-distribution tests control the type I error rates very well. Overall, simultaneous analysis of multiple traits can increase power performance compared to an individual test of each trait. The proposed methods were applied to analyze (1) four lipid traits in eight European cohorts, and (2) three biochemical traits in the Trinity Students Study. The approximate F-distribution tests provide much more significant results than those of F-tests of univariate analysis and SKAT-O for the three biochemical traits. The approximate F-distribution tests of the proposed functional linear models are more sensitive than those of the traditional multivariate linear models that in turn are more sensitive than SKAT-O in the univariate case. The analysis of the four lipid traits and the three biochemical traits detects more association than SKAT-O in the univariate case. PMID:25809955

  2. Quantitative microbial community analysis of three different sulfidic mine tailing dumps generating acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kock, Dagmar; Schippers, Axel

    2008-08-01

    The microbial communities of three different sulfidic and acidic mine waste tailing dumps located in Botswana, Germany, and Sweden were quantitatively analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH (CARD-FISH), Sybr green II direct counting, and the most probable number (MPN) cultivation technique. Depth profiles of cell numbers showed that the compositions of the microbial communities are greatly different at the three sites and also strongly varied between zones of oxidized and unoxidized tailings. Maximum cell numbers of up to 10(9) cells g(-1) dry weight were determined in the pyrite or pyrrhotite oxidation zones, whereas cell numbers in unoxidized tailings were significantly lower. Bacteria dominated over Archaea and Eukarya at all tailing sites. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and/or sulfur-oxidizing Acidithiobacillus spp. dominated over the acidophilic Fe(II)-oxidizing Leptospirillum spp. among the Bacteria at two sites. The two genera were equally abundant at the third site. The acidophilic Fe(II)- and sulfur-oxidizing Sulfobacillus spp. were generally less abundant. The acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing Acidiphilium spp. could be found at only one site. The neutrophilic Fe(III)-reducing Geobacteraceae as well as the dsrA gene of sulfate reducers were quantifiable at all three sites. FISH analysis provided reliable data only for tailing zones with high microbial activity, whereas CARD-FISH, Q-PCR, Sybr green II staining, and MPN were suitable methods for a quantitative microbial community analysis of tailings in general. PMID:18586975

  3. New sensitive and quantitative analysis method for organic nitrogen compounds in urban aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Özel, Mustafa Z; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Lewis, Alastair C

    2011-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols contain a highly complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, as a chemical class relatively little is known about organic nitrogen (ON) content, with few satisfactory methods for speciated analysis. In this paper we report a sensitive and quantitative method for the speciation of ON within ambient atmospheric aerosol. Aerosol samples, collected on quartz microfiber filters, were extracted in water followed by solid phase extraction, elution, and concentration before analysis by comprehensive gas chromatography with a nitrogen chemiluminescence detection system (GCxGC-NCD). The NCD detection method was optimized using liquid standards. The GCxGC-NCD method showed high selectivity, sensitivity, and equimolarity in its response to individual organic compounds. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for four ON standards (1-nitropentane, o-toluidine, nonanenitrile, and quinoline) were determined to be in the range 0.16-0.27 pgN and 0.71-1.19 pgN, respectively. Between 21 and 57 different ON compounds were found in urban aerosol, (including 10 nitriles, 9 alkyl nitro compounds, 4 nitro-phenols, 4 amides, 3 nitrosamines, and 2 nitro-PAHs) on different dates from a city center location. Pyrrole (8.26-39.21 ngN m(-3) air) and N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide (6.23-20.87 ngN m(-3) air) were the most abundant ON compounds observed in all samples analyzed. The average mass loading of the total identified ON was 532.51 ngON m(-3) air. The sensitivity, selectivity, and relative ease of quantitation of unknown ON components makes the technique a significant improvement over previous laboratory methods. PMID:21210660

  4. Quantitative neuroanatomy of all Purkinje cells with light sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis

    PubMed Central

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Paciscopi, Marco; Soda, Paolo; Biamonte, Filippo; Iannello, Giulio; Frasconi, Paolo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the cytoarchitecture of mammalian central nervous system on a brain-wide scale is becoming a compelling need in neuroscience. For example, realistic modeling of brain activity requires the definition of quantitative features of large neuronal populations in the whole brain. Quantitative anatomical maps will also be crucial to classify the cytoarchtitectonic abnormalities associated with neuronal pathologies in a high reproducible and reliable manner. In this paper, we apply recent advances in optical microscopy and image analysis to characterize the spatial distribution of Purkinje cells (PCs) across the whole cerebellum. Light sheet microscopy was used to image with micron-scale resolution a fixed and cleared cerebellum of an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all PCs are fluorescently labeled. A fast and scalable algorithm for fully automated cell identification was applied on the image to extract the position of all the fluorescent PCs. This vectorized representation of the cell population allows a thorough characterization of the complex three-dimensional distribution of the neurons, highlighting the presence of gaps inside the lamellar organization of PCs, whose density is believed to play a significant role in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the localized somata permits dividing the whole cerebellum in groups of PCs with high spatial correlation, suggesting new possibilities of anatomical partition. The quantitative approach presented here can be extended to study the distribution of different types of cell in many brain regions and across the whole encephalon, providing a robust base for building realistic computational models of the brain, and for unbiased morphological tissue screening in presence of pathologies and/or drug treatments. PMID:26074783

  5. Quantitative neuroanatomy of all Purkinje cells with light sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Paciscopi, Marco; Soda, Paolo; Biamonte, Filippo; Iannello, Giulio; Frasconi, Paolo; Pavone, Francesco S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the cytoarchitecture of mammalian central nervous system on a brain-wide scale is becoming a compelling need in neuroscience. For example, realistic modeling of brain activity requires the definition of quantitative features of large neuronal populations in the whole brain. Quantitative anatomical maps will also be crucial to classify the cytoarchtitectonic abnormalities associated with neuronal pathologies in a high reproducible and reliable manner. In this paper, we apply recent advances in optical microscopy and image analysis to characterize the spatial distribution of Purkinje cells (PCs) across the whole cerebellum. Light sheet microscopy was used to image with micron-scale resolution a fixed and cleared cerebellum of an L7-GFP transgenic mouse, in which all PCs are fluorescently labeled. A fast and scalable algorithm for fully automated cell identification was applied on the image to extract the position of all the fluorescent PCs. This vectorized representation of the cell population allows a thorough characterization of the complex three-dimensional distribution of the neurons, highlighting the presence of gaps inside the lamellar organization of PCs, whose density is believed to play a significant role in autism spectrum disorders. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the localized somata permits dividing the whole cerebellum in groups of PCs with high spatial correlation, suggesting new possibilities of anatomical partition. The quantitative approach presented here can be extended to study the distribution of different types of cell in many brain regions and across the whole encephalon, providing a robust base for building realistic computational models of the brain, and for unbiased morphological tissue screening in presence of pathologies and/or drug treatments. PMID:26074783

  6. Aqua-planet simulations of the formation of the South Atlantic convergence zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieto Ferreira, Rosana; Chao, Winston C.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of Amazon Basin convection and cold fronts on the formation and maintenance of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ) is studied using aqua-planet simulations with a general circulation model. In the model, a circular patch of warm sea-surface temperature (SST) is used to mimic the effect of the Amazon Basin on South American monsoon convection. The aqua-planet simulations were designed to study the effect of the strength and latitude of Amazon Basin convection on the formation of the SACZ. The simulations indicate that the strength of the SACZ increases as the Amazon convection intensifies and is moved away from the equator. Of the two controls studied here, the latitude of the Amazon convection exerts the strongest effect on the strength of the SACZ. An analysis of the synoptic-scale variability in the simulations shows the importance of frontal systems in the formation of the aqua-planet SACZ. Composite time series of frontal systems that occurred in the simulations show that a robust SACZ occurs when fronts penetrate into the subtropics and become stationary there as they cross eastward of the longitude of the Amazon Basin. Moisture convergence associated with these frontal systems produces rainfall not along the model SACZ region and along a large portion of the northern model Amazon Basin. Simulations in which the warm SST patch was too weak or too close to the equator did not produce frontal systems that extended into the tropics and became stationary, and did not form a SACZ. In the model, the SACZ forms as Amazon Basin convection strengthens and migrates far enough southward to allow frontal systems to penetrate into the tropics and stall over South America. This result is in agreement with observations that the SACZ tends to form after the onset of the monsoon season in the Amazon Basin.

  7. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Luk, Gigi; Green, David W; Abutalebi, Jubin; Grady, Cheryl

    2011-11-17

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model based on a qualitative analysis [Abutalebi, J., & Green, D. W. (2008). Control mechanisms in bilingual language production: Neural evidence from language switching studies. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 557-582.]. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, ten neuroimaging studies met our inclusion criteria and in each study, bilinguals switched between languages in response to cues. We isolated regions involved in voluntary language switching, by including reported contrasts between the switching conditions and high level baseline conditions involving similar tasks but requiring the use of only one language. Eight brain regions showed significant and reliable activation: left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, midline pre-SMA and bilateral caudate nuclei. This quantitative result is consistent with bilingual aphasia studies that report switching deficits associated with lesions to the caudate nuclei or prefrontal cortex. It also extends the previously reported qualitative model. We discuss the implications of the findings for accounts of bilingual cognitive control. PMID:24795491

  8. Chromosome mechanics in vivo: quantitative analysis of nonrigid 3D chromosome motion in Drosophila embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Wallace F.; Agard, David A.; Sedat, John W.

    1996-05-01

    Chromosomes are often arranged into specific configurations. One example is the metaphase plate of the Drosophila embryo in which chromosomes are arranged into a parallel bundle. How is this configuration established and maintained? Quantitative analysis of chromosomes motion in vivo should help answer this question by providing a measure of the relevant mechanical properties of the chromosomes themselves. In addition, motion analysis will allow us to study interactions of chromosomes with the mitotic spindle. In order to analyze moving mitotic chromosomes, we acquire time-lapse 3D images of chromosomes in living Drosophila embryos, and then interactively model the chromosome configuration at each time point. A model-based motion estimation algorithm is then applied. From the motion estimate, we can visualize trajectories of different regions on the chromosomes, such as centromeres and telomeres, during metaphase and during prometaphase congression. In addition, quantitative estimates of mechanical properties such as mobility and flexibility can be computed. In this preliminary report we describe computational tools for tracking and visualizing 3D chromosome motion, and for detecting oscillations in position along the mitotic spindle.

  9. Histogram Analysis of Hepatobiliary Phase MR Imaging as a Quantitative Value for Liver Cirrhosis: Preliminary Observations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Honsoul; Sun, Mark; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether histogram analysis of the hepatobiliary phase on gadoxetate enhanced-MRI could be used as a quantitative index for determination of liver cirrhosis. Materials and Methods A total of 63 patients [26 in a normal liver function (NLF) group and 37 in a cirrhotic group] underwent gadoxetate-enhanced MRI, and hepatobiliary phase images were obtained at 20 minutes after contrast injection. The signal intensity of the hepatic parenchyma was measured at four different regions of interest (ROI) of the liver, avoiding vessels and bile ducts. Standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and corrected CV were calculated on the histograms at the ROIs. The distributions of CVs calculated from the ROI histogram were examined and statistical analysis was carried out. Results The CV value was 0.041±0.009 (mean CV±SD) in the NLF group, while that of cirrhotic group was 0.071±0.020. There were statistically significant differences in the CVs and corrected CV values between the NLF and cirrhotic groups (p<0.001). The most accurate cut-off value among CVs for distinguishing normal from cirrhotic group was 0.052 (sensitivity 83.8% and specificity 88.5%). There was no statistically significant differences in SD between NLF and cirrhotic groups (p=0.307). Conclusion The CV of histograms of the hepatobiliary phase on gadoxetate-enhanced MRI may be useful as a quantitative value for determining the presence of liver cirrhosis. PMID:24719131

  10. Quantitative deuterium analysis of titanium samples in ultraviolet laser-induced low-pressure helium plasma.

    PubMed

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur; Lie, Zener Sukra; Niki, Hideaki; Pardede, Marincan; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Tjung Jie; Jobiliong, Eric; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Fukumoto, Ken-Ichi; Kagawa, Kiichiro; Tjia, May On

    2010-04-01

    An experimental study of ultraviolet (UV) laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) on Ti samples with low-pressure surrounding He gas has been carried out to demonstrate its applicability to quantitative micro-analysis of deuterium impurities in titanium without the spectral interference from the ubiquitous surface water. This was achieved by adopting the optimal experimental condition ascertained in this study, which is specified by 5 mJ laser energy, 10 Torr helium pressure, and 1-50 mus measurement window, which resulted in consistent D emission enhancement and effective elimination of spectral interference from surface water. As a result, a linear calibration line exhibiting a zero intercept was obtained from Ti samples doped with various D impurity concentrations. An additional measurement also yielded a detection limit of about 40 ppm for D impurity, well below the acceptable threshold of damaging H concentration in Ti and its alloys. Each of these measurements was found to produce a crater size of only 25 mum in diameter, and they may therefore qualify as nondestructive measurements. The result of this study has therefore paved the way for conducting further experiments with hydrogen-doped Ti samples and the technical implementation of quantitative micro-analysis of detrimental hydrogen impurity in Ti metal and its alloys, which is the ultimate goal of this study. PMID:20412619

  11. Quantitative analysis of in situ wafer bowing measurements for III-nitride growth on sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, F.; Knauer, A.; Schenk, T.; Weyers, M.; Zettler, J.-T.

    2008-05-01

    Wafer bowing measurements have been recently developed into an efficient tool for MOVPE and MBE process optimization. In combination with temperature and reflectance measurements they are applied for direct but mostly qualitative evaluation of III-nitride epitaxial growth processes. In this work, applying a quantitative analysis of wafer bowing throughout the full epitaxial process, we are able to trace the lattice constant mismatch between substrate and every single layer of the growing structures. Starting from the basic models of compressive/tensile film stress causing convex/concave wafer bowing we will describe the physical effects and models to be included for a quantitative analysis. The contributions of vertical temperature gradients, composition dependent lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients will be separated. It is shown that for (Al,In,Ga)N growth on sapphire the lattice-mismatch induced stress can be described accurately by combining the well-known Stoney equation with the concept of a GaN-sapphire effective substrate. This enables an accurate determination of AlGaN and InGaN lattice constants already during growth.

  12. Quantitative characterisation of historic paper using THz spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trafela, Tanja; Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori; Strli?, Matija

    2013-04-01

    THz spectroscopy in the time domain was explored in combination with multivariate data analysis, for quantitative determination of chemical and mechanical properties of historic paper, such as lignin content, tensile strength, and ash content. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, it was shown that quantitative prediction of the material properties is possible, which indicates the potential of THz spectroscopy for chemical characterisation of complex organic materials of natural origin. In addition, the results demonstrate that THz spectra and PLS loading weights for lignin content differ significantly, which leads to the conclusion that THz spectra of composite macromolecular materials do not represent sums of spectra of the individual components. This supports the premise that THz spectra reflect intermolecular interactions. The study was carried out using 250 historical paper samples from the sixteenth century to present. Although the measurements were performed in vacuum to improve the quality of spectra, THz spectroscopy is in principle non-destructive. This research therefore reinforces the role of THz spectroscopy in characterisation of valuable historic materials, where invasive analysis is often not possible.

  13. Dissecting eukaryotic cells by coherent phase microscopy: quantitative analysis of quiescent and activated T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kretushev, Alexander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatiana V.; Shtil, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We present a concept for quantitative characterization of a functional state of an individual eukaryotic cell based on interference imaging. The informative parameters of the phase images of quiescent and mitogen-activated T lymphocytes included the phase thickness, phase volume, the area, and the size of organelles. These parameters were obtained without a special hypothesis about cell structure. Combinations of these parameters generated a “phase portrait” of the cell. A simplified spherical multilayer optic model of a T lymphocyte was used to calculate the refractivity profile, to identify structural elements of the image with the organelles, and to interpret the parameters of the phase portrait. The values of phase image parameters underwent characteristic changes in the course of mitogenic stimulation of T cells; thereby, the functional state of individual cells can be described using these parameters. Because the values of the components of the phase portrait are measured in absolute units, it is possible to compare the parameters of images obtained with different interference microscopes. Thus, the analysis of phase portraits provides a new and perspective approach for quantitative, real-time analysis of subcellular structure and physiologic state of an individual cell. PMID:22894503

  14. [Quantitative driving analysis of forest biomass changes in Changbai Mountain forest region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ming; Fan, Wen-Yi; Li, Ming-Ze; Tian, Li-Jun; Mao, Xue-Gang; Yu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Based on the forest inventory data and single tree biomass model, the forest biomass in the sampling plots in Changbai Mountain forest region was calculated, and, by using the estimated forest biomass from four periods' remote sensing data and based on high accuracy remote sensing models, the changes of regional forest biomass were analyzed. In the meanwhile, the driving factors such as meteorological factors, management factors, and socio-economic factors that caused forest biomass change were selected by bootstrap method, and the driving model of forest biomass change in different time period was set up by using partial least-squares method. The Variable Importance in Projection (VIP) values representing the importance of each of the factors affecting the forest biomass change in study region were calculated. The results showed that the influence of human activity factors (VIP values) on Changhai Mountain forest biomass changes was less than that of natural factors, suggesting that the national forest protection policy for forest regions had played an obvious role. Our research broadened the content of forest biomass change driving analysis, and the introduction of calculating VIP value, which can quantitatively represent the influence of driving factors to forest biomass change, provided a new way for the quantitative analysis on forest biomass change. PMID:21548287

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Signaling Networks across Differentially Embedded Tumors Highlights Interpatient Heterogeneity in Human Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor, with a dismal mean survival even with the current standard of care. Although in vitro cell systems can provide mechanistic insight into the regulatory networks governing GBM cell proliferation and migration, clinical samples provide a more physiologically relevant view of oncogenic signaling networks. However, clinical samples are not widely available and may be embedded for histopathologic analysis. With the goal of accurately identifying activated signaling networks in GBM tumor samples, we investigated the impact of embedding in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) compound followed by flash freezing in LN2 vs immediate flash freezing (iFF) in LN2 on protein expression and phosphorylation-mediated signaling networks. Quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of 8 pairs of tumor specimens revealed minimal impact of the different sample processing strategies and highlighted the large interpatient heterogeneity present in these tumors. Correlation analyses of the differentially processed tumor sections identified activated signaling networks present in selected tumors and revealed the differential expression of transcription, translation, and degradation associated proteins. This study demonstrates the capability of quantitative mass spectrometry for identification of in vivo oncogenic signaling networks from human tumor specimens that were either OCT-embedded or immediately flash-frozen. PMID:24927040

  16. Quantitative Chemical Imaging and Unsupervised Analysis Using Hyperspectral Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we report a method to acquire and analyze hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy images of organic materials and biological samples resulting in an unbiased quantitative chemical analysis. The method employs singular value decomposition on the square root of the CARS intensity, providing an automatic determination of the components above noise, which are retained. Complex CARS susceptibility spectra, which are linear in the chemical composition, are retrieved from the CARS intensity spectra using the causality of the susceptibility by two methods, and their performance is evaluated by comparison with Raman spectra. We use non-negative matrix factorization applied to the imaginary part and the nonresonant real part of the susceptibility with an additional concentration constraint to obtain absolute susceptibility spectra of independently varying chemical components and their absolute concentration. We demonstrate the ability of the method to provide quantitative chemical analysis on known lipid mixtures. We then show the relevance of the method by imaging lipid-rich stem-cell-derived mouse adipocytes as well as differentiated embryonic stem cells with a low density of lipids. We retrieve and visualize the most significant chemical components with spectra given by water, lipid, and proteins segmenting the image into the cell surrounding, lipid droplets, cytosol, and the nucleus, and we reveal the chemical structure of the cells, with details visualized by the projection of the chemical contrast into a few relevant channels. PMID:24099603

  17. Dissecting eukaryotic cells by coherent phase microscopy: quantitative analysis of quiescent and activated T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Kretushev, Alexander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatiana V.; Shtil, Alexander A.

    2012-07-01

    We present a concept for quantitative characterization of a functional state of an individual eukaryotic cell based on interference imaging. The informative parameters of the phase images of quiescent and mitogen-activated T lymphocytes included the phase thickness, phase volume, the area, and the size of organelles. These parameters were obtained without a special hypothesis about cell structure. Combinations of these parameters generated a ``phase portrait'' of the cell. A simplified spherical multilayer optic model of a T lymphocyte was used to calculate the refractivity profile, to identify structural elements of the image with the organelles, and to interpret the parameters of the phase portrait. The values of phase image parameters underwent characteristic changes in the course of mitogenic stimulation of T cells; thereby, the functional state of individual cells can be described using these parameters. Because the values of the components of the phase portrait are measured in absolute units, it is possible to compare the parameters of images obtained with different interference microscopes. Thus, the analysis of phase portraits provides a new and perspective approach for quantitative, real-time analysis of subcellular structure and physiologic state of an individual cell.

  18. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF RESPONSES FROM LATERAL-LINE NERVES OF FISHES. II

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, Hudson

    1933-01-01

    1. The lateral-line nerves of trout as well as those of catfish are found to discharge impulses spontaneously at a high frequency. 2. The frequency of nerve impulse discharge is measured as a function of the number of participating receptor groups (lateral-line sense organs). A quantitative analysis is made of the contribution to the total response made by each group of sense organs. 3. An analysis of the variability of the response is presented which makes it possible to estimate quantitatively the longitudinal extent of damage to the neuromasts due to surgical manipulation. 4. A method is described for recording the response of a single nerve fiber in the lateral-line trunk. 5. The frequency of the spontaneous discharge from the lateral-line nerve trunk when plotted as a function of temperature according to the Arrhenius equation yields a temperature characteristic of approximately 5000 calories. 6. The variability of the frequency of response as a function of temperature indicates the existence of temperature thresholds for the spontaneous activity of the neuromasts. 7. A possible basis for the spontaneous activity is considered. It is pointed out that the lateral-line system may serve as a model of the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. PMID:19872733

  19. Digital Holographic Microscopy: Quantitative Phase Imaging and Applications in Live Cell Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemper, Björn; Langehanenberg, Patrik; Kosmeier, Sebastian; Schlichthaber, Frank; Remmersmann, Christian; von Bally, Gert; Rommel, Christina; Dierker, Christian; Schnekenburger, Jürgen

    The analysis of complex processes in living cells creates a high demand for fast and label-free methods for online monitoring. Widely used fluorescence methods require specific labeling and are often restricted to chemically fixated samples. Thus, methods that offer label-free and minimally invasive detection of live cell processes and cell state alterations are of particular interest. In combination with light microscopy, digital holography provides label-free, multi-focus quantitative phase imaging of living cells. In overview, several methods for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) are presented. First, different experimental setups for the recording of digital holograms and the modular integration of DHM into common microscopes are described. Then the numerical processing of digitally captured holograms is explained. This includes the description of spatial and temporal phase shifting techniques, spatial filtering based reconstruction, holographic autofocusing, and the evaluation of self-interference holograms. Furthermore, the usage of partial coherent light and multi-wavelength approaches is discussed. Finally, potentials of digital holographic microscopy for quantitative cell imaging are illustrated by results from selected applications. It is shown that DHM can be used for automated tracking of migrating cells and cell thickness monitoring as well as for refractive index determination of cells and particles. Moreover, the use of DHM for label-free analysis in fluidics and micro-injection monitoring is demonstrated. The results show that DHM is a highly relevant method that allows novel insights in dynamic cell biology, with applications in cancer research and for drugs and toxicity testing.

  20. [Exploratory research on quantitative analysis of gaseous mixtures by AOTF-NIR spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Hao, Hui-Min; Cao, Jian-An; Yu, Zhi-Qiang; Ken, Jia; Liu, Jun-Hua

    2009-08-01

    Due to its many advantages, such as miniaturization, high accuracy, high resolution, fast scanning speed, increased robustness and good stability, acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-near infrared (NIR) spectrometer has been successfully applied in many fields. However, up to now, the commercial AOTF-NIR spectrometers can only be used for liquid and solid detection, but not for the detection of gaseous samples. In the present paper, the feasibility of quantitative analysis of gaseous mixtures by using AOTF-NIR spectrometer was investigated. A homemade gas cell was assembled to an AOTF-NIR spectrometer with probe for liquid detection to obtain NIR spectra of detected gas samples. The gas samples were composed of two groups: single-component CH4 and ternary component gaseous mixture of CH4, C2 H6, and C3 H8. The detection ability of fitted AOTF-NIR spectrometer was tested firstly. Comparing the absorption spectra of various concentrations, the absorbance of CH4 in absorption bands obviously increased with concentration increasing when the concentration was over 0.1%. According to the detection results, the lower limit of detection (LLD) of the AOTF-NIR spectrometer with gas cell was estimated to be 898 microL x L(-1). Subsequently, the NIR spectra of ternary mixtures were collected. The kernel partial least squares (KPLS) regression was employed to create the quantitative analysis model of three components gases. To evaluate the analysis ability of KPLS model, the PLS model was also created. The prediction results of the identical testing set show that the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of three components predicted by KPLS model was 1.08%, 0.87%, and 0.79%, respectively, less than the RMSEP by PLS model. The exploratory work indicates that accurate quantitative analysis of ternary component alkane gaseous mixtures can be achieved by fitted AOTF-NIR spectrometer despite of some limitations, and KPLS regression is an excellent approach to NIR spectra analysis. PMID:19839314

  1. Chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis for quality control of polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianke; He, Xiaoye; Li, Mengying; Zhao, Wei; Liu, Liu; Kong, Xianghong

    2015-06-01

    A simple and efficient HPLC fingerprint method was developed and validated for quality control of the polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel (PPPs). Ten batches of pomegranate collected from different orchards in Shaanxi Lintong of China were used to establish the fingerprint. For the fingerprint analysis, 15 characteristic peaks were selected to evaluate the similarities of 10 batches of the PPPs. The similarities of the PPPs samples were all more than 0.968, indicating that the samples from different areas of Lintong were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of eight monophenols (including gallic acid, punicalagin, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, and ellagic acid) in the PPPs was conducted to interpret the consistency of the quality test. The results demonstrated that the HPLC fingerprint as a characteristic distinguishing method combining similarity evaluation and quantitative analysis can be successfully used to assess the quality and to identify the authenticity of the PPPs. PMID:25624199

  2. The Recent Progress in Quantitative Medical Image Analysis for Computer Aided Diagnosis Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Yun; Son, Jaebum

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Many different CAD schemes are being developed for use in the detection and/or characterization of various lesions found through various types of medical imaging. These imaging technologies employ conventional projection radiography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, etc. In order to achieve a high performance level for a computerized diagnosis, it is important to employ effective image analysis techniques in the major steps of a CAD scheme. The main objective of this review is to attempt to introduce the diverse methods used for quantitative image analysis, and to provide a guide for clinicians. PMID:22084808

  3. [The use of a Russian software-hardware package for the quantitative analysis of coronary angiograms].

    PubMed

    Savchenko, A P; Pavlov, N A; Levitski?, I V

    1996-01-01

    The software and hardware complex developed by the Cardiology Research Center, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, jointly with the Technomash Research Production Association on the basis of a IBM 386DX personal computer equipped with a VS-100 video controller and a DS P31 VS signal processor board. Testing has indicated that it provides a qualitative image and a quantitative analysis both of phantoms and real images of coronarograms, but more accurately in the analysis of the image obtained from a film projector. Valid results are yielded when lenses more than 1 mm in diameter are used. Clinical tests have shown that the software and hardware complex may yield a rather qualitative image and calculate the required diameter of a vessel, virtually without prolonging the time of intervention, which is particularly important while making intervention procedures and implementing research programmes. PMID:8754115

  4. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Molds in the Dust from Homes of Asthmatic Children in North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Vesper, Stephen J.; McKinstry, Craig A.; Ashley, Peter; Haugland, Richard A.; Yeatts, Karin; Bradham, Karen; Svendsen, Eric

    2007-07-10

    The vacuum cleaner bag (VCB) dust from the homes of 19 asthmatic children in North Carolina (NC) was analyzed by mold specific quantitative PCR. These results were compared to the analysis of the VCB dust from 157 homes in the HUD “American Healthy Home Survey” of homes in the US. The American Relative Moldiness Index (ARMI) was calculated for each of the homes. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of the ARMI values in the homes of the NC asthmatic children was 11.0 (5.3), compared to the HUD survey VCB ARMI value mean and SD of 6.6 (4.4). The median ARMI value was significantly higher(p < 0.001) in the asthmatic childrens’s homes. The molds Chaetomium globosum and Eurotium amsterdameli were the primary species in the NC homes making the ARMI values higher. Vacuum cleaner bag dust samples may be a less expensive but still useful method of home mold analysis.

  5. ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 Determination of Energy Savings: Quantitative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Wang, Weimin; Hart, Philip R.; Zhang, Jian; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.

    2014-09-04

    This report provides a final quantitative analysis to assess whether buildings constructed according to the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would result in improved energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The final analysis considered each of the 110 addenda to Standard 90.1-2010 that were included in Standard 90.1-2013. PNNL reviewed all addenda included by ASHRAE in creating Standard 90.1-2013 from Standard 90.1-2010, and considered their combined impact on a suite of prototype building models across all U.S. climate zones. Most addenda were deemed to have little quantifiable impact on building efficiency for the purpose of DOE’s final determination. However, out of the 110 total addenda, 30 were identified as having a measureable and quantifiable impact.

  6. A philosophy of science perspective on the quantitative analysis of behavior.

    PubMed

    Smith, Terry L

    2015-05-01

    B.F. Skinner argued that the science of behavior would progress more rapidly without appealing to theories of learning. He also suggested that theories in a quite different sense were possible, but that the science of behavior as of 1950 was not ready for them. The following analysis distinguishes between Skinner's two concepts of theory. It argues that theory in the second sense has arisen in the quantitative analysis of behavior. The attempt to give a dynamic account of the static regularities of this theory, however, has produced a theory in the first sense. Within its limited domain, this theory offers a rigorous alternative to cognitive accounts of behavior. Rather than distracting attention from actual behavior, it has now led to novel predictions about it. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'SQAB 2014'. PMID:25680330

  7. Analysis of Fungal Flora in Indoor Dust by Ribosomal DNA Sequence Analysis, Quantitative PCR, and Culture? †

    PubMed Central

    Pitkäranta, M.; Meklin, T.; Hyvärinen, A.; Paulin, L.; Auvinen, P.; Nevalainen, A.; Rintala, H.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years increasing attention has been given to the potential health effects of fungal exposure in indoor environments. We used large-scale sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA to describe the mycoflora of two office buildings over the four seasons. DNA sequencing was complemented by cultivation, ergosterol determination, and quantitative PCR analyses. Sequences of 1,339 clones were clustered into 394 nonredundant fungal operational taxonomical units containing sequences from 18 fungal subclasses. The observed flora differed markedly from that recovered by cultivation, the major differences being the near absence of several typical indoor mold genera such as Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. and a high prevalence of basidiomycetes in clone libraries. A total of 55% of the total diversity constituted of unidentifiable ITS sequences, some of which may represent novel fungal species. Dominant species were Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. herbarum, Cryptococcus victoriae, Leptosphaerulina americana and L. chartarum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Thekopsora areolata, Phaeococcomyces nigricans, Macrophoma sp., and several Malassezia species. Seasonal differences were observed for community composition, with ascomycetous molds and basidiomycetous yeasts predominating in the winter and spring and Agaricomycetidae basidiomycetes predominating in the fall. The comparison of methods suggested that the cloning, cultivation, and quantitative PCR methods complemented each other, generating a more comprehensive picture of fungal flora than any of the methods would give alone. The current restrictions of the methods are discussed. PMID:17981947

  8. Effect of genotype x alcoholism interaction on linkage analysis of an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype.

    PubMed

    Arya, Rector; Dyer, Thomas D; Warren, Diane M; Jenkinson, Christopher P; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Almasy, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Studies have shown that genetic and environmental factors and their interactions affect several alcoholism phenotypes. Genotype x alcoholism (GxA) interaction refers to the environmental (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) influences on the autosomal genes contributing to variation in an alcoholism-related quantitative phenotype. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of GxA interaction on the detection of linkage for alcoholism-related phenotypes. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism relating to 1,388 subjects as part of Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 problem 1. We analyzed the MXDRNK phenotype to detect GxA interaction using SOLAR. Upon detecting significant interaction, we conducted variance-component linkage analyses using microsatellite marker data. For maximum number of drinks per a 24 hour period, the highest LODs were observed on chromosomes 1, 4, and 13 without GxA interaction. Interaction analysis yielded four regions on chromosomes 1, 4, 13, and 15. On chromosome 4, a maximum LOD of 1.5 at the same location as the initial analysis was obtained after incorporating GxA interaction effects. However, after correcting for extra parameters, the LOD score was reduced to a corrected LOD of 1.1, which is similar to the LOD observed in the non-interaction analysis. Thus, we see little differences in LOD scores, while some linkage regions showed large differences in the magnitudes of estimated quantitative trait loci heritabilities between the alcoholic and non-alcoholic groups. These potential hints of differences in genetic effect may influence future analyses of variants under these linkage peaks. PMID:16451578

  9. A system for the quantitative analysis of bone metastases by image segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Erdi, Y.E.; Humm, J.L.; Yeung, H. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Preliminary evidence indicates that the fraction of bone containing metastatic lesions is a strong prognostic indicator of survival longevity for prostate and breast cancer. To quantify metastatic lesions, the most common method is to visually inspect the fraction of each bone involvement and determine the percent involvement by drawing region-of-interest. However, this approach is time-consuming, subjective and dependent upon individual interpretation. To overcome these problems, a semi-automated region-growing program was developed for the quantitation of metastases from planar bone scans. The program then computes the fraction of lesion involvement in each bone based on look-up-tables containing the relationship of bone weight with: race, sex, height, and age. The bone metastases analysis system has been used on 11 scans from 6 patients. The correlation was high (r=0.83) between conventional (manually drawn region-of-interest) and this analysis system. Bone metastases analysis results in consistently lower estimates of fractional involvement in bone compared to the conventional region-of-interest drawing or visual estimation method. This is due to the apparent broadening of objects at and below the limits of resolution of the gamma camera. Bone metastases (BMets) analysis system reduces the delineation and quantitation time of lesions by at least 2 compared to manual region-of-interest drawing. The objectivity of this technique allows the detection of small variations in follow-up patient scans for which manual region-of-interest method may fail, due to performance variability of the user. This method preserves the diagnostic skills of the nuclear medicine physician to select which bony structures contain lesions, yet combines it with an objective delineation of the lesion.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Video Angiography in Aneurysm Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Son, Young-Je; Kim, Jeong Eun; Park, Sung Bae; Lee, Sang Hyung; Chung, Young Seob

    2013-01-01

    Objective Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography (VA) is being used in assessment of blood flow during cerebrovascular surgery. However, data collected during ICG angiography are usually interpreted qualitatively. In this study, quantitative analysis of ICG angiogram was attempted. Materials and Methods ICG VA, performed during aneurysm surgery was analyzed retrospectively. The angiogram was captured serially in regular time interval. The stacked images were then fed into an image analysis program, ImageJ. The selected areas of interest were as follows: parent and branch vessels, and dome of aneurysm. Changes of signals of measurement points were plotted. The time to peak, washout time, and the peak intensity between areas were compared. Results Among the 16 cases enrolled in this study, five cases were anterior communicating artery aneurysms, and 11 cases were middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms. There was no signal intensity of aneurysm dome in our series. No difference in time to peak or maximum signal intensity was observed between vessels in each case. The average time to peak was 9.0 and washout time was 31.3 seconds. No significant difference in time profile was observed between anterior communicating artery aneurysms and middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms. Conclusion Findings of this study demonstrate that quantitative analysis is possible using a personal computer and common video capture and analysis software. It can be a good adjunctive to evaluation of vascular status during aneurysm surgery. It displays time profiles of multiple points of interest over time, and is helpful in objective evaluation of changes of blood flow over time. It might be helpful in various fields of cerebrovascular surgery. PMID:23844351

  11. Aqua Licentiate Theses 2013:2 Licentiate Thesis

    E-print Network

    at the Institute of Freshwater Research, Department of Aquatic Resources, SLU. Aqua Licentiate Theses presents Spatial Distribution of Perch, Roach, and Vendace Abstract To increase the understanding of freshwater at larger sizes. Vendace is a pelagic species specialized in eating zooplankton. Vendace was expected

  12. Adjusting Aqua MODIS TEB nonlinear calibration coefficients using iterative solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aisheng; Wang, Zhipeng; Li, Yonghong; Madhavan, Sriharsha; Wenny, Brian N.; Chen, Na; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2014-11-01

    Radiometric calibration is important for continuity and reliability of any optical sensor data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua satellite has been nominally operating since its launch on May 4, 2002. The MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEB) are calibrated using a quadratic calibration algorithm and the dominant gain term is determined every scan by reference to a temperature-controlled blackbody (BB) with known emissivity. On a quarterly basis, a BB warm-up and cool-down (WUCD) process is scheduled to provide measurements to determine the offset and nonlinear coefficients used in the TEB calibration algorithm. For Aqua MODIS, the offset and nonlinear terms are based on the results from prelaunch thermal vacuum tests. However, on-orbit trending results show that they have small but noticeable drifts. To maintain data quality and consistency, an iterative approach is applied to adjust the prelaunch based nonlinear terms, which are currently used to produce Aqua MODIS Collection-6 L1B. This paper provides details on how to use an iterative solution to determine these calibration coefficients based on BB WUCD measurements. Validation is performed using simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNO) of Aqua MODIS and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard the Metop-A satellite and near surface temperature measurements at Dome C on the Antarctic Plateau.

  13. NASA EOS Terra and Aqua MODIS on-orbit performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Xiong; K. Chiang; J. Sun; W. L. Barnes; B. Guenther; V. V. Salomonson

    2009-01-01

    MODIS is a major instrument for NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) missions. It is currently operating on-board the EOS Terra and Aqua spacecraft, launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. The MODIS instrument was developed with improvements over heritage sensors in terms of its spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions, and with more stringent calibration requirements. It makes observations in

  14. Summary of Terra and Aqua MODIS long-term performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxiong Xiong; Brian N. Wenny; Amit Angal; William Barnes; Vincent Salomonson

    2011-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, the MODIS ProtoFlight Model (PFM) onboard the Terra spacecraft has successfully operated for more than 11 years. Its Flight Model (FM) onboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in May 2002, has also successfully operated for over 9 years. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands at three nadir spatial resolutions and are calibrated and characterized

  15. Aqua MODIS first year on-orbit calibration and performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoxiong Xiong; Kwo-Fu Chiang; Junqiang Sun; Nianzeng Che; William L. Barnes

    2004-01-01

    The MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Flight Model 1 (FM1) was launched on May 4, 2002 onboard the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua spacecraft. It has provided more than a year of global data for studies of the Earth\\

  16. Image analysis techniques. The problem of the quantitative evaluation of thechromatin ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Maraldi, N M; Marinelli, F; Squarzoni, S; Santi, S; Barbieri, M

    1991-02-01

    The application of image analysis methods to conventional thin sections for electron microscopy to analyze the chromatin arrangement are quite limited. We developed a method which utilizes freeze-fractured samples; the results indicate that the method is suitable for identifying the changes in the chromatin arrangement which occur in physiological, experimental and pathological conditions. The modern era of image analysis begins in 1964, when pictures of the moon transmitted by Ranger 7 were processed by a computer. This processing improved the original picture by enhancing and restoring the image affected by various types of distorsion. These performances have been allowed by the third-generation of computers having the speed and the storage capabilities required for practical use of image processing algorithms. Each image can be converted into a two-dimensional light intensity function: f (x, y), where x and y are the spatial coordinates and f value is proportional to the gray level of the image at that point. The digital image is therefore a matrix whose elements are the pixels (picture elements). A typical digital image can be obtained with a quality comparable to monochrome TV, with a 512×512 pixel array with 64 gray levels. The magnetic disks of commercial minicomputers are thus capable of storing some tenths of images which can be elaborated by the image processor, converting the signal into digital form. In biological images, obtained by light microscopy, the digitation converts the chromatic differences into gray level intensities, thus allowing to define the contours of the cytoplasm, of the nucleus and of the nucleoli. The use of a quantitative staining method for the DNA, the Feulgen reaction, permits to evaluate the ratio between condensed chromatin (stained) and euchromatin (unstained). The digitized images obtained by transmission electron microscopy are rich in details at high resolution. However, the application of image analysis techniques to these images and especially to those referring to nuclei, is limited by several drawbacks: i) the thin section represents only a small fraction of the nuclear volume entirely visible in optical microscope specimens; ii) the identification of nucleosomes, of the solenoid fibres and of the higher levels of compaction of the heterochromatin is not thinsectioned specimens; iii) the differences between heterochromatin and euchromatin are based only on their grey level but do not reveal possible variations of their structural organization. Therefore, the applications of image analysis to the nuclear content does not utilzes the high resolution power of e.m. images and simply quantify the areas occupied by electron-dense chromatin with respect to the more electron-transparent ones. This result is less significative of those obtainable by optical microscopy, since the electron staining is not quantitative as the Fulgen reaction. On the other hand, the following problems still remain unresolved and should be clarified only by the use of quantitative image analysis: ultrastructural organization of the different types of heterochromatin (1); relationships between gene activation, transcription and chromatin decondensation; chromatin arrangement transformation induced by exogenous agents. In order to face these problems, in the last years we applied image analysis to cell or tissue specimens frozen in liquid nitrogen and then fractured in order to expose the inner content of the nucleus (Fig. 1). The obtained metal replicas represent very suitable specimens for digitalized image elaboration, since the fibers which give rise to the chromatin domains are exposed by the fracturing and evidentiated by the shadowing as black dots with a clear white shadow (Fig. 2). Therefore, their size and shape can be quantitatively evaluated by a digital image processor; in this vay the structural elements of the chromatin fibres are also detectable inside a fractured nucleus and their relative percentage ca be determined in each nuclear area (Fig. 3). This type of analysis has been initially u

  17. Joint Multipoint Linkage Analysis of Multivariate Qualitative and Quantitative Traits. II. Alcoholism and Event-Related Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jeff T.; Begleiter, Henri; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Reich, Theodore; Goate, Alison; Van Eerdewegh, Paul; Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

    1999-01-01

    Summary The availability of robust quantitative biological markers that are correlated with qualitative psychiatric phenotypes can potentially improve the power of linkage methods to detect quantitative-trait loci influencing psychiatric disorders. We apply a variance-component method for joint multipoint linkage analysis of multivariate discrete and continuous traits to the extended pedigree data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, in a bivariate analysis of qualitative alcoholism phenotypes and quantitative event-related potentials. Joint consideration of the DSM-IV diagnosis of alcoholism and the amplitude of the P300 component of the Cz event-related potential significantly increases the evidence for linkage of these traits to a chromosome 4 region near the class I alcohol dehydrogenase locus ADH3. A likelihood-ratio test for complete pleiotropy is significant, suggesting that the same quantitative-trait locus influences both risk of alcoholism and the amplitude of the P300 component. PMID:10486334

  18. High throughput quantitative phenotyping of plant resistance using chlorophyll fluorescence image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to select for quantitative plant resistance to pathogens, high throughput approaches that can precisely quantify disease severity are needed. Automation and use of calibrated image analysis should provide more accurate, objective and faster analyses than visual assessments. In contrast to conventional visible imaging, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is not sensitive to environmental light variations and provides single-channel images prone to a segmentation analysis by simple thresholding approaches. Among the various parameters used in chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II photochemistry (Fv/Fm) is well adapted to phenotyping disease severity. Fv/Fm is an indicator of plant stress that displays a robust contrast between infected and healthy tissues. In the present paper, we aimed at the segmentation of Fv/Fm images to quantify disease severity. Results Based on the Fv/Fm values of each pixel of the image, a thresholding approach was developed to delimit diseased areas. A first step consisted in setting up thresholds to reproduce visual observations by trained raters of symptoms caused by Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. fuscans (Xff) CFBP4834-R on Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Flavert. In order to develop a thresholding approach valuable on any cultivars or species, a second step was based on modeling pixel-wise Fv/Fm-distributions as mixtures of Gaussian distributions. Such a modeling may discriminate various stages of the symptom development but over-weights artifacts that can occur on mock-inoculated samples. Therefore, we developed a thresholding approach based on the probability of misclassification of a healthy pixel. Then, a clustering step is performed on the diseased areas to discriminate between various stages of alteration of plant tissues. Notably, the use of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging could detect pre-symptomatic area. The interest of this image analysis procedure for assessing the levels of quantitative resistance is illustrated with the quantitation of disease severity on five commercial varieties of bean inoculated with Xff CFBP4834-R. Conclusions In this paper, we describe an image analysis procedure for quantifying the leaf area impacted by the pathogen. In a perspective of high throughput phenotyping, the procedure was automated with the software R downloadable at http://www.r-project.org/. The R script is available at http://lisa.univ-angers.fr/PHENOTIC/telechargements.html. PMID:23758798

  19. A Novel Image-Analysis Toolbox Enabling Quantitative Analysis of Root System Architecture1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lobet, Guillaume; Pagès, Loïc; Draye, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel, semiautomated image-analysis software to streamline the quantitative analysis of root growth and architecture of complex root systems. The software combines a vectorial representation of root objects with a powerful tracing algorithm that accommodates a wide range of image sources and quality. The root system is treated as a collection of roots (possibly connected) that are individually represented as parsimonious sets of connected segments. Pixel coordinates and gray level are therefore turned into intuitive biological attributes such as segment diameter and orientation as well as distance to any other segment or topological position. As a consequence, user interaction and data analysis directly operate on biological entities (roots) and are not hampered by the spatially discrete, pixel-based nature of the original image. The software supports a sampling-based analysis of root system images, in which detailed information is collected on a limited number of roots selected by the user according to specific research requirements. The use of the software is illustrated with a time-lapse analysis of cluster root formation in lupin (Lupinus albus) and an architectural analysis of the maize (Zea mays) root system. The software, SmartRoot, is an operating system-independent freeware based on ImageJ and relies on cross-platform standards for communication with data-analysis software. PMID:21771915

  20. Quantitative GC analysis of secondary alcohol pheromones: determination of release rate of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, pheromone from lures.

    PubMed

    Zada, A; Soroker, V; Harel, M; Nakache, J; Dunkelblum, E

    2002-11-01

    Aliphatic secondary alcohols are components of several aggregation pheromones of important beetle and weevil pests. Some of these pheromones are used frequently for the monitoring and mass trapping of the relevant insects. We encountered severe difficulties in direct GC quantitative analysis of these compounds. Therefore, we developed a simple GC analysis of secondary alcohols convening them to trifluoroacetyl derivatives and using secondary alcohol acetates as internal standards. This method was applied for the quantitative analysis of several secondary alcohols, including the aggregation pheromone components of the almond bark beetle and the red palm weevil. The release rate of the latter pheromone from commercial lures was also determined. PMID:12523569

  1. Detection, monitoring, and quantitative analysis of wildfires with the BIRD satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, Dieter A.; Briess, Klaus; Lorenz, Eckehard; Skrbek, Wolfgang; Zhukov, Boris

    2004-02-01

    Increasing concern about environment and interest to avoid losses led to growing demands on space borne fire detection, monitoring and quantitative parameter estimation of wildfires. The global change research community intends to quantify the amount of gaseous and particulate matter emitted from vegetation fires, peat fires and coal seam fires. The DLR Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration (Berlin-Adlershof) developed a small satellite called BIRD (Bi-spectral Infrared Detection) which carries a sensor package specially designed for fire detection. BIRD was launched as a piggy-back satellite on October 22, 2001 with ISRO"s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV). It is circling the Earth on a polar and sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 572 km and it is providing unique data for detailed analysis of high temperature events on Earth surface. The BIRD sensor package is dedicated for high resolution and reliable fire recognition. Active fire analysis is possible in the sub-pixel domain. The leading channel for fire detection and monitoring is the MIR channel at 3.8 ?m. The rejection of false alarms is based on procedures using MIR/NIR (Middle Infra Red/Near Infra Red) and MIR/TIR (Middle Infra Red/Thermal Infra Red) radiance ratio thresholds. Unique results of BIRD wildfire detection and analysis over fire prone regions in Australia and Asia will be presented. BIRD successfully demonstrates innovative fire recognition technology for small satellites which permit to retrieve quantitative characteristics of active burning wildfires, such as the equivalent fire temperature, fire area, radiative energy release, fire front length and fire front strength.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Indole-3-Acetic Acid Metabolites in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Sandberg, Göran

    2001-01-01

    A general gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS)-based screen was performed to identify catabolites and conjugates of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during vegetative growth of Arabidopsis. This experiment revealed the existence of two new conjugates: N-(indole-3-acetyl)-alfa-alanine (IA-Ala) and N-(indole-3-acetyl)-alfa-leucine (IA-Leu). A method for quantitative analysis of IAA metabolites in plant extracts by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem MS has been developed. The accuracy and precision of the new method are better than 10% for standards close to the detection limit, and are between 6% and 16% for the entire protocol applied to plant extracts. The low detection limits, 0.02 to 0.1 pmol for the different metabolites, made it possible to use as little as 50 to 100 mg of tissue for quantitative analysis. The analysis was performed on different tissues of an Arabidopsis plant at two stages of development, using heavy labeled internal standards of the catabolite 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid as well as IAA conjugated to amino acids: aspartate, glutamate, Ala, and Leu. Expanding leaves and roots that generally contain high amounts of the free hormone also contained the highest levels of IA-aspartate, IA-glutamate, and 2-oxoindole-3-acetic acid, supporting their role as irreversible catabolic products. The levels of IA-Leu and IA-Ala did not follow the general distribution of IAA. Interestingly, the level of IA-Leu was highest in roots and IA-Ala in the aerial tissues. PMID:11743128

  3. A quantitative analysis of municipal solid waste disposal charges in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Zhang, Weiqian; Xu, Jiaxuan; Che, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Rapid industrialization and economic development have caused a tremendous increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in China. China began implementing a policy of MSW disposal fees for household waste management at the end of last century. Three charging methods were implemented throughout the country: a fixed disposal fee, a potable water-based disposal fee, and a plastic bag-based disposal fee. To date, there has been little qualitative or quantitative analysis on the effectiveness of this relatively new policy. This paper provides a general overview of MSW fee policy in China, attempts to verify whether the policy is successful in reducing general waste collected, and proposes an improved charging system to address current problems. The paper presents an empirical statistical analysis of policy effectiveness derived from an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) test on panel data of China. EKC tests on different kinds of MSW charge systems were then examined for individual provinces or cities. A comparison of existing charging systems was conducted using environmental and economic criteria. The results indicate the following: (1) the MSW policies implemented over the study period were effective in the reduction of waste generation, (2) the household waste discharge fee policy did not act as a strong driver in terms of waste prevention and reduction, and (3) the plastic bag-based disposal fee appeared to be performing well according to qualitative and quantitative analysis. Based on current situation of waste discharging management in China, a three-stage transitional charging scheme is proposed and both advantages and drawbacks discussed. Evidence suggests that a transition from a fixed disposal fee to a plastic bag-based disposal fee involving various stakeholders should be the next objective of waste reduction efforts. PMID:25647799

  4. Wh t D i S ft I ti ?What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication Satellite Innovation History

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Wh t D i S ft I ti ?What Drives Spacecraft Innovation? A Quantitative Analysis of Communication the metric from Q1, what lessons can be learned from an analysis of the history of the communication Satellite Innovation History Presented to the TMP Consortium Vancouver BC, June 2009 Zoe Szajnfarber, ESD Ph

  5. Automated quantitative gait analysis during overground locomotion in the rat: its application to spinal cord contusion and transection injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. Gispen; F. P. T. Hamers; A. J. Lankhorst; T. J. van Laar; W. B. Veldhuis

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of locomotion is an important tool in the study of peripheral and central nervous system damage. Most locomotor scoring systems in rodents are based either upon open field locomotion assessment, for example, the BBB score or upon foot print analysis. The former yields a semiquantitative description of locomotion as a whole, whereas the latter generates quantitative data on several

  6. David Simchi-Levi, S. David Wu, and Z. Max Shen (Eds.) Handbook of Quantitative Supply Chain Analysis

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuo-Jun "Max"

    level courses in operations research, industrial engineer- ing, operations management, supply chainChapter 1 David Simchi-Levi, S. David Wu, and Z. Max Shen (Eds.) Handbook of Quantitative Supply Chain Analysis: Modeling in the E-Business Era c 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers SUPPLY CHAIN ANALYSIS

  7. Quantitative fluorescence loss in photobleaching for analysis of protein transport and aggregation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) is a widely used imaging technique, which provides information about protein dynamics in various cellular regions. In FLIP, a small cellular region is repeatedly illuminated by an intense laser pulse, while images are taken with reduced laser power with a time lag between the bleaches. Despite its popularity, tools are lacking for quantitative analysis of FLIP experiments. Typically, the user defines regions of interest (ROIs) for further analysis which is subjective and does not allow for comparing different cells and experimental settings. Results We present two complementary methods to detect and quantify protein transport and aggregation in living cells from FLIP image series. In the first approach, a stretched exponential (StrExp) function is fitted to fluorescence loss (FL) inside and outside the bleached region. We show by reaction–diffusion simulations, that the StrExp function can describe both, binding/barrier–limited and diffusion-limited FL kinetics. By pixel-wise regression of that function to FL kinetics of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), we determined in a user-unbiased manner from which cellular regions eGFP can be replenished in the bleached area. Spatial variation in the parameters calculated from the StrExp function allow for detecting diffusion barriers for eGFP in the nucleus and cytoplasm of living cells. Polyglutamine (polyQ) disease proteins like mutant huntingtin (mtHtt) can form large aggregates called inclusion bodies (IB’s). The second method combines single particle tracking with multi-compartment modelling of FL kinetics in moving IB’s to determine exchange rates of eGFP-tagged mtHtt protein (eGFP-mtHtt) between aggregates and the cytoplasm. This method is self-calibrating since it relates the FL inside and outside the bleached regions. It makes it therefore possible to compare release kinetics of eGFP-mtHtt between different cells and experiments. Conclusions We present two complementary methods for quantitative analysis of FLIP experiments in living cells. They provide spatial maps of exchange dynamics and absolute binding parameters of fluorescent molecules to moving intracellular entities, respectively. Our methods should be of great value for quantitative studies of intracellular transport. PMID:23148417

  8. RGB Color Calibration for Quantitative Image Analysis: The “3D Thin-Plate Spline” Warping Approach

    PubMed Central

    Menesatti, Paolo; Angelini, Claudio; Pallottino, Federico; Antonucci, Francesca; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Costa, Corrado

    2012-01-01

    In the last years the need to numerically define color by its coordinates in n-dimensional space has increased strongly. Colorimetric calibration is fundamental in food processing and other biological disciplines to quantitatively compare samples' color during workflow with many devices. Several software programmes are available to perform standardized colorimetric procedures, but they are often too imprecise for scientific purposes. In this study, we applied the Thin-Plate Spline interpolation algorithm to calibrate colours in sRGB space (the corresponding Matlab code is reported in the Appendix). This was compared with other two approaches. The first is based on a commercial calibration system (ProfileMaker) and the second on a Partial Least Square analysis. Moreover, to explore device variability and resolution two different cameras were adopted and for each sensor, three consecutive pictures were acquired under four different light conditions. According to our results, the Thin-Plate Spline approach reported a very high efficiency of calibration allowing the possibility to create a revolution in the in-field applicative context of colour quantification not only in food sciences, but also in other biological disciplines. These results are of great importance for scientific color evaluation when lighting conditions are not controlled. Moreover, it allows the use of low cost instruments while still returning scientifically sound quantitative data. PMID:22969337

  9. Quantitative analysis of intrinsic skin aging in dermal papillae by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Chou, Sin-Yo; Tsai, Cheng-Shiun; Lin, Guan-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Shih, Yuan-Ta; Lee, Gwo-Giun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-09-01

    Chronological skin aging is associated with flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), but to date no quantitative analysis focusing on the aging changes in the dermal papillae (DP) has been performed. The aim of the study is to determine the architectural changes and the collagen density related to chronological aging in the dermal papilla zone (DPZ) by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) with a sub-femtoliter spatial resolution. We recruited 48 Asian subjects and obtained in vivo images on the sun-protected volar forearm. Six parameters were defined to quantify 3D morphological changes of the DPZ, which we analyzed both manually and computationally to study their correlation with age. The depth of DPZ, the average height of isolated DP, and the 3D interdigitation index decreased with age, while DP number density, DP volume, and the collagen density in DP remained constant over time. In vivo high-resolution HGM technology has uncovered chronological aging-related variations in DP, and sheds light on real-time quantitative skin fragility assessment and disease diagnostics based on collagen density and morphology. PMID:25401037

  10. Quantitative analysis on PUVA-induced skin photodamages using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Juan; Guo, Zhouyi; Liu, Zhiming; Xiong, Honglian; Zeng, Changchun; Jin, Ying

    2009-08-01

    Psoralen plus ultraviolet A radiation (PUVA) therapy is a very important clinical treatment of skin diseases such as vitiligo and psoriasis, but associated with an increased risk of skin photodamages especially photoaging. Since skin biopsy alters the original skin morphology and always requires an iatrogenic trauma, optical coherence tomography (OCT) appears to be a promising technique to study skin damage in vivo. In this study, the Balb/c mice had 8-methoxypsralen (8-MOP) treatment prior to UVA radiation was used as PUVA-induced photo-damaged modal. The OCT imaging of photo-damaged group (modal) and normal group (control) in vivo was obtained of mice dorsal skin at 0, 24, 48, 72 hours after irradiation respectively. And then the results were quantitatively analyzed combined with histological information. The experimental results showed that, PUVA-induced photo-damaged skin had an increase in epidermal thickness (ET), a reduction of attenuation coefficient in OCT images signal, and an increase in brightness of the epidermis layer compared with the control group. In conclusion, noninvasive high-resolution imaging techniques such as OCT may be a promising tool for photobiological studies aimed at assessing photo-damage and repair processes in vivo. It can be used to quantitative analysis of changes in photo-damaged skin, such as the ET and collagen in dermis, provides a theoretical basis for treatment and prevention of skin photodamages.

  11. Quantitative analysis of microvessels in rat circumventricular organs and pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, J.; Gross, P.; Sposito, N.; Pettersen, S.; Blasberg, R.; Patlak, C.; Butler, A.

    1986-03-01

    The cerebral circumventricular organs (CVOs) and pituitary gland (PG) purportedly have dense, highly permeable capillary beds which allow for ready blood-tissue exchange of messenger molecules. Quantitation of various morphological and physiological features of the capillaries with CVOs and PG plus some brain structures which have tight or blood-brain barrier (BBB) capillaries was undertaken in rats using several radiolabeled markers, quantitative autoradiography, image analysis, and light and electron microscopic morphometry. Microvascular blood volumes in CVOs and PG were several times larger than in other brain areas (54-70 ..mu../g and 5-8 ..mu../g, respectively). Capillary density and surface area were generally much greater in CVOs and PG than in gray matter; however the highest values for these two parameters were found for the pituitary neural lobe (NL) and supraoptic nucleus (SON), which has BBB capillaries. The rate of capillary blood flow was highest in NL and was similar in the subfornical organ, median eminence, cerebral cortex and SON (1.5 ml/g/min). The transcapillary exchange of several markers was 200-500 times greater in CVOs and NL than in BBB capillaries.

  12. Optical quantitative pathology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in human tissues using spatial frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Pu, Yang; Jagtap, Jaidip; Pradhan, Asima; Alfano, Robert R

    2015-03-01

    An optical quantitative histological method in human tissues using spatial frequencies is demonstrated. Optical spatial frequency spectra from different stages of human Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) tissue are evaluated as a potential quantitative pathological tool. The degree of randomness of tissue structures from normal to different stages of CIN tissue can be recognized by spatial frequency analysis. The standard deviation, ? of human normal and CIN tissue, is obtained by assuming the spatial frequency spectra as a Gaussian distribution. A support vector machine classifier (SVM) is trained in the subspace of ?. Twenty-eight normal and CIN samples of varying grades are examined and compared with current diagnostic outcomes. Our results suggest that an excellent accuracy for diagnostic purposes can be achieved. This approach offers a simple, efficient and objective way to supplement histopathology in recognizing alterations from normal to different stages of cervical pre-cancer, which are reflected by spatial information contained within the aperiodic and random structures of the different types of tissue. PMID:24458694

  13. Quantitative ¹H NMR analysis of egg yolk, alcohol, and total sugar content in egg liqueurs.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Monika; Koospal, Verena; Bauer-Christoph, Claudia; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Diehl, Bernd; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2015-04-29

    Analyzing egg liqueurs for compliance with legal requirements means several different time-consuming preparations and analytical processes. In this paper, we describe the approach to use quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an accurate alternative technique. (1)H NMR analysis comprised two different rapid sample preparations for water-soluble or nonpolar ingredients. Fifteen egg liqueurs were analyzed for alcoholic strength and content of total sugar and egg yolk (estimated by cholesterol as a marker substance) with both classical methods and quantitative (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of both methods showed excellent correlations for alcoholic strength (R = 0.996, p < 0.001) and content of total sugar (R = 0.989, p < 0.001) and cholesterol (R = 0.995, p < 0.001). Besides, NMR spectra revealed further information: a signal of phosphatidylcholine at about ? = 3.20 ppm served as a second marker for the egg yolk content, and characteristic signals of lactose at ? = 4.46 ppm and butyric acid at ? = 0.97 ppm indicated the use of milk products, which has to be declared for lactose-intolerant consumers. PMID:25860435

  14. Ultrasensitive, self-calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer for quantitative trace gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Sun, Yu R; Zhou, Ze-Yi; Chen, Jian; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2014-11-10

    A cavity ring-down spectrometer is built for trace gas detection using telecom distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers. The longitudinal modes of the ring-down cavity are used as frequency markers without active-locking either the laser or the high-finesse cavity. A control scheme is applied to scan the DFB laser frequency, matching the cavity modes one by one in sequence and resulting in a correct index at each recorded spectral data point, which allows us to calibrate the spectrum with a relative frequency precision of 0.06 MHz. Besides the frequency precision of the spectrometer, a sensitivity (noise-equivalent absorption) of 4×10-11??cm-1??Hz-1/2 has also been demonstrated. A minimum detectable absorption coefficient of 5×10-12??cm-1 has been obtained by averaging about 100 spectra recorded in 2  h. The quantitative accuracy is tested by measuring the CO2 concentrations in N2 samples prepared by the gravimetric method, and the relative deviation is less than 0.3%. The trace detection capability is demonstrated by detecting CO2 of ppbv-level concentrations in a high-purity nitrogen gas sample. Simple structure, high sensitivity, and good accuracy make the instrument very suitable for quantitative trace gas analysis. PMID:25402995

  15. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of an Analgesic/Caffeine Formulation: Determination of Caffeine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Glenda K.

    1998-04-01

    A modern high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) laboratory experiment which entails the separation of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine and the quantitative assay of caffeine in commercial mixtures of these compounds has been developed. Our HPLC protocol resolves these compounds in only three minutes with a straightforward chromatographic apparatus which consists of a C-18 column, an isocratic mobile phase, UV detection at 254 nm, and an integrator; an expensive, sophisticated system is not required. The separation is both repeatable and rapid. Moreover, the experiment can be completed in a single three-hour period. The experiment is appropriate for any chemistry student who has completed a minimum of one year of general chemistry and is ideal for an analytical or instrumental analysis course. The experiment detailed herein involves the determination of caffeine in Goody's Extra Strength Headache Powders, a commercially available medication which contains acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine as active ingredients. However, the separation scheme is not limited to this brand of medication nor is it limited to caffeine as the analyte. With only minor procedural modifications, students can simultaneously quantitate all of these compounds in a commercial mixture. In our procedure, students prepare a series of four caffeine standard solutions as well as a solution from a pharmaceutical analgesic/caffeine mixture, chromatographically analyze each solution in quadruplicate, and plot relative average caffeine standard peak area versus concentration. From the mathematical relationship that results, the concentration of caffeine in the commercial formulation is obtained. Finally, the absolute standard deviation of the mean concentration is calculated.

  16. Improved reproducibility and quantitative analysis of phospholipids by flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Murray, D K

    1985-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of phospholipids by flame ionization was improved by careful application of samples with a Hamilton syringe and use of a sealed dual tank system. Chromarods developed more consistently with reproducible scanning times or RF values (coefficient of variation of 1%) and with sharper peaks if development was carried out in a sealed dual tank system. The Chromarods were placed in the inner tank, which was the standard ground glass topped tank furnished with the Iatroscan TH-10 system. This inner tank was placed inside a larger thin-layer chromatography tank which was sealed with silicone grease and the lid held in place with a lead brick. Both tanks were lined with absorbent paper and contained the same solvent system. Biological samples quantified with these procedures and measured in amounts between 1 and 30 micrograms had coefficients of variation between 0.2 and 6%. An efficient method of completely separating neutral lipids from phospholipids and allowing quantitative determination of cholesterol is described. Scanning times and RF values of various phospholipids are compared to determine the best separation of the major phospholipids found in 3T3-L1 and leukocyte membranes. PMID:4055932

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Respiration-Related Movement for Abdominal Artery in Multiphase Hepatic CT

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang-Hsien; Huang, Shih-Min; Huang, Chin-Yi; Tu, Yun-Niang; Liu, Shing-Hong; Huang, Tzung-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Respiration-induced motion in the liver causes potential errors on the measurement of contrast medium in abdominal artery from multiphase hepatic CT scans. In this study, we investigated the use of hepatic CT images to quantitatively estimate the abdominal artery motion due to respiration by optical flow method. Materials and Methods A total of 132 consecutive patients were included in our patient cohort. We apply the optical flow method to compute the motion of the abdominal artery due to respiration. Results The minimum and maximum displacements of the abdominal artery motion were 0.02 and 30.87 mm by manual delineation, 0.03 and 40.75 mm calculated by optical flow method, respectively. Both high consistency and correlation between the present method and the physicians’ manual delineations were acquired with the regression equation of movement, y = 0.81x+0.25, r = 0.95, p<0.001. Conclusion We estimated the motion of abdominal artery due to respiration using the optical flow method in multiphase hepatic CT scans and the motion estimations were validated with the visualization of physicians. The quantitative analysis of respiration-related movement of abdominal artery could be used for motion correction in the measurement of contrast medium passing though abdominal artery in multiphase CT liver scans. PMID:25536144

  18. Quantitative analysis of intrinsic skin aging in dermal papillae by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yi-Hua; Kuo, Wei-Cheng; Chou, Sin-Yo; Tsai, Cheng-Shiun; Lin, Guan-Liang; Tsai, Ming-Rung; Shih, Yuan-Ta; Lee, Gwo-Giun; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Chronological skin aging is associated with flattening of the dermal-epidermal junction (DEJ), but to date no quantitative analysis focusing on the aging changes in the dermal papillae (DP) has been performed. The aim of the study is to determine the architectural changes and the collagen density related to chronological aging in the dermal papilla zone (DPZ) by in vivo harmonic generation microscopy (HGM) with a sub-femtoliter spatial resolution. We recruited 48 Asian subjects and obtained in vivo images on the sun-protected volar forearm. Six parameters were defined to quantify 3D morphological changes of the DPZ, which we analyzed both manually and computationally to study their correlation with age. The depth of DPZ, the average height of isolated DP, and the 3D interdigitation index decreased with age, while DP number density, DP volume, and the collagen density in DP remained constant over time. In vivo high-resolution HGM technology has uncovered chronological aging-related variations in DP, and sheds light on real-time quantitative skin fragility assessment and disease diagnostics based on collagen density and morphology. PMID:25401037

  19. Quantitative safety assessment of computer based I and C systems via modular Markov analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Elks, C. R.; Yu, Y.; Johnson, B. W. [Univ. of Virginia, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the methodology based on quantitative metrics for evaluating digital I and C system that has been under development at the Univ. of Virginia for a number years. Our quantitative assessment methodology is based on three well understood and extensively practiced disciplines in the dependability assessment field: (1) System level fault modeling and fault injection, (2) safety and coverage based dependability modeling methods, and (3) statistical estimation of model parameters used for safety predication. There are two contributions of this paper; the first contribution is related to incorporating design flaw information into homogenous Markov models when such data is available. The second is to introduce a Markov modeling method for managing the modeling complexities of large distributed I and C systems for the predication of safety and reliability. The method is called Modular Markov Chain analysis. This method allows Markov models of the system to be composed in a modular manner. In doing so, it address two important issues. (1) The models are more visually representative of the functional the system. (2) Important failure dependencies that naturally occur in complex systems are modeled accurately with our approach. (authors)

  20. Estimation of the number of fluorescent end-members for quantitative analysis of multispectral FLIM data

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Navarro, Omar; Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Arce-Santana, Edgar R.; Maitland, Kristen C.; Cheng, Shuna; Jabbour, Joey; Malik, Bilal; Cuenca, Rodrigo; Jo, Javier A.

    2014-01-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (m-FLIM) can potentially allow identifying the endogenous fluorophores present in biological tissue. Quantitative description of such data requires estimating the number of components in the sample, their characteristic fluorescent decays, and their relative contributions or abundances. Unfortunately, this inverse problem usually requires prior knowledge about the data, which is seldom available in biomedical applications. This work presents a new methodology to estimate the number of potential endogenous fluorophores present in biological tissue samples from time-domain m-FLIM data. Furthermore, a completely blind linear unmixing algorithm is proposed. The method was validated using both synthetic and experimental m-FLIM data. The experimental m-FLIM data include in-vivo measurements from healthy and cancerous hamster cheek-pouch epithelial tissue, and ex-vivo measurements from human coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The analysis of m-FLIM data from in-vivo hamster oral mucosa identified healthy from precancerous lesions, based on the relative concentration of their characteristic fluorophores. The algorithm also provided a better description of atherosclerotic plaques in term of their endogenous fluorophores. These results demonstrate the potential of this methodology to provide quantitative description of tissue biochemical composition. PMID:24921344