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Sample records for quantitative flow visualization

  1. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, so that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis.

  2. Qualitative and quantitative flow visualization technique using ozone.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, R R; Stedman, D H

    1979-06-01

    We have developed a new flow-visualization technique based on the absorption of ultraviolet light by ozone. Ozone is an excellent tracer, because as a gas it has the same effective physical properties as air. Ozone strongly absorbs the principal line (253.7 nm) of a mercury lamp, varepsilon=310 (atm cm)(-1), where I/Io=exp(-varepsiloncl) such that when an ozone-traced flow passes between a mercury lamp and a fluorescent screen, a sharp, shadow-like image of the ozone tracer is cast on the screen. Quantitative photometry can be carried out by replacing the screen with ultraviolet detectors that yield the path-integrated column density of ozone in the flow. High-speed quantitative point monitoring (10 Hz at 10 ppb O3) is possible with capillary probes and chemiluminescent analysis. PMID:18699586

  3. Photogrammetric and image processing aspects in quantitative flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Machacek, Matthias; Rosgen, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    The development of a measurement system for the visualization, topological classification, and quantitative analysis of complex flows in large-scale wind tunnel experiments is described. A new approach was sought in which the topological features of the flow (e.g., stream lines, separation and reattachment regions, stagnation points, and vortex lines) were extracted directly and preferably visualized in real-time in a virtual wind tunnel environment. The system was based on a stereo arrangement of two CCD cameras. A frame rate of 120 fps allowed measurements at high flow velocities. The paper focuses on the problem of fast and accurate reconstruction of path lines of helium filled soap bubbles in three dimensions (3D). A series of simple algorithmic steps was employed to ensure fast data processing. These included fast image segmentation, a spline approximation of the path lines, a camera model, point correspondence building, calculation of path line points in 3D and creation of a three-dimensional spline representation. The path lines, which contained both velocity and topological information, were analyzed to extract the relevant information. PMID:12495995

  4. Flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.

  5. Flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1991-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques are reviewed, with particular attention given to those applicable to liquid helium flows. Three techniques capable of obtaining qualitative and quantitative measurements of complex 3D flow fields are discussed including focusing schlieren, particle image volocimetry, and holocinematography (HCV). It is concluded that the HCV appears to be uniquely capable of obtaining full time-varying, 3D velocity field data, but is limited to the low speeds typical of liquid helium facilities.

  6. Quantitative visualization of high-speed 3D turbulent flow structures using holographic interferometric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, B. H.; Watt, D. W.; Bryanston-Cross, P. J.

    1999-02-01

    Using holographic interferometry the three-dimensional structure of unsteady and large-scale motions within subsonic and transonic turbulent jet flows has been studied. The instantaneous 3D flow structure is obtained by tomographic reconstruction techniques from quantitative phase maps recorded using a rapid-switching, double reference beam, double pulse laser system. The reconstruction of the jets studied here reveal a three-dimensional nature of the flow. In particular an increasing complexity can be seen in the turbulence as the flow progresses from the jet nozzle. Furthermore, a coherent three-dimensional, possibly rotating, structure can be seen to exist within these jets. The type of flow features illustrated here are not just of fundamental importance for understanding the behavior of free jet flows, but are also common to a number of industrial applications, ranging from the combustion flow within an IC engine to the transonic flow through the stages of a gas turbine.

  7. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow-visualization holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    Heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam are discussed. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  8. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow visualization holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows, where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  9. A new methodology for the quantitative visualization of coherent flow structures in alluvial channels using multibeam echo-sounding (MBES)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, Jim; Simmons, Stephen; Parsons, Daniel; Oberg, Kevin; Czuba, Jonathan; Malzone, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the interactions between turbulence and suspended sediment transport in natural aqueous environments, we ideally require a technique that allows simultaneous measurement of fluid velocity and sediment concentration for the whole flow field. Here, we report on development of a methodology using the water column acoustic backscatter signal from a multibeam echo sounder to simultaneously quantify flow velocities and sediment concentrations. The application of this new technique is illustrated with reference to flow over the leeside of an alluvial sand dune, which allows, for the first time in a field study, quantitative visualization of large-scale, whole flow field, turbulent coherent flow structures associated with the dune leeside that are responsible for suspending bed sediment. This methodology holds great potential for use in a wide range of aqueous geophysical flows.

  10. Quantitative Visualization of Fluid Occupancy in a Vertical Fracture Under Static and Dynamic Flowing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpyn, Z. T.; Grader, A. S.; Halleck, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Visualization of fluid occupancy in a rough fracture allows us to interpret fundamental characteristics that control the behavior of fluids flowing in the subsurface. Areas of applications of the present work include design of hydrocarbon recovery processes, control migration and distribution of non-aqueous phase liquids, underground storage of hazardous waste, and groundwater transport. In spite of the wide range of applications, our understanding of the physical phenomena concerning fluid flow through fractures is limited. The purpose of this work is to study the effects of fracture morphology on the distribution and transport of immiscible fluid phases through real fractures. An experimental approach, using Micro-Computed Tomography, was selected to characterize of the internal fracture structure and to monitor the two immiscible phases. The experiment was performed in Berea sandstone cores with a single longitudinal fracture. The artificially created fracture was oriented parallel to the natural bedding of the rock. The Sample was initially vacuum saturated with water, and oil was later injected through the longitudinal crack. Fluid occupancy in the fracture was mapped under four different flowing conditions: continuous oil injection to irreducible water saturation, continuous water injection to residual oil saturation, simultaneous injection of oil and water, and a static pseudo-segregated state. Micro-CT images were obtained with a spatial pixel resolution of 0.030 mm. Some of the mechanisms observed in this experiment include fluid trapping, preferential flow paths, snapping-off of non-wetting fluid globules, and coalescence and redistribution of globules between dynamic and static conditions. Experimental results indicate that distribution of wetting and non-wetting phases in a rough fracture is mainly determined by fracture geometry, saturations, and wetting characteristics of the rock. A strong correspondence between fluid distribution and fracture

  11. Improved quantitative visualization of hypervelocity flow through wavefront estimation based on shadow casting of sinusoidal gratings.

    PubMed

    Medhi, Biswajit; Hegde, Gopalakrishna M; Gorthi, Sai Siva; Reddy, Kalidevapura Jagannath; Roy, Debasish; Vasu, Ram Mohan

    2016-08-01

    A simple noninterferometric optical probe is developed to estimate wavefront distortion suffered by a plane wave in its passage through density variations in a hypersonic flow obstructed by a test model in a typical shock tunnel. The probe has a plane light wave trans-illuminating the flow and casting a shadow of a continuous-tone sinusoidal grating. Through a geometrical optics, eikonal approximation to the distorted wavefront, a bilinear approximation to it is related to the location-dependent shift (distortion) suffered by the grating, which can be read out space-continuously from the projected grating image. The processing of the grating shadow is done through an efficient Fourier fringe analysis scheme, either with a windowed or global Fourier transform (WFT and FT). For comparison, wavefront slopes are also estimated from shadows of random-dot patterns, processed through cross correlation. The measured slopes are suitably unwrapped by using a discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based phase unwrapping procedure, and also through iterative procedures. The unwrapped phase information is used in an iterative scheme, for a full quantitative recovery of density distribution in the shock around the model, through refraction tomographic inversion. Hypersonic flow field parameters around a missile-shaped body at a free-stream Mach number of ∼8 measured using this technique are compared with the numerically estimated values. It is shown that, while processing a wavefront with small space-bandwidth product (SBP) the FT inversion gave accurate results with computational efficiency; computation-intensive WFT was needed for similar results when dealing with larger SBP wavefronts. PMID:27505389

  12. Handbook of flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wen-Jei

    The present conference flow visualization encompasses the fundamental principles of visualization, methods for visualizing different flow types, image processing and computer-assisted methods, and a number of practical applications of the methodologies for studying heat transfer, gas-turbine-disk cooling flows, indoor environments, building aerodynamics, and land vehicles. Specific issues addressed include fluid dynamics, the basics of heat and mass transfer, electrical discharges, liquid crystals, streaming birefringence, speckle photography, Schlieren methods, surface tracing, planar fluorescence imaging in gases, digital processing in interferograms, and ultrasonic image processing. Also addressed are computer-aided flow visualization, flow-field survey data, thermography, flow solutions with scalar variable presentation, and special applications including aerospace and wind-tunnel testing, internal flows, and explosive flows such as shock tubes and blast waves.

  13. A qualitative and quantitative laser-based computer-aided flow visualization method. M.S. Thesis, 1992 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Braun, M. Jack

    1994-01-01

    The experimental approach presented here offers a nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of full field flow patterns applicable in various geometries in a variety of fluids. This Full Flow Field Tracking (FFFT) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, by means of particle tracers illuminated by a laser light sheet, offers an alternative to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and intrusive systems such as Hot Wire/Film Anemometry. The method makes obtainable the flow patterns, and allows quantitative determination of the velocities, accelerations, and mass flows of an entire flow field. The method uses a computer based digitizing system attached through an imaging board to a low luminosity camera. A customized optical train allows the system to become a long distance microscope (LDM), allowing magnifications of areas of interest ranging up to 100 times. Presented in addition to the method itself, are studies in which the flow patterns and velocities were observed and evaluated in three distinct geometries, with three different working fluids. The first study involved pressure and flow analysis of a brush seal in oil. The next application involved studying the velocity and flow patterns in a cowl lip cooling passage of an air breathing aircraft engine using water as the working fluid. Finally, the method was extended to a study in air to examine the flows in a staggered pin arrangement located on one side of a branched duct.

  14. Visualization of relaminarizing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viswanath, P. R.; Narasimha, R.; Prabhu, A.

    1978-01-01

    The experiments described in the present paper provided conclusive evidence for the feasibility of achieving reverse transition by several different mechanisms. Turbulent-to-laminar transition in water was visualized by injection of purple and green dyes. Air flows were visualized by colored schlieren photography.

  15. Ozone flow visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Stedman, D. H.

    1981-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques using ozone for tracing gas flows are proposed whereby ozone is detected through its strong absorption of ultraviolet light, which is easily made visible with fluorescent materials, or through its reaction with nitric oxide to form excited nitrogen dioxide, which in relaxing emits detectable light. It is shown that response speeds in the kHz range are possible with an ultraviolet detection system for initial ozone concentrations of about 1%.

  16. Holographic subsonic flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, C J; Wiswall, C E; Schmiege, R A; Harris, R J; Dueker, J E

    1970-09-01

    A pulsed ruby laser holographic interferometer was used to detect density gradients in the airflow around an airfoil at subsonic speeds in a low speed wind tunnel. These experiments proved that vibration of the optical components or object between exposures of the interferometric hologram does not destroy the detection of density gradients but actually can aid in the flow visualization. The density gradients determined from the fringe pattern analysis are consistent with the anticipated flow pattern. PMID:20094197

  17. Propeller flow visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, G. L.; Paulovich, F. J.; Greissing, J. P.; Walker, E. D.

    1982-01-01

    Propeller flow visualization techniques were tested. The actual operating blade shape as it determines the actual propeller performance and noise was established. The ability to photographically determine the advanced propeller blade tip deflections, local flow field conditions, and gain insight into aeroelastic instability is demonstrated. The analytical prediction methods which are being developed can be compared with experimental data. These comparisons contribute to the verification of these improved methods and give improved capability for designing future advanced propellers with enhanced performance and noise characteristics.

  18. F-106 Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Convair F-106B Delta Dart: As the last piloted Convair F-106 anywhere, NASA 816 saw service at Langley researching storm hazards, experimenting with an Off-Surface flow visualization system and testing a vortex flap. The Delta Dart was not turned over for target drone duty as were the vast majority of F-106s, but retired to the Virginia Air & Space Center in Hampton, Virginia.

  19. FAITH Water Channel Flow Visualization

    NASA Video Gallery

    Water channel flow visualization experiments are performed on a three dimensional model of a small hill. This experiment was part of a series of measurements of the complex fluid flow around the hi...

  20. Accuracy of quantitative visual soil assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Maricke; Heuvelink, Gerard; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Wallinga, Jakob; de Boer, Imke; van Dam, Jos; van Essen, Everhard; Moolenaar, Simon; Verhoeven, Frank; Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Visual soil assessment (VSA) is a method to assess soil quality visually, when standing in the field. VSA is increasingly used by farmers, farm organisations and companies, because it is rapid and cost-effective, and because looking at soil provides understanding about soil functioning. Often VSA is regarded as subjective, so there is a need to verify VSA. Also, many VSAs have not been fine-tuned for contrasting soil types. This could lead to wrong interpretation of soil quality and soil functioning when contrasting sites are compared to each other. We wanted to assess accuracy of VSA, while taking into account soil type. The first objective was to test whether quantitative visual field observations, which form the basis in many VSAs, could be validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The second objective was to assess whether quantitative visual field observations are reproducible, when used by observers with contrasting backgrounds. For the validation study, we made quantitative visual observations at 26 cattle farms. Farms were located at sand, clay and peat soils in the North Friesian Woodlands, the Netherlands. Quantitative visual observations evaluated were grass cover, number of biopores, number of roots, soil colour, soil structure, number of earthworms, number of gley mottles and soil compaction. Linear regression analysis showed that four out of eight quantitative visual observations could be well validated with standardized field or laboratory measurements. The following quantitative visual observations correlated well with standardized field or laboratory measurements: grass cover with classified images of surface cover; number of roots with root dry weight; amount of large structure elements with mean weight diameter; and soil colour with soil organic matter content. Correlation coefficients were greater than 0.3, from which half of the correlations were significant. For the reproducibility study, a group of 9 soil scientists and 7

  1. Telescope enclosure flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Fred F.; Wong, Woon-Yin; Baldwin, Jack; Siegmund, Walter A.; Limmongkol, Siriluk; Comfort, Charles H.

    1991-12-01

    Dome-induced thermal disturbances that degrade seeing can originate when temperature differences exist between the interior and exterior of a telescope enclosure. It is important to design enclosures which minimize the effect. One design aid is to model the enclosure and study the flow patterns in and around the model at various angles to the flow direction. We have used a water tunnel and models of spherical, octagonal, and rectangular enclosures to investigate the flow characteristics as a function of angle and venting configuration. In addition to a large video data-base, numerical results yield flushing times for all models and all venting arrangements. We have also investigated the comparative merits of passive venting as opposed to active forced flow circulation for the 4m telescope enclosure at the NOAO Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory at La Serena, Chile. Finally, the flow characteristics of a tracking half-shroud were studied as a possible shield for the enclosureless case.

  2. Surface-Streamline Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langston, L.; Boyle, M.

    1985-01-01

    Matrix of ink dots covers matte surface of polyester drafting film. Film placed against wind-tunnel wall. Layer of methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) sprayed over dotted area. Ink dot streaklines show several characteristics of flow, including primary saddle point of separations, primary horseshoe vortex and smaller vortex at cylinder/ endwall junction. Surface streamline flow visualization technique suitable for use in low-speed windtunnels or other low-speed gas flows.

  3. NASA Dryden flow visualization facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  4. A collection of flow visualization techniques used in the Aerodynamic Research Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental research on unsteady aerodynamic flows is discussed. Complex flow fields that involve separations, vortex interactions, and transonic flow effects were investigated. Flow visualization techniques are used to obtain a global picture of the flow phenomena before detailed quantitative studies are undertaken. A wide variety of methods are used to visualize fluid flow and a sampling of these methods is presented. It is emphasized that the visualization technique is a thorough quantitative analysis and subsequent physical understanding of these flow fields.

  5. Straightening tubular flow for side-by-side visualization.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paolo; Hauser, Helwig

    2011-12-01

    Flows through tubular structures are common in many fields, including blood flow in medicine and tubular fluid flows in engineering. The analysis of such flows is often done with a strong reference to the main flow direction along the tubular boundary. In this paper we present an approach for straightening the visualization of tubular flow. By aligning the main reference direction of the flow, i.e., the center line of the bounding tubular structure, with one axis of the screen, we are able to natively juxtapose (1.) different visualizations of the same flow, either utilizing different flow visualization techniques, or by varying parameters of a chosen approach such as the choice of seeding locations for integration-based flow visualization, (2.) the different time steps of a time-dependent flow, (3.) different projections around the center line , and (4.) quantitative flow visualizations in immediate spatial relation to the more qualitative classical flow visualization. We describe how to utilize this approach for an informative interactive visual analysis. We demonstrate the potential of our approach by visualizing two datasets from two different fields: an arterial blood flow measurement and a tubular gas flow simulation from the automotive industry. PMID:22034324

  6. Flow visualization using moving textures

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Becker, B.

    1995-04-01

    An intuitive way to visualize a flow is to watch particles or textures move in the flow. In this paper, the authors show how texture mapping hardware can produce near-real-time texture motion, using a polygon grid, and one fixed texture. However, the authors make no attempt to indicate the flow direction in a still frame. As discussed here, any anisotropic stretching comes from the velocity gradient, not the velocity itself. The basic idea is to advect the texture by the flow field. In a cited paper, they gave an indication of the wind velocity by advecting the 3D texture coordinates on the polygon vertices of a cloudiness contour surface in a climate simulation. This was slow, because the 3D texture was rendered in software, and because advecting the texture was difficult for time-varying flows. In this paper, they replace the 3D textures by 2D texture maps compatible with hardware rendering, and give techniques for handling time-varying flows more efficiently. The next section gives their technique for the case of 2D steady flows, and the following one discusses the problems of texture distortion. Then they discuss the problems with extending method to time-varying flows, and two solutions. Next they develop compositing methods for visualizing 3D flows. The final section gives their results and conclusions.

  7. Surface flow visualization using indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Surface flow visualization using indicators in the cryogenic wind tunnel which requires a fresh look at materials and procedures to accommodate the new test conditions is described. Potential liquid and gaseous indicators are identified. The particular materials illustrate the various requirements an indicator must fulfill. The indicator must respond properly to the flow phenomenon of interest and must be observable. Boundary layer transition is the most important phenomenon for which flow visualization indicators may be employed. The visibility of a particular indicator depends on utilizing various optical or chemical reactions. Gaseous indicators are more difficult to utilize, but because of their diversity may present unusual and useful opportunities. Factors to be considered in selecting an indicator include handling safety, toxicity, potential for contamination of the tunnel, and cost.

  8. Surface indicator and smoke flow visualization techniques in rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslyn, H. David; Dring, Robert P.

    The surface indicator (ammonia/Ozalid paper) flow visualization technique for turbomachine flow research is presently noted to be especially valuable in the specification of instrumentation arrays in film cooling studies. This method is also useful in interpreting quantitative aerodynamic measurements and in detecting the presence of such three-dimensional phenomena as relative eddies, end-wall secondary flows, tip leakage flows, corner stalls, boundary layer transition and separation, and radial fluid transport. The smoke flow visualization technique can lead to a better understanding of wake-airfoil interaction, thereby furnishing a basis for the assessment of analytical models.

  9. Computer-Aided Light Sheet Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data sets, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images, along with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. A description is provided of the photogrammetric reconstruction technique, and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment. Results of the computer aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images and CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  10. Analysis of separated flow using image enhanced thymol blue visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, J. M.; Disimile, Peter J.

    Image processing techniques have been developed which enhance the quality of thymol blue visualization. These new techniques allow meaningful quantitative data to be obtained from images using thymol blue flow visualization at velocities up to twice as high as the previous limit. As a demonstration of these techniques, measurements have been taken of the physical dimensions of the separation regions developing immediately downstream of a symmetric bifurcation. These measurements are then used to elicit trends in the separation physical dimensions as a function of flow rate. This particular information is applicable to a variety of flow separation problems found in biological flows and turbomachinery.

  11. Flow Visualization Techniques for Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    In-flight flow visualization techniques used at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and its predecessor organizations are described. Results from flight tests which visualized surface flows using flow cones, tufts, oil flows, liquid crystals, sublimating chemicals, and emitted fluids have been obtained. Off-surface flow visualization of vortical flow has been obtained from natural condensation and two methods using smoke generator systems. Recent results from flight tests at NASA Langley Research Center using a propylene glycol smoker and an infrared imager are also included. Results from photo-chase aircraft, onboard and postflight photography are presented.

  12. Flow visualization techniques for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Meyer, Robert R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In-flight flow visualization techniques used at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and its predecessor organizations are described. Results from flight tests which visualized surface flows using flow cones, tufts, oil flows, liquid crystals, sublimating chemicals, and emitted fluids were obtained. Off-surface flow visualization of vortical flow was obtained from natural condensation and two methods using smoke generator systems. Recent results from flight tests at NASA Langley Research Center using a propylene glycol smoker and an infrared imager are also included. Results from photo-chase aircraft, onboard and postflight photography are presented.

  13. Visualizing quantitative microscopy data: History and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sailem, Heba Z.; Cooper, Sam; Bakal, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Data visualization is a fundamental aspect of science. In the context of microscopy-based studies, visualization typically involves presentation of the images themselves. However, data visualization is challenging when microscopy experiments entail imaging of millions of cells, and complex cellular phenotypes are quantified in a high-content manner. Most well-established visualization tools are inappropriate for displaying high-content data, which has driven the development of new visualization methodology. In this review, we discuss how data has been visualized in both classical and high-content microscopy studies; as well as the advantages, and disadvantages, of different visualization methods. PMID:26906253

  14. Visualizing quantitative microscopy data: History and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sailem, Heba Z; Cooper, Sam; Bakal, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Data visualization is a fundamental aspect of science. In the context of microscopy-based studies, visualization typically involves presentation of the images themselves. However, data visualization is challenging when microscopy experiments entail imaging of millions of cells, and complex cellular phenotypes are quantified in a high-content manner. Most well-established visualization tools are inappropriate for displaying high-content data, which has driven the development of new visualization methodology. In this review, we discuss how data has been visualized in both classical and high-content microscopy studies; as well as the advantages, and disadvantages, of different visualization methods. PMID:26906253

  15. Software Aids Visualization of Computed Unsteady Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kenwright, David

    2003-01-01

    Unsteady Flow Analysis Toolkit (UFAT) is a computer program that synthesizes motions of time-dependent flows represented by very large sets of data generated in computational fluid dynamics simulations. Prior to the development of UFAT, it was necessary to rely on static, single-snapshot depictions of time-dependent flows generated by flow-visualization software designed for steady flows. Whereas it typically takes weeks to analyze the results of a largescale unsteady-flow simulation by use of steady-flow visualization software, the analysis time is reduced to hours when UFAT is used. UFAT can be used to generate graphical objects of flow visualization results using multi-block curvilinear grids in the format of a previously developed NASA data-visualization program, PLOT3D. These graphical objects can be rendered using FAST, another popular flow visualization software developed at NASA. Flow-visualization techniques that can be exploited by use of UFAT include time-dependent tracking of particles, detection of vortex cores, extractions of stream ribbons and surfaces, and tetrahedral decomposition for optimal particle tracking. Unique computational features of UFAT include capabilities for automatic (batch) processing, restart, memory mapping, and parallel processing. These capabilities significantly reduce analysis time and storage requirements, relative to those of prior flow-visualization software. UFAT can be executed on a variety of supercomputers.

  16. A new quantitative indicator of visual fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goussard, Yves; Martin, Bernard; Stark, Lawrence

    1987-01-01

    Ocular-motor correlates of visual fatigue have remained elusive. Performance of ocular-motor tracking with a wide-band white noise input and the response of the dual-mode, smooth pursuit-saccadic eye movement system as output was used to test visual fatigue. A new visual fatigue indicator, VFI, was defined as the nonlinear remnant after subtracting an identified impulse response contribution to the output. Subjects were required to perform very fatiguing CRT screen reading tasks, and the VFI correlated well with the subjective reports of visual fatigue.

  17. Boundary layer flow visualization for flight testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, Clifford J.

    1986-01-01

    Flow visualization is used extensively in flight testing to determine aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary layer state. Several visualization techniques are available to the aerodynamicist. Two of the most popular are oil flows and sublimating chemicals. Oil is used to visualize boundary layer transition, shock wave location, regions of separated flow, and surface flow direction. Boundary layer transition can also be visualized with sublimating chemicals. A summary of these two techniques is discussed, and the use of sublimating chemicals is examined in some detail. The different modes of boundary layer transition are characterized by different patterns in the sublimating chemical coating. The discussion includes interpretation of these chemical patterns and the temperature and velocity operating limitations of the chemical substances. Information for selection of appropriate chemicals for a desired set of flight conditions is provided.

  18. Centrifuge in space fluid flow visualization experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype flow visualization system is constructed to examine buoyancy driven flows during centrifugation in space. An axial density gradient is formed by imposing a thermal gradient between the two ends of the test cell. Numerical computations for this geometry showed that the Prandtl number plays a limited part in determining the flow.

  19. Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1991-01-01

    Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.

  20. Quantitative Functional Morphology by Imaging Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Vorobjev, Ivan A; Barteneva, Natasha S

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes advantages and limitations of imaging flow cytometry (IFC) based on Imagestream instrumentation using a hybrid approach of morphometric measurement and quantitation of multiparametric fluorescent intensities' distribution in cells and particles. Brief comparison is given of IFC with conventional flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy. Some future directions of the IFC technology are described and discussed. PMID:27460234

  1. A nonintrusive method of quantifying flow visualization data in vortex flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, Vincent J.

    1994-12-01

    The High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) as well as other similar flight test aircraft have been using smoke flow visualization techniques to characterize the vortex flow created by leading edge extensions and the forebody. With the advent of video measurement techniques, this type of flow visualization can not only provide a qualitative assessment of the flow but also a quantitative measure to be used to validate computational fluid dynamic codes and wind tunnel test. One of the major drawbacks to employing video imaging was the introduction of false motion due to camera movement in flight. A relative motion approach using fixed targets along with the flow visualization scheme was utilized to remove unwanted motion. The relative motion algorithm was tested using a laboratory test setup where cameras underwent both translational and rotational motion to simulate both wing bending and torsion. The method was effective in removing both motions with only a slight loss of accuracy.

  2. Shuttle RCS primary thruster injector flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    An image-transmitting fiber-optics scope with a dry gas purge of the optics head has been used to visually evaluate the condition of surplus thrusters in the Space Shuttle's Reaction Control System; it was subsequently applied to flight thrusters. The technique uses water for flow visualization, and obviates thruster disassembly. The innovative use of gas purging of a fiber-optics head allows the unobstructed and distortion-free viewing of the flow streams, and testing has shown the technique to be ideally suited to injector flow assessments following thruster exposure to extensive contamination.

  3. Water tunnel flow visualization using a laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckner, C.; Curry, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Laser systems for flow visualization in water tunnels (similar to the vapor screen technique used in wind tunnels) can provide two-dimensional cross-sectional views of complex flow fields. This parametric study documents the practical application of the laser-enhanced visualization (LEV) technique to water tunnel testing. Aspects of the study include laser power levels, flow seeding (using flourescent dyes and embedded particulates), model preparation, and photographic techniques. The results of this study are discussed to provide potential users with basic information to aid in the design and setup of an LEV system.

  4. Application of photogrammetry to surface flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, N.; Venkatakrishnan, L.

    2011-03-01

    The construction of three-dimensional surface flow fields is an extremely difficult task owing largely to the fragmented information available in the form of 2D images. Here, the method of photogrammetric resection based on a comprehensive camera model has been used to map oil flow visualization images on to the surface grid of the model. The data exported in the VRML format allow for user interaction in a manner not possible with 2D images. The technique is demonstrated here using the surface oil flow visualization images of a simplified landing gear model at low speed in a conventional wind tunnel without any specialized rigs for photogrammetry. The results are not limited to low-speed regimes and show that this technique can have significant impact on understanding the flow physics associated with the surface flow topology of highly three-dimensional separated flows on complex models.

  5. Flow visualization experiments in a porous nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cielak, Z.; Kinney, R. B.; Perkins, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental approach is described for the study of nozzle flows with large wall-transpiration rates. Emphasizing a qualitative understanding of the flow, the technique uses the hydraulic analogy, whereby a compressible gas flow is simulated by a water flow having a free surface. For simplicity, the simulated gas flow is taken to be two-dimensional. A nozzle with porous walls in the throat region has been developed for use on a water table. A technique for visualizing the transpired fluid has also been devised. These are discussed, and preliminary results are presented which illustrate the success of the experimental approach.

  6. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O'HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  7. Flow visualization in a simulated brush seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Canacci, V.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1990-01-01

    A method to visualize and characterize the complex flow fields in simulated brush seals is presented. The brush seal configuration was tested in a water and then in an oil tunnel. The visualization procedure revealed typical regions that are rivering, jetting, vortical or lateral flows and exist upstream, downstream or within the seal. Such flows are engendered by variations in fiber void that are spatial and temporal and affect changes in seal leakage and stability. While the effects of interface motion for linear or cylindrical configurations have not been considered herein, it is believed that the observed flow fields characterize flow phenomenology in both circular and linear brush seals. The axial pressure profiles upstream, across and downstream of the brush in the oil tunnel have been measured under a variety of inlet pressure conditions and the ensuing pressure maps are presented and discussed.

  8. Velocity visualization in gaseous flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, R. K.; Hiller, B.; Hassa, C.; Booman, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques yielding simultaneous, multiple-point measurements of velocity in reacting or nonreacting flow fields have the potential to significantly impact basic and applied studies of fluid mechanics. This research program is aimed at investigating several candidate schemes which could provide such measurement capability. The concepts under study have in common the use of a laser source (to illuminate a column, a grid, a plane or a volume in the flow) and the collection of light at right angles (from Mie scattering, fluorescence, phosphorescence or chemiluminescence) using a multi-element solid-state camera (100 x 100 array of photodiodes). The work will include an overview and a status report of work in progress with particular emphasis on the method of Doppler-modulated absorption.

  9. Flow field visualization about external axial corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talcott, N. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to visualize the flow field about external axial corners. The investigation was initiated to provide answers to questions about the inviscid flow pattern for continuing numerical investigations. Symmetrical and asymmetrical corner models were tested at a Reynolds number per meter of 60,700,000. Oil-flow and vapor-screen photographs were taken for both models at angle of attack and yaw. The paper presents the results of the investigation in the form of oil-flow photographs and the surrounding shock wave location obtained from the vapor screens.

  10. Graphics and Flow Visualization of Computer Generated Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kathong, M.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1987-01-01

    Flow field variables are visualized using color representations described on surfaces that are interpolated from computational grids and transformed to digital images. Techniques for displaying two and three dimensional flow field solutions are addressed. The transformations and the use of an interactive graphics program for CFD flow field solutions, called PLOT3D, which runs on the color graphics IRIS workstation are described. An overview of the IRIS workstation is also described.

  11. Transonic flow visualization using holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryanston-Cross, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    An account is made of some of the applications of holographic interferometry to the visualization of transonic flows. In the case of the compressor shock visualization, the method is used regularly and has moved from being a research department invention to a design test tool. With the implementation of automatic processing and simple digitization systems, holographic vibrational analysis has also moved into routine nondestructive testing. The code verification interferograms were instructive, but the main turbomachinery interest is now in 3 dimensional flows. A major data interpretation effort will be required to compute tomographically the 3 dimensional flow around the leading or the trailing edges of a rotating blade row. The bolt on approach shows the potential application to current unsteady flows of interest. In particular that of the rotor passing and vortex interaction effects is experienced by the new generation of unducted fans. The turbocharger tests presents a new area for the application of holography.

  12. Three-dimensional quantitative flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Richard B.; Nosenchuck, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    The principles, capabilities, and practical implementation of advanced measurement techniques for the quantitative characterization of three-dimensional flows are reviewed. Consideration is given to particle, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering; fluorescence; flow marking by H2 bubbles, photochromism, photodissociation, and vibrationally excited molecules; light-sheet volume imaging; and stereo imaging. Also discussed are stereo schlieren methods, holographic particle imaging, optical tomography, acoustic and magnetic-resonance imaging, and the display of space-filling data. Extensive diagrams, graphs, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  13. Holographic Flow Visualization at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    2005-01-01

    Holographic flow visualization systems at two NASA Langley facilities, a hypersonic blow-down tunnel using CF4 gas and an expansion tube with very short test time, are described. A pulsed ruby laser is used at a CF4 tunnel for single pulse holography, double pulse with several minutes between exposures, and dual plate holographic interferometry. Shadow-graph, schlieren, and interferograms are reconstructed from the holograms in a separate reconstruction lab. At the expansion tube the short run time of 200 microseconds requires precise triggering of its double pulsed ruby laser. With pulse separation, one pulse can occur before and one after flow is established to obtain fringe free background interferograms (perfect infinite fringe) or both pulses can occur during flow in order to study flow instabilities. Holograms are reconstructed at the expansion tube with an in-place setup which makes use of a high power CW Argon laser and common optics for both recording and reconstructing the holograms. The holographic systems at the CF4 tunnel and expansion tube are operated routinely for flow visualization by tunnel technicians. Typical flow visualization photographs from both facilities are presented.

  14. Photochromic Polyaphrons For Visualization Of Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbaraman, M. R.; Ostermier, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    Drops of ultraviolet-activated dyes encapsulated in liquid films reveal flow patterns. Method based on visualization material composed of polyaphrons containing photochromic dye. Polyaphrons are droplets of organic liquid encapsulated in thin layer of another liquid, which holds droplets stably by surface tension. Photochromic dye within a polyaphron acquires color temporarily after exposure to strong ultraviolet light.

  15. Fluorescent particles enable visualization of gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. J.

    1968-01-01

    Fluorescent particles enable visualization of the flow patterns of gases at slow velocities. Through a transparent section in the gas line, a camera views the visible light emitted by the particles carried by the gas stream. Fine definition of the particle tracks are obtained at slow camera shutter speeds.

  16. Flow visualization of CFD using graphics workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasinski, Thomas; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Rogers, Stuart; Bancroft, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    High performance graphics workstations are used to visualize the fluid flow dynamics obtained from supercomputer solutions of computational fluid dynamic programs. The visualizations can be done independently on the workstation or while the workstation is connected to the supercomputer in a distributed computing mode. In the distributed mode, the supercomputer interactively performs the computationally intensive graphics rendering tasks while the workstation performs the viewing tasks. A major advantage of the workstations is that the viewers can interactively change their viewing position while watching the dynamics of the flow fields. An overview of the computer hardware and software required to create these displays is presented. For complex scenes the workstation cannot create the displays fast enough for good motion analysis. For these cases, the animation sequences are recorded on video tape or 16 mm film a frame at a time and played back at the desired speed. The additional software and hardware required to create these video tapes or 16 mm movies are also described. Photographs illustrating current visualization techniques are discussed. Examples of the use of the workstations for flow visualization through animation are available on video tape.

  17. Improved visualization of flow field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    1991-01-01

    A capability is proposed that makes it feasible to apply to measured flow field data the visualization tools developed to display numerical solutions for computational fluid dynamic problems. The measurement monitor surface (MMS) methodology was used for the analysis of flow field measurements within a low-aspect-ratio transonic axial-flow fan rotor acquired with two-dimensional laser anemometry. It is shown that the MMS method may be utilized to generate input for the multidimensional processing and analytical tools developed for numerical flow field simulation data. Thus an experimenter utilizing an interactive graphics program could illustrate scalar quantities such as Mach number by profiles, contour lines, carpet plots, and surfaces employing various color intensities. Also, flow directionality can be shown by the display of vector fields and particle traces.

  18. Flow cytometric determination of quantitative immunophenotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redelman, Douglas; Ensign, Wayne; Roberts, Don

    2001-05-01

    Immunofluorescent flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes is most commonly used to identify and enumerate cells defined by one or more clusters of differentiation (CD) antigens. Although less widely employed, quantitative tests that measure the amounts of CD antigens expressed per cell are used in some situations such as the characterization of lymphomas and leukocytes or the measurement of CD38 on CD3plu8pluT cells in HIV infected individuals. The CD antigens used to identify leukocyte populations are functionally important molecules and it is known that under- or over-expression of some CD antigens can affect cellular responses. For example, high or low expression of CD19 on B cells is associated with autoimmune conditions or depressed antibody responses, respectively. In the current studies, the quantitative expression of CD antigens on T cells, B cells and monocytes was determined in a group of age and sex-matched Marines at several times before and after training exercises. There was substantial variation among these individuals in the quantitative expression of CD antigens and in the number of cells in various populations. However, there was relatively little variation within individuals during the two months they were examined. Thus, the number of cells in leukocyte sub-populations and the amount of CD antigens expressed per cell appear to comprise a characteristic quantitative immunophenotype.

  19. Development of a flow visualization apparatus. [to study convection flow patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradley, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of an optical flow visualization device for studying convection flow patterns was investigated. The investigation considered use of a shadowgraph, schlieren and other means for visualizing the flow. A laboratory model was set up to provide data on the proper optics and photography procedures to best visualize the flow. A preliminary design of a flow visualization system is provided as a result of the study. Recommendations are given for a flight test program utilizing the flow visualization apparatus.

  20. A vapor generator for transonic flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Robert A.; Hess, Robert W.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A vapor generator was developed for use in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). Propylene glycol was used as the vapor material. The vapor generator system was evaluated in a laboratory setting and then used in the TDT as part of a laser light sheet flow visualization system. The vapor generator provided satisfactory seeding of the air flow with visible condensate particles, smoke, for tests ranging from low subsonic through transonic speeds for tunnel total pressures from atmospheric pressure down to less than 0.1 atmospheric pressure.

  1. Hydraulic flow visualization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Karidis, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for visualizing liquid flow. Pulses of gas bubbles are introduced into a liquid flow stream and a strobe light is operated at a frequency related to the frequency of the gas pulses to shine on the bubbles as they pass through the liquid stream. The gas pulses pass through a probe body having a valve element, and a reciprocating valve stem passes through the probe body to operate the valve element. A stem actuating device comprises a slidable reciprocating member, operated by a crank arm. The actuated member is adjustable to adjust the amount of the valve opening during each pulse.

  2. CANDU in-reactor quantitative visual-based inspection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochefort, P. A.

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes two separate visual-based inspection procedures used at CANDU nuclear power generating stations. The techniques are quantitative in nature and are delivered and operated in highly radioactive environments with access that is restrictive, and in one case is submerged. Visual-based inspections at stations are typically qualitative in nature. For example a video system will be used to search for a missing component, inspect for a broken fixture, or locate areas of excessive corrosion in a pipe. In contrast, the methods described here are used to measure characteristic component dimensions that in one case ensure ongoing safe operation of the reactor and in the other support reactor refurbishment. CANDU reactors are Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). The reactor vessel is a horizontal cylindrical low-pressure calandria tank approximately 6 m in diameter and length, containing heavy water as a neutron moderator. Inside the calandria, 380 horizontal fuel channels (FC) are supported at each end by integral end-shields. Each FC holds 12 fuel bundles. The heavy water primary heat transport water flows through the FC pressure tube, removing the heat from the fuel bundles and delivering it to the steam generator. The general design of the reactor governs both the type of measurements that are required and the methods to perform the measurements. The first inspection procedure is a method to remotely measure the gap between FC and other in-core horizontal components. The technique involves delivering vertically a module with a high-radiation-resistant camera and lighting into the core of a shutdown but fuelled reactor. The measurement is done using a line-of-sight technique between the components. Compensation for image perspective and viewing elevation to the measurement is required. The second inspection procedure measures flaws within the reactor's end shield FC calandria tube rolled joint area. The FC calandria tube (the outer shell of the FC) is

  3. The art and science of flow control - case studies using flow visualization methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, F. S.; Cattafesta, L. N., III

    2010-04-01

    Active flow control (AFC) has been the focus of significant research in the last decade. This is mainly due to the potentially substantial benefits it affords. AFC applications range from the subsonic to the supersonic (and beyond) regime for both internal and external flows. These applications are wide and varied, such as controlling flow transition and separation over various external components of the aircraft to active management of separation and flow distortion in engine components and over turbine and compressor blades. High-speed AFC applications include control of flow oscillations in cavity flows, supersonic jet screech, impinging jets, and jet-noise control. In this paper we review some of our recent applications of AFC through a number of case studies that illustrate the typical benefits as well as limitations of present AFC methods. The case studies include subsonic and supersonic canonical flowfields such as separation control over airfoils, control of supersonic cavity flows and impinging jets. In addition, properties of zero-net mass-flux (ZNMF) actuators are also discussed as they represent one of the most widely studied actuators used for AFC. In keeping with the theme of this special issue, the flowfield properties and their response to actuation are examined through the use of various qualitative and quantitative flow visualization methods, such as smoke, shadowgraph, schlieren, planar-laser scattering, and Particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results presented here clearly illustrate the merits of using flow visualization to gain significant insight into the flow and its response to AFC.

  4. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  5. Dual exposure interferometry. [gas dynamics and flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeets, G.; George, A.

    1982-01-01

    The application of dual exposure differential interferometry to gas dynamics and flow visualization is discussed. A differential interferometer with Wallaston prisms can produce two complementary interference fringe systems, depending on the polarization of the incident light. If these two systems are superimposed on a film, with one exposure during a phenomenon, the other before or after, the phenomenon will appear on a uniform background. By regulating the interferometer to infinite fringe distance, a resolution limit of approximately lambda/500 can be obtained in the quantitative analysis of weak phase objects. This method was successfully applied to gas dynamic investigations.

  6. Qualitative flow visualization using colored lights and reflective flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoroddsen, S. T.; Bauer, J. M.

    1999-07-01

    We present a novel flow-visualization technique utilizing reflective flakes in combination with color illumination. Three differently colored columated light beams are used to illuminate the flow, each color being directed from a separate direction. In this way, the color of the light reflected from the flakes gives an indication of the local flake orientation. The flake orientation in complex three-dimensional (3-D) flow is in general a complicated function of the local velocity gradient tensor, but can be calculated if the underlying velocity field is known. This has recently been demonstrated by Gauthier et al. [Phys. Fluids. 10, 2147 (1998)] using monochome light. In complex flow fields the distribution of flakes may, however, be rearranged by the motion, thus making the local intensity of reflection depend on both orientation and flake concentration. The color is, however, immune to the local number density of flakes inside the flow, making quantitative information possible. This technique is demonstrated by visualizing the finer details of vortices in a Taylor-Couette device.

  7. Flow charts: visualization of vector fields on arbitrary surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo-Shi; Tricoche, Xavier; Weiskopf, Daniel; Hansen, Charles

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel flow visualization method called Flow Charts, which uses a texture atlas approach for the visualization of flows defined over curved surfaces. In this scheme the surface and its associated flow are segmented into overlapping patches which are then parameterized and packed in the texture domain. This scheme allows accurate particle advection across multiple charts in the texture domain, providing a flexible framework that supports various flow visualization techniques. The use of surface parameterization enables flow visualization techniques requiring the global view of the surface over long time spans, such as Unsteady Flow LIC (UFLIC), particle-based Unsteady Flow Advection-Convolution (UFAC), or dye advection. It also prevents visual artifacts normally associated with view-dependent methods. Represented as textures, Flow Charts can be naturally integrated into GPU flow visualization techniques for interactive performance. PMID:18599918

  8. Flow Charts: Visualization of Vector Fields on Arbitrary Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Shi; Tricoche, Xavier; Weiskopf, Daniel; Hansen, Charles

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel flow visualization method called Flow Charts, which uses a texture atlas approach for the visualization of flows defined over curved surfaces. In this scheme, the surface and its associated flow are segmented into overlapping patches, which are then parameterized and packed in the texture domain. This scheme allows accurate particle advection across multiple charts in the texture domain, providing a flexible framework that supports various flow visualization techniques. The use of surface parameterization enables flow visualization techniques requiring the global view of the surface over long time spans, such as Unsteady Flow LIC (UFLIC), particle-based Unsteady Flow Advection Convolution (UFAC), or dye advection. It also prevents visual artifacts normally associated with view-dependent methods. Represented as textures, Flow Charts can be naturally integrated into hardware accelerated flow visualization techniques for interactive performance. PMID:18599918

  9. F-18 HARV forebody surface flow visualization using dye flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A glycol-based liquid, released through very small holes around the nose of an F/A-18 flown by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, for its High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) program, aids researchers in flow visualization studies. This photograph, taken postflight, shows the airflow pattern at about 30 degrees angle of attack. The program was conducted jointly with NASA's Langley Research Center.

  10. Quantitative assessment of visual behavior in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Trojano, L; Moretta, P; Loreto, V; Cozzolino, A; Santoro, L; Estraneo, A

    2012-09-01

    The study of eye behavior is of paramount importance in the differential diagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DoC). In spite of this, assessment of eye movement patterns in patients with vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) only relies on clinical evaluation. In this study we aimed to provide a quantitative assessment of visual tracking behavior in response to moving stimuli in DoC patients. Nine VS patients and nine MCS patients were recruited in a Neurorehabilitation Unit for patients with chronic DoC; 11 matched healthy subjects were tested as the control group. All participants under went a quantitative evaluation of eye-tracking pattern by means of a computerized infrared eye-tracker system; stimuli were represented by a red circle or a small color picture slowly moving on a PC monitor. The proportion of on- or off-target fixations differed significantly between MCS and VS. Most importantly, the distribution of fixations on or off the target in all VS patients was at or below the chance level, whereas in the MCS group seven out of nine patients showed a proportion of on-target fixations significantly higher than the chance level. Fixation length did not differ among the three groups significantly. The present quantitative assessment of visual behaviour in a tracking task demonstrated that MCS and VS patients differ in the proportion of on-target fixations. These results could have important clinical implications since the quantitative analysis of visual behavior might provide additional elements in the differential diagnosis of DoC. PMID:22302277

  11. Visualization of Flow Alternatives, Lower Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Heuser, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    Background The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) 'Missouri River Master Water Control Manual' (Master Manual) review has resulted in consideration of many flow alternatives for managing the water in the river (COE, 2001; 1998a). The purpose of this report is to present flow-management alternative model results in a way that can be easily visualized and understood. This report was updated in October 2001 to focus on the specific flow-management alternatives presented by the COE in the 'Master Manual Revised Draft Environmental Impact Statement' (RDEIS; COE, 2001). The original version (February 2000) is available by clicking here. The COE, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), Missouri River states, and Missouri River basin tribes have been participating in discussions concerning water management of the Missouri River mainstem reservoir system (MRMRS), the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project, and the Kansas River reservoir system since 1986. These discussions include general input to the revision of the Master Manual as well as formal consultation under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act. In 2000, the FWS issued a Biological Opinion that prescribed changes to reservoir management on the Missouri River that were believed to be necessary to preclude jeopardy to three endangered species, the pallid sturgeon, piping plover, and interior least tern (USFWS, 2000). The combined Missouri River system is large and complex, including many reservoirs, control structures, and free-flowing reaches extending over a broad region. The ability to assess future impacts of altered management scenarios necessarily involves complex, computational models that attempt to integrate physical, chemical, biological, and economic effects. Graphical visualization of the model output is intended to improve understanding of the differences among flow-management alternatives.

  12. Development of image processing techniques for applications in flow visualization and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, Peter J.; Shoe, Bridget; Toy, Norman; Savory, Eric; Tahouri, Bahman

    1991-01-01

    A comparison between two flow visualization studies of an axi-symmetric circular jet issuing into still fluid, using two different experimental techniques, is described. In the first case laser induced fluorescence is used to visualize the flow structure, whilst smoke is utilized in the second. Quantitative information was obtained from these visualized flow regimes using two different digital imaging systems. Results are presented of the rate at which the jet expands in the downstream direction and these compare favorably with the more established data.

  13. Visualization of instationary flows by particle traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raasch, S.

    An abstract on a study which represents a model of atmospheric flow output by computer movies is presented. The structure and evolution of the flow is visualized by starting weightless particles at the locations of the model grid points at distinct, equally spaced times. These particles are then only advected by the flow. In order to avoid useless accumulation of particles, they can be provided with a limited lifetime. Scalar quantities can be shown in addition to using color shaded contours as background information. A movie with several examples of atmospheric flows, for example convection in the atmospheric boundary layer, slope winds, land seabreeze and Kelvin-Helmholtz waves is presented. The simulations are performed by two dimensional and three dimensional nonhydrostatic, finite difference models. Graphics are produced by using the UNIRAS software and the graphic output is in form of CGM metafiles. The single frames are stored on an ABEKAS real time video disc and then transferred to a BETACAM-SP tape recorder. The graphic software is suitable to produce 2 dimensional pictures, for example only cross sections of three dimensional simulations can be made. To produce a movie of typically 90 seconds duration, the graphic software and the particle model need about 10 hours CPU time on a CCD CYBER 990 and the CGM metafile has a size of about 1.4 GByte.

  14. Computer-aided light sheet flow visualization using photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Kathryn; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.

    1994-01-01

    A computer-aided flow visualization process has been developed to analyze video images acquired from rotating and translating light sheet visualization systems. The computer process integrates a mathematical model for image reconstruction, advanced computer graphics concepts, and digital image processing to provide a quantitative and a visual analysis capability. The image reconstruction model, based on photogrammetry, uses knowledge of the camera and light sheet locations and orientations to project two-dimensional light sheet video images into three-dimensional space. A sophisticated computer visualization package, commonly used to analyze computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results, was chosen to interactively display the reconstructed light sheet images with the numerical surface geometry for the model or aircraft under study. The photogrammetric reconstruction technique and the image processing and computer graphics techniques and equipment are described. Results of the computer-aided process applied to both a wind tunnel translating light sheet experiment and an in-flight rotating light sheet experiment are presented. The capability to compare reconstructed experimental light sheet images with CFD solutions in the same graphics environment is also demonstrated.

  15. Quantitative Estimation of Tissue Blood Flow Rate.

    PubMed

    Tozer, Gillian M; Prise, Vivien E; Cunningham, Vincent J

    2016-01-01

    The rate of blood flow through a tissue (F) is a critical parameter for assessing the functional efficiency of a blood vessel network following angiogenesis. This chapter aims to provide the principles behind the estimation of F, how F relates to other commonly used measures of tissue perfusion, and a practical approach for estimating F in laboratory animals, using small readily diffusible and metabolically inert radio-tracers. The methods described require relatively nonspecialized equipment. However, the analytical descriptions apply equally to complementary techniques involving more sophisticated noninvasive imaging.Two techniques are described for the quantitative estimation of F based on measuring the rate of tissue uptake following intravenous administration of radioactive iodo-antipyrine (or other suitable tracer). The Tissue Equilibration Technique is the classical approach and the Indicator Fractionation Technique, which is simpler to perform, is a practical alternative in many cases. The experimental procedures and analytical methods for both techniques are given, as well as guidelines for choosing the most appropriate method. PMID:27172960

  16. Improved Visualization of Cartilage Canals Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Nissi, Mikko J.; Tóth, Ferenc; Wang, Luning; Carlson, Cathy S.; Ellermann, Jutta M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cartilage canal vessels are critical to the normal function of epiphyseal (growth) cartilage and damage to these vessels is demonstrated or suspected in several important developmental orthopaedic diseases. High-resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of cartilage canals has recently been demonstrated using susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI). In the present study, a quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) approach is evaluated for 3-D visualization of the cartilage canals. It is hypothesized that QSM post-processing improves visualization of the cartilage canals by resolving artifacts present in the standard SWI post-processing while retaining sensitivity to the cartilage canals. Methods Ex vivo distal femoral specimens from 3- and 8-week-old piglets and a 1-month-old human cadaver were scanned at 9.4 T with a 3-D gradient recalled echo sequence suitable for SWI and QSM post-processing. The human specimen and the stifle joint of a live, 3-week-old piglet also were scanned at 7.0 T. Datasets were processed using the standard SWI method and truncated k-space division QSM approach. To compare the post-processing methods, minimum/maximum intensity projections and 3-D reconstructions of the processed datasets were generated and evaluated. Results Cartilage canals were successfully visualized using both SWI and QSM approaches. The artifactual splitting of the cartilage canals that occurs due to the dipolar phase, which was present in the SWI post-processed data, was eliminated by the QSM approach. Thus, orientation-independent visualization and better localization of the cartilage canals was achieved with the QSM approach. Combination of GRE with a mask based on QSM data further improved visualization. Conclusions Improved and artifact-free 3-D visualization of the cartilage canals was demonstrated by QSM processing of the data, especially by utilizing susceptibility data as an enhancing mask. Utilizing tissue-inherent contrast, this method allows

  17. Synchronization trigger control system for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cinematography or holographic interferometry for dynamic flow visualization in an internal combustion engine requires a control device that globally synchronizes camera and light source timing at a predefined shaft encoder angle. The device is capable of 0.35 deg resolution for rotational speeds of up to 73 240 rpm. This was achieved by implementing the shaft encoder signal addressed look-up table (LUT) and appropriate latches. The developed digital signal processing technique achieves 25 nsec of high speed triggering angle detection by using direct parallel bit comparison of the shaft encoder digital code with a simulated angle reference code, instead of using angle value comparison which involves more complicated computation steps. In order to establish synchronization to an AC reference signal whose magnitude is variant with the rotating speed, a dynamic peak followup synchronization technique has been devised. This method scrutinizes the reference signal and provides the right timing within 40 nsec. Two application examples are described.

  18. Flow Visualization and Laser Velocimetry for Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, W. W., Jr. (Editor); Foughner, J. T., Jr. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The need for flow visualization and laser velocimetry were discussed. The purpose was threefold: (1) provide a state-of-the-art overview; (2) provide a forum for industry, universities, and government agencies to address problems in developing useful and productive flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques; and (3) provide discussion of recent developments and applications of flow visualization and laser velocimetry measurement techniques and instrumentation systems for wind tunnels including the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel.

  19. Subsampling-based compression and flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovsky, Alexy; Camp, David; Joy, Kenneth I.; Childs, Hank

    2015-01-01

    As computational capabilities increasingly outpace disk speeds on leading supercomputers, scientists will, in turn, be increasingly unable to save their simulation data at its native resolution. One solution to this problem is to compress these data sets as they are generated and visualize the compressed results afterwards. We explore this approach, specifically subsampling velocity data and the resulting errors for particle advection-based flow visualization. We compare three techniques: random selection of subsamples, selection at regular locations corresponding to multi-resolution reduction, and introduce a novel technique for informed selection of subsamples. Furthermore, we explore an adaptive system which exchanges the subsampling budget over parallel tasks, to ensure that subsampling occurs at the highest rate in the areas that need it most. We perform supercomputing runs to measure the effectiveness of the selection and adaptation techniques. Overall, we find that adaptation is very effective, and, among selection techniques, our informed selection provides the most accurate results, followed by the multi-resolution selection, and with the worst accuracy coming from random subsamples.

  20. Visualizing Coolant Flow in Sodium Reactor Subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Uniformity of temperature controls peak power output. Interchannel cross-flow is the principal cross-assembly energy transport mechanism. The areas of fastest flow all occur at the exterior of the assembly. Further, the fast moving region winds around the assembly in a continuous swath. This Nek5000 simulation uses an unstructured mesh with over one billion grid points, resulting in five billion degrees of freedom per time slice. High speed patches of turbulence due to vertex shedding downstream of the wires persist for about a quarter of the wire-wrap periodic length. Credits: Science: Paul Fisher and Aleks Obabko, Argonne National Laboratory
 Visualization: Hank Childs and Janet Jacobsen, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

 This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy's NEAMS program.

  1. Flow visualizations of perpendicular blade vortex interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rife, Michael C.; Davenport, William J.

    1992-01-01

    Helium bubble flow visualizations have been performed to study perpendicular interaction of a turbulent trailing vortex and a rectangular wing in the Virginia Tech Stability Tunnel. Many combinations of vortex strength, vortex-blade separation (Z(sub s)) and blade angle of attack were studied. Photographs of representative cases are presented. A range of phenomena were observed. For Z(sub s) greater than a few percent chord the vortex is deflected as it passes the blade under the influence of the local streamline curvature and its image in the blade. Initially the interaction appears to have no influence on the core. Downstream, however, the vortex core begins to diffuse and grow, presumably as a consequence of its interaction with the blade wake. The magnitude of these effects increases with reduction in Z(sub s). For Z(sub s) near zero the form of the interaction changes and becomes dependent on the vortex strength. For lower strengths the vortex appears to split into two filaments on the leading edge of the blade, one passing on the pressure and one passing on the suction side. At higher strengths the vortex bursts in the vicinity of the leading edge. In either case the core of its remnants then rapidly diffuse with distance downstream. Increase in Reynolds number did not qualitatively affect the flow apart from decreasing the amplitude of the small low-frequency wandering motions of the vortex. Changes in wing tip geometry and boundary layer trip had very little effect.

  2. Flow visualization for investigating stator losses in a multistage axial compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Natalie R.; Key, Nicole L.

    2015-05-01

    The methodology and implementation of a powder-paint-based flow visualization technique along with the illuminated flow physics are presented in detail for application in a three-stage axial compressor. While flow visualization often accompanies detailed studies, the turbomachinery literature lacks a comprehensive study which both utilizes flow visualization to interrupt the flow field and explains the intricacies of execution. Lessons learned for obtaining high-quality images of surface flow patterns are discussed in this study. Fluorescent paint is used to provide clear, high-contrast pictures of the recirculation regions on shrouded vane rows. An edge-finding image processing procedure is implemented to provide a quantitative measure of vane-to-vane variability in flow separation, which is approximately 7 % of the suction surface length for Stator 1. Results include images of vane suction side corner separations from all three stages at three loading conditions. Additionally, streakline patterns obtained experimentally are compared with those calculated from computational models. Flow physics associated with vane clocking and increased rotor tip clearance and their implications to stator loss are also investigated with this flow visualization technique. With increased rotor tip clearance, the vane surface flow patterns show a shift to larger separations and more radial flow at the tip. Finally, the effects of instrumentation on the flow field are highlighted.

  3. Parametric Flow Visualization of Dynamic Roughness Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakkali, Vinay

    The ever growing need in the aircraft industry to enhance the performance of a flight vehicle has led to active areas of research which focus on the control of the local boundary layer by both passive and active methods. An effective flow control mechanism can improve the performance of a flight vehicle in various ways, one of which is eliminating boundary layer separation. To be effective the mechanism not only needs to control the boundary layer as desired, but also use less energy than the resulting energy savings. In this study, the effectiveness of an active flow control technique known as dynamic roughness (DR) has been explored to eliminate the laminar separation bubble near the leading edge and also to eliminate the stall on a NACA 0012 airfoil wing. As opposed to static roughness, dynamic roughness utilizes small time-dependent deforming elements or humps with displacement amplitudes that are on the order of the local boundary layer height to energize the local boundary layer. DR is primarily characterized by the maximum amplitude and operating frequency. A flow visualization study was conducted on a 2D NACA 0012 airfoil model at different angles of attack, and also varying the Reynolds number and DR actuation frequency with fixed maximum DR amplitude. The experimental results from this study suggests that DR is an effective method of reattaching a totally separated boundary layer. In addition, this study discusses some of the fundamental physics behind the working of DR and proposes some non-dimensional terms that may help to explain the driving force behind the mechanism.

  4. In-flight flow visualization using infrared imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, J. M.; Manuel, G. S.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Holmes, B. J.

    1988-01-01

    A flight test investigation was conducted to evaluate infrared (IR) flow imaging techniques for boundary-layer flow visualization. The flight tests used a single-engine turboprop aircraft with a fiberglass-skinned natural laminar flow glove mounted on the left wing and an infrared imaging system to obtain flow visualization data. Data were compared to results obtained from other more conventional boundary-layer flow visualization methods and found to agree well. Test flights were conducted to determine the effect of test surface color on IR flow visualization results. In addition, flights were made during both night and daylight hours to assess the effect of solar radiation on the results. The investigation included an effort to visualize a vortex passing over the wing glove, but the tests provided only limited results.

  5. Flow Visualization of Forced and Natural Convection in Internal Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    John Crepeau; Hugh M. Mcllroy,Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Keith G. Condie; Glenn McCreery; Randy Clarsean; Robert S. Brodkey; Yann G. Guezennec

    2002-01-31

    The report descries innovative flow visualization techniques, fluid mechanics measurements and computational models of flows in a spent nuclear fuel canister. The flow visualization methods used a fluid that reacted with a metal plate to show how a local reaction affects the surrounding flow. A matched index of refraction facility was used to take mean flow and turbulence measurements within a generic spent nuclear fuel canister. Computational models were also made of the flow in the canister. It was determined that the flow field in the canister was very complex, and modifications may need to be made to ensure that the spent fuel elements are completely passivated.

  6. Breast tumour visualization using 3D quantitative ultrasound methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J.; Raheem, Abdul; Tadayyon, Hadi; Liu, Simon; Hadizad, Farnoosh; Czarnota, Gregory J.

    2016-04-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer types accounting for 29% of all cancer cases. Early detection and treatment has a crucial impact on improving the survival of affected patients. Ultrasound (US) is non-ionizing, portable, inexpensive, and real-time imaging modality for screening and quantifying breast cancer. Due to these attractive attributes, the last decade has witnessed many studies on using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods in tissue characterization. However, these studies have mainly been limited to 2-D QUS methods using hand-held US (HHUS) scanners. With the availability of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) technology, this study is the first to develop 3-D QUS methods for the ABUS visualization of breast tumours. Using an ABUS system, unlike the manual 2-D HHUS device, the whole patient's breast was scanned in an automated manner. The acquired frames were subsequently examined and a region of interest (ROI) was selected in each frame where tumour was identified. Standard 2-D QUS methods were used to compute spectral and backscatter coefficient (BSC) parametric maps on the selected ROIs. Next, the computed 2-D parameters were mapped to a Cartesian 3-D space, interpolated, and rendered to provide a transparent color-coded visualization of the entire breast tumour. Such 3-D visualization can potentially be used for further analysis of the breast tumours in terms of their size and extension. Moreover, the 3-D volumetric scans can be used for tissue characterization and the categorization of breast tumours as benign or malignant by quantifying the computed parametric maps over the whole tumour volume.

  7. Flow visualization and spectroscopy in hypersonic flows: New trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trolinger, James; Eitelberg, Georg; Rapuc, Marc

    1993-04-01

    This paper is based upon a session of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, New Trends in Instrumentation for Hypersonic Research held at the ONERA La Fauga Facility in France during the week of 27 Apr. 1992. The discussion includes some of the frontiers of the technology of flow visualization and spectroscopy as well as a discussion of the current development needs and trends. Included in the discussion are optical integrated measurements such as resonance absorption, schlieren, interferometry, and holographic methods. The discussion shows that while the technology is mature in a broad sense, a significant number of new development areas exist such as resonant holography and phase shifting holographic interferometry. The maturity of the technology makes it immediately applicable to many problems and the untapped potential offers considerable room for improvement of existing capability. The methods which are described can be used in harsh environments and have the potential for becoming flight test diagnostics for the measurement of temperature, density, constituency, and velocity.

  8. Flow visualization and interpretation of visualization data for deflected thrust V/STOL nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, H. C.; Burstadt, P. L.; Johns, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were made for four deflected thrust nozzle models at subsonic speeds. Based on topological rules and the assumption that observed streaks constitute continuous vector fields, available visualization pictures are interpreted and flow patterns on interior surfaces of the nozzles are synthesized. In particular, three dimensional flow structure and separations are discussed. From the synthesized patterns, the overall features of the flow field in a given nozzle can be approximately perceived.

  9. Developments in flow visualization methods for flight research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Manuel, Gregory S.; Lee, Cynthia C.

    1990-01-01

    With the introduction of modern airplanes utilizing laminar flow, flow visualization has become an important diagnostic tool in determining aerodynamic characteristics such as surface flow direction and boundary-layer state. A refinement of the sublimating chemical technique has been developed to define both the boundary-layer transition location and the transition mode. In response to the need for flow visualization at subsonic and transonic speeds and altitudes above 20,000 feet, the liquid crystal technique has been developed. A third flow visualization technique that has been used is infrared imaging, which offers non-intrusive testing over a wide range of test conditions. A review of these flow visualization methods and recent flight results is presented for a variety of modern aircraft and flight conditions.

  10. Three-dimensional visualization of reactive flows in complex geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairfield, M. S.

    The visualization of fluid flows has become more challenging, as recent advancements in computational methods have increased the complexity and size of simulations. Our objective is to develop a flexible flow visualization tool for fluid simulations that include the full physics and geometrical complexities found in modeling practical combustion systems, such as internal combustion engines. The challenges to flow visualization come from: (1) the large simulation output, especially when using massively parallel computers; (2) the increasingly complex geometries that include moving surfaces such as pistons and valves; (3) the complex physical phenomena in realistic problems of fuel injection, combustion fronts, boundary flows, and large scale turbulence; and (4) the numerical complexity of indirect addressing of computational elements, variable mesh connectivity, distorted elements, and moving meshes. We have developed a visualization program that addresses these complexities. The program was developed as a post-processor to the KIVA family of codes for reactive flow simulations. Because of the complexity of the KIVA codes, the visualization program is very versatile and applicable to any code with meshes of arbitrary hexahedrons. No comparable commercial visualization package could be found. To visualize the fluid flow, we use massless tracer particles that follow the movement of the fluid as determined from output files from the simulation. The movement of the tracer particles is based on a second-order spatial and temporal interpolation of the fluid velocities from successive simulation output files. The visualization program runs on a Silicon Graphics IRIS GTX workstation.

  11. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2015-05-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  12. Quantitative visualization of droplet hot-surface interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkan, Nejdet; Okamoto, Koji

    2013-11-01

    Up to this date liquid droplet impingement phenomenon onto hot surfaces has drawn massive attention from a broad spectrum of research fields, since its hydrodynamic and thermodynamic characteristics has profound importance for various industrial applications Although tremendous experimental and computational work exist in the literature, thermal-hydraulic mechanism of droplet impingement boiling on hot surfaces received several contradictory approaches due to the parametric sensitivity of the problem. To understand and to predict the physical mechanism, an experimental database including large amount of spatio-temporal data, which is formed by the tests performed under well-controlled BCs and high sensitive devices, is still a necessity. This study investigates the parametric variation of droplet boiling regimes due to the experimental BCs (e.g surface roughness, ambient pressure) by performing separate effect tests employing high-speed visualization system. Differences in the impingement boiling characteristics of water droplets on solid (with surface roughness) and liquid metal (without surface roughness) in film boiling regime are investigated. A unique quantitative velocity data inside the droplet at several surface temperatures including (Leidenfrost temperatures) captured by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV). This data is a unique component for the validation of CFD simulations which are performed to resolve the phenomena.

  13. Visualizing Topic Flow in Students' Essays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Stephen T.; Calvo, Rafael A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Visualizing how the parts of a document relate to each other and producing automatically generated quality measures that people can understand are means that writers can use to improve the quality of their compositions. This paper presents a novel document visualization technique and a measure of quality based on the average semantic distance…

  14. Visualization of the air flow behind the automotive benchmark vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pech, Ondrej; Jedelsky, Jan; Caletka, Petr; Jicha, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    Passenger comfort in cars depends on appropriate function of the cabin HVAC system. A great attention is therefore paid to the effective function of automotive vents and proper formation of the flow behind the ventilation outlet. The article deals with the visualization of air flow from the automotive benchmark vent. The visualization was made for two different shapes of the inlet channel connected to the benchmark vent. The smoke visualization with the laser knife was used. The influence of the shape of the inlet channel to the airflow direction, its enlargement and position of air flow axis were investigated.

  15. Hierarchical streamline bundles for visualizing 2D flow fields.

    SciTech Connect

    Shene, Ching-Kuang; Wang, Chaoli; Yu, Hongfeng; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2010-08-01

    We present hierarchical streamline bundles, a new approach to simplifying and visualizing 2D flow fields. Our method first densely seeds a flow field and produces a large number of streamlines that capture important flow features such as critical points. Then, we group spatially neighboring and geometrically similar streamlines to construct a hierarchy from which we extract streamline bundles at different levels of detail. Streamline bundles highlight multiscale flow features and patterns through a clustered yet non-cluttered display. This selective visualization strategy effectively accentuates visual foci and therefore is able to convey the desired insight into the flow fields. The hierarchical streamline bundles we have introduced offer a new way to characterize and visualize the flow structure and patterns in multiscale fashion. Streamline bundles highlight critical points clearly and concisely. Exploring the hierarchy allows a complete visualization of important flow features. Thanks to selective streamline display and flexible LOD refinement, our multiresolution technique is scalable and is promising for viewing large and complex flow fields. In the future, we would like to seek a cost-effective way to generate streamlines without enforcing the dense seeding condition. We will also extend this approach to handle real-world 3D complex flow fields.

  16. Quantitative transverse flow measurement using OCT speckle decorrelation analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Huang, Yong; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Mathews, Scott A.; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an inter-Ascan speckle decorrelation based method that can quantitatively assess blood flow normal to the direction of the OCT imaging beam. To validate this method, we performed a systematic study using both phantom and in vivo animal models. Results show that our speckle analysis method can accurately extract transverse flow speed with high spatial and temporal resolution. PMID:23455305

  17. Use of computer graphics for visualization of flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Val; Buning, Pieter; Choi, Diana; Bancroft, Gordon; Merritt, Fergus; Rogers, Stuart

    1987-01-01

    A high-performance graphics workstation has been combined with software developed for flow-field visualization to yield a highly effective tool for analysis of fluid-flow dynamics. After the flow fields are obtained from experimental measurements or computer simulations, the workstation permits one to interactively view the dynamics of the flow fields; e.g., the viewer can zoom into a region or rotate his viewing position about the region to study it in more detail. Several techniques for visualization of flow fields with this workstation are described in this paper and illustrated with a videotape available from the authors. The computer hardware and software required to create effective flow visualization displays are discussed. Additional software and hardware required to create videotapes or 16mm movies are also described. Limitations imposed by current workstation performance is addressed and future workstation performance is forecast.

  18. Applications of texture mapping to volume and flow visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1995-05-01

    The authors describe six visualization methods which take advantage of hardware polygon scan conversion, texture mapping, and compositing, to give interactive viewing of 3D scalar fields, and motion for 3D flows. For volume rendering, these are splatting of an optimized 3D reconstruction filter, and tetrahedral cell projection using a texture map to provide the exponential per pixel necessary for accurate opacity calculation. For flows, these are the above tetrahedral projection method for rendering the ``flow volume`` dyed after passing through a dye releasing polygon, ``splatting`` of cycled anisotropic textures to provide flow direction and motion visualization, splatting motion blurred particles to indicate flow velocity, and advecting a texture directly to show the flow motion. All these techniques are tailored to take advantage of existing graphics pipelines to produce interactive visualization tools.

  19. FAITH Pressure-Sensitive Paint and Surface Oil Flow Visualizations

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pressure-sensitive paint and surface oil flow visualization experiments are performed on a three dimensional model of a small hill. This experiment was part of a series of measurements of the compl...

  20. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  1. Nanocrystal-based biomimetic system for quantitative flow cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Peter; Dobrovolskaia, Marina; Kang, HyeongGon; Clarke, Matthew; Patri, Anil K.; Hwang, Jeeseong

    2007-02-01

    Flow cytometry has been instrumental in rapid analysis of single cells since the 1970s. One of the common approaches is the immunofluorescence study involving labeling of cells with antibodies conjugated to organic fluorophores. More recently, as the application of flow cytometry extended from simple cell detection to single-cell proteomic analysis, the need of determining the actual number of antigens in a single cell has driven the flow cytomery technique towards a quantitative methodology. However, organic fluorophores are challenging to use as probes for quantitative detection due to the lack of photostability and of quantitative fluorescence standards. National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) provides a set of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeled beads, RM 8640, which is the only nationally recognized fluorescent particle standard. On the other hand, optical characteristics of semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots or QDs are superior to traditional dye molecules for the use as tags for biological and chemical fluorescent sensors and detectors. Compelling advantages of QDs include long photostability, broad spectral coverage, easy excitation, and suitability for multiplexed sensing. Recently, novel surface coatings have been developed to render QDs water soluble and bio-conjugation ready, leading to their use as fluorescent tags and sensors for a variety of biological applications including immunolabeling of cells. Here, we describe our approach of using fluorescent semiconductor QDs as a novel tool for quantitative flow cytometry detection. Our strategy involves the development of immuno-labeled QD-conjugated silica beads as "biomimetic cells." In addition to flow cytometry, the QD-conjugated silica beads were characterized by fluorescence microscopy to quantitate the number of QDs attached to a single silica bead. Our approach enables flow cytometry analysis to be highly sensitive, quantitative, and encompass a wide dynamic range of

  2. Flow valve” microfluidic devices for simple, detectorless and label-free analyte quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Debolina; Mansfield, Danielle S.; Anderson, Neil G.; Subedi, Sudeep; Woolley, Adam T.

    2012-01-01

    Simplified analysis systems that offer the performance of benchtop instruments but the convenience of portability are highly desirable. We have developed novel, miniature devices that feature visual inspection readout of a target’s concentration from a ~1 μL volume of solution introduced into a microfluidic channel. Microchannels are constructed within an elastomeric material, and channel surfaces are coated with receptors to the target. When a solution is flowed into the channel, the target crosslinks multiple receptors on the surface, resulting in constriction of the first few millimeters of the channel and stopping of flow. Quantitation is performed by measuring the distance traveled by the target solution in the channel before flow stops. A key advantage of our approach is that quantitation is accomplished by simple visual inspection of the channel, without the need for complex detection instrumentation. We have tested these devices using the model system of biotin as a receptor and streptavidin as the target. We have also characterized three factors that influence flow distance: solution viscosity, device thickness, and channel height. We found that solution capillary flow distance scales with the negative logarithm of target concentration and have detected streptavidin concentrations as low as 1 ng/mL. Finally, we have identified and evaluated a plausible mechanism wherein time-dependent channel constriction in the first few millimeters leads to concentration-dependent flow distances. Their simplicity coupled with performance makes these “flow valve” systems especially attractive for a host of analysis applications. PMID:22881075

  3. Flow visualization in long neck Helmholtz resonators with grazing flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Both oscillating and steady flows were applied to a single plexiglass resonator cavity with colored dyes injected in both the orifice and grazing flow field to record the motion of the fluid. For oscillatory flow, the instantaneous dye streamlines were similar for both the short and long-neck orifices. The orifice flow blockage appears to be independent of orifice length for a fixed amplitude of flow oscillation and magnitude of the grazing flow. The steady flow dye studies showed that the acoustic and steady flow resistances do not necessarily correspond for long neck orifices.

  4. A Quantitative Visual Mapping and Visualization Approach for Deep Ocean Floor Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kwasnitschka, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological fieldwork on the sea floor is still impaired by our inability to resolve features on a sub-meter scale resolution in a quantifiable reference frame and over an area large enough to reveal the context of local observations. In order to overcome these issues, we have developed an integrated workflow of visual mapping techniques leading to georeferenced data sets which we examine using state-of-the-art visualization technology to recreate an effective working style of field geology. We demonstrate a microbathymetrical workflow, which is based on photogrammetric reconstruction of ROV imagery referenced to the acoustic vehicle track. The advantage over established acoustical systems lies in the true three-dimensionality of the data as opposed to the perspective projection from above produced by downward looking mapping methods. A full color texture mosaic derived from the imagery allows studies at resolutions beyond the resolved geometry (usually one order of magnitude below the image resolution) while color gives additional clues, which can only be partly resolved in acoustic backscatter. The creation of a three-dimensional model changes the working style from the temporal domain of a video recording back to the spatial domain of a map. We examine these datasets using a custom developed immersive virtual visualization environment. The ARENA (Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis) features a (lower) hemispherical screen at a diameter of six meters, accommodating up to four scientists at once thus providing the ability to browse data interactively among a group of researchers. This environment facilitates (1) the development of spatial understanding analogue to on-land outcrop studies, (2) quantitative observations of seafloor morphology and physical parameters of its deposits, (3) more effective formulation and communication of working hypotheses.

  5. Holographic flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, W. K.; Burner, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    A holographic system used for flow visualization at the Langley Expansion Tube is described. A ruby laser which can be singly or doubly pulsed during the short run time of less than 300 microns is used as the light source. With holography, sensitivity adjustments can be optimized after a run instead of before a run as with conventional flow visualization techniques. This results in an increased reliability of the flow visualization available for the study of real-gas effects on flow about models. Holographic techniques such as single-plate schlieren and shadowgraph, two plate interferometry, double pulse interferometry for perfect infinite-fringe interferograms, and double-pulse interferometry used to examine changes in the flow over a short time period are described and examples presented.

  6. Flow: Statistics, visualization and informatics for flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Jacob; Kepler, Thomas B; Chan, Cliburn

    2008-01-01

    Flow is an open source software application for clinical and experimental researchers to perform exploratory data analysis, clustering and annotation of flow cytometric data. Flow is an extensible system that offers the ease of use commonly found in commercial flow cytometry software packages and the statistical power of academic packages like the R BioConductor project. PMID:18559108

  7. Quantitative Assessment of Myocardial Blood Flow with SPECT.

    PubMed

    Petretta, Mario; Storto, Giovanni; Pellegrino, Teresa; Bonaduce, Domenico; Cuocolo, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) may be useful for the functional evaluation of coronary artery disease, allowing judgment of its severity, tracking of disease progression, and evaluation of the anti-ischemic efficacy of therapeutic strategies. Quantitative estimates of myocardial perfusion and CFR can be derived from single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion images by use of equipment, tracers, and techniques that are available in most nuclear cardiology laboratories. However, this method underestimates CFR, particularly at high flow rates. The recent introduction of cardiac-dedicated gamma cameras with solid-state detectors provides very fast perfusion imaging with improved resolution, allowing fast acquisition of serial dynamic images during the first pass of a flow agent. This new technology holds great promise for MBF and CFR quantification with dynamic SPECT. Future studies will clarify the effectiveness of dynamic SPECT flow imaging. PMID:25560327

  8. UFLIC: A Line Integral Convolution Algorithm for Visualizing Unsteady Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Han-Wei; Kao, David L.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm, UFLIC (Unsteady Flow LIC), to visualize vector data in unsteady flow fields. Using the Line Integral Convolution (LIC) as the underlying method, a new convolution algorithm is proposed that can effectively trace the flow's global features over time. The new algorithm consists of a time-accurate value depositing scheme and a successive feed-forward method. The value depositing scheme accurately models the flow advection, and the successive feed-forward method maintains the coherence between animation frames. Our new algorithm can produce time-accurate, highly coherent flow animations to highlight global features in unsteady flow fields. CFD scientists, for the first time, are able to visualize unsteady surface flows using our algorithm.

  9. Comparison of Mars Science Laboratory Reaction Control System Jet Computations With Flow Visualization and Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Johansen, Craig T.; Ashcraft, Scott W.; Novak, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the Mars Science Laboratory reaction control system jets interacting with a Mach 10 hypersonic flow are compared to experimental nitric oxide planar laser-induced fluorescence data. The steady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations using the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model were solved using the OVERFLOW code. The experimental fluorescence data used for comparison consists of qualitative two-dimensional visualization images, qualitative reconstructed three-dimensional flow structures, and quantitative two-dimensional distributions of streamwise velocity. Through modeling of the fluorescence signal equation, computational flow images were produced and directly compared to the qualitative fluorescence data.

  10. Physically-based interactive Schlieren flow visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Mccormick, Patrick S; Brownlee, Carson S; Pegoraro, Vincent; Shankar, Siddharth; Hansen, Charles D

    2009-01-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph and schlieren imaging for centuries which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraphs and schlieren images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are presented.

  11. Modeling and Visualizing Flow of Chemical Agents Across Complex Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Kramer, Marc; Chaderjian, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Release of chemical agents across complex terrain presents a real threat to homeland security. Modeling and visualization tools are being developed that capture flow fluid terrain interaction as well as point dispersal downstream flow paths. These analytic tools when coupled with UAV atmospheric observations provide predictive capabilities to allow for rapid emergency response as well as developing a comprehensive preemptive counter-threat evacuation plan. The visualization tools involve high-end computing and massive parallel processing combined with texture mapping. We demonstrate our approach across a mountainous portion of North California under two contrasting meteorological conditions. Animations depicting flow over this geographical location provide immediate assistance in decision support and crisis management.

  12. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  13. Material Flow Visualization during Friction Surfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid Rafi, H.; Phanikumar, G.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2011-04-01

    Metal flow behavior within friction surfaced coating was studied using tungsten powder as a marker. The results show that the top and bottom layers within the coating exhibit distinct flow patterns. The transport of material takes an involute path, and the material transfer starts from the advancing side of the coating to the retreating side and terminates at the center. The recirculation of material occurs at the retreating side of the coating.

  14. Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.

  15. Asymmetric tensor analysis for flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Eugene; Yeh, Harry; Lin, Zhongzang; Laramee, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    The gradient of a velocity vector field is an asymmetric tensor field which can provide critical insight that is difficult to infer from traditional trajectory-based vector field visualization techniques. We describe the structures in the eigenvalue and eigenvector fields of the gradient tensor and how these structures can be used to infer the behaviors of the velocity field. To illustrate the structures in asymmetric tensor fields, we introduce the notions of eigenvalue and eigenvector manifolds. These concepts afford a number of theoretical results that clarify the connections between symmetric and antisymmetric components in tensor fields. In addition, these manifolds naturally lead to partitions of tensor fields, which we use to design effective visualization strategies. Both eigenvalue manifold and eigenvector manifold are supported by a tensor reparameterization with physical meaning. This allows us to relate our tensor analysis to physical quantities such as rotation, angular deformation, and dilation, which provide physical interpretation of our tensor-driven vector field analysis in the context of fluid mechanics. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we have applied our visualization techniques and interpretation to the study of the Sullivan Vortex as well as computational fluid dynamics simulation data. PMID:19008559

  16. Photochromic flow visualization in silicone oil for demonstrations and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonda, Enrico; Johnston, Stephen R.; Ranjan, Devesh; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.

    2015-11-01

    Photochromic dyes change color when illuminated, usually with UV light. As tracers for flow visualization they are non-intrusive, can selectively color the fluid, and are suitable for complex and confided flows. Availability of cheap 405nm high-power lasers combined with advances in image acquisition and image-processing technology, make these tracers particularly effective in creating convenient and engaging educational demonstrations as well as in qualitatively exploring flow structures. We present two low-cost demonstrations: laminar-flow reversibility using a Taylor-Couette device and a thermal convection flow. We also report our experience in studying large scales in high Prandtl numbers Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

  17. A review: Quantitative models for lava flows on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baloga, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this abstract is to review and assess the application of quantitative models (Gratz numerical correlation model, radiative loss model, yield stress model, surface structure model, and kinematic wave model) of lava flows on Mars. These theoretical models were applied to Martian flow data to aid in establishing the composition of the lava or to determine other eruption conditions such as eruption rate or duration.

  18. Structure of unsteady flows at leading- and trailing-edges: Flow visualization and its interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockwell, D.; Atta, R.; Kramer, L.; Lawson, R.; Lusseyran, D.; Magness, C.; Sohn, D.; Staubli, T.

    1987-01-01

    Unsteady two- and three-dimensional flow structure at leading and trailing edges of bodies can be characterized effectively using recently developed techniques for acquisition and interpretation of flow visualization. The techniques addressed here include: flow image/surface pressure correlations; 3-D reconstruction of flow structure from flow images; and interactive interpretation of flow images with theoretical simulations. These techniques can be employed in conjunction with: visual correlation and ensemble-averaging, both within a given image and between images; recognition of patterns from images; and estimates of velocity eigenfunctions from images.

  19. Towards the quantitative evaluation of visual attention models.

    PubMed

    Bylinskii, Z; DeGennaro, E M; Rajalingham, R; Ruda, H; Zhang, J; Tsotsos, J K

    2015-11-01

    Scores of visual attention models have been developed over the past several decades of research. Differences in implementation, assumptions, and evaluations have made comparison of these models very difficult. Taxonomies have been constructed in an attempt at the organization and classification of models, but are not sufficient at quantifying which classes of models are most capable of explaining available data. At the same time, a multitude of physiological and behavioral findings have been published, measuring various aspects of human and non-human primate visual attention. All of these elements highlight the need to integrate the computational models with the data by (1) operationalizing the definitions of visual attention tasks and (2) designing benchmark datasets to measure success on specific tasks, under these definitions. In this paper, we provide some examples of operationalizing and benchmarking different visual attention tasks, along with the relevant design considerations. PMID:25951756

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in intact plants--quantitative observation of flow in plant vessels.

    PubMed

    Kuchenbrod, E; Kahler, E; Thürmer, F; Deichmann, R; Zimmermann, U; Haase, A

    1998-04-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) images of flow velocities in intact corn plants were acquired using magnetization-prepared MR microscopy. A phase contrast flow imaging technique was used to quantitate water flow velocities and total volume flow rates in small xylem vessels. The simultaneous measurement of the transpiration of the whole plant was achieved by using a closed climate chamber within the MR magnet. The total volume flow rate and the transpiration values were in close correlation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging in intact plants was performed by light stimulation of the transpiration inside of the magnet. The change in the flow velocities in the xylem vessels of single vascular bundles was in correlation with the changes in the transpiration. Significant differences were observed between the xylem vessels in different vascular bundles. Furthermore, flow velocity measurements were performed on excised plant stems and visualized by the uptake of the MR contrast agent, gadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). A comparison between the phase contrast flow imaging and the contrast media uptake showed to be in good agreement with each other. PMID:9621974

  1. Application of holography to flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, G.

    1984-01-01

    Laser holographic interferometry is being applied to many different types of aerodynamics problems. These include two and three dimensional flows in wind tunnels, ballistic ranges, rotor test chambers and turbine facilities. Density over a large field is measured and velocity, pressure, and mach number can be deduced.

  2. Quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer based on regularized optical flow algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Liang; Vargas, Javier; Wang, Shouyu; Li, Zhenhua; Liu, Fei

    2015-09-01

    Cell detections and analysis are important in various fields, such as medical observations and disease diagnoses. In order to analyze the cell parameters as well as observe the samples directly, in this paper, we present an improved quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer, which can monitor the quantitative phase distributions of bio-samples and realize cellular parameter statistics. The proposed system is able to recover the phase imaging of biological samples in the expanded field of view via a regularized optical flow demodulation algorithm. This algorithm reconstructs the phase distribution with high accuracy with only two interferograms acquired at different time points simplifying the scanning system. Additionally, the method is totally automatic, and therefore it is convenient for establishing a quantitative phase cytometer. Moreover, the phase retrieval approach is robust against noise and background. Excitingly, red blood cells are readily investigated with the quantitative interferometric microscopy cytometer system.

  3. Interactive numerical flow visualization using stream surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultquist, J. P. M.

    1990-01-01

    Particle traces and ribbons are often used to depict the structure of three-dimensional flowfields, but images produced using these models can be ambiguous. Stream surfaces offer a more visually intuitive method for the depiction of flowfields, but interactive response is needed to allow the user to place surfaces which reveal the essential features of a given flowfield. FLORA, a software package which supports the interactive calculation and display of stream surfaces on silicon graphics workstations, is described. Alternative methods for the integration of particle traces are examined, and calculation through computational space is found to provide rapid results with accuracy adequate for most purposes. Rapid calculation of traces is teamed with progressive refinement of appoximated surfaces. An initial approximation provides immediate user feedback, and subsequent improvement of the surface ensures that the final image is an accurate representation of the flowfield.

  4. Visualizing fluid flow with implicit techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, M.; Hagen, H.; Rodrian, H.C.

    1995-09-01

    An algorithm for the construction of 3D-objects for the visualization of 3D vector and tensor fields is presented, based on primitives coming from metaballs introduced by Blinn and the convolution surfaces of Bloomenthal and Shoemake. By using these primitives, we can render stream and time lines, as well as corresponding surfaces. Critical points in the field do not prove to be a problem because of the melting and splitting properties of the representation used. The potential fields provide a variety of possibilities to map local parameters and tensor information in parallel with the overall global information. Rendering can be done with standard techniques like marching cubes, but for interactive working, further investigations for faster rendering can be done.

  5. Rotation Invariant Vortices for Flow Visualization.

    PubMed

    Günther, Tobias; Schulze, Maik; Theisel, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new class of vortex definitions for flows that are induced by rotating mechanical parts, such as stirring devices, helicopters, hydrocyclones, centrifugal pumps, or ventilators. Instead of a Galilean invariance, we enforce a rotation invariance, i.e., the invariance of a vortex under a uniform-speed rotation of the underlying coordinate system around a fixed axis. We provide a general approach to transform a Galilean invariant vortex concept to a rotation invariant one by simply adding a closed form matrix to the Jacobian. In particular, we present rotation invariant versions of the well-known Sujudi-Haimes, Lambda-2, and Q vortex criteria. We apply them to a number of artificial and real rotating flows, showing that for these cases rotation invariant vortices give better results than their Galilean invariant counterparts. PMID:26390472

  6. Verification of Scientific Simulations via Hypothesis-Driven Comparative and Quantitative Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Heitmann, Katrin; Petersen, Mark R; Woodring, Jonathan; Williams, Sean; Fasel, Patricia; Ahrens, Christine; Hsu, Chung-Hsing; Geveci, Berk

    2010-11-01

    This article presents a visualization-assisted process that verifies scientific-simulation codes. Code verification is necessary because scientists require accurate predictions to interpret data confidently. This verification process integrates iterative hypothesis verification with comparative, feature, and quantitative visualization. Following this process can help identify differences in cosmological and oceanographic simulations.

  7. MEANS FOR VISUALIZING FLUID FLOW PATTERNS

    DOEpatents

    Lynch, F.E.; Palmer, L.D.; Poppendick, H.F.; Winn, G.M.

    1961-05-16

    An apparatus is given for determining both the absolute and relative velocities of a phosphorescent fluid flowing through a transparent conduit. The apparatus includes a source for exciting a narrow trsnsverse band of the fluid to phosphorescence, detecting means such as a camera located downstream from the exciting source to record the shape of the phosphorescent band as it passes, and a timer to measure the time elapsed between operation of the exciting source and operation of the camera.

  8. A planar Mie scattering technique for visualizing supersonic mixing flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens, N. T.; Mungal, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A planar Mie scattering technique is described which allows for the direct visualization of fluid mixing in supersonic flows. The mixed fluid is visualized by laser light sheet scattering from small alcohol droplets which condense as a result of the mixing of a vapor laden subsonic stream with a cold supersonic stream. Issues related to the formation, growth and size of the droplets are addressed. The technique reveals details of the turbulent structure which are masked by the spatial integration of schlieren and shadowgraph methods. Comparative visualizations using the vapor screen method to uniformly mark the high-speed fluid are also shown.

  9. An annotation system for 3D fluid flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughlin, Maria M.; Hughes, John F.

    1995-01-01

    Annotation is a key activity of data analysis. However, current systems for data analysis focus almost exclusively on visualization. We propose a system which integrates annotations into a visualization system. Annotations are embedded in 3D data space, using the Post-it metaphor. This embedding allows contextual-based information storage and retrieval, and facilitates information sharing in collaborative environments. We provide a traditional database filter and a Magic Lens filter to create specialized views of the data. The system has been customized for fluid flow applications, with features which allow users to store parameters of visualization tools and sketch 3D volumes.

  10. Flow visualization and flow field measurements of a 1/12 scale tilt rotor aircraft in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffen, Charles D.; George, Albert R.; Hardinge, Hal; Stevenson, Ryan

    1991-01-01

    The results are given of flow visualization studies and inflow velocity field measurements performed on a 1/12 scale model of the XV-15 tilt rotor aircraft in the hover mode. The complex recirculating flow due to the rotor-wake-body interactions characteristic of tilt rotors was studied visually using neutrally buoyant soap bubbles and quantitatively using hot wire anemometry. Still and video photography were used to record the flow patterns. Analysis of the photos and video provided information on the physical dimensions of the recirculating fountain flow and on details of the flow including the relative unsteadiness and turbulence characteristics of the flow. Recirculating flows were also observed along the length of the fuselage. Hot wire anemometry results indicate that the wing under the rotor acts to obstruct the inflow causing a deficit in the inflow velocities over the inboard region of the model. Hot wire anemometry also shows that the turbulence intensities in the inflow are much higher in the recirculating fountain reingestion zone.

  11. Optical coherence Doppler tomography for quantitative cerebral blood flow imaging

    PubMed Central

    You, Jiang; Du, Congwu; Volkow, Nora D.; Pan, Yingtian

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence Doppler tomography (ODT) is a promising neurotechnique that permits 3D imaging of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) network; however, quantitative CBF velocity (CBFv) imaging remains challenging. Here we present a simple phase summation method to enhance slow capillary flow detection sensitivity without sacrificing dynamic range for fast flow and vessel tracking to improve angle correction for absolute CBFv quantification. Flow phantom validation indicated that the CBFv quantification accuracy increased from 15% to 91% and the coefficient of variation (CV) decreased 9.3-fold; in vivo mouse brain validation showed that CV decreased 4.4-/10.8- fold for venular/arteriolar flows. ODT was able to identify cocaine-elicited microischemia and quantify CBFv disruption in branch vessels and capillaries that otherwise would have not been possible. PMID:25401033

  12. In-flight propeller flow visualization using fluorescent minitufts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    Extension of fluorescent minutuft method to in-flight flow visualization on propellers is described. Extremely thin nylon monofilament for the minitufts, is used in a process of attaching them to the test surface with small drops of lacquer-like adhesive, and the use of fluorescence photography for recording the minituft patterns. Using this method, thousands of minitufts can be applied to small, high speed wind tunnel models without affecting the airflow. The minitufts can remain in place throughout a wind tunnel test, permitting nonintrusive flow visualization data to be acquired at any time.

  13. Flow visualization techniques in the Airborne Laser Laboratory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walterick, R. E.; Vankuren, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    A turret/fairing assembly for laser applications was designed and tested. Wind tunnel testing was conducted using flow visualization techniques. The techniques used have included the methods of tufting, encapsulated liquid crystals, oil flow, sublimation and schlieren and shadowgraph photography. The results were directly applied to the design of fairing shapes for minimum drag and reduced turret buffet. In addition, the results are of primary importance to the study of light propagation paths in the near flow field of the turret cavity. Results indicate that the flow in the vicinity of the turret is an important factor for consideration in the design of suitable turret/fairing or aero-optic assemblies.

  14. Visualization of entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Songgang; Simon, Terence W.

    1992-01-01

    Neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles with laser illumination are used to document entry flow separation for oscillating flow in tubes. For a symmetric entry case, the size of the separation zone appears to mildly depend on Reynolds number in the acceleration phase, but is roughly Reynolds number independent in the deceleration phase. For the asymmetric entry case, the separation zone was larger and appeared to grow somewhat during the deceleration phase. The separation zones for both entry geometry cases remain relatively small throughout the cycle. This is different from what would be observed in all-laminar, oscillator flows and is probably due to the high turbulence of the flow, particularly during the deceleration phase of the cycle.

  15. Quantitative description of fluid flows produced by left-right cilia in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Fox, Craig; Manning, M Lisa; Amack, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Motile cilia generate directional flows that move mucus through airways, cerebrospinal fluid through brain ventricles, and oocytes through fallopian tubes. In addition, specialized monocilia beat in a rotational pattern to create asymmetric flows that are involved in establishing the left-right (LR) body axis during embryogenesis. These monocilia, which we refer to as "left-right cilia," produce a leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in a transient "organ of asymmetry" that directs asymmetric signaling and development of LR asymmetries in the cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract. The asymmetric flows are thought to establish a chemical gradient and/or activate mechanosensitive cilia to initiate calcium ion signals and a conserved Nodal (TGFβ) pathway on the left side of the embryo, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. The zebrafish organ of asymmetry, called Kupffer's vesicle, provides a useful model system for investigating LR cilia and cilia-powered fluid flows. Here, we describe methods to visualize flows in Kupffer's vesicle using fluorescent microspheres and introduce a new and freely available MATLAB particle tracking code to quantitatively describe these flows. Analysis of normal and aberrant flows indicates this approach is useful for characterizing flow properties that impact LR asymmetry and may be more broadly applicable for quantifying other cilia flows. PMID:25837391

  16. Visual Modelling of Data Warehousing Flows with UML Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardillo, Jesús; Golfarelli, Matteo; Rizzi, Stefano; Trujillo, Juan

    Data warehousing involves complex processes that transform source data through several stages to deliver suitable information ready to be analysed. Though many techniques for visual modelling of data warehouses from the static point of view have been devised, only few attempts have been made to model the data flows involved in a data warehousing process. Besides, each attempt was mainly aimed at a specific application, such as ETL, OLAP, what-if analysis, data mining. Data flows are typically very complex in this domain; for this reason, we argue, designers would greatly benefit from a technique for uniformly modelling data warehousing flows for all applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated visual modelling technique for data cubes and data flows. This technique is based on UML profiling; its feasibility is evaluated by means of a prototype implementation.

  17. Patterns in the sky: Natural visualization of aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, James F.; Chambers, Joseph R.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the current publication is to present the collection of flight photographs to illustrate the types of flow patterns that were visualized and to present qualitative correlations with computational and wind tunnel results. Initially in section 2, the condensation process is discussed, including a review of relative humidity, vapor pressure, and factors which determine the presence of visible condensate. Next, outputs from computer code calculations are postprocessed by using water-vapor relationships to determine if computed values of relative humidity in the local flow field correlate with the qualitative features of the in-flight condensation patterns. The photographs are then presented in section 3 by flow type and subsequently in section 4 by aircraft type to demonstrate the variety of condensed flow fields that was visualized for a wide range of aircraft and flight maneuvers.

  18. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  19. Numerical Flow Visualization in Basic- and Hyper-Cluster Spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Athavale, M. M.; Braun, M. J.; Lattime, S.

    1997-01-01

    Packed spherical particle beds have wide applications throughout the process industry and are usually analyzed using an appropriate combination of laminar and turbulent flows with empirically derived coefficients of which the Ergun (1952) relation is probably the best known. The 3-D complexity of the void distribution within the beds has precluded detailed studies of sphere clusters. Numerical modeling and flow vector visualization for the basic tetra- and hexa-sphere clusters and two hyper-sphere clusters are presented at two Reynolds numbers, 400 and 1200. Cutting planes are used to enable visualization of the complex flows generated within the sphere clusters and are discussed herein. The boundary conditions and flow fields for the simple clusters are also compared to the hyper-clusters with larger variations found for hexa-clusters.

  20. Ultrafast quantitative time-stretch imaging flow cytometry of phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Queenie T. K.; Lau, Andy K. S.; Tang, Anson H. L.; Wong, Kenneth K. Y.; Tsia, Kevin K.

    2016-03-01

    Comprehensive quantification of phytoplankton abundance, sizes and other parameters, e.g. biomasses, has been an important, yet daunting task in aquatic sciences and biofuel research. It is primarily because of the lack of effective tool to image and thus accurately profile individual microalgae in a large population. The phytoplankton species are highly diversified and heterogeneous in terms of their sizes and the richness in morphological complexity. This fact makes time-stretch imaging, a new ultrafast real-time optical imaging technology, particularly suitable for ultralarge-scale taxonomic classification of phytoplankton together with quantitative image recognition and analysis. We here demonstrate quantitative imaging flow cytometry of single phytoplankton based on quantitative asymmetric-detection time-stretch optical microscopy (Q-ATOM) - a new time-stretch imaging modality for label-free quantitative phase imaging without interferometric implementations. Sharing the similar concept of Schlieren imaging, Q-ATOM accesses multiple phase-gradient contrasts of each single phytoplankton, from which the quantitative phase profile is computed. We employ such system to capture, at an imaging line-scan rate of 11.6 MHz, high-resolution images of two phytoplankton populations (scenedesmus and chlamydomonas) in ultrafast microfluidic flow (3 m/s). We further perform quantitative taxonomic screening analysis enabled by this technique. More importantly, the system can also generate quantitative phase images of single phytoplankton. This is especially useful for label-free quantification of biomasses (e.g. lipid droplets) of the particular species of interest - an important task adopted in biofuel applications. Combining machine learning for automated classification, Q-ATOM could be an attractive platform for continuous and real-time ultralarge-scale single-phytoplankton analysis.

  1. The use of liquid crystals for surface flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen C.

    1990-01-01

    The use of shear-sensitive liquid crystals has become an established technique for diagnostic flow visualization. This technique has been demonstrated to illustrate laminar boundary-layer transition, laminar bubbles, shocks, and separation in flight and wind-tunnel environments. Typical results demonstrate the range of flow features which can be illustrated and some of the challenges and pitfalls which must be addressed. A few remaining issues are discussed which should be resolved to develop this technique to full maturity.

  2. Visualization periodic flows in a continuously stratified fluid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardakov, R.; Vasiliev, A.

    2012-04-01

    To visualize the flow pattern of viscous continuously stratified fluid both experimental and computational methods were developed. Computational procedures were based on exact solutions of set of the fundamental equations. Solutions of the problems of flows producing by periodically oscillating disk (linear and torsion oscillations) were visualized with a high resolutions to distinguish small-scale the singular components on the background of strong internal waves. Numerical algorithm of visualization allows to represent both the scalar and vector fields, such as velocity, density, pressure, vorticity, stream function. The size of the source, buoyancy and oscillation frequency, kinematic viscosity of the medium effects were traced in 2D an 3D posing problems. Precision schlieren instrument was used to visualize the flow pattern produced by linear and torsion oscillations of strip and disk in a continuously stratified fluid. Uniform stratification was created by the continuous displacement method. The buoyancy period ranged from 7.5 to 14 s. In the experiments disks with diameters from 9 to 30 cm and a thickness of 1 mm to 10 mm were used. Different schlieren methods that are conventional vertical slit - Foucault knife, vertical slit - filament (Maksoutov's method) and horizontal slit - horizontal grating (natural "rainbow" schlieren method) help to produce supplementing flow patterns. Both internal wave beams and fine flow components were visualized in vicinity and far from the source. Intensity of high gradient envelopes increased proportionally the amplitude of the source. In domains of envelopes convergence isolated small scale vortices and extended mushroom like jets were formed. Experiments have shown that in the case of torsion oscillations pattern of currents is more complicated than in case of forced linear oscillations. Comparison with known theoretical model shows that nonlinear interactions between the regular and singular flow components must be taken

  3. Visual study of the effect of grazing flow on the oscillatory flow in a resonator orifice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Rice, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    Grazing flow and oscillatory flow in an orifice were studied in a plexiglass flow channel with a single side branch Helmholtz resonator using water as the fluid medium. An oscillatory flow was applied to the resonatory cavity, and color dyes were injected in both the orifice and the grazing flow field to record the motion of the fluid. The flow regimes associated with linear and nonlinear (high sound pressure level) impedances with and without grazing flows were recorded by a high-speed motion-picture camera. Appreciable differences in the oscillatory flow field were seen in the various flow regimes. With high grazing flows, the outflow and inflow from the resonator cavity are found to be asymmetric. The visual study confirms that jet energy loss during flow into a resonator cavity is much larger than the loss for ejection from the cavity into the grazing flow. For inflow into the resonator cavity, the effective orifice area was significantly reduced.

  4. Quantitative cerebral blood flow with Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Sakadžić, Sava; Gorczynska, Iwona; Ruvinskaya, Svetlana; Wu, Weicheng; Fujimoto, James G.; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Absolute measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) are an important endpoint in studies of cerebral pathophysiology. Currently no accepted method exists for in vivo longitudinal monitoring of CBF with high resolution in rats and mice. Using three-dimensional Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography and cranial window preparations, we present methods and algorithms for regional CBF measurements in the rat cortex. Towards this end, we develop and validate a quantitative statistical model to describe the effect of static tissue on velocity sensitivity. This model is used to design scanning protocols and algorithms for sensitive 3D flow measurements and angiography of the cortex. We also introduce a method of absolute flow calculation that does not require explicit knowledge of vessel angles. We show that OCT estimates of absolute CBF values in rats agree with prior measures by autoradiography, suggesting that Doppler OCT can perform absolute flow measurements in animal models. PMID:20174075

  5. STRING 3: An Advanced Groundwater Flow Visualization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Simon; Michel, Isabel; Biedert, Tim; Gräfe, Marius; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D groundwater flow is a challenging task. Previous versions of our software STRING [1] solely focused on intuitive visualization of complex flow scenarios for non-professional audiences. STRING, developed by Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) and delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany), provides the necessary means for visualization of both 2D and 3D data on planar and curved surfaces. In this contribution we discuss how to extend this approach to a full 3D tool and its challenges in continuation of Michel et al. [2]. This elevates STRING from a post-production to an exploration tool for experts. In STRING moving pathlets provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flows. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow. To capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding is used building on the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Lifting our visualization approach from 2D into 3D provides many new challenges. With the implementation of a seeding strategy for 3D one of the major problems has already been solved (see Schröder et al. [3]). As pathlets only provide an overview of the velocity field other means are required for the visualization of additional flow properties. We suggest the use of Direct Volume Rendering and isosurfaces for scalar features. In this regard we were able to develop an efficient approach for combining the rendering through raytracing of the volume and regular OpenGL geometries. This is achieved through the use of Depth Peeling or A-Buffers for the rendering of transparent geometries. Animation of pathlets requires a strict boundary of the simulation domain. Hence, STRING needs to extract the boundary, even from unstructured data, if it is not provided. In 3D we additionally need a good visualization of the boundary itself. For this the silhouette based on the angle of

  6. Quantitative Simulations of MST Visual Receptive Field Properties Using a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Perrone, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We previously developed a template model of primate visual self-motion processing that proposes a specific set of projections from MT-like local motion sensors onto output units to estimate heading and relative depth from optic flow. At the time, we showed that that the model output units have emergent properties similar to those of MSTd neurons, although there was little physiological evidence to test the model more directly. We have now systematically examined the properties of the model using stimulus paradigms used by others in recent single-unit studies of MST: 1) 2-D bell-shaped heading tuning. Most MSTd neurons and model output units show bell-shaped heading tuning. Furthermore, we found that most model output units and the finely-sampled example neuron in the Duffy-Wurtz study are well fit by a 2D gaussian (sigma approx. 35deg, r approx. 0.9). The bandwidth of model and real units can explain why Lappe et al. found apparent sigmoidal tuning using a restricted range of stimuli (+/-40deg). 2) Spiral Tuning and Invariance. Graziano et al. found that many MST neurons appear tuned to a specific combination of rotation and expansion (spiral flow) and that this tuning changes little for approx. 10deg shifts in stimulus placement. Simulations of model output units under the same conditions quantitatively replicate this result. We conclude that a template architecture may underlie MT inputs to MST.

  7. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis using immobilized enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mancini, A; Del Rosso, F; Roberti, R; Caligiana, P; Vecchini, A; Binaglia, L

    1996-09-20

    A method for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine by flow injection analysis is reported in the present paper. Glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and choline oxidase, immobilized on controlled porosity glass beads, are packed in a small reactor inserted in a flow injection manifold. When samples containing glycerophosphorylcholine are injected, glycerophosphorylcholine is hydrolyzed into choline and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate. The free choline produced in this reaction is oxidized to betain and hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is detected amperometrically. Quantitation of glycerophosphorylcholine in samples containing choline and phosphorylcholine is obtained inserting ahead of the reactor a small column packed with a mixed bed ion exchange resin. The time needed for each determination does not exceed one minute. The present method, applied to quantitate glycerophosphorylcholine in samples of seminal plasma, gave results comparable with those obtained using the standard enzymatic-spectrophotometric procedure. An alternative procedure, making use of co-immobilized glycerophosphorylcholine phosphodiesterase and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase for quantitating glycerophosphorylcholine, glycerophosphorylethanolamine and glycerophosphorylserine is also described. PMID:8905629

  8. Visualization of In-Flight Flow Phenomena Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; vanDam, C. P.; Shiu, H. J.; Miller, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Infrared thermography was used to obtain data on the state of the boundary layer of a natural laminar flow airfoil in supersonic flight. In addition to the laminar-to-turbulent transition boundary, the infrared camera was able to detect shock waves and present a time dependent view of the flow field. A time dependent heat transfer code was developed to predict temperature distributions on the test subject and any necessary surface treatment. A commercially available infrared camera was adapted for airborne use in this application. Readily available infrared technology has the capability to provide detailed visualization of various flow phenomena in subsonic to hypersonic flight regimes.

  9. Flow visualization studies of the internal flow characteristics in a simulated mixed flow vectored thrust ASTOVL engine configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saripalli, K. R.; Ferraro, P. J.; Flood, J. D.; Grey, R. E.; Wazyniak, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of internal flowfields in a Mixed Flow Vectored Thrust (MFVT) propulsion system for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft were investigated using flow visualization techniques. A highly parametric 14 percent scale transparent model was used to simulate the MFVT propulsion system. The working medium was water. The mixing between the fan and core flow was studied using flow visualization for a variety of geometrical and flow parameters including three bypass ratio variations. The flow visualization technique involves the use of laser light sheet for illumination and fluorescent dye or air bubbles as tracers. Results indicate the existence of a strong vortex flowfield in the hover mode of operation that is responsible for good mixing between the fan and core flows.

  10. Quantitative blood flow measurements in the small animal cardiopulmonary system using digital subtraction angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Mingde; Marshall, Craig T.; Qi, Yi; Johnston, Samuel M.; Badea, Cristian T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Johnson, G. Allan

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: The use of preclinical rodent models of disease continues to grow because these models help elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and provide robust test beds for drug development. Among the major anatomic and physiologic indicators of disease progression and genetic or drug modification of responses are measurements of blood vessel caliber and flow. Moreover, cardiopulmonary blood flow is a critical indicator of gas exchange. Current methods of measuring cardiopulmonary blood flow suffer from some or all of the following limitations--they produce relative values, are limited to global measurements, do not provide vasculature visualization, are not able to measure acute changes, are invasive, or require euthanasia. Methods: In this study, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution x-ray digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to obtain vasculature visualization, quantitative blood flow in absolute metrics (ml/min instead of arbitrary units or velocity), and relative blood volume dynamics from discrete regions of interest on a pixel-by-pixel basis (100x100 {mu}m{sup 2}). Results: A series of calibrations linked the DSA flow measurements to standard physiological measurement using thermodilution and Fick's method for cardiac output (CO), which in eight anesthetized Fischer-344 rats was found to be 37.0{+-}5.1 ml/min. Phantom experiments were conducted to calibrate the radiographic density to vessel thickness, allowing a link of DSA cardiac output measurements to cardiopulmonary blood flow measurements in discrete regions of interest. The scaling factor linking relative DSA cardiac output measurements to the Fick's absolute measurements was found to be 18.90xCO{sub DSA}=CO{sub Fick}. Conclusions: This calibrated DSA approach allows repeated simultaneous visualization of vasculature and measurement of blood flow dynamics on a regional level in the living rat.

  11. A water tunnel flow visualization study of the F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the F-15 aircraft. Two lengthened forebodies, one with a modified cross-sectional shape, were tested in addition to the basic forebody. Particular emphasis was placed on defining vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop diagnostic water tunnel using a 1/48-scale model of the F-15. Flow visualization pictures were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 55 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The basic aircraft configuration was investigated in detail to determine the vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. Additional tests showed that the wing upper surface vortex flow fields were sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and inlet cowl deflection angle. Asymmetries in the vortex systems generated by each of the three forebodies were observed in the water tunnel at zero sideslip and high angles of attack.

  12. Near-Critical CO2 Flow Measurements and Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemifar, Farzan; Kyritsis, Dimitrios

    2012-11-01

    Carbon dioxide capturing and sequestration is one of the proposed solutions for reducing greenhouse gas emission. This technique will be used in big industrial plants with very high CO2 emissions. Handling such large flow rates requires high pressure and low temperature (in order to maximize density and minimize volumetric flow rate) which brings us close to the critical point of CO2 at approximately 74 bar and 31°C. This necessitates studying near-critical CO2 flows. In our experiment setup CO2 is compressed to supercritical pressures using a hydraulic accumulator. Pressurized CO2 then flows through the test section, which is a 2-ft long stainless steel tube with ID = 0.084 in. The flow rate is controlled by a needle valve downstream of the test section and the mass flow rate is measured using a coriolis mass flow meter. Temperature and pressure are monitored using two K-type thermocouples and pressure transducers at the inlet and exit of the test section. The pressure difference across the pipe is measured separately using a differential pressure transducer. In another set of experiments, the aforementioned test section is replaced with an optically accessible test section. In this setup high-speed imaging is used to visualize the flow inside the test section. We studied the recorded data in order to identify distinct flow regimes based on pressure drop as a function of pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. Acknowledgements: International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (I2CNER).

  13. Smartphone based visual and quantitative assays on upconversional paper sensor.

    PubMed

    Mei, Qingsong; Jing, Huarong; Li, You; Yisibashaer, Wuerzha; Chen, Jian; Nan Li, Bing; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-15

    The integration of smartphone with paper sensors recently has been gain increasing attentions because of the achievement of quantitative and rapid analysis. However, smartphone based upconversional paper sensors have been restricted by the lack of effective methods to acquire luminescence signals on test paper. Herein, by the virtue of 3D printing technology, we exploited an auxiliary reusable device, which orderly assembled a 980nm mini-laser, optical filter and mini-cavity together, for digitally imaging the luminescence variations on test paper and quantitative analyzing pesticide thiram by smartphone. In detail, copper ions decorated NaYF4:Yb/Tm upconversion nanoparticles were fixed onto filter paper to form test paper, and the blue luminescence on it would be quenched after additions of thiram through luminescence resonance energy transfer mechanism. These variations could be monitored by the smartphone camera, and then the blue channel intensities of obtained colored images were calculated to quantify amounts of thiram through a self-written Android program installed on the smartphone, offering a reliable and accurate detection limit of 0.1μM for the system. This work provides an initial demonstration of integrating upconversion nanosensors with smartphone digital imaging for point-of-care analysis on a paper-based platform. PMID:26356763

  14. A visual investigation of turbulence in stagnation flow about a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A visual investigation of turbulence in stagnation flow around a circular cylinder was carried out in order to gain a physical insight into the model advocated by the corticity-amplification theory. Motion pictures were taken from three different viewpoints, and a frame by frame examination of selected movie strips was conducted. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the flow events focused on tracing the temporal and spatial evolution of a cross-vortex tube outlined by the entrained smoke filaments. The visualization supplied evidence verifying: (1) the selective stretching of cross-vortex tubes which is responsible for the amplification of cross vorticity and, hence, of streamwise turbulence; (2) the streamwise tilting of stretched cross-vortex tubes; (3) the existence of a coherent array of vortices near the stagnation zone; (4) the interaction of the amplified vorticity with the body laminar boundary layer; and, (5) the growth of a turbulent boundary layer.

  15. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Faber, Dirk J

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion. PMID:27126250

  16. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-04-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion.

  17. Quantitative blood flow velocity imaging using laser speckle flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Nadort, Annemarie; Kalkman, Koen; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2016-01-01

    Laser speckle flowmetry suffers from a debated quantification of the inverse relation between decorrelation time (τc) and blood flow velocity (V), i.e. 1/τc = αV. Using a modified microcirculation imager (integrated sidestream dark field - laser speckle contrast imaging [SDF-LSCI]), we experimentally investigate on the influence of the optical properties of scatterers on α in vitro and in vivo. We found a good agreement to theoretical predictions within certain limits for scatterer size and multiple scattering. We present a practical model-based scaling factor to correct for multiple scattering in microcirculatory vessels. Our results show that SDF-LSCI offers a quantitative measure of flow velocity in addition to vessel morphology, enabling the quantification of the clinically relevant blood flow, velocity and tissue perfusion. PMID:27126250

  18. Quantitative Full-Scale Wind Turbine Flow Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinzel, Matthias; Mulligan, Quinn; Dabiri, John

    2011-11-01

    To analyze the interaction between vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT) in detail it is important to gain a deeper understanding of their flow field. Quantitative in situ measurements pose a great challenge because of the large spatial dimensions, high flow velocities and remote locations of the VAWT. The aim of this work is to perform Particle Image Velocitmetry (PIV) in a horizontal cross section of a VAWT. The major difficulty is the choice of adequate seeding particles and illumination method for the large field of view, which is necessary. The flow velocities on the other hand require a high speed camera and the whole setup has to be powered self-sufficiently. However, PIV yields a two dimensional two component velocity field together with the out of plane component of vorticity and is therefore a considerable advantage over the single point measurements which are available today. The presentation will deal with different methods for seeding the flow. The properties of these flow tracers will be discussed and their ability to follow the flow reliably evaluated. Preliminary PIV results of the wind velocities at the test site will be shown. The financial support of the Moore Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Human visual cortical responses to specular and matte motion flows

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Tae-Eui; Mannion, Damien J.; Lee, Seong-Whan; Doerschner, Katja; Kersten, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the compositional properties of surfaces in the environment is an important visual capacity. One such property is specular reflectance, which encompasses the range from matte to shiny surfaces. Visual estimation of specular reflectance can be informed by characteristic motion profiles; a surface with a specular reflectance that is difficult to determine while static can be confidently disambiguated when set in motion. Here, we used fMRI to trace the sensitivity of human visual cortex to such motion cues, both with and without photometric cues to specular reflectance. Participants viewed rotating blob-like objects that were rendered as images (photometric) or dots (kinematic) with either matte-consistent or shiny-consistent specular reflectance profiles. We were unable to identify any areas in low and mid-level human visual cortex that responded preferentially to surface specular reflectance from motion. However, univariate and multivariate analyses identified several visual areas; V1, V2, V3, V3A/B, and hMT+, capable of differentiating shiny from matte surface flows. These results indicate that the machinery for extracting kinematic cues is present in human visual cortex, but the areas involved in integrating such information with the photometric cues necessary for surface specular reflectance remain unclear. PMID:26539100

  20. Blood Flow: Multi-scale Modeling and Visualization (July 2011)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Multi-scale modeling of arterial blood flow can shed light on the interaction between events happening at micro- and meso-scales (i.e., adhesion of red blood cells to the arterial wall, clot formation) and at macro-scales (i.e., change in flow patterns due to the clot). Coupled numerical simulations of such multi-scale flow require state-of-the-art computers and algorithms, along with techniques for multi-scale visualizations. This animation presents early results of two studies used in the development of a multi-scale visualization methodology. The fisrt illustrates a flow of healthy (red) and diseased (blue) blood cells with a Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Each blood cell is represented by a mesh, small spheres show a sub-set of particles representing the blood plasma, while instantaneous streamlines and slices represent the ensemble average velocity. In the second we investigate the process of thrombus (blood clot) formation, which may be responsible for the rupture of aneurysms, by concentrating on the platelet blood cells, observing as they aggregate on the wall of an aneruysm. Simulation was performed on Kraken at the National Institute for Computational Sciences. Visualization was produced using resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory.

  1. Flow Visualization Study of the F-14 Fighter Aircraft Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the F-14. Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/72 scale model of the F-14 with a wing leading-edge sweep of 20 deg. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 55 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The F-14 model was investigated to determine the vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove and on the upper surface of the forebody. At 10 deg of sideslip, the windward glove vortex shifted inboard and broke down farther forward than the leeward glove vortex. This asymmetric breakdown of the vortices in sideslip contributes to a reduction in the lateral stability above 20 deg angle of attack. The initial loss of directional stability is a consequence of the adverse sidewash from the windward vortex and the reduced dynamic pressure at the vertical tails.

  2. Flow visualization study of the HiMAT RPRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    Water tunnel studies were performed to qualitatively define the flow field of the highly maneuverable aircraft technology remotely piloted research vehicle (HiMAT RPRV). Particular emphasis was placed on defining the vortex flows generated at high angles of attack. The flow visualization tests were conducted in the Northrop water tunnel using a 1/15 scale model of the HiMAT RPRV. Flow visualization photographs were obtained for angles of attack up to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 5 deg. The HiMAT model was investigated in detail to determine the canard and wing vortex flow field development, vortex paths, and vortex breakdown characteristics as a function of angle of attack and sideslip. The presence of the canard caused the wing vortex to form further outboard and delayed the breakdown of the wing vortex to higher angles of attack. An increase in leading edge camber of the maneuver configuration delayed both the formation and the breakdown of the wing and canard vortices. Additional tests showed that the canard vortex was sensitive to variations in inlet mass flow ratio and canard flap deflection angle.

  3. Self-synchronizing Schlieren photography and interferometry for the visualization of unsteady transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadlec, R.

    1979-01-01

    The use of self synchronizing stroboscopic Schlieren and laser interferometer systems to obtain quantitative space time measurements of distinguished flow surfaces, steakline patterns, and the density field of two dimensional flows that exhibit a periodic content was investigated. A large field single path stroboscopic Schlieren system was designed, constructed and successfully applied to visualize four periodic flows: near wake behind an oscillating airfoil; edge tone sound generation; 2-D planar wall jet; and axisymmetric pulsed sonic jet. This visualization technique provides an effective means of studying quasi-periodic flows in real time. The image on the viewing screen is a spatial signal average of the coherent periodic motion rather than a single realization, the high speed motion of a quasi-periodic flow can be reconstructed by recording photographs of the flow at different fixed time delays in one cycle. The preliminary design and construction of a self synchronizing stroboscopic laser interferometer with a modified Mach-Zehnder optical system is also reported.

  4. Heat transfer and flow visualization of swirling impinging jets

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The heat transfer performance of swirling impinging jets was experimentally investigated, and the flow fields were visualized for a jet diameter, d{sub j} = 12.7 mm and swirl angles, {theta} = 15{degree}, 30{degree}, and 45{degree}. Other experimental parameters included Reynolds number, Re = 3,620--17,600, vertical jet spacing, h = 12.7--76.2 mm, and radial distance from the stagnation point, r = 0--65 mm. The results showed significant enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient, both with respect to radial uniformity and local values, compared to a circular straight impinging jet of the same dimensions at the same test conditions. The flow field visualizations confirmed the measured enhancement in the heat transfer coefficient for the swirling jets as well as the radial distribution of local Nusselt number.

  5. Flow visualization in a cryogenic wind tunnel using holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of holographic flow visualization from tests made in the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel are presented. The tunnel was operated over a temperature range from 100 to 300 K and a pressure range from 1.1 to 4 atm. Interferometry at the facility may be of limited use at the low temperature high pressure conditions because of the jumbled nature of the reference fringes. The shadowgraph technique appears to be the best means of visualizing shocks at these high density conditions. The spot size at the focus of the reconstructed beams was measured and used as an indicator of density fluctuations in the flow field. These density fluctuations appear to be caused by temperature fluctuations of the test gas which are relatively independent of tunnel conditions.

  6. Flow visualization in a cryogenic wind tunnel using holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Results of holographic flow visualization from tests made in the Langley 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel are presented. The tunnel was operated over a temperature range from 100 to 300 K and a pressure range from 1.1 to 4 atm. Interferometry at the facility may be of limited use at the low temperature high pressure conditions because of the jumbled nature of the reference fringes. The shadowgraph technique appears to be the best means of visualizing shocks at these high density conditions. The spot size at the focus of the reconstructed beams was measured and used as an indicator of density fluctuations in the flow field. These density fluctuations appear to be caused by temperature fluctuations of the test gas which are relatively independent of tunnel conditions.

  7. Application of Neutron Radiography to Flow Visualization in Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, N.; Sugimoto, K.; Takami, S.; Sugioka, K.; Tsukada, T.; Adschiri, T.; Saito, Y.

    Supercritical water is used in various chemical reaction processes including hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide nano-particles, oxidation, chemical conversion of biomass and plastics. Density of the super critical water is much less than that of the sub-critical water. By using neutron radiography, Peterson et al. have studied salt precipitation processes in supercritical water and the flow pattern in a reverse-flow vessel for salt precipitation, and Balasko et al. have revealed the behaviour of supercritical water in a container. The nano-particles were made by mixing the super critical flow and the sub critical water solution. In the present study, neutron radiography was applied to the flow visualization of the super and sub critical water mixture in a T-junction made of stainless steel pipes for high pressure and temperature conditions to investigate their mixing process. Still images by a CCD camera were obtained by using the neutron radiography system at B4 port in KUR.

  8. A comparative flow visualization study of thermocapillary flow in drops in liquid-liquid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Rashidnia, N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments are performed to visualize thermocapillary flow in drops in an immiscible host liquid. The host liquid used is silicone oil. Drops of three different liquids are used, viz, vegetable oil, water-methanol mixture anad pure methanol. Clear evidence of thermocapillary flow is seen in vegetable oil drops. For a mixture of water and methanol (approximately 50-50 by weight), natural convection is seen to dominate the flow outside the drop. Pure methanol drops exhibit thermocapillary flow, but dissolve in silicone oil. A small amount of water added to pure methanol significantly reduces the dissolution. Flow oscillations occur in this system for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

  9. Instantaneous planar visualization of reacting supersonic flows using silane seeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael W.; Northam, G. B.

    1991-01-01

    A new visualization technique for reacting flows has been developed. This technique, which is suitable for supersonic combustion flows, has been demonstrated on a scramjet combustor model. In this application, gaseous silane (SiH4) was added to the primary hydrogen fuel. When the fuel reacted, so did the (SiH4), producing silica (SiO2) particles in situ. The particles were illuminated with a laser sheet formed from a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) beam and the Mie scattering signal was imaged. These planar images of the silica Mie scattering provided instantaneous 'maps' of combustion progress within the turbulent reacting flowfield.

  10. Recent Advances in Visualizing 3D Flow with LIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1998-01-01

    Line Integral Convolution (LIC), introduced by Cabral and Leedom in 1993, is an elegant and versatile technique for representing directional information via patterns of correlation in a texture. Although most commonly used to depict 2D flow, or flow over a surface in 3D, LIC methods can equivalently be used to portray 3D flow through a volume. However, the popularity of LIC as a device for illustrating 3D flow has historically been limited both by the computational expense of generating and rendering such a 3D texture and by the difficulties inherent in clearly and effectively conveying the directional information embodied in the volumetric output textures that are produced. In an earlier paper, we briefly discussed some of the factors that may underlie the perceptual difficulties that we can encounter with dense 3D displays and outlined several strategies for more effectively visualizing 3D flow with volume LIC. In this article, we review in more detail techniques for selectively emphasizing critical regions of interest in a flow and for facilitating the accurate perception of the 3D depth and orientation of overlapping streamlines, and we demonstrate new methods for efficiently incorporating an indication of orientation into a flow representation and for conveying additional information about related scalar quantities such as temperature or vorticity over a flow via subtle, continuous line width and color variations.

  11. Methods of Visually Determining the Air Flow Around Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gough, Melvin N; Johnson, Ernest

    1932-01-01

    This report describes methods used by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to study visually the air flow around airplanes. The use of streamers, oil and exhaust gas streaks, lampblack and kerosene, powdered materials, and kerosene smoke is briefly described. The generation and distribution of smoke from candles and from titanium tetrachloride are described in greater detail because they appear most advantageous for general application. Examples are included showing results of the various methods.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of PERCEPT indoor navigation system for visually impaired users.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Schafer, James; Puleo, Elaine; Wilson, Carole; Robertson, Meg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we introduce qualitative and quantitative evaluation of PERCEPT system, an indoor navigation system for the blind and visually impaired. PERCEPT system trials with 24 blind and visually impaired users in a multi-story building show PERCEPT system effectiveness in providing appropriate navigation instructions to these users. The uniqueness of our system is that it is affordable and that its design follows Orientation and Mobility principles. These results encourage us to generalize the solution to large indoor spaces and test it with significantly larger visually impaired population in diverse settings. We hope that PERCEPT will become a standard deployed in all indoor public spaces. PMID:23367251

  13. A Novel Technique for Experimental Flow Visualization of Mechanical Valves.

    PubMed

    Huang Zhang, Pablo S; Dalal, Alex R; Kresh, J Yasha; Laub, Glenn W

    2016-01-01

    The geometry of the hinge region in mechanical heart valves has been postulated to play an important role in the development of thromboembolic events (TEs). This study describes a novel technique developed to visualize washout characteristics in mechanical valve hinge areas. A dairy-based colloidal suspension (DBCS) was used as a high-contrast tracer. It was introduced directly into the hinge-containing sections of two commercially available valves mounted in laser-milled fluidic channels and subsequently washed out at several flow rates. Time-lapse images were analyzed to determine the average washout rate and generate intensity topography maps of the DBCS clearance. As flow increased, washout improved and clearance times were shorter in all cases. Significantly different washout rate time constants were observed between valves, average >40% faster clearance (p < 0.01). The topographic maps revealed that each valve had a characteristic pattern of washout. The technique proved reproducible with a maximum recorded standard error of mean (SEM) of ±3.9. Although the experimental washout dynamics have yet to be correlated with in vivo visualization studies, the methodology may help identify key flow features influencing TEs. This visualization methodology can be a useful tool to help evaluate stagnation zones in new and existing heart valve hinge designs. PMID:26554553

  14. Flow visualization in porous media via Positron Emission Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalili, A.; Basu, A. J.; Pietrzyk, U.

    1998-04-01

    We demonstrate here the use of a non-invasive technique based on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in visualizing and in making quantitative measurements of scalar transport through natural opaque permeable sediments. Along with various other possibilities, this technique has the potential to help improve the understanding of processes that take place at the seabeds between the porewater and the overlying water, which result in exchange of nutrients, toxins and solute. Unlike many other methods, PET is able to produce full three-dimensional pictures of the percolation of fluid through not only "constructed" but also natural porous media.

  15. Flow Visualization around a Simplified Two-Wheel Landing Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekmekci, Alis; Feltham, Graham

    2013-11-01

    The flow topology around a simplified two-wheel landing gear model is investigated experimentally by employing the hydrogen bubble flow visualization technique in a recirculating water channel. The landing gear test model consists of two identical wheels, an axle, a main strut and a support strut. The flow Reynolds number based on wheel diameter is 31,500 and wheels with varying geometric details are considered. Flow structures have been identified through analysis of long-time video recordings and linked to the model geometry. In the flow region above the wheels (wing side), the flow in the inter-wheel region either separates prematurely from the inner surfaces of the wheels and forms slant vortices in the near-wake, or remains attached till the aft wheel perimeter. Inclusion of interior wheel wells are found to result in a jet-like ejection as a result of the interaction with the axle and main strut. In the flow region below the wheels (ground side) the near wake contains periodically forming, complex, large-scale structures.

  16. MoFlow: visualizing conformational changes in molecules as molecular flow improves understanding

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Current visualizations of molecular motion use a Timeline-analogous representation that conveys "first the molecule was shaped like this, then like this...". This scheme is orthogonal to the Pathline-like human understanding of motion "this part of the molecule moved from here to here along this path". We present MoFlow, a system for visualizing molecular motion using a Pathline-analogous representation. Results The MoFlow system produces high-quality renderings of molecular motion as atom pathlines, as well as interactive WebGL visualizations, and 3D printable models. In a preliminary user study, MoFlow representations are shown to be superior to canonical representations for conveying molecular motion. Conclusions Pathline-based representations of molecular motion are more easily understood than timeline representations. Pathline representations provide other advantages because they represent motion directly, rather than representing structure with inferred motion. PMID:26361501

  17. Animating streamlines with repeated asymmetric patterns for steady flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chih-Kuo; Liu, Zhanping; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-01-01

    Animation provides intuitive cueing for revealing essential spatial-temporal features of data in scientific visualization. This paper explores the design of Repeated Asymmetric Patterns (RAPs) in animating evenly-spaced color-mapped streamlines for dense accurate visualization of complex steady flows. We present a smooth cyclic variable-speed RAP animation model that performs velocity (magnitude) integral luminance transition on streamlines. This model is extended with inter-streamline synchronization in luminance varying along the tangential direction to emulate orthogonal advancing waves from a geometry-based flow representation, and then with evenly-spaced hue differing in the orthogonal direction to construct tangential flow streaks. To weave these two mutually dual sets of patterns, we propose an energy-decreasing strategy that adopts an iterative yet efficient procedure for determining the luminance phase and hue of each streamline in HSL color space. We also employ adaptive luminance interleaving in the direction perpendicular to the flow to increase the contrast between streamlines.

  18. Quantitative Proteomics Using Ultralow Flow Capillary Electrophoresis–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the incorporation of an ultralow flow interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS), in combination with reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation as an alternate workflow for quantitative proteomics. Proteins, extracted from a SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) labeled and an unlabeled yeast strain were mixed and digested enzymatically in solution. The resulting peptides were fractionated using RP-HPLC and analyzed by CE–MS yielding a total of 28 538 quantified peptides that correspond to 3 272 quantified proteins. CE–MS analysis was performed using a neutral capillary coating, providing the highest separation efficiency at ultralow flow conditions (<10 nL/min). Moreover, we were able to demonstrate that CE–MS is a powerful method for the identification of low-abundance modified peptides within the same sample. Without any further enrichment strategies, we succeeded in quantifying 1 371 phosphopeptides present in the CE–MS data set and found 49 phosphopeptides to be differentially regulated in the two yeast strains. Including acetylation, phosphorylation, deamidation, and oxidized forms, a total of 8 106 modified peptides could be identified in addition to 33 854 unique peptide sequences found. The work presented here shows the first quantitative proteomics approach that combines SILAC labeling with CE–MS analysis. PMID:25839223

  19. Quantitative Visualization of ChIP-chip Data by Using Linked Views

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Min-Yu; Weber, Gunther; Li, Xiao-Yong; Biggin, Mark; Hamann, Bernd

    2010-11-05

    Most analyses of ChIP-chip in vivo DNA binding have focused on qualitative descriptions of whether genomic regions are bound or not. There is increasing evidence, however, that factors bind in a highly overlapping manner to the same genomic regions and that it is quantitative differences in occupancy on these commonly bound regions that are the critical determinants of the different biological specificity of factors. As a result, it is critical to have a tool to facilitate the quantitative visualization of differences between transcription factors and the genomic regions they bind to understand each factor's unique roles in the network. We have developed a framework which combines several visualizations via brushing-and-linking to allow the user to interactively analyze and explore in vivo DNA binding data of multiple transcription factors. We describe these visualization types and also provide a discussion of biological examples in this paper.

  20. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-03-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows.

  1. Flow Visualization Proposed for Vacuum Cleaner Nozzle Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Kirby Company (a major vacuum cleaner company) began negotiations for a Space Act Agreement to conduct research, technology development, and testing involving the flow behavior of airborne particulate flow behavior. Through these research efforts, we hope to identify ways to improve suction, flow rate, and surface agitation characteristics of nozzles used in vacuum cleaner nozzles. We plan to apply an advanced visualization technology, known as Stereoscopic Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), to a Kirby G-4 vacuum cleaner. Resultant data will be analyzed with a high-speed digital motion analysis system. We also plan to evaluate alternative vacuum cleaner nozzle designs. The overall goal of this project is to quantify both velocity fields and particle trajectories throughout the vacuum cleaner nozzle to optimize its "cleanability"--its ability to disturb and remove embedded dirt and other particulates from carpeting or hard surfaces. Reference

  2. Visualization of two-fluid flows of superfluid helium-4

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; La Mantia, Marco; Lathrop, Daniel P.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic flow visualization techniques have been proved in recent years to be a very powerful experimental method to study superfluid turbulence. Micron-sized solid particles and metastable helium molecules are specifically being used to investigate in detail the dynamics of quantum flows. These studies belong to a well-established, interdisciplinary line of inquiry that focuses on the deeper understanding of turbulence, one of the open problem of modern physics, relevant to many research fields, ranging from fluid mechanics to cosmology. Progress made to date is discussed, to highlight its relevance to a wider scientific community, and future directions are outlined. The latter include, e.g., detailed studies of normal-fluid turbulence, dissipative mechanisms, and unsteady/oscillatory flows. PMID:24704871

  3. A predictor-corrector technique for visualizing unsteady flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, David C.; Singer, Bart A.

    1995-01-01

    We present a method for visualizing unsteady flow by displaying its vortices. The vortices are identified by using a vorticity-predictor pressure-corrector scheme that follows vortex cores. The cross-sections of a vortex at each point along the core can be represented by a Fourier series. A vortex can be faithfully reconstructed from the series as a simple quadrilateral mesh, or its reconstruction can be enhanced to indicate helical motion. The mesh can reduce the representation of the flow features by a factor of one thousand or more compared with the volumetric dataset. With this amount of reduction it is possible to implement an interactive system on a graphics workstation to permit a viewer to examine, in three dimensions, the evolution of the vortical structures in a complex, unsteady flow.

  4. Visualization and velocity measurement of unsteady flow in a gas generator using cold-flow technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuppa, Subrahmanyam

    1990-08-01

    Modeling of internal flow fields with hot, compressible fluids and sometimes combustion using cold flow techniques is discussed. The flow in a gas generator was modeled using cold air. The experimental set up was designed and fabricated to simulate the unsteady flow with different configurations of inlet tubes. Tests were run for flow visualization and measurement of axial velocity at different frequencies ranging from 5 to 12 Hz. Flow visualization showed that the incoming flow was a complex jet flow confined to a cylindrical enclosure, while the outgoing flow resembled the venting of a pressurized vessel. The pictures show a complex flow pattern due to the angling of the jet towards the wall for the bent tube configurations and straightened flows with straight tube and other configurations with straighteners. Velocity measurements were made at an inlet Re of 8.1 x 10(exp 4) based on maximum velocity and inlet diameter. Phase averaged mean velocities were observed to be well defined during charging and diminished during venting inside the cylinder. For the straight tube inlet comparison with a steady flow measurement of sudden expansion flow showed a qualitative similarity of the mean axial velocity distribution and centerline velocity decay during the charging phases. For the bent tube inlet case the contour plots showed the flow tendency towards the wall. Two cells were seen in the contours for the 8 and 12 Hz cases. The deviation of the point of occurrence of maximum velocity in a radial profile was found to be about 6.5 degrees. Entrance velocity profiles showed symmetry for the straight tube inlet but were skewed for the bent tube inlet. Contour plots of the phase averaged axial turbulence intensity for bent tube cases showed higher values in the core and near the wall in the region of impingement. Axial turbulence intensity measured for the straight tube case showed features as observed in an axisymmetric sudden expansion flow.

  5. #FluxFlow: Visual Analysis of Anomalous Information Spreading on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Cao, Nan; Wen, Zhen; Song, Yale; Lin, Yu-Ru; Collins, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    We present FluxFlow, an interactive visual analysis system for revealing and analyzing anomalous information spreading in social media. Everyday, millions of messages are created, commented, and shared by people on social media websites, such as Twitter and Facebook. This provides valuable data for researchers and practitioners in many application domains, such as marketing, to inform decision-making. Distilling valuable social signals from the huge crowd's messages, however, is challenging, due to the heterogeneous and dynamic crowd behaviors. The challenge is rooted in data analysts' capability of discerning the anomalous information behaviors, such as the spreading of rumors or misinformation, from the rest that are more conventional patterns, such as popular topics and newsworthy events, in a timely fashion. FluxFlow incorporates advanced machine learning algorithms to detect anomalies, and offers a set of novel visualization designs for presenting the detected threads for deeper analysis. We evaluated FluxFlow with real datasets containing the Twitter feeds captured during significant events such as Hurricane Sandy. Through quantitative measurements of the algorithmic performance and qualitative interviews with domain experts, the results show that the back-end anomaly detection model is effective in identifying anomalous retweeting threads, and its front-end interactive visualizations are intuitive and useful for analysts to discover insights in data and comprehend the underlying analytical model. PMID:26356891

  6. Blood Flow: Multi-scale Modeling and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Multi-scale modeling of arterial blood flow can shed light on the interaction between events happening at micro- and meso-scales (i.e., adhesion of red blood cells to the arterial wall, clot formation) and at macro-scales (i.e., change in flow patterns due to the clot). Coupled numerical simulations of such multi-scale flow require state-of-the-art computers and algorithms. Along with developing methods for multi-scale computations, techniques for multi-scale visualizations must be designed. This animation presents early results of joint efforts of teams from Brown University and Argonne National Laboratory to develop a multi-scale visualization methodology. It illustrates a flow of healthy (red) and diseased (blue) blood cells with a Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) method. Each blood cell is represented by a mesh made of 500 DPD-particles, and small spheres show a sub-set of the DPD particles representing the blood plasma, while instantaneous streamlines and slices represent the ensemble average velocity. Credits: Science: Leopold Grinberg and George Karniadakis, Brown University Visualization: Joseph A. Insley and Michael E. Papka, Argonne National Laboratory This research used resources of the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at Argonne National Laboratory, which is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation through the PetaApps program and used TeraGrid resources provided by National Institute for Computational Sciences.

  7. Visualization of Internal Flows with Pressure Oscillation and Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Felix; Baker, John

    2009-11-01

    A Stirling engine's displacer piston causes motion in its working fluid that exposes the fluid to pressure oscillations that directly impact flow behavior. Stirling engines are highly efficient external combustion engines that are often used in renewable energy applications and have been identified for use on near space platforms as auxiliary power units. The goal of this study was to identify the basic structures of the transient flow field within the expansion cylinder of a Stirling engine without the added complications introduced by convective heat transfer. A two-dimensional representation of the flow within the expansion cylinder of a Stirling engine was produced using an optically-accessible piston-enclosure configuration. The transient flow field within the enclosure was visualized using a rheoscopic fluid. The Reynolds number, based on the frequency of the piston oscillation and the stroke length, was varied from 1.74 to 9.05. Several transient flow structures are identified and the impact that an array of triangular fins has on these flow structures will be discussed.

  8. Visualization of pulsatile flow for magnetic nanoparticle based therapies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentzel, Andrew; Yecko, Philip

    2015-11-01

    Pulsatile flow of blood through branched, curved, stenosed, dilated or otherwise perturbed vessels is more complex than flow through a straight, uniform and rigid tube. In some magnetic hyperthermia and magnetic chemo-therapies, localized regions of magnetic nanoparticle laden fluid are deliberately formed in blood vessels and held in place by magnetic fields. The effect of localized magnetic fluid regions on blood flow and the effect of the pulsatile blood flow on such magnetic fluid regions are poorly understood and difficult to examine in vivo or by numerical simulation. We present a laboratory model that facilitates both dye tracer and particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) studies of pulsatile flow of water through semi-flexible tubes in the presence of localized magnetic fluid regions. Results on the visualization of flows over a range of Reynolds and Womersley numbers and for several different (water-based) ferrofluids are compared for straight and curved vessels and for different magnetic localization strategies. These results can guide the design of improved magnetic cancer therapies. Support from the William H. Sandholm Program of Cooper Union's Kanbar Center for Biomedical Engineering is gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Preliminary design of an intermittent smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Donald T.; Myatt, James H.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype intermittent flow visualization system that was designed to study vortex flow field dynamics has been constructed and tested through its ground test phase. It produces discrete pulses of dense white smoke consisting of particles of terephthalic acid by the pulsing action of a fast-acting three-way valve. The trajectories of the smoke pulses can be tracked by a video imaging system without intruding in the flow around in flight. Two methods of pulsing the smoke were examined. The simplest and safest approach is to simply divert the smoke between the two outlet ports on the valve; this approach should be particularly effective if it were desired to inject smoke at two locations during the same test event. The second approach involves closing off one of the outlet ports to momentarily block the flow. The second approach requires careful control of valve dwell times to avoid excessive pressure buildup within the cartridge container. This method also increases the velocity of the smoke injected into the flow. The flow of the smoke has been blocked for periods ranging from 30 to 80 milliseconds, depending on the system volume and the length of time the valve is allowed to remain open between valve closings.

  10. Target-responsive DNAzyme cross-linked hydrogel for visual quantitative detection of lead.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yishun; Ma, Yanli; Chen, Yahong; Wu, Xuemeng; Fang, Luting; Zhu, Zhi; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2014-11-18

    Because of the severe health risks associated with lead pollution, rapid, sensitive, and portable detection of low levels of Pb(2+) in biological and environmental samples is of great importance. In this work, a Pb(2+)-responsive hydrogel was prepared using a DNAzyme and its substrate as cross-linker for rapid, sensitive, portable, and quantitative detection of Pb(2+). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were first encapsulated in the hydrogel as an indicator for colorimetric analysis. In the absence of lead, the DNAzyme is inactive, and the substrate cross-linker maintains the hydrogel in the gel form. In contrast, the presence of lead activates the DNAzyme to cleave the substrate, decreasing the cross-linking density of the hydrogel and resulting in dissolution of the hydrogel and release of AuNPs for visual detection. As low as 10 nM Pb(2+) can be detected by the naked eye. Furthermore, to realize quantitative visual detection, a volumetric bar-chart chip (V-chip) was used for quantitative readout of the hydrogel system by replacing AuNPs with gold-platinum core-shell nanoparticles (Au@PtNPs). The Au@PtNPs released from the hydrogel upon target activation can efficiently catalyze the decomposition of H2O2 to generate a large volume of O2. The gas pressure moves an ink bar in the V-chip for portable visual quantitative detection of lead with a detection limit less than 5 nM. The device was able to detect lead in digested blood with excellent accuracy. The method developed can be used for portable lead quantitation in many applications. Furthermore, the method can be further extended to portable visual quantitative detection of a variety of targets by replacing the lead-responsive DNAzyme with other DNAzymes. PMID:25340621

  11. Quantitative visually lossless compression ratio determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Verislav T; Karahaliou, Anna N; Skiadopoulos, Spyros G; Arikidis, Nikos S; Kazantzi, Alexandra D; Panayiotakis, George S; Costaridou, Lena I

    2013-06-01

    The current study presents a quantitative approach towards visually lossless compression ratio (CR) threshold determination of JPEG2000 in digitized mammograms. This is achieved by identifying quantitative image quality metrics that reflect radiologists' visual perception in distinguishing between original and wavelet-compressed mammographic regions of interest containing microcalcification clusters (MCs) and normal parenchyma, originating from 68 images from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography. Specifically, image quality of wavelet-compressed mammograms (CRs, 10:1, 25:1, 40:1, 70:1, 100:1) is evaluated quantitatively by means of eight image quality metrics of different computational principles and qualitatively by three radiologists employing a five-point rating scale. The accuracy of the objective metrics is investigated in terms of (1) their correlation (r) with qualitative assessment and (2) ROC analysis (A z index), employing pooled radiologists' rating scores as ground truth. The quantitative metrics mean square error, mean absolute error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and structural similarity demonstrated strong correlation with pooled radiologists' ratings (r, 0.825, 0.823, -0.825, and -0.826, respectively) and the highest area under ROC curve (A z , 0.922, 0.920, 0.922, and 0.922, respectively). For each quantitative metric, the highest accuracy values of corresponding ROC curves were used to define metric cut-off values. The metrics cut-off values were subsequently used to suggest a visually lossless CR threshold, estimated to be between 25:1 and 40:1 for the dataset analyzed. Results indicate the potential of the quantitative metrics approach in predicting visually lossless CRs in case of MCs in mammography. PMID:23065144

  12. Quantitative assessment of emphysema from whole lung CT scans: comparison with visual grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Apanosovich, Tatiyana V.; Wang, Jianwei; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.

    2009-02-01

    Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and for visual assessment by radiologists of the extent present in the lungs. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification of the extent of disease directly from CT data in order to add to the qualitative assessments made by radiologists. In this paper we compare emphysema index, mean lung density, histogram percentiles, and the fractal dimension to visual grade in order to evaluate the predictability of radiologist visual scoring of emphysema from low-dose CT scans through quantitative scores, in order to determine which measures can be useful as surrogates for visual assessment. All measures were computed over nine divisions of the lung field (whole lung, individual lungs, and upper/middle/lower thirds of each lung) for each of 148 low-dose, whole lung scans. In addition, a visual grade of each section was also given by an expert radiologist. One-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the ability of the measures to predict visual grade from quantitative score. We found that all measures were able to distinguish between normal and severe grades (p<0.01), and between mild/moderate and all other grades (p<0.05). However, no measure was able to distinguish between mild and moderate cases. Approximately 65% prediction accuracy was achieved from using quantitative score to predict visual grade, with 73% if mild and moderate cases are considered as a single class.

  13. On the Uses of Full-Scale Schlieren Flow Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settles, G. S.; Miller, J. D.; Dodson-Dreibelbis, L. J.

    2000-11-01

    A lens-and-grid-type schlieren system using a very large grid as a light source was described at earlier APS/DFD meetings. With a field-of-view of 2.3x2.9 m (7.5x9.5 feet), it is the largest indoor schlieren system in the world. Still and video examples of several full-scale airflows and heat-transfer problems visualized thus far will be shown. These include: heating and ventilation airflows, flows due to appliances and equipment, the thermal plumes of people, the aerodynamics of an explosive trace detection portal, gas leak detection, shock wave motion associated with aviation security problems, and heat transfer from live crops. Planned future projects include visualizing fume-hood and grocery display freezer airflows and studying the dispersion of insect repellent plumes at full scale.

  14. Flow Visualization of Low Prandtl Number Fluids using Electrochemical Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crunkleton, D.; Anderson, T.; Narayanan, R.; Labrosse, G.

    2003-01-01

    It is well established that residual flows exist in contained liquid metal processes. In 1-g processing, buoyancy forces often drive these flows and their magnitudes can be substantial. It is also known that residual flows can exist during microgravity processing, and although greatly reduced in magnitude, they can influence the properties of the processed materials. Unfortunately, there are very few techniques to visualize flows in opaque, high temperature liquid metals, and those available are not easily adapted to flight investigation. In this study, a novel technique is developed that uses liquid tin as the model fluid and solid-state electrochemical cells constructed from Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) to establish and measure dissolved oxygen boundary conditions. The melt serves as a common electrode for each of the electrochemical cells in this design, while independent reference electrodes are maintained at the outside surfaces of the electrolyte. By constructing isolated electrochemical cells at various locations along the container walls, oxygen is introduced or extracted by imposing a known electrical potential or passing a given current between the melt and the reference electrode. This programmed titration then establishes a known oxygen concentration boundary condition at the selected electrolyte-melt interface. Using the other cells, the concentration of oxygen at the electrolyte-melt interface is also monitored by measuring the open-circuit potentials developed between the melt and reference electrodes. Thus the electrochemical cells serve to both establish boundary conditions for the passive tracer and sense its path. Rayleigh-Benard convection was used to validate the electrochemical approach to flow visualization. Thus, a numerical characterization of the second critical Rayleigh numbers in liquid tin was conducted for a variety of Cartesian aspect ratios. The extremely low Prandtl number of tin represents the lowest value studied numerically

  15. Visualization of diffuser outlet flow using liquid crystal sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, A.T.

    1995-08-01

    This article describes a new imaging technique to determine air temperatures and flow fields from HVAC diffusers. The technique uses liquid crystal sheets to record the airflow and temperatures in color. The air temperature field is an important contributor to the thermal comfort in a room and is used to evaluate diffuser performance. Visualization of the temperature field allows one to see directly the flow field and how it is interacting with the room air. a particular application is to cold-air distribution systems that supply cooling and ventilation air to rooms at temperatures lower than in conventional systems. In these systems the cold-air supply is as low as 39 F (4 C), instead of the conventional value of 55 F (13 C). This new technique uses a temperature-sensitive liquid crystal sheet to create a visual measuring tool. The liquid crystals are layered on a plane sheet and produce two-dimensional color images of the air temperature field. Since air is invisible, some type of indicator placed in the air stream is required to determine the air temperature. At present, instruments such as thermocouples and thermistors determine the air temperature in rooms and measure the value at a single point. Information about the temperature and flow field in a room is obtained by moving the device, or using multiple sensors. This is a time-consuming process, and only yields information at the points of measurement. However, the temperature field is usually unsteady, due to variable air currents and cooling loads, so a movable device is not entirely suitable, and multiple instruments require multiple data acquisition channels. It would be more informative to visualize the entire airflow from the diffuser at any instant. This article deals with a temperature characterization method.

  16. A Visualization Study of Secondary Flows in Cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzig, Howard Z; Hansen, Arthur G; Costello, George R

    1954-01-01

    Flow-visualization techniques are employed to ascertain the streamline patterns of the nonpotential secondary flows in the boundary layers of cascades, and thereby to provide a basis for more extended analyses in turbomachines. The three-dimensional deflection of the end-wall boundary layer results in the formation of a vortex within each cascade passage. The size and tightness of the vortex generated depend upon the main-flow turning in the cascade passage. Once formed, a vortex resists turning in subsequent blade rows, with consequent unfavorable angles of attack and possible flow disturbances on the pressure surfaces of subsequent blade rows when the vortices impinge on these surfaces. Two major tip-clearance effects are observed, the formation of a tip-clearance vortex and the scraping effect of a blade with relative motion past the wall boundary layer. The flow patterns indicate methods for improving the blade tip-loading characteristics of compressors and of low- and high-speed turbulence.

  17. Flow Visualization Techniques for CDF using Volume Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.; Shen, H-W.; Max, N.

    2000-07-10

    As simulations have migrated towards three-dimensions, new tools for examining the resulting complex datasets have been required. Much progress has been achieved in the area of scientific visualization towards this goal. However, most of the research has focused on the representation and understanding of a single scalar field. Some nice results have been achieved for vector or flow fields. This paper reviews several of these techniques, organizes them by their approach and complexity and presents some observations on their benefits and limitations. Several example images are used to highlight the character of these techniques.

  18. Flow visualization study of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu H.T.; Waite, J.W.; Hiester, T.R.; Tacheron, P.H.; Srnsky, R.A.

    1983-06-01

    The specific objectives of the study reported were: to determine the geometry of the MOD-2 wind turbine wake in terms of wake height and width as a function of downstream distance under two conditions of atmospheric stability; to estimate the mean velocity deficit at several downstream stations in the turbine wake; and to investigate the behavior of the rotor-generated vortices, particularly their configuration and persistence. The background of the wake problem is briefly examined, including a discussion of the critical issues that the flow visualization study addresses. Experimental techniques and data analysis methods are described in detail. (LEW)

  19. Visualization, Extraction and Quantification of Discontinuities in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Morris, R. D.; Cheeseman, P.; Sunelyansky, V.; Maluf, D.; Wolf, D.

    2000-01-01

    Scientific visualizations of two-dimensional compressible flow of a gas with discontinuities are presented. The numerical analogue to experimental techniques such as schlieren imaging, shadowgraphs, and interferograms are discussed. Edge detection techniques are utilized to identify the discontinuities. In particular, the zero crossing of the Laplacian of a field (usually density) is recommended for extracting the discontinuities. An algorithm to extract and quantify the discontinuities is presented. To illustrate the methods developed in the report, the example chosen is that of an unsteady interaction of a shock wave with a contact discontinuity.

  20. Molten titanium flow in a mesh cavity by the flow visualization technique.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Okawa, S; Miyakawa, O; Nakano, S; Shiokawa, N; Kobayashi, M

    1991-12-01

    The tracer element molten (TEM) method, which provides titanium flow visualization in a mold cavity, was applied to investigate the flow in a mesh pattern. When a pressure casting machine was used, most of the mesh rods were composed of many solidification layers, which implied that the flow was laminar and almost steady. When a centrifugal casting machine was used, the flow was almost irregular and a stack of solidification layers was observed in only a few segments. These results indicate that the flow was turbulent. In a complicated cavity, such as a mesh pattern, pressure rather than centrifugal force acts as an effective casting force. Therefore, in such a cavity, favorable castability can be achieved with high pressure and laminar flow. PMID:1820837

  1. Quantitative dye-tracing of karst ground-water flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James; Mull, Donald; Liebermann, Timothy

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the results of repeat quantitative dye traces between a sinkhole and a spring used for public water supply were used to describe predictive relations between discharge, mean travel time, apparent ground-water flow velocity and solute transport characteristics. Normalized peak concentration, mean travel time, and standard deviation of travel times were used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to produce a dimensionless, composite type curve that was used to simulate solute transport characteristics for selected discharges. Using this curve and previously developed statistical relations, a water manager can estimate the arrival time, peak concentration, and persistence of a soluble contaminant at a supply spring or well based on discharge and the quantity of spilled contaminant.

  2. Performance of calibration standards for antigen quantitation with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Lenkei, R; Gratama, J W; Rothe, G; Schmitz, G; D'hautcourt, J L; Arekrans, A; Mandy, F; Marti, G

    1998-10-01

    In the frame of the activities initiated by the Task Force for Antigen Quantitation of the European Working Group on Clinical Cell Analysis (EWGCCA), an experiment was conducted to evaluate microbead standards used for quantitative flow cytometry (QFCM). An unified window of analysis (UWA) was established on three different instruments (EPICS XL [Coulter Corporation, Miami, FL], FACScan and FACS Calibur [Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA]) with QC3 microbeads (FCSC, PR). By using this defined fluorescence intensity scale, the performance of several monoclonal antibodies directed to CD3, CD4, and CD8 (conjugated and unconjugated), from three manufacturers (BDIS, Coulter [Immunotech], and DAKO) was tested. In addition, the QIFI system (DAKO) and QuantiBRITE (BDIS), and a method of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI, method of Giorgi), were compared. mAbs reacting with three more antigens, CD16, CD19, and CD38 were tested on the FACScan instrument. Quantitation was carried out using a single batch of cryopreserved peripheral blood leukocytes, and all tests were performed as single color analyses. Significant correlations were observed between the antibody-binding capacity (ABC) values of the same CD antigen measured with various calibrators and with antibodies differing in respect to vendor, labeling and possible epitope recognition. Despite the significant correlations, the ABC values of most monoclonal antibodies differed by 20-40% when determined by the different fluorochrome conjugates and different calibrators. The results of this study indicate that, at the present stage of QFCM consistent ABC values may be attained between laboratories provided that a specific calibration system is used including specific calibrators, reagents, and protocols. PMID:9773879

  3. In-Flight Flow Visualization Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanDam, C. P.; Shiu, H. J.; Banks D. W.

    1997-01-01

    The feasibility of remote infrared thermography of aircraft surfaces during flight to visualize the extent of laminar flow on a target aircraft has been examined. In general, it was determined that such thermograms can be taken successfully using an existing airplane/thermography system (NASA Dryden's F-18 with infrared imaging pod) and that the transition pattern and, thus, the extent of laminar flow can be extracted from these thermograms. Depending on the in-flight distance between the F-18 and the target aircraft, the thermograms can have a spatial resolution of as little as 0.1 inches. The field of view provided by the present remote system is superior to that of prior stationary infrared thermography systems mounted in the fuselage or vertical tail of a subject aircraft. An additional advantage of the present experimental technique is that the target aircraft requires no or minimal modifications. An image processing procedure was developed which improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the thermograms. Problems encountered during the analog recording of the thermograms (banding of video images) made it impossible to evaluate the adequacy of the present imaging system and image processing procedure to detect transition on untreated metal surfaces. The high reflectance, high thermal difussivity, and low emittance of metal surfaces tend to degrade the images to an extent that it is very difficult to extract transition information from them. The application of a thin (0.005 inches) self-adhesive insulating film to the surface is shown to solve this problem satisfactorily. In addition to the problem of infrared based transition detection on untreated metal surfaces, future flight tests will also concentrate on the visualization of other flow phenomena such as flow separation and reattachment.

  4. Scientific Visualization Using the Flow Analysis Software Toolkit (FAST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bancroft, Gordon V.; Kelaita, Paul G.; Mccabe, R. Kevin; Merritt, Fergus J.; Plessel, Todd C.; Sandstrom, Timothy A.; West, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past few years the Flow Analysis Software Toolkit (FAST) has matured into a useful tool for visualizing and analyzing scientific data on high-performance graphics workstations. Originally designed for visualizing the results of fluid dynamics research, FAST has demonstrated its flexibility by being used in several other areas of scientific research. These research areas include earth and space sciences, acid rain and ozone modelling, and automotive design, just to name a few. This paper describes the current status of FAST, including the basic concepts, architecture, existing functionality and features, and some of the known applications for which FAST is being used. A few of the applications, by both NASA and non-NASA agencies, are outlined in more detail. Described in the Outlines are the goals of each visualization project, the techniques or 'tricks' used lo produce the desired results, and custom modifications to FAST, if any, done to further enhance the analysis. Some of the future directions for FAST are also described.

  5. Computational flow visualization in vibrating flow pump type artificial heart by unstructured grid.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takuma; Kawano, Satoyuki; Nakahashi, Kazuhiro; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Nitta, Shin-ichi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    2003-01-01

    Computational flow visualization in the casing of vibrating flow pump (VFP) was made for various conditions based on the novel techniques of fluid dynamics. VFP type artificial heart can generate the oscillated flow and can be applied to the left ventricular assist device. Flow pattern of blood in an artificial heart is closely connected to mechanical performance and serious biomechanical problems such as hemolysis and blood coagulation. To effectively design the VFP for a left ventricular assist device, the numerical codes for solving Navier-Stokes equations were developed for three-dimensional blood flow based on the finite volume method. Furthermore, the simulation techniques based on the artificial compressibility method and the unstructured grid were also developed here. The numerical calculations were based on the precise configurations and the flow conditions of the prototype device. From the viewpoint of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the detailed discussion of flow patterns in the casing of VFP, which were closely connected with hemolysis and blood coagulation, was made and the computational results were visualized by the use of the recent technique of computational graphics. Some useful design data of VFP were presented. PMID:12534712

  6. Dual-modality wire-mesh sensor for the visualization of three-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, E. N.; Vendruscolo, T. P.; Morales, R. E. M.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.; Da Silva, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Three-phase gas-liquid-liquid flows are very common in petroleum extraction, production, and transport. In this work a dual-modality measuring technique is introduced which may be well applied for three-phase flow visualization. The measuring principle is based on simultaneous excitation with two distinct frequencies to interrogate each crossing point of a mesh sensor, which in turn are linked to conductive and capacitive parts of fluid impedance. The developed system can operate eight transmitter and eight receiver electrodes at a frame repetition frequency up to 781 Hz. The system has been evaluated by measuring reference components. The overall measurement uncertainty was 8.4%, which considering the fast repetition frequency of measurements is suitable for flow investigation. Furthermore, a model-based method to fuse the data from the dual-modality wire-mesh sensor and to obtain individual phase fraction of gas-oil-water flow is introduced. Here a parametrized model is fitted to the measured conductivity and permittivity distributions enabling one to obtain phase fraction from measured data. The method has been applied and tested to the acquired data from a mesh sensor in static and dynamic three-phase mixtures of gas, oil, and water. Fused images and quantitative values show good agreement with reference values. The newly developed dual-modality wire-mesh sensor has the potential to investigate three-phase flows to a good degree of detail, being a valuable tool to investigate such flows.

  7. Swirl combustor flow visualization studies in a water tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Hewitt, P. W.; Thomas, R.

    1983-12-01

    The flowfield in a highly swirling combustor with a Confinement Ratio of 1.0, a bypass flow (secondary downstream air injection), aspiration holes in the burner can and a large central hub was simulated. Data was collected from visualization with neutral density plastic beads in water, and velocity and turbulence level profiles measured in cold air tests. The baseline case produced little noticeable recirculation. Increasing the confinement ratio to a maximum of 2.1 either by insert rings or a larger burner can generally strengthened the central zone to a state of incipient recirculation. Use of a convergent/divergent outer ring after the swirl section had further beneficial effects. The bypass flow reduced the radial extent and intensified the central zone of incipient recirculation while confining the flow aerodynamically by shifting velocity peaks toward the axis. Extended central hubs, although having little effect on the flow in the burner can, produced a rotating helix in the afterburner. Aspiration holes reduced velocity levels along the wall.

  8. Soap film flow visualization investigations of oscillating wing energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschmeier, Benjamin; Bryant, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    With increasing population and proliferation of wireless electronics, significant research attention has turned to harvesting energy from ambient sources such as wind and water flows at scales ranging from micro-watt to mega-watt levels. One technique that has recently attracted attention is the application of bio-inspired flapping wings for energy harvesting. This type of system uses a heaving and pitching airfoil to extract flow energy and generate electricity. Such a device can be realized using passive devices excited by aeroelastic flutter phenomena, kinematic mechanisms driven by mechanical linkages, or semi-active devices that are actively controlled in one degree of freedom and passively driven in another. For these types of systems, numerical simulations have showed strong dependence on efficiency and vortex interaction. In this paper we propose a new apparatus for reproducing arbitrary pitch-heave waveforms to perform flow visualization experiments in a soap film tunnel. The vertically falling, gravity driven soap film tunnel is used to replicate flows with a chord Reynolds number on the order of 4x104. The soap film tunnel is used to investigate leading edge vortex (LEV) and trailing edge vortex (TEV) interactions for sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal waveforms. From a qualitative analysis of the fluid structure interaction, we have been able to demonstrate that the LEVs for non-sinusoidal motion convect faster over the airfoil compared with sinusoidal motion. Signifying that optimal flapping frequency is dependent on the motion profile.

  9. Quantitative relationships between soil macropore characteristics and preferential flow and transport

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative relationships between soil structure, especially macropore characteristics, and soil hydraulic properties are essential to improving our ability to predict flow and transport in structured soils. The objectives of this study were to quantitatively relate macropore characteristics to sat...

  10. 3-D Flow Visualization with a Light-field Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurow, B.

    2012-12-01

    Light-field cameras have received attention recently due to their ability to acquire photographs that can be computationally refocused after they have been acquired. In this work, we describe the development of a light-field camera system for 3D visualization of turbulent flows. The camera developed in our lab, also known as a plenoptic camera, uses an array of microlenses mounted next to an image sensor to resolve both the position and angle of light rays incident upon the camera. For flow visualization, the flow field is seeded with small particles that follow the fluid's motion and are imaged using the camera and a pulsed light source. The tomographic MART algorithm is then applied to the light-field data in order to reconstruct a 3D volume of the instantaneous particle field. 3D, 3C velocity vectors are then determined from a pair of 3D particle fields using conventional cross-correlation algorithms. As an illustration of the concept, 3D/3C velocity measurements of a turbulent boundary layer produced on the wall of a conventional wind tunnel are presented. Future experiments are planned to use the camera to study the influence of wall permeability on the 3-D structure of the turbulent boundary layer.Schematic illustrating the concept of a plenoptic camera where each pixel represents both the position and angle of light rays entering the camera. This information can be used to computationally refocus an image after it has been acquired. Instantaneous 3D velocity field of a turbulent boundary layer determined using light-field data captured by a plenoptic camera.

  11. Flow Visualization by Elastic Light Scattering in the Boundary Layer of a Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, G. C.; Hillard, Mervin E., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate instantaneous flow visualization of the boundary layer region of a Mach 2.5 supersonic flow over a flat plate that is interacting with an impinging shock wave. Tests were performed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at NASA Langley Research Center. The technique is elastic light scattering using 10-nsec laser pulses at 532 nm. We emphasize that no seed material of any kind, including water (H2O), is purposely added to the flow. The scattered light comes from a residual impurity that normally exists in the flow medium after the air drying process. Thus, the technique described here differs from the traditional vapor-screen method, which is typically accomplished by the addition of extra H2O vapor to the airflow. The flow is visualized with a series of thin two-dimensional light sheets (oriented perpendicular to the streamwise direction) that are located at several positions downstream of the leading edge of the model. This geometry allows the direct observation of the unsteady flow structure in the spanwise dimension of the model and also allows the indirect observation of the boundary layer growth in the streamwise dimension.

  12. Microscale flow visualization of nucleate boiling in small channels: Mechanisms influencing heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Didascalou, T.; Wambsganss, M.W.

    1997-07-01

    This paper describes the use of a new test apparatus employing flow visualization via ultra-high-speed video and microscope optics to study microscale nucleate boiling in a small, rectangular, heated channel. The results presented are for water. Because of confinement effects produced by the channel cross section being of the same nominal size as the individual vapor bubbles nucleating at discrete wall sites, flow regimes and heat transfer mechanisms that occur in small channels are shown to be considerably different than those in large channels. Flow visualization data are presented depicting discrete bubble/bubble and bubble/wall interactions for moderate and high heat flux. Quantitative data are also presented on nucleate bubble growth behavior for a single nucleation site in the form of growth rates, bubble sizes, and frequency of generation in the presence and absence of a thin wall liquid layer. Mechanistic boiling behavior and trends are observed which support the use of this type of research as a powerful means to gain fundamental insights into why, under some conditions, nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients are considerably larger in small channels than in large channels.

  13. Virtual and Experimental Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Spheres Simulating Porous Media Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Athavale, M. M.; Lattime, S. B.; Braun, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    A videotape presentation of flow in a packed bed of spheres is provided. The flow experiment consisted of three principal elements: (1) an oil tunnel 76.2 mm by 76.2 mm in cross section, (2) a packed bed of spheres in regular and irregular arrays, and (3) a flow characterization methodology, either (a) full flow field tracking (FFFT) or (b) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation. The refraction indices of the oil and the test array of spheres were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with aluminum oxide particles. Planar laser light provided a two-dimensional projection of the flow field, and a traverse simulated a three-dimensional image of the entire flow field. Light focusing and reflection rendered the spheres black, permitting visualization of the planar circular interfaces in both the axial and transverse directions. Flows were observed near the wall-sphere interface and within the set of spheres. The CFD model required that a representative section of a packed bed be formed and gridded, enclosing and cutting six spheres so that symmetry conditions could be imposed at all cross-boundaries. Simulations had to be made with the flow direction at right angles to that used in the experiments, however, to take advantage of flow symmetry. Careful attention to detail was required for proper gridding. The flow field was three-dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads, as computed in the representative 'cube' of spheres with face symmetry and conclusively demonstrated experimentally herein. Random packing and bed voids tended to disrupt the laminar flow, creating vortices.

  14. Comparison of MSL RCS Jet Computations With Flow Visualization and Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansen, Craig T.; Novak, Luke A.; Bathel, Brett F.; Ashcraft, Scott W.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical predictions of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) reaction control system (RCS) jets interacting with a Mach 10 hypersonic flow are compared to experimental nitric oxide (NO) planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) data. The steady Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations using the Baldwin-Barth one-equation turbulence model were solved using the OVERFLOW code. The experimental PLIF data used for comparison consists of qualitative two-dimensional visualization images, qualitative reconstructed three-dimensional flow structures, and quantitative two-dimensional distributions of streamwise velocity. Through modeling of the PLIF signal equation, computational flow images (CFI) were produced and directly compared to the qualitative PLIF data. Post processing of the experimental and simulation data enabled the jet trajectory to be extracted for a more quantitative comparison. The two-dimensional velocity fields were reconstructed through interpolation of a series of single-component velocity profiles. Each distribution of single-component velocity was obtained using molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV). After validating the numerical model, the numerical solution was further examined to gain insight into hypersonic jet-in-crossflow interaction. Future NO-PLIF experiments are proposed based on this analysis.

  15. The effect of global visual flow on simulator sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharkey, Thomas J.; Mccauley, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    Simulator-induced sickness is investigated in experiments performed at the NASA Ames Army Crew Station Research Facility using the fixed-base helmet-mounted-display flight simulator described by Lypaczewski et al. (1986). The focus of the tests was on the possible roles of (1) global visual flow, as defined by Warren et al. (1982), and (2) maneuvering intensity (in the conflict hypothesis of Reason and Brand, 1975). The results, based on subjective evaluations, physiological measurements, and physical tests on 19 Army helicopter pilots performing a 40-min river-valley following task, are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussed. The data are found to be in agreement with (1) and inconsistent with (2), indicating more sickness at lower altitude instead of with increased maneuvering. Shorter simulator sessions and postponement of low-altitude work until later in the training period are recommended.

  16. Visualizing mechanical stress and liquid flow during laser lithotripsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinten, Ilja; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; van der Veen, Albert; Klaessens, John

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of action of the holmium laser lithotripsy is attributed to explosive expanding and imploding vapor bubbles in association with high-speed water jets creating high mechanical stress and cracking the stone surface. A good understanding of this mechanism will contribute to the improvement and the safety of clinical treatments. A new method has been developed to visualize the dynamics of mechanical effects and fluid flow induced by Holmium laser pulses around the fiber tip and the stone surface. The fiber tip was positioned near the surface of a stone on a slab of polyacrylamide gel submerged in water. The effects were captured with high speed imaging at 2000-10000 f/s. The dynamics of the pressure wave after the pulse could be visualized by observing the optical deformation of a fine line pattern in the background of the water container using digital subtraction software. This imaging technique provides a good understanding of the mechanical effects contributing to the effectiveness and safety of lithotripsy and can be used to study the optimal fiber shape and position towards the stone surface.

  17. Visual guidance based on optic flow: a biorobotic approach.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses some basic questions as to how vision links up with action and serves to guide locomotion in both biological and artificial creatures. The thorough knowledge gained during the past five decades on insects' sensory-motor abilities and the neuronal substrates involved has provided us with a rich source of inspiration for designing tomorrow's self-guided vehicles and micro-vehicles, which will be able to cope with unforeseen events on the ground, under water, in the air, in space, on other planets, and inside the human body. Insects can teach us some useful tricks for designing agile autonomous robots. Since constructing a "biorobot" first requires exactly formulating the biological principles presumably involved, it gives us a unique opportunity of checking the soundness and robustness of these principles by bringing them face to face with the real physical world. "Biorobotics" therefore goes one step beyond computer simulation. It leads to experimenting with real physical robots which have to pass the stringent test of the real world. Biorobotics provide us with a new tool, which can help neurobiologists and neuroethologists to identify and investigate worthwhile issues in the field of sensory-motor control. Here we describe some of the visually guided terrestrial and aerial robots we have developed since 1985 on the basis of our biological findings. All these robots behave in response to the optic flow, i.e., they work by measuring the slip speed of the retinal image. Optic flow is sensed on-board by miniature electro-optical velocity sensors. The very principle of these sensors was based on studies in which we recorded the responses of single identified neurons to single photoreceptor stimulation in a model visual system: the fly's compound eye. PMID:15477039

  18. MICROFLUIDIC DEVICES FOR LABEL-FREE AND NON-INSTRUMENTED QUANTITATION OF UNAMPLIFIED NUCLEIC ACIDS BY FLOW DISTANCE MEASUREMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Debolina; Mansfield, Danielle S.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2014-01-01

    Timely biomarker quantitation has potential to improve human health but current methods have disadvantages either in terms of cost and complexity for benchtop instruments, or reduced performance in quantitation and/or multiplexing for point-of-care systems. We previously developed microfluidic devices wherein visually observed flow distances correlated with a model analyte’s concentration.1 Here, we significantly expand over this prior result to demonstrate the measurement of unamplified DNA analogues of microRNAs (miRNAs), biomarkers whose levels can be altered in disease states. We have developed a method for covalently attaching nucleic acid receptors on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannel surfaces by silane and cross-linker treatments. We found a flow distance dependence on target concentrations from 10 μg/mL to 10 pg/mL for DNA in both buffer and synthetic urine. Moreover, flow time in addition to flow distance is correlated with target concentration. We also observed longer flow distances for single-base mismatches compared to the target sequence at the same concentration, indicating that our approach can be used to detect point mutations. Finally, experiments with DNA analogues of miRNA biomarkers for kidney disease (mir-200c-3p) and prostate cancer (mir-107) in synthetic urine showed the ability to detect these analytes near clinically relevant levels. Our results demonstrate that these novel microfluidic assays offer a simple route to sensitive, amplification-free nucleic acid quantitation, with strong potential for point-of-care application. PMID:25530814

  19. Experimental characterization of wingtip vortices in the near field using smoke flow visualizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Aguilera, J. J.; García-Ortiz, J. Hermenegildo; Gallardo-Claros, A.; Parras, L.; del Pino, C.

    2016-08-01

    In order to predict the axial development of the wingtip vortices strength, an accurate theoretical model is required. Several experimental techniques have been used to that end, e.g. PIV or hot-wire anemometry, but they imply a significant cost and effort. For this reason, we have performed experiments using the smoke-wire technique to visualize smoke streaks in six planes perpendicular to the main stream flow direction. Using this visualization technique, we obtained quantitative information regarding the vortex velocity field by means of Batchelor's model for two chord-based Reynolds numbers, Re_c=3.33× 10^4 and 10^5. Therefore, this theoretical vortex model has been introduced in the integration of ordinary differential equations which describe the temporal evolution of streak lines as function of two parameters: the swirl number, S, and the virtual axial origin, overline{z_0}. We have applied two different procedures to minimize the distance between experimental and theoretical flow patterns: individual curve fitting at six different control planes in the streamwise direction and the global curve fitting which corresponds to all the control planes simultaneously. Both sets of results have been compared with those provided by del Pino et al. (Phys Fluids 23(013):602, 2011b. doi: 10.1063/1.3537791), finding good agreement. Finally, we have observed a weak influence of the Reynolds number on the values S and overline{z_0} at low-to-moderate Re_c. This experimental technique is proposed as a low cost alternative to characterize wingtip vortices based on flow visualizations.

  20. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information; Envisioning Information; Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative (by Edward R. Tufte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Harold H.

    1999-02-01

    The Visual Display of Quantitative Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1983. 195 pp. ISBN 0-961-39210-X. 40.00. Envisioning Information Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1990. 126 pp. ISBN 0-961-39211-8. 48.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative Edward R. Tufte. Graphics Press: Cheshire, CT, 1997. 156 pp. ISBN 0-9613921-2-6. $45.00. Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative is the most recent of three books by Edward R. Tufte about the expression of information through graphs, charts, maps, and images. The most important of all the practical advice in these books is found on the first page of the first book, The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. Quantitative graphics should:

    Show the data Induce the viewer to think about the substance rather than the graphical design Avoid distorting what the data have to say Present many numbers in a small space Make large data sets coherent Encourage the eye to compare data Reveal the data at several levels of detail Serve a clear purpose: description, exploration, tabulation, or decoration Be closely integrated with the statistical and verbal descriptions of a data set
    Tufte illustrates these principles through all three books, going to extremes in the care with which he presents examples, both good and bad. He has designed the books so that the reader almost never has to turn a page to see the image, graph, or table that is being described in the text. The books are set in Monotype Bembo, a lead typeface designed so that smaller sizes open the surrounding white space, producing a pleasing balance. Some of the colored pages were put through more than 20 printing steps in order to render the subtle shadings required. The books are printed on heavy paper stock, and the fact that contributing artists, the typeface, the printing company, and the bindery are all credited on one of the back flyleaves is one

  1. Space shuttle orbiter flow visualization study. [water tunnel study of vortex flow during atmospheric entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The vortex flows generated at subsonic speed during the final portion of atmospheric reentry were defined using a 0.01 scale model of the orbiter in a diagnostic water tunnel. Flow visualization photographs were obtained over an angle-of-attack range to 40 deg and sideslip angles up to 10 deg. The vortex flow field development, vortex path, and vortex breakdown characteristics were determined as a function of angle-of-attack at zero sideslip. Vortex flows were found to develop on the highly swept glove, on the wing, and on the upper surface of the fuselage. No significant asymmetries were observed at zero sideslip in the water tunnel tests. The sensitivity of the upper surface vortex flow fields to variations in sideslip angle was also studied. The vortex formed on the glove remained very stable in position above the wing up through the 10 deg of sideslip tested. There was a change in the vortex lifts under sideslip due to effective change in leading-edge sweep angles. Asymmetric flow separation occurred on the upper surface of the fuselage at small sideslip angles. The influence of vortex flow fields in sideslip on the lateral/ directional characteristics of the orbiter is discussed.

  2. Pseudo Dynamic Visualization of Boiling Two-phase Flow under Oscillatory Flow Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umekawa, H.; Ami, T.; Fujiyoshi, S.; Saito, Y.

    Although the flow oscillation strongly affects the characteristic of the critical heat flux, the detailed feature of these phenomena had not been fully understood, so far. One of the reasons of the lack of the reports is owing to the characteristics of the flow oscillation, i.e. the flow oscillation is strongly influenced by the operating condition. This means the oscillatory condition changes by the heating condition, thus general discussion becomes difficult. In this series of investigations, the critical heat flux (CHF) was investigated under artificial flow oscillation generated by a mechanical flow oscillator. By using these means, the influence of the flow oscillation was systematically obtained, and several results and model were presented. In this investigation, the similar experimental investigation was conducted to estimate the dynamic movement of the void fraction. In the visualization procedure, 0.03 second exposure image which synchronized with the flow oscillator was taken, and by using the ensemble averaging of 34 images, the image which had enough dynamic range could be reconstructed.

  3. Preliminary design of an intermittent smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, D. T.; Brandt, S. B.; Myatt, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    A prototype intermittent smoke flow visualization system for studying the flowfield of an aircraft in flight has been constructed and demonstrated. It provides discrete pulses of dense white smoke suitable for video imaging to determine the unsteady vortex core trajectory of fluid elements in a high angle-of-attack flowfield. Two methods of pulsing the smoke were initially investigated: (1) periodically diverting the smoke between two exit ports and (2) completely blocking the smoke flow for short times. System dynamics have been modeled mathematically, data have been collected in a wind tunnel with blockage times up to 80 milliseconds, and the prototype is currently being flown on a general aviation airplane to collect three-dimensional video data. Three different plenum chamber sizes are available. Data collected so far are consistent and repeatable, though care must be taken to provide adequate contrast levels for accurate video resolution. Camera frame rates of at least 180 frames/second and wide angle lenses for the video cameras are needed to acquire meaningful vortex core velocities and accelerations for the general aviation test aircraft installation.

  4. Wind Tunnel Visualization of the Flow Over a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Crowder, James P.; Schmitz, Fredric H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. This investigation used both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, leading edge extensions (LEXs), and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20deg to 45deg and over a sideslip range from -10deg to 10deg. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings. Additionally, the vortical flow is clearly visible over the leading-edge extensions, canopy, and wings.

  5. Quantitative and visual analysis of white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xuwei; Zhuang, Qi; Cao, Ning; Zhang, Jun

    2009-02-01

    A new fiber tract-oriented quantitative and visual analysis scheme using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is developed to study the regional micro structural white matter changes along major fiber bundles which may not be effectively revealed by existing methods due to the curved spatial nature of neuronal paths. Our technique is based on DTI tractography and geodesic path mapping, which establishes correspondences to allow cross-subject evaluation of diffusion properties by parameterizing the fiber pathways as a function of geodesic distance. A novel isonodes visualization scheme is proposed to render regional statistical features along the fiber pathways. Assessment of the technique reveals specific anatomical locations along the genu of the corpus callosum paths with significant diffusion property changes in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment subjects. The experimental results show that this approach is promising and may provide a sensitive technique to study the integrity of neuronal connectivity in human brain.

  6. [Quantitative evaluation of visual gnosis in children with focal brain lesions].

    PubMed

    Pencheva, S; Zaprianova, L

    1983-01-01

    Bearing in mind the opinion of many authors on a great plasticity and interchangeability of the brain cortical functional systems in children the authors have carried out an experiment with 40 children with focal damages of the brain hemispheres, in 20 of whom the right, and in the other 20 the left hemisphere was affected. Use was made of the method of visual gnosis quantitative assessment in the modification of Pencheva and Mavlov (1975). In the children with the focal damages, more or less marked disturbances of the visual gnosis were revealed, however, no statistically significant relationship between the disturbances and the brain side were disclosed. The agnostic disorders were equally frequent in the children of both groups. PMID:6659781

  7. Visual observation and quantitative measurement of the microwave absorbing effect at X band.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Chen, X; Ong, C K

    2008-12-01

    We have set up a two-dimensional spatial field mapping system to measure graphically the quasi-free-space electromagnetic wave in a parallel plate waveguide. Our apparatus illustrates a potential application in characterizing the microwave absorbing materials. From the measured mappings of the microwave field, the visualization of spatial physical process and quantitative characterization of reflectivity coefficients can be achieved. This simple apparatus has a remarkable advantage over with conventional testing methods which usually involve huge, expensive anechoic chambers and demand samples of large size. PMID:19123583

  8. Highly accurate thermal flow microsensor for continuous and quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wu, Pei-ming; Wu, Zhizhen; Limnuson, Kanokwan; Mehan, Neal; Mozayan, Cameron; Golanov, Eugene V; Ahn, Chong H; Hartings, Jed A; Narayan, Raj K

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) plays a critical role in the exchange of nutrients and metabolites at the capillary level and is tightly regulated to meet the metabolic demands of the brain. After major brain injuries, CBF normally decreases and supporting the injured brain with adequate CBF is a mainstay of therapy after traumatic brain injury. Quantitative and localized measurement of CBF is therefore critically important for evaluation of treatment efficacy and also for understanding of cerebral pathophysiology. We present here an improved thermal flow microsensor and its operation which provides higher accuracy compared to existing devices. The flow microsensor consists of three components, two stacked-up thin film resistive elements serving as composite heater/temperature sensor and one remote resistive element for environmental temperature compensation. It operates in constant-temperature mode (~2 °C above the medium temperature) providing 20 ms temporal resolution. Compared to previous thermal flow microsensor based on self-heating and self-sensing design, the sensor presented provides at least two-fold improvement in accuracy in the range from 0 to 200 ml/100 g/min. This is mainly achieved by using the stacked-up structure, where the heating and sensing are separated to improve the temperature measurement accuracy by minimization of errors introduced by self-heating. PMID:26256480

  9. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference. PMID:26166580

  10. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-01-01

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference. PMID:26166580

  11. Quantitative operando visualization of the energy band depth profile in solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qi; Mao, Lin; Li, Yaowen; Kong, Tao; Wu, Na; Ma, Changqi; Bai, Sai; Jin, Yizheng; Wu, Dan; Lu, Wei; Wang, Bing; Chen, Liwei

    2015-07-01

    The energy band alignment in solar cell devices is critically important because it largely governs elementary photovoltaic processes, such as the generation, separation, transport, recombination and collection of charge carriers. Despite the expenditure of considerable effort, the measurement of energy band depth profiles across multiple layers has been extremely challenging, especially for operando devices. Here we present direct visualization of the surface potential depth profile over the cross-sections of operando organic photovoltaic devices using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The convolution effect due to finite tip size and cantilever beam crosstalk has previously prohibited quantitative interpretation of scanning Kelvin probe microscopy-measured surface potential depth profiles. We develop a bias voltage-compensation method to address this critical problem and obtain quantitatively accurate measurements of the open-circuit voltage, built-in potential and electrode potential difference.

  12. Visualization and Quantification of Fingering Flow Using Light Transmission Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezanezhad, F.; Roth, K.

    2007-12-01

    With the aim of studying the physical process concerning the unstable fingering phenomena in two dimensions, experiments of vertical infiltration through layered sand were carried out in the laboratory using Hele-Shaw cells. We developed a light transmission method to measure the dynamics of water saturation within flow fingers in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The method was calibrated using X-ray absorption. We improved the measured light transmission with correction for scattering effects through deconvolution with a point spread function which allows us to obtain quantitative high spatial resolution measurements. After fingers had fully developed, we added a dye tracer in order to distinguish mobile and immobile water fractions. Fully developed fingers consist of a tip, a core with mobile water, and a hull with immobile water. We analyzed the dynamics of water saturation within the finger tip, along the finger core behind the tip, and within the fringe of the fingers during radial growth. Our results confirm previous findings of saturation overshoot in the finger tips and revealed a saturation minimum behind the tip as a new feature. The finger development was characterized by a gradual increase in water content within the core of the finger behind this minimum and a gradual widening of the fingers to a quasi-stable state which evolves at time scales that are orders of magnitude longer than those of fingers' evolution. In this state, a sharp separation into a core with fast convective flow and a fringe with exceedingly slow flow was detected. All observed phenomena, with the exception of saturation overshoot, could be consistently explained based on the hysteretic behavior of the soil-water characteristic.

  13. Development of Naphthalene PLIF for Making Quantitative Measurements of Ablation Products Transport in Supersonic Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, Christopher; Clemens, Noel

    2014-11-01

    Ablation is a multi-physics process involving heat and mass transfer and codes aiming to predict ablation are in need of experimental data pertaining to the turbulent transport of ablation products for validation. Low-temperature sublimating ablators such as naphthalene can be used to create a limited physics problem and simulate ablation at relatively low temperature conditions. At The University of Texas at Austin, a technique is being developed that uses planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of naphthalene to visualize the transport of ablation products in a supersonic flow. In the current work, naphthalene PLIF will be used to make quantitative measurements of the concentration of ablation products in a Mach 5 turbulent boundary layer. For this technique to be used for quantitative research in supersonic wind tunnel facilities, the fluorescence properties of naphthalene must first be investigated over a wide range of state conditions and excitation wavelengths. The resulting calibration of naphthalene fluorescence will be applied to the PLIF images of ablation from a boundary layer plug, yielding 2-D fields of naphthalene mole fraction. These images may help provide data necessary to validate computational models of ablative thermal protection systems for reentry vehicles. Work supported by NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship Program under grant NNX11AN55H.

  14. RESEARCH PROJECT -- UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS FLOW VISUALIZATION EXPERIMENTS (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, NRMRL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A set of flow visualization experiments were conducted to support work on the development of Version 2.0 of the Hydrocarbon Spill Screening Model (HSSM). The two-dimensional flow visualization experiments indicate how the oil is distributed in the vadose zone and capillary fring...

  15. Measurements and implications of vortex motions using two flow-visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.

    1990-01-01

    The present comparative study of two different, but complementary flow-visualization techniques, which yield different interpretations of vortex-migration distance and lifetime, gives attention to the difficulty of determining vortex evolution and lifetime from flow-visualization measurements. The techniques involved the release of a fluorescent dye and of neutrally buoyant particles in a water-filled towing tank. Vortices are found to migrate farther, and last longer, when visualized with neutrally buoyant particles rather than with dyes.

  16. Flight validation of a pulsed smoke flow visualization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Donald T.; Dorsett, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    A flow visualization scheme, designed to measure vortex fluid dynamics on research aircraft, was validated in flight. Strake vortex trajectories and axial core velocities were determined using pulsed smoke, high-speed video images, and semiautomated image edge detection hardware and software. Smoke was pulsed by using a fast-acting three-way valve. After being redesigned because of repeatedly jamming in flight, the valve shuttle operated flawlessly during the last two tests. A 25-percent scale, Gothic strake was used to generate vortex over the wing of a GA-7 Cougar and was operated at a local angle of attack of 22 degrees and Reynolds number of approximately 7.8 x 10(exp 5)/ft. Maximum axial velocities measured in the vortex core were between 1.75 and 1.95 times the freestream velocity. Analysis of the pulsed smoke system's affect on forebody vortices indicates that the system may reorient the forebody vortex system; however, blowing momentum coefficients normally used will have no appreciable affect on the leading-edge extension vortex system. It is recommended that a similar pulsed smoke system be installed on the F/A-18 High Angle Research Vehicle and that this approach be used to analyze vortex core dynamics during the remainder of its high-angle-of-attack research flights.

  17. Electrophysiological measurement of information flow during visual search

    PubMed Central

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Arita, Jason T.; Ianni, Julianna D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2016-01-01

    The temporal relationship between different stages of cognitive processing is long-debated. This debate is ongoing, primarily because it is often difficult to measure the time course of multiple cognitive processes simultaneously. We employed a manipulation that allowed us to isolate ERP components related to perceptual processing, working memory, and response preparation, and then examined the temporal relationship between these components while observers performed a visual search task. We found that when response speed and accuracy were equally stressed, our index of perceptual processing ended before both the transfer of information into working memory and response preparation began. However, when we stressed speed over accuracy response preparation began before the completion of perceptual processing or transfer of information into working memory on trials with the fastest reaction times. These findings show that individuals can control the flow of information transmission between stages, either waiting for perceptual processing to be completed before preparing a response or configuring these stages to overlap in time. PMID:26669285

  18. Questionnaire-based person trip visualization and its integration to quantitative measurements in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimijiama, S.; Nagai, M.

    2016-06-01

    With telecommunication development in Myanmar, person trip survey is supposed to shift from conversational questionnaire to GPS survey. Integration of both historical questionnaire data to GPS survey and visualizing them are very important to evaluate chronological trip changes with socio-economic and environmental events. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) visualize questionnaire-based person trip data, (b) compare the errors between questionnaire and GPS data sets with respect to sex and age and (c) assess the trip behaviour in time-series. Totally, 345 individual respondents were selected through random stratification to assess person trip using a questionnaire and GPS survey for each. Conversion of trip information such as a destination from the questionnaires was conducted by using GIS. The results show that errors between the two data sets in the number of trips, total trip distance and total trip duration are 25.5%, 33.2% and 37.2%, respectively. The smaller errors are found among working-age females mainly employed with the project-related activities generated by foreign investment. The trip distant was yearly increased. The study concluded that visualization of questionnaire-based person trip data and integrating them to current quantitative measurements are very useful to explore historical trip changes and understand impacts from socio-economic events.

  19. EDITORIAL: The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14 The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization, ISFV14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Chun; Lee, Sang Joon

    2011-06-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Flow Visualization (ISFV14) was held in Daegu, Korea, on 21-24 June 2010. There were 304 participants from 17 countries. The state of the art in many aspects of flow visualization was presented and discussed, and a total of 243 papers from 19 countries were presented. Two special lectures and four invited lectures, 48 paper sessions and one poster session were held in five session rooms and in a lobby over four days. Among the paper sessions, those on 'biological flows', 'micro/nano fluidics', 'PIV/PTV' and 'compressible and sonic flows' received great attention from the participants of ISFV14. Special events included presentations of 'The Asanuma Award' and 'The Leonardo Da Vinci Award' to prominent contributors. Awards for photos and movies were given to three scientists for their excellence in flow visualizations. Sixteen papers were selected by the Scientific Committee of ISFV14. After the standard peer review process of this journal, six papers were finally accepted for publication. We wish to thank the editors of MST for making it possible to publish this special feature from ISFV14. We also thank the authors for their careful and insightful work and cooperation in the preparation of revised papers. It will be our pleasure if readers appreciate the hot topics in flow visualization research as a result of this special feature. We also hope that the progress in flow visualization will create new research fields. The 15th International Symposium on Flow Visualization will be held in Minsk, Belarus in 2012. We would like to express sincere thanks to the staff at IOP Publishing for their kind support.

  20. Query-Driven Network Flow Data Analysis and Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2006-06-14

    This document is the final report for a WFO agreement between LBNL and the National Visualization and Analytics Center at PNNL. The document lists project milestones, their completion date, research results and findings. In brief, the project focuses on testing the hypothesis that the duty cycle in scientific discovery can be reduced by combining visual analytics interfaces, novel visualization techniques and scientific data management technology.

  1. Comparison of Diagnostic Performance Between Visual and Quantitative Assessment of Bone Scintigraphy Results in Patients With Painful Temporomandibular Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bong-Hoi; Yoon, Seok-Ho; Song, Seung-Il; Yoon, Joon-Kee; Lee, Su Jin; An, Young-Sil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This retrospective clinical study was performed to evaluate whether a visual or quantitative method is more valuable for assessing painful temporomandibular disorder (TMD) using bone scintigraphy results. In total, 230 patients (172 women and 58 men) with TMD were enrolled. All patients were questioned about their temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Bone scintigraphic data were acquired in all patients, and images were analyzed by visual and quantitative methods using the TMJ-to-skull uptake ratio. The diagnostic performances of both bone scintigraphic assessment methods for painful TMD were compared. In total, 241 of 460 TMJs (52.4%) were finally diagnosed with painful TMD. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of the visual analysis for diagnosing painful TMD were 62.8%, 59.6%, 58.6%, 63.8%, and 61.1%, respectively. The quantitative assessment showed the ability to diagnose painful TMD with a sensitivity of 58.8% and specificity of 69.3%. The diagnostic ability of the visual analysis for diagnosing painful TMD was not significantly different from that of the quantitative analysis. Visual bone scintigraphic analysis showed a diagnostic utility similar to that of quantitative assessment for the diagnosis of painful TMD. PMID:26765456

  2. Quantitative approach using multiple single parameters versus visual assessment in dobutamine stress echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of myocardial Doppler-derived velocity, strain myocardial imaging parameters (DMI) and speckle tracking imaging (STI) have been proposed for the quantification of myocardial ischemia during stress echocardiography. The purpose of the study was to identify the best single ultrasound quantitative parameter for prediction of significant coronary stenosis and compare it with visual assessment during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Methods Prospective analysis included data of 151 patients (age 61.8 ± 9.2) who underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography for known (n = 35) or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) (n = 36) or symptomatic chest pain (n = 80), excluding patients with previous myocardial infarction. Systolic, post-systolic and diastolic velocities, strain and strain rate parameters were obtained at rest and at peak dobutamine challenge. Derivative markers as E'/A' ratio, post-systolic index and changes from rest to stress were calculated (98 parameters overall, predominantly longitudinal). Coronary angiography was chosen as reference method considering at least one stenosis ≥70% per patient as significant CAD. The predictive value of quantitative parameters and wall motion score index (WMSI) was obtained using logistic regression and ROC analysis. Results The value of single parameters discriminated as independent predictors of CAD appeared to be modest (area under the curve [AUC] ranged from 0.63 to 0.72 for 16 PW-DMI, 12 CC-DMI and 12 STI markers), comparing to AUC of WMSI 0.88. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of visual DSE evaluation was 82.4% (95%CI 77.4%; 85.2%), 92.6% (95%CI 83.4%; 97.5%) and 86.0% (95%CI 79.5%; 89.6%), respectively, Youden index 0.75. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of single predictors ranged from 40.0% to 93.3% (95% CI 22.7%; 99.2%), from 34.2% to 88.7% (95% CI 25.6%; 94.1%) and from 45.8% to 80.0% (95% CI 37.5%; 87.2%) respectively, Youden index ranged from 0.20 to 0

  3. Visualization of heat transfer for impinging swirl flow

    SciTech Connect

    Bakirci, K.; Bilen, K.

    2007-10-15

    The objective of the experimental study was to visualize the temperature distribution and evaluate heat transfer rate on the impingement surface kept at a constant wall temperature boundary condition for the swirling (SIJ), multi-channel (MCIJ) and conventional impinging jet (CIJ) using liquid crystal technique. The swirling jet assembly consisted of a housing tube and a solid swirl generator insert which had four narrow slots machined on its surface. The swirl angle, {theta}, was set as 0 , 22.5 , 41 , 50 to change the direction and strength of the swirl in the air flow exiting the housing tube. The local Nusselt numbers of the MCIJ ({theta} = 0 ) were generally much higher than those of CIJ and SIJs. As the swirl angle increased, the radial uniformity of the heat transfer was seen compared to MCIJ and SIJ; the best results were for {theta} = 50 and the jet-to-surface distance of H/D = 14. The location of the distance of the maximum heat transfer for the swirl angles of {theta} = 41 and 50 was shifted away from the stagnation point in a radial distance of nearly r/D = 2.5. Increasing Reynolds number for same swirler angle increased the heat transfer rate on the entire surface, and increased saddle shape heat transfer distribution on the surface, but had no significant effect on the position of the individual impingement regions, but increased saddle shape heat transfer distribution on the surface. The lower Reynolds number (Re = 10 000) and the highest H/D = 14 gave much more uniform local and average heat transfer distribution on the surface, but decreased their values on the entire surface. (author)

  4. A visual study of radial inward choked flow of liquid nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Hsu, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A visual study of the radial inward choked flow of liquid nitrogen was conducted. Data and high speed moving pictures were obtained. The study indicated the following: (1) steady radial inward choked flow seems equivalent to steady choked flow through axisymmetric nozzles, (2) transient choked flows through the radial gap are not uniform and the discharge pattern appears as nonuniform impinging jets, and (3) the critical mass flow rate data for the transient case appear different from those of the steady case.

  5. VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM FOR CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS AND FLOW VISUALIZATION IN BUILDING WAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A video image analysis technique for concentration measurements and flow visualization was developed for the study of diffusion in building wakes and other wind tunnel flows. moke injected into the flow was photographed from above with a video camera, and the video signal was dig...

  6. 2D map projections for visualization and quantitative analysis of 3D fluorescence micrographs

    PubMed Central

    Sendra, G. Hernán; Hoerth, Christian H.; Wunder, Christian; Lorenz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We introduce Map3-2D, a freely available software to accurately project up to five-dimensional (5D) fluorescence microscopy image data onto full-content 2D maps. Similar to the Earth’s projection onto cartographic maps, Map3-2D unfolds surface information from a stack of images onto a single, structurally connected map. We demonstrate its applicability for visualization and quantitative analyses of spherical and uneven surfaces in fixed and dynamic live samples by using mammalian and yeast cells, and giant unilamellar vesicles. Map3-2D software is available at http://www.zmbh.uni-heidelberg.de//Central_Services/Imaging_Facility/Map3-2D.html. PMID:26208256

  7. Quantitative visualization of DNA G-quadruplex structures in human cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biffi, Giulia; Tannahill, David; McCafferty, John; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2013-03-01

    Four-stranded G-quadruplex nucleic acid structures are of great interest as their high thermodynamic stability under near-physiological conditions suggests that they could form in cells. Here we report the generation and application of an engineered, structure-specific antibody employed to quantitatively visualize DNA G-quadruplex structures in human cells. We show explicitly that G-quadruplex formation in DNA is modulated during cell-cycle progression and that endogenous G-quadruplex DNA structures can be stabilized by a small-molecule ligand. Together these findings provide substantive evidence for the formation of G-quadruplex structures in the genome of mammalian cells and corroborate the application of stabilizing ligands in a cellular context to target G-quadruplexes and intervene with their function.

  8. Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yali; Morrison, John C.; Tokayer, Jason; Tan, Ou; Lombardi, Lorinna; Baumann, Bernhard; Lu, Chen D.; Choi, WooJhon; Fujimoto, James G.; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    Optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow may be associated with glaucoma development. A reliable method to quantify ONH blood flow could provide insight into the vascular component of glaucoma pathophysiology. Using ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), we developed a new 3D angiography algorithm called split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) for imaging ONH microcirculation. In this study, a method to quantify SSADA results was developed and used to detect ONH perfusion changes in early glaucoma. En face maximum projection was used to obtain 2D disc angiograms, from which the average decorrelation values (flow index) and the percentage area occupied by vessels (vessel density) were computed from the optic disc and a selected region within it. Preperimetric glaucoma patients had significant reductions of ONH perfusion compared to normals. This pilot study indicates OCT angiography can detect the abnormalities of ONH perfusion and has the potential to reveal the ONH blood flow mechanism related to glaucoma. PMID:23243564

  9. Application of neutron radiography to visualization of cryogenic fluid boiling two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Asano, Hitoshi; Fujii, Terushige; Ushiro, Toshihiko; Iwatani, Junji; Murata, Yutaka; Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Taguchi, Akira; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Tsuruno, Akira

    1996-02-01

    Liquid nitrogen boiling two-phase flows in a metallic container and in a heat exchanger were visualized by real-time thermal neutron radiography at JRR-3M at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and image processed by the Musashi dynamic image processing system. Boiling phenomena in a pool and boiling two-phase flow in an aluminum plate fin type heat exchanger were visualized. It was shown that neutron radiography was applicable to visualization of cryogenic boiling two-phase flow and the designs of cryogenic heat exchangers.

  10. Development of Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) for a Quantitative Characterization of Microbial Mass in Flow Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saripalli, Prasad; Brown, Christopher F.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2005-03-16

    We report on a new Cellular Absorptive Tracers (CATs) method, for a simple, non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results show that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass results in its retardation during flow, which is a good, quantitative measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. No such methods are currently available for a quantitative characterization of cell mass.

  11. Flow classification using machine learning on sparsely sampled experimental flow visualization data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhe; Brunton, Steven L.; Brunton, Bingni W.; Kutz, J. Nathan; Kaiser, Eurika; Spohn, Andreas; Noack, Bernd R.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we consider a data-driven approach for characterizing the transitional separation bubble using video images and dimensionality reduction with supervised classification techniques to discriminate between an actuated and an unactuated flow. Flow visualizations are captured using the hydrogen bubble technique along a smooth ramp in a low-speed water tunnel, and instabilities are excited in the actuated case by oscillating a thin horizontal wire inside the boundary layer upstream of the separation. We apply clustering techniques, including the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in a POD/PCA reduced subspace, to classify the baseline and controlled cases of the flow field from image data. With sparse subsampled pixel measurements, similar classification performance is obtained compared to that of the full-resolution images. Next, we demonstrate a sparse sensor optimization algorithm to locate a small set of pixels that optimally inform the classification task. With 5-10 specially selected sensors, the median cross-validated classification accuracy is >= 97 % , as opposed to a random set of 5-10 pixels, which result in classification accuracy of 70-80%. The methods developed here apply broadly to high-dimensional data from fluid dynamics experiments. SLB and ZB acknowledge generous support from the Department of Energy (DOE DE-EE0006785). EK, AS, and BRN acknowledge additional support by the ANR SepaCoDe (ANR-11-BS09-018) and ANR TUCOROM (ANR-10-CEXC-0015).

  12. Quantitative FRET Imaging to Visualize the Invasiveness of Live Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoying; Wang, Yi; Huang, He; Pan, Yijia; Chaney, Eric J.; Boppart, Stephen A.; Ozer, Howard; Strongin, Alex Y.; Wang, Yingxiao

    2013-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) remodel tumor microenvironment and promote cancer metastasis. Among the MMP family proteases, the proteolytic activity of the pro-tumorigenic and pro-metastatic membrane-type 1 (MT1)-MMP constitutes a promising and targetable biomarker of aggressive cancer tumors. In this study, we systematically developed and characterized several highly sensitive and specific biosensors based on fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET), for visualizing MT1-MMP activity in live cells. The sensitivity of the AHLR-MT1-MMP biosensor was the highest and five times that of a reported version. Hence, the AHLR biosensor was employed to quantitatively profile the MT1-MMP activity in multiple breast cancer cell lines, and to visualize the spatiotemporal MT1-MMP activity simultaneously with the underlying collagen matrix at the single cell level. We detected a significantly higher level of MT1-MMP activity in invasive cancer cells than those in benign or non-invasive cells. Our results further show that the high MT1-MMP activity was stimulated by the adhesion of invasive cancer cells onto the extracellular matrix, which is precisely correlated with the cell’s ability to degrade the collagen matrix. Thus, we systematically optimized a FRET-based biosensor, which provides a powerful tool to detect the pro-invasive MT1-MMP activity at single cell levels. This readout can be applied to profile the invasiveness of single cells from clinical samples, and to serve as an indicator for screening anti-cancer inhibitors. PMID:23516511

  13. Enzyme-Based Test Strips for Visual or Photographic Detection and Quantitation of Gaseous Sulfur Mustard.

    PubMed

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Stepan, Martin; Vymazalova, Kamila; Gruber, Michael A; Duerkop, Axel; Damborsky, Jiri; Prokop, Zbynek; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur mustard is a chemical agent of high military and terroristic significance. No effective antidote exists, and sulfur mustard can be fairly easily produced in large quantity. Rapid field testing of sulfur mustard is highly desirable. Existing analytical devices for its detection are available but can suffer from low selectivity, laborious sample preparation, and/or the need for complex instrumentation. We describe a new kind of test strip for rapid detection of gaseous sulfur mustard that is based on its degradation by the enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase that is accompanied by a change of local pH. This change can be detected using pH indicators contained in the strips whose color changes from blue-green to yellow within 10 min. In addition to visual read-out, we also demonstrate quantitative reflectometric readout by using a conventional digital camera based on red-green-blue data acquisition. Organic haloalkanes, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, have a negligible interfering effect. The visual limit of detection is 20 μg/L, and the one for red-green-blue read-out is as low as 3 μg/L. The assays have good reproducibility ±6% and ±2% for interday assays and intraday assays, respectively. The strips can be stored for at least 6 months without loss of function. They are disposable and can be produced fairly rapidly and at low costs. Hence, they represent a promising tool for in-field detection of sulfur mustard. PMID:27118397

  14. Investigation of Flow Separation in a Transonic-fan Linear Cascade Using Visualization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan; Chima, Rodrick V.; Jett, Thomas A.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study into the nature of the separated flows on the suction side of modem transonic fan airfoils at high incidence is described in the paper. Suction surface.flow separation is an important flow characteristic that may significantly contribute to stall flutter in transonic fans. Flutter in axial turbomachines is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high cycle fatigue blade failure. The study basically focused on two visualization techniques: surface flow visualization using dye oils, and schlieren (and shadowgraph) flow visualization. The following key observations were made during the study. For subsonic inlet flow, the flow on the suction side of the blade is separated over a large portion of the blade, and the separated area increases with increasing inlet Mach number. For the supersonic inlet flow condition, the flow is attached from the leading edge up to the point where a bow shock from the upper neighboring blade hits the blade surface. Low cascade solidity, for the subsonic inlet flow, results in an increased area of separated flow. For supersonic flow conditions, a low solidity results in an improvement in flow over the suction surface. Finally, computational results modeling the transonic cascade flowfield illustrate our ability to simulate these flows numerically.

  15. Quantitative flow analysis of swimming dynamics with coherent Lagrangian vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, F.; van Rees, W. M.; Gazzola, M.; Rossinelli, D.; Haller, G.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2015-08-01

    Undulatory swimmers flex their bodies to displace water, and in turn, the flow feeds back into the dynamics of the swimmer. At moderate Reynolds number, the resulting flow structures are characterized by unsteady separation and alternating vortices in the wake. We use the flow field from simulations of a two-dimensional, incompressible viscous flow of an undulatory, self-propelled swimmer and detect the coherent Lagrangian vortices in the wake to dissect the driving momentum transfer mechanisms. The detected material vortex boundary encloses a Lagrangian control volume that serves to track back the vortex fluid and record its circulation and momentum history. We consider two swimming modes: the C-start escape and steady anguilliform swimming. The backward advection of the coherent Lagrangian vortices elucidates the geometry of the vorticity field and allows for monitoring the gain and decay of circulation and momentum transfer in the flow field. For steady swimming, momentum oscillations of the fish can largely be attributed to the momentum exchange with the vortex fluid. For the C-start, an additionally defined jet fluid region turns out to balance the high momentum change of the fish during the rapid start.

  16. Intraoperative laser speckle contrast imaging with retrospective motion correction for quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Lisa M.; Towle, Erica L.; Fox, Douglas J.; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Although multiple intraoperative cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring techniques are currently available, a quantitative method that allows for continuous monitoring and that can be easily integrated into the surgical workflow is still needed. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is an optical imaging technique with a high spatiotemporal resolution that has been recently demonstrated as feasible and effective for intraoperative monitoring of CBF during neurosurgical procedures. This study demonstrates the impact of retrospective motion correction on the quantitative analysis of intraoperatively acquired LSCI images. LSCI images were acquired through a surgical microscope during brain tumor resection procedures from 10 patients under baseline conditions and after a cortical stimulation in three of those patients. The patient’s electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded during acquisition for postprocess correction of pulsatile artifacts. Automatic image registration was retrospectively performed to correct for tissue motion artifacts, and the performance of rigid and nonrigid transformations was compared. In baseline cases, the original images had 25%±27% noise across 16 regions of interest (ROIs). ECG filtering moderately reduced the noise to 20%±21%, while image registration resulted in a further noise reduction of 15%±4%. Combined ECG filtering and image registration significantly reduced the noise to 6.2%±2.6% (p<0.05). Using the combined motion correction, accuracy and sensitivity to small changes in CBF were improved in cortical stimulation cases. There was also excellent agreement between rigid and nonrigid registration methods (15/16 ROIs with <3% difference). Results from this study demonstrate the importance of motion correction for improved visualization of CBF changes in clinical LSCI images. PMID:26157974

  17. Detecting, Visualizing and Quantitating the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in an Amoeba Model System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Soldati, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) comprise a range of reactive and short-lived, oxygen-containing molecules, which are dynamically interconverted or eliminated either catalytically or spontaneously. Due to the short life spans of most ROS and the diversity of their sources and subcellular localizations, a complete picture can be obtained only by careful measurements using a combination of protocols. Here, we present a set of three different protocols using OxyBurst Green (OBG)-coated beads, or dihydroethidium (DHE) and Amplex UltraRed (AUR), to monitor qualitatively and quantitatively various ROS in professional phagocytes such as Dictyostelium. We optimised the beads coating procedures and used OBG-coated beads and live microscopy to dynamically visualize intraphagosomal ROS generation at the single cell level. We identified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli as a potent stimulator for ROS generation in Dictyostelium. In addition, we developed real time, medium-throughput assays using DHE and AUR to quantitatively measure intracellular superoxide and extracellular H2O2 production, respectively. PMID:24300479

  18. Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parke, F. I.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.

  19. Comparison of visualized turbine endwall secondary flows and measured heat transfer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1983-03-01

    Various flow visualization techniques were used to define the secondary flows near the endwall in a large heat transfer data. A comparison of the visualized flow patterns and the measured Stanton number distribution was made for cases where the inlet Reynolds number and exit Mach number were matched. Flows were visualized by using neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, by using smoke from oil soaked cigars, and by a few techniques using permanent marker pen ink dots and synthetic wintergreen oil. Details of the horseshoe vortex and secondary flows can be directly compared with heat transfer distribution. Near the cascade entrance there is an obvious correlation between the two sets of data, but well into the passage the effect of secondary flow is not as obvious.

  20. Comparison of visualized turbine endwall secondary flows and measured heat transfer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Various flow visualization techniques were used to define the seondary flows near the endwall in a large heat transfer data. A comparison of the visualized flow patterns and the measured Stanton number distribution was made for cases where the inlet Reynolds number and exit Mach number were matched. Flows were visualized by using neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, by using smoke from oil soaked cigars, and by a few techniques using permanent marker pen ink dots and synthetic wintergreen oil. Details of the horseshoe vortex and secondary flows can be directly compared with heat transfer distribution. Near the cascade entrance there is an obvious correlation between the two sets of data, but well into the passage the effect of secondary flow is not as obvious. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14435

  1. Comparison of visualized turbine endwall secondary flows and measured heat transfer patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    Various flow visualization techniques were used to define the secondary flows near the endwall in a large heat transfer data. A comparison of the visualized flow patterns and the measured Stanton number distribution was made for cases where the inlet Reynolds number and exit Mach number were matched. Flows were visualized by using neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, by using smoke from oil soaked cigars, and by a few techniques using permanent marker pen ink dots and synthetic wintergreen oil. Details of the horseshoe vortex and secondary flows can be directly compared with heat transfer distribution. Near the cascade entrance there is an obvious correlation between the two sets of data, but well into the passage the effect of secondary flow is not as obvious.

  2. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, Keelan T.; Fridjonsson, Einar O.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Johns, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system.

  3. Quantitative velocity distributions via nuclear magnetic resonance flow metering.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Keelan T; Fridjonsson, Einar O; Stanwix, Paul L; Johns, Michael L

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of Tikhonov regularisation as a data inversion technique to determine the velocity distributions of flowing liquid streams. Regularisation is applied to the signal produced by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) flow measurement system consisting of a pre-polarising permanent magnet located upstream of an Earth's magnetic field NMR detection coil. A simple free induction decay (FID) NMR signal is measured for the flowing stream in what is effectively a 'time-of-flight' measurement. The FID signal is then modelled as a function of fluid velocity and acquisition time, enabling determination of the velocity probability distributions via regularisation. The mean values of these velocity distributions were successfully validated against in-line rotameters. The ability to quantify multi-modal velocity distributions was also demonstrated using a two-pipe system. PMID:27343484

  4. Quantitative framework for preferential flow initiation and partitioning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.

    2016-01-01

    A model for preferential flow in macropores is based on the short-range spatial distribution of soil matrix infiltrability. It uses elementary areas at two different scales. One is the traditional representative elementary area (REA), which includes a sufficient heterogeneity to typify larger areas, as for measuring field-scale infiltrability. The other, called an elementary matrix area (EMA), is smaller, but large enough to represent the local infiltrability of soil matrix material, between macropores. When water is applied to the land surface, each EMA absorbs water up to the rate of its matrix infiltrability. Excess water flows into a macropore, becoming preferential flow. The land surface then can be represented by a mesoscale (EMA-scale) distribution of matrix infiltrabilities. Total preferential flow at a given depth is the sum of contributions from all EMAs. Applying the model, one case study with multi-year field measurements of both preferential and diffuse fluxes at a specific depth was used to obtain parameter values by inverse calculation. The results quantify the preferential–diffuse partition of flow from individual storms that differed in rainfall amount, intensity, antecedent soil water, and other factors. Another case study provided measured values of matrix infiltrability to estimate parameter values for comparison and illustrative predictions. These examples give a self-consistent picture from the combination of parameter values, directions of sensitivities, and magnitudes of differences caused by different variables. One major practical use of this model is to calculate the dependence of preferential flow on climate-related factors, such as varying soil wetness and rainfall intensity.

  5. Bumblebees measure optic flow for position and speed control flexibly within the frontal visual field.

    PubMed

    Linander, Nellie; Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily

    2015-04-01

    When flying through narrow spaces, insects control their position by balancing the magnitude of apparent image motion (optic flow) experienced in each eye and their speed by holding this value about a desired set point. Previously, it has been shown that when bumblebees encounter sudden changes in the proximity to nearby surfaces - as indicated by a change in the magnitude of optic flow on each side of the visual field - they adjust their flight speed well before the change, suggesting that they measure optic flow for speed control at low visual angles in the frontal visual field. Here, we investigated the effect that sudden changes in the magnitude of translational optic flow have on both position and speed control in bumblebees if these changes are asymmetrical; that is, if they occur only on one side of the visual field. Our results reveal that the visual region over which bumblebees respond to optic flow cues for flight control is not dictated by a set viewing angle. Instead, bumblebees appear to use the maximum magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the frontal visual field. This strategy ensures that bumblebees use the translational optic flow generated by the nearest obstacles - that is, those with which they have the highest risk of colliding - to control flight. PMID:25657205

  6. Visualization and Quantification of Rotor Tip Vortices in Helicopter Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David L.; Ahmad, Jasim U.; Holst, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an automated approach for effective extraction, visualization, and quantification of vortex core radii from the Navier-Stokes simulations of a UH-60A rotor in forward flight. We adopt a scaled Q-criterion to determine vortex regions and then perform vortex core profiling in these regions to calculate vortex core radii. This method provides an efficient way of visualizing and quantifying the blade tip vortices. Moreover, the vortices radii are displayed graphically in a plane.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Interactivity in Visualization Tools: "Flow" of Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Hai-Ning; Parsons, Paul C.; Wu, Hsien-Chi; Sedig, Kamran

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the design of interactivity in visualization tools. There are several factors that can be used to guide the analysis and design of the interactivity of these tools. One such factor is flow, which is concerned with the duration of interaction with visual representations of information--interaction being the actions performed…

  8. Image-space texture-based output-coherent surface flow visualization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Pan, Zherong; Chen, Guoning; Chen, Wei; Bao, Hujun

    2013-09-01

    Image-space line integral convolution (LIC) is a popular scheme for visualizing surface vector fields due to its simplicity and high efficiency. To avoid inconsistencies or color blur during the user interactions, existing approaches employ surface parameterization or 3D volume texture schemes. However, they often require expensive computation or memory cost, and cannot achieve consistent results in terms of both the granularity and color distribution on different scales. This paper introduces a novel image-space surface flow visualization approach that preserves the coherence during user interactions. To make the noise texture under different viewpoints coherent, we propose to precompute a sequence of mipmap noise textures in a coarse-to-fine manner for consistent transition, and map the textures onto each triangle with randomly assigned and constant texture coordinates. Further, a standard image-space LIC is performed to generate the flow texture. The proposed approach is simple and GPU-friendly, and can be easily combined with various texture-based flow visualization techniques. By leveraging viewpoint-dependent backward tracing and mipmap noise phase, our method can be incorporated with the image-based flow visualization (IBFV) technique for coherent visualization of unsteady flows. We demonstrate consistent and highly efficient flow visualization on a variety of data sets. PMID:23846093

  9. Image-Space Texture-Based Output-Coherent Surface Flow Visualization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Pan, Zherong; Chen, Guoning; Chen, Wei; Bao, Hujun

    2013-02-28

    Image-space Line Integral Convolution (LIC) is a popular scheme for visualizing surface vector fields due to its simplicity and high efficiency. To avoid inconsistencies or color blur during the user interactions, existing approaches employ surface parameterization or 3D volume texture schemes. However, they often require expensive computation or memory cost, and cannot achieve consistent results in terms of both the granularity and color distribution on different scales. This paper introduces a novel image-space surface flow visualization approach that preserves the coherence during user interactions. To make the noise texture under different viewpoints coherent, we propose to pre-compute a sequence of mipmap noise textures in a coarse-to-fine manner for consistent transition, and map the textures onto each triangle with randomly assigned and constant texture coordinates. Further, a standard image-space LIC is performed to generate the flow texture. The proposed approach is simple and GPU-friendly, and can be easily combined with various texture-based flow visualization techniques. By leveraging viewpoint-dependent backward tracing and mipmap noise phase, our method can be incorporated with the Image Based Flow Visualization (IBFV) technique for coherent visualization of unsteady flows. We demonstrate consistent and highly efficient flow visualization on a variety of datasets. PMID:23459289

  10. Visualization of Flows in Packed Beds of Twisted Tapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Peloso, D.; Athavale, M. M.; Mullen, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    A videotape presentation of the flow field in a packed bed of 48 twisted tapes which can be simulated by very thin virtual cylinders has been assembled. The indices of refraction of the oil and the Lucite twisted tapes were closely matched, and the flow was seeded with magnesium oxide particles. Planar laser light projected the flow field in two dimensions both along and transverse to the flow axis. The flow field was three dimensional and complex to describe, yet the most prominent finding was flow threads. It appeared that axial flow spiraled along either within the confines of a virtual cylindrical boundary or within the exterior region, between the tangency points, of the virtual cylinders. Random packing and bed voids created vortices and disrupted the laminar flow but minimized the entrance effects. The flow-pressure drops in the packed bed fell below the Ergun model for porous-media flows. Single-twisted-tape results of Smithberg and Landis (1964) were used to guide the analysis. In appendix A the results of several investigators are scaled to the Ergun model. Further investigations including different geometric configurations, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) gridding, and analysis are required.

  11. A New Simple Interferometer for Obtaining Quantitatively Evaluable Flow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, S F

    1953-01-01

    The method described in the present report makes it possible to obtain interferometer records with the aid of any one of the available Schlieren optics by the addition of very simple expedients, which fundamentally need not to be inferior to those obtained by other methods, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, for example. The method is based on the fundamental concept of the phase-contrast process developed by Zernike, but which in principle has been enlarged to such an extent that it practically represents an independent interference method for general applications. Moreover, the method offers the possibility, in case of necessity, of superposing any apparent wedge field on the density field to be gauged. The theory is explained on a purely physical basis and illustrated and proved by experimental data. A number of typical cases are cited and some quantitative results reported.

  12. Molecular Visualization of Conformation-Triggered Flow Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hui; Shirvanyants, David; Beers, Kathryn L.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Rubinstein, Michael; Sheiko, Sergei S.

    2005-06-01

    A new type of flow fingering instability was observed in monolayer-thick polymer films as they spread on a solid substrate. Tracing the movement of individual molecules by atomic force microscopy enabled us to follow the development of the flow instability on the molecular level and to understand the underlying physical mechanism. The fingering instability was observed to be triggered by conformational changes of brushlike macromolecules in response to the pressure gradient driving the flow.

  13. LIF Visualization of a Supersonic Deep-Cavity Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, T.; Ono, D.

    The supersonic flow over a rectangular cavity is known to oscillate at certain predominant frequencies. Such a flow oscillation causes structural fatigue and sound noise. On the other hand, this oscillation is positively used to enhance the mixing in scramjet engine combustors [1]. The success in controlling a cavity-induced flow oscillation depends on a clear understanding of a detailed mechanism behind the oscillation.

  14. Electroencephalography reactivity for prognostication of post-anoxic coma after cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A comparison of quantitative analysis and visual analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Su, Yingying; Jiang, Mengdi; Chen, Weibi; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Yunzhou; Gao, Daiquan

    2016-07-28

    Electroencephalogram reactivity (EEG-R) is a positive predictive factor for assessing outcomes in comatose patients. Most studies assess the prognostic value of EEG-R utilizing visual analysis; however, this method is prone to subjectivity. We sought to categorize EEG-R with a quantitative approach. We retrospectively studied consecutive comatose patients who had an EEG-R recording performed 1-3 days after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or during normothermia after therapeutic hypothermia. EEG-R was assessed via visual analysis and quantitative analysis separately. Clinical outcomes were followed-up at 3-month and dichotomized as recovery of awareness or no recovery of awareness. A total of 96 patients met the inclusion criteria, and 38 (40%) patients recovered awareness at 3-month followed-up. Of 27 patients with EEG-R measured with visual analysis, 22 patients recovered awareness; and of the 69 patients who did not demonstrated EEG-R, 16 patients recovered awareness. The sensitivity and specificity of visually measured EEG-R were 58% and 91%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the quantitative analysis was 0.92 (95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.97), with the best cut-off value of 0.10. EEG-R through quantitative analysis might be a good method in predicting the recovery of awareness in patients with post-anoxic coma after CPR. PMID:27181515

  15. Finite element analysis and computer graphics visualization of flow around pitching and plunging airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.

    1973-01-01

    A general computational method for analyzing unsteady flow around pitching and plunging airfoils was developed. The finite element method was applied in developing an efficient numerical procedure for the solution of equations describing the flow around airfoils. The numerical results were employed in conjunction with computer graphics techniques to produce visualization of the flow. The investigation involved mathematical model studies of flow in two phases: (1) analysis of a potential flow formulation and (2) analysis of an incompressible, unsteady, viscous flow from Navier-Stokes equations.

  16. Visual analysis of the quantitative composition of metagenomic communities: the AmphoraVizu webserver.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Szalkai, Balázs; Grolmusz, Vince

    2015-04-01

    Low-cost DNA sequencing methods have given rise to an enormous development of metagenomics in the past few years. One basic--and difficult--task is the phylogenetic annotation of the metagenomic samples studied. The difficulty comes from the fact that the typical environmental sample contains hundreds of unknown and still uncharacterized microorganisms. There are several possible methods to assign at least partial phylogenetic information to these uncharacterized data. Originally, the 16S ribosomal RNA was used as phylogenetic marker, then genome sequence alignments and similarity measures between the unknown genome and the reference genomes were applied (e.g., in the MEGAN software), and more recently, phylogeny-based methods applying suitable sets of marker genes were suggested (AMPHORA, AMPHORA2, and the webserver implementation AmphoraNet). Here, we present a visual analysis tool that is capable of demonstrating the quantitative relations gained from the output of the AMPHORA2 program or the easy-to-use AmphoraNet webserver. Our web-based tool, the AmphoraVizu webserver, makes the phylogenetic distribution of the metagenomic sample clearly visible by using the native output format of AMPHORA2 or AmphoraNet. The user may set the phylogenetic resolution (i.e., superkingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species) along with the chart type and will receive the distribution data detailed for all relevant marker genes in the sample. For publication quality results, the chart labels can be customized by the user. The visualization webserver is available at the address http://amphoravizu.pitgroup.org. The AmphoraNet webserver is available at http://amphoranet.pitgroup.org. The open-source version of the AmphoraVizu program is available for download at http://pitgroup.org/apps/amphoravizu/AmphoraVizu.pl. PMID:25296554

  17. The directional flow of visual information transfer between pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Chong, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D.

    2012-01-01

    Close behavioural coupling of visual orientation may provide a range of adaptive benefits to social species. In order to investigate the natural properties of gaze-following between pedestrians, we displayed an attractive stimulus in a frequently trafficked corridor within which a hidden camera was placed to detect directed gaze from passers-by. The presence of visual cues towards the stimulus by nearby pedestrians increased the probability of passers-by looking as well. In contrast to cueing paradigms used for laboratory research, however, we found that individuals were more responsive to changes in the visual orientation of those walking in the same direction in front of them (i.e. viewing head direction from behind). In fact, visual attention towards the stimulus diminished when oncoming pedestrians had previously looked. Information was therefore transferred more effectively behind, rather than in front of, gaze cues. Further analyses show that neither crowding nor group interactions were driving these effects, suggesting that, within natural settings gaze-following is strongly mediated by social interaction and facilitates acquisition of environmentally relevant information. PMID:22456331

  18. Visualization study on the static flow field around a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tagawa, Kotaro

    2010-03-01

    Visual experiments based on the smoke wire way were carried out on a small model of Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (SB-VAWT) to invest the relationship between the static flow field characteristics and the rotor azimuth angle. The test rotor had 3 blades with NACA0018 aerofoil. The rotor diameter and blade chord were 0.3m and 0.07m, respectively. Visual photos of the static flow path lines in and around the rotor were obtained at every 5 degrees of the azimuth angle. Further, numerical computations of the static flow filed were also carried out for comparison with the same situation as the visual tests and the static torques at different azimuth angles were calculated. According to the results of visual tests and computations, the dependence of the starting performance on the azimuth angle was discussed. The solidity is an important factor affecting the starting performance of the SB-VAWT.

  19. Visualization study on the static flow field around a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yan; Tagawa, Kotaro

    2009-12-01

    Visual experiments based on the smoke wire way were carried out on a small model of Straight-blade Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (SB-VAWT) to invest the relationship between the static flow field characteristics and the rotor azimuth angle. The test rotor had 3 blades with NACA0018 aerofoil. The rotor diameter and blade chord were 0.3m and 0.07m, respectively. Visual photos of the static flow path lines in and around the rotor were obtained at every 5 degrees of the azimuth angle. Further, numerical computations of the static flow filed were also carried out for comparison with the same situation as the visual tests and the static torques at different azimuth angles were calculated. According to the results of visual tests and computations, the dependence of the starting performance on the azimuth angle was discussed. The solidity is an important factor affecting the starting performance of the SB-VAWT.

  20. Visualization of three-dimensional incompressible flows by quasi-two-dimensional divergence-free projections in arbitrary flow regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfgat, Alexander Yu.

    2016-02-01

    A visualization of three-dimensional incompressible flows by divergence-free quasi-two-dimensional projections of the velocity field onto three coordinate planes is revisited. An alternative and more general way to compute the projections is proposed. The approach is based on the Chorin projection combined with a SIMPLE-like iteration. Compared to the previous methodology based on divergence-free Galerkin-Chebyshev bases, this technique, formulated in general curvilinear coordinates, is applicable to any flow region and allows for faster computations. To illustrate this visualization method, examples in Cartesian and spherical coordinates, as well as post-processing of experimental 3D-PTV data, are presented.

  1. Visualization of three-dimensional incompressible flows by quasi-two-dimensional divergence-free projections in arbitrary flow regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfgat, Alexander Yu.

    2016-08-01

    A visualization of three-dimensional incompressible flows by divergence-free quasi-two-dimensional projections of the velocity field onto three coordinate planes is revisited. An alternative and more general way to compute the projections is proposed. The approach is based on the Chorin projection combined with a SIMPLE-like iteration. Compared to the previous methodology based on divergence-free Galerkin-Chebyshev bases, this technique, formulated in general curvilinear coordinates, is applicable to any flow region and allows for faster computations. To illustrate this visualization method, examples in Cartesian and spherical coordinates, as well as post-processing of experimental 3D-PTV data, are presented.

  2. A quantitative theory for the mean velocity distribution of compressible ramp flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wei-Tao; Wu, Bin; Zou, Hong-Yue; Li, Xin-Liang; Hussain, Fazle; She, Zhen-Su

    2013-11-01

    The flow induced by a compression ramp is of practical importance as a typical flow in the intake of a scramjet engine, yet no quantitative theory is available. This study proposes a quantitative theory for the mean velocity profile (MVP) of the compression ramp flow, based on a multi-layer description of turbulent boundary layers. Application of the theory on the direct numerical simulation (DNS) data shows that the mixing length function in the boundary layer after the reattachment point has a five-layer structure. A formula is given for the streamwise MVP, in very good agreement with the DNS data. Variation of the parameters in the formula with the spatial position is measured and discussed. These results further support the validity of the Structural Ensemble Dynamics approach to a wide class of wall-bounded flows, and a new modeling strategy for engineering computation of complex supersonic flows.

  3. Flow visualization efforts and pilot measurements with a laser-Doppler anemometer in backscatter mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buetefisch, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Activities involving the use flow visualization and laser anemometers are reviewed. In particular, turbulent pipe flow measurements and local velocity determination in a 3 X 3 sq meter wind tunnel are discussed. The calibration of laser anemometer systems using a rotating disk is also addressed.

  4. The quantitative estimation of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Guo, Z. X.; Wang, D.; Qian, H.

    2015-08-01

    There is little historic data about the vulnerability of the damage elements in debris flow disaster in China. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the vulnerability of debris flow quantitatively. This paper was devoted to the research of the vulnerability of brick and concrete building impacted by debris flow which widely existed in affected area. Under two assumptions, several prototype walls of brick and concrete were constructed to simulate the damaged structures in debris flow while the iron spheres were taken as the substitute of debris flow. The failure criterion of brick and concrete building was proposed with referring to the structure standards (brick and concrete) and the damage pattern in debris flow. The quantitatively estimation of vulnerability of brick and concrete building was finally established based on Fuzzy mathematics and the proposed failure criterion. The results show that the maximum impact bending moment is the best fit to be the disaster-causing factor in vulnerability curve and formula. The experiments in this paper is the preliminary research on the vulnerability of the element impacted by debris flow. The method and conclusion will be useful for the quantitative estimation of the vulnerability in debris flow and also can be referred in other types of the vulnerable elements research.

  5. Quantitative local cerebral blood flow measurements with technetium-99m HM-PAO: evaluation using multiple radionuclide digital quantitative autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    We investigated d,1 (/sup 99m/Tc)hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime complex (HM-PAO) as a tracer for quantitative measurement of local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) in a series of awake male rats. LCBF measurements with HM-PAO were compared to those of two other tracers, (/sup 14/C) iodoantipyrine (IAP) and (/sup 201/Tl)diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), using quantitative double and triple tracer digital autoradiography. LCBF values with HM-PAO averaged 64% those of IAP and were generally linearly related. Detailed analysis suggested that the underestimation of LCBF by HM-PAO was related to blood constituent binding and/or rapid conversion to a noncerebrophilic compound, as well as noninstantaneous cerebral trapping, rather than to diffusion limitation.

  6. Visualization of unsteady gas/vapor expansion flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnerr, G. H.; Adam, S.

    1997-09-01

    High speed expansion flows of pure vapors or gas/vapor mixtures are important to many technical applications, e.g. to steam turbines, jet engines, and for safety control of pressurized power plants. The sudden cooling of the fluid flow leads to condensation and nonequilibrium two-phase flow with instabilities and periodic shock formation at mean frequencies of about 1 kHz. Modelling and control of this dynamical problem is not only important with respect to erosion, it also may cause flutter excitation and serious demolition of technical facilities. In numerical simulations, the time dependent 2-D Euler equations coupled to four equations describing the process of homogeneous nucleation and droplet growth are solved by a MUSCL-type finite volume method. The results are compared with experiments carried out in an atmospheric supersonic wind tunnel. By application of this numerical method to internal flows (nozzles) we found different modes of instabilities including bifurcations. At the stability limit a sharp frequency minimum was found for symmetric oscillations in slender nozzles. It separates oscillation modes where the oncoming subsonic flow remains unchanged from the oscillatory state where a shock monotonically moves upstream into the oncoming flow. For different nozzles we detected a new unsymmetric oscillation mode with a complex system of upstream moving oblique shocks. Here the frequency curve shows the typical structure of a bifurcation problem, which is definitely not controlled by viscous effects but by instabilities of the interaction of flow and phase transition process.

  7. Doppler color flow imaging: a new technique for visualization and characterization of the blood flow jet in mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Khandheria, B K; Tajik, A J; Reeder, G S; Callahan, M J; Nishimura, R A; Miller, F A; Seward, J B

    1986-08-01

    We used Doppler color flow imaging, a new noninvasive technique for mapping of intracardiac blood flow, to visualize and characterize the blood flow jet in 42 patients with mitral stenosis. Color flow imaging provides information about the direction of blood flow, its velocity, and the presence of turbulence. Although we found various jet configurations, most frequently the jet was centrally and apically directed and had a "candle flame" appearance (a central blue zone surrounded by hues of yellow and orange). The blood flow jet can be used to guide the positioning of the continuous-wave Doppler beam parallel to the blood flow; thus, the accuracy of the Doppler data can be enhanced. This new technology has promising potential for other clinical applications in cardiology. PMID:3724241

  8. Visually observed mold and moldy odor versus quantitatively measured microbial exposure in homes.

    PubMed

    Reponen, Tiina; Singh, Umesh; Schaffer, Chris; Vesper, Stephen; Johansson, Elisabet; Adhikari, Atin; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Indugula, Reshmi; Ryan, Patrick; Levin, Linda; Lemasters, Grace

    2010-10-15

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children's asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child's age 1 (Year 1). Similar assessment supplemented with air sampling was conducted in Year 7. Samples were analyzed for endotoxin, (1-3)-β-D-glucan, and fungal spores. The Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction assay was used to analyze 36 mold species in dust samples, and the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) was calculated. Homes were categorized based on three criteria: 1) visible mold damage, 2) moldy odor, and 3) ERMI. Even for homes where families had not moved, Year 7 endotoxin and (1-3)-β-d-glucan exposures were significantly higher than those in Year 1 (p<0.001), whereas no difference was seen for ERMI (p=0.78). Microbial concentrations were not consistently associated with visible mold damage categories, but were consistently higher in homes with moldy odor and in homes that had high ERMI. Low correlations between results in air and dust samples indicate different types or durations of potential microbial exposures from dust vs. air. Future analysis will indicate which, if any, of the assessment methods is associated with the development of asthma. PMID:20810150

  9. Quantitation and visualization of alkyl deoxynucleosides in the DNA of mammalian cells by monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Adamkiewicz, J.; Eberle, G.; Huh, N.; Nehls, P.; Rajewsky, M.F.

    1985-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) characterized by a high substrate specificity and affinity, in combination with radio- and enzyme-immunoassays, or with immuno-slot-blot techniques, now permit the detection of femtomole to subfemtomole amounts of, e.g., alkyldeoxynucleosides in small samples of DNA isolated from tissues or cultured cells previously exposed to nonradioactive N-nitroso compounds. Furthermore, selected Mab can be used to quantitate by direct immunofluorescence specific alkyldeoxynucleosides in the nuclear DNA of single cells. With this method, the detection limit for the alkylation product O/sup 6/-ethyldeoxyguanosine (O/sup 6/-EtdGuo) is presently of the order of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 3/ O/sup 6/-EtdGuo residues per diploid mammalian genome. Individual cells can thus be monitored for the presence of specific carcinogen-DNA adducts, and with respect to their capacity for enzymatic removal of such modified structures from DNA (as exemplified here by the kinetics of the enzymatic elimination of O/sup 6/-EtdGuo from the DNa of malignant neurogenic rat cell lines). In combination with transmission electron microscopy, Mab also permit direct visualization of specific carcinogen-modified structures in individual DNA molecules. DNA strands of defined nucleotide sequence can thus be analyzed by immuno-electron microscopy for the presence of hot spots of specific structural alterations caused by defined carcinogens/mutagens.

  10. Summary of in-flight flow visualization obtained from the NASA high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Delfrate, John H.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1991-01-01

    A summary of the surface and off-surface flow visualization results obtained in flight on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) is presented, highlighting the extensive 3-D vortical flow on the aircraft at angles of attack up to 50 degs. The emitted fluid technique, as well as tufts and flow cones, were used to document the surface flow. A smoke generator system injected smoke into the vortex cores generated by the forebody and leading edge extensions (LEXs). Documentation was provided by onboard still and video, by air-to-air, and by postflight photography. The surface flow visualization techniques revealed laminar separation bubbles near the forebody apex, lines of separation on the forebody and LEX, and regions of attached and separated flow on the wings and fins. The off-surface flow visualization techniques showed the path of the vortex cores on the forebody and LEX as well as the LEX vortex core breakdown location. An interaction between the forebody and LEX vortices was noted. The flow over the surfaces of the vertical tail was categorized into regions of attached, unsteady, or separated flow using flow tufts.

  11. Visualization of longitudinal vortex flow in an enhanced heat transfer tube

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiao-wei; Yan, Huan; Meng, Ji-an; Li, Zhi-xin

    2007-05-15

    Longitudinal vortex flow was visualized in an enlarged DDIR tube (discrete double inclined ribs on the inner surface). The experiments were conducted in a water tunnel using dye injection. Two kinds of ribs with different widths were investigated. The visualizations showed counter rotating longitudinal vortex pairs formed by the discrete double inclined ribs. The vortex intensity increased with increasing Reynolds numbers while the length over which the vortices were observed along the flow direction decreased with increasing Reynolds numbers for Re = 1000-2000. The vortex intensity and vortex flow length were also strongly affected by the rib dimensions. (author)

  12. Global Skin-Friction Measurements Using Particle Image Surface FLow Visualization and a Luminescent Oil-Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husen, Nicholas; Roozeboom, Nettie; Liu, Tianshu; Sullivan, John P.

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative global skin-friction measurement technique is proposed. An oil-film is doped with a luminescent molecule and thereby made to fluoresce in order to resolve oil-film thickness, and Particle Image Surface Flow Visualization is used to resolve the velocity field of the surface of the oil-film. Skin-friction is then calculated at location x as (x )xh, where x is the displacement of the surface of the oil-film and is the dynamic viscosity of the oil. The data collection procedure and data analysis procedures are explained, and preliminary experimental skin-friction results for flow over the wing of the CRM are presented.

  13. Diode-laser-based near-resonantly enhanced flow visualization in shock tunnels.

    PubMed

    Hruschka, Robert; O'Byrne, Sean; Kleine, Harald

    2008-08-20

    Two new near-resonantly enhanced flow visualization techniques suitable for hypersonic low-density flows in shock or arc tunnels have been developed using seeded lithium (Li) metal as the refractivity-enhancing species. Two semiconductor lasers, single-longitudinal-mode and multimode, are compared with respect to their suitability as light sources for the technique. Transient wake-flow structures around a cylinder and a model of a planetary entry vehicle are visualized to demonstrate the capabilities of this comparatively inexpensive and simple visualization system. The images show flow features which are undetectable with conventional schlieren, shadowgraph, or interferometry techniques. Furthermore, the effect of density inhomogeneities along the line-of-sight outside the region of interest can be reduced by enhancing the refractivity only in selected parts of the flowfield. PMID:18716640

  14. Intuitive Visualization of Transient Flow: Towards a Full 3D Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Isabel; Schröder, Simon; Seidel, Torsten; König, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Visualization of geoscientific data is a challenging task especially when targeting a non-professional audience. In particular, the graphical presentation of transient vector data can be a significant problem. With STRING Fraunhofer ITWM (Kaiserslautern, Germany) in collaboration with delta h Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH (Witten, Germany) developed a commercial software for intuitive 2D visualization of 3D flow problems. Through the intuitive character of the visualization experts can more easily transport their findings to non-professional audiences. In STRING pathlets moving with the flow provide an intuition of velocity and direction of both steady-state and transient flow fields. The visualization concept is based on the Lagrangian view of the flow which means that the pathlets' movement is along the direction given by pathlines. In order to capture every detail of the flow an advanced method for intelligent, time-dependent seeding of the pathlets is implemented based on ideas of the Finite Pointset Method (FPM) originally conceived at and continuously developed by Fraunhofer ITWM. Furthermore, by the same method pathlets are removed during the visualization to avoid visual cluttering. Additional scalar flow attributes, for example concentration or potential, can either be mapped directly to the pathlets or displayed in the background of the pathlets on the 2D visualization plane. The extensive capabilities of STRING are demonstrated with the help of different applications in groundwater modeling. We will discuss the strengths and current restrictions of STRING which have surfaced during daily use of the software, for example by delta h. Although the software focusses on the graphical presentation of flow data for non-professional audiences its intuitive visualization has also proven useful to experts when investigating details of flow fields. Due to the popular reception of STRING and its limitation to 2D, the need arises for the extension to a full 3D tool

  15. Flow Visualization Study of a 1/48-Scale AFTI/F111 Model to Investigate Horizontal Tail Flow Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjarke, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    During flight testing of the AFTI/F111 aircraft, horizontal tail buffet was observed. Flutter analysis ruled out any aeroelastic instability, so a water-tunnel flow visualization study was conducted to investigate possible flow disturbances on the horizontal tail which might cause buffet. For this study, a 1/48-scale model was used. Four different wing cambers and one horizontal tail setting were tested between 0 and 20 deg angle of attack. These wing cambers corresponded to the following leading training edge deflections: 0/2, 10/10, 10/2, and 0/10. Flow visualization results in the form of still photographs are presented for each of the four wing cambers between 8 and 12 deg angle of attack. In general, the horizontal tail experiences flow disturbances which become more pronounced with angle of attack or wing trailing-edge deflection.

  16. Quantitative tracking of isotope flows in proteomes of microbial communities

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Curt; Hyatt, Philip Douglas; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) has been used to track nutrient flows in microbial communities, but existing protein-based SIP methods capable of quantifying the degree of label incorporation into peptides and proteins have been demonstrated only by targeting usually less than 100 proteins per sample. Our method automatically (i) identifies the sequence of and (ii) quantifies the degree of heavy atom enrichment for thousands of proteins from microbial community proteome samples. These features make our method suitable for comparing isotopic differences between closely related protein sequences, and for detecting labeling patterns in low-abundance proteins or proteins derived from rare community members. The proteomic stable isotope probing (SIP) method was validated using proteome samples of known stable isotope incorporation levels at 0.4%, {approx}50%, and {approx}98%. The method was then used to monitor incorporation of 15N into established and regrowing microbial biofilms. The results indicate organism-specific migration patterns from established into regrowing communities and provides insight into metabolism during biofilm formation. The SIP-proteomics method can be extended to many systems to track fluxes of 13C or 15N in microbial communities.

  17. Quantitative Tracking of Isotope Flows in Proteomes of Microbial Communities*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chongle; Fischer, Curt R.; Hyatt, Doug; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Hettich, Robert L.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2011-01-01

    Stable isotope probing (SIP) has been used to track nutrient flows in microbial communities, but existing protein-based SIP methods capable of quantifying the degree of label incorporation into peptides and proteins have been demonstrated only by targeting usually less than 100 proteins per sample. Our method automatically (i) identifies the sequence of and (ii) quantifies the degree of heavy atom enrichment for thousands of proteins from microbial community proteome samples. These features make our method suitable for comparing isotopic differences between closely related protein sequences, and for detecting labeling patterns in low-abundance proteins or proteins derived from rare community members. The proteomic SIP method was validated using proteome samples of known stable isotope incorporation levels at 0.4%, ∼50%, and ∼98%. The method was then used to monitor incorporation of 15N into established and regrowing microbial biofilms. The results indicate organism-specific migration patterns from established communities into regrowing communities and provide insights into metabolism during biofilm formation. The proteomic SIP method can be extended to many systems to track fluxes of 13C or 15N in microbial communities. PMID:21285414

  18. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles for flow

  19. 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft in Flow Visualization Facility (FVF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This short movie clip shows a plastic 1/48-scale model of an F-18 aircraft inside the 'Water Tunnel' more formally known as the NASA Dryden Flow Visualization Facility. Water is pumped through the tunnel in the direction of normal airflow over the aircraft; then, colored dyes are pumped through tubes with needle valves. The dyes flow back along the airframe and over the airfoils highlighting their aerodynamic characteristics. The aircraft can also be moved through its pitch axis to observe airflow disruptions while simulating actual flight at high angles of attack. The Water Tunnel at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA, became operational in 1983 when Dryden was a Flight Research Facility under the management of the Ames Research Center in Mountain View, CA. As a medium for visualizing fluid flow, water has played a significant role. Its use dates back to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), the Renaissance Italian engineer, architect, painter, and sculptor. In more recent times, water tunnels have assisted the study of complex flows and flow-field interactions on aircraft shapes that generate strong vortex flows. Flow visualization in water tunnels assists in determining the strength of vortices, their location, and possible methods of controlling them. The design of the Dryden Water Tunnel imitated that of the Northrop Corporation's tunnel in Hawthorne, CA. Called the Flow Visualization Facility, the Dryden tunnel was built to assist researchers in understanding the aerodynamics of aircraft configured in such a way that they create strong vortex flows, particularly at high angles of attack. The tunnel provides results that compare well with data from aircraft in actual flight in another fluid-air. Other uses of the tunnel have included study of how such flight hardware as antennas, probes, pylons, parachutes, and experimental fixtures affect airflow. The facility has also been helpful in finding the best locations for emitting smoke from flight vehicles

  20. Development of cellular absorptive tracers (CATs) for a quantitative characterization of microbial mass in flow systems.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Saripalli, Prasad; Meldrum, Deirdre; Lee, Ju Young

    2007-12-01

    A new method was developed for a simple non-destructive characterization of bacterial mass in flow systems. Results of partition and transport experiments showed that adsorption of a CAT molecule into the cellular mass resulted in its retardation during flow, which was a good measure of the biomass quantity and distribution. Three dyes, acridine orange (AO), toluidine blue (TB), and safranin O (SO), were chosen as CATs to demonstrate their utility to quantitatively characterize the biomass, its location and morphology in flow system. The results clearly demonstrated the applicability of AO, TB, and SO as cellular absorptive tracers in columnar flow experiments. PMID:17329099

  1. In-Flight Flow Visualization Results of The F-106B With a Vortex Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Hallissy, James B.; Brown, Philip W.; Lamar, John E.

    2001-01-01

    Surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques were used to visualize the three-dimensional vortex flows on the F-106 aircraft with vortex flaps installed. Results at angles of attack between 9 deg to 18 deg and Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 are presented. A smoke flow vapor screen technique was used to document leading-edge vortex paths and sizes, while an oil flow technique was employed to provide detailed information on reattachment and separation line locations and other flow details. Results were obtained for two vortex flap deflection angles, 30 deg and 40 deg. Flow visualization revealed the existence of a multiple vortex system that had not previously been seen in subscale tests or predicted for this configuration. The vortex flap generated a leading-edge vortex system that reattached near the flap hinge over a wide angle of attack range. In addition to the primary vortex, flow visualization revealed the presence of several distinct vortices which traced a path from the vortex flap and then over the wing.

  2. In-Flight Flow Visualization Results of the F-106B with a Vortex Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Hallissy, James B.; Brown, Philip W.; Lamar, John E.

    2003-01-01

    Surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques were used to visualize the three-dimensional vortex flows on the F-106 aircraft with vortex flaps installed. Results at angles of attack between 9 degrees to 18 degrees and Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 are presented. A smoke flow vapor screen technique was used to document leading-edge vortex paths and sizes, while an oil flow technique was employed to provide detailed information on reattachment and separation line locations and other flow details. Results were obtained for two vortex flap deflection angles, 30 degrees and 40 degrees. Flow visualization revealed the existence of a multiple vortex system that had not previously been seen in subscale tests or predicted for this configuration. The vortex flap generated a leading-edge vortex system that reattached near the flap hinge over a wide angle of attack range. In addition to the primary vortex, flow visualization revealed the presence of several distinct vortices which traced a path from the vortex flap and then over the wing.

  3. Visualization study of the flow in and around a Savonius rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, N.; Gotoh, F.

    1992-04-01

    Flow in and around a Savonius rotor has been studied by flow visualization experiments, and the rotation effect is discussed in comparison with the measured pressure distributions on the blade surfaces. It is observed that the flow separating regions on the blade surfaces are fairly reduced by the rotation effect and the flow through the overlap is weakened by the appearance of resisting flow. The former contributes to the torque production of the rotating rotor while the latter acts as a resistance. These phenomena together with the stagnation effect on the front side of the rotor contribute to the power producing mechanism of the Savonius rotor.

  4. Two-Phase Flow Visualization of Refrigerant Fluid at Expansion Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeo; Saito, Takayuki; Kiwata, Takahiro; Matsumura, Kazuhiko

    Recently, the noise caused by the refrigerant fluid is spotlighted due to the demand of low noise home and office air conditioners. Especially, reduction of refrigerant fluid noise and vibration noise generated from throttle in the expansion valve is becoming important. Therefore in this study it is intended to resolve fluctuating phenomena of fluid, which may be the cause of noise, by flow visualization and measurement of fluid pressure and temperature at throttle valves, focusing on two-phase flow of refrigerant fluid. A test equipment suitable for flow visualization of R410a refrigerant was developed by epoch making design and manufacturing method. Visualization was realized by laser beam irradiated on the visualization equipment and by high-speed video camera. Test conditions are set of combinations of 4 different conditions of compressor revolution and 4 different conditions of valve opening of expansion valve. As results of the following conclusions are drawn. (1)A visualization technique of throttle of expansion valve has been developed by manufacturing visualization equipment, which is most suitable to the test. (2)It has been confirmed that refrigerants is liquid and two-phase condition in the upstream of throttle, where a needle is inserted and that refrigerant fluid flow in two-phase in the downstream of throttle.

  5. Paper electrode integrated lateral flow immunosensor for quantitative analysis of oxidative stress induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuena; Shah, Pratikkumar; Stoff, Susan; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Chen-zhong

    2014-01-01

    A novel device combining electrochemical and colorimetric detection is developed for the rapid measurement of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a DNA oxidative damage biomarker. The device takes advantage of the speed and low cost of the conventional strip test as well as the high reliability and accuracy of electrochemical assay. Competitive immunoreactions were performed on the lateral flow strip, and the captured 8-OHdG on the control line was determined by chronoamperometric measurement with carbon nanotubes paper as the working electrode. At the same time, the color intensity of the test line was measured by a scanner and analyzed by the ImageJ software. The device was able to detect 8-OHdG concentrations in PBS as low as 2.07 ng mL−1 by the colorimetric method and 3.11 ng mL−1 by the electrochemical method. Furthermore, the device was successfully utilized to detect 8-OHdG in urine with a detection limit of 5.76 ng mL−1 (colorimetric method) and 8.85 ng mL−1 (electrochemical method), respectively. In conclusion, the integrated device with dual detections can provide a rapid, visual, quantitative and feasible detection method for 8-OHdG. The integration of these two methods holds two major advantages over tests based on single method. Firstly, it can provide double confidence on the same assay. Secondly, by involving two methods that differ in principle, the integration could potentially avoid false results coming from one method. In addition, these methods do not require expensive equipment or trained personnel, deeming it suitable for use as a simple, economical, portable field kit for on-site monitoring of 8-OHdG in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:24733353

  6. NMR visualization of displacement correlations for flow in porous media.

    PubMed

    Khrapitchev, A A; Stapf, S; Callaghan, P T

    2002-11-01

    The temporal correlations of velocities for both water and a water-glycerol mixture flowing through a random packings of monodisperse spherical particles have been investigated using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance methods. By combining various flow rates, fluid viscosities, and bead sizes, a wide range of flow parameters has been covered, the dimensionless Peclet number ranging from 100 to 100 000. The velocity exchange spectroscopy (VEXSY) technique has been employed to measure the correlation between velocities during two intervals separated from each other by a mixing time tau(m). This time is made both large and small compared with the time constant tau(c), required for a fluid element possessing the average flow velocity to cover a distance equal to the characteristic size in the system, the bead diameter. The two-dimensional conditional probability of displacement resulting from the VEXSY method reveals the existence of different "subensembles" of molecules, including a slow moving pool whose displacement is dominated by Brownian motion, an intermediate ensemble whose velocities change little over the mixing time, and a fast flowing ensemble which loses correlation due to mechanical dispersion. We find that that the approach to asymptotic dispersion, as tau(c)/tau(m) increases, depends strongly on the Peclet number, the deviation of the velocity autocorrelation function from a monoexponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process becoming more pronounced with increasing Peclet number. PMID:12513475

  7. Flow Visualization of Liquid Hydrogen Line Chilldown Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rame, Enrique; Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen John B.

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental measurements of wall and fluid temperature during chill-down tests of a warm cryogenic line with liquid hydrogen. Synchronized video and fluid temperature measurements are used to interpret stream temperature profiles versus time. When cold liquid hydrogen starts to flow into the warm line, a sequence of flow regimes, spanning from all-vapor at the outset to bubbly with continuum liquid at the end can be observed at a location far downstream of the cold inlet. In this paper we propose interpretations to the observed flow regimes and fluid temperature histories for two chilldown methods, viz. trickle (i.e. continuous) flow and pulse flow. Calculations of heat flux from the wall to the fluid versus wall temperature indicate the presence of the transition/nucleate boiling regimes only. The present tests, run at typical Reynolds numbers of approx O(10 (exp 5)), are in sharp contrast to similar tests conducted at lower Reynolds numbers where a well-defined film boiling region is observed.

  8. Flow visualization of four 8 M telescope enclosure designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, Walter A.; Comfort, Charles H., Jr.; Limmongkol, Siriluk; Wong, Woon-Yin; Forbes, Fred F.

    1990-07-01

    The preservation of image quality is one of the most important design criteria for a telescope enclosure. Image quality is adversely affected by the presence of fluctuations of air temperature in the light path. In an ideal telescope enclosure, the air inside the telescope chamber is continually replaced by ambient air before it has the opportunity to be warmed or cooled by the surfaces of the telescope enclosure. In the present study, dye in a water tunnel is used to trace flow around and through four models of 8 m telescope enclosures. The models are constructed of transparent acrylic and are 1:172 scale. Flow attributes are compared for the four enclosure designs under consideration. The enclosure models are oriented at various angles with respect to the flow direction. Additionally, each design contains apertures in the exterior walls which can be opened to improve flushing and other flow characteristics. For the octagonal and rectangular designs, flushing of the telescope chamber through the open vents is good in all orientations. Flushing of the cylindrical concept, which has no vents in its side walls, is poor when the slit is oriented from 60 to 120 deg with respect to the flow direction. Flushing of the hemispherical enclosure is poor at angles larger than 60 deg. With the vents closed, flushing is poor for all designs, especially at angles greater than 60 deg.

  9. Extraction of skin-friction fields from surface flow visualizations as an inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    Extraction of high-resolution skin-friction fields from surface flow visualization images as an inverse problem is discussed from a unified perspective. The surface flow visualizations used in this study are luminescent oil-film visualization and heat-transfer and mass-transfer visualizations with temperature- and pressure-sensitive paints (TSPs and PSPs). The theoretical foundations of these global methods are the thin-oil-film equation and the limiting forms of the energy- and mass-transport equations at a wall, which are projected onto the image plane to provide the relationships between a skin-friction field and the relevant quantities measured by using an imaging system. Since these equations can be re-cast in the same mathematical form as the optical flow equation, they can be solved by using the variational method in the image plane to extract relative or normalized skin-friction fields from images. Furthermore, in terms of instrumentation, essentially the same imaging system for measurements of luminescence can be used in these surface flow visualizations. Examples are given to demonstrate the applications of these methods in global skin-friction diagnostics of complex flows.

  10. Interplay of Natural Organic Matter with Flow Rate and Particle Size on Colloid Transport: Experimentation, Visualization, and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinyao; Zhang, Yimeng; Chen, Fangmin; Yang, Yuesuo

    2015-11-17

    The investigation on factors that affect the impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on colloid transport in complex hydraulic flow systems remains incomplete. Using our previously established approach, the interplay of flow rate and particle size on the NOM effect was quantified, using flow rates of 1 and 2 mL/min and particle sizes of 50 and 200 nm to represent small nanoparticles (1-100 nm) and large non-nano-microspheres (100-1000 nm) in the low-flow groundwater environment. Latex particles, Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), and iron oxide-coated sand were used as model particles, NOM, and the aquifer medium, respectively. The quantitative results show NOM blocked more sites for large particles at a high flow rate: 1 μg of SRHA blocked 5.95 × 10(9) microsphere deposition sites at 2 mL/min but only 7.38 × 10(8) nanoparticle deposition sites at 1 mL/min. The particle size effect dominated over the flow rate, and the overall effect of the two is antagonistic. Granule-scale visualization of the particle packing on the NOM-presented sand surface corroborates the quantification results, revealing a more dispersed status of large particles at a high flow rate. We interpret this phenomenon as a polydispersivity effect resulting from the differential size of the particles and NOM: high flow and a high particle size enlarge the ratio of particle-blocked to NOM-blocked areas and thus the NOM blockage. To our knowledge, this is the first model-assisted quantification on the interplay of NOM, flow rate, and particle size on colloid transport. These findings are significant for nanorisk assessment and nanoremediation practices. PMID:26469806

  11. Advection-Based Sparse Data Management for Visualizing Unsteady Flow.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hanqi; Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Richen; Liu, Lu; Yuan, Xiaoru; Huang, Jian; Meng, Xiangfei; Pan, Jingshan

    2014-12-01

    When computing integral curves and integral surfaces for large-scale unsteady flow fields, a major bottleneck is the widening gap between data access demands and the available bandwidth (both I/O and in-memory). In this work, we explore a novel advection-based scheme to manage flow field data for both efficiency and scalability. The key is to first partition flow field into blocklets (e.g. cells or very fine-grained blocks of cells), and then (pre)fetch and manage blocklets on-demand using a parallel key-value store. The benefits are (1) greatly increasing the scale of local-range analysis (e.g. source-destination queries, streak surface generation) that can fit within any given limit of hardware resources; (2) improving memory and I/O bandwidth-efficiencies as well as the scalability of naive task-parallel particle advection. We demonstrate our method using a prototype system that works on workstation and also in supercomputing environments. Results show significantly reduced I/O overhead compared to accessing raw flow data, and also high scalability on a supercomputer for a variety of applications. PMID:26356969

  12. FLOW VISUALIZATION OF FORCED AND NATURAL CONVECTION IN INTERNAL CAVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project will focus efforts on developing techniques to model fluid flow in spent nuclear fuel canisters. One treatment technique is to inject gases which react with spent fuels into storage canisters, preventing the occurrence of pyrophoric reactions. The primary go...

  13. Flow visualization and relative permeability measurements in rough-walled fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two-phase (gas-liquid) flow experiments were done in a natural rock fracture and transparent replicas of natural fractures. Liquid was injected at constant volume flow rate, and gas was injected at either constant mass flow rate or constant pressure. When gas was injected at constant mass flow rate, the gas inlet pressure, and inlet and outlet capillary pressures, generally did not reach steady state but cycled irregularly. Flow visualization showed that this cycling was due to repeated blocking and unblocking of gas flow paths by liquid. Relative permeabilities calculated from flow rate and pressure data show that the sum of the relative permeabilities of the two phases is much less than 1, indicating that each phase interferes strongly with the flow of the other. Comparison of the relative permeability curves with typical curves for porous media (Corey curves) show that the phase interference is stronger in fractures than in typical porous media.

  14. Surface flow visualization using the thermal wakes of small heated spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelder, K. A.; Moffat, R. J.

    This note describes a surface flow visualization technique which uses the thermal wakes of an array of small heated spots to infer the local flow direction. The thermal wake is made visible using wide band thermochromic liquid crystals. The technique is illustrated using the endwall flow under a horseshoe vortex at the base of a right circular cylinder in a turbulent boundary layer. Comparisons to results generated using the oil of wintergreen technique were in good agreement. In addition to surface flow direction, the technique has the potential to be used to measure the heat transfer coefficient at each spot. Data are presented in terms of photographs of the actual visualization surface. The techniques is suitable for low speed flows.

  15. A synchronous strobed laser light sheet for helicopter model rotor flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leighty, Bradley D.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Franke, John M.

    1990-01-01

    A synchronous, strobed laser light sheet has been developed for use in flow visualization of a helicopter rotor model. The light sheet strobe circuit included selectable blade position, strobe duration, and multiple pulses per revolution for rotors having 2 to 9 blades. The flow was seeded with propylene glycol. Between runs, a calibration grid board was placed in the plane of the laser sheet and recorded with the video camera at the position used to record the flow field. A slip-sync mode permitted slow motion visualization of the flow field over complete rotations of the rotor. The system was used to make two-dimensional flow field cuts of a four-bladed rotor operating at advance ratio of 0.37 at wind tunnel speeds up to 79.25 meters per second (260 feet per second).

  16. Visualizing the internal structure of subaqueous, high-concentration sediment-laden flows: implication of rheology to flow structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perillo, M. M.; Buttles, J.; Mohrig, D. C.; Kane, I.; Pontén, A.; Brown, D.; Minton, B. W.

    2013-12-01

    Subaqueous sediment-laden flows are thought to be the main mechanism transporting sediments to the deep sea. Understanding the processes governing these flows is crucial to building predictive models of flow behaviour, sediment transport and deposition and is applicable to a wide range of disciplines. Physical modelling using a wide range of experimental facilities and measurement techniques has significantly advanced our understanding of these sediment-laden flows and their ability to erode, transport and deposit sediments. However, for the case of high-sediment concentration flows, measuring flow and depositional properties is still a challenge. Here, we present results from an acoustic reflection technique that allows for direct and noninvasive visualization of the internal structure of high concentration, clay-rich, sand-laden flows with a range of initial yield strengths (0-26 Pa). As the acoustic signal travels through the sediment-laden flow, it encounters zones of varying acoustic impedance that are due to temporal and spatial changes in sediment concentration, grain size and sorting, and flow mixing. The reflected signal is processed and interpreted using seismic techniques developed in exploration geophysics. The ultrasonic reflection data captured two distinct flow stages, an active stage and a post-depositional creeping stage. The clay-rich sand-laden flows showed stratification expressed by three clear vertical zones: (a) an upper relatively dilute turbulent zone, (b) a zone with high sediment concentration and significantly reduced mixing and (c) an aggrading bed of static grains.

  17. A Quantitative Comparison of Leading-edge Vortices in Incompressible and Supersonic Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, F. Y.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2002-01-01

    When requiring quantitative data on delta-wing vortices for design purposes, low-speed results have often been extrapolated to configurations intended for supersonic operation. This practice stems from a lack of database owing to difficulties that plague measurement techniques in high-speed flows. In the present paper an attempt is made to examine this practice by comparing quantitative data on the nearwake properties of such vortices in incompressible and supersonic flows. The incompressible flow data are obtained in experiments conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Detailed flow-field properties, including vorticity and turbulence characteristics, obtained by hot-wire and pressure probe surveys are documented. These data are compared, wherever possible, with available data from a past work for a Mach 2.49 flow for the same wing geometry and angles-of-attack. The results indicate that quantitative similarities exist in the distributions of total pressure and swirl velocity. However, the streamwise velocity of the core exhibits different trends. The axial flow characteristics of the vortices in the two regimes are examined, and a candidate theory is discussed.

  18. A simple and useful solution for visualizing the care flow for patients and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Chang, Polun; Kuo, Ming Chuan

    2008-01-01

    It has been known that visualization is a user-preferred and more meaningful interface of information systems. We used the Microsoft Visio 2003 and Excel 2003 with the VBA automation tool to design a process flow of Cardiac Catheterization. The results showed the technical feasibility and potentials of using simple tool to visualize the nursing process for both patients and healthcare professionals. PMID:18998932

  19. Flow Visualization Techniques in Wind Tunnel Tests of a Full-Scale F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanser, Wendy R.; Botha, Gavin J.; James, Kevin D.; Bennett, Mark; Crowder, James P.; Cooper, Don; Olson, Lawrence (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed paper presents flow visualization performed during experiments conducted on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind-Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The purpose of the flow-visualization experiments was to document the forebody and leading edge extension (LEX) vortex interaction along with the wing flow patterns at high angles of attack and low speed high Reynolds number conditions. This investigation used surface pressures in addition to both surface and off-surface flow visualization techniques to examine the flow field on the forebody, canopy, LEXS, and wings. The various techniques used to visualize the flow field were fluorescent tufts, flow cones treated with reflective material, smoke in combination with a laser light sheet, and a video imaging system for three-dimension vortex tracking. The flow visualization experiments were conducted over an angle of attack range from 20 deg to 45 deg and over a sideslip range from -10 deg to 10 deg. The various visualization techniques as well as the pressure distributions were used to understand the flow field structure. The results show regions of attached and separated flow on the forebody, canopy, and wings as well as the vortical flow over the leading-edge extensions. This paper will also present flow visualization comparisons with the F-18 HARV flight vehicle and small-scale oil flows on the F-18.

  20. Fundamental investigation of duct/ESP phenomena: Flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. T.; Sowa, W. A.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1990-11-01

    The objective is to characterize the performance and behavior of twin-fluid atomizers used for in-duct sulfur capture. Such atomizers characteristically produce dense sprays featuring very narrow dispersion angles and high droplet velocities. To meet the objective, several tasks were identified (1) demonstrate the usefulness of phase Doppler interferometry to characterize humidification atomizers, (2) screen several commercially available atomizers to guide in the selection of nozzles used of field testing, and (3) develop a data base useful for computational code development and validation. The approach taken is to characterize the liquid phase produced by practical, full scale, twin-fluid humidification atomizers. Eight such twin-fluid atomizers are considered. Several of these atomizers were used in field tests. Only water sprays are considered. Atomizer responses to changes in air pressure (air flow rate) and water pressure (water flow rate) are examined. Measurements of droplet size and corresponding mean axial velocity are obtained.

  1. Quantitative Assessment of Disinfectant Activity Against Listeria monocytogenes Biofilms Under Flow Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes has a high mortality in humans and is responsible for most food recalls involving bacterial contamination. Our objective was to develop methods to quantitatively assess the pathogen under flow conditions to mimic wet food processing. A reactor was used to grow the bacteria on ...

  2. Temperature and Pressure Measurements and Visualization of He II Cavitation Flow through Venturi Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, T.; Murakami, M.; Harada, K.

    2004-06-23

    He II cavitation flow through a Venturi channel was experimentally investigated through temperature and pressure measurements and optical visualization. So far some distinctive features of cavitation between He II and He I flows were clarified. Then, detailed measurements were added for further investigation, such as the measurements of the temperature drop distribution throughout the flow channel and the void fraction. Further considerations were given on the cavitation inception with emphasis on the superheating of liquid helium, and the effect of the flow separation on cavitation.

  3. Quantitative values of blood flow through the human forearm, hand, and finger as functions of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    A literature search was made to obtain values of human forearm, hand and finger blood flow as functions of environmental temperature. The sources used include both government and laboratory reports and the research presented in the open literature. An attempt was made to review many of the more quantitative noninvasive determinations and to collate the results in such a way as to yield blood flow values for each body segment as continuous functions of temperature. A brief review of the various ways used to measure blood flow is included along with an abstract of each work from which data was taken.

  4. A package for 3-D unstructured grid generation, finite-element flow solution and flow field visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Paresh; Pirzadeh, Shahyar; Loehner, Rainald

    1990-01-01

    A set of computer programs for 3-D unstructured grid generation, fluid flow calculations, and flow field visualization was developed. The grid generation program, called VGRID3D, generates grids over complex configurations using the advancing front method. In this method, the point and element generation is accomplished simultaneously, VPLOT3D is an interactive, menudriven pre- and post-processor graphics program for interpolation and display of unstructured grid data. The flow solver, VFLOW3D, is an Euler equation solver based on an explicit, two-step, Taylor-Galerkin algorithm which uses the Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) concept for a wriggle-free solution. Using these programs, increasingly complex 3-D configurations of interest to aerospace community were gridded including a complete Space Transportation System comprised of the space-shuttle orbitor, the solid-rocket boosters, and the external tank. Flow solutions were obtained on various configurations in subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes.

  5. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Material Flow During Friction Stir Welding of Steel and Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisada, Yoshiaki; Imaizumi, Takuya; Fujii, Hidetoshi; Matsushita, Muneo; Ikeda, Rinsei

    2014-11-01

    Material flow is a key phenomenon to obtain sound joints by friction stir welding (FSW), and it is highly dependent of the welded material. It is well known that the optimal FSW condition depends on the welded material. However, the material flow during FSW has not been totally clarified in spite of many researches. Especially, the material flow of steel during FSW is still unclear. It seems difficult to understand the material flow by the traditional method such as the tracer method or observation of the microstructure in the stir zone. Therefore, in this study, the material flow of steel was three dimensionally visualized by x-ray radiography using two pairs of x-ray transmission real-time imaging systems, and was then compared with the material flow of aluminum. The result revealed the effect of the welded material on the material flow during FSW.

  6. Acetazolamide-induced vasodilation does not inhibit the visually evoked flow response

    PubMed Central

    Yonai, Yaniv; Boms, Neta; Molnar, Sandor; Rosengarten, Bernhard; Bornstein, Natan M; Csiba, Laszlo; Olah, Laszlo

    2010-01-01

    Different methods are used to assess the vasodilator ability of cerebral blood vessels; however, the exact mechanism of cerebral vasodilation, induced by different stimuli, is not entirely known. Our aim was to investigate whether the potent vasodilator agent, acetazolamide (AZ), inhibits the neurovascular coupling, which also requires vasodilation. Therefore, visually evoked flow parameters were examined by transcranial Doppler in ten healthy subjects before and after AZ administration. Pulsatility index and peak systolic flow velocity changes, evoked by visual stimulus, were recorded in the posterior cerebral arteries before and after intravenous administration of 15 mg/kg AZ. Repeated-measures ANOVA did not show significant group main effect between the visually evoked relative flow velocity time courses before and after AZ provocation (P=0.43). Visual stimulation induced significant increase of relative flow velocity and decrease of pulsatility index not only before but also at the maximal effect of AZ. These results suggest that maximal cerebral vasodilation cannot be determined by the clinically accepted dose of AZ (15 mg/kg) and prove that neurovascular coupling remains preserved despite AZ-induced vasodilation. Our observation indicates independent regulation of vasodilation during neurovascular coupling, allowing the adaptation of cerebral blood flow according to neuronal activity even if other processes require significant vasodilation. PMID:19809468

  7. Seminar in Flow Visualization at Lafayette College: Variations on the Hertzberg Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2013-11-01

    Flow visualization reveals an invisible world of fluid dynamics, blending scientific investigation and artistic exploration. The resulting images have inspired, and in some cases themselves become appreciated as, art. At Lafayette College, a sophomore-level seminar in The Art and Science of Flow Visualization exposes students to these techniques and the science of fluid mechanics, and to the photographic methods needed to create effective images that are successful both scientifically and artistically. Unlike other courses in flow visualization, this course assumes no a priori familiarity with fluid flow or with photography. The fundamentals of both are taught and practiced in a studio setting. Students are engaged in an interdisciplinary discourse about fluids and physics, photography, scientific ethics, and historical societal responses to science and art. Relevant texts from several disciplines are read, discussed, and responded to in student writing. This seminar approach makes flow visualization and fluid dynamics a natural part of a liberal education. The development, implementation, and assessment of this team-taught course at Lafayette College will be discussed. Support provided by National Science Foundation.

  8. Adenoid tissue lymphocyte subpopulations--evaluation of a quantitative analysis with flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Hemlin, C; Carenfelt, C; Halldén, G; Hed, J; Scheynius, A

    1993-07-01

    Secretory otitis media (SOM) is a common childhood disease without a completely clarified etiology. A chronic inflammatory condition in the nasopharynx, presumably caused by an increased bacterial load, is one factor of probable etiological importance. In the present study a flow cytometric method for analysis of adenoid lymphoid cell populations was developed to facilitate quantitative comparisons between children with SOM and children without ear disease. Adenoids removed from 18 children due to adenoid hyperplasia and obstructive symptoms were studied. Results of the flow cytometric analysis correlated well with the findings from immunohistological studies of five of the adenoids. PCA-1 and CD25 were found to be good markers of increased cellular activity after non-specific stimulation in cell culture. It is concluded that the flow cytometric method is suitable for further quantitative analysis of adenoid tissue. PMID:8398095

  9. Holographic flow visualization within a rotating compressor blade row

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benser, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Rapid double-pulsed holographic techniques were used to visualize the shock configurations in the tip region of a lightly loaded, high tip speed fan stage. The holograms showed the passage shock emanating from the blade leading edge, a moderately strong conical shock originating at the intersection of the part span shroud leading edge and the blade suction surface, and a second conical shock originating at the intersection of the part span shroud and the blade pressure surface. Due to a limited viewing angle, the bow waves upstream of the rotor could not be observed, and only limited details of the trailing edge shocks were obtained. Reasonable details of the shock patterns were obtained from holograms which were made without extensive rig modifications. Results indicate that larger viewing windows and and holographic plates would permit a wider viewing angle and give much more coverage of the regions of interest. Also, shorter time delay for double-pulsed holograms is also desirable, and would minimize blade movement and give clearer holograms.

  10. Low-Cost Flow Visualization for a Supersonic Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olden, George W.; Lineberry, David M.; Linn, Christopher A. B.; Landrum, Brian D.; Hawk, Clark W.

    2005-01-01

    Shadowgraph techniques were applied to the cold flow ejector facility at the Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The setup for the experiments was relatively simple and was accomplished at very little cost. Series of shadowgraph images were taken of both dual nozzle and single nozzle strut based ejectors operating over a range of chamber pressures. The density gradient patterns in the shadowgraphs were compared to pressure data measured along the top and side walls of the mixing duct. The shadowgraph images showed the presence of barrel shocks emanating from the nozzles which at low pressures terminated in Mach disks and at higher pressures extended beyond the barrel shape and reflected off the walls of the duct. Based on pressure data from previous testing, reflected shocks were expected on the walls of the duct. The shadowgraph images confirmed the locations of these reflected shocks on the top wall of the duct. The shadowgraph images also showed the structure change which correlated to a change in pitch of the ejector noise, and corresponded to a change in trend of the duct wall pressure ratio distributions. The images produced from the setup provided insight into the complex flow behavior inside the ejector duct. In addition, the techniques were a valuable tool as an educational device for students.

  11. Flow visualization study of a two-dimensional representation of the Space Shuttle launch pad configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclachland, B. G.; Zilliac, G. G.; Davis, S. S.

    1987-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger was caused by the failure of the aft joint O-ring seals in its right solid rocket booster. It has been suggested by several sources that wind conditions through a reduction in temperature of the right solid rocket booster caused by the wind blowing across the cold external tank, played a role in the O-ring failure. To check the plausibility of the wind theory, an experiment was carried out in a water towing tank to visualize the flow past a two-dimensional model representing a cross section of the Space Shuttle launch configuration. The periodic formation of vortices was found to characterize the wake generated by the model. It is suggested that this organized motion in the flow is the dominant mechanism that accomplishes heat transfer from the external tank to the right solid rocket booster. Flow visualization results consisting of photographs that show instantaneous streamline patterns of the flow are presented.

  12. Visualization of flow patterns induced by an impinging jet issuing from a circular planform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, K. R.

    1983-12-01

    A four-jet impingement flow with application to high-performance VTOL aircraft is investigated. Flow visualization studies were conducted with water as the working medium. Photographs of different cross sections of the flow are presented to describe the properties of the fountain upwash and the stagnation-line patterns. The visualization technique involves the introduction of fluorescein-sodium, a fluorescent dye, into the jet flow and illumination by a sheet of light obtained by spreading a laser beam. Streak-line photographs were also taken using air bubbles as tracer particles. The strength and orientation of the fountain(s) were observed for different heights of the nozzle configuration above the ground and inclination angles of the forward nozzles.

  13. Flow visualization study of a two-dimensional representation of the Space Shuttle launch pad configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachland, B. G.; Zilliac, G. G.; Davis, S. S.

    1987-06-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Challenger was caused by the failure of the aft joint O-ring seals in its right solid rocket booster. It has been suggested by several sources that wind conditions through a reduction in temperature of the right solid rocket booster caused by the wind blowing across the cold external tank, played a role in the O-ring failure. To check the plausibility of the wind theory, an experiment was carried out in a water towing tank to visualize the flow past a two-dimensional model representing a cross section of the Space Shuttle launch configuration. The periodic formation of vortices was found to characterize the wake generated by the model. It is suggested that this organized motion in the flow is the dominant mechanism that accomplishes heat transfer from the external tank to the right solid rocket booster. Flow visualization results consisting of photographs that show instantaneous streamline patterns of the flow are presented.

  14. Investigation on the near-wake flow structures of a utility-scale wind turbine using snowflake based flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Teja; Toloui, Mostafa; Guala, Michele; Hong, Jiarong

    2015-11-01

    Super-large-scale particle image velocimetry and flow visualization techniques using natural snow particles have been shown as an effective tool to probe the structure of the flow around full-scale wind turbines (Hong et al. Nature Comm. 2014). Here we present a follow-up study based on the data collected during a deployment around the 2.5 MW wind turbine at EOLOS Wind Energy Research Station on April, 4th, 2014. The dataset includes the snow visualization of flow fields from different perspectives in the near wake of the turbine. The motions of the dominant coherent structures including tip, blade root, hub and tower vortices, represented by the snow voids, are examined with the objective of quantifying and correlating their behavior with the meteorological and turbine operating conditions. Some preliminary studies on flow-structure interaction are also performed by correlating the data from strain gauges, accelerometers mounted on the turbine blades, with the flow measurements. The statistical analysis of the motions of blade induced vortices shows a clear impact of atmospheric turbulence and vortex interaction on flow development in the near wake. The result further indicates a strong connection between near-wake vorticity field, turbine operation and structure deformations. The work was supported by National Science Foundation (NSF-CBET-1454259) and the research infrastructure was supported by Department of Energy.

  15. Visualization of the 3-dimensional flow around a model with the aid of a laser knife

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovoy, V. Y.; Ivanov, V. V.; Orlov, A. A.; Kharchenko, V. N.

    1984-01-01

    A method for visualizing the three-dimensional flow around models of various shapes in a wind tunnel at a Mach number of 5 is described. A laser provides a planar light flux such that any plane through the model can be selectively illuminated. The shape of shock waves and separation regions is then determined by the intensity of light scattered by soot particles in the flow.

  16. Visualization of the Interaction of Weak Disturbances of a Flow with the Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplits, A. D.

    2014-05-01

    Results of experimental investigations of flows around wedge-shaped obstacles of different height installed in a supersonic conical nozzle at M = 2.7 by the methods of color surface visualization and "laser knife" are presented. The influence of the interaction of weak disturbances of these flows by the passive side of the obstacles with the boundary layer on their structure and behavior was determined. The side force of the nozzle was measured.

  17. In vivo quantitation of rare circulating tumor cells by multiphoton intravital flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei; Wang, Haifeng; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Low, Philip S.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) constitutes an emerging tool for the diagnosis and staging of cancer, assessment of response to therapy, and evaluation of residual disease after surgery. Unfortunately, no existing technology has the sensitivity to measure the low numbers of tumor cells (<1 CTC per ml of whole blood) that characterize minimal levels of disease. We present a method, intravital flow cytometry, that noninvasively counts rare CTCs in vivo as they flow through the peripheral vasculature. The method involves i.v. injection of a tumor-specific fluorescent ligand followed by multiphoton fluorescence imaging of superficial blood vessels to quantitate the flowing CTCs. Studies in mice with metastatic tumors demonstrate that CTCs can be quantitated weeks before metastatic disease is detected by other means. Analysis of whole blood samples from cancer patients further establishes that human CTCs can be selectively labeled and quantitated when present at ≈2 CTCs per ml, opening opportunities for earlier assessment of metastatic disease. PMID:17601776

  18. Optic Flow Dominates Visual Scene Polarity in Causing Adaptive Modification of Locomotor Trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomura, Y.; Mulavara, A. P.; Richards, J. T.; Brady, R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2005-01-01

    Locomotion and posture are influenced and controlled by vestibular, visual and somatosensory information. Optic flow and scene polarity are two characteristics of a visual scene that have been identified as being critical in how they affect perceived body orientation and self-motion. The goal of this study was to determine the role of optic flow and visual scene polarity on adaptive modification in locomotor trajectory. Two computer-generated virtual reality scenes were shown to subjects during 20 minutes of treadmill walking. One scene was a highly polarized scene while the other was composed of objects displayed in a non-polarized fashion. Both virtual scenes depicted constant rate self-motion equivalent to walking counterclockwise around the perimeter of a room. Subjects performed Stepping Tests blindfolded before and after scene exposure to assess adaptive changes in locomotor trajectory. Subjects showed a significant difference in heading direction, between pre and post adaptation stepping tests, when exposed to either scene during treadmill walking. However, there was no significant difference in the subjects heading direction between the two visual scene polarity conditions. Therefore, it was inferred from these data that optic flow has a greater role than visual polarity in influencing adaptive locomotor function.

  19. Quantitative Assessment of Turbulence and Flow Eccentricity in an Aortic Coarctation: Impact of Virtual Interventions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas; Ebbers, Tino; Karlsson, Matts

    2015-09-01

    Turbulence and flow eccentricity can be measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and may play an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we propose quantitative techniques to assess turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and flow eccentricity that could assist in the evaluation and treatment of stenotic severities. These hemodynamic parameters were studied in a pre-treated aortic coarctation (CoA) and after several virtual interventions using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), to demonstrate the effect of different dilatation options on the flow field. Patient-specific geometry and flow conditions were derived from MRI data. The unsteady pulsatile flow was resolved by large eddy simulation including non-Newtonian blood rheology. Results showed an inverse asymptotic relationship between the total amount of TKE and degree of dilatation of the stenosis, where turbulent flow proximal the constriction limits the possible improvement by treating the CoA alone. Spatiotemporal maps of TKE and flow eccentricity could be linked to the characteristics of the jet, where improved flow conditions were favored by an eccentric dilatation of the CoA. By including these flow markers into a combined MRI-CFD intervention framework, CoA therapy has not only the possibility to produce predictions via simulation, but can also be validated pre- and immediate post treatment, as well as during follow-up studies. PMID:26577361

  20. Real-Time Aerodynamic Flow and Data Visualization in an Interactive Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; Fleming, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances have been made to non-intrusive flow field diagnostics in the past decade. Camera based techniques are now capable of determining physical qualities such as surface deformation, surface pressure and temperature, flow velocities, and molecular species concentration. In each case, extracting the pertinent information from the large volume of acquired data requires powerful and efficient data visualization tools. The additional requirement for real time visualization is fueled by an increased emphasis on minimizing test time in expensive facilities. This paper will address a capability titled LiveView3D, which is the first step in the development phase of an in depth, real time data visualization and analysis tool for use in aerospace testing facilities.

  1. Flow-Visualization Techniques Used at High Speed by Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel-Test Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes a variety of optically based flow-visualization techniques used for high-speed research by the Configuration Aerodynamics Wind-Tunnel Test Team of the High-Speed Research Program during its tenure. The work of other national experts is included for completeness. Details of each technique with applications and status in various national wind tunnels are given.

  2. OpinionFlow: Visual Analysis of Opinion Diffusion on Social Media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Yan, Kai; Liu, Mengchen; Wu, Fangzhao

    2014-12-01

    It is important for many different applications such as government and business intelligence to analyze and explore the diffusion of public opinions on social media. However, the rapid propagation and great diversity of public opinions on social media pose great challenges to effective analysis of opinion diffusion. In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis system called OpinionFlow to empower analysts to detect opinion propagation patterns and glean insights. Inspired by the information diffusion model and the theory of selective exposure, we develop an opinion diffusion model to approximate opinion propagation among Twitter users. Accordingly, we design an opinion flow visualization that combines a Sankey graph with a tailored density map in one view to visually convey diffusion of opinions among many users. A stacked tree is used to allow analysts to select topics of interest at different levels. The stacked tree is synchronized with the opinion flow visualization to help users examine and compare diffusion patterns across topics. Experiments and case studies on Twitter data demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of OpinionFlow. PMID:26356890

  3. The Impact of a Visual Imagery Intervention on Army ROTC Cadets' Marksmanship Performance and Flow Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakes, Edward Lee

    2012-01-01

    This investigation used an experimental design to examine how a visual imagery intervention and two levels of challenge would affect the flow experiences and performance of cadets engaged in Army ROTC marksmanship training. I employed MANCOVA analyses, with gender and prior marksmanship training experience as covariates, to assess cadets' (n =…

  4. Visualization by light transmission of oil and water contents in transient two-phase flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Throop, James A.; DiCarlo, David A.; Rimmer, Alon; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves

    1998-06-01

    The difficulty of determining transient fluid contents in a soil-oil-water system is hampering an understanding of the system's flow characteristics. In this paper, we describe a light transmission method (LTM) which can rapidly obtain oil and water contents throughout a large two-dimensional flow field of silica sand. By appropriately coloring the water with 0.005% FD&C blue #1, the hue of the transmitted light is found to be directly related to the water content within the porous media. The hue provides a high resolution measurement of the water and oil contents in transient flow fields (such as unstable flow). Evaluation of the reliability of LTM was assessed by checking the mass balance for a known water injection and its utility in visualizing a whole flow field was exemplified for unstable fingered flow by comparing fluid contents to those obtained with synchrotron X-ray radiation.

  5. Flow visualization study of the horseshoe vortex in a turbine stator cascade

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaugler, R. E.; Russell, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    Flow visualization techniques were used to show the behavior of the horseshoe vortex in a large scale turbine stator cascade. Oil drops on the end wall surface flowed in response to local shear stresses, indicating the limiting flow streamlines at the surface. Smoke injected into the flow and photographed showed time averaged flow behavior. Neutrally bouyant helium filled soap bubbles followed the flow and showed up on photographs as streaks, indicating the paths followed by individual fluid particles. Preliminary attempts to control the vortex were made by injecting air through control jets drilled in the end wall near the vane leading edge. Seventeen different hole locations were tested, one at a time, and the effect of the control jets on the path follwed by smoke in the boundary layer was recorded photographically.

  6. Flow visualization of a non-contact transport device by Coanda effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iki, Norihiko; Abe, Hiroyuki; Okada, Takashi

    2014-08-01

    AIST proposes new technology of non-contact transport device utilizing Coanda effect. A proposed non-contact transport device has a cylindrical body and circular slit for air. The air flow around non-contact device is turbulent and its flow pattern depends on the injection condition. Therefore we tried visualization of the air flow around non -contact device as the first step of PIV measurement. Several tracer particles were tried such as TiO2 particles, water droplets, potatoes starch, rice starch, corn starch. Hot-wire anemometer is employed to velocity measurement. TiO2 particles deposit inside of a slit and clogging of a slit occurs frequently. Potato starch particles do not clog a slit but they are too heavy to trace slow flow area. Water droplets by ultrasonic atomization also deposit inside of slit but they are useful to visualize flow pattern around a non-contact transport device by being supplied from circumference. Coanda effect of proposed non-contact transport device was confirmed and injected air flow pattern switches by a work. Air flow around non-contact trance port device is turbulent and its velocity range is wide. Therefore flow measurement by tracer part icle has traceability issue. Suitable tracer and exposure condition depends on target area.

  7. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood.

    PubMed

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis. PMID:27596736

  8. Magnetic fingerprints of rolling cells for quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Reisbeck, Mathias; Helou, Michael Johannes; Richter, Lukas; Kappes, Barbara; Friedrich, Oliver; Hayden, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, flow cytometry has had a profound impact on preclinical and clinical applications requiring single cell function information for counting, sub-typing and quantification of epitope expression. At the same time, the workflow complexity and high costs of such optical systems still limit flow cytometry applications to specialized laboratories. Here, we present a quantitative magnetic flow cytometer that incorporates in situ magnetophoretic cell focusing for highly accurate and reproducible rolling of the cellular targets over giant magnetoresistance sensing elements. Time-of-flight analysis is used to unveil quantitative single cell information contained in its magnetic fingerprint. Furthermore, we used erythrocytes as a biological model to validate our methodology with respect to precise analysis of the hydrodynamic cell diameter, quantification of binding capacity of immunomagnetic labels, and discrimination of cell morphology. The extracted time-of-flight information should enable point-of-care quantitative flow cytometry in whole blood for clinical applications, such as immunology and primary hemostasis. PMID:27596736

  9. Flow Visualization within the Evaporator of Planar Loop Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Junwoo; Cytrynowicz, Debra; Medis, Praveen; Gerner, Frank M.; Henderson, H. Thurman

    2005-02-01

    A planar micro loop heat pipe (LHP) with coherent porous silicon (CPS) wick in the evaporator is a two-phase heat transfer device that utilizes evaporation and condensation to transfer heat. This CPS wick has thousands of pores, which are 2 micrometer in diameter, contained over an area of one square centimeter. As heat is applied to the evaporator, liquid is vaporized and evaporator chamber's pressure is increased. A meniscus formed at the liquid/vapor interface inside the pore of the CPS wick is supported by capillary forces even though pressure force pushes it down. Vapor flows through the vapor line to the condenser and condenses. Liquid is transported back to the evaporator due to pressure difference. The internal thermodynamics and fluid dynamics are poorly understood due to the difficulty of taking internal measurements and the complexity of two-phase phenomena. To understand this thermal device, the clear evaporator machined from Pyrex glass was utilized to monitor the complex phenomena which occur in the evaporator. These phenomena include vapor formation, nucleate boiling, evaporation, depriming, and pressure oscillation. DI-water was utilized as the working fluid.

  10. Visual Measurements of Droplet Size in Gas Liquid Annular Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Fore, L.B.; Ibrahim, B.B.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-07-01

    Drop size distributions have been measured for nitrogen-water annular flow in a 9.67 mm hydraulic diameter duct, at system pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and a temperature of 38 C. These new data extend the range of conditions represented by existing data in the open literature, primarily through an increase in system pressure. Since most existing correlations were developed from data obtained at lower pressures, it should be expected that the higher-pressure data presented in this paper would not necessarily follow those correlations. The correlation of Tatterson, et al. (1977) does not predict the new data very well, while the correlation of Kataoka, et al. (1983) only predicts those data taken at the lower pressure of 3.4 atm. However, the maximum drop size correlation of Kocamustafaogullari, et al. (1994) does predict the current data to a reasonable approximation. Similarly, their correlation for the Sauter mean diameter can predict the new data, provided the coefficient in the equation is adjusted.

  11. Visualization and finite element analysis of pulsatile flow in models of the abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, T; Matsuzawa, T; Homma, T

    1989-01-01

    Pulsatile flows in glass models simulating fusiform and lateral saccular aneurysms were investigated by a flow visualization method. When resting fluid starts to flow, the initial fluid motion is practically irrotational. After a short period of time, the flow began to separate from the proximal wall of the aneurysm. Then the separation bubble or vortex grew rapidly in size and filled the whole area of the aneurysm circumferentially. During this period of time, the center of the vortex moved from the proximal end to the distal point of the aneurysm. The transient reversal flow, for instance, which may occur at the end of the ejection period, passed between the wall of the aneurysm and the centrally located vortex. When the rate and pulsatile frequency of flow were high, the vortex broke down into highly disturbed flow (or turbulence) at the distal portion of the aneurysm. The same effect was observed when the length of the aneurysm was increased. A reduction in pulsatile amplitude made the flow pattern close to that in steady flow. A finite element analysis was made to obtain velocity and pressure fields in pulsatile flow through a tube with an axisymmetric expansion. Calculations were performed with the pulsatile flows used in the visualization experiment in order to study the effects of change in the pulsatile wave form by keeping the time-mean Reynolds number and Womersley's parameter unchanged. Calculated instantaneous patterns of velocity field and stream lines agreed well with the experimental results. The appearance and disappearance of the vortex in the dilated portion and its development resulted in complex distributions of pressure and shear fields. Locally minimum and maximum values of wall shear stress occurred at points just upstream and downstream of the distal end of the expansion when the flow rate reached its peak. PMID:2605323

  12. Flow visualization in the outflow cannula of an axial blood pump.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangmao; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Haibo; Sun, Hansong; Zhou, Jianye; Hu, Shengshou

    2014-01-01

    The properties of blood flow in the outflow cannula of an axial blood pump play a critical role in potential thrombus formation and vascular injury. In this study, an in vitro flow visualization technique using particle image velocimetry (PIV) was applied to investigate the flow characteristics in the outflow cannula of a FW-2 model axial pump. The two-dimensional (2-D) flow field in the axial central section and the three-dimensional (3-D) flow field in the whole outflow cannula were examined with the PIV system. Tests were carried out with a blood-mimic working fluid in the axial pump at a rotational speed of 8500 ± 20 rpm with a flow rate of 5 L/min. The velocity distribution in the outflow cannula was analyzed to evaluate the flow characteristics. There was no backflow or stagnant flow in the tested area, while the flow velocity rapidly increased outside the boundary layer. A spiral flow was observed near the boundary layer, but this was worn off within the tested area. Based on the results, hemolysis and thrombus formation in the cannula, and injury to aortic endothelium are unlikely to occur due to spiral flow. PMID:24211890

  13. Visualization and Measurement of Flow in Two-Dimensional Paper Networks

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Peter; Fu, Elain; Lutz, Barry; Yager, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The two-dimensional paper network (2DPN) is a versatile new microfluidic format for performing complex chemical processes. For chemical detection, for example, 2DPNs have the potential to exceed the capabilities and performance of existing paper-based lateral flow devices at a comparable cost and ease of use. To design such 2DPNs, it is necessary to predict 2D flow patterns and velocities within them, but because of the scattering of the paper matrix, conventional particle imaging velocimetry is not practical. In this note, we demonstrate two methods for visualization of flow in 2DPNs that are inexpensive, easy to implement, and quantifiable. PMID:20676410

  14. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settles, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  15. Helium bubble flow visualization of the spanwise separation on a NACA 0012 with simulated glaze ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, M.; Bragg, M.; Shin, J.

    1992-01-01

    Research was performed to experimentally visualize and document the flow separation due to simulated glaze ice accretion on a NACA 0012 semispan with 30 deg sweep using helium bubbles as flow tracers. Results are compared to Navier-Stokes computational simulations for different angles of attack. Prior to acquiring data for the semispan model, a two dimensional experiment was conducted to determine the accuracy of using the helium bubbles as flow tracers. Results from the three dimensional experiment compare well to the computational simulations.

  16. Helium bubble flow visualization of the spanwise separation on a NACA 0012 with simulated glaze ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, M.; Bragg, M.; Shin, J.

    1992-01-01

    Research has been performed to experimentally visualize and document the flow separation due to simulated glaze ice accretion on a NACA 0012 semispan with 30-deg sweep using helium bubbles as flow tracers. Results are compared to Navier-Stokes computational simulations for different angles of attack. Prior to acquiring data for the semispan model, a two-dimensional experiment was conducted to determine the accuracy of using the helium bubbles as flow tracers. Results from the 3D experiment compare well to the computational simulations.

  17. Azimuthal instability of the interface in a shear banded flow by direct visual observation.

    PubMed

    Decruppe, J P; Bécu, L; Greffier, O; Fazel, N

    2010-12-17

    The stability of the shear banded flow of a Maxwellian fluid is studied from an experimental point of view using rheology and flow visualization with polarized light. We show that the one-layer homogeneous flow cannot sustain shear rates corresponding to the end of the stress plateau. The high shear rate branch is not found and the shear stress oscillates at the end of the plateau. An azimuthal instability appears: the shear induced band becomes unstable and the interface between the two bands undulates in time and space with a period τ, a wavelength λ and a wave vector k parallel to the direction of the tangential velocity. PMID:21231629

  18. [Quantitative analysis on the changes in anthropogenic lead flows of China].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lan; Mao, Jian-Su

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, a series of measures have been taken to improve the lead anthropogenic flow. Knowledge of the changes that happened to anthropogenic lead flows can not only examine the effectiveness of these measures, but also help us to understand the current status of lead flows in China, which can provide us quantitative fundamental reference for further improvement in source utilization and environment quality. In this study, the material flow analysis method based on stock and flow (STAF) was employed to analyze the current anthropogenic lead flows in 2010. Based on that, some indices such as lead ore consumption, environmental lead emission, resource efficiency, environmental efficiency, recycling rate, and so on, were taken to evaluate the changes occurred to anthropogenic lead flows during the last decade by comparing their values in 2010 to those in 2000. The results showed that the lead resource efficiency and environmental efficiency in 2010 were 1.3 times and 1.07 times respectively as high as those of 2000, while the lead recycling rate was also increased by 29.57%. However, the quantity of lead ore consumption and environmental lead emissions continued increasing, and were increased by 1.97 and 2.57 times respectively as compared to those of 2000 due to the scale expansion of China in lead production and consumption, which indicates a future heavy task in the improvement of anthropogenic lead flows of China. PMID:25244875

  19. An Inexpensive, Fast and Sensitive Quantitative Lateral Flow Magneto-Immunoassay for Total Prostate Specific Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jacqueline M.; Wraith, Patrick; Kiely, Janice; Persad, Raj; Hurley, Katrina; Hawkins, Peter; Luxton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We describe the detection characteristics of a device the Resonant Coil Magnetometer (RCM) to quantify paramagnetic particles (PMPs) in immunochromatographic (lateral flow) assays. Lateral flow assays were developed using PMPs for the measurement of total prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum samples. A detection limit of 0.8 ng/mL was achieved for total PSA using the RCM and is at clinically significant concentrations. Comparison of data obtained in a pilot study from the analysis of serum samples with commercially available immunoassays shows good agreement. The development of a quantitative magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format for total PSA suggests the potential of the RCM to operate with many immunoassay formats. The RCM has the potential to be modified to quantify multiple analytes in this format. This research shows promise for the development of an inexpensive device capable of quantifying multiple analytes at the point-of-care using a magneto-immunoassay in lateral flow format. PMID:25587419

  20. In-flight flow visualization with pressure measurements at low speeds on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1990-01-01

    In-flight results from surface and off-surface flow visualizations and from extensive pressure distributions document the vortical flow on the leading edge extensions (LEX) and forebody of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle for low speeds and angles of attack up to 50 degs. Surface flow visualization data, obtained using the emitted fluid technique, were used to define separation lines and laminar separation bubbles. Off-surface flow visualization data, obtained by smoke injection, were used to document both the path of the vortex cores and the location of vortex core breakdown. The location of vortex core breakdown correlated well with the loss of suction pressure on the LEX and with the flow visualization results from ground facilities. Surface flow separation lines on the LEX and forebody corresponded well with the end of pressure recovery under the vortical flows. Correlation of the pressures with wind tunnel results show fair to good correlation.

  1. In-flight flow visualization and pressure measurements at low speeds on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1991-01-01

    Inflight results from surface and off surface flow visualizations and from extensive pressure distributions document the vortical flow on the leading edge extensions (LEXs) and forebody of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) for low speeds and angles of attack up to 50 deg. Surface flow visualization data, obtained using the emitted fluid technique, were used to define separation lines and laminar separation bubbles (LSB). Off surface flow visualization data, obtained by smoke injection, were used to document both the path of the vortex cores and the location of vortex core breakdown. The location of vortex core breakdown correlated well with the loss of suction pressure on the LEX and with the flow visualization results from ground facilities. Surface flow separation lines on the LEX and forebody corresponded well with the end of pressure recovery under the vortical flows. Correlation of the pressures with wind tunnel results show fair to good correlation.

  2. Forebody Flow Visualization on the F-18 HARV with Actuated Forebody Strakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Murri, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Off-surface smoke flow visualization and extensive pressure measurements were obtained on the forebody of the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle equipped with actuated forebody strakes. Test points at alpha = 50 deg. were examined in which only one strake was deflected or in which both strakes were deflected differentially. The forebody pressures were integrated to obtain forebody yawing moments. Results showed that small single strake deflections can cause an undesirable yawing moment reversal. At alpha = 50 deg., this reversal was corrected by deploying both strakes at 20 deg. initially, then differentially from 20 deg. to create a yawing moment. The off-surface flow visualization showed that in the case of the small single strake deflection, the resulting forebody/strake vortex remained close to the surface and caused accelerated flow and increased suction pressures on the deflected side. When both strakes were deflected differentially, two forebody/strake vortices were present. The forebody/strake vortex from the larger deflection would lift from the surface while the other would remain close to the surface. The nearer forebody/strake vortex would cause greater flow acceleration, higher suction pressures and a yawing moment on that side of the forebody. Flow visualization provided a clear description of the strake vortices fluid mechanics.

  3. MotionFlow: Visual Abstraction and Aggregation of Sequential Patterns in Human Motion Tracking Data.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sujin; Elmqvist, Niklas; Ramani, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Pattern analysis of human motions, which is useful in many research areas, requires understanding and comparison of different styles of motion patterns. However, working with human motion tracking data to support such analysis poses great challenges. In this paper, we propose MotionFlow, a visual analytics system that provides an effective overview of various motion patterns based on an interactive flow visualization. This visualization formulates a motion sequence as transitions between static poses, and aggregates these sequences into a tree diagram to construct a set of motion patterns. The system also allows the users to directly reflect the context of data and their perception of pose similarities in generating representative pose states. We provide local and global controls over the partition-based clustering process. To support the users in organizing unstructured motion data into pattern groups, we designed a set of interactions that enables searching for similar motion sequences from the data, detailed exploration of data subsets, and creating and modifying the group of motion patterns. To evaluate the usability of MotionFlow, we conducted a user study with six researchers with expertise in gesture-based interaction design. They used MotionFlow to explore and organize unstructured motion tracking data. Results show that the researchers were able to easily learn how to use MotionFlow, and the system effectively supported their pattern analysis activities, including leveraging their perception and domain knowledge. PMID:26529685

  4. Exploratory flow visualization investigation of mast-mounted sights in presence of a rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghee, Terence A.; Kelley, Henry L.

    1995-01-01

    A flow visualization investigation with a laser light sheet system was conducted on a 27-percent-scale AH-64 attack helicopter model fitted with two mast-mounted sights in the langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel. The investigation was conducted to identify aerodynamic phenomena that may have contributed to adverse vibration encountered during full-scale flight of the AH-64D apache/longbow helicopter with an asymmetric mast-mounted sight. Symmetric and asymmetric mast-mounted sights oriented at several skew angles were tested at simulated forward and rearward flight speeds of 30 and 45 knots. A laser light sheet system was used to visualize the flow in planes parallel to and perpendicular to the free-stream flow. Analysis of these flow visualization data identified frequencies of flow patterns in the wake shed from the sight, the streamline angle at the sight, and the location where the shed wake crossed the rotor plane. Differences in wake structure were observed between the sight configurations and various skew angles. Analysis of lateral light sheet plane data implied significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric mast-mounted sight in the configuration that produced maximum in-flight vibration. The data showed no significant vortex structure in the wake of the asymmetric and symmetric configurations that produced no increase in in-flight adverse vibration.

  5. Visualization and quantitative analysis of lung microstructure using micro CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Matsui, Eisuke; Ohamatsu, Hironobu; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2004-04-01

    Micro CT system is developed for lung function analysis at a high resolution of the micrometer order (up to 5 μm in spatial resolution). This system reveals the lung distal structures such as interlobular septa, terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, and alveolus. In order to visualize lung 3-D microstructures using micro CT images and to analyze them, this research presents a computerized approach. In this approach, the following things are performed: (1) extracting lung distal structures from micro CT images, (2) visualizing extracted lung microstructure in three dimensions, and (3) visualizing inside of lung distal area in three dimensions with fly-through. This approach is applied for to micro CT images of human lung tissue specimens that were obtained by surgical excision and were kept in the state of the inflated fixed lung. And this research succeeded in visualization of lung microstructures using micro CT images to reveal the lung distal structures from bronchiole up to alveolus.

  6. Visualization of the deep cerebellar nuclei using quantitative T1 and rho magnetic resonance imaging at 3 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Deoni, Sean C L; Catani, Marco

    2007-10-01

    The cerebellum coordinates movement, thought and emotion through its feedback projections from the deep cerebellar nuclei. Despite recent advancement in our understanding of the functions of the cerebellar cortex, little is known about the functional correlates of the deep cerebellar nuclei in humans. This is mainly due to the inability of current MRI techniques to visualize the cerebellar nuclei and therefore perform in vivo clinico-anatomical correlation studies in patient populations. Here we visualize in vivo the detailed anatomy of the dentate nucleus and other cerebellar nuclei using quantitative T1 and proton density (rho) imaging. Compared to conventional qualitative T1, T2 or T2*-weighted imaging, quantitative T1 and proton density (rho) imaging facilitates direct visualization of the dentate and interposed nuclei, allowing us to perform segmentation and volumetric measurements of the dentate nucleus. Also the fine architecture of the microgyric and macrogyric dentate nucleus was visible on the high-resolution images. The high concentration of paramagnetic iron within the cerebellar nuclei and the resulting local field inhomogeneities surrounding the iron-containing nuclei is believed to be responsible for the observed effect on T1 and proton density signal. The application of this technique to disorders with cerebellar dysfunction could provide new insight into pathologies like autism and movement disorders. PMID:17702607

  7. GProX, a user-friendly platform for bioinformatics analysis and visualization of quantitative proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Rigbolt, Kristoffer T G; Vanselow, Jens T; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2011-08-01

    Recent technological advances have made it possible to identify and quantify thousands of proteins in a single proteomics experiment. As a result of these developments, the analysis of data has become the bottleneck of proteomics experiment. To provide the proteomics community with a user-friendly platform for comprehensive analysis, inspection and visualization of quantitative proteomics data we developed the Graphical Proteomics Data Explorer (GProX)(1). The program requires no special bioinformatics training, as all functions of GProX are accessible within its graphical user-friendly interface which will be intuitive to most users. Basic features facilitate the uncomplicated management and organization of large data sets and complex experimental setups as well as the inspection and graphical plotting of quantitative data. These are complemented by readily available high-level analysis options such as database querying, clustering based on abundance ratios, feature enrichment tests for e.g. GO terms and pathway analysis tools. A number of plotting options for visualization of quantitative proteomics data is available and most analysis functions in GProX create customizable high quality graphical displays in both vector and bitmap formats. The generic import requirements allow data originating from essentially all mass spectrometry platforms, quantitation strategies and software to be analyzed in the program. GProX represents a powerful approach to proteomics data analysis providing proteomics experimenters with a toolbox for bioinformatics analysis of quantitative proteomics data. The program is released as open-source and can be freely downloaded from the project webpage at http://gprox.sourceforge.net. PMID:21602510

  8. Right Heart 4DMRI Flow Visualization in Normal and Hypertensive subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzberg, Jean; Browning, James; Fenster, Brett; Schroeder, Joyce

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in time-resolved 3D cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (4DMRI) have allowed for the 3-dimensional characterization of blood flow in the right ventricle (RV) and right atrium (RA). In this talk, an overview of a large, ongoing, multi-disciplinary investigation of 4D right heart hemodynamics in normal and pathologic patients is given, as well as lessons learned from 4DMRI cardiac research. Time-resolved visualization techniques for understanding and communicating complex right heart flow structures throughout the cardiac cycle are presented. Finally, a qualitative visual comparison of 3D flow structures in the vena cava, RA, and RV between healthy subjects and pulmonary hypertensive patients is presented.

  9. Hot gas ingestion characteristics and flow visualization of a vectored thrust STOVL concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George H.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.; Williams, Ben R.

    1990-01-01

    The study presents results obtained at the compressor face of a 9.2-percent scale vectored thrust model in ground effects from Phases I and II of a test program to evaluate the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, and to conduct flow visualization of the model flowfield in and out of ground effects, respectively. A description of the model, facility, a new model support system, and a sheet laser illumination system are provided. The findings contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, compressor face temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane temperature and pressure distributions, model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation. Results from the sheet laser flow visualization test are also presented.

  10. Flow Visualization of Density in a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Planar Rayleigh and Raman Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.; Shirinzadeh, Behrooz

    2002-01-01

    Using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) and a gated, intensified charge-coupled device, planar Rayleigh and Raman scattering techniques have been used to visualize the unseeded Mach 0.2 flow density in a 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Detection limits are determined for density measurements by using both unseeded Rayleigh and Raman (N2 vibrational) methods. Seeding with CO2 improved the Rayleigh flow visualization at temperatures below 150 K. The seeded Rayleigh version was used to demonstrate the observation of transient flow features in a separated boundary layer region, which was excited with an oscillatory jet. Finally, a significant degradation of the laser light sheet, in this cryogenic facility, is discussed.

  11. Flow Visualization at Cryogenic Conditions Using a Modified Pressure Sensitive Paint Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, A. Neal; Goad, William K.; Obara, Clifford J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.; Campbell, Richard L.; Carter, Melissa B.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.; Bell, James H.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Oglesby, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    A modification to the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to visualize streamlines on a Blended Wing Body (BWB) model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the tests were carried out in the National Transonic Facility operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. Oxygen is required for conventional PSP measurements, and several tests have been successfully completed in nitrogen environments by injecting small amounts (typically < 3000 ppm) of oxygen into the flow. A similar technique was employed here, except that air was purged through pressure tap orifices already existent on the model surface, resulting in changes in the PSP wherever oxygen was present. The results agree quite well with predicted results obtained through computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), which show this to be a viable technique for visualizing flows without resorting to more invasive procedures such as oil flow or minitufts.

  12. Comparison of blood flow models and acquisitions for quantitative myocardial perfusion estimation from dynamic CT.

    PubMed

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R; La Riviere, Patrick J; Alessio, Adam M

    2014-04-01

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) can be estimated from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) cardiac CT acquisitions, leading to quantitative assessment of regional perfusion. The need for low radiation dose and the lack of consensus on MBF estimation methods motivates this study to refine the selection of acquisition protocols and models for CT-derived MBF. DCE cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (MBF = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml (min g)(-1), cardiac output = 3, 5, 8 L min(-1)). Patient kinetics were generated by a mathematical model of iodine exchange incorporating numerous physiological features including heterogenenous microvascular flow, permeability and capillary contrast gradients. CT acquisitions were simulated for multiple realizations of realistic x-ray flux levels. CT acquisitions that reduce radiation exposure were implemented by varying both temporal sampling (1, 2, and 3 s sampling intervals) and tube currents (140, 70, and 25 mAs). For all acquisitions, we compared three quantitative MBF estimation methods (two-compartment model, an axially-distributed model, and the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneous model) and a qualitative slope-based method. In total, over 11 000 time attenuation curves were used to evaluate MBF estimation in multiple patient and imaging scenarios. After iodine-based beam hardening correction, the slope method consistently underestimated flow by on average 47.5% and the quantitative models provided estimates with less than 6.5% average bias and increasing variance with increasing dose reductions. The three quantitative models performed equally well, offering estimates with essentially identical root mean squared error (RMSE) for matched acquisitions. MBF estimates using the qualitative slope method were inferior in terms of bias and RMSE compared to the quantitative methods. MBF estimate error was equal at matched dose reductions for all quantitative methods and range of techniques evaluated. This

  13. Comparison of blood flow models and acquisitions for quantitative myocardial perfusion estimation from dynamic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.

    2014-04-01

    Myocardial blood flow (MBF) can be estimated from dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) cardiac CT acquisitions, leading to quantitative assessment of regional perfusion. The need for low radiation dose and the lack of consensus on MBF estimation methods motivates this study to refine the selection of acquisition protocols and models for CT-derived MBF. DCE cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (MBF = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml (min g)-1, cardiac output = 3, 5, 8 L min-1). Patient kinetics were generated by a mathematical model of iodine exchange incorporating numerous physiological features including heterogenenous microvascular flow, permeability and capillary contrast gradients. CT acquisitions were simulated for multiple realizations of realistic x-ray flux levels. CT acquisitions that reduce radiation exposure were implemented by varying both temporal sampling (1, 2, and 3 s sampling intervals) and tube currents (140, 70, and 25 mAs). For all acquisitions, we compared three quantitative MBF estimation methods (two-compartment model, an axially-distributed model, and the adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneous model) and a qualitative slope-based method. In total, over 11 000 time attenuation curves were used to evaluate MBF estimation in multiple patient and imaging scenarios. After iodine-based beam hardening correction, the slope method consistently underestimated flow by on average 47.5% and the quantitative models provided estimates with less than 6.5% average bias and increasing variance with increasing dose reductions. The three quantitative models performed equally well, offering estimates with essentially identical root mean squared error (RMSE) for matched acquisitions. MBF estimates using the qualitative slope method were inferior in terms of bias and RMSE compared to the quantitative methods. MBF estimate error was equal at matched dose reductions for all quantitative methods and range of techniques evaluated. This suggests that

  14. Multimodal flow visualization and optimization of pneumatic blood pump for sorbent hemodialysis system.

    PubMed

    Shu, Fangjun; Parks, Robert; Maholtz, John; Ash, Steven; Antaki, James F

    2009-04-01

    Renal Solutions Allient Sorbent Hemodialysis System utilizes a two-chambered pneumatic pump (Pulsar Blood Pump, Renal Solutions, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA) to avoid limitations associated with peristaltic pumping systems. Single-needle access is enabled by counter-pulsing the two pump chambers, thereby obviating compliance chambers or blood reservoirs. Each chamber propels 20 cc per pulse of 3 s (dual access) or 6 s (single access) duration, corresponding to a peak Reynolds number of approximately 8000 (based on inlet velocity and chamber diameter). A multimodal series of flow visualization studies (tracer particle, dye washout, and dye erosion) was conducted on a sequence of pump designs with varying port locations and diaphragms to improve the geometry with respect to risk of thrombogenesis. Experiments were conducted in a simplified flow loop using occluders to simulate flow resistance induced by tubing and dialyzer. Tracer visualization revealed flow patterns and qualitatively indicated turbulence intensity. Dye washout identified dwell volume and areas of flow stagnation for each design. Dye erosion results indicated the effectiveness and homogeneity of surface washing. Compared to a centered inlet which resulted in a fluid jet that produced two counter-rotating vortices, a tangential inlet introduced a single vortex, and kept the flow laminar. It also provided better surface washing on the pump inner surface. However, a tangential outlet did not present as much benefit as expected. On the contrary, it created a sharp defection to the flow when transiting from filling to ejection. PMID:19335410

  15. Quantitative polarization and flow evaluation of choroid and sclera by multifunctional Jones matrix optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, S.; Hong, Y.-J.; Kasaragod, D.; Makita, S.; Miura, M.; Ikuno, Y.; Yasuno, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative evaluation of optical properties of choroid and sclera are performed by multifunctional optical coherence tomography. Five normal eyes, five glaucoma eyes and one choroidal atrophy eye are examined. The refractive error was found to be correlated with choroidal birefringence, polarization uniformity, and flow in addition to scleral birefringence among normal eyes. The significant differences were observed between the normal and the glaucoma eyes, as for choroidal polarization uniformity, flow and scleral birefringence. An automatic segmentation algorithm of retinal pigment epithelium and chorioscleral interface based on multifunctional signals is also presented.

  16. SPECT Myocardial Blood Flow Quantitation Concludes Equivocal Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Studies to Increase Diagnostic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lung-Ching; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chen, Ing-Jou; Ku, Chi-Tai; Chen, Yen-Kung; Hsu, Bailing

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myocardial blood flow quantitation with dynamic SPECT/CT has been reported to enhance the detection of coronary artery disease in human. This advance has created important clinical applications to coronary artery disease diagnosis and management for areas where myocardial perfusion PET tracers are not available. We present 2 clinical cases that undergone a combined test of 1-day rest/dipyridamole-stress dynamic SPECT and ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT scans using an integrated imaging protocol and demonstrate that flow parameters are capable to conclude equivocal myocardial perfusion SPECT studies, therefore increasing diagnostic benefits to add value in making clinical decisions. PMID:26053731

  17. The performance & flow visualization studies of three-dimensional (3-D) wind turbine blade models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutrisno, Prajitno, Purnomo, W., Setyawan B.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, studies on the design of 3-D wind turbine blades have a less attention even though 3-D blade products are widely sold. In contrary, advanced studies in 3-D helicopter blade tip have been studied rigorously. Studies in wind turbine blade modeling are mostly assumed that blade spanwise sections behave as independent two-dimensional airfoils, implying that there is no exchange of momentum in the spanwise direction. Moreover, flow visualization experiments are infrequently conducted. Therefore, a modeling study of wind turbine blade with visualization experiment is needed to be improved to obtain a better understanding. The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of 3-D wind turbine blade models with backward-forward swept and verify the flow patterns using flow visualization. In this research, the blade models are constructed based on the twist and chord distributions following Schmitz's formula. Forward and backward swept are added to the rotating blades. Based on this, the additional swept would enhance or diminish outward flow disturbance or stall development propagation on the spanwise blade surfaces to give better blade design. Some combinations, i. e., b lades with backward swept, provide a better 3-D favorable rotational force of the rotor system. The performance of the 3-D wind turbine system model is measured by a torque meter, employing Prony's braking system. Furthermore, the 3-D flow patterns around the rotating blade models are investigated by applying "tuft-visualization technique", to study the appearance of laminar, separated, and boundary layer flow patterns surrounding the 3-dimentional blade system.

  18. Water tunnel visualization of the vortex flows of the F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorincz, D. J.; Friend, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were conducted in a diagnostic water tunnel to provide details of the wing, glove, and forebody vortex flow fields of the F-15 aircraft over a range of angles of attack and sideslip. Both the formation and breakdown of the vortex flow as a function of angle of attack and sideslip are detailed for the basic aircraft configuration. Additional tests showed that the wing upper surface vortex flows were sensitive to variations in an inlet mass flow ratio and an inlet cowl deflection angle. Two lengthened forebodies, one with a modified cross-sectional shape, were tested in addition to the basic forebody. Asymmetric forebody vortices were observed at zero sideslip and high angles of attack on each forebody. A large nose boom was added to each of the three forebodies, and it was observed that the turbulent wake shed from the boom disrupted the forebody vortices.

  19. Velocity Vector Field Visualization of Flow in Liquid Acquisition Device Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John B.; Chao, David F.; Hall, Nancy R.; Zhang, Nengli

    2012-01-01

    A capillary flow liquid acquisition device (LAD) for cryogenic propellants has been developed and tested in NASA Glenn Research Center to meet the requirements of transferring cryogenic liquid propellants from storage tanks to an engine in reduced gravity environments. The prototypical mesh screen channel LAD was fabricated with a mesh screen, covering a rectangular flow channel with a cylindrical outlet tube, and was tested with liquid oxygen (LOX). In order to better understand the performance in various gravity environments and orientations at different liquid submersion depths of the screen channel LAD, a series of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of LOX flow through the LAD screen channel was undertaken. The resulting velocity vector field visualization for the flow in the channel has been used to reveal the gravity effects on the flow in the screen channel.

  20. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed. PMID:19296591

  1. Visual Constraints for the Perception of Quantitative Depth from Temporal Interocular Unmatched Features

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Rui; Chen, Lin; Andersen, George J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research (Brooks & Gillam, 2006) has found that temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) features generate a perception of subjective contours and can result in a perception of quantitative depth. In the present study we examine in detail the factors important for quantitative depth perception from IOUM features. In Experiments 1 and 2 observers were shown temporal IOUM features based on three dots that disappeared behind an implicit surface. Subjects reported a perception of a subjective surface and were able to perceive qualitative depth. In Experiments 3 and 4 metrical depth was perceived when binocular disparity features were added to the display. These results suggest that quantitative depth from IOUM information is perceived when binocular matched information is present in regions adjacent to the surface. In addition, the perceived depth of the subjective surface decreased with an increase in the width of the subjective surface suggesting a limitation in the propagation of quantitative depth to surface regions where qualitative depth information is available. PMID:20493899

  2. Color surface-flow visualization of fin-generated shock wave boundary-layer interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, F. K.; Settles, G. S.

    1990-01-01

    Kerosene-lampblack mixtures with addition of a ground colored chalk were used in an experiment on visualizing surface flows of swept shock boundary-layer interactions. The results show that contrasting colors intensify the visualization of different regions of the interaction surface, and help the eye in following the fine streaks to locate the upstream influence. The study confirms observations of the separation occurring at shock strength below accepted values. The superiority of the reported technique over the previous monochrome technique is demonstrated.

  3. FLOW VISUALIZATION EXPERIMENTS ON STABLY STRATIFIED FLOW OVER RIDGES AND VALLEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the experiments was to define the flow over a simple cosine-shaped ridge and within a valley formed by a pair of such ridges when there is a stable ambient flow normal to the ridge. Three experimental parameters were varied during the study: the Froude number, th...

  4. Quantitative measurement of the blood flow in peripheral vascular diseases by a new radionuclide plethysmography

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, K.; Mori, Y.; Mashima, Y.; Shimada, T.; Fukuoka, M.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of the study is to introduce a new plethysmography using radionuclide (RN) for a quantitative measurement of the blood flow in the extremities following the routine RN angiography. Seventy five patients with various peripheral artery diseases have been examined. RN pletysmography was performed in the supine position 15 min. after the RN angiography using 15 mCi of Tc-99m RBC. The blood flow (F) was calculated by the equation (1) which consists of three parameters, the initial slope of the time-activity curve (dc/dt*t=0) after the venous occlusion on the thigh, changes of radio-activity (C-Co) before and after avascularization by inflation of cuff with 200 mmHg pressure at calf, and the blood volume per unit tissue volume (..beta..=Vb/V,ml/100g tissue). F (ml/min/100g) = ..beta.. (dc/dt*t=0)/C-Co. The blood flow measured simultaneously by RN plethysmography and admittance plethysmography was significantly correlated (r = 0.906,n = 16). The blood flow in 67 normal subjects was 2.78 +- 0.75 ml/min/100g. In the patients with intermittent claudication the blood flow was decreased (1.89 +- 0.75 ml/min/100g,n = 75). In the cases with poorly developed colateral circulation the blood flow markedly decreased (1.62 +- 0.29 ml/min/100g,n = 10). Increases of blood flow after exercise was small in the cases with stenosis, even in patients with collaterals. This method is very useful to evaluate quantitatively the peripheral hemodynamics following the routine RN angiographic examination.

  5. A quantitative analysis of head movement behaviour during visual acuity assessment under prosthetic vision simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. C.; Hallum, L. E.; Suaning, G. J.; Lovell, N. H.

    2007-03-01

    In most current vision prosthesis designs, head movement is the sole director of visual gaze and scanning due to the head-mounted nature of the camera. Study of this unnatural behaviour may provide insight into improved prosthesis designs and rehabilitation procedures. In this paper, we conducted a psychophysical study to investigate the characteristics of head movements of normally sighted subjects undergoing a visual acuity task in simulated prosthetic vision (SPV). In 12 naïve, untrained subjects, we recorded spontaneous changes in the amount of head movements during SPV sessions compared to control (normal vision) sessions. The observed behaviour continued to be refined until five or six sessions of practice. Increased head movement velocity was shown to be correlated to improved visual acuity performance, up to 0.3 logMAR, an equivalent of detecting details at half the physical size compared to complete deprivation of head movements. We postulate that visual scanning can as much as double the spatial frequency information in prosthetic vision. Increased head movement velocity observed when subjects were attempting smaller test items and for low-pass filtering schemes with higher cut-off frequencies may be further evidence that higher frequency content may be available through visual scanning, unconsciously driving subjects to increase head movement velocity.

  6. The flow of a thin liquid film on a stationary and rotating disk. I - Experimental analysis and flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, S.; Faghri, A.; Hankey, W.

    1990-01-01

    The mean thickness of a thin liquid film of deionized water with a free surface on a stationary and rotating horizontal disk has been measured with a nonobtrusive capacitance technique. The measurements were taken when the rotational speed was 0-300 RPM and the flow rate was 7.0-15.0 LPM. A flow visualization study of the thin film was also performed to determine the characteristics of the waves on the free surface. When the disk was stationary, a circular hydraulic jump was present on the disk. Surface waves were found in the supercritical and subcritical regions at all flow rates studied. When the rotational speed of the disk is low, a standing wave at the edge of the disk was present. As the rotational speed increased, the surface waves changed from the wavy-laminar region to a region in which the waves ran nearly radially across the disk on top of a thin substrate of fluid.

  7. Framework and algorithms for illustrative visualizations of time-varying flows on unstructured meshes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rattner, Alexander S.; Guillen, Donna Post; Joshi, Alark; Garimella, Srinivas

    2016-03-17

    Photo- and physically realistic techniques are often insufficient for visualization of fluid flow simulations, especially for 3D and time-varying studies. Substantial research effort has been dedicated to the development of non-photorealistic and illustration-inspired visualization techniques for compact and intuitive presentation of such complex datasets. However, a great deal of work has been reproduced in this field, as many research groups have developed specialized visualization software. Additionally, interoperability between illustrative visualization software is limited due to diverse processing and rendering architectures employed in different studies. In this investigation, a framework for illustrative visualization is proposed, and implemented in MarmotViz, a ParaViewmore » plug-in, enabling its use on a variety of computing platforms with various data file formats and mesh geometries. Region-of-interest identification and feature-tracking algorithms incorporated into this tool are described. Implementations of multiple illustrative effect algorithms are also presented to demonstrate the use and flexibility of this framework. Here, by providing an integrated framework for illustrative visualization of CFD data, MarmotViz can serve as a valuable asset for the interpretation of simulations of ever-growing scale.« less

  8. Quantitative fuel vapor/air mixing imaging in droplet/gas regions of an evaporating spray flow using filtered Rayleigh scattering.

    PubMed

    Allison, Patton M; McManus, Thomas A; Sutton, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-15

    This Letter demonstrates the application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for quantitative two-dimensional fuel vapor/air mixing measurements in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel spray flow. Using the FRS approach, gas-phase measurements are made in the presence of liquid-phase droplets without interference. Effective suppression of the liquid-phase droplet scattering using FRS is enabled by the high spectral purity of the current Nd:YAG laser system. Simultaneous Mie-scattering imaging is used to visualize the droplet field and illustrate the droplet loading under which the FRS imaging is applied in the current spray flows. The initial quantification of the FRS imaging is based on calibration measurements from a flow cell of known fuel vapor/air mixtures, while future work targets the utilization of a Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral model for quantification of the FRS signals. PMID:26977637

  9. Flow visualization of CO2 in tight shale formations at reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernø, M. A.; Hauge, L. P.; Uno Rognmo, A.; Gauteplass, J.; Graue, A.

    2015-09-01

    The flow of CO2 in porous media is fundamental to many engineering applications and geophysical processes. Yet detailed CO2 flow visualization remains challenging. We address this problem via positron emission tomography using 11C nuclides and apply it to tight formations—a difficult but relevant rock type to investigate. The results represent an important technical advancement for visualization and quantification of flow properties in ultratight rocks and allowed us to observe that local rock structure in a layered, reservoir shale (K = 0.74 µdarcy) sample dictated the CO2 flow path by the presence of high-density layers. Diffusive transport of CO2 in a fractured sample (high-permeable sandstone) was also visualized, and an effective diffusion coefficient (Di = 2.2 · 10-8 m2/s) was derived directly from the dynamic distribution of CO2. During CO2 injection tests for oil recovery from a reservoir shale sample we observed a recovery factor of RF = 55% of oil in place without fracturing the sample.

  10. Performing Quantitative Imaging Acquisition, Analysis and Visualization Using the Best of Open Source and Commercial Software Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Shailesh M.

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in any imaging laboratory, especially one that uses modern techniques, is to achieve a sustainable and productive balance between using open source and commercial software to perform quantitative image acquisition, analysis and visualization. In addition to considering the expense of software licensing, one must consider factors such as the quality and usefulness of the software’s support, training and documentation. Also, one must consider the reproducibility with which multiple people generate results using the same software to perform the same analysis, how one may distribute their methods to the community using the software and the potential for achieving automation to improve productivity. PMID:27516727

  11. Visualization and measurement of capillary-driven blood flow using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Cito, Salvatore; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Pallares, Jordi; Duarte, Rodrigo Martinez; Chen, Zhongping; Madou, Marc; Katakis, Ioanis

    2013-01-01

    Capillary-driven flow (CD-flow) in microchannels plays an important role in many microfluidic devices. These devices, the most popular being those based in lateral flow, are becoming increasingly used in health care and diagnostic applications. CD-flow can passively pump biological fluids as blood, serum or plasma, in microchannels and it can enhance the wall mass transfer by exploiting the convective effects of the flow behind the meniscus. The flow behind the meniscus has not been experimentally identified up to now because of the lack of high-resolution, non-invasive, cross-sectional imaging means. In this study, spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography is used to visualize and measure the flow behind the meniscus in CD-flows of water and blood. Microchannels of polydimethylsiloxane and glass with different cross-sections are considered. The predictions of the flow behind the meniscus of numerical simulations using the power-law model for non-Newtonian fluids are in reasonable agreement with the measurements using blood as working fluid. The extension of the Lucas–Washburn equation to non-Newtonian power-law fluids predicts well the velocity of the meniscus of the experiments using blood. PMID:23795150

  12. Visualization and void fraction measurement of decompressed boiling flow in a capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, H.; Murakawa, H.; Takenaka, N.; Takiguchi, K.; Okamoto, M.; Tsuchiya, T.; Kitaide, Y.; Maruyama, N.

    2011-09-01

    A capillary tube is often used as a throttle for a refrigerating cycle. Subcooled refrigerant usually flows from a condenser into the capillary tube. Then, the refrigerant is decompressed along the capillary tube. When the static pressure falls below the saturation pressure for the liquid temperature, spontaneous boiling occurs. A vapor-liquid two-phase mixture is discharged from the tube. In designing a capillary tube, it is necessary to calculate the flow rate for given boundary conditions on pressure and temperature at the inlet and exit. Since total pressure loss is dominated by frictional and acceleration losses during two-phase flow, it is first necessary to specify the boiling inception point. However, there will be a delay in boiling inception during decompressed flow. This study aimed to clarify the boiling inception point and two-phase flow characteristics of refrigerant in a capillary tube. Refrigerant flows in a coiled copper capillary tube were visualized by neutron radiography. The one-dimensional distribution of volumetric average void fraction was measured from radiographs through image processing. From the void fraction distribution, the boiling inception point was determined. Moreover, a simplified CT method was successfully applied to a radiograph for cross-sectional measurements. The experimental results show the flow pattern transition from intermittent flow to annular flow that occurred at a void fraction of about 0.45.

  13. Surface flow visualization of separated flows on the forebody of an F-18 aircraft and wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Banks, Daniel W.

    1988-01-01

    A method of in-flight surface flow visualization similar to wind-tunnel-model oil flows is described for cases where photo-chase planes or onboard photography are not practical. This method, used on an F-18 aircraft in flight at high angles of attack, clearly showed surface flow streamlines in the fuselage forebody. Vortex separation and reattachment lines were identified with this method and documented using postflight photography. Surface flow angles measured at the 90 and 270 degrees meridians show excellent agreement with the wind tunnel data for a pointed tangent ogive with an aspect ratio of 3.5. The separation and reattachment line locations were qualitatively similar to the F-18 wind-tunnel-model oil flows but neither the laminar separation bubble nor the boundary-layer transition on the wind tunnel model were evident in the flight surface flows. The separation and reattachment line locations were in fair agreement with the wind tunnel data for the 3.5 ogive. The elliptical forebody shape of the F-18 caused the primary separation lines to move toward the leeward meridian. Little effect of angle of attack on the separation locations was noted for the range reported.

  14. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET: a clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identification of the extent of a multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, 2) patients with balanced 3-vessel CAD, 3) patients with subclinical CAD, and 4) patients with regional flow variance, despite of a high global MFR. A more accurate assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD can support the clinical decision-making in treatment of CAD patients as a complementary tool to the invasive coronary angiography (CAG). Recently, several studies have proven Rubidium-82 ((82)Rb) PET's long-term prognostic value by a significant association between compromised global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac (82)Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative (82)Rb PET's ability to diagnose and risk stratify CAD patients, while assessing the potential of the modality in clinical practice. PMID:26550537

  15. Quantitative myocardial blood flow with Rubidium-82 PET: a clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hagemann, Christoffer E; Ghotbi, Adam A; Kjær, Andreas; Hasbak, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) allows assessment of myocardial blood flow in absolute terms (ml/min/g). Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) extend the scope of conventional semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI): e.g. in 1) identification of the extent of a multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) burden, 2) patients with balanced 3-vessel CAD, 3) patients with subclinical CAD, and 4) patients with regional flow variance, despite of a high global MFR. A more accurate assessment of the ischemic burden in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD can support the clinical decision-making in treatment of CAD patients as a complementary tool to the invasive coronary angiography (CAG). Recently, several studies have proven Rubidium-82 (82Rb) PET’s long-term prognostic value by a significant association between compromised global MFR and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), and together with new diagnostic possibilities from measuring the longitudinal myocardial perfusion gradient, cardiac 82Rb PET faces a promising clinical future. This article reviews current evidence on quantitative 82Rb PET’s ability to diagnose and risk stratify CAD patients, while assessing the potential of the modality in clinical practice. PMID:26550537

  16. Vapor-screen flow-visualization experiments in the NASA Langley 0.3-m transonic cryogenic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selby, G. V.

    1986-01-01

    The vortical flow on the leeward side of a delta-wing model has been visualized at several different tunnel conditions in the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel using a vapor-screen flow-visualization technique. Vapor-screen photographs of the subject flow field are presented and interpreted relative to phenomenological implications. Results indicate that the use of nitrogen fog in conjunction with the vapor-screen technique is feasibile.

  17. A quantitative model of ground-water flow during formation of tabular sandstone uranium deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanford, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a quantitative simulation of regional groundwater flow during uranium deposition in the Westwater Canyon Member and Jackpile Sandstone Member of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin. Topographic slope, shoreline position, and density contrasts in the lake and pore fluids controlled the directions of flow and recharge-discharge areas. The most important results for uranium ore deposit formation are that regional groundwater discharged throughout the basin, regional discharge was concentrated along the shore line or playa margin, flow was dominantly gravity driven, and compaction dewatering was negligible. A strong association is found between the tabular sandstone uranium deposits and major inferred zones of mixed local and regional groundwater discharge. -from Author

  18. Neurofilament protein defines regional patterns of cortical organization in the macaque monkey visual system: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Visual function in monkeys is subserved at the cortical level by a large number of areas defined by their specific physiological properties and connectivity patterns. For most of these cortical fields, a precise index of their degree of anatomical specialization has not yet been defined, although many regional patterns have been described using Nissl or myelin stains. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the regional characteristics, and to varying degrees boundaries, of several visual cortical areas in the macaque monkey using an antibody to neurofilament protein (SMI32). This antibody labels a subset of pyramidal neurons with highly specific regional and laminar distribution patterns in the cerebral cortex. Based on the staining patterns and regional quantitative analysis, as many as 28 cortical fields were reliably identified. Each field had a homogeneous distribution of labeled neurons, except area V1, where increases in layer IVB cell and in Meynert cell counts paralleled the increase in the degree of eccentricity in the visual field representation. Within the occipitotemporal pathway, areas V3 and V4 and fields in the inferior temporal cortex were characterized by a distinct population of neurofilament-rich neurons in layers II-IIIa, whereas areas located in the parietal cortex and part of the occipitoparietal pathway had a consistent population of large labeled neurons in layer Va. The mediotemporal areas MT and MST displayed a distinct population of densely labeled neurons in layer VI. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of the labeled neurons demonstrated that the visual cortical areas could be grouped in four hierarchical levels based on the ratio of neuron counts between infragranular and supragranular layers, with the first (areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A) and third (temporal and parietal regions) levels characterized by low ratios and the second (areas MT, MST, and V4) and fourth (frontal regions) levels characterized by

  19. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  20. Quantitating and Dating Recent Gene Flow between European and East Asian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Pengfei; Zhou, Ying; Lou, Haiyi; Lu, Dongsheng; Yang, Xiong; Wang, Yuchen; Jin, Li; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Xu, Shuhua

    2015-01-01

    Historical records indicate that extensive cultural, commercial and technological interaction occurred between European and Asian populations. What have been the biological consequences of these contacts in terms of gene flow? We systematically estimated gene flow between Eurasian groups using genome-wide polymorphisms from 34 populations representing Europeans, East Asians, and Central/South Asians. We identified recent gene flow between Europeans and Asians in most populations we studied, including East Asians and Northwestern Europeans, which are normally considered to be non-admixed populations. In addition we quantitatively estimated the extent of this gene flow using two statistical approaches, and dated admixture events based on admixture linkage disequilibrium. Our results indicate that most genetic admixtures occurred between 2,400 and 310 years ago and show the admixture proportions to be highly correlated with geographic locations, with the highest admixture proportions observed in Central Asia and the lowest in East Asia and Northwestern Europe. Interestingly, we observed a North-to-South decline of European gene flow in East Asians, suggesting a northern path of European gene flow diffusing into East Asian populations. Our findings contribute to an improved understanding of the history of human migration and the evolutionary mechanisms that have shaped the genetic structure of populations in Eurasia. PMID:25833680

  1. Verification of the time evolution of cosmological simulations via hypothesis-driven comparative and quantitative visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Chung-hsing; Ahrens, James P; Heitmann, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    We describe a visualization assisted process for the verification of cosmological simulation codes. The need for code verification stems from the requirement for very accurate predictions in order to interpret observational data confidently. We compare different simulation algorithms in order to reliably predict differences in simulation results and understand their dependence on input parameter settings.

  2. Review of Measurement Instruments and Procedures for Assessing Visual Behaviors: Implications for Quantitative Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Cynthia M.

    The assessment of vision as it relates to and interacts with motor development is reviewed. The focus is on eye readiness skills normally occuring in infants' first few months of life and preceding eye-hand coordination. These visual skills fall into three categories: fixation, tracking, and scanning. Six standardized scales are reviewed and…

  3. VISUALLY OBSERVED MOLD AND MOLDY ODOR VERSUS QUANTITATIVELY MEASURED MICROBIAL EXPOSURE IN HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main study objective was to compare different methods for assessing mold exposure in conjunction with an epidemiologic study on the development of children's asthma. Homes of 184 children were assessed for mold by visual observations and dust sampling at child's age 1 (Year ...

  4. Non-Invasive Visualization and Quantitation of Cardiovascular Structure and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritman, E. L.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new approach to investigative physiology based on computerized transaxial tomography, in which visualization and measurement of the internal structure of the cardiopulmonary system is possible without postmortem, biopsy, or vivisection procedures. Examples are given for application of the Dynamic Spatial Reconstructor (DSR). (CS)

  5. Visualization of flow separation and control by vortex generators on an single flap in landing configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Součková, Natálie; Kuklová, Jana; Popelka, Lukáš; Matějka, Milan

    2012-04-01

    This paper focuses on a suppression of the flow separation, which occurs on a deflected flap, by means of vortex generators (VG's). An airfoil NACA 63A421 with a simple flap and vane-type vortex generators were used. The investigation was carried out by using experimental and numerical methods. The data from the numerical simulation of the flapped airfoil without VG's control were used for the vortex generator design. Two sizes, two different shapes and various spacing of the vortex generators were tested. The flow past the airfoil was visualized through three methods, namely tuft filaments technique, oil and thermo camera visualization. The experiments were performed in closed circuit wind tunnels with closed and open test sections. The lift curves for both cases without and with vortex generators were acquired for a lift coefficient improvement determination. The improvement was achieved for several cases by means all of the applied methods.

  6. Visual Observations of Flow and Phase Phenomena in Loop Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghan; Nikanpour, Darius

    2007-06-01

    The Canadian Space Agency is developing loop heat pipe hardware aimed at understanding the thermal performance of two-phase heat transfer devices and in developing numerical simulation techniques using thermohydraulic mathematical models, to enable development of novel thermal control technologies. This loop heat pipe consists of a cylindrical evaporator, compensation chamber, condenser along with vapor and liquid lines, which can be easily assembled/disassembled for test purposes. This laboratory setup is especially designed to enable the visualization of fluid flow and phase change phenomena. There are transparent windows in the compensation chamber and transparent lines for vapor line, liquid returning line, and sections of condenser that enable the monitoring of the fluid phase and flowing characteristics along the loop. The setup demonstrated typical loop heat pipe performance. Three working fluids (water, acetone and methanol) were used in the characterization of the loop heat pipe. Visual observations have been made at the compensation chamber, vapor line, liquid line, and the condenser.

  7. FlowSOM: Using self-organizing maps for visualization and interpretation of cytometry data.

    PubMed

    Van Gassen, Sofie; Callebaut, Britt; Van Helden, Mary J; Lambrecht, Bart N; Demeester, Piet; Dhaene, Tom; Saeys, Yvan

    2015-07-01

    The number of markers measured in both flow and mass cytometry keeps increasing steadily. Although this provides a wealth of information, it becomes infeasible to analyze these datasets manually. When using 2D scatter plots, the number of possible plots increases exponentially with the number of markers and therefore, relevant information that is present in the data might be missed. In this article, we introduce a new visualization technique, called FlowSOM, which analyzes Flow or mass cytometry data using a Self-Organizing Map. Using a two-level clustering and star charts, our algorithm helps to obtain a clear overview of how all markers are behaving on all cells, and to detect subsets that might be missed otherwise. R code is available at https://github.com/SofieVG/FlowSOM and will be made available at Bioconductor. PMID:25573116

  8. Flow visualization during transient cooldown in a model PWR cold leg and downcomer

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, P.H.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents flow visualization studies performed in a 1/5 scale model of the cold leg and downcomer typical of Westinghouse or Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors which have a horizontal cold leg. Tests were performed with stagnant loop flow and prototypical HPI flow (Froude number F/sub CL/ = 0.04). In addition to photographs and movies illustrating phenomena and mechanistic descriptions of the behavior, the results include transient velocity profiles in the cold leg and downcomer, HPI buoyant jet entrainment rates and flow split ratios, and transient density profiles in the cold leg. This study will help to clarify the detailed mixing phenomena that are relevant to the thermal-hydraulic aspects of the Pressurized Thermal Shock concern.

  9. Flow visualization studies of VTOL aircraft models during Hover in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mourtos, Nikos J.; Couillaud, Stephane; Carter, Dale; Hange, Craig; Wardwell, Doug; Margason, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    A flow visualization study of several configurations of a jet-powered vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft model during hover in ground effect was conducted. A surface oil flow technique was used to observe the flow patterns on the lower surfaces of the model. There were significant configuration effects. Wing height with respect to fuselage, the presence of an engine inlet duct beside the fuselage, and nozzle pressure ratio are seen to have strong effects on the surface flow angles on the lower surface of the wing. This test was part of a program to improve the methods for predicting the hot gas ingestion (HGI) for jet-powered vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft. The tests were performed at the Jet Calibration and Hover Test (JCAHT) Facility at Ames Research Center.

  10. Hypersonic Nozzle/Afterbody Experiment: Flow Visualization and Boundary Layer Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, Earl R.; Spaid, Frank W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This study was conducted to experimentally characterize the flow field created by the interaction of a single-expansion-ramp-nozzle (SERN) flow with a hypersonic external stream Data were obtained from a generic nozzle/afterbody model in the 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel of the NASA Ames Research Center in a cooperative experimental program involving Ames and the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace. The model design and test planning were performed in close cooperation with members of the Ames computational fluid dynamics (CFD) team for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program. This paper presents experimental results consisting of oil-flow and shadowgraph flow-visualization photographs, afterbody surface-pressure distributions, boundary-layer rake measurements, and Preston-tube skin-friction measurements.

  11. Visual processing of optic flow and motor control in the human posterior cingulate sulcus.

    PubMed

    Field, David T; Inman, Laura A; Li, Li

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the human posterior cingulate contains a visual processing area selective for optic flow (CSv). However, other studies performed in both humans and monkeys have identified a somatotopic motor region at the same location (CMA). Taken together, these findings suggested the possibility that the posterior cingulate contains a single visuomotor integration region. To test this idea we used fMRI to identify both visual and motor areas of the posterior cingulate in the same brains and to test the activity of those regions during a visuomotor task. Results indicated that rather than a single visuomotor region the posterior cingulate contains adjacent but separate motor and visual regions. CSv lies in the fundus of the cingulate sulcus, while CMA lies in the dorsal bank of the sulcus, slightly superior in terms of stereotaxic coordinates. A surprising and novel finding was that activity in CSv was suppressed during the visuomotor task, despite the visual stimulus being identical to that used to localize the region. This may provide an important clue to the specific role played by this region in the utilization of optic flow to control self-motion. PMID:26318342

  12. Combined single-pulse holography and time-resolved laser schlieren for flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Goad, W. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed ruby laser and continuous-wave argon ion laser were used in a combined setup at the Langley Expansion Tube for single pulse holography and time resolved laser schlieren with a common optical axis. The systems can be operated simultaneously for a single run. For a single frame, the pulsed holographic setup offers the options of shadowgraph, Schlieren, and interferometry from the reconstructed hologram as well as the advantage of post-run sensitivity adjustments. For flow establishment studies the time resolved laser Schlieren provides visualization of the flow field every 12.5 microns for up to 80 frames with an exposure time per frame of 5.4 microns.

  13. Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) and other Flow Visualization Developments and Applications at GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clem, Michelle; Woike, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This is a presentation to be given at an internal NASA Advanced Schlieren Working Group Meeting. The presentation will cover the recent developments and applications of flow visualization methods at GRC. The topics being discussed will include the use of Background Oriented Schlieren (BOS) in the study of screech and its associated shock spacing as well as in the investigation of broadband shock noise reduction in the Jet-Surface Interaction Tests. In addition, other flow visualiztion methods will be discussed in an on-going study comparing schlieren, shadowgraph, BOS, and focusing schlieren.

  14. Visualization of internal flows of complex geometry using three-dimensional dynamical laser sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenel, J.-P.; Porcar, R.; Diemunsch, G.; Hostache, G.

    1986-12-01

    An extension of a previous visualization method (Prenel et al., 1986) is described in which three-dimensional light sheets obtained by sweeping of a laser beam are used to analyze internal flows of arbitrary geometry, with application to the testing of the ducts of thermal machines. The example of a variable circular test section with an elbow bend demonstrates the ability of the present method to successfully follow the evolution of a fluid in a channel of arbitrary form. Various aerodynamic parameters including position and dimension of the vortex flow, and dead zones and recirculations, are easily analyzed.

  15. Water Tunnel Flow Visualization Study Through Poststall of 12 Novel Planform Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    1996-01-01

    To determine the flow field characteristics of 12 planform geometries, a flow visualization investigation was conducted in the Langley 16- by 24-Inch Water Tunnel. Concepts studied included flat plate representations of diamond wings, twin bodies, double wings, cutout wing configurations, and serrated forebodies. The off-surface flow patterns were identified by injecting colored dyes from the model surface into the free-stream flow. These dyes generally were injected so that the localized vortical flow patterns were visualized. Photographs were obtained for angles of attack ranging from 10' to 50', and all investigations were conducted at a test section speed of 0.25 ft per sec. Results from the investigation indicate that the formation of strong vortices on highly swept forebodies can improve poststall lift characteristics; however, the asymmetric bursting of these vortices could produce substantial control problems. A wing cutout was found to significantly alter the position of the forebody vortex on the wing by shifting the vortex inboard. Serrated forebodies were found to effectively generate multiple vortices over the configuration. Vortices from 65' swept forebody serrations tended to roll together, while vortices from 40' swept serrations were more effective in generating additional lift caused by their more independent nature.

  16. A high-speed photographic system for flow visualization in a steam turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barna, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A photographic system was designed to visualize the moisture flow in a steam turbine. Good performance of the system was verified using dry turbine mockups in which an aerosol spray simulated, in a rough way, the moisture flow in the turbine. Borescopes and fiber-optic light tubes were selected as the general instrumentation approach. High speed motion-picture photographs of the liquid flow over the stator blade surfaces were taken using stroboscopic lighting. Good visualization of the liquid flow was obtained. Still photographs of drops in flight were made using short duration flash sources. Drops with diameters as small as 30 micrometers (0.0012 in.) could be resolved. In addition, motion pictures of a spray of water simulating the spray off the rotor blades and shrouds were taken at normal framing rates. Specially constructed light tubes containing small tungsten-halogen lamps were used. Sixteen millimeter photography was used in all cases. Two potential problems resulting from the two-phase turbine flow (attenuation and scattering of light by the fog present and liquid accumulation on the borescope mirrors) were taken into account in the photographic system design but not evaluated experimentally.

  17. A Vocabulary Approach to Partial Streamline Matching and Exploratory Flow Visualization.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Chaoli; Shene, Ching-Kuang; Shaw, Raymond A

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the similarity of integral curves is fundamental to many important flow data analysis and visualization tasks such as feature detection, pattern querying, streamline clustering, and hierarchical exploration. In this paper, we introduce FlowString, a novel vocabulary approach that extracts shape invariant features from streamlines and utilizes a string-based method for exploratory streamline analysis and visualization. Our solution first resamples streamlines by considering their local feature scales. We then classify resampled points along streamlines based on the shape similarity around their local neighborhoods. We encode each streamline into a string of well-selected shape characters, from which we construct meaningful words for querying and retrieval. A unique feature of our approach is that it captures intrinsic streamline similarity that is invariant under translation, rotation and scaling. We design an intuitive interface and user interactions to support flexible querying, allowing exact and approximate searches for partial streamline matching. Users can perform queries at either the character level or the word level, and define their own characters or words conveniently for customized search. We demonstrate the effectiveness of FlowString with several flow field data sets of different sizes and characteristics. We also extend FlowString to handle multiple data sets and perform an empirical expert evaluation to confirm the usefulness of this approach. PMID:27045908

  18. Visual responses to vorticity and the neural analysis of optic flow.

    PubMed

    Regan, D; Beverley, K I

    1985-02-01

    While an observer is moving forward, his retinal image of the outside world contains a flow field. This optical flow field carries information both about external objects and about where the observer is going relative to these objects. Mathematically, the flow pattern can be analyzed into elements that include the curl of local velocity (i.e., vorticity), and it has been suggested that the visual pathway might contain independent neural mechanisms sensitive to these mathematical elements [H. C. Longuet-Higgins and K. Prazdny, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 208, 385-397 (1980)]. To test this suggestion we compared visual responses to two circular areas of random dots, A and B. These two stimuli were identical in that all dots oscillated along a straight line in one of two possible directions. However, the relative phases of dot oscillations were different for A and B, causing A to have a rotary component of motion that B did not have. We found that rotary motion thresholds for a rotary test stimulus were more elevated after adapting to A than after adapting to B, a difference that cannot be explained in terms of visual responses to linear motion, since linear motion components were the same for A and B. This finding is consistent with the idea of a neural mechanism sensitive to the curl of velocity (i.e., vorticity). Adding this to previous evidence for a mechanism specifically sensitive to the divergence of velocity (i.e., dilatation), we suggest that one role of these postulated mechanisms might be to parallel vector calculus by analyzing each small patch of the visual flow field into neural representations of the mathematically independent quantities curl and divergence of velocity. PMID:3973761

  19. Fluorescence Visualization of Hypersonic Flow Past Triangular and Rectangular Boundary-layer Trips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Garcia, A. P.; Borg, Stephen E.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Berry, Scott A.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Alderfer, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) flow visualization has been used to investigate the hypersonic flow of air over surface protrusions that are sized to force laminar-to-turbulent boundary layer transition. These trips were selected to simulate protruding Space Shuttle Orbiter heat shield gap-filler material. Experiments were performed in the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air Wind Tunnel, which is an electrically-heated, blowdown facility. Two-mm high by 8-mm wide triangular and rectangular trips were attached to a flat plate and were oriented at an angle of 45 degrees with respect to the oncoming flow. Upstream of these trips, nitric oxide (NO) was seeded into the boundary layer. PLIF visualization of this NO allowed observation of both laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow downstream of the trips for varying flow conditions as the flat plate angle of attack was varied. By varying the angle of attack, the Mach number above the boundary layer was varied between 4.2 and 9.8, according to analytical oblique-shock calculations. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flowfield with a laminar boundary layer were also performed to better understand the flow environment. The PLIF images of the tripped boundary layer flow were compared to a case with no trip for which the flow remained laminar over the entire angle-of-attack range studied. Qualitative agreement is found between the present observed transition measurements and a previous experimental roughness-induced transition database determined by other means, which is used by the shuttle return-to-flight program.

  20. Quantitative evaluation and visualization of cracking process in reinforced concrete by a moment tensor analysis of acoustic emission

    SciTech Connect

    Yuyama, Shigenori; Okamoto, Takahisa; Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu

    1995-06-01

    Fracture tests are conducted on two types of reinforced concrete specimens under cyclic loadings. Cracking process is quantitatively evaluated and visualized by applying a moment tensor analysis to the AE waveforms detected during the fracture. First, bending tests are performed on reinforced concrete beams. It is found that both tensile and shear cracks are generated around the reinforcement in the low loading stages. However, shear cracks become dominant as the cracking process progresses. In the final stages, shear cracks are generated near the interface between the reinforcement and concrete even during unloadings. A bond strength test, made second, shows that tensile cracks are produced around the reinforcement in the early stages. They spread apart from the reinforcement to wider areas in the later stages. An intense AE cluster due to shear cracks is observed along the interface between the reinforcement and concrete. The previous result from an engineering structure is also presented for comparison. All these results demonstrate a great promise of the analysis for quantitative evaluation and visualization of the cracking process in reinforced concrete. The relationship between the opening width of surface cracks and the Kaiser effect is intensively studied. It is shown that a breakdown of the Kaiser effect and high AE activities during unloading can be effective indices to estimate the level of deterioration in concrete structures.

  1. The visual control of stability in children and adults: postural readjustments in a ground optical flow.

    PubMed

    Baumberger, Bernard; Isableu, Brice; Flückiger, Michelangelo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this research was to analyse the development of postural reactions to approaching (AOF) and receding (ROF) ground rectilinear optical flows. Optical flows were shaped by a pattern of circular spots of light projected on the ground surface by a texture flow generator. The geometrical structure of the projected scenes corresponded to the spatial organisation of visual flows encountered in open outdoor settings. Postural readjustments of 56 children, ranging from 7 to 11 years old, and 12 adults were recorded by the changes of the centre of foot pressure (CoP) on a force platform during 44-s exposures to the moving texture. Before and after the optical flows exposure, a 24-s motionless texture served as a reference condition. Effect of ground rectilinear optical flows on postural control development was assessed by analysing sway latencies (SL), stability performances and postural orientation. The main results that emerge from this experiment show that postural responses are directionally specific to optical flow pattern and that they vary as a function of the motion onset and offset. Results showed that greater developmental changes in postural control occurred in an AOF (both at the onset and offset of the optical flow) than in an ROF. Onset of an approaching flow induced postural instability, canonical shifts in postural orientation and long latencies in children which were stronger than in the receding flow. This pattern of responses evolved with age towards an improvement in stability performances and shorter SL. The backward decreasing shift of the CoP in children evolved in adults towards forward postural tilt, i.show $132#e. in the opposite direction of the texture's motion. Offset of an AOF motion induced very short SL in children (which became longer in adult subjects), strong postural instability, but weaker shift of orientation compared to the receding one. Postural stability improved and orientation shift evolved to forward inclinations with

  2. Uncertainties have a Meaning: Quantitative Interpretation of the Relationship between Subsurface Flow and Geological Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, J.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.; Western Australian Geothermal Centre of Excellence

    2011-12-01

    We present a new method to assess system-based measures to classify uncertainties in geological models and in subsurface flow fields. Information entropy is proposed to evaluate uncertainties in geological models, and thermal entropy production is proposed to analyze uncertainties related to hydrothermal flow. As these measures have a fundamental theoretical basis and are related to the internal state of the system, they can be interpreted quantitatively and, consequently, give uncertainties a meaning. Information entropy values are directly related to the state of uncertainty of a geological model. For a point within the model, information entropy is a measure of the minimum number of geological units that could occur at its location. If the information entropy is zero, only one unit is possible and no uncertainty exists. If the value is greater than zero, at least two units are probable. If it increases above 1, three units can occur. In general the measure provides a weight of probabiliy for different states. A strong point of the method is that it gives an entropy measure for the state of the entire model and therefore lends itself as a robust measure to quantitatively compare uncertainties in difference models. In a similar sense, the thermal entropy production provides a quantitative measure of the thermodynamic state of a hydrothermal system. When the entropy production is zero, the system must be in a conductive steady state for a closed system. If the entropy production is larger than zero, the system can be in a convective or transient conductive state. For higher values of entropy production, the convective units show higher complexities and, hence, uncertainty of the hydrothermal field increases. Moreover, the average model entropy production gives a measure of the convective vigour that can be expected in the system. This is directly related to the efficiency of heat transfer over the system. The measure is therefore not only useful for a

  3. A water tunnel flow visualization study of the vortex flow structures on the F/A-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Ramirez, Edgar J.

    1991-01-01

    The vortex flow structures occurring on the F/A-18 aircraft at high angles of attack were studied. A water tunnel was used to gather flow visualization data on the forebody vortex and the wing leading edge extension vortex. The longitudinal location of breakdown of the leading edge vortex was found to be consistently dependent on the angle of attack. Other parameters such as Reynolds number, model scale, and model fidelity had little influence on the overall behavior of the flow structures studied. The lateral location of the forebody vortex system was greatly influenced by changes in the angle of sideslip. Strong interactions can occur between the leading edge extension vortex and the forebody vortex. Close attention was paid to vortex induced flows on various airframe components of the F/A-18. Reynolds number and angle of attack greatly affected the swirling intensity, and therefore the strength of the studied vortices. Water tunnel results on the F/A-18 correlated well with those obtained in similar studies at both full and sub scale levels. The water tunnel can provide, under certain conditions, good simulations of realistic flows in full scale configurations.

  4. A Study to Formulate Quantitative Guidelines for the Audio-Visual Communications Field. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Gene; Sherman, Mendel

    Quantitative guidelines for use in determining the audiovisual (AV) needs of educational institutions were developed by the Octobe r 14-16, 1965 Seminar of the NDEA (National Defense Education Act), Faris-Sherman study. The guidelines that emerged were based in part on a review of past efforts and existing standards but primarily reflected the…

  5. Flow visualization of mast-mounted-sight/main rotor aerodynamic interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghee, Terence A.; Kelley, Henry L.

    1993-01-01

    Flow visualization tests were conducted on a 27 percent-scale AH-64 attack helicopter model fitted with various mast-mounted-sight configurations in an attempt to identify the cause of adverse vibration encountered during full-scale flight tests of an Apache/Longbow configuration. The tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. A symmetric and an asymmetric mast-mounted-sight oriented at several skew angles were tested at forward and rearward flight speeds of 30 and 45 knots. A laser light sheet seeded with vaporized propylene glycol was used to visualize the wake of the sight in planes parallel and perpendicular to the freestream flow. Analysis of the flow visualization data identified the frequency of the wake shed from the sight, the angle-of-attack at the sight, and the location where the sight wake crossed the rotor plane. Differences in wake structure were observed between the various sight configurations and slew angles. Postulations into the cause of the adverse vibration found in flight test are given along with considerations for future tests.

  6. Visualization of the flow field around a generic destroyer model in a simulated turbulent atmospheric boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolinger, William K.

    1987-06-01

    An experimental flow visualization study was performed on a rectangular block and other elements that could be assembled in the form of a generic destroyer ship model. The purpose of the study was to visually analyze the flow field around the model in a simulated open ocean atmospheric boundary layer. To ensure correct simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer, both velocity profile and longitudinal turbulence intensities were matched. For the actual flow visualization studies, two techniques were used. During the on-body portion of the study, the ultraviolet lighting/fluorescent minituft technique was used. For the off-body portion, helium bubble system, with a neutral density centrifuge, was utilized. Both techniques produced excellent photographic results and allowed for direct comparison of the flow fields using the two flow visualization techniques.

  7. Flow visualization around cylinders in a channel flow using particle image velocimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, R.; Philip, O.G.; Schmidl, W.D.; Hassan, Y.A. )

    1993-01-01

    One of the major concerns with steam generator operation is the tube vibration caused by turbulent flow buffeting. The vibration can cause wear on the tube joints, which may eventually lead to ruptures and leaks. When the cumulative leaks result in a major loss of fluid, the plant needs to be shut down, and the leaking tubes must be either plugged or removed. This repair procedure can be very costly. To help avoid this problem, experimental tests need to be performed to test the empirical correlations that predict the behavior of the turbulent flow around the tubes. In this experiment, the particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental measurement technique was used to capture the flow velocity field around a cylindrical tube.

  8. Investigation of flow mechanism of a robotic fish swimming by using flow visualization synchronized with hydrodynamic force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu

    When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode (φ = - 75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1 - H1 and S2 - H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two antisymmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.

  9. Investigation of flow mechanism of a robotic fish swimming by using flow visualization synchronized with hydrodynamic force measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Guang-Kun; Shen, Gong-Xin; Huang, Shuo-Qiao; Su, Wen-Han; Ke, Yu

    2007-11-01

    When swimming in water by flapping its tail, a fish can overcome the drag from uniform flow and propel its body. The involved flow mechanism concerns 3-D and unsteady effects. This paper presents the investigation of the flow mechanism on the basis of a 3-D robotic fish model which has the typical geometry of body and tail with periodic flapping 2-freedom kinematical motion testing in the case of St = 0.78, Re = 6,600 and phase delay mode ( φ = -75°), in which may have a greater or maximum propulsion (without consideration of the optimal efficiency). Using a special technique of dye visualization which can clearly show vortex sheet and vortices in detail and using the inner 3-component force balance and cable supporting system with the phase-lock technique, the 3-D flow structure visualized in the wake of fish and the hydrodynamic force measurement were synchronized and obtained. Under the mentioned flapping parameters, we found the key flow structure and its evolution, a pair of complex 3-D chain-shape vortex (S-H vortex-rings, S1-H1 and S2-H2, and their legs L1 and L2) flow structures, which attach the leading edge and the trailing edge, then shed, move downstream and outwards and distribute two anti-symmetric staggering arrays along with the wake of the fish model in different phase stages during the flapping period. It is different with in the case of St = 0.25-0.35. Its typical flow structure and evolution are described and the results prove that they are different from the viewpoints based on the investigation of 2-D cases. For precision of the dynamic force measurement, in this paper it was provided with the method and techniques by subtracting the inertial forces and the forces induced by buoyancy and gravity effect in water, etc. from original data measured. The evolution of the synchronized measuring forces directly matching with the flow structure was also described in this paper.

  10. Visual cell profiles for quantitation of premalignant cells in sputum: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, S D; Smith, S; Swank, P R; Winkler, D G; Spjut, H J; Estrada, R; Hunter, N; Taylor, G R

    1982-01-01

    Visual cell profiles were used to analyze the distribution of atypical bronchial cells in sputum specimens from cigarette-smoking volunteers, cigarette-smoking asbestos workers and cigarette-smoking uranium miners. The preliminary results of these sputum visual cell profile studies have demonstrated distinctive distributions of bronchial cell atypias in progressive patterns of squamous metaplasia, mild, moderate and severe atypias and carcinoma, similar to those the authors have previously reported using cell image analysis techniques to determine an atypia status index (ASI). The information gained from this study will be helpful in further validating this ASI and subsequently achieving the ultimate goal of employing cell image analysis for the rapid and precise identification of premalignant atypias in sputum. PMID:6961717

  11. Toward a quantitative visual noise evaluation of sensors and image processing pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mornet, Clémence; Baxter, Donald; Vaillant, Jérôme; Decroux, Thomas; Herault, Didier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of sensor's performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a big challenge for both camera phone manufacturers and customers. The first ones want to predict and assess the performance of their pixel while the seconds require being able to benchmark raw sensors and processing pipes. The Reference SNR metric is very sensitive to crosstalk whereas for low-light issue, the weight of sensitivity should be increased. To evaluate noise on final image, the analytical calculation of SNR on luminance channel has been performed by taking into account noise correlation due to the processing pipe. However, this luminance noise does not match the perception of human eye which is also sensitive to chromatic noise. Alternative metrics have been investigated to find a visual noise metric closer to the human visual system. They have been computed on five pixel technologies nodes with different sensor resolutions and viewing conditions.

  12. Quantitative analysis of human-model agreement in visual saliency modeling: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Borji, Ali; Sihite, Dicky N; Itti, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Visual attention is a process that enables biological and machine vision systems to select the most relevant regions from a scene. Relevance is determined by two components: 1) top-down factors driven by task and 2) bottom-up factors that highlight image regions that are different from their surroundings. The latter are often referred to as "visual saliency." Modeling bottom-up visual saliency has been the subject of numerous research efforts during the past 20 years, with many successful applications in computer vision and robotics. Available models have been tested with different datasets (e.g., synthetic psychological search arrays, natural images or videos) using different evaluation scores (e.g., search slopes, comparison to human eye tracking) and parameter settings. This has made direct comparison of models difficult. Here, we perform an exhaustive comparison of 35 state-of-the-art saliency models over 54 challenging synthetic patterns, three natural image datasets, and two video datasets, using three evaluation scores. We find that although model rankings vary, some models consistently perform better. Analysis of datasets reveals that existing datasets are highly center-biased, which influences some of the evaluation scores. Computational complexity analysis shows that some models are very fast, yet yield competitive eye movement prediction accuracy. Different models often have common easy/difficult stimuli. Furthermore, several concerns in visual saliency modeling, eye movement datasets, and evaluation scores are discussed and insights for future work are provided. Our study allows one to assess the state-of-the-art, helps to organizing this rapidly growing field, and sets a unified comparison framework for gauging future efforts, similar to the PASCAL VOC challenge in the object recognition and detection domains. PMID:22868572

  13. Quantitatively Measuring In situ Flows using a Self-Contained Underwater Velocimetry Apparatus (SCUVA)

    PubMed Central

    Katija, Kakani; Colin, Sean P.; Costello, John H.; Dabiri, John O.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to directly measure velocity fields in a fluid environment is necessary to provide empirical data for studies in fields as diverse as oceanography, ecology, biology, and fluid mechanics. Field measurements introduce practical challenges such as environmental conditions, animal availability, and the need for field-compatible measurement techniques. To avoid these challenges, scientists typically use controlled laboratory environments to study animal-fluid interactions. However, it is reasonable to question whether one can extrapolate natural behavior (i.e., that which occurs in the field) from laboratory measurements. Therefore, in situ quantitative flow measurements are needed to accurately describe animal swimming in their natural environment. We designed a self-contained, portable device that operates independent of any connection to the surface, and can provide quantitative measurements of the flow field surrounding an animal. This apparatus, a self-contained underwater velocimetry apparatus (SCUVA), can be operated by a single scuba diver in depths up to 40 m. Due to the added complexity inherent of field conditions, additional considerations and preparation are required when compared to laboratory measurements. These considerations include, but are not limited to, operator motion, predicting position of swimming targets, available natural suspended particulate, and orientation of SCUVA relative to the flow of interest. The following protocol is intended to address these common field challenges and to maximize measurement success. PMID:22064442

  14. Quantification of mitochondrial toxicity in HIV-infected individuals by quantitative PCR compared to flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Thor A.; Lin, Chen-Han; Tobin, Nicole H.; Côté, Hélène C.F.; Sloan, Derek D.; Jerome, Keith R.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-invasive diagnostic assays to evaluate mitochondrial toxicity could have significant clinical utility for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods This study compared the ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear DNA determined by quantitative PCR to the ratio of mitochondrial to nuclear-encoded proteins by flow cytometry, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 73 HIV-infected individuals with and without risk factors for mitochondrial toxicity. Results PCR detected similar mitochondrial/nuclear DNA in HIV-infected individuals without a history of ART, and those receiving ART with lipodystrophy, lipoatrophy or a history of suspected lactic acidosis. However, the ratio was significantly greater in ART-untreated compared to those receiving either stavudine or didanosine. In contrast, flow cytometry did not detect any differences in mitochondrial/nuclear protein (1). There was no correlation between the assays (rho = −0.05, p = 0.65). Conclusions Assessment of the mitochondrial/nuclear DNA ratio by quantitative PCR performed better than the mitochondrial/nuclear-encoded protein ratio by flow cytometry to detect adverse effects of nucleoside analogues on mitochondria. PMID:23044657

  15. Quantitative Evaluation of Stereo Visual Odometry for Autonomous Vessel Localisation in Inland Waterway Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Breckon, Toby P.; Hamilton, Oliver; Rivas Casado, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous survey vessels can increase the efficiency and availability of wide-area river environment surveying as a tool for environment protection and conservation. A key challenge is the accurate localisation of the vessel, where bank-side vegetation or urban settlement preclude the conventional use of line-of-sight global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In this paper, we evaluate unaided visual odometry, via an on-board stereo camera rig attached to the survey vessel, as a novel, low-cost localisation strategy. Feature-based and appearance-based visual odometry algorithms are implemented on a six degrees of freedom platform operating under guided motion, but stochastic variation in yaw, pitch and roll. Evaluation is based on a 663 m-long trajectory (>15,000 image frames) and statistical error analysis against ground truth position from a target tracking tachymeter integrating electronic distance and angular measurements. The position error of the feature-based technique (mean of ±0.067 m) is three times smaller than that of the appearance-based algorithm. From multi-variable statistical regression, we are able to attribute this error to the depth of tracked features from the camera in the scene and variations in platform yaw. Our findings inform effective strategies to enhance stereo visual localisation for the specific application of river monitoring. PMID:26694411

  16. Quantitative Evaluation of Stereo Visual Odometry for Autonomous Vessel Localisation in Inland Waterway Sensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Blackburn, Kim; Breckon, Toby P; Hamilton, Oliver; Casado, Monica Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous survey vessels can increase the efficiency and availability of wide-area river environment surveying as a tool for environment protection and conservation. A key challenge is the accurate localisation of the vessel, where bank-side vegetation or urban settlement preclude the conventional use of line-of-sight global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). In this paper, we evaluate unaided visual odometry, via an on-board stereo camera rig attached to the survey vessel, as a novel, low-cost localisation strategy. Feature-based and appearance-based visual odometry algorithms are implemented on a six degrees of freedom platform operating under guided motion, but stochastic variation in yaw, pitch and roll. Evaluation is based on a 663 m-long trajectory (>15,000 image frames) and statistical error analysis against ground truth position from a target tracking tachymeter integrating electronic distance and angular measurements. The position error of the feature-based technique (mean of ±0.067 m) is three times smaller than that of the appearance-based algorithm. From multi-variable statistical regression, we are able to attribute this error to the depth of tracked features from the camera in the scene and variations in platform yaw. Our findings inform effective strategies to enhance stereo visual localisation for the specific application of river monitoring. PMID:26694411

  17. Quantitative measurement by artificial vision of small bubbles in flowing mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquit, Vincent C.; Wendel, Mark W.; Felde, David K.; Riemer, Bernie W.

    2011-03-01

    At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), an accelerator-based neutron source located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee, USA), the production of neutrons is obtained by accelerating protons against a mercury target. This self-cooling target, however, suffers rapid heat deposition by the beam pulse leading to large pressure changes and thus to cavitations that may be damaging to the container. In order to locally compensate for pressure increases, a small-bubble population is added to the mercury flow using gas bubblers. The geometry of the bubblers being unknown, we are testing several bubblers' configurations and are using machine vision techniques to characterize their efficiency by quantitative measurement of the created bubble population. In this paper we thoroughly detail the experimental setup and the image processing techniques used to quantitatively assess the bubble population. To support this approach we are comparing our preliminary results for different bubblers and operating modes, and discuss potential improvements.

  18. Quantitative measurement by artificial vision of small bubbles in flowing mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Paquit, Vincent C; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie

    2011-01-01

    At the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), an accelerator-based neutron source located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Tennessee, USA), the production of neutrons is obtained by accelerating protons against a mercury target. This self-cooling target, however, suffers rapid heat deposition by the beam pulse leading to large pressure changes and thus to cavitations that may be damaging to the container. In order to locally compensate for pressure increases, a small-bubble population is added to the mercury flow using gas bubblers. The geometry of the bubblers being unknown, we are testing several bubblers configurations and are using machine vision techniques to characterize their efficiency by quantitative measurement of the created bubble population. In this paper we thoroughly detail the experimental setup and the image processing techniques used to quantitatively assess the bubble population. To support this approach we are comparing our preliminary results for different bubblers and operating modes, and discuss potential improvements.

  19. The stability and visualized flame and flow structures of a combusting jet in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, R.F.; Chang, J.M. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The blowoff stability and flame behavior of a combusting propane gas jet issuing from a well-contoured burner perpendicularly to a cross air stream in a wind tunnel test section is studied experimentally. A category of never-lift flames was found to have different stability characteristics and behavior from the conventionally reported liftable flames. The stability domain of the never-lift flames covers higher cross-flow velocities and lower fuel jet velocities compared with the liftable flames. The flame configurations in the stability domain are identified by characteristic modes: down-washed flame, flashing flame, developing flame, dual-flame, flickering flame, and pre-blowoff flame. The schlieren photographs are presented in order to discuss the effects of the flow structures on the general behavior of the flames in each characteristic mode and on the flame stability characteristics. The bisector of the eddy travelling avenue reasonably depicts the trajectory of the combusting jet in cross flow. Correlations for the trajectories of cold and combusting jets in cross flow are obtained.

  20. Visualization of Secondary Flow Development in High Aspect Ratio Channels with Curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Giuliani, James E.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an experimental project to visually examine the secondary flow structure that develops in curved, high aspect-ratio rectangular channels are presented. The results provide insight into the fluid dynamics within high aspect ratio channels. A water flow test rig constructed out of plexiglass, with an adjustable aspect ratio, was used for these experiments. Results were obtained for a channel geometry with a hydraulic diameter of 10.6 mm (0.417 in.), an aspect ratio of 5.0, and a hydraulic radius to curvature radius ratio of 0.0417. Flow conditions were varied to achieve Reynolds numbers up to 5,100. A new particle imaging velocimetry technique was developed which could resolve velocity information from particles entering and leaving the field of view. Time averaged secondary flow velocity vectors, obtained using this velocimetry technique, are presented for 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees into a 180 degrees bend and at a Reynolds number of 5,100. The secondary flow results suggest the coexistence of both the classical curvature induced vortex pair flow structure and the eddies seen in straight turbulent channel flow.

  1. Pore level visualization of foam flow in a silicon micromodel. SUPRI TR 100

    SciTech Connect

    Woody, F.; Blunt, M.; Castanier, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the behavior of foam in porous media at the pore level. Identical, heterogeneous silicon micromodels, two dimensionally etched to replicate flow in Berea Sandstone, were used. The models, already saturated with varying concentrations of surfactant and, at times, oil were invaded with air. Visual observations were made of these air displacement events in an effort to determine foam flow characteristics with varying surfactant concentrations, and differing surfactants in the presence of oil. These displacement events were recorded on video tape. These tapes are available at the Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute, Stanford, California. The observed air flow characteristics can be broadly classified into two: continuous and discontinuous. Continuous air flow was observed in two phase runs when the micromodel contained no aqueous surfactant solution. Air followed a tortuous path to the outlet, splitting and reconnecting around grains, isolating water located in dead-end or circumvented pores, all without breaking and forming bubbles. No foam was created. Discontinuous air flow occurred in runs containing surfactant - with smaller bubble sizes appearing with higher surfactant concentrations. Air moved through the medium by way of modified bubble train flow where bubbles travel through pore throats and tend to reside more statically in larger pore bodies until enough force is applied to move them along. The lamellae were stable, and breaking and reforming events by liquid drainage and corner flow were observed in higher surfactant concentrations. However, the classic snap-off process, as described by Roof (1973) was not seen at all.

  2. Rapid quantitative assessment of visible injury to vegetation and visual amenity effects of fluoride air pollution.

    PubMed

    Doley, D

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative measures of visible injury are proposed for the protection of the aesthetic acceptability and health of ecosystems. Visible indications of air pollutant injury symptoms can be assessed rapidly and economically over large areas of mixed species such as native ecosystems. Reliable indication requires close attention to the criteria for assessment, species selection, and the influence of other environmental conditions on plant response to a pollutant. The estimation of fluoride-induced visible injury in dicotyledonous species may require techniques that are more varied than the measurement of necrosis in linear-leaved monocotyledons and conifers. A scheme is described for quantitative estimates of necrosis, chlorosis and deformation of leaves using an approximately geometric series of injury categories that permits rapid and sufficiently consistent determination and recognises degrees of aesthetic offence associated with foliar injury to plants. PMID:19067198

  3. Quantitative, In Situ Visualization of Metal-Ion Dissolution and Transport Using (1) H Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bray, Joshua M; Davenport, Alison J; Ryder, Karl S; Britton, Melanie M

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative mapping of metal ions freely diffusing in solution is important across a diverse range of disciplines and is particularly significant for dissolution processes in batteries, metal corrosion, and electroplating/polishing of manufactured components. However, most current techniques are invasive, requiring sample extraction, insertion of an electrode, application of an electric potential or the inclusion of a molecular sensor. Thus, there is a need for techniques to visualize the distribution of metal ions non-invasively, in situ, quantitatively, in three dimensions (3D) and in real time. Here we have used (1) H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to make quantitative 3D maps showing evolution of the distribution of Cu(2+) ions, not directly visible by MRI, during the electrodissolution of copper, with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. The images are sensitive to the speciation of copper, the depletion of dissolved O2 in the electrolyte and show the dissolution of Cu(2+) ions is not uniform across the anode. PMID:27329307

  4. The uncertainty associated with visual flow fields and their influence on postural sway: Weber's law suffices to explain the nonlinearity of vection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kunlin; Stevenson, Ian H; Körding, Konrad P

    2010-01-01

    When we stand upright, we integrate cues from multiple senses, such as vision and proprioception, to maintain and regulate our vertical posture. How these cues are combined has been the focus of a range of studies. These studies generally measured how subjects deviate from standing upright when confronted with a moving visual stimulus displayed in a virtual environment. Previous research had shown that uncertainty is central in such cue combination problems. Here we wanted to understand, quantitatively, how visual flow fields and uncertainty about them affect human posture. To do so, we combined experimental methods from perceptual psychophysics with methods from motor control studies. We used a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm to measure uncertainty as a function of the magnitude of a random-dot flow field and stimulus coherence. We subsequently measured movement amplitude as a function of visual stimulus parameters. In line with previous research, we find that sensorimotor behavior depends nonlinearly on the stimulus amplitude and, importantly, is affected by uncertainty. We find that this nonlinearity and uncertainty dependence is accurately predicted by standard Bayesian cue combination. Importantly, a Weber's law where visual uncertainty depends on stimulus amplitude is enough to explain the nonlinear behavior. PMID:21131564

  5. Visualization techniques to experimentally model flow and heat transfer in turbine and aircraft flow passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Louis M.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

    1991-01-01

    Increased attention to fuel economy and increased thrust requirements have increased the demand for higher aircraft gas turbine engine efficiency through the use of higher turbine inlet temperatures. These higher temperatures increase the importance of understanding the heat transfer patterns which occur throughout the turbine passages. It is often necessary to use a special coating or some form of cooling to maintain metal temperatures at a level which the metal can withstand for long periods of time. Effective cooling schemes can result in significant fuel savings through higher allowable turbine inlet temperatures and can increase engine life. Before proceeding with the development of any new turbine it is economically desirable to create both mathematical and experimental models to study and predict flow characteristics and temperature distributions. Some of the methods are described used to physically model heat transfer patterns, cooling schemes, and other complex flow patterns associated with turbine and aircraft passages.

  6. Advanced Supersonic Nozzle Concepts: Experimental Flow Visualization Results Paired With LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Matthew; Magstadt, Andrew; Stack, Cory; Gaitonde, Datta; Glauser, Mark; Syracuse University Team; The Ohio State University Team

    2015-11-01

    Advanced supersonic nozzle concepts are currently under investigation, utilizing multiple bypass streams and airframe integration to bolster performance and efficiency. This work focuses on the parametric study of a supersonic, multi-stream jet with aft deck. The single plane of symmetry, rectangular nozzle, displays very complex and unique flow characteristics. Flow visualization techniques in the form of PIV and schlieren capture flow features at various deck lengths and Mach numbers. LES is compared to the experimental results to both validate the computational model and identify limitations of the simulation. By comparing experimental results to LES, this study will help create a foundation of knowledge for advanced nozzle designs in future aircraft. SBIR Phase II with Spectral Energies, LLC under direction of Barry Kiel.

  7. Flow Visualization and Numerical Simulation of Viscoplastic Fluid Displacements in Eccentric Annuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. D.; Deawwanich, T.; Tonmukayakul, N.; Savery, M. R.; Chin, W.

    2008-07-01

    In completion of oil and gas wells, zonal isolation requires proper cement placement with adequate bonding to the casing and formation. To achieve a successful cementing operation, the cement slurry should be properly designed to enable effective displacement of the drilling fluid from the annulus between the casing and wellbore. This is a complex process, involving displacement of viscoplastic fluids in eccentric annuli. The rheology, flow rate, and interfacial mixing of these fluids have direct impact on the displacement efficiency. Reliable computational modeling of the dynamics of the displacement process is beneficial to properly perform pre-job design and post-job analysis of the cementing operation. Furthermore, experimental data are also used to validate numerical predictions. This paper presents a flow visualization study using a helical flow device with adjustable annular eccentricity and rotation of the inner cylinder. Displacement experiments were conducted with a variety of non-Newtonian fluids to simulate the cement slurry—drilling mud displacement process.

  8. Strategies for Effectively Visualizing a 3D Flow Using Volume Line Integral Convolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interrante, Victoria; Grosch, Chester

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses strategies for effectively portraying 3D flow using volume line integral convolution. Issues include defining an appropriate input texture, clarifying the distinct identities and relative depths of the advected texture elements, and selectively highlighting regions of interest in both the input and output volumes. Apart from offering insights into the greater potential of 3D LIC as a method for effectively representing flow in a volume, a principal contribution of this work is the suggestion of a technique for generating and rendering 3D visibility-impeding 'halos' that can help to intuitively indicate the presence of depth discontinuities between contiguous elements in a projection and thereby clarify the 3D spatial organization of elements in the flow. The proposed techniques are applied to the visualization of a hot, supersonic, laminar jet exiting into a colder, subsonic coflow.

  9. Fabrication, operation and flow visualization in surface-acoustic-wave-driven acoustic-counterflow microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be used to drive liquids in portable microfluidic chips via the acoustic counterflow phenomenon. In this video we present the fabrication protocol for a multilayered SAW acoustic counterflow device. The device is fabricated starting from a lithium niobate (LN) substrate onto which two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and appropriate markers are patterned. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel cast on an SU8 master mold is finally bonded on the patterned substrate. Following the fabrication procedure, we show the techniques that allow the characterization and operation of the acoustic counterflow device in order to pump fluids through the PDMS channel grid. We finally present the procedure to visualize liquid flow in the channels. The protocol is used to show on-chip fluid pumping under different flow regimes such as laminar flow and more complicated dynamics characterized by vortices and particle accumulation domains. PMID:24022515

  10. Fabrication, Operation and Flow Visualization in Surface-acoustic-wave-driven Acoustic-counterflow Microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Travagliati, Marco; Shilton, Richie; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be used to drive liquids in portable microfluidic chips via the acoustic counterflow phenomenon. In this video we present the fabrication protocol for a multilayered SAW acoustic counterflow device. The device is fabricated starting from a lithium niobate (LN) substrate onto which two interdigital transducers (IDTs) and appropriate markers are patterned. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) channel cast on an SU8 master mold is finally bonded on the patterned substrate. Following the fabrication procedure, we show the techniques that allow the characterization and operation of the acoustic counterflow device in order to pump fluids through the PDMS channel grid. We finally present the procedure to visualize liquid flow in the channels. The protocol is used to show on-chip fluid pumping under different flow regimes such as laminar flow and more complicated dynamics characterized by vortices and particle accumulation domains. PMID:24022515

  11. Visualization and flow surveys of the leading edge vortex structure on delta wing planforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, F. M.; Ng, T. T.; Nelson, R. C.; Schiff, L. B.

    1986-01-01

    In the present experimental investigation of thin delta wing vortex breakdown, for the cases of sweep angles of 70, 75, 80, and 85 deg, and smoke flow visualization/laser light sheet technique is used to obtain cross sectional views of the leading edge vortices as they break down. A combination of lateral and longitudinal cross sectional views furnishes data on the three-dimensional character of the vortex before, during, and after breakdown. Velocity measurements conducted with a laser Doppler anemometer on the 70 deg sweep delta, at 30 deg angle-of-attack, indicate that when breakdown occurs the core flow is transformed from a jet-like to a wake-like flow.

  12. Use of laser flow visualization techniques in reactor component thermal-hydraulic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    To properly design reactor components, an understanding of the various thermal hydraulic phenomena, i.e., thermal stratification flow channeling, recirculation regions, shear layers, etc., is necessary. In the liquid metal breeder reactor program, water is commonly used to replace sodium in experimental testing to facilitate the investigations, (i.e., reduce cost and allow fluid velocity measurement or flow pattern study). After water testing, limited sodium tests can be conducted to validate the extrapolation of the water results to sodium. This paper describes a novel laser flow visualization technique being utilized at ANL together with various examples of its use and plans for further development. A 3-watt argon-ion laser, in conjunction with a cylindrical opticallens, has been used to create a thin (approx. 1-mm) intense plane of laser light for the illuminiation of various flow tracers in precisely defined regions of interest within a test article having windows. Both fluorescing dyes tuned to the wavelength of the laser light (to maximize brightness and sharpness of flow image) and small (< 0.038-mm, 0.0015-in. dia.) opaque, nearly neutrally buoyant polystyrene spheres (to ensure that the particles trace out the fluid motion) have been used as flow tracers.

  13. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  14. A Bead-Based Method for Multiplexed Identification and Quantitation of DNA Sequences Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Alexander; Lowe, Mary; Brown, Drew

    2000-01-01

    A new multiplexed, bead-based method which utilizes nucleic acid hybridizations on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences is described. The method consists of three elements: beads (5.6-μm diameter) with oligomer capture probes attached to the surface, three fluorophores for multiplexed detection, and flow cytometry instrumentation. Two fluorophores are impregnated within each bead in varying amounts to create different bead types, each associated with a unique probe. The third fluorophore is a reporter. Following capture of fluorescent cDNA sequences from environmental samples, the beads are analyzed by flow cytometric techniques which yield a signal intensity for each capture probe proportional to the amount of target sequences in the analyte. In this study, a direct hybrid capture assay was developed and evaluated with regard to sequence discrimination and quantitation of abundances. The target sequences (628 to 728 bp in length) were obtained from the 16S/23S intergenic spacer region of microorganisms collected from polluted groundwater at the nuclear waste site in Hanford, Wash. A fluorescence standard consisting of beads with a known number of fluorescent DNA molecules on the surface was developed, and the resolution, sensitivity, and lower detection limit for measuring abundances were determined. The results were compared with those of a DNA microarray using the same sequences. The bead method exhibited far superior sequence discrimination and possesses features which facilitate accurate quantitation. PMID:11010868

  15. Visualizing spatial distribution of alectinib in murine brain using quantitative mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Ryu, Shoraku; Yamashita, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Naoto; Nishidate, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    In the development of anticancer drugs, drug concentration measurements in the target tissue have been thought to be crucial for predicting drug efficacy and safety. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is commonly used for determination of average drug concentrations; however, complete loss of spatial information in the target tissue occurs. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been recently applied as an innovative tool for detection of molecular distribution of pharmacological agents in heterogeneous targets. This study examined the intra-brain transitivity of alectinib, a novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-MSI and LC-MS/MS techniques. We first analyzed the pharmacokinetic profiles in FVB mice and then examined the effect of the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR1) using Mdr1a/b knockout mice including quantitative distribution of alectinib in the brain. While no differences were observed between the mice for the plasma alectinib concentrations, diffuse alectinib distributions were found in the brain of the Mdr1a/b knockout versus FVB mice. These results indicate the potential for using quantitative MSI for clarifying drug distribution in the brain on a microscopic level, in addition to suggesting a possible use in designing studies for anticancer drug development and translational research. PMID:27026287

  16. Visualizing spatial distribution of alectinib in murine brain using quantitative mass spectrometry imaging

    PubMed Central

    Aikawa, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Mitsuhiro; Ryu, Shoraku; Yamashita, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Naoto; Nishidate, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    In the development of anticancer drugs, drug concentration measurements in the target tissue have been thought to be crucial for predicting drug efficacy and safety. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is commonly used for determination of average drug concentrations; however, complete loss of spatial information in the target tissue occurs. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has been recently applied as an innovative tool for detection of molecular distribution of pharmacological agents in heterogeneous targets. This study examined the intra-brain transitivity of alectinib, a novel anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitor, using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–MSI and LC-MS/MS techniques. We first analyzed the pharmacokinetic profiles in FVB mice and then examined the effect of the multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR1) using Mdr1a/b knockout mice including quantitative distribution of alectinib in the brain. While no differences were observed between the mice for the plasma alectinib concentrations, diffuse alectinib distributions were found in the brain of the Mdr1a/b knockout versus FVB mice. These results indicate the potential for using quantitative MSI for clarifying drug distribution in the brain on a microscopic level, in addition to suggesting a possible use in designing studies for anticancer drug development and translational research. PMID:27026287

  17. Visualization and quantitative analysis of lung microstructure using micro CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Fujii, Masashi; Nakaya, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Eisuke; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2005-04-01

    Micro CT system is developed for lung function analysis at a high resolution of the micrometer order (up to 5μm in spatial resolution). This system reveals the lung distal structures such as interlobular septa, terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, alveolar duct, and alveolus. In order to visualize lung 3-D microstructures using micro CT images and to analyze them, this research presents a computerized approach. This approach is applied for to micro CT images of human lung tissue specimens that were obtained by surgical excision and were kept in the state of the inflated fixed lung. This report states a wall area such as bronchus wall and alveolus wall about the extraction technique by using the surface thinning process to analyze the lung microstructures from micro CT images measured by the new-model micro CT system.

  18. Visualization of a smoke flow field by using a lidar and DIC technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Nak Gyu; Baik, Sung Hoon; Park, Seung Kyu; Kim, Dong Lyul

    2015-11-01

    A visualization technique for the velocity field of plant smoke is described. We intend to present a long-range measurement method for a velocity field calculation from a series of images containing an illuminated planar layer of fluid. The main system is configured with two technical parts. One is a lidar system, which is for measuring the distance from an observer to the plant smoke, and the other is a DIC (digital image correlation) system. We configured the lidar system by using a Nd-YAG pulsed laser (10 Hz, injection seeded), a telescope (Schmidt Cassegrain type, diameter: 30 cm) and a PMT (photomultiplier tube). The DIC system is configured to track smoke images by using the developed fast correlation algorithm of the DIC. We acquired the velocity fields of smoke by using the calculated distance and the DIC algorithm. In this paper, we propose a new method for measuring the smoke velocity and visualizing the flow field.

  19. ISA and IBFVS: image space-based visualization of flow on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Laramee, Robert S; van Wijk, Jarke J; Jobard, Bruno; Hauser, Helwig

    2004-01-01

    We present a side-by-side analysis of two recent image space approaches for the visualization of vector fields on surfaces. The two methods, Image Space Advection (ISA) and Image-Based Flow Visualization for Curved Surfaces (IBFVS) generate dense representations of time-dependent vector fields with high spatio-temporal correlation. While the 3D vector fields are associated with arbitrary surfaces represented by triangular meshes, the generation and advection of texture properties is confined to image space. Fast frame rates are achieved by exploiting frame-to-frame coherency and graphics hardware. In our comparison of ISA and IBFVS, we point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach and give recommendations as to when and where they are best applied. PMID:15527046

  20. Visualization and evaluation of flow during water filtration: Parameterization and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílek, Petr

    2016-03-01

    This paper deals with visualization and evaluation of flow during filtration of water seeded by artificial microscopic particles. Planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) is a wide spread method for visualization and non-invasive characterization of flow. However the method uses fluorescent dyes or fluorescent particles in special cases. In this article the flow is seeded by non-fluorescent monodisperse polystyrene particles with the diameter smaller than one micrometer. The monodisperse sub-micron particles are very suitable for testing of textile filtration materials. Nevertheless non-fluorescent particles are not useful for PLIF method. A water filtration setup with an optical access to the place, were a tested filter is mounted, was built and used for the experiments. Concentration of particles in front of and behind the tested filter in a laser light sheet measured is and the local filtration efficiency expressed is. The article describes further progress in the measurement. It was carried out sensitivity analysis, parameterization and performance of the method during several simulations and experiments.

  1. Flow visualization and wall shear stress of a flapping model hummingbird wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanton, Erik W. M.; Vanier, Blake A.; Mohseni, Kamran

    2010-09-01

    The unsteady low Reynolds number aerodynamics of flapping flight was investigated experimentally through flow visualization by suspended particle imagery and wall shear stress measurement from micro-array hot-film anemometry. In conjunction, a mechanism was developed to create a flapping motion with three degrees of freedom and adjustable flapping frequency. The flapping kinematics and wing shape were selected for dynamic similarity to a hummingbird during hovering flight. Flow visualization was used to validate the anemometry observations of leading edge vortex (LEV) characteristics and to investigate the necessity of spanwise flow in LEV stability. The shear sensors determined LEV characteristics throughout the translation section of the stroke period for various wing speeds. It was observed that a minimum frequency between 2 and 3.5 Hz is required for the formation and stabilization of a LEV. The vortex strength peaked around 30% of the flapping cycle (corresponding to just past the translation midpoint), which agrees with results from previous studies conducted by others. The shear sensors also indicated a mild growth in LEV size during translation sections of the wing’s motion. This growth magnitude was nearly constant through a range of operating frequencies.

  2. Tissue segmentation: a crucial tool for quantitative MRI and visualization of anatomical structures.

    PubMed

    Schick, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    Automatic or semi-automatic segmentation of tissue types or organs is well established for X-ray-based computed tomography, with its fixed grey-scale and tissue classes with well-established ranges of Hounsfield units. MRI is much more powerful with regard to soft tissue contrast and quantitative assessment of tissue properties (e.g., perfusion, diffusion, fat content), but the principle of signal generation and recording in MRI leads to inherent problems if simple threshold based segmentation procedures are applied. In this editorial in the special issue of MAGMA on tissue segmentation, a number of relevant methodical, scientific, and clinical aspects of reliable tissue segmentation using data recording by MRI are reported and discussed. PMID:27052370

  3. Complex Flow Separation Pattern on Transonic Fan Airfoils Revealed by Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Modern turbofan engines employ a highly loaded fan stage with transonic or low-supersonic velocities in the blade-tip region. The fan blades are often prone to flutter at off-design conditions. Flutter is a highly undesirable and dangerous self-excited mode of blade oscillations that can result in high-cycle fatigue blade failure. The origins of blade flutter are not fully understood yet. The latest view is that the blade oscillations are triggered by high-frequency changes in the extent of the partially separated area on the airfoil suction side. There is a lack of experimental data describing the separated flow characteristics of modern airfoils for transonic fans.

  4. Development of quantitative immunochromatographic kit and visual screening immunoassay strip for cadmium.

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Katsuo; Yoshida, Yasuko; Tawarada, Kei

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal for humans. In 2006, the Codex Alimentarius Commission set the international standard value of Cd contained in polished rice at 0.4 mg kg(-1), thus requiring the monitoring of Cd in food. We developed two types of Cd immunochromatographic kit by using anti-(Cd-EDTA) antibody. One is the quantitative Cd immunochromatographic device which can precisely measure Cd concentrations. The other is the Cd screening strip that enables visible evaluation of Cd exceeding 0.003 mg L(-1). Compared with conventional instrumental analysis methods, the immunoassay kits provide rapid, simple, and inexpensive on-site methods. For these kits, we also developed an efficient pretreatment method that can be easily administrated on-site. In this method, brown rice samples are coarsely crushed by a hand-held grinder then mixed with an enzyme solution, and Cd is extracted with HCl. The extracted solution is then purified by a newly developed Cd-selective ion exchange column. Cd concentrations measured by the quantitative Cd immunochromatographic devices correlated well with those obtained by ICP-OES (r (2) = 0.96). The Cd screening strips performed well in tests; pretreated purification solution which gave Cd concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg kg(-1) according to the Cd immunochromatographic devices gave corresponding results with the Cd screening strips with no false positives or false negatives. These results indicate that the two immunochromatographic kits are useful for on-site measurement of Cd concentrations and screening of Cd present in brown rice. PMID:27039199

  5. Visualization on flow patterns during condensation of R410A in a vertical rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenyun; Jia, Li

    2014-06-01

    The visualization experiments on HFC R410A condensation in a vertical rectangular channel (14.34mm hydraulic diameter, 160mm length) were investigated. The flow patterns and heat transfer coefficients of condensation in the inlet region were presented in this paper. Better heat transfer performance can be obtained in the inlet region, and flow regime transition in other regions of the channel was also observed. Condensation experiments were carried out at different mass fluxes ( from 1.6 kg/h to 5.2 kg/h) and at saturation temperature 28°C. It was found that the flow patterns were mainly dominated by gravity at low mass fluxes. The effects of interfacial shear stress on condensate fluctuation are significant for the film condensation at higher mass flux in vertical flow, and consequently, the condensation heat transfer coefficient increases with the mass flux in the experimental conditions. The drop formation and growth process of condensation were also observed at considerably low refrigerant vapor flow rate.

  6. Visual hull method for tomographic PIV of flow around moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Deepak; Longmire, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Measurement of velocity around arbitrarily moving objects is of interest in many applications. This includes flow around marine animals and flying insects, flow around supercavitating projectiles, and flow around discrete drops or particles in multiphase flows. We present a visual hull technique that employs existing tomographic PIV reconstruction software to automate identification, masking and tracking of discrete objects within a three-dimensional volume, while allowing computation and avoiding contamination of the surrounding three-component fluid velocity vectors. The technique is demonstrated by considering flow around falling objects of different shape, namely a sphere, cube, tetrahedron and cylinder. Four high-speed cameras and a laser are used to acquire images of these objects falling within liquid seeded with tracer particles. The acquired image sets are then processed to reconstruct both the object and the surrounding tracer particles. The reconstructed object is used to estimate the object location at each time step and mask the reconstructed particle volume, while the reconstructed tracer particles are cross-correlated with subsequent particle volumes to obtain the fluid velocity vectors. Supported by NSF IDBR Grant #0852875.

  7. Liquid crystal coatings for surface shear stress visualization in hypersonic flows

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, D.C.; Aeschliman, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the surface-shear-stress visualization capabilities of shear-stress-sensitive/temperature- insensitive liquid crystal compounds in hypersonic flow. Liquid crystal coatings were applied to the surface of a conical model, which was then exposed to a high-unit-Reynolds-number (2.3 {times} 10{sup 7}/m) Mach 5 flow. The coating was illuminated by white light, and its response to the various flow situations was monitored and recorded with standard video and high-speed movie cameras. Boundary layer transition to turbulence was clearly demarcated by the technique. The dynamic location of the transition front as a function of model angle of attack (for sharp and blunt cones, with and without boundary-layer trips) was recorded, and observations were found to be consistent with established (published) trends for hypersonic flows over conical bodies. Normal shock passage over the model during tunnel shutdown was recorded (at 400 frames/second), and the liquid crystal coating was observed to respond to this event in a time interval less than or equal to the time between sequential movie frame exposures ({le} 0.0025 seconds). The liquid crystal technique has thus been demonstrated as a viable diagnostic tool for use in transient/compressible flows. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Visualization and quantitative analysis of extrachromosomal telomere-repeat DNA in individual human cells by Halo-FISH

    PubMed Central

    Komosa, Martin; Root, Heather; Meyn, M. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Current methods for characterizing extrachromosomal nuclear DNA in mammalian cells do not permit single-cell analysis, are often semi-quantitative and frequently biased toward the detection of circular species. To overcome these limitations, we developed Halo-FISH to visualize and quantitatively analyze extrachromosomal DNA in single cells. We demonstrate Halo-FISH by using it to analyze extrachromosomal telomere-repeat (ECTR) in human cells that use the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway(s) to maintain telomere lengths. We find that GM847 and VA13 ALT cells average ∼80 detectable G/C-strand ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus, while U2OS ALT cells average ∼18 molecules/nucleus. In comparison, human primary and telomerase-positive cells contain <5 ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus. ECTR DNA in ALT cells exhibit striking cell-to-cell variations in number (<20 to >300), range widely in length (<1 to >200 kb) and are composed of primarily G- or C-strand telomere-repeat DNA. Halo-FISH enables, for the first time, the simultaneous analysis of ECTR DNA and chromosomal telomeres in a single cell. We find that ECTR DNA comprises ∼15% of telomere-repeat DNA in GM847 and VA13 cells, but <4% in U2OS cells. In addition to its use in ALT cell analysis, Halo-FISH can facilitate the study of a wide variety of extrachromosomal DNA in mammalian cells. PMID:25662602

  9. A novel non-invasive optical method for quantitative visualization of pH dynamics in the rhizosphere of plants.

    PubMed

    Blossfeld, Stephan; Gansert, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    A novel optical method for non-invasive, quantitative and high-resolution imaging of spatial and temporal pH dynamics in soils mediated by plant roots is introduced. This method overcomes present limitations of measurement of pH, mainly short-term and punctiform measurements, by recording long-term dynamics of the micro-pattern of pH in the root-soil interface without disturbance of the biological and physico-chemical conditions. Juncus effusus L., rooting in a permanently flooded rhizotron, was selected as the test organism for qualifying the technique. The measurements showed pronounced diurnal variations of pH along the roots, particularly along the elongation zone. Diurnal oscillation of pH caused by the roots reached up to 0.5 units. Long-term records at 4 s intervals over more than 8 weeks revealed considerable spatial and temporal patterns of pH dynamics in the rhizosphere of about 10% of the pH scale (pH 7.0-8.5). The measured data were validated by the use of pH electrodes. Concomitantly measured oxygen concentration showed hypoxic conditions around root tips (10-70 micromol O2 L-1) and almost anoxic conditions (0.9 micromol O2 L-1) in the bulk soil. The present study qualifies this novel pH-sensing technique as a powerful analytical tool for quantitative visualization of undisturbed bioprocess dynamics. PMID:17238909

  10. Visualization and quantitative analysis of extrachromosomal telomere-repeat DNA in individual human cells by Halo-FISH.

    PubMed

    Komosa, Martin; Root, Heather; Meyn, M Stephen

    2015-02-27

    Current methods for characterizing extrachromosomal nuclear DNA in mammalian cells do not permit single-cell analysis, are often semi-quantitative and frequently biased toward the detection of circular species. To overcome these limitations, we developed Halo-FISH to visualize and quantitatively analyze extrachromosomal DNA in single cells. We demonstrate Halo-FISH by using it to analyze extrachromosomal telomere-repeat (ECTR) in human cells that use the Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) pathway(s) to maintain telomere lengths. We find that GM847 and VA13 ALT cells average ∼80 detectable G/C-strand ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus, while U2OS ALT cells average ∼18 molecules/nucleus. In comparison, human primary and telomerase-positive cells contain <5 ECTR DNA molecules/nucleus. ECTR DNA in ALT cells exhibit striking cell-to-cell variations in number (<20 to >300), range widely in length (<1 to >200 kb) and are composed of primarily G- or C-strand telomere-repeat DNA. Halo-FISH enables, for the first time, the simultaneous analysis of ECTR DNA and chromosomal telomeres in a single cell. We find that ECTR DNA comprises ∼15% of telomere-repeat DNA in GM847 and VA13 cells, but <4% in U2OS cells. In addition to its use in ALT cell analysis, Halo-FISH can facilitate the study of a wide variety of extrachromosomal DNA in mammalian cells. PMID:25662602

  11. Application of Least-Squares Adjustment Technique to Geometric Camera Calibration and Photogrammetric Flow Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fang-Jenq

    1997-01-01

    Flow visualization produces data in the form of two-dimensional images. If the optical components of a camera system are perfect, the transformation equations between the two-dimensional image and the three-dimensional object space are linear and easy to solve. However, real camera lenses introduce nonlinear distortions that affect the accuracy of transformation unless proper corrections are applied. An iterative least-squares adjustment algorithm is developed to solve the nonlinear transformation equations incorporated with distortion corrections. Experimental applications demonstrate that a relative precision on the order of 40,000 is achievable without tedious laboratory calibrations of the camera.

  12. A simplified holographic-interferometry technique for real-time flow visualization and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. A.; Spencer, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A holographic-interferometry technique for flow visualization and analysis that produces real-time moire fringes is described from both experimental and application considerations. It has three chief advantages: real-time data for continuous observation and photography, ease of optical adjustment, and capability of using ordinary-glass test-section windows without affecting the results. A theoretical discussion is presented describing the formation of the fringes in holographic terms and then comparing this result to that which is obtained from a conventional moire approach. A discussion on obtaining density information from the fringe pattern is also included.

  13. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2012-12-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not

  14. Hummingbirds generate bilateral vortex loops during hovering: evidence from flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pournazeri, Sam; Segre, Paolo S.; Princevac, Marko; Altshuler, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of the vortex wake of a flying animal provides understanding of how wingbeat kinematics are translated into the aerodynamic forces for powering and controlling flight. Two general vortex flow patterns have been proposed for the wake of hovering hummingbirds: (1) The two wings form a single, merged vortex ring during each wing stroke; and (2) the two wings form bilateral vortex loops during each wing stroke. The second pattern was proposed after a study with particle image velocimetry that demonstrated bilateral source flows in a horizontal measurement plane underneath hovering Anna's hummingbirds ( Calypte anna). Proof of this hypothesis requires a clear perspective of bilateral pairs of vortices. Here, we used high-speed image sequences (500 frames per second) of C. anna hover feeding within a white plume to visualize the vortex wake from multiple perspectives. The films revealed two key structural features: (1) Two distinct jets of downwards airflow are present under each wing; and (2) vortex loops around each jet are shed during each upstroke and downstroke. To aid in the interpretation of the flow visualization data, we analyzed high-speed kinematic data (1,000 frames per second) of wing tips and wing roots as C. anna hovered in normal air. These data were used to refine several simplified models of vortex topology. The observed flow patterns can be explained by either a single loop model with an hourglass shape or a bilateral model, with the latter being more likely. When hovering in normal air, hummingbirds used an average stroke amplitude of 153.6° (range 148.9°-164.4°) and a wingbeat frequency of 38.5 Hz (range 38.1-39.1 Hz). When hovering in the white plume, hummingbirds used shallower stroke amplitudes ( bar{x} = 129.8°, range 116.3°-154.1°) and faster wingbeat frequencies ( bar{x} = 41.1 Hz, range 38.5-44.7 Hz), although the bilateral jets and associated vortices were observed across the full kinematic range. The plume did not

  15. [Visualization of blood flow in abdominal tumors by the ultrasonic pulsed Doppler method].

    PubMed

    Ueno, N; Yamanaka, T; Kimura, K

    1989-06-01

    The clinical utility of visualizing the blood flow in the margin and inside of tumors by ultrasonic pulsed Doppler method (UPDM) was evaluated in 54 patients (85 lesions) with various abdominal tumors. It was proved that UPDM was able to evaluate the vascularity of the tumor and the surrounding vascular system. These results indicate that this method may be applied clinically for judging the effects of and the indications for the transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) therapy. It is also suggested that UPDM may be applied in the differential diagnosis of tumors according to the changes of blood velocity and wave patterns. PMID:2677449

  16. Hot gas ingestion characteristics and flow visualization of a vectored thrust STOVL concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George H.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.; Williams, Ben R.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issue for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. The Phase 1 test program, conducted by NASA Lewis and McDonnell Douglas Corporation, evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques and Phase 2 test program which was conducted by NASA Lewis are both reported. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzles temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/lift improvement devices which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The headwind (freestream) velocity for Phase 1 was varied from 8 to 90 kn, with primary data taken in the 8 to 23 kn headwind velocity range. Phase 2 headwind velocity varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results of both Phase 1 and 2 are presented. A description of the model, facility, a new model support system, and a sheet laser illumination system are also provided. Results are presented over a range of main landing gear height (model height) above the ground plane at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The results contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, total pressure recovery, compressor face temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane temperature and pressure distributions, model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation. Results from the

  17. Quantitative Flow Cytometry Measurements in Antibodies Bound per Cell Based on a CD4 Reference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Degheidy, Heba; Abbasi, Fatima; Mostowski, Howard; Marti, Gerald; Bauer, Steven; Hoffman, Robert A; Gaigalas, Adolfas K

    2016-01-01

    Multicolor flow cytometer assays with fluorescently labeled antibodies are routinely used in clinical laboratories to measure the cell number of specific immunophenotypes and to estimate expression levels of specific receptors/antigens either on the cell surface or intracellularly. The cell number and specific receptors/antigens serve as biomarkers for pathological conditions at various stages of a disease. Existing methods and cell reference materials for quantitative expression measurements have not yet produced results that are of wide clinical interest or are instrument-independent across all fluorescence channels. This unit details a procedure for quantifying surface and intracellular biomarkers by calibrating the output of a multicolor flow cytometer in units of antibody bound per cell (ABC). The procedure includes (1) quality control of the flow cytometer, (2) fluorescence intensity calibration using hard dyed microspheres assigned with fluorescence intensity values, (3) compensation for fluorescence spillover between adjacent fluorescence channels, and (4) application of a biological reference calibrator to establish an ABC scale. The unit also points out current efforts for quantifying biomarkers in a manner that is independent of instrument platforms and reagent differences. PMID:26742654

  18. Quantitating MHC class II trafficking in primary dendritic cells using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hennies, Cassandra M.; Lehn, Maria A.; Janssen, Edith M.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptides in MHC class II (MHCII) on dendritic cells (DCs) is the first step in the activation of antigen-specific CD4+T cells. The expression of surface MHCII-peptide complexes is tightly regulated as the frequency of MHCII-peptide complexes can affect the magnitude, as well as the phenotype of the ensuing CD4+T cell response. The surface MHCII-peptide levels are determined by the balance between expression of newly generated complexes, complex internalization, and their subsequent re-emergence or degradation. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these processes are still poorly understood. Here we describe a multispectral imaging flow cytometry assay to visualize MHCII trafficking that can be used as a tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate MHCII homeostasis in primary mouse and human DCs. PMID:25967952

  19. Visualization of Fluid Flow through in a Rough-Walled Fracture Using micro-PIV Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I.; Song, H.; Yoo, J.; Lee, K.

    2010-12-01

    Fluid flow in rough-walled rock fractures have been described by the cubic law and the Reynolds equation which are derived from Navier-Stokes equation. They are based on the assumption of a laminar flow, and basically state that fluid flux is proportional to cube of the aperture of the channel, which yields an ideal parabolic velocity profile across the channel. However, it has been reported that even for low Reynolds numbers (Re), there are discrepancies between analytical/numerical works and experiments. It is questioned whether these assumptions are satisfied in real rough-walled fractures even for Re<1. In order to examine those assumptions, micro-PIV (particle image velocimetry) was introduced, which allowed for direct and microscopic observation of fluid flow in rough-walled fractures. Both surfaces of a rough-walled fracture were scanned, and were then duplicated on acrylics using CNC modeling machine, which formed a rough-walled acrylic fracture with and 450 micrometer average aperture. Deionized water, mixed with 2 micrometer size of fluorescent particle, was injected into the rough-walled acrylic fracture at Re = 0.01, 0.025, 0.05, and 0.10. Velocity vectors were calculated by analyzing relative movement of particles between snap shots. Fluid flow features were primarily monitored at the five representative spots of fracture roughness. As a result, it was found that the laminar flow prevails over the fracture. For Re<1, the velocity profile was highly dependent on fracture roughness. The development of dead spots at which flow velocity was almost zero was remarkable in the regions where apertures change rapidly, which significantly reduces the channel that actually contributes to fluid flow: hydraulic aperture. Further quantitative analysis is in progress to examine whether the cubic law-based analytical solutions are effective for the quantification of fluid flow through rough-walled fractures.

  20. Direct visualization and quantitative analysis of water diffusion in complex biological tissues using CARS microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying-Chun; Sohma, Yoshiro; Takimoto, Shinichi; Miyauchi, Takayuki; Yasui, Masato

    2013-01-01

    To date, it has not been possible to measure microscopic diffusive water movements in epithelia and in the interstitial space of complex tissues and organs. Diffusive water movements are essential for life because they convey physiologically important small molecules, e.g. nutrients and signaling ligands throughout the extracellular space of complex tissues. Here we report the development of a novel method for the direct observation and quantitative analysis of water diffusion dynamics in a biologically organized tissue using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy. Using a computer simulation model to analyze the CARS O-H bond vibration data during H2O/D2O exchange in a 3D epithelial cyst, we succeeded in measuring the diffusive water permeability of the individual luminal and basolateral water pathways and also their response to hormonal stimulation. Our technique will be applicable to the measurement of diffusive water movements in other structurally complex and medically important tissues and organs. PMID:24067894

  1. Visualization of Atomization Gas Flow and Melt Break-up Effects in Response to Nozzle Design

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver; Rieken, Joel; Meyer, John; Byrd, David; Heidloff, Andy

    2011-04-01

    Both powder particle size control and efficient use of gas flow energy are highly prized goals for gas atomization of metal and alloy powder to minimize off-size powder inventory (or 'reverb') and excessive gas consumption. Recent progress in the design of close-coupled gas atomization nozzles and the water model simulation of melt feed tubes were coupled with previous results from several types of gas flow characterization methods, e.g., aspiration measurements and gas flow visualization, to make progress toward these goals. Size distribution analysis and high speed video recordings of gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) experiments on special ferritic stainless steel alloy powders with an Ar+O{sub 2} gas mixture were performed to investigate the operating mechanisms and possible advantages of several melt flow tube modifications with one specific gas atomization nozzle. In this study, close-coupled gas atomization under closed wake gas flow conditions was demonstrated to produce large yields of ultrafine (dia.<20 {mu}m) powders (up to 32%) with moderate standard deviations (1.62 to 1.99). The increased yield of fine powders is consistent with the dual atomization mechanisms of closed wake gas flow patterns in the near-field of the melt orifice. Enhanced size control by stabilized pre-filming of the melt with a slotted trumpet bell pour tube was not clearly demonstrated in the current experiments, perhaps confounded by the influence of the melt oxidation reaction that occurred simultaneously with the atomization process. For this GARS variation of close-coupled gas atomization, it may be best to utilize the straight cylindrical pour tube and closed wake operation of an atomization nozzle with higher gas mass flow to promote the maximum yields of ultrafine powders that are preferred for the oxide dispersion strengthened alloys made from these powders.

  2. Flow visualization studies of blowing from the tip of a swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeannette W.; Mineck, Raymond E.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    1990-01-01

    Flow visualization studies of blowing from the tip of a swept wing were conducted in the Langley 16- by 24-inch water tunnel. Four wing tips, each with two independent blowing slots, were tested. The two slots were located one behind the other in the chordwise direction. The wing tips were designed to vary systematically the jet length, the jet in-plane exhaust direction (sweep), and the jet out-of-plane exhaust direction (anhedral). Each blowing slot was tested separately at two angles of attack and at four ratios of jet to free stream velocity ratios. Limited tests were conducted with blowing from both slots simultaneously. Blowing from the tip inhibited inboard spanwise flow on the upper wing surface near the tip. The jet path moved farther away from the tip with increasing jet to free stream velocity ratio and moved closer to the tip with increasing angle of attack.

  3. Velocity selective flow visualization in a free supersonic nitrogen jet with the resonant Doppler velocimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmermann, M.; Cheng, S.; Miles, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The use of the resonant Doppler velocimeter for flow visualization in a free supersonic nitrogen jet is demonstrated experimentally. In the experiment reported here, room-temperature nitrogen at 12.7 psi expands through a Mach 3.4 converging diverging nozzle into a plenum chamber; small amount of sodium is injected through a heated needle centered 0.5-in. upstream of the nozzle throat. The beam of a single frequency dye laser is expanded into a sheet of light with a cylindrical beam expander and directed counter to the jet to spatially resolve any slice across the core of the flow. By tuning the laser to different frequencies, particular velocity and density fields can be highlighted.

  4. ScyFlow: An Environment for the Visual Specification and Execution of Scientific Workflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCann, Karen M.; Yarrow, Maurice; DeVivo, Adrian; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of grid technologies, scientists and engineers are building more and more complex applications to utilize distributed grid resources. The core grid services provide a path for accessing and utilizing these resources in a secure and seamless fashion. However what the scientists need is an environment that will allow them to specify their application runs at a high organizational level, and then support efficient execution across any given set or sets of resources. We have been designing and implementing ScyFlow, a dual-interface architecture (both GUT and APT) that addresses this problem. The scientist/user specifies the application tasks along with the necessary control and data flow, and monitors and manages the execution of the resulting workflow across the distributed resources. In this paper, we utilize two scenarios to provide the details of the two modules of the project, the visual editor and the runtime workflow engine.

  5. Streakline flow visualization of discrete hole film cooling with holes inclined 30 deg to surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.; Lane, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Film injection from three rows of discrete holes angled 30 deg to the surface in line with mainstream flow and spaced 5 diameters apart in a staggered array was visualized by using helium bubbles as tracer particles. Both the main stream and the film injectant were ambient air. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the film mixing with the main stream were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles which followed the flow field. The ratio of boundary layer thickness to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. The results showed the behavior of the film and its interaction with the main stream for a range of blowing rates and two initial boundary layer thicknesses.

  6. Visualization and quantification of two-phase flow in transparent miniature packed beds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peixi; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D

    2012-10-01

    Optical microscopy was used to visualize the flow of two phases [British Petroleum (BP) oil and an aqueous surfactant phase] in confined space, three-dimensional, transparent, natural porous media. The porous media consisted of water-wet cryolite grains packed inside cylindrical, glass microchannels, thus producing microscopic packed beds. Primary drainage of BP oil displacing an aqueous surfactant phase was studied at capillary numbers that varied between 10(-6) and 10(-2). The confinement space had a significant effect on the flow behavior. Phenomena of burst motion and capillary fingering were observed for low capillary numbers due to the domination of capillary forces. It was discovered that breakthrough time and capillary number bear a log-log scale linear relationship, based on which a generalized correlation between oil travel distance x and time t was found empirically. PMID:23214683

  7. Visualization and quantification of two-phase flow in transparent miniature packed beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peixi; Papadopoulos, Kyriakos D.

    2012-10-01

    Optical microscopy was used to visualize the flow of two phases [British Petroleum (BP) oil and an aqueous surfactant phase] in confined space, three-dimensional, transparent, natural porous media. The porous media consisted of water-wet cryolite grains packed inside cylindrical, glass microchannels, thus producing microscopic packed beds. Primary drainage of BP oil displacing an aqueous surfactant phase was studied at capillary numbers that varied between 10-6 and 10-2. The confinement space had a significant effect on the flow behavior. Phenomena of burst motion and capillary fingering were observed for low capillary numbers due to the domination of capillary forces. It was discovered that breakthrough time and capillary number bear a log-log scale linear relationship, based on which a generalized correlation between oil travel distance x and time t was found empirically.

  8. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior.

    PubMed

    Moy, Kyle; Li, Weiyu; Tran, Huu Phuoc; Simonis, Valerie; Story, Evan; Brandon, Christopher; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela; Kim, Hongkyun

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the neural basis of the

  9. Computational Methods for Tracking, Quantitative Assessment, and Visualization of C. elegans Locomotory Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Kyle; Li, Weiyu; Tran, Huu Phuoc; Simonis, Valerie; Story, Evan; Brandon, Christopher; Furst, Jacob; Raicu, Daniela; Kim, Hongkyun

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provides a unique opportunity to interrogate the neural basis of behavior at single neuron resolution. In C. elegans, neural circuits that control behaviors can be formulated based on its complete neural connection map, and easily assessed by applying advanced genetic tools that allow for modulation in the activity of specific neurons. Importantly, C. elegans exhibits several elaborate behaviors that can be empirically quantified and analyzed, thus providing a means to assess the contribution of specific neural circuits to behavioral output. Particularly, locomotory behavior can be recorded and analyzed with computational and mathematical tools. Here, we describe a robust single worm-tracking system, which is based on the open-source Python programming language, and an analysis system, which implements path-related algorithms. Our tracking system was designed to accommodate worms that explore a large area with frequent turns and reversals at high speeds. As a proof of principle, we used our tracker to record the movements of wild-type animals that were freshly removed from abundant bacterial food, and determined how wild-type animals change locomotory behavior over a long period of time. Consistent with previous findings, we observed that wild-type animals show a transition from area-restricted local search to global search over time. Intriguingly, we found that wild-type animals initially exhibit short, random movements interrupted by infrequent long trajectories. This movement pattern often coincides with local/global search behavior, and visually resembles Lévy flight search, a search behavior conserved across species. Our mathematical analysis showed that while most of the animals exhibited Brownian walks, approximately 20% of the animals exhibited Lévy flights, indicating that C. elegans can use Lévy flights for efficient food search. In summary, our tracker and analysis software will help analyze the neural basis of the

  10. Flow Visualization Studies in the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System CRADA PC91-002, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Borovetz, H.S.; Shaffer, F.; Schaub, R.; Lund, L.; Woodard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of experiments to visualize and measure flow fields in the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS). The experiments utilize a multiple exposure, optical imaging technique called fluorescent image tracking velocimetry (FITV) to hack the motion of small, neutrally-buoyant particles in a flowing fluid.

  11. Overland flow dynamics through visual observation using time-lapse photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Blöschl, Günter

    2016-04-01

    Overland flow process on agricultural land is important to be investigated as it affects the stream discharge and water quality assessment. During rainfall events the formation of overland flow may happen through different processes (i.e. Hortonian or saturation excess overland flow) based on the governing soil hydraulic parameters (i.e. soil infiltration rate, soil water capacity). The dynamics of the soil water state and the processes will affect the surface runoff response which can be analyzed visually by observing the saturation patterns with a camera. Although visual observation was proven useful in laboratory experiments, the technique is not yet assessed for natural rainfall events. The aim of this work is to explore the use of time-lapse photographs of naturally occurring-saturation patterns in understanding the threshold processes of overland flow generation. The image processing produces orthographic projection of the saturation patterns which will be used to assess the dynamics of overland flow formation in relation with soil moisture state and rainfall magnitude. The camera observation was performed at Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) catchment at Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria. The catchment covers an area of 66 ha dominated with agricultural land (87%). The mean annual precipitation and mean annual flow at catchment outlet are 750 mm and 4 l/s, respectively. The camera was set to observe the overland flow along a thalweg on an arable field which was drained in 1950s and has advantages of: (1) representing agricultural land as the dominant part of the catchment, (2) adjacent to the stream with clear visibility (no obstructing objects, such as trees), (3) drained area provides extra cases in understanding the response of tile drain outflow to overland flow formation and vice versa, and (4) in the vicinity of TDT soil moisture stations. The camera takes a picture with 1280 x 720 pixels resolution every minute and sends it directly in a PC via fiber

  12. An experimental study of curved mixing layers: Flow visualization using volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasso, Paris S.; Mungal, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    The existence and importance of large-scale spanwise vortical structures for 2-D straight mixing layers has been well documented in the last decade. Computer models and simulations have sought to reproduce these vortical structures associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability mode which is due to the shear per se. Secondary streamwise vortical structures for the same flows were also seen experimentally and have recently been given importance in computational efforts. Curved mixing layers can be characterized as stable (the high-speed stream is placed on the outside of the longitudinal bend), leading to a suppression of the Taylor-Gortler (T-G) instability, and unstable (high-speed stream on the inside of the bend), leading to an enhancement of the T-G instability. The T-G instability is associated with the centripetal acceleration that the curvature imparts. Thus, curvature superimposed on 2-D shear layer flows provides a way for studying the importance of streamwise vorticity, its competition with spanwise vorticity, and changes to entrainment and mixing. Furthermore, the outcome of the competition of a relatively enhanced or suppressed T-G instability with the K-H instability offers the possibility of achieving passive mixing enhancement. As a first step in understanding the competition between the K-H and the T-G instabilities and the resulting changes to the structure of the flow, highly resolved visualizations of the flow structure for the stable and the unstable configurations are provided. The straight layer is also visualized for comparison with earlier works.

  13. Novel ultrasound based time averaged flow mapping method for die entry visualization in flow of highly concentrated shear-thinning and shear-thickening suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouriev (Ur'ev), Boris; Windhab, Erich

    2003-01-01

    In this work a methodology for high-resolution time averaged two-dimensional flow mapping of converging flows was explored. Flow of non-transparent, highly concentrated shear-thinning and shear-thickening suspensions was circulating through the entrance flow adapter with adjustable position of the die entry. The entrance region was scanned with the distance resolution of 2.7 mm × 1 mm, radial to axial displacement respectively. The time averaged flow map was composed from one-dimensional flow profiles measured along the ultrasonic sensor beam using the ultrasonic pulsed echo Doppler technique. Priory to die entry visualization an investigation of flow properties was performed using a novel in-line non-invasive measuring technique. The method is based on combination of the ultrasound velocity profiler velocity monitoring and pressure difference method. The rheological flow properties were derived from simultaneous recording and on-line analysis of the velocity profiles across the tube channel and related radial shear stress profiles calculated from the pressure loss along the flow channel. For the first time the entrance flow of shear-thickening suspension could be visualized. A comparison between the flow of the investigated model suspensions was qualitatively analysed. This method gives an opportunity for time averaged flow mapping of viscoelastic and viscous, non-transparent, multiphase and highly concentrated fluids.

  14. Optical and electronic design of a calibrated multichannel electronic interferometer for quantitative flow visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, T. D.; Watt, D. W.

    1995-09-01

    Calibrated multichannel electronic interferometry is an electro-optic technique for performing phase shifting of transient phenomena. The design of an improved system for calibrated multichannel electronic interferometry is discussed. This includes a computational method for alignment of three phase-shifted interferograms and determination of the pixel correspondence. During calibration the phase, modulation, and bias of the optical system are determined. These data are stored electronically and used to compensate for errors associated with the path differences in the interferometer, the separation of the phase-shifted interferograms, and the measurement of the phase shift.

  15. A Rapid and Quantitative Flow Cytometry Method for the Analysis of Membrane Disruptive Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien-Simpson, Neil M.; Pantarat, Namfon; Attard, Troy J.; Walsh, Katrina A.; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a microbial flow cytometry method that quantifies within 3 hours antimicrobial peptide (AMP) activity, termed Minimum Membrane Disruptive Concentration (MDC). Increasing peptide concentration positively correlates with the extent of bacterial membrane disruption and the calculated MDC is equivalent to its MBC. The activity of AMPs representing three different membranolytic modes of action could be determined for a range of Gram positive and negative bacteria, including the ESKAPE pathogens, E. coli and MRSA. By using the MDC50 concentration of the parent AMP, the method provides high-throughput, quantitative screening of AMP analogues. A unique feature of the MDC assay is that it directly measures peptide/bacteria interactions and lysed cell numbers rather than bacteria survival as with MIC and MBC assays. With the threat of multi-drug resistant bacteria, this high-throughput MDC assay has the potential to aid in the development of novel antimicrobials that target bacteria with improved efficacy. PMID:26986223

  16. Flow visualization in the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel and preliminary plans for the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, D. B.; Jones, S. B.

    1982-01-01

    Design problems associated with the integration of flow visualization in cryogenic facilities are discussed. The possible effects from the cryogenic environment (i.e., window distortion due to thermal contraction both in the mounts and in the window material itself and turbulence in the flow due to injected LN2) are examined. The flow visualization techniques studied are schlieren, shadowgraph, moire deflectometry, and holographic interferometry. The test beds for this work are a Langley in-house cryogenic test chamber and the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel.

  17. A static air flow visualization method to obtain a time history of the lift-induced vortex and circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Jordan, F. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A recently proposed method of flow visualization was investigated at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center. This method of flow visualization is particularly applicable to the study of lift-induced wing tip vortices through which it is possible to record the entire life span of the vortex. To accomplish this, a vertical screen of smoke was produced perpendicular to the flight path and allowed to become stationary. A model was then driven through the screen of smoke producing the circular vortex motion made visible as the smoke was induced along the path taken by the flow and was recorded by highspeed motion pictures.

  18. An Improved Flow Cytometry Method For Precise Quantitation Of Natural-Killer Cell Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    The ability to assess NK cell cytotoxicity using flow cytometry has been previously described and can serve as a powerful tool to evaluate effector immune function in the clinical setting. Previous methods used membrane permeable dyes to identify target cells. The use of these dyes requires great care to achieve optimal staining and results in a broad spectral emission that can make multicolor cytometry difficult. Previous methods have also used negative staining (the elimination of target cells) to identify effector cells. This makes a precise quantitation of effector NK cells impossible due to the interfering presence of T and B lymphocytes, and the data highly subjective to the variable levels of NK cells normally found in human peripheral blood. In this study an improved version of the standard flow cytometry assay for NK activity is described that has several advantages of previous methods. Fluorescent antibody staining (CD45FITC) is used to positively identify target cells in place of membranepermeable dyes. Fluorescent antibody staining of target cells is less labor intensive and more easily reproducible than membrane dyes. NK cells (true effector lymphocytes) are also positively identified by fluorescent antibody staining (CD56PE) allowing a simultaneous absolute count assessment of both NK cells and target cells. Dead cells are identified by membrane disruption using the DNA intercalating dye PI. Using this method, an exact NK:target ratio may be determined for each assessment, including quantitation of NK target complexes. Backimmunoscatter gating may be used to track live vs. dead Target cells via scatter properties. If desired, NK activity may then be normalized to standardized ratios for clinical comparisons between patients, making the determination of PBMC counts or NK cell percentages prior to testing unnecessary. This method provides an exact cytometric determination of NK activity that highly reproducible and may be suitable for routine use in the

  19. Aerodynamic pressure and flow-visualization measurement from a rotating wind turbine blade

    SciTech Connect

    Butterfield, C P

    1988-11-01

    Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements have been made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind, horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). A video camera mounted on the rotor was used to record nighttime and daytime video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted at every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure measurements were made at 80% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions, revealing pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. One objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. To this end, flow patterns are presented here that reveal the dynamic and steady behavior of flow conditions on the blade. Pressure distributions are compared to flow patterns and two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Separation boundary locations are shown that change as a function of spanwise location, pitch angle, and wind speed. 6 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Visualization of polymer relaxation in viscoelastic turbulent micro-channel flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Jiayan; Lim, Chun Ping; Lam, Yee Cheong

    2015-11-01

    In micro-channels, the flow of viscous liquids e.g. water, is laminar due to the low Reynolds number in miniaturized dimensions. An aqueous solution becomes viscoelastic with a minute amount of polymer additives; its flow behavior can become drastically different and turbulent. However, the molecules are typically invisible. Here we have developed a novel visualization technique to examine the extension and relaxation of polymer molecules at high flow velocities in a viscoelastic turbulent flow. Using high speed videography to observe the fluorescein labeled molecules, we show that viscoelastic turbulence is caused by the sporadic, non-uniform release of energy by the polymer molecules. This developed technique allows the examination of a viscoelastic liquid at the molecular level, and demonstrates the inhomogeneity of viscoelastic liquids as a result of molecular aggregation. It paves the way for a deeper understanding of viscoelastic turbulence, and could provide some insights on the high Weissenberg number problem. In addition, the technique may serve as a useful tool for the investigations of polymer drag reduction.