Sample records for quantitative methods results

  1. A Rapid Method of Quantitating Steroids Resulting from the Incubation of Gonadal Tissues with Radioactive Precursors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Kessler

    1982-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the quantitation of steroid metabolites resulting from the incubation of specific gonadal cell types or gonadal tissue with radioactive precursors. The method involves the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separating the steroids and a flow-through radioactive detector (Flo-One HP) for quantitating the radioactive H precursor and metabolites in the presence

  2. Quantitative method for evaluation of aesthetic results after laser treatment for birthmarks.

    PubMed

    Szychta, Pawel; Al-Nakib, Khalil; Anderson, Will; Stewart, Ken; Quaba, Awf

    2013-11-01

    Subjective assessment of results after laser treatment for birthmarks does not provide a validated method for clinicians. Previous reports concerning objective evaluation using L*a*b color coordinates were only partially successful due to difficulties in standardizing and comparing colors from pre- and posttreatment photographs. The study aimed to present a reliable and clinically applicable method of aesthetic result assessment after laser treatment for birthmarks. All 48 patients, included in the study, were treated for birthmarks on the face or neck using laser. Each pre- and posttreatment photograph was subjected to triple objective comparative assessment of color fading with use of a computer program, as well as to subjective evaluation by three core physicians and three laypeople. Objective analysis was based on an innovative method using combined L*a*b and hue saturation value color coordinates. Accuracy was higher between objective assessment with the computer program and subjective evaluation by core physicians than by laypeople. Repeatability of results was higher with the use of the computer program than among core physicians or among laypeople. In conclusion, our method may be considered for objective assessment of the results after laser treatment of vascular and pigmented birthmarks. PMID:23388877

  3. Quantitative measurements of ambient radiation, emissivity, and truth temperature of a greybody - Methods and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, You-Wen; Zhang, Cai-Gen; Klemas, Victor

    1986-10-01

    By regarding the total ambient radiation falling on a gray body as an equivalent radiation of a black body at temperature T(B) and by using two standard reference plates, it is possible to measure accurately the ambient radiation. In addition to the ambient radiation, there are two factors still affecting the self-radiation of a gray body, i.e., the emissivity and the true temperature T. It is shown theoretically that the emissivity could be determined by changing the ambient radiation. Two simple methods are proposed for measuring the emissivity, and good results are obtained for a variety of gray bodies. These methods are not only practical in the laboratory but also in the field. The experimental results agree well with the data published by other investigators. Once T(B) and emissivity have been measured, T can be obtained. Based on the theory presented here, a new IR thermometer giving T directly was designed and built.

  4. Quantitative methods and Economic History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillaume Daudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes the point that quantitative methods should be part of the toolkit of all economic historians. In the first part I will show that quantitative methods have been obviously important in the rise of economic history as a field up the 1980s. In a second part, I will illustrate through examples that quantitative methods coming from various social

  5. Quantitative molecular methods in virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Clementi; S. Menzo; A. Manzin; P. Bagnarelli

    1995-01-01

    Summary During the past few years, significant technical effort was made to develop molecular methods for the absolute quantitation of nucleic acids in biological samples. In virology, semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques of different principle, complexity, and reliability were designed, optimized, and applied in basic and clinical researches. The principal data obtained in successful pilot applications in vivo are reported in

  6. Quantitative methods for knowledge-base design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Botten

    1989-01-01

    The development of quantitative methods for knowledge base design are presented. The result of the research consists of methods that draw from three different areas of mathematics: a statistical process for integration, a set of matrix manipulations for verification and heuristic clustering algorithms for knowledge base partitioning. A key feature that cuts across all of the design activities is the

  7. Comparison of Enterococcus quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis results from midwest U.S. river samples using EPA Method 1611 and Method 1609 PCR reagents

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided recommended beach advisory values in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) for states wishing to use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for the monitoring of Enterococcus fecal indicator bacteria...

  8. Quantitative Methods in Psychology: Inevitable and Useless

    PubMed Central

    Toomela, Aaro

    2010-01-01

    Science begins with the question, what do I want to know? Science becomes science, however, only when this question is justified and the appropriate methodology is chosen for answering the research question. Research question should precede the other questions; methods should be chosen according to the research question and not vice versa. Modern quantitative psychology has accepted method as primary; research questions are adjusted to the methods. For understanding thinking in modern quantitative psychology, two epistemologies should be distinguished: structural-systemic that is based on Aristotelian thinking, and associative-quantitative that is based on Cartesian–Humean thinking. The first aims at understanding the structure that underlies the studied processes; the second looks for identification of cause–effect relationships between the events with no possible access to the understanding of the structures that underlie the processes. Quantitative methodology in particular as well as mathematical psychology in general, is useless for answering questions about structures and processes that underlie observed behaviors. Nevertheless, quantitative science is almost inevitable in a situation where the systemic-structural basis of behavior is not well understood; all sorts of applied decisions can be made on the basis of quantitative studies. In order to proceed, psychology should study structures; methodologically, constructive experiments should be added to observations and analytic experiments. PMID:21833199

  9. A quantitative method for measuring protein phosphorylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Andres Mckenzie; Phyllis R. Strauss

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for quantitating protein phosphorylation by a variety of protein kinases. It can be used with purified kinases and their substrates in vitro or in combination with cell extracts. The method is based on the knowledge that protein kinase C (PKC) adds three phosphates to each molecule of its preferred substrate, myelin basic protein (MBP).

  10. Quantitative results from the focusing schlieren technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. P.; Chokani, Ndaona

    1993-01-01

    An iterative theoretical approach to obtain quantitative density data from the focusing schlieren technique is proposed. The approach is based on an approximate modeling of the focusing action in a focusing schlieren system, and an estimation of an appropriate focal plane thickness. The theoretical approach is incorporated in a computer program, and results obtained from a supersonic wind tunnel experiment evaluated by comparison with CFD data. The density distributions compared favorably with CFD predictions. However, improvements to the system are required in order to reduce noise in the data, to improve specifications of a depth of focus, and to refine the modeling of the focusing action.

  11. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  12. Quantitative methods for food allergens: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Kirsch; Séverine Fourdrilis; Rowan Dobson; Marie-Louise Scippo; Guy Maghuin-Rogister; Edwin De Pauw

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative detection of allergens in the food chain is a strategic health objective as the prevalence of allergy continues\\u000a to rise. Food allergenicity is caused by proteins either in their native form or in forms resulting from food processing.\\u000a Progress in mass spectrometry greatly opened up the field of proteomics. These advances are now available for the detection\\u000a and

  13. Course Information Document MSc Quantitative Methods in Biodiversity, Conservation &

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zaoyang

    /PgD Quantitative Methods in Biodiversity, Conservation & Epidemiology Animal Welfare Science, Ethics & Law TABLE: Quantitative Methods in Biodiversity, Conservation and Epidemiology (QMBCE) and Animal Welfare Science, EthicsCourse Information Document 2013/14 MSc Quantitative Methods in Biodiversity, Conservation

  14. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dyar, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Schafer, Martha W [LSU; Tucker, Jonathan M [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  15. Method for Rapid Calculation of Quantitative Cerebral Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maulin K.; Shin, Wanyong; Mouannes, Jessy; Shaibani, Ali; Horowitz, Sandra W.; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate an algorithm based on algebraic estimation of T1 values (three-point estimation) in comparison with computational curve-fitting for the postprocessing of quantitative cerebral perfusion scans. Materials and Methods Computer simulations were performed to quantify the magnitude of the expected error on T1 and consequently cerebral perfusion using the three-point estimation technique on a Look-Locker (LL) EPI scan. In 50 patients, quantitative cerebral perfusion was calculated using the bookend method with three-point estimation and curve-fitting. The bookend method, a novel approach for calculating quantitative cerebral perfusion based on changes in T1 values after a contrast injection, is currently being validated. The number of computations was used as a measure of computation speed for each method. Student’s paired t-test, Bland-Altman, and correlation analyses were performed to evaluate the accuracy of estimation. Results There was a 99.65% reduction in the number of computations with three-point estimation. Student’s t-test showed no significant difference in cerebral perfusion (P = 0.80, 0.49, paired t-test N = 50, quantitative cerebral blood flow-white matter [qCBF-WM], qCBF-gray matter [qCBF-GM]) when compared to curve-fitting. The results of the two techniques were strongly correlated in patients (slope = 0.99, intercept = 1.58 mL/(100 g/minute), r = 0.86) with a small systemic bias of -0.97 mL/(100 g/minute) in Bland-Altman analysis. Conclusion The three-point estimation technique is adequate for rapid calculation of qCBF. The estimation scheme drastically reduces processing time, thus making the method feasible for clinical use. PMID:18972335

  16. Method of quantitating dsDNA

    DOEpatents

    Stark, Peter C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kuske, Cheryl R. (Los Alamos, NM); Mullen, Kenneth I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method for quantitating dsDNA in an aqueous sample solution containing an unknown amount of dsDNA. A first aqueous test solution containing a known amount of a fluorescent dye-dsDNA complex and at least one fluorescence-attenutating contaminant is prepared. The fluorescence intensity of the test solution is measured. The first test solution is diluted by a known amount to provide a second test solution having a known concentration of dsDNA. The fluorescence intensity of the second test solution is measured. Additional diluted test solutions are similarly prepared until a sufficiently dilute test solution having a known amount of dsDNA is prepared that has a fluorescence intensity that is not attenuated upon further dilution. The value of the maximum absorbance of this solution between 200-900 nanometers (nm), referred to herein as the threshold absorbance, is measured. A sample solution having an unknown amount of dsDNA and an absorbance identical to that of the sufficiently dilute test solution at the same chosen wavelength is prepared. Dye is then added to the sample solution to form the fluorescent dye-dsDNA-complex, after which the fluorescence intensity of the sample solution is measured and the quantity of dsDNA in the sample solution is determined. Once the threshold absorbance of a sample solution obtained from a particular environment has been determined, any similarly prepared sample solution taken from a similar environment and having the same value for the threshold absorbance can be quantified for dsDNA by adding a large excess of dye to the sample solution and measuring its fluorescence intensity.

  17. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  18. An Improved Quantitative Analysis Method for Plant Cortical Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  19. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  20. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  1. Quantitative Cerebral MR Perfusion Imaging: Preliminary Results in Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Maulin K.; Shin, Wanyong; Parikh, Vishal S.; Ragin, Ann; Mouannes, Jessy; Bernstein, Richard A.; Walker, Matthew T.; Bhatt, Hem; Carroll, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate quantitative cerebral blood flow (qCBF) with traditional time-based measurements or metrics of cerebral perfusion: time to peak (Tmax) and mean transit time (MTT) in stroke patients. Materials and Methods Nine ischemic stroke patients (4 Male, 5 Female, 63±16 years old) were included in the study which was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Cerebral perfusion was quantified using the Bookend method. Mean values of qCBF, Tmax, and MTT were determined in regions of interest (ROIs). ROIs were drawn on diffusion weighted images in diffusion positive, critically ischemic (CI), in ipsilateral normal region immediately surrounding the critically ischemic region, the presumed penumbra (PP), and in contralateral diffusion negative control, presumed normal region (PN) of gray and white matter separately (GM and WM). Results In both GM and WM, qCBF measures distinguished the studied brain regions with the most markedly reduced values in regions corresponding to extent of likely ischemic injury. In planned comparisons, only qCBF measurements differed significantly between CI and PP tissues. ROC analysis supported the utility of qCBF for discriminating brain regions differing in the likely extent of ischemic injury (CI and PN regions – qCBF: AUC=0.96, Tmax: AUC=0.96, MTT: AUC=0.72). Importantly, qCBF afforded the best discrimination of CI and PP regions (qCBF: AUC=0.82, Tmax: AUC=0.65, MTT: AUC=0.52). Conclusions This initial evaluation indicates that quantitative MRI perfusion is feasible in ischemic stroke patients. qCBF derived with this strategy provide enhanced discrimination of CI and PP compared to time-based imaging metrics. This approach merits investigation in larger clinical studies. PMID:20882609

  2. Interlaboratory Comparison of Quantitative PCR Test Results for Dehalococcoides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques have been widely used to measure Dehalococcoides (Dhc) DNA in the groundwater at field sites for several years. Interpretation of these data may be complicated when different laboratories using alternate methods conduct the analysis. An...

  3. A Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Method Evaluating Compromise Solutions

    E-print Network

    Bahler, Dennis R.

    A Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Method for Evaluating Compromise Solutions to Conflicts by allowing expressed preferences of design teams to be qualitative as well as quantitative, by allowing teams engineering is an approach to design in which, in order to avoid costly redesign, aspects of the product life

  4. Evaluation of methods for the quantitation of cysteines in proteins.

    PubMed

    Wright, S K; Viola, R E

    1998-12-01

    Several methods for the quantitation of cysteines in proteins have been evaluated and compared. Titration of protein sulfhydryl groups with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) under carefully controlled conditions has extended the detection limits of this method with high accuracy and reproducibility. Results are reported for a variety of enzymes containing a range of total cysteines with different degrees of solvent accessibility and reactivity. A papain amplification assay has also been examined, in which reactivation of the disulfide-blocked active site cysteine of papain can be achieved by a coupled reaction with protein sulfhydryl groups. Detection of sulfhydryls by this amplification assay can be extended, by increasing the enzyme assay times, to achieve over a 40-fold increase in sensitivity over the improved DTNB titration method. Alternatively, titration of enzyme cysteinyl residues with either bromobimane or a maleimide derivative of naphthopyranones has the advantage that a fluorescent product results upon modification of the sulfhydryl group. Reaction of bromobimane with several different enzymes results in nonspecific background fluorescence that limits the detection range of this method unless the products are separated. In contrast, low background fluorescence and high quantum yields with maleimide naphthopyranoses has allowed detection of protein cysteinyl residues with very high sensitivities. PMID:9866701

  5. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.

    2010-09-17

    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of digital systems using dynamic PRA methods. These efforts, documented in NUREG/CR-6901, NUREG/CR-6942, and NUREG/CR-6985, included a functional representation of the system's software but did not explicitly address failure modes caused by software defects or by inadequate design requirements. An important identified research need is to establish a commonly accepted basis for incorporating the behavior of software into digital I&C system reliability models for use in PRAs. To address this need, BNL is exploring the inclusion of software failures into the reliability models of digital I&C systems, such that their contribution to the risk of the associated NPP can be assessed.

  6. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, Frank A. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  7. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1982-08-17

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  8. Fluorometric method of quantitative cell mutagenesis

    DOEpatents

    Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-12-12

    A method for assaying a cell culture for mutagenesis is described. A cell culture is stained first with a histochemical stain, and then a fluorescent stain. Normal cells in the culture are stained by both the histochemical and fluorescent stains, while abnormal cells are stained only by the fluorescent stain. The two stains are chosen so that the histochemical stain absorbs the wavelengths that the fluorescent stain emits. After the counterstained culture is subjected to exciting light, the fluorescence from the abnormal cells is detected.

  9. Optimization of a quantitative method for muscle histology assessment.

    PubMed

    Sifre, L; Coton, J P; André, B; Rezá?ová-Lukášková, Z

    2013-04-01

    Optical microscopy offers the simplest way to obtain magnified images of biological tissues. The assessment of the muscle destructuration level can be performed by a method called Meat Destruction Indicator (MDI), which combines optical microscopy and image analysis. MDI can be used for evaluation of food quality and for considering mechanically separated meat (meat raw material with an MDI value above 58.1% contained muscle fibres sufficiently destructured). This paper is particularly focused on the metrological optimization of a quantitative image analysis method around the example of MDI measurement by microscopy, especially on the digital acquisition calibration focusing and analysis work-flow. Ten different samples (45 sections) were examined with variable settings of microscope and camera to define the optimal configuration. The tests were performed with different observers to define rules and criteria for results validation. Based on the obtained results, we suggest choosing objective rules to set the light and colour of the camera and the microscope focus. To control the results of the automatic segmentation emerged also as a key step, and objective rules for observers to select or discard wrong segmented images should be defined. The adjusted MDI measurement by microscope can be used as a reliable method with good repeatability, thanks to this metrological assessment, which could and should be applied to all image analysis applications whatever the application. PMID:23410149

  10. A Quantitative Method for Weight Selection in SGDDP.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qin; Chen, Gang; Yuan, Zhilong; Zhang, Ying; Wenrich, Judy

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRACT Ethnic factors pose major challenge to evaluating the treatment effect of a new drug in a targeted ethnic (TE) population in emerging regions based on the results from a multi-regional clinical trial (MRCT) (ICHE5, 1998). To address this issue with statistical rigor, Huang, et al. (2012) proposed a new design of a simultaneous global drug development program (SGDDP) which used weighted Z tests to combine the information collected from the non-targeted ethnic (NTE) group in the MRCT with that from the TE group in both the MRCT and a simultaneously designed local clinical trial (LCT). An important and open question in the SGDDP design was how to downweight the information collected from the NTE population to reflect the potential impact of ethnic factors and ensure that the effect size for TE patients is clinically meaningful. In this paper, we will relate the weight selection for the SGDDP to Method 1 proposed in the Japanese regulatory guidance published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in 2007. Method 1 is only applicable when true effect sizes are assumed to be equal for both TE and NTE groups. We modified the Method 1 formula for more general scenarios, and use it to develop a quantitative method of weight selection for the design of the SGDDP which at the same time, also provides sufficient power to descriptively check the consistency of the effect size for TE patients to a clinically meaningful magnitude. PMID:25365548

  11. A Quantitative Assessment Method for Ascaris Eggs on Hands

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness. PMID:24802859

  12. Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure

    E-print Network

    Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells of electrochemical ceramic devices such as solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells depends on the distribution in research and development of optimal microstructure design and fabrication. Three dimensional microstructure

  13. Quantitative Methods Inquires ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    the covariates are: sex and birth order of the child, mother's age, education and economic status of the childQuantitative Methods Inquires 1 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD MORTALITY BETWEEN RURAL Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Abstract: Knowledge of factors that affect the under-five year child

  14. Quantitative PCR Method to Measure the Fungal Endopyte in Locoweeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fungal endophyte (Undifilum oxytropis) has been implicated in the synthesis of swainsonine in Oxytropis and Astragalus species, commonly known as locoweeds. Described is a quantitative PCR method developed to measure the amount of endophyte in Oxytropis and Astragalus species. The limit of quant...

  15. Quantitative methods for analyzing cell-cell adhesion in development.

    PubMed

    Kashef, Jubin; Franz, Clemens M

    2014-11-18

    During development cell-cell adhesion is not only crucial to maintain tissue morphogenesis and homeostasis, it also activates signalling pathways important for the regulation of different cellular processes including cell survival, gene expression, collective cell migration and differentiation. Importantly, gene mutations of adhesion receptors can cause developmental disorders and different diseases. Quantitative methods to measure cell adhesion are therefore necessary to understand how cells regulate cell-cell adhesion during development and how aberrations in cell-cell adhesion contribute to disease. Different in vitro adhesion assays have been developed in the past, but not all of them are suitable to study developmentally-related cell-cell adhesion processes, which usually requires working with low numbers of primary cells. In this review, we provide an overview of different in vitro techniques to study cell-cell adhesion during development, including a semi-quantitative cell flipping assay, and quantitative single-cell methods based on atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) or dual micropipette aspiration (DPA). Furthermore, we review applications of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based molecular tension sensors to visualize intracellular mechanical forces acting on cell adhesion sites. Finally, we describe a recently introduced method to quantitate cell-generated forces directly in living tissues based on the deformation of oil microdroplets functionalized with adhesion receptor ligands. Together, these techniques provide a comprehensive toolbox to characterize different cell-cell adhesion phenomena during development. PMID:25448695

  16. Stability of Quantitative Evaluation Method of Liver Fibrosis Using Amplitude Distribution Model of Fibrotic Liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Yu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

    2011-07-01

    In the clinical diagnosis of liver fibrosis using ultrasound B-mode images, there are some differences between individual doctors' diagnosis results. Hence, the realization of a quantitative diagnosis method using ultrasonic echo signals is strongly required. The probability density function (PDF) of the echo signal envelope is an important factor for ultrasound tissue characterization (TC). To realize the quantitative diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis, we proposed an amplitude distribution model using two Rayleigh distributions. We have been studying the possibility of the quantitative estimation of liver fibrosis by using this model. In this paper, we present the evaluation results of liver fibrosis for clinical data using the amplitude distribution model. Then, we present the stability of the quantitative estimation method of liver fibrosis using the amplitude distribution model by a simulation, and compare the results using the simulation and clinical data. Stability evaluation has enabled the estimation of the progress of liver fibrosis considering statistical dispersion.

  17. Method for depth-resolved quantitation of optical properties in layered media using spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Saager, Rolf B.; Truong, Alex; Cuccia, David J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated that spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy (SMoQS) is capable of extracting absolute optical properties from homogeneous tissue simulating phantoms that span both the visible and near-infrared wavelength regimes. However, biological tissue, such as skin, is highly structured, presenting challenges to quantitative spectroscopic techniques based on homogeneous models. In order to more accurately address the challenges associated with skin, we present a method for depth-resolved optical property quantitation based on a two layer model. Layered Monte Carlo simulations and layered tissue simulating phantoms are used to determine the efficacy and accuracy of SMoQS to quantify layer specific optical properties of layered media. Initial results from both the simulation and experiment show that this empirical method is capable of determining top layer thickness within tens of microns across a physiological range for skin. Layer specific chromophore concentration can be determined to <±10% the actual values, on average, whereas bulk quantitation in either visible or near infrared spectroscopic regimes significantly underestimates the layer specific chromophore concentration and can be confounded by top layer thickness. PMID:21806282

  18. Phase analysis in duplex stainless steel: comparison of EBSD and quantitative metallography methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalska, J.; Chmiela, B.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the research was to work out the qualitative and quantitative analysis of phases in DSS in as-received state and after thermal aging. For quantitative purposes, SEM observations, EDS analyses and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) methods were employed. Qualitative analysis of phases was performed by two methods: EBSD and classical quantitative metallography. A juxtaposition of different etchants for the revealing of microstructure and brief review of sample preparation methods for EBSD studies were presented. Different ways of sample preparation were tested and based on these results a detailed methodology of DSS phase analysis was developed including: surface finishing, selective etching methods and image acquisition. The advantages and disadvantages of applied methods were pointed out and compared the accuracy of the analysis phase performed by both methods.

  19. Quantitative method of measuring cancer cell urokinase and metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated urokinase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  20. Analytical methods for quantitation of prenylated flavonoids from hops

    PubMed Central

    Nikoli?, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used as a flavoring agent in the brewing industry. There is growing interest in possible health benefits of hops, particularly as estrogenic and chemopreventive agents. Among the possible active constituents, most of the attention has focused on prenylated flavonoids, which can chemically be classified as prenylated chalcones and prenylated flavanones. Among chalcones, xanthohumol (XN) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) have been the most studied, while among flavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) have received the most attention. Because of the interest in medicinal properties of prenylated flavonoids, there is demand for accurate, reproducible and sensitive analytical methods to quantify these compounds in various matrices. Such methods are needed, for example, for quality control and standardization of hop extracts, measurement of the content of prenylated flavonoids in beer, and to determine pharmacokinetic properties of prenylated flavonoids in animals and humans. This review summarizes currently available analytical methods for quantitative analysis of the major prenylated flavonoids, with an emphasis on the LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods and their recent applications to biomedical research on hops. This review covers all methods in which prenylated flavonoids have been measured, either as the primary analytes or as a part of a larger group of analytes. The review also discusses methodological issues relating to the quantitative analysis of these compounds regardless of the chosen analytical approach. PMID:24077106

  1. Analytical methods for quantitation of prenylated flavonoids from hops.

    PubMed

    Nikoli?, Dejan; van Breemen, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    The female flowers of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used as a flavoring agent in the brewing industry. There is growing interest in possible health benefits of hops, particularly as estrogenic and chemopreventive agents. Among the possible active constituents, most of the attention has focused on prenylated flavonoids, which can chemically be classified as prenylated chalcones and prenylated flavanones. Among chalcones, xanthohumol (XN) and desmethylxanthohumol (DMX) have been the most studied, while among flavanones, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN) have received the most attention. Because of the interest in medicinal properties of prenylated flavonoids, there is demand for accurate, reproducible and sensitive analytical methods to quantify these compounds in various matrices. Such methods are needed, for example, for quality control and standardization of hop extracts, measurement of the content of prenylated flavonoids in beer, and to determine pharmacokinetic properties of prenylated flavonoids in animals and humans. This review summarizes currently available analytical methods for quantitative analysis of the major prenylated flavonoids, with an emphasis on the LC-MS and LC-MS-MS methods and their recent applications to biomedical research on hops. This review covers all methods in which prenylated flavonoids have been measured, either as the primary analytes or as a part of a larger group of analytes. The review also discusses methodological issues relating to the quantitative analysis of these compounds regardless of the chosen analytical approach. PMID:24077106

  2. A new method for quantitative determination of BHA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herta Laszlo; L. R. Dugan

    1961-01-01

    A qualitative test developed by Laszlo has been adapted to the quantitative determination of BHA. The determination is based\\u000a on measurement of the specific and sensitive color resulting from reaction of BHA with diazotized sulfanilic acid in alkaline\\u000a solution. The red-purple color, which is stable for long periods, has an absorption maximum at 535 m?. Beer’s law is obeyed,\\u000a and

  3. Quantitative analytical method to evaluate the metabolism of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Mena-Bravo, A; Ferreiro-Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Maestro, M A; Mouriño, A; Quesada-Gómez, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-03-10

    A method for quantitative analysis of vitamin D (both D2 and D3) and its main metabolites - monohydroxylated vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) and dihydroxylated metabolites (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) in human serum is here reported. The method is based on direct analysis of serum by an automated platform involving on-line coupling of a solid-phase extraction workstation to a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. Detection of the seven analytes was carried out by the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and quantitative analysis was supported on the use of stable isotopic labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs). The detection limits were between 0.3-75pg/mL for the target compounds, while precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was below 13.0% for between-day variability. The method was externally validated according to the vitamin D External Quality Assurance Scheme (DEQAS) through the analysis of ten serum samples provided by this organism. The analytical features of the method support its applicability in nutritional and clinical studies targeted at elucidating the role of vitamin D metabolism. PMID:25575651

  4. System and methods for wide-field quantitative fluorescence imaging during neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Pablo A; Jacobs, Valerie L; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frederic; Roberts, David W; Paulsen, Keith D

    2013-08-01

    We report an accurate, precise and sensitive method and system for quantitative fluorescence image-guided neurosurgery. With a low-noise, high-dynamic-range CMOS array, we perform rapid (integration times as low as 50 ms per wavelength) hyperspectral fluorescence and diffuse reflectance detection and apply a correction algorithm to compensate for the distorting effects of tissue absorption and scattering. Using this approach, we generated quantitative wide-field images of fluorescence in tissue-simulating phantoms for the fluorophore PpIX, having concentrations and optical absorption and scattering variations over clinically relevant ranges. The imaging system was tested in a rodent model of glioma, detecting quantitative levels down to 20 ng/ml. The resulting performance is a significant advance on existing wide-field quantitative imaging techniques, and provides performance comparable to a point-spectroscopy probe that has previously demonstrated significant potential for improved detection of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection. PMID:23903142

  5. A quantitative evaluation of various deconvolution methods and their applications in the deconvolution of plasma spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanwei; Shi, Yuejiang; Li, Yingying; Fu, Jia; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Hongming; Wang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Yongcai

    2013-06-01

    A quantitative evaluation of various deconvolution methods and their applications in processing plasma emitted spectra was performed. The iterative deconvolution algorithms evaluated here include Jansson's method, Richardson-Lucy's method, the maximum a posteriori method and Gold's method. The evaluation criteria include minimization of the sum of squared errors and the sum of squared relative error of parameters, and their rate of convergence. After comparing deconvolved results using these methods, it was concluded that Jansson's and Gold's methods were able to provide good profiles that are visually close to the original spectra. Additionally, Gold's method generally gives the best results when considering all the criteria above. The applications to the actual plasma spectra obtained from the EAST tokamak with these methods are also presented in this paper. The deconvolution results with Gold's and Jansson's methods show that the effects of instruments can be satisfactorily eliminated and clear spectra are recovered.

  6. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf A. Yousef; Alaa B. Abbas; Bassam Sh. Badawi; Wafaa Y. Al-Jowhar; Esam A. Zain; Seham A. El-Mufti

    2012-01-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5

  7. Complementarity as a Program Evaluation Strategy: A Focus on Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafleur, Clay

    Use of complementarity as a deliberate and necessary program evaluation strategy is discussed. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are viewed as complementary and can be integrated into a single study. The synergy that results from using complementary methods in a single study seems to enhance understanding and interpretation. A review of the…

  8. Counting Better? An Examination of the Impact of Quantitative Method Teaching on Statistical Anxiety and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, John Martyn; Hillier, John; Signoretta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research concerned with students' statistical anxiety and confidence to both complete and learn to complete statistical tasks. Data were collected at the beginning and end of a quantitative method statistics module. Students recognised the value of numeracy skills but felt they were not necessarily relevant…

  9. Syllabus 09/22/11 HDSP/LRN_SCI 451: Quantitative Methods 1

    E-print Network

    Bustamante, Fabián E.

    Syllabus 09/22/11 HDSP/LRN_SCI 451: Quantitative Methods 1 Fall 2010 the results using both numbers and words. #12;Syllabus 09/22/11 Textbook;Syllabus 09/22/11 Course schedule This will undoubtedly be a moving target

  10. Mapcurves: A Quantitative Method for Comparing Categorical Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Hessburg, Paul [U.S.D.A. Forest Service

    2006-01-01

    We present Mapcurves, a quantitative goodness-of-fit (GOF) method that unambiguously shows the degree of spatial concordance between two or more categorical maps. Mapcurves graphically and quantitatively evaluate the degree of fit among any number of maps and quantify a GOF for each polygon, as well as the entire map. The Mapcurve method indicates a perfect fit even if all polygons in one map are comprised of unique sets of the polygons in another map, if the coincidence among map categories is absolute. It is not necessary to interpret (or even know) legend descriptors for the categories in the maps to be compared, since the degree of fit in the spatial overlay alone forms the basis for the comparison. This feature makes Mapcurves ideal for comparing maps derived from remotely sensed images. A translation table is provided for the categories in each map as an output. Since the comparison is category-based rather than cell-based, the GOF is resolution-independent. Mapcurves can be applied either to entire map categories or to individual raster patches or vector polygons. Mapcurves also have applications for quantifying the spatial uncertainty of particular map features.

  11. Is life cycle assessment (LCA) a suitable method for quantitative CO 2 saving estimations? the impact of field input on the LCA results for a pure vegetable oil chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chiaramonti; Lucia Recchia

    2010-01-01

    The environmental and social sustainability of biofuel production and use is today the most critical issue for the development of support policies in this sector.The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is commonly agreed as the main tool for the estimation of the impact of biofuel chains, even in quantitative terms. This is also reflected in the recently issued EU Directive

  12. Analysis of 129I in Groundwater Samples: Direct and Quantitative Results below the Drinking Water Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2007-03-03

    Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years) and relatively unencumbered migration in subsurface environments, 129I has been recognized as a contaminant of concern at numerous federal, private, and international facilities. In order to understand the long-term risk associated with 129I at these locations, quantitative analysis of groundwater samples must be performed. However, the ability to quantitatively assess the 129I content in groundwater samples requires specialized extraction and sophisticated analytical techniques, which are complicated and not always available to the general scientific community. This paper highlights an analytical method capable of directly quantifying 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the MCL without the need for sample pre-concentration. Samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer ELAN DRC II ICP-MS after minimal dilution using O2 as the reaction gas. Analysis of continuing calibration verification standards indicated that the DRC mode could be used for quantitative analysis of 129I in samples below the drinking water standard (0.0057 ng/ml or 1 pCi/L). The low analytical detection limit of 129I analysis in the DRC mode coupled with minimal sample dilution (1.02x) resulted in a final sample limit of quantification of 0.0051 ng/ml. Subsequent analysis of three groundwater samples containing 129I resulted in fully quantitative results in the DRC mode, and spike recovery analyses performed on all three samples confirmed that the groundwater matrix did not adversely impact the analysis of 129I in the DRC mode. This analytical approach has been proven to be a cost-effective, high-throughput technique for the direct, quantitative analysis of 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the current MCL.

  13. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  14. Evaluation of DNA microarray results with quantitative gene expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D Canales; Yuling Luo; James C Willey; Bradley Austermiller; Catalin C Barbacioru; Cecilie Boysen; Kathryn Hunkapiller; Roderick V Jensen; Charles R Knight; Kathleen Y Lee; Yunqing Ma; Botoul Maqsodi; Adam Papallo; Elizabeth Herness Peters; Karen Poulter; Patricia L Ruppel; Raymond R Samaha; Leming Shi; Wen Yang; Lu Zhang; Federico M Goodsaid

    2006-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance characteristics of three quantitative gene expression technologies and correlated their expression measurements to those of five commercial microarray platforms, based on the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) data set. The limit of detection, assay range, precision, accuracy and fold-change correlations were assessed for 997 TaqMan Gene Expression Assays, 205 Standardized RT (Sta)RT-PCR assays and 244 QuantiGene

  15. Quantitative mass spectrometric analysis of glycoproteins combined with enrichment methods.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-04-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148-165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  16. QUANTITATIVE MASS SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF GLYCOPROTEINS COMBINED WITH ENRICHMENT METHODS

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeong Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) has been a core technology for high sensitive and high-throughput analysis of the enriched glycoproteome in aspects of quantitative assays as well as qualitative profiling of glycoproteins. Because it has been widely recognized that aberrant glycosylation in a glycoprotein may involve in progression of a certain disease, the development of efficient analysis tool for the aberrant glycoproteins is very important for deep understanding about pathological function of the glycoprotein and new biomarker development. This review first describes the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies mainly employing solid-phase extraction methods such as hydrizide-capturing, lectin-specific capturing, and affinity separation techniques based on porous graphitized carbon, hydrophilic interaction chromatography, or immobilized boronic acid. Second, MS-based quantitative analysis strategies coupled with the protein glycosylation-targeting enrichment technologies, by using a label-free MS, stable isotope-labeling, or targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS, are summarized with recent published studies. © 2014 The Authors. Mass Spectrometry Reviews Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Rapid Commun. Mass Spec Rev 34:148–165, 2015. PMID:24889823

  17. Methods for Quantitative Interpretation of Retarding Field Analyzer Data

    SciTech Connect

    Calvey, J.R.; Crittenden, J.A.; Dugan, G.F.; Palmer, M.A.; Furman, M.; Harkay, K.

    2011-03-28

    Over the course of the CesrTA program at Cornell, over 30 Retarding Field Analyzers (RFAs) have been installed in the CESR storage ring, and a great deal of data has been taken with them. These devices measure the local electron cloud density and energy distribution, and can be used to evaluate the efficacy of different cloud mitigation techniques. Obtaining a quantitative understanding of RFA data requires use of cloud simulation programs, as well as a detailed model of the detector itself. In a drift region, the RFA can be modeled by postprocessing the output of a simulation code, and one can obtain best fit values for important simulation parameters with a chi-square minimization method.

  18. Quantitative voltage contrast method for electron irradiated insulators in SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhaj, M.; Jbara, O.; Fakhfakh, S.

    2008-09-01

    A surface potential mapping method for electron irradiated insulators in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is proposed. This method, based on the use of a highly compact electrostatic toroidal spectrometer specially adapted to SEM applications, is able to monitor the spatial variation of surface potentials of strongly negatively charged materials. The capabilities of this method are tested on a made-up heterogeneous sample. First results prove that the method is particularly appropriate for the reconstitution of the surface potential distribution.

  19. A method for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin from algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of a new technique for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin (PHE) from algal samples is described. Results of analysis of four extracts representing three PHE types from algae including cryptomonad and cyanophyte types are presented. The method of extraction and an equation for quantitation are given. A graph showing the relationship of concentration and fluorescence units that may be used with samples fluorescing around 575-580 nm (probably dominated by cryptophytes in estuarine waters) and 560 nm (dominated by cyanophytes characteristics of the open ocean) is provided.

  20. Quantitative Gene Expression of Somatostatin Receptors and Noradrenaline Transporter Underlying Scintigraphic Results in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tina Binderup; Ulrich Knigge; Anne Mellon Mogensen; Carsten Palnaes Hansen; Andreas Kjaer

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To measure, by a quantitative approach, the gene expression underlying the results of somatostatin receptor (sst) scintigraphy (111In-DTPA-octreotide) and noradrenaline transporter (NAT) scintigraphy (123I-MIBG) in patients with neuroendocrine (NE) tumors. Methods: The gene expression of somatostatin receptors 1–5 (sst) and NAT was measured quantitatively by real-time PCR in a group of patients with NE tumors (n = 14) and

  1. A Method for Quantitative Determination of Biofilm Viability

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Ken; Cai, Yanling; Strømme, Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present a scheme for quantitative determination of biofilm viability offering significant improvement over existing methods with metabolic assays. Existing metabolic assays for quantifying viable bacteria in biofilms usually utilize calibration curves derived from planktonic bacteria, which can introduce large errors due to significant differences in the metabolic and/or growth rates of biofilm bacteria in the assay media compared to their planktonic counterparts. In the presented method we derive the specific growth rate of Streptococcus mutans bacteria biofilm from a series of metabolic assays using the pH indicator phenol red, and show that this information could be used to more accurately quantify the relative number of viable bacteria in a biofilm. We found that the specific growth rate of S. mutans in biofilm mode of growth was 0.70 h?1, compared to 1.09 h?1 in planktonic growth. This method should be applicable to other bacteria types, as well as other metabolic assays, and, for example, to quantify the effect of antibacterial treatments or the performance of bactericidal implant surfaces. PMID:24955541

  2. How Many proteins are Missed in Quantitative proteomics Based on Ms/Ms sequencing Methods?

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Claire; Thur, Bettina; Crawford, Mark; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Current bottom-up quantitative proteomics methods based on MS/MS sequencing of peptides are shown to be strongly dependent on sample preparation. Using cytosolic proteins from MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it is shown that protein pre-fractionation based on pI and MW is more effective than pre-fractionation using only MW in increasing the number of observed proteins (947 vs. 704 proteins) and the number of spectral counts per protein. Combination of MS data from the different pre-fractionation methods results in further improvements (1238 proteins). We discuss that at present the main limitation on quantitation by MS/MS sequencing is not MS sensitivity and protein abundance, but rather extensive peptide overlap and limited MS/MS sequencing throughput, and that this favors internally calibrated methods such as SILAC, ICAT or ITRAQ over spectral counting methods in attempts to drastically improve proteome coverage of biological samples.

  3. A new method of phase derivative extracting for off-axis quantitative phase imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yawei; Jin, Weifeng; Lv, Cuihong; Wu, Hui

    2013-09-01

    We present a new derivative method for phase information extraction in off-axis quantitative phase imaging (QPI). Similar to other rapid derivative method, this method only uses the interference term, the 1st and 2nd order derivatives of a single interferogram in QPI, but the assumption in our method is different from that of other derivative method. And this method can be used to optimize small spatial frequency processing capability in slightly off-axis QPI. We illustrate the proposed method with theory and simulation experiment of a ball, and prove our method by comparing our simulation results with the experimental results of the red blood cell and the skin cancer cell, respectively.

  4. Modeling conflict : research methods, quantitative modeling, and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Hendrickson, Gerald A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the factors that lead countries into conflict. Specifically, political, social and economic factors may offer insight as to how prone a country (or set of countries) may be for inter-country or intra-country conflict. Largely methodological in scope, this study examines the literature for quantitative models that address or attempt to model conflict both in the past, and for future insight. The analysis concentrates specifically on the system dynamics paradigm, not the political science mainstream approaches of econometrics and game theory. The application of this paradigm builds upon the most sophisticated attempt at modeling conflict as a result of system level interactions. This study presents the modeling efforts built on limited data and working literature paradigms, and recommendations for future attempts at modeling conflict.

  5. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the ``communications gap`` between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff? This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  6. Quantitative methods for developing C2 system requirement

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, K.K.

    1992-06-01

    The US Army established the Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) Experimentation Site (AES) to provide a place where material and combat developers could experiment with command and control systems. The AES conducts fundamental and applied research involving command and control issues using a number of research methods, ranging from large force-level experiments, to controlled laboratory experiments, to studies and analyses. The work summarized in this paper was done by Pacific Northwest Laboratory under task order from the Army Tactical Command and Control System Experimentation Site. The purpose of the task was to develop the functional requirements for army engineer automation and support software, including MCS-ENG. A client, such as an army engineer, has certain needs and requirements of his or her software; these needs must be presented in ways that are readily understandable to the software developer. A requirements analysis then, such as the one described in this paper, is simply the means of communication between those who would use a piece of software and those who would develop it. The analysis from which this paper was derived attempted to bridge the communications gap'' between army combat engineers and software engineers. It sought to derive and state the software needs of army engineers in ways that are meaningful to software engineers. In doing this, it followed a natural sequence of investigation: (1) what does an army engineer do, (2) with which tasks can software help, (3) how much will it cost, and (4) where is the highest payoff This paper demonstrates how each of these questions was addressed during an analysis of the functional requirements of engineer support software. Systems engineering methods are used in a task analysis and a quantitative scoring method was developed to score responses regarding the feasibility of task automation. The paper discusses the methods used to perform utility and cost-benefits estimates.

  7. Evaluation of the quantitative performances of supercritical fluid chromatography: from method development to validation.

    PubMed

    Dispas, Amandine; Lebrun, Pierre; Ziemons, Eric; Marini, Roland; Rozet, Eric; Hubert, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Recently, the number of papers about SFC increased drastically but scientists did not truly focus their work on quantitative performances of this technique. In order to prove the potential of UHPSFC, the present work discussed about the different steps of the analytical life cycle of a method: from development to validation and application. Moreover, the UHPSFC quantitative performances were evaluated in comparison with UHPLC, which is the main technique used for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry and then could be considered as a reference. The methods were developed using Design Space strategy, leading to the optimization of robust method. In this context, when the Design Space optimization shows guarantee of quality, no more robustness study is required prior to the validation. Then, the methods were geometrically transferred in order to reduce the analysis time. The UHPSFC and UHPLC methods were validated based on the total error approach using accuracy profile. Even if UHPLC showed better precision and sensitivity, UHPSFC method is able to give accurate results in a dosing range larger than the 80-120% range required by the European Medicines Agency. Consequently, UHPSFC results are valid and could be used for the control of active substance in a finished pharmaceutical product. Finally, UHPSFC validated method was used to analyse real samples and gave similar results than the reference method (UHPLC). PMID:24513349

  8. Quantitative Methods for Comparing Different Polyline Stream Network Models

    SciTech Connect

    Danny L. Anderson; Daniel P. Ames; Ping Yang

    2014-04-01

    Two techniques for exploring relative horizontal accuracy of complex linear spatial features are described and sample source code (pseudo code) is presented for this purpose. The first technique, relative sinuosity, is presented as a measure of the complexity or detail of a polyline network in comparison to a reference network. We term the second technique longitudinal root mean squared error (LRMSE) and present it as a means for quantitatively assessing the horizontal variance between two polyline data sets representing digitized (reference) and derived stream and river networks. Both relative sinuosity and LRMSE are shown to be suitable measures of horizontal stream network accuracy for assessing quality and variation in linear features. Both techniques have been used in two recent investigations involving extracting of hydrographic features from LiDAR elevation data. One confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE, when using LiDAR-derived DEMs. The other demonstrated a new method of delineating stream channels directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM, showing that the direct delineation from LiDAR point clouds yielded an excellent and much better match, as indicated by the LRMSE.

  9. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    PubMed Central

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of Kraszewski, in support of their conclusion that SOCT optimization should include window shape, next to choice of window size and analysis algorithm. PMID:25401016

  10. [Quantitative method for detection of plasma lumbrokinase content and its assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Wen-Liang; Wang, Min; Zou, Min-Ji; Xu, Tao; Wang, Jia-Xi; Zhang, Han; Xu, Dong-Gang

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to set up and evaluate a quantitative method for detecting lumbrokinase level in plasma. The lumbrokinase was used to immunize rabbit and BALB/c mouse for preparation of rabbit or mouse-derived polyclonal antibodies, and then the standard curves were drawn up by detecting the lumbrokinase diluted in PBS using the double antibody sandwich ELISA. This method further was analyzed for its specificity, precision and recovery rate. This established double antibody sandwich ELISA was used to assay the lumbrokinase in human plasma, and the assayed results were assessed. The results showed that a double antibody sandwich ELISA for the detection of lumbrokinase has been established. And the standard curve fitting R value > 0.99, the precision assessment showed that the measured values of coefficient of variation (CV) in 3 batches were all < 15%; recovery assessment in 3 batches showed that all the measured recovery rates were > 80%; the quantitative low limit was assessed as 5 ng/ml (precision CV < 15%, recovery rate > 85%). It is concluded that this method is consistent with the criteria stipulated by the Pharmacopeia, which provides a reliable measurement method for quantitative detection of plasma lumbrokinase in clinical trials. PMID:23257460

  11. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  12. Quantitative Analysis and Validation of Method Using HPTLC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pinakin C. Dhandhukia; Janki N. Thakker

    2011-01-01

    High performance thin layer chromatography is an emerging alternative analytical technique in comparison with conventional column chromatography because of its simplicity, rapidity, accuracy, robustness, and cost effectiveness. Choice of vast array of supporting matrices and solvent systems resulted in separation of almost all types of analytes except volatiles. First step of a robust method development for routine quantification is to

  13. Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna E. M. Sale; Lynne H. Lohfeld; Kevin Brazil

    2002-01-01

    Health care research includes many studies that combine quantitative and qualitative methods. In this paper, we revisit the quantitative-qualitative debate and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. In addition, we discuss the implications stemming from our view, that the paradigms upon which the methods are based have a different view of reality and therefore a different view of

  14. A new quantitative method for gunshot residue analysis by ion beam analysis.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Matthew E; Warmenhoeven, John-William; Romolo, Francesco S; Donghi, Matteo; Webb, Roger P; Jeynes, Christopher; Ward, Neil I; Kirkby, Karen J; Bailey, Melanie J

    2013-08-21

    Imaging and analyzing gunshot residue (GSR) particles using the scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) is a standard technique that can provide important forensic evidence, but the discrimination power of this technique is limited due to low sensitivity to trace elements and difficulties in obtaining quantitative results from small particles. A new, faster method using a scanning proton microbeam and Particle Induced X-ray Emission (?-PIXE), together with Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) is presented for the non-destructive, quantitative analysis of the elemental composition of single GSR particles. In this study, the GSR particles were all Pb, Ba, Sb. The precision of the method is assessed. The grouping behaviour of different makes of ammunition is determined using multivariate analysis. The protocol correctly groups the cartridges studied here, with a confidence >99%, irrespective of the firearm or population of particles selected. PMID:23775063

  15. Evaluating Polling Methods and Results

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The New York Times The Learning Network

    What basic skills are needed to read a poll? How are scientifically sound polls conducted? How can one gauge the reliability of poll data? In this lesson, students learn terms associated with polling as well as how to read and evaluate poll methodologies and results. They then practice administering and interpreting polls.

  16. Equations. Problems. Results. Methods. Examples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuil D. Eidelman; Anatoly N. Kochubei; Stepan D. Ivasyshen

    \\u000a This chapter is introductory. It contains definitions and examples of equations from the classes considered in this book,\\u000a setting the context of the problems to be solved. We describe main results and techniques. In addition, we have included in\\u000a this chapter several lemmas essential for this book.

  17. Quantitative results of stellar evolution and pulsation theories.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, K.; Stobie, R. S.; Strittmatter, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The discrepancy between the masses of Cepheid variables deduced from evolution theory and pulsation theory is examined. The effect of input physics on evolutionary tracks is first discussed; in particular, changes in the opacity are considered. The sensitivity of pulsation masses to opacity changes and to the ascribed values of luminosity and effective temperature are then analyzed. The Cepheid mass discrepancy is discussed in the light of the results already obtained. Other astronomical evidence, including the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars, the solar neutrino flux, and cluster ages are also considered in an attempt to determine the most likely source of error in the event that substantial mass loss has not occurred.

  18. Quantitation of Endogenous Peptides using Mass Spectrometry Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Elena V.; Dowd, Sarah E.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    The mass spectrometry-based “omics” sub-discipline that focuses on comprehensive, often exploratory, analyses of endogenous peptides involved in cell-to-cell communication is oftentimes referred to as peptidomics. While the progress in bioanalytical technology development for peptide discovery has been tremendous, perhaps the largest advances have involved robust quantitative mass spectrometric approaches and data mining algorithms. These efforts have accelerated the discovery and validation of biomarkers, functionally important posttranslational modifications, and unexpected molecular interactions, information that aids drug development. In this article we outline the current approaches used in quantitative peptidomics and the technical challenges that stimulate new advances in the field, while also reviewing the newest literature on functional characterizations of endogenous peptides using quantitative mass spectrometry. PMID:23790312

  19. A novel method for quantitative geosteering using azimuthal gamma-ray logging.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Zhou, Cancan; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Song; Li, Chaoliu

    2015-02-01

    A novel method for quantitative geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging is proposed. Real-time up and bottom gamma-ray logs when a logging tool travels through a boundary surface with different relative dip angles are simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Study results show that response points of up and bottom gamma-ray logs when the logging tool moves towards a highly radioactive formation can be used to predict the relative dip angle, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated. PMID:25479436

  20. Methods and challenges in quantitative imaging biomarker development.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Richard G; Burton, Kirsteen R; Yu, John-Paul J; Scalzetti, Ernest M; Yankeelov, Thomas E; Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Mendiratta-Lala, Mishal; Bartholmai, Brian J; Ganeshan, Dhakshinamoorthy; Lenchik, Leon; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2015-01-01

    Academic radiology is poised to play an important role in the development and implementation of quantitative imaging (QI) tools. This article, drafted by the Association of University Radiologists Radiology Research Alliance Quantitative Imaging Task Force, reviews current issues in QI biomarker research. We discuss motivations for advancing QI, define key terms, present a framework for QI biomarker research, and outline challenges in QI biomarker development. We conclude by describing where QI research and development is currently taking place and discussing the paramount role of academic radiology in this rapidly evolving field. PMID:25481515

  1. Quantitative Measurement Method for Possible Rib Fractures in Chest Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaeil; Kim, Sungjun; Kim, Young Jae

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This paper proposes a measurement method to quantify the abnormal characteristics of the broken parts of ribs using local texture and shape features in chest radiographs. Methods Our measurement method comprises two steps: a measurement area assignment and sampling step using a spline curve and sampling lines orthogonal to the spline curve, and a fracture-ness measurement step with three measures, asymmetry and gray-level co-occurrence matrix based measures (contrast and homogeneity). They were designed to quantify the regional shape and texture features of ribs along the centerline. The discriminating ability of our method was evaluated through region of interest (ROI) analysis and rib fracture classification test using support vector machine. Results The statistically significant difference was found between the measured values from fracture and normal ROIs; asymmetry (p < 0.0001), contrast (p < 0.001), and homogeneity (p = 0.022). The rib fracture classifier, trained with the measured values in ROI analysis, detected every rib fracture from chest radiographs used for ROI analysis, but it also classified some unbroken parts of ribs as abnormal parts (8 to 17 line sets; length of each line set, 2.998 ± 2.652 mm; length of centerlines, 131.067 ± 29.460 mm). Conclusions Our measurement method, which includes a flexible measurement technique for the curved shape of ribs and the proposed shape and texture measures, could discriminate the suspicious regions of ribs for possible rib fractures in chest radiographs. PMID:24175118

  2. Quantitative Methods for Administrative Decision Making in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Benjamin Knox

    With the rapid increase in number and size of junior colleges, administrators must take advantage of the decision-making tools already used in business and industry. This study investigated how these quantitative techniques could be applied to junior college problems. A survey of 195 California junior college administrators found that the problems…

  3. Quantitative methods to characterize morphological properties of cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Elliott, John T; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Tona, Alessandro; Spurlin, Tighe A; Middlebrooks, Bobby L; Baatz, John E; Warr, Gregory W; Plant, Anne L

    2012-07-01

    Descriptive terms are often used to characterize cells in culture, but the use of nonquantitative and poorly defined terms can lead to ambiguities when comparing data from different laboratories. Although recently there has been a good deal of interest in unambiguous identification of cell lines via their genetic markers, it is also critical to have definitive, quantitative metrics to describe cell phenotypic characteristics. Quantitative metrics of cell phenotype will aid the comparison of data from experiments performed at different times and in different laboratories where influences such as the age of the population and differences in culture conditions or protocols can potentially affect cellular metabolic state and gene expression in the absence of changes in the genetic profile. Here, we present examples of robust methodologies for quantitatively assessing characteristics of cell morphology and cell-cell interactions, and of growth rates of cells within the population. We performed these analyses with endothelial cell lines derived from dolphin, bovine and human, and with a mouse fibroblast cell line. These metrics quantify some characteristics of these cells lines that clearly distinguish them from one another, and provide quantitative information on phenotypic changes in one of the cell lines over large number of passages. PMID:22619183

  4. Anesthesia of Artemia Larvae: Method for Quantitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur B. Robinson; Kenneth F. Manly; Michael P. Anthony; John F. Catchpool; Linus Pauling

    1965-01-01

    Potency of anesthetics is quantitatively measured with laboratory-hatched larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Statistical fluctuations are minimized in that 100,000 animals are used to determine a single median anesthetic dose value. The technique was developed to study molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia.

  5. Issues Related to Data Analysis and Quantitative Methods in PER

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meltzer, David (David Elliott)

    This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, offers authors' discussion of some issues that always arise, implicitly or explicitly, when conducting quantitative research and carrying out data analysis in Physics Education Research. (Most are relevant for qualitative research as well.)

  6. Development and evaluation of a model-based downscatter compensation method for quantitative I-131 SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na; Du, Yong; He, Bin; Frey, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The radionuclide 131I has found widespread use in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT), partly due to the fact that it emits photons that can be imaged to perform treatment planning or posttherapy dose verification as well as beta rays that are suitable for therapy. In both the treatment planning and dose verification applications, it is necessary to estimate the activity distribution in organs or tumors at several time points. In vivo estimates of the 131I activity distribution at each time point can be obtained from quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (QSPECT) images and organ activity estimates can be obtained either from QSPECT images or quantification of planar projection data. However, in addition to the photon used for imaging, 131I decay results in emission of a number of other higher-energy photons with significant abundances. These higher-energy photons can scatter in the body, collimator, or detector and be counted in the 364 keV photopeak energy window, resulting in reduced image contrast and degraded quantitative accuracy; these photons are referred to as downscatter. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate a model-based downscatter compensation method specifically designed for the compensation of high-energy photons emitted by 131I and detected in the imaging energy window. Methods: In the evaluation study, we used a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) code that had previously been validated for other radionuclides. Thus, in preparation for the evaluation study, we first validated the code for 131I imaging simulation by comparison with experimental data. Next, we assessed the accuracy of the downscatter model by comparing downscatter estimates with MCS results. Finally, we combined the downscatter model with iterative reconstruction-based compensation for attenuation (A) and scatter (S) and the full (D) collimator-detector response of the 364 keV photons to form a comprehensive compensation method. We evaluated this combined method in terms of quantitative accuracy using the realistic 3D NCAT phantom and an activity distribution obtained from patient studies. We compared the accuracy of organ activity estimates in images reconstructed with and without addition of downscatter compensation from projections with and without downscatter contamination. Results: We observed that the proposed method provided substantial improvements in accuracy compared to no downscatter compensation and had accuracies comparable to reconstructions from projections without downscatter contamination. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the proposed model-based downscatter compensation method is effective and may have a role in quantitative 131I imaging. PMID:21815394

  7. A Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    A Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy By Roger N. Clark (AVIRIS) Team, 2010, A method for quantitative mapping of thick oil spills using imaging spectroscopy: U ....................................................................................................................................................14 Figures 1. Image of oil emulsion from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico off

  8. A competitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for characterizing the population dynamics during kimchi fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gee-Hyun; Moon, Jin Seok; Shin, So-Yeon; Min, Won Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a competitive quantitative-PCR (CQ-PCR) method for rapid analysis of the population dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in kimchi. For this, whole chromosome sequences of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lb. brevis were compared and species-specific PCR primers targeting dextransucrase, 16S rRNA, and surface layer protein D (SlpD) genes, respectively, were constructed. The tested strains were quantified both in medium and kimchi by CQ-PCR and the results were compared with the data obtained using a conventional plate-counting method. As a result, the three species were successfully detected and quantified by the indicated primer sets. Our results show that the CQ-PCR method targeting species-specific genes is suitable for rapid estimation of LAB population to be used in the food fermentation industry. PMID:25475752

  9. On the quantitative method for measurement and analysis of the fine structure of Fraunhofer line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuli-Zade, D. M.

    The methods of measurement and analysis of the fine structure of weak and moderate Fraunhofer line profiles are considered. The digital spectral materials were obtained using rapid scanning high dispersion and high resolution double monochromators. The methods of asymmetry coefficient, bisector method and new quantitative method pro- posed by the author are discussed. The new physical values of differential, integral, residual and relative asymmetries are first introduced. These quantitative values permit us to investigate the dependence of asymmetry on microscopic (atomic) and macro- scopic (photospheric) values. It is shown that the integral profile asymmetries grow appreciably with increase in line equivalent width. The average effective depths of the formation of used Fraunhofer lines in the photosphere of the Sun are determined. It is shown that with the increasing of the effective formation depths of the lines integral and residual asymmetries of the lines profiles noticeably decrease. It is in fine agree- ment with the results of intensity dependence of asymmetry. The above-mentioned methods are critically compared and the advantages of author's method are shown. The computer program of calculation of the line-profile asymmetry parameters has been worked out.

  10. Machine learning methods for quantitative analysis of Raman spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Michael G.; Ryder, Alan G.

    2003-03-01

    The automated identification and quantification of illicit materials using Raman spectroscopy is of significant importance for law enforcement agencies. This paper explores the use of Machine Learning (ML) methods in comparison with standard statistical regression techniques for developing automated identification methods. In this work, the ML task is broken into two sub-tasks, data reduction and prediction. In well-conditioned data, the number of samples should be much larger than the number of attributes per sample, to limit the degrees of freedom in predictive models. In this spectroscopy data, the opposite is normally true. Predictive models based on such data have a high number of degrees of freedom, which increases the risk of models over-fitting to the sample data and having poor predictive power. In the work described here, an approach to data reduction based on Genetic Algorithms is described. For the prediction sub-task, the objective is to estimate the concentration of a component in a mixture, based on its Raman spectrum and the known concentrations of previously seen mixtures. Here, Neural Networks and k-Nearest Neighbours are used for prediction. Preliminary results are presented for the problem of estimating the concentration of cocaine in solid mixtures, and compared with previously published results in which statistical analysis of the same dataset was performed. Finally, this paper demonstrates how more accurate results may be achieved by using an ensemble of prediction techniques.

  11. Quantitative Laser Diffraction Method for the Assessment of Protein Subvisible Particles

    PubMed Central

    Totoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Gaku; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Laser diffraction (LD) has been recognized as a method for estimating particle size distribution. Here, a recently developed quantitative LD (qLD) system, which is an LD method with extensive deconvolution analysis, was employed for the quantitative assessment of protein particles sizes, especially aimed at the quantification of 0.2–10 ?m diameter subvisible particles (SVPs). The qLD accurately estimated concentration distributions for silica beads with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 10 ?m that have refractive indices similar to that of protein particles. The linearity of concentration for micrometer-diameter silica beads was confirmed in the presence of a fixed concentration of submicrometer diameter beads. Similarly, submicrometer-diameter silica beads could be quantified in the presence of micrometer-diameter beads. Subsequently, stir- and heat-stressed intravenous immunoglobulins were evaluated by using the qLD, in which the refractive index of protein particles that was determined experimentally was used in the deconvolution analysis. The results showed that the concentration distributions of protein particles in SVP size range differ for the two stresses. The number concentration of the protein particles estimated using the qLD agreed well with that obtained using flow microscopy. This work demonstrates that qLD can be used for quantitative estimation of protein aggregates in SVP size range. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:618–626, 2015 PMID:25449441

  12. Quantitative laser diffraction method for the assessment of protein subvisible particles.

    PubMed

    Totoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Gaku; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Laser diffraction (LD) has been recognized as a method for estimating particle size distribution. Here, a recently developed quantitative LD (qLD) system, which is an LD method with extensive deconvolution analysis, was employed for the quantitative assessment of protein particles sizes, especially aimed at the quantification of 0.2-10 ?m diameter subvisible particles (SVPs). The qLD accurately estimated concentration distributions for silica beads with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 10 ?m that have refractive indices similar to that of protein particles. The linearity of concentration for micrometer-diameter silica beads was confirmed in the presence of a fixed concentration of submicrometer diameter beads. Similarly, submicrometer-diameter silica beads could be quantified in the presence of micrometer-diameter beads. Subsequently, stir- and heat-stressed intravenous immunoglobulins were evaluated by using the qLD, in which the refractive index of protein particles that was determined experimentally was used in the deconvolution analysis. The results showed that the concentration distributions of protein particles in SVP size range differ for the two stresses. The number concentration of the protein particles estimated using the qLD agreed well with that obtained using flow microscopy. This work demonstrates that qLD can be used for quantitative estimation of protein aggregates in SVP size range. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:618-626, 2015. PMID:25449441

  13. A collimator optimization method for quantitative imaging: Application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xing; Frey, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Post-therapy quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has shown great potential to provide reliable activity estimates, which are essential for dose verification. Typically 90Y imaging is performed with high- or medium-energy collimators. However, the energy spectrum of 90Y bremsstrahlung photons is substantially different than typical for these collimators. In addition, dosimetry requires quantitative images, and collimators are not typically optimized for such tasks. Optimizing a collimator for 90Y imaging is both novel and potentially important. Conventional optimization methods are not appropriate for 90Y bremsstrahlung photons, which have a continuous and broad energy distribution. In this work, the authors developed a parallel-hole collimator optimization method for quantitative tasks that is particularly applicable to radionuclides with complex emission energy spectra. The authors applied the proposed method to develop an optimal collimator for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT in the context of microsphere radioembolization. Methods: To account for the effects of the collimator on both the bias and the variance of the activity estimates, the authors used the root mean squared error (RMSE) of the volume of interest activity estimates as the figure of merit (FOM). In the FOM, the bias due to the null space of the image formation process was taken in account. The RMSE was weighted by the inverse mass to reflect the application to dosimetry; for a different application, more relevant weighting could easily be adopted. The authors proposed a parameterization for the collimator that facilitates the incorporation of the important factors (geometric sensitivity, geometric resolution, and septal penetration fraction) determining collimator performance, while keeping the number of free parameters describing the collimator small (i.e., two parameters). To make the optimization results for quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT more general, the authors simulated multiple tumors of various sizes in the liver. The authors realistically simulated human anatomy using a digital phantom and the image formation process using a previously validated and computationally efficient method for modeling the image-degrading effects including object scatter, attenuation, and the full collimator-detector response (CDR). The scatter kernels and CDR function tables used in the modeling method were generated using a previously validated Monte Carlo simulation code. Results: The hole length, hole diameter, and septal thickness of the obtained optimal collimator were 84, 3.5, and 1.4 mm, respectively. Compared to a commercial high-energy general-purpose collimator, the optimal collimator improved the resolution and FOM by 27% and 18%, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed collimator optimization method may be useful for improving quantitative SPECT imaging for radionuclides with complex energy spectra. The obtained optimal collimator provided a substantial improvement in quantitative performance for the microsphere radioembolization task considered. PMID:23927349

  14. An ECL-PCR method for quantitative detection of point mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Debin; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Chen, Qun; Liu, Jinfeng

    2005-04-01

    A new method for identification of point mutations was proposed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a sequence from genomic DNA was followed by digestion with a kind of restriction enzyme, which only cut the wild-type amplicon containing its recognition site. Reaction products were detected by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay after adsorption of the resulting DNA duplexes to the solid phase. One strand of PCR products carries biotin to be bound on a streptavidin-coated microbead for sample selection. Another strand carries Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR) to react with tripropylamine (TPA) to emit light for ECL detection. The method was applied to detect a specific point mutation in H-ras oncogene in T24 cell line. The results show that the detection limit for H-ras amplicon is 100 fmol and the linear range is more than 3 orders of magnitude, thus, make quantitative analysis possible. The genotype can be clearly discriminated. Results of the study suggest that ECL-PCR is a feasible quantitative method for safe, sensitive and rapid detection of point mutation in human genes.

  15. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ashraf A; Abbas, Alaa B; Badawi, Bassam Sh; Al-Jowhar, Wafaa Y; Zain, Esam A; El-Mufti, Seham A

    2012-08-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5 and 98.5%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.998, a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 5% and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 and 750?µg?l?¹, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BVO in several commercial soft drinks which were found to contain BVO in the range 1.8-14.510?mg?l?¹. The method has less sources of error compared to previously published methods. PMID:22725649

  16. Full quantitative phase analysis of hydrated lime using the Rietveld method

    SciTech Connect

    Lassinantti Gualtieri, Magdalena, E-mail: magdalena.gualtieri@unimore.it [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Romagnoli, Marcello; Miselli, Paola; Cannio, Maria [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy)] [Dipartimento Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905/a, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Gualtieri, Alessandro F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita Degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Full quantitative phase analysis (FQPA) using X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinements is a well-established method for the characterization of various hydraulic binders such as Portland cement and hydraulic limes. In this paper, the Rietveld method is applied to hydrated lime, a non-hydraulic traditional binder. The potential presence of an amorphous phase in this material is generally ignored. Both synchrotron radiation and a conventional X-ray source were used for data collection. The applicability of the developed control file for the Rietveld refinements was investigated using samples spiked with glass. The results were cross-checked by other independent methods such as thermal and chemical analyses. The sample microstructure was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the consistency between the different methods was satisfactory, supporting the validity of FQPA for this material. For the samples studied in this work, the amount of amorphous material was in the range 2-15 wt.%.

  17. FRE 385/585 Quantitative Methods for Business and Resource Management

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    a variety of modeling and quantitative techniques to business and resource management problems. This classFRE 385/585 Quantitative Methods for Business and Resource Management University of British Columbia Fall, 2014 Instructor: Michael Johnson Contact Info: Email: mjohnson@mail.ubc.ca Phone: tba Office

  18. Methods for Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial Structure of Dendrites \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Katz, Matthew "Matya"

    Methods for Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial Structure of Dendrites \\Lambda Eyal Ben. Thus, a major goal in neuroscience is to develop the methodology and tools to analyze quantitatively the 3D structure of dendrites. Such tools would be extremely useful to identify and quantify the changes

  19. Analyses on Regional Cultivated Land Changebased on Quantitative Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingui; Yuan, Chun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jing

    Three Gorges Project is the great project in the world, which accelerates economic development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project. In the process of development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project, cultivated land has become the important resources, a lot of cultivated land has been occupied and become the constructing land. In the same time, a lot of cultivated land has been flooded because of the rising of the water level. This paper uses the cultivated land areas and social economic indicators of reservoir area of Three Gorges in 1990-2004, takes the statistic analyses and example research in order to analyze the process of cultivated land, get the driving forces of cultivated land change, find the new methods to stimulate and forecast the cultivated land areas in the future, and serve for the cultivated land protection and successive development in reservoir area of Three Gorges. The results indicate as follow, firstly, in the past 15 years, the cultivated land areas has decreased 200142 hm2, the decreasing quantity per year is 13343 hm2. The whole reservoir area is divided into three different areas, they are upper reaches area, belly area and lower reaches area. The trends of cultivated land change in different reservoir areas are similar to the whole reservoir area. Secondly, the curve of cultivated land areas and per capita GDP takes on the reverse U, and the steps between the change rate of cultivated land and the change rate of GDP are different in some years, which indicates that change of cultivated land and change of GDP are decoupling, besides that, change of cultivated land is connection with the development of urbanization and the policy of returning forestry greatly. Lastly, the precision of multi-regression is lower than the BP neural network in the stimulation of cultivated land, then takes use of the BP neural network to forecast the cultivated land areas in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and the forecasting results are reasonable.

  20. Methods to estimate genetic components of variance for quantitative traits in family studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariza de Andrade; Christopher I. Amos; Tracy J. Thiel

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare several methods of estimating the genetic components of a quantitative trait in familial data. The Expectation and Maximiza- tion (E-M) algorithm, the Newton-Raphson method, and the scoring method were compared for estimating polygenic and environmental effects on nuclear families. We also compared scoring and quasilikelihood (QL) methods when a linked genetic marker

  1. Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Gallo, Carmela; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Cutignano, Adele; Sardo, Angela; Fontana, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method) and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina) which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids. PMID:24084790

  2. A Bead-Based Method for Multiplexed Identification and Quantitation of DNA Sequences Using Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Alexander; Lowe, Mary; Brown, Drew

    2000-01-01

    A new multiplexed, bead-based method which utilizes nucleic acid hybridizations on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences is described. The method consists of three elements: beads (5.6-?m diameter) with oligomer capture probes attached to the surface, three fluorophores for multiplexed detection, and flow cytometry instrumentation. Two fluorophores are impregnated within each bead in varying amounts to create different bead types, each associated with a unique probe. The third fluorophore is a reporter. Following capture of fluorescent cDNA sequences from environmental samples, the beads are analyzed by flow cytometric techniques which yield a signal intensity for each capture probe proportional to the amount of target sequences in the analyte. In this study, a direct hybrid capture assay was developed and evaluated with regard to sequence discrimination and quantitation of abundances. The target sequences (628 to 728 bp in length) were obtained from the 16S/23S intergenic spacer region of microorganisms collected from polluted groundwater at the nuclear waste site in Hanford, Wash. A fluorescence standard consisting of beads with a known number of fluorescent DNA molecules on the surface was developed, and the resolution, sensitivity, and lower detection limit for measuring abundances were determined. The results were compared with those of a DNA microarray using the same sequences. The bead method exhibited far superior sequence discrimination and possesses features which facilitate accurate quantitation. PMID:11010868

  3. A bead-based method for multiplexed identification and quantitation of DNA sequences using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Spiro, A; Lowe, M; Brown, D

    2000-10-01

    A new multiplexed, bead-based method which utilizes nucleic acid hybridizations on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences is described. The method consists of three elements: beads (5.6-microm diameter) with oligomer capture probes attached to the surface, three fluorophores for multiplexed detection, and flow cytometry instrumentation. Two fluorophores are impregnated within each bead in varying amounts to create different bead types, each associated with a unique probe. The third fluorophore is a reporter. Following capture of fluorescent cDNA sequences from environmental samples, the beads are analyzed by flow cytometric techniques which yield a signal intensity for each capture probe proportional to the amount of target sequences in the analyte. In this study, a direct hybrid capture assay was developed and evaluated with regard to sequence discrimination and quantitation of abundances. The target sequences (628 to 728 bp in length) were obtained from the 16S/23S intergenic spacer region of microorganisms collected from polluted groundwater at the nuclear waste site in Hanford, Wash. A fluorescence standard consisting of beads with a known number of fluorescent DNA molecules on the surface was developed, and the resolution, sensitivity, and lower detection limit for measuring abundances were determined. The results were compared with those of a DNA microarray using the same sequences. The bead method exhibited far superior sequence discrimination and possesses features which facilitate accurate quantitation. PMID:11010868

  4. PRIORITIZING FUTURE RESEACH ON OFF-LABEL PRESCRIBING: RESULTS OF A QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Surrey M.; Schumock, Glen T.; Lee, Ky-Van; Alexander, G. Caleb; Meltzer, David; Stafford, Randall S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug use for indications not approved by the Food and Drug Administration exceeds 20% of prescribing. Available compendia indicate that a minority of off-label uses are well supported by evidence. Policy makers, however, lack information to identify where systematic reviews of the evidence or other research would be most valuable. Methods We developed a quantitative model for prioritizing individual drugs for future research on off-label uses. The base model incorporated three key factors, 1) the volume of off-label use with inadequate evidence, 2) safety, and 3) cost and market considerations. Nationally representative prescribing data were used to estimate the number of off-label drug uses by indication from 1/2005 through 6/2007 in the United States, and these indications were then categorized according to the adequacy of scientific support. Black box warnings and safety alerts were used to quantify drug safety. Drug cost, date of market entry, and marketing expenditures were used to quantify cost and market considerations. Each drug was assigned a relative value for each factor, and the factors were then weighted in the final model to produce a priority score. Sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying the weightings and model parameters. Results Drugs that were consistently ranked highly in both our base model and sensitivity analyses included quetiapine, warfarin, escitalopram, risperidone, montelukast, bupropion, sertraline, venlafaxine, celecoxib, lisinopril, duloxetine, trazodone, olanzapine, and epoetin alfa. Conclusion Future research into off-label drug use should focus on drugs used frequently with inadequate supporting evidence, particularly if further concerns are raised by known safety issues, high drug cost, recent market entry, and extensive marketing. Based on quantitative measures of these factors, we have prioritized drugs where targeted research and policy activities have high potential value. PMID:19025425

  5. A quantitative assessment of nuclear weapons proliferation risk utilizing probabilistic methods

    E-print Network

    Sentell, Dennis Shannon, 1971-

    2002-01-01

    A comparative quantitative assessment is made of the nuclear weapons proliferation risk between various nuclear reactor/fuel cycle concepts using a probabilistic method. The work presented details quantified proliferation ...

  6. Compatibility of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Studying Child Sexual Abuse in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates how the combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods were necessary in obtaining a clearer understanding of the process of incest in American society. Argues that the exclusive use of one methodology would have obscured important information. (FMW)

  7. QUANTITATIVE CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY USING SHORT-TERM GENETIC BIOASSAYS: THE COMPARATIVE POTENCY METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative risk assessment is fraught with many uncertainties. The validity of the assumptions underlying the methods employed are often difficult to test or validate. Cancer risk assessment has generally employed either human epidemiological data from relatively high occupatio...

  8. Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

  9. The need for quantitative methods in syntax and semantics research

    E-print Network

    Gibson, Edward A.

    The prevalent method in syntax and semantics research involves obtaining a judgement of the acceptability of a sentence/meaning pair, typically by just the author of the paper, sometimes with feedback from colleagues. This ...

  10. A method and fortran program for quantitative sampling in paleontology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tipper, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Unit Sampling Method is a binomial sampling method applicable to the study of fauna preserved in rocks too well cemented to be disaggregated. Preliminary estimates of the probability of detecting each group in a single sampling unit can be converted to estimates of the group's volumetric abundance by means of correction curves obtained by a computer simulation technique. This paper describes the technique and gives the FORTRAN program. ?? 1976.

  11. Simple Spectrophotometric Method for the Quantitative Determination of Uranium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Amin; E. H. El-Mossalamy

    2003-01-01

    A selective, reproducible, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for uranyl determination was developed. The method is based on the selective complexation reaction of ions with 2-(2-benzothiazolylazo)phenol(I), -4-methoxyphenol (II), and -3-hydroxyphenol(III) in the presence of sodium lauryl sulphate. The potentiality of the prepared reagents as new chromogenic ones for the determination of ions are studied by extensive investigations of the optimum conditions

  12. Iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography analysis of emphysema: consistent results using different tube currents

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Miyara, Tetsuhiro; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Noma, Satoshi; Murayama, Sadayuki

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the advantages of iterative reconstruction for quantitative computed tomography (CT) analysis of pulmonary emphysema. Materials and methods Twenty-two patients with pulmonary emphysema underwent chest CT imaging using identical scanners with three different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to CT images using Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D) and a conventional filtered-back projection mode. Thus, six scans with and without AIDR3D were generated per patient. All other scanning and reconstruction settings were fixed. The percent low attenuation area (LAA%; < ?950 Hounsfield units) and the lung density 15th percentile were automatically measured using a commercial workstation. Comparisons of LAA% and 15th percentile results between scans with and without using AIDR3D were made by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Associations between body weight and measurement errors among these scans were evaluated by Spearman rank correlation analysis. Results Overall, scan series without AIDR3D had higher LAA% and lower 15th percentile values than those with AIDR3D at each tube current (P<0.0001). For scan series without AIDR3D, lower tube currents resulted in higher LAA% values and lower 15th percentiles. The extent of emphysema was significantly different between each pair among scans when not using AIDR3D (LAA%, P<0.0001; 15th percentile, P<0.01), but was not significantly different between each pair among scans when using AIDR3D. On scans without using AIDR3D, measurement errors between different tube current settings were significantly correlated with patients’ body weights (P<0.05), whereas these errors between scans when using AIDR3D were insignificantly or minimally correlated with body weight. Conclusion The extent of emphysema was more consistent across different tube currents when CT scans were converted to CT images using AIDR3D than using a conventional filtered-back projection method. PMID:25709426

  13. Quantitative methods of measuring the sensitivity of the mouse sperm morphology assay

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H.; Bennett, D.E.; Kranzler, D.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1982-09-01

    In this study murine sperm were subjected to graded doses of X irradiation (0 to 120 rad) to determine whether quantitative measurements made on enlarged photographs of the sperm heads are related to radiation dose. We found that the Mahalanobis distance statistic, when used to measure distance in a multivariate space from a control group of measurements, could be used to classify sperm as normal or abnormal. The percent classified as abnormal by this method was found to be linearly related to dose. The results suggest that sensitivity of the murine sperm assay can be improved by selecting an optimal set of measurements. This improvement can reduce the doubling dose from approximately 70 rad to 10 to 15 rad while keeping the percentage of abnormal sperm in control mice at 3%, equal to the current visual method.

  14. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  15. A quantitative evaluation of two methods for preserving hair samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roon, D.A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    Hair samples are an increasingly important DNA source for wildlife studies, yet optimal storage methods and DNA degradation rates have not been rigorously evaluated. We tested amplification success rates over a one-year storage period for DNA extracted from brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair samples preserved using silica desiccation and -20 ??C freezing. For three nuclear DNA microsatellites, success rates decreased significantly after a six-month time point, regardless of storage method. For a 1000 bp mitochondrial fragment, a similar decrease occurred after a two-week time point. Minimizing delays between collection and DNA extraction will maximize success rates for hair-based noninvasive genetic sampling projects.

  16. Penumbra Pattern Assessment in Acute Stroke Patients: Comparison of Quantitative and Non-Quantitative Methods in Whole Brain CT Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Alena B.; Meinel, Felix G.; Helck, Andreas D.; Opherk, Christian; Straube, Andreas; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Sommer, Wieland H.

    2014-01-01

    Background And Purpose While penumbra assessment has become an important part of the clinical decision making for acute stroke patients, there is a lack of studies measuring the reliability and reproducibility of defined assessment techniques in the clinical setting. Our aim was to determine reliability and reproducibility of different types of three-dimensional penumbra assessment methods in stroke patients who underwent whole brain CT perfusion imaging (WB-CTP). Materials And Methods We included 29 patients with a confirmed MCA infarction who underwent initial WB-CTP with a scan coverage of 100 mm in the z-axis. Two blinded and experienced readers assessed the flow-volume-mismatch twice and in two quantitative ways: Performing a volumetric mismatch analysis using OsiriX imaging software (MMVOL) and visual estimation of mismatch (MMEST). Complementarily, the semiquantitative Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score for CT perfusion was used to define mismatch (MMASPECTS). A favorable penumbral pattern was defined by a mismatch of ?30% in combination with a cerebral blood flow deficit of ?90 ml and an MMASPECTS score of ?1, respectively. Inter- and intrareader agreement was determined by Kappa-values and ICCs. Results Overall, MMVOL showed considerably higher inter-/intrareader agreement (ICCs: 0.751/0.843) compared to MMEST (0.292/0.749). In the subgroup of large (?50 mL) perfusion deficits, inter- and intrareader agreement of MMVOL was excellent (ICCs: 0.961/0.942), while MMEST interreader agreement was poor (0.415) and intrareader agreement was good (0.919). With respect to penumbra classification, MMVOL showed the highest agreement (interreader agreement: 25 agreements/4 non-agreements/?: 0.595; intrareader agreement 27/2/0.833), followed by MMEST (22/7/0.471; 23/6/0.577), and MMASPECTS (18/11/0.133; 21/8/0.340). Conclusion The evaluated approach of volumetric mismatch assessment is superior to pure visual and ASPECTS penumbra pattern assessment in WB-CTP and helps to precisely judge the extent of 3-dimensional mismatch in acute stroke patients. PMID:25144396

  17. Spatial access priority mapping (SAPM) with fishers: a quantitative GIS method for participatory planning.

    PubMed

    Yates, Katherine L; Schoeman, David S

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers' spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers' willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process in a transparent, quantitative way. PMID:23874623

  18. Spatial Access Priority Mapping (SAPM) with Fishers: A Quantitative GIS Method for Participatory Planning

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Katherine L.; Schoeman, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers’ spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers’ willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process in a transparent, quantitative way. PMID:23874623

  19. The development of processing methods for a quantitative histological investigation of rat hearts

    E-print Network

    Jetton, Emily Hope

    2004-11-15

    and created a method to perform the quantitative histological investigation of the rat hearts in a way that is both timely and cost effective. We developed a processing method that preserves the orientation of the fiber and sheet angles. This method...

  20. A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. HALEY; S. A. KNOTI

    1992-01-01

    The use of flanking marker methods has proved to be a powerful tool for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. Methods to analyse these data, based on maximum-likelihood, have been developed and provide good estimates of QTL effects in some situations. Maximum-likelihood methods are, however, relatively complex and can

  1. Assessment and application of quantitative schlieren methods: Calibrated color schlieren and background oriented schlieren

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. E. Elsinga; B. W. van Oudheusden; F. Scarano; D. W. Watt

    2004-01-01

    Two quantitative schlieren methods are assessed and compared: calibrated color schlieren (CCS) and background oriented schlieren (BOS). Both methods are capable of measuring the light deflection angle in two spatial directions, and hence the projected density gradient vector field. Spatial integration using the conjugate gradient method returns the projected density field. To assess the performance of CCS and BOS, density

  2. A new method for fast quantitative mapping of absolute water content in vivo.

    PubMed

    Neeb, H; Zilles, K; Shah, N J

    2006-07-01

    The presence of brain edema, in its various forms, is an accompanying feature of many diseased states. Although the localized occurrence of brain edema may be demonstrated with MRI, the quantitative determination of absolute water content, an aspect that could play an important role in the objective evaluation of the dynamics of brain edema and the monitoring of the efficiency of treatment, is much more demanding. We present a method for the localized and quantitative measurement of absolute water content based on the combination of two fast multi-slice and multi-time point sequences QUTE and TAPIR for mapping the T(2)* and T(1) relaxation times, respectively. Incorporation of corrections for local B(1) field miscalibrations, temperature differences between the subject and a reference probe placed in the FOV, receiver profile inhomogeneities and T(1) saturation effects are included and allow the determination of water content with anatomical resolution and a precision >98%. The method was validated in phantom studies and was applied to the localized in vivo measurement of water content in a group of normal individuals and a patient with brain tumor. The results demonstrate that in vivo measurement of regional absolute water content is possible in clinically relevant measurement times with a statistical and systematic measurement error of <2%. PMID:16650780

  3. Proteus mirabilis biofilm - Qualitative and quantitative colorimetric methods-based evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Kwiecinska-Piróg, Joanna; Bogiel, Tomasz; Skowron, Krzysztof; Wieckowska, Ewa; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis strains ability to form biofilm is a current topic of a number of research worldwide. In this study the biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains derived from urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been investigated. A total number of 39 P. mirabilis strains isolated from the urine samples of the patients of dr Antoni Jurasz University Hospital No. 1 in Bydgoszcz clinics between 2011 and 2012 was used. Biofilm formation was evaluated using two independent quantitative and qualitative methods with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride) and CV (crystal violet) application. The obtained results confirmed biofilm formation by all the examined strains, except quantitative method with TTC, in which 7.7% of the strains did not have this ability. It was shown that P. mirabilis rods have the ability to form biofilm on the surfaces of both biomaterials applied, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride (Nelaton catheters). The differences in ability to form biofilm observed between P. mirabilis strains derived from the urine of the catheterized and non-catheterized patients were not statistically significant. PMID:25763050

  4. An immunochemical method for quantitation of Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV).

    PubMed

    Parola, Alejandro Daniel; Sciocco-Cap, Alicia; Glikmann, Graciela; Romanowski, Víctor

    2003-09-01

    Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV) is a baculovirus that affects E. aporema larvae and has proven to be a good candidate for the biocontrol of this important pest in South America. As part of the quality control of the production of a bioinsecticide based on EpapGV, a sensitive method was developed for the detection and quantitation of the virus. To this end, we used the major occlusion body (OB) protein (granulin) to generate polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified IgG fractions from hyperimmune sera were labeled with biotin and used as detecting antibodies in a double antibody sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). No cross-reactivity was detected with any of the nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV) tested in this study, while a minor degree of reactivity was observed with the closely related Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV). The performance of the ELISA was satisfactory in terms of sensitivity, detecting as little as 0.53 ng/ml of EpapGV granulin in suspensions of purified virus OB. This represented 2.0x10(4) OB/ml. Granulin was also detected in complex and highly diluted bioinsecticidal formulate mixtures. In time course experiments, the virus was detected as early as 24 h post infection (p.i.). The results of the studies demonstrate that this method is a convenient, rapid and inexpensive alternative for routine detection and quantitation of EpapGV. PMID:12951208

  5. Dynamic and Quantitative Method of Analyzing Service Consistency Evolution Based on Extended Hierarchical Finite State Automata

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA. PMID:24772033

  6. Dynamic and quantitative method of analyzing service consistency evolution based on extended hierarchical finite state automata.

    PubMed

    Fan, Linjun; Tang, Jun; Ling, Yunxiang; Li, Benxian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the dynamic evolution analysis and quantitative measurement of primary factors that cause service inconsistency in service-oriented distributed simulation applications (SODSA). Traditional methods are mostly qualitative and empirical, and they do not consider the dynamic disturbances among factors in service's evolution behaviors such as producing, publishing, calling, and maintenance. Moreover, SODSA are rapidly evolving in terms of large-scale, reusable, compositional, pervasive, and flexible features, which presents difficulties in the usage of traditional analysis methods. To resolve these problems, a novel dynamic evolution model extended hierarchical service-finite state automata (EHS-FSA) is constructed based on finite state automata (FSA), which formally depict overall changing processes of service consistency states. And also the service consistency evolution algorithms (SCEAs) based on EHS-FSA are developed to quantitatively assess these impact factors. Experimental results show that the bad reusability (17.93% on average) is the biggest influential factor, the noncomposition of atomic services (13.12%) is the second biggest one, and the service version's confusion (1.2%) is the smallest one. Compared with previous qualitative analysis, SCEAs present good effectiveness and feasibility. This research can guide the engineers of service consistency technologies toward obtaining a higher level of consistency in SODSA. PMID:24772033

  7. Radioisotopic neutron transmission spectrometry: Quantitative analysis by using partial least-squares method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Yun; Choi, Yong Suk; Park, Yong Joon; Jung, Sung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    Neutron spectrometry, based on the scattering of high energy fast neutrons from a radioisotope and slowing-down by the light hydrogen atoms, is a useful technique for non-destructive, quantitative measurement of hydrogen content because it has a large measuring volume, and is not affected by temperature, pressure, pH value and color. The most common choice for radioisotope neutron source is (252)Cf or (241)Am-Be. In this study, (252)Cf with a neutron flux of 6.3x10(6)n/s has been used as an attractive neutron source because of its high flux neutron and weak radioactivity. Pulse-height neutron spectra have been obtained by using in-house built radioisotopic neutron spectrometric system equipped with (3)He detector and multi-channel analyzer, including a neutron shield. As a preliminary study, polyethylene block (density of approximately 0.947g/cc and area of 40cmx25cm) was used for the determination of hydrogen content by using multivariate calibration models, depending on the thickness of the block. Compared with the results obtained from a simple linear calibration model, partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method offered a better performance in a quantitative data analysis. It also revealed that the PLSR method in a neutron spectrometric system can be promising in the real-time, online monitoring of the powder process to determine the content of any type of molecules containing hydrogen nuclei. PMID:19285419

  8. Biodistribution Studies of Nanoparticles Using Fluorescence Imaging: A Qualitative or Quantitative Method?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tseng, Yu-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The biodistribution of Lipid/Calcium/Phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles (NPs) in tumor-bearing mice was investigated using fluorescence imaging. A quantitative validation of this method was done by 3H and 111In labeling of the nanoparticles. Methods The biodistribution of LCP NPs containing oligonucleotides was investigated using three different probes: Texas-Red labeled oligonucleotides, 3H-labeled oligonucleotides, and 111In-labled calcium phosphate. Results A discrepancy was found between the radioactivity and the fluorescence signals. Signals from 3H and 111In exhibited very similar distribution patterns, suggesting that liver and spleen were the major accumulation sites. However, fluorescence imaging indicated that tumor accumulation was predominant. We further confirmed that the fluorescence signals in both liver and spleen were greatly attenuated compared with those in the tumor due to the intrinsic tissue absorption and scattering. Near-infrared (NIR) dye Cy5.5 also suffered from the same problem, in that the quantitative data from whole organs was dramatically affected by absorption and scattering properties of the tissue. Conclusions Careful attention must be paid to the quantification and interpretation of fluorescence imaging measurements when comparing different tissues. PMID:22806405

  9. Changes in quantitative SPECT thallium-201 results associated with the use of energy-weighted acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Mann, R.B.; Shaw, A. (Mercy Medical Center, Cedar Rapids, IA (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The effect of utilizing energy-weighted acquisition on quantitative analysis of SPECT thallium-201 images was evaluated by simultaneously acquiring energy-weighted and windowed projection images in ten patients. The paired image sets were processed identically and evaluated by probability analysis of defect magnitude as indicated by a commercially available software analysis package. It was predicted that defect magnitude would increase as a result of improved image contrast. This was confirmed experimentally. One should be cautious in relying on strict quantitative criteria in cardiac studies with thallium-201, especially when major changes in the imaging system or technique are introduced.

  10. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and the presence of key methodological components in published reports. PMID:22092040

  11. Bioanalytical methods for quantitation of levamisole, a widespread cocaine adulterant.

    PubMed

    Shea, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Levamisole is an anthelminthic that was first used as a de-worming agent in humans and animals. It has also been used to treat inflammatory conditions as well as certain types of cancer. Levamisole was discontinued for human use in the early 21st century due to toxic side effects including agranulocytosis and vasculitis. Recently, levamisole was discovered as a cocaine adulterant after reports emerged of drug users with the above disorders. As the prevalence of cocaine usage has grown in the last 15 years, measurement of levamisole in human samples has become increasingly important. This review focuses on the various bioanalytical methods available for the determination of levamisole in human plasma and urine. Earlier methods employed gas chromatography coupled with nitrogen-selective thermionic specific detection and nitrogen-phosphorus detection, as well as high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection. In addition, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have also been described. Currently, GC-MS appears to be the method of choice however recent developments in the area of LC-MS/MS make this technology an attractive alternative. The merits of both GC-MS and LC-MS/MS for the determination of levamisole are evaluated on the basis of sample preparation, chromatographic separation conditions, run time, and analytical performance. In addition, emerging methods in this area are also reviewed. PMID:23152411

  12. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR CROSS-SPECIES MAPPING (CSM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cross species extrapolation will be defined as prediction from one species to another without empirical verification. ross species mapping (CSM) is the same except empirical verification is performed. SM may be viewed as validation of methods for extrapolation. Algorithms for CSM...

  13. Optogalvanic intracavity quantitative detector and method for its use

    DOEpatents

    Zalewski, E.F.; Keller, R.A.; Apel, C.T.

    1983-09-06

    The disclosure relates to an optogalvanic intracavity detector and method for its use. Measurement is made of the amount of light absorbed by atoms, small molecules and ions in a laser cavity utilizing laser-produced changes in plasmas containing the same atoms, molecules, or ions. 6 figs.

  14. The Curriculum in Quantitative Methods: A Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Univ. Programs in Health Administration, Washington, DC.

    One of the enduring questions in health administration concerns the transferability of management expertise from industry to the health enterprise. Some observers hold that the efficiencies associated with industry reflect methods and skills that are widely applicable and somehow lacking in the health field. Thus, the task force responsible for…

  15. An Improved Flow Cytometry Method For Precise Quantitation Of Natural-Killer Cell Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Nehlsen-Cannarella, Sandra; Sams, Clarence

    2006-01-01

    The ability to assess NK cell cytotoxicity using flow cytometry has been previously described and can serve as a powerful tool to evaluate effector immune function in the clinical setting. Previous methods used membrane permeable dyes to identify target cells. The use of these dyes requires great care to achieve optimal staining and results in a broad spectral emission that can make multicolor cytometry difficult. Previous methods have also used negative staining (the elimination of target cells) to identify effector cells. This makes a precise quantitation of effector NK cells impossible due to the interfering presence of T and B lymphocytes, and the data highly subjective to the variable levels of NK cells normally found in human peripheral blood. In this study an improved version of the standard flow cytometry assay for NK activity is described that has several advantages of previous methods. Fluorescent antibody staining (CD45FITC) is used to positively identify target cells in place of membranepermeable dyes. Fluorescent antibody staining of target cells is less labor intensive and more easily reproducible than membrane dyes. NK cells (true effector lymphocytes) are also positively identified by fluorescent antibody staining (CD56PE) allowing a simultaneous absolute count assessment of both NK cells and target cells. Dead cells are identified by membrane disruption using the DNA intercalating dye PI. Using this method, an exact NK:target ratio may be determined for each assessment, including quantitation of NK target complexes. Backimmunoscatter gating may be used to track live vs. dead Target cells via scatter properties. If desired, NK activity may then be normalized to standardized ratios for clinical comparisons between patients, making the determination of PBMC counts or NK cell percentages prior to testing unnecessary. This method provides an exact cytometric determination of NK activity that highly reproducible and may be suitable for routine use in the clinical setting.

  16. New facility design and work method for the quantitative fit testing laboratory. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, G.F.

    1989-05-01

    The United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine (USAFSAM) tests the quantitative fit of masks which are worn by military personnel during nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare. Subjects are placed in a Dynatech-Frontier Fit Testing Chamber, salt air is fed into the chamber, and samples of air are drawn from the mask and the chamber. The ratio of salt air outside the mask to salt air inside the mask is called the quantitative fit factor. A motion-time study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the layout and work method presently used in the laboratory. A link analysis was done to determine equipment priorities, and the link data and design guidelines were used to develop three proposed laboratory designs. The proposals were evaluated by projecting the time and motion efficiency, and the energy expended working in each design. Also evaluated were the lengths of the equipment links for each proposal, and each proposal's adherence to design guidelines. A mock-up was built of the best design proposal, and a second motion-time study was run. Results showed that with the new laboratory and work procedures, the USAFSAM analyst could test 116 more subjects per year than are currently tested. Finally, the results of a questionnaire given to the analyst indicated that user acceptance of the work area improved with the new design.

  17. New method for quantitative analysis of multiple scelerosis using MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongqing; Huang, Wei; Christodoulou, C.; Li, Lihong; Qian, Huayuan; Krupp, Lauren; Liang, Zhengrong

    2001-05-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of multiple sclerosis (MS) was presented. An automatic self-adaptive image segmentation algorithm was first employed to classify voxels in multi- spectral magnetic resonance (MR) images. The segmentation results from multi-spectral MR images were then combined to obtain reliable results. The volumes of brain tissues and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were finally extracted. Since it is fully automated, the results of the segmentation algorithm are completely reproducible. The repeatability of the presented method was evaluated on volunteer data sets. The variation is less than 0.2% for the intra-cranial volume, the whole brain volume, the central CSF, the white matter (WM) and the gray matter (GM). The variation of 3% for the entire CSF is mainly due to the peripheral CSF part, which has more partial volume effect and is less important than the central one. Methods for minimizing this variation are under investigation. These measurements demonstrate the potential for study on whole brain atrophy and cerebral atrophy. Feasibility studies on 14 MS patients were performed. The results are promising.

  18. Validation of PCR methods for quantitation of genetically modified plants in food.

    PubMed

    Hübner, P; Waiblinger, H U; Pietsch, K; Brodmann, P

    2001-01-01

    For enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients, quantitative detection methods such as quantitative competitive (QC-PCR) and real-time PCR are applied by official food control laboratories. The experiences of 3 European food control laboratories in validating such methods were compared to describe realistic performance characteristics of quantitative PCR detection methods. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of GMO-specific, real-time PCR was experimentally determined to reach 30-50 target molecules, which is close to theoretical prediction. Starting PCR with 200 ng genomic plant DNA, the LOQ depends primarily on the genome size of the target plant and ranges from 0.02% for rice to 0.7% for wheat. The precision of quantitative PCR detection methods, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied from 10 to 30%. Using Bt176 corn containing test samples and applying Bt176 specific QC-PCR, mean values deviated from true values by -7to 18%, with an average of 2+/-10%. Ruggedness of real-time PCR detection methods was assessed in an interlaboratory study analyzing commercial, homogeneous food samples. Roundup Ready soybean DNA contents were determined in the range of 0.3 to 36%, relative to soybean DNA, with RSDs of about 25%. Taking the precision of quantitative PCR detection methods into account, suitable sample plans and sample sizes for GMO analysis are suggested. Because quantitative GMO detection methods measure GMO contents of samples in relation to reference material (calibrants), high priority must be given to international agreements and standardization on certified reference materials. PMID:11767156

  19. The Quantitative Methods Boot Camp: Teaching Quantitative Thinking and Computing Skills to Graduate Students in the Life Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, Melanie I.; Gutlerner, Johanna L.; Born, Richard T.; Springer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a “boot camp” in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students’ engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others. PMID:25880064

  20. The WOMBAT Attack Attribution Method: Some Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Dacier; Van-Hau Pham; Olivier Thonnard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new attack attribution method that has been developed within the WOMBAT project. We illustrate the method with some real-world results obtained\\u000a when applying it to almost two years of attack traces collected by low interaction honeypots. This analytical method aims\\u000a at identifying large scale attack phenomena composed of IP sources that are linked to

  1. Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Methods for Diversity Outbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gatti, Daniel M.; Svenson, Karen L.; Shabalin, Andrey; Wu, Long-Yang; Valdar, William; Simecek, Petr; Goodwin, Neal; Cheng, Riyan; Pomp, Daniel; Palmer, Abraham; Chesler, Elissa J.; Broman, Karl W.; Churchill, Gary A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mapping studies in the mouse and other model organisms are used to search for genes underlying complex phenotypes. Traditional genetic mapping studies that employ single-generation crosses have poor mapping resolution and limit discovery to loci that are polymorphic between the two parental strains. Multiparent outbreeding populations address these shortcomings by increasing the density of recombination events and introducing allelic variants from multiple founder strains. However, multiparent crosses present new analytical challenges and require specialized software to take full advantage of these benefits. Each animal in an outbreeding population is genetically unique and must be genotyped using a high-density marker set; regression models for mapping must accommodate multiple founder alleles, and complex breeding designs give rise to polygenic covariance among related animals that must be accounted for in mapping analysis. The Diversity Outbred (DO) mice combine the genetic diversity of eight founder strains in a multigenerational breeding design that has been maintained for >16 generations. The large population size and randomized mating ensure the long-term genetic stability of this population. We present a complete analytical pipeline for genetic mapping in DO mice, including algorithms for probabilistic reconstruction of founder haplotypes from genotyping array intensity data, and mapping methods that accommodate multiple founder haplotypes and account for relatedness among animals. Power analysis suggests that studies with as few as 200 DO mice can detect loci with large effects, but loci that account for <5% of trait variance may require a sample size of up to 1000 animals. The methods described here are implemented in the freely available R package DOQTL. PMID:25237114

  2. Background estimation methods for quantitative x-ray fluorescence analysis of gold nanoparticles in biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Liqiang; Wu, Di; Li, Yuhua; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Accurate background estimation to isolate the fluorescence signals is an important issue for quantitative X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Though a good estimation can be obtained experimentally through acquiring the background spectrum of water solution, it inevitably leads to unnecessary second exposure in reality. Thus, several numerical methods such as trapezoidal shape estimation, interpolation by polynomial fitting and SNIP (Statistics sensitive Nonlinear Iterative Peak-Clipping) algorithm are proposed to achieve this goal. This paper aims to evaluate the estimation results calculated by these numerical methods through comparing with that acquired using the experimental way, in term of mean squared error (MSE). Four GNP/water solutions with various concentrations from 0.0% to 1.0% by weight are prepared. Then, ten spectra are acquired for each solution for further analysis, under the identical condition of using pencil beam x-ray and single spectrometer. Finally, the experimental and numerical methods are performed on these spectra within the optimally determined energy window and their statistical characteristics are analyzed and compared. These numerical background estimation methods as well as the evaluation methods can be easily extended to analyze the fluorescence signals of other nanoparticle biomarkers such as gadolinium, platinum and Barium in multiple biomedical applications.

  3. Quantitative planar thallium-201 stress scintigraphy: A critical evaluation of the method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Wackers; R. C. Fetterman; J. A. Mattera; J. P. Clements

    1985-01-01

    The results of quantitative analysis of planar thallium-²°¹ stress scintigraphy are superior to those of visual analysis. The increased sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease is associated with maintenance of specificity. Consequently, the authors believe that quantitative analysis is the state-of-the-art for planar ²°¹Tl stress scintigraphy. They emphasize that for reliable and reproducible results, rigorous quality control and strict

  4. A simple quantitative method to study protein-lipopolysaccharide interactions by using liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Das, Dibyendu; Sidiq, Sumyra; Pal, Santanu Kumar

    2015-03-16

    The interaction of proteins with endotoxins has divergent effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses, which serve as a basis for many clinical and therapeutic applications. It is, therefore, important to understand these interactions from both theoretical and practical points of view. This paper advances the design of liquid crystal (LC)-based stimuli-responsive soft materials for quantitative measurements of LPS-protein binding events through interfacial ordering transition. Micrometer-thick films of LCs undergo easily visualized ordering transitions in response to proteins at LPS-aqueous interfaces of the LCs. The optical response of the LC changes from dark to bright after aqueous solutions of hemoglobin (Hb), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lysozyme proteins (LZM) are in contact with a LPS-laden aqueous-LC interface. The effects of interactions of different proteins with LPS are also observed to cause the response of the LC to vary significantly from one to another; this indicates that manipulation of the protein-LPS binding affinity can provide the basis for a general, facile method to tune the LPS-induced responses of the LCs to interfacial phenomena. By measuring the optical retardation of the 4'-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) LC, the binding affinity of the proteins (Hb, BSA, and LZM) towards LPS that leads to different orientational behavior at the aqueous interfaces of the LCs can be determined. The interaction of proteins with the LPS-laden monolayer is highest for LPS-Hb, followed by LPS-BSA, and least for LPS-LZM; this is in correlation with their increasing order of binding constants (LPS-Hb>LPS-BSA>LPS-LZM). The results presented herein pave the way for quantitative and multiplexed measurements of LPS-protein binding events and reveal the potential of the LC system to be used as quantitative LC-based, stimuli-responsive soft materials. PMID:25572441

  5. A simple method for the subnanomolar quantitation of seven ophthalmic drugs in the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Latreille, Pierre-Luc; Banquy, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method capable of simultaneous quantitation of seven ophthalmic drugs-pilocarpine, lidocaine, atropine, proparacaine, timolol, prednisolone, and triamcinolone acetonide-within regions of the rabbit eye. The complete validation of the method was performed using an Agilent 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a 4000 QTRAP MS/MS detector in positive TurboIonSpray mode with pooled drug solutions. The method sensitivity, evaluated by the lower limit of quantitation in two simulated matrices, yielded lower limits of quantitation of 0.25 nmol L(-1) for most of the drugs. The precision in the low, medium, and high ranges of the calibration curves, the freeze-thaw stability over 1 month, the intraday precision, and the interday precision were all within a 15 % limit. The method was used to quantitate the different drugs in the cornea, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and remaining eye tissues of the rabbit eye. It was validated to a concentration of up to 1.36 ng/g in humors and 5.43 ng/g in tissues. The unprecedented low detection limit of the present method and its ease of implementation allow easy, robust, and reliable quantitation of multiple drugs for rapid in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the local pharmacokinetics of these compounds. PMID:25749792

  6. Statistical methods for quantitative mass spectrometry proteomic experiments with labeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry utilizing labeling allows multiple specimens to be subjected to mass spectrometry simultaneously. As a result, between-experiment variability is reduced. Here we describe use of fundamental concepts of statistical experimental design in the labeling framework in order to minimize variability and avoid biases. We demonstrate how to export data in the format that is most efficient for statistical analysis. We demonstrate how to assess the need for normalization, perform normalization, and check whether it worked. We describe how to build a model explaining the observed values and test for differential protein abundance along with descriptive statistics and measures of reliability of the findings. Concepts are illustrated through the use of three case studies utilizing the iTRAQ 4-plex labeling protocol. PMID:23176383

  7. Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrika Östlund; Lisa Kidd; Yvonne Wengström; Neneh Rowa-Dewar

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesIt has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical

  8. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Methods for Recovery of Fungal DNA as Assessed by Quantitative PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David N. Fredricks; Caitlin Smith; Amalia Meier

    2005-01-01

    The detection of fungal pathogens in clinical samples by PCR requires the use of extraction methods that efficiently lyse fungal cells and recover DNA suitable for amplification. We used quantitative PCR assays to measure the recovery of DNA from two important fungal pathogens subjected to six DNA extraction methods. Aspergillus fumigatus conidia or Candida albicans yeast cells were added to

  9. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…

  10. Can You Repeat That Please?: Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Graduate Quantitative Research Methods Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsey, Thomas M.; Harden, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students in political science come to the discipline interested in exploring important political questions, such as "What causes war?" or "What policies promote economic growth?" However, they typically do not arrive prepared to address those questions using quantitative methods. Graduate methods instructors must…

  11. Genetic variation in flowering time induces phenological assortative mating: quantitative genetic methods applied to Brassica rapa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARTHUR E. WEIS; TANYA M. KOSSLER

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued from first principles that plants mate assortatively by flowering time. However, there have been very few studies of phenological assortative mating, perhaps because current methods to infer paternal phenotype are difficult to apply to natural populations. Two methods are presented to estimate the phenotypic correlation between mates—the quantitative genetic metric for assortative mating—for phenological traits. The

  12. Evaluating software engineering methods and tools, part 11: analysing quantitative case studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Ann Kitchenham; Lesley M. Pickard

    1998-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles describing how to undertake a quantitative case study based on work done as part of the DESMET project [1], [2]. In the context of methods and tool evaluations, case studies are a means of evaluating methods and tools as part of the normal software development activities undertaken by an organisation. The main

  13. Evaluating software engineering methods and tools: part 9: quantitative case study methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Ann Kitchenham; Lesley M. Pickard

    1998-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles describing how to undertake a quantitative case study based on work done as part of the DESMET project [1], [2]. In the context of methods and tool evaluations, case studies are a means of evaluating methods and tools as part of the normal software development activities undertaken by an organisation. The main

  14. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil G. Tarladgis; Betty M. Watts; Margaret T. Younathan; Leroy Dugan

    1960-01-01

    Summary  An improved distillation method is described for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in foods containing oxidized\\u000a fats. The procedure is compared with other methods in current use for the determination of malonaldehyde. A high correlation\\u000a of TBA numbers with rancid odor in cooked meats was established.

  15. An immunoassay method for quantitative detection of proteins using single antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shengliang Zhou; Xiaojuan Lu; Caifa Chen; Dongxu Sun

    2010-01-01

    A new immunoassay method called specific analyte labeling and recapture assay (SALRA) to quantitatively measure protein abundance was developed, and the assay conditions were optimized. The key features of this method include labeling the antigen bound to the capture antibody, eluting the labeled antigen, and recapturing it by the same capture antibody on the detection plate. The reporter molecules on

  16. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2011-11-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  17. Quantitative analysis of collagen change between normal and cancerous thyroid tissues based on SHG method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiwen; Huang, Zufang; Xi, Gangqin; Chen, Yongjian; Lin, Duo; Wang, Jing; Li, Zuanfang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Jianxin; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) is proved to be a high spatial resolution, large penetration depth and non-photobleaching method. In our study, SHG method was used to investigate the normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. For SHG imaging performance, system parameters were adjusted for high-contrast images acquisition. Each x-y image was recorded in pseudo-color, which matches the wavelength range in the visible spectrum. The acquisition time for a 512×512-pixels image was 1.57 sec; each acquired image was averaged four frames to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Our results indicated that collagen presence as determined by counting the ratio of the SHG pixels over the whole pixels for normal and cancerous thyroid tissues were 0.48+/-0.05, 0.33+/-0.06 respectively. In addition, to quantitatively assess collagen-related changes, we employed GLCM texture analysis to the SHG images. Corresponding results showed that the correlation both fell off with distance in normal and cancerous group. Calculated value of Corr50 (the distance where the correlation crossed 50% of the initial correlation) indicated significant difference. This study demonstrates that SHG method can be used as a complementary tool in thyroid histopathology.

  18. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    PubMed

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. PMID:25842334

  19. Comparison of concentration methods for quantitative detection of sewage-associated viral markers in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Harwood, V J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-03-15

    Pathogenic human viruses cause over half of gastroenteritis cases associated with recreational water use worldwide. They are relatively difficult to concentrate from environmental waters due to typically low concentrations and their small size. Although rapid enumeration of viruses by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has the potential to greatly improve water quality analysis and risk assessment, the upstream steps of capturing and recovering viruses from environmental water sources along with removing PCR inhibitors from extracted nucleic acids remain formidable barriers to routine use. Here, we compared the efficiency of virus recovery for three rapid methods of concentrating two microbial source tracking (MST) viral markers human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) from one liter tap water and river water samples on HA membranes (90 mm in diameter). Samples were spiked with raw sewage, and viral adsorption to membranes was promoted by acidification (method A) or addition of MgCl2 (methods B and C). Viral nucleic acid was extracted directly from membranes (method A), or viruses were eluted with NaOH and concentrated by centrifugal ultrafiltration (methods B and C). No inhibition of qPCR was observed for samples processed by method A, but inhibition occurred in river samples processed by B and C. Recovery efficiencies of HAdVs and HPyVs were ?10-fold greater for method A (31 to 78%) than for methods B and C (2.4 to 12%). Further analysis of membranes from method B revealed that the majority of viruses were not eluted from the membrane, resulting in poor recovery. The modification of the originally published method A to include a larger diameter membrane and a nucleic acid extraction kit that could accommodate the membrane resulted in a rapid virus concentration method with good recovery and lack of inhibitory compounds. The frequently used strategy of viral absorption with added cations (Mg(2+)) and elution with acid were inefficient and more prone to inhibition, and will result in underestimation of the prevalence and concentrations of HAdVs and HPyVs markers in environmental waters. PMID:25576614

  20. A new method of quantitative cavitation assessment in the field of a lithotripter.

    PubMed

    Jöchle, K; Debus, J; Lorenz, W J; Huber, P

    1996-01-01

    Transient cavitation seems to be a very important effect regarding the interaction of pulsed high-energy ultrasound with biologic tissues. Using a newly developed laser optical system we are able to determine the life-span of transient cavities (relative error less than +/- 5%) in the focal region of a lithotripter (Lithostar, Siemens). The laser scattering method is based on the detection of scattered laser light reflected during a bubble's life. This method requires no sort of sensor material in the pathway of the sound field. Thus, the method avoids any interference with bubble dynamics during the measurement. The knowledge of the time of bubble decay allows conclusions to be reached on the destructive power of the cavities. By combining the results of life-span measurements with the maximum bubble radius using stroboscopic photographs we found that the measured time of bubble decay and the predicted time using Rayleigh's law only differs by about 13% even in the case of complex bubble fields. It can be shown that the laser scattering method is feasible to assess cavitation events quantitatively. Moreover, it will enable us to compare different medical ultrasound sources that have the capability to generate cavitation. PMID:8783465

  1. Quantitative methods for reconstructing tissue biomechanical properties in optical coherence elastography: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhaolong; Li, Jiasong; Singh, Manmohan; Wu, Chen; Liu, Chih-Hao; Wang, Shang; Idugboe, Rita; Raghunathan, Raksha; Sudheendran, Narendran; Aglyamov, Salavat R; Twa, Michael D; Larin, Kirill V

    2015-05-01

    We present a systematic analysis of the accuracy of five different methods for extracting the biomechanical properties of soft samples using optical coherence elastography (OCE). OCE is an emerging noninvasive technique, which allows assessment of biomechanical properties of tissues with micrometer spatial resolution. However, in order to accurately extract biomechanical properties from OCE measurements, application of a proper mechanical model is required. In this study, we utilize tissue-mimicking phantoms with controlled elastic properties and investigate the feasibilities of four available methods for reconstructing elasticity (Young's modulus) based on OCE measurements of an air-pulse induced elastic wave. The approaches are based on the shear wave equation (SWE), the surface wave equation (SuWE), Rayleigh-Lamb frequency equation (RLFE), and finite element method (FEM), Elasticity values were compared with uniaxial mechanical testing. The results show that the RLFE and the FEM are more robust in quantitatively assessing elasticity than the other simplified models. This study provides a foundation and reference for reconstructing the biomechanical properties of tissues from OCE data, which is important for the further development of noninvasive elastography methods. PMID:25860076

  2. Intracranial aneurysm segmentation in 3D CT angiography: method and quantitative validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzian, Azadeh; Manniesing, R.; Flach, Z. H.; Risselada, R.; van Kooten, F.; Sturkenboom, M. C. J. M.; van der Lugt, A.; Niessen, W. J.

    2010-03-01

    Accurately quantifying aneurysm shape parameters is of clinical importance, as it is an important factor in choosing the right treatment modality (i.e. coiling or clipping), in predicting rupture risk and operative risk and for pre-surgical planning. The first step in aneurysm quantification is to segment it from other structures that are present in the image. As manual segmentation is a tedious procedure and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability, there is a need for an automated method which is accurate and reproducible. In this paper a novel semi-automated method for segmenting aneurysms in Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) data based on Geodesic Active Contours is presented and quantitatively evaluated. Three different image features are used to steer the level set to the boundary of the aneurysm, namely intensity, gradient magnitude and variance in intensity. The method requires minimum user interaction, i.e. clicking a single seed point inside the aneurysm which is used to estimate the vessel intensity distribution and to initialize the level set. The results show that the developed method is reproducible, and performs in the range of interobserver variability in terms of accuracy.

  3. Comparative assessment of fluorescent transgene methods for quantitative imaging in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Mahen, Robert; Koch, Birgit; Wachsmuth, Malte; Politi, Antonio Z.; Perez-Gonzalez, Alexis; Mergenthaler, Julia; Cai, Yin; Ellenberg, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence tagging of proteins is a widely used tool to study protein function and dynamics in live cells. However, the extent to which different mammalian transgene methods faithfully report on the properties of endogenous proteins has not been studied comparatively. Here we use quantitative live-cell imaging and single-molecule spectroscopy to analyze how different transgene systems affect imaging of the functional properties of the mitotic kinase Aurora B. We show that the transgene method fundamentally influences level and variability of expression and can severely compromise the ability to report on endogenous binding and localization parameters, providing a guide for quantitative imaging studies in mammalian cells. PMID:25232003

  4. Quantitative Estimation Method for Liver Fibrosis Based on Combination of Rayleigh Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu Igarashi,; Hiroshi Ezuka,; Tadashi Yamaguchi,; Hiroyuki Hachiya,

    2010-07-01

    Since the clinical diagnosis based on ultrasonic B-mode images is dependent on the skill of the doctor, the realization of a quantitative diagnostic method using ultrasound echo signals is highly required. We have been investigating the quantitative diagnostic technique mainly on hepatic diseases. In this paper, we present a new analysis method using echo signals for the quantitative estimation of liver fibrosis. To quantitatively determine the stage of liver fibrosis, we propose a model in which the probability density function of echo amplitude is expressed as a combination of two Rayleigh distributions. These two Rayleigh distributions correspond to the echo components from the normal and diseased tissues. In addition, using this amplitude distribution model of echo amplitude, we present the estimation method to obtain the amount of fibrous tissue and stage of fibrotic degeneration of the liver from moments about mean of the echo amplitude. Basic examination using clinical images suggest that the quantitative estimation of liver fibrosis based on a combination of Rayleigh distributions is valid.

  5. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction: validation of microarray results from postmortem brain studies.

    PubMed

    Mimmack, Michael L; Brooking, Justin; Bahn, Sabine

    2004-02-15

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) is now considered the "technique of choice" for validating gene expression changes identified with ribonucleic acid-based expression profiling technologies (especially micro- and macroarray techniques). The identification of altered gene expression profiles with microarrays is best viewed as the first step in the determination of potential disease-associated genes; however, the false-positive rate can be high, particularly with small sample sets and in view of the typically small differences observed in brain expression studies. Quantitative PCR is a rapid and highly sensitive technique for accurate quantification of microarray results; however, careful consideration of experimental design, quality of primer/probe design, internal standards, and normalization procedures are pivotal, particularly when the work involves postmortem tissue. PMID:14960285

  6. Quantitative evaluation of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension by HPLC, application to bioassay method and cytotoxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Costa, Márcia C N; Barden, Amanda T; Andrade, Juliana M M; Oppe, Tércio P; Schapoval, Elfrides E S

    2014-02-01

    Besifloxacin (BSF) is a synthetic chiral fluoroquinolone developed for the topical treatment of ophthalmic infections. The present study reports the development and validation of a microbiological assay, applying the cylinder-plate method, for determination of BSF in ophthalmic suspension. To assess this methodology, the development and validation of the method was performed for the quantification of BSF by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC method showed specificity, linearity in the range of 20-80 µg mL(-1) (r=0.9998), precision, accuracy and robustness. The microbiological method is based on the inhibitory effect of BSF upon the strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 used as a test microorganism. The bioassay validation method yielded excellent results and included linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and selectivity. The assay results were treated statistically by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and were found to be linear (r=0.9974) in the range of 0.5-2.0 µg mL(-1), precise (inter-assay: RSD=0.84), accurate (101.4%), specific and robust. The bioassay and the previously validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method were compared using Student's t test, which indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods. These results confirm that the proposed microbiological method can be used as routine analysis for the quantitative determination of BSF in an ophthalmic suspension. A preliminary stability study during the HPLC validation was performed and demonstrated that BSF is unstable under UV conditions. The photodegradation kinetics of BSF in water showed a first-order reaction for the drug product (ophthalmic suspension) and a second-order reaction for the reference standard (RS) under UVA light. UVA degraded samples of BSF were also studied in order to determine the preliminary in vitro cytotoxicity against mononuclear cells. The results indicated that BSF does not alter the cell membrane and has been considered non-toxic to human mononuclear cells in the experimental conditions tested. PMID:24401427

  7. Precision of dehydroascorbic acid quantitation with the use of the subtraction method--validation of HPLC-DAD method for determination of total vitamin C in food.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Artur; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2015-04-15

    In food analysis, a method for determination of vitamin C should enable measuring of total content of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) because both chemical forms exhibit biological activity. The aim of the work was to confirm applicability of HPLC-DAD method for analysis of total content of vitamin C (TC) and ascorbic acid in various types of food by determination of validation parameters such as: selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. The results showed that the method applied for determination of TC and AA was selective, linear and precise. Precision of DHAA determination by the subtraction method was also evaluated. It was revealed that the results of DHAA determination obtained by the subtraction method were not precise which resulted directly from the assumption of this method and the principles of uncertainty propagation. The proposed chromatographic method should be recommended for routine determinations of total vitamin C in various food. PMID:25466057

  8. Quantitative comparison of reconstruction methods for intra-voxel fiber recovery from diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Daducci, Alessandro; Canales-Rodríguez, Erick Jorge; Descoteaux, Maxime; Garyfallidis, Eleftherios; Gur, Yaniv; Lin, Ying-Chia; Mani, Merry; Merlet, Sylvain; Paquette, Michael; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Reisert, Marco; Reis Rodrigues, Paulo; Sepehrband, Farshid; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Choupan, Jeiran; Deriche, Rachid; Jacob, Mathews; Menegaz, Gloria; Pr?kovska, Vesna; Rivera, Mariano; Wiaux, Yves; Thiran, Jean-Philippe

    2014-02-01

    Validation is arguably the bottleneck in the diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) community. This paper evaluates and compares 20 algorithms for recovering the local intra-voxel fiber structure from diffusion MRI data and is based on the results of the "HARDI reconstruction challenge" organized in the context of the "ISBI 2012" conference. Evaluated methods encompass a mixture of classical techniques well known in the literature such as diffusion tensor, Q-Ball and diffusion spectrum imaging, algorithms inspired by the recent theory of compressed sensing and also brand new approaches proposed for the first time at this contest. To quantitatively compare the methods under controlled conditions, two datasets with known ground-truth were synthetically generated and two main criteria were used to evaluate the quality of the reconstructions in every voxel: correct assessment of the number of fiber populations and angular accuracy in their orientation. This comparative study investigates the behavior of every algorithm with varying experimental conditions and highlights strengths and weaknesses of each approach. This information can be useful not only for enhancing current algorithms and develop the next generation of reconstruction methods, but also to assist physicians in the choice of the most adequate technique for their studies. PMID:24132007

  9. A novel volumetric method for quantitation of titanium dioxide in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young So; Kim, Boo-Min; Park, Sang-Chul; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Chang, Ih Seop

    2006-01-01

    Nowadays there are many sun-protection cosmetics incorporating organic or inorganic UV filters as active ingredients. Chemically stable inorganic sunscreen agents, usually metal oxides, are widely employed in high-SPF (sun protection factor) products. Titanium dioxide is one of the most frequently used inorganic UV filters. It has been used as a pigment for a long period of cosmetic history. With the development of micronization techniques, it has become possible to incorporate titanium dioxide in sunscreen formulations without the previous whitening effect, and hence its use in cosmetics has become an important research topic. However, there are very few works related to quantitation of titanium dioxide in sunscreen products. In this research, we analyzed the amounts of titanium dioxide in sunscreen cosmetics by adapting redox titration, reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III), and reoxidation to Ti(IV). After calcification of other organic ingredients of cosmetics, titanium dioxide is dissolved by hot sulfuric acid. The dissolved Ti(IV) is reduced to Ti(III) by adding metallic aluminum. The reduced Ti(III) is titrated against a standard oxidizing agent, Fe(III) (ammonium iron(III) sulfate), with potassium thiocyanate as an indicator. In order to test the accuracy and applicability of the proposed method, we analyzed the amounts of titanium dioxide in four types of sunscreen cosmetics, namely cream, make-up base, foundation, and powder, after adding known amounts of titanium dioxide (1 approximately 25 w/w%). The percentages of titanium dioxide recovered in the four types of formulations were in the range between 96% and 105%. We also analyzed seven commercial cosmetic products labeled with titanium dioxide as an ingredient and compared the results with those obtained from ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry), one of the most powerful atomic analysis techniques. The results showed that the titrated amounts were well in accord with the analyzed amounts of titanium dioxide by ICP-AES. Although instrument-based analytical methods, namely ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry) and ICP-AES, are best for the analysis of titanium, it is difficult for small cosmetic companies to install such instruments because of their high cost. It was found that the volumetric method presented here gives quantitatively accurate and reliable results with routine lab-ware and chemicals. PMID:17111072

  10. IMPROVED QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR MULTIPLE NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL NON-INVASIVE BRAIN PET STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    i IMPROVED QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR MULTIPLE NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL NON-INVASIVE BRAIN PET STUDIES.2.2 Multiple Neuropharmacological Measures from a single PET scan ................. 4 1.2.2.1 Dual ...................................................................................... 5 1.2.3 Reduction of inter-scanner PET image variability

  11. Mixing Methods: The Entry of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches into the Research Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Brannen

    2005-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative research are often presented as two fundamentally different paradigms through which we study the social world. These paradigms act as lightning conductors to which sets of epistemological assumptions, theoretical approaches and methods are attracted. Each is seen to be incompatible with the other. These paradigmatic claims have a tendency to resurface from time to time, manifesting themselves

  12. The Use of Quantitative Methods as an Aid to Decision Making in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    Three quantitative methods are outlined, with suggestions for application to particular problem areas of educational administration: (1) The Leontief input-output analysis, incorporating a "transaction table" for displaying relationships between economic outputs and inputs, mainly applicable to budget analysis and planning; (2) linear programing,…

  13. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery

    E-print Network

    A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery 2013 Accepted 31 July 2013 Available online 27 August 2013 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cell Wastewater treatment Energy consumption Coulombic efficiency a b s t r a c t Microbial electrolysis cells

  14. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  15. DESIGN OF SRM BASED MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES OF PORCINE ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS

    E-print Network

    Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    DESIGN OF SRM BASED MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSES OF PORCINE ACUTE PHASE for the quantification of four porcine APPs: Hp, ITIH4, Apo A-I and fetuin A. The measurement of these four APPs (intense transitions); B) Bad proteotypic peptide (non-intense transitions) 2) Quantification of porcine

  16. An immunochemical method for quantitation of Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Daniel Parola; Alicia Sciocco-Cap; Graciela Glikmann; V??ctor Romanowski

    2003-01-01

    Epinotia aporema granulovirus (EpapGV) is a baculovirus that affects E. aporema larvae and has proven to be a good candidate for the biocontrol of this important pest in South America. As part of the quality control of the production of a bioinsecticide based on EpapGV, a sensitive method was developed for the detection and quantitation of the virus. To this

  17. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATION OF BETA-GLUCANS FROM SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal polysaccharides and glucans, including lentinan from shiitakes, have been identified as promoting human health, and consequently, the sale of mushroom-based health products has increased significantly in recent years. Reliable methods for the quantitation of lentinan must be available if shi...

  18. Improved GC/MS method for quantitation of n-Alkanes in plant and fecal material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the quantitation of n-alkanes (carbon backbones ranging from 21 to 36 carbon atoms) in forage and fecal samples has been developed. Automated solid-liquid extraction using elevated temperature and pressure minimized extraction time to 30 min...

  19. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  20. A simple method for quantitative diagnosis of small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a simple and fast method for quantitative diagnosis of small hive beetles (= SHB) in honeybee field colonies using corrugated plastic “diagnostic-strips”. In Australia, we evaluated its efficacy by comparing the number of lured SHB with the total number of beetles in the hives. The d...

  1. A Powerful and Robust Method for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in General Pedigrees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Diao; D. Y. Lin

    2005-01-01

    The variance-components model is the method of choice for mapping quantitative trait loci in general human pedigrees. This model assumes normally distributed trait values and includes a major gene effect, random polygenic and environmental effects, and covariate effects. Violation of the normality assumption has detrimental effects on the type I error and power. One possible way of achieving normality is

  2. Tutorial in Quantitative Methods for Psychology 2006, Vol. 2(1), p. 20-25.

    E-print Network

    Kroger, Jim

    Tutorial in Quantitative Methods for Psychology 2006, Vol. 2(1), p. 20-25. 20 Formatting data files Giguère Concordia University Université du Québec à Montréal In this tutorial, we demonstrate how to use for repeated-measures analyses. In the first two sections of the tutorial, we briefly describe the Aggregate

  3. Overcoming Methods Anxiety: Qualitative First, Quantitative Next, Frequent Feedback along the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Brooke Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Political Science research methods courses face two problems. First is what to cover, as there are too many techniques to explore in any one course. Second is dealing with student anxiety around quantitative material. We explore a novel way to approach these issues. Our students began by writing a qualitative paper. They followed with a term…

  4. Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn's concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining…

  5. An Elephant in the Room: Bias in Evaluating a Required Quantitative Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Joseph F.; Painter-Main, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate Political Science programs often require students to take a quantitative research methods course. Such courses are typically among the most poorly rated. This can be due, in part, to the way in which courses are evaluated. Students are generally asked to provide an overall rating, which, in turn, is widely used by students, faculty,…

  6. Quantitative analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in processed food by PCR-based methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Wurz; A. Bluth; P. Zeltz; C. Pfeifer; R. Willmund

    1999-01-01

    Two different PCR-based approaches for the quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism (GMO) – components in foods are presented using Soybean derived samples as an example. The first method – a double competitive PCR – is well suited to determine threshold levels of GMO content in food. The other – PCR on-line measurement – is suited to determine ratios of

  7. The coexistence approach — a method for quantitative reconstructions of Tertiary terrestrial palaeoclimate data using plant fossils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Mosbrugger; Torsten Utescher

    1997-01-01

    The coexistence approach is introduced as a method for quantitative terrestrial palaeoclimate reconstructions in the Tertiary. It is based on the assumption that Tertiary plant taxa have similar climatic requirements to their nearest living relatives. The aim of the coexistence approach is to find for a given fossil flora and a given climate parameter the climatic interval in which all

  8. Quantitative methods for evaluating optical and frictional properties of cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Alkema, J; Shay, G D; Basset, D R

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents three quantitative methods to examine gloss, opacity, and friction of cationic polymers. The adsorption of cationic polymers onto hair and skin can be regarded as a thin film coating. Therefore, optical and frictional properties of polymer films are of significant relevance to the applications of cationic polymers in hair care products. Such properties reflect the desirable hair condition attributes consumers seek in shampoo and conditioner products. Using these test methods, polyquaternium-10 and cationic guar samples of varying molecular weight and cationic substitution were compared. The effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on polymer film properties was also investigated. Neat guar hydroxypropyl trimonium chloride imparts less friction than polyquaternium-10 but dulls the substrate employed in this study. The optical data show that polyquaternium-10 provides greater film clarity and gloss than cationic guars. In the presence of SDS, polyquaternium-10 also displays similar or lower friction than cationic guar. The comparative optical and frictional results are in good agreement with the visual assessment of the cationic polymer films. These results clearly demonstrate that polyquaternium-10 exhibits superior film properties in the forms of both neat polymer and polymer/surfactant complex. In addition, microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide powerful explanations for the differences noted between the two popular classes of cationic polymers. The test methods described in this paper can be utilized to differentiate the upper performance potential of cationic polymers. These objective and standardized test methods derived from the coatings industry are not affected by the variability of hair or the formulation complexity of end products. They can be useful tools in the product development process in quickly screening the relative performance of different polymers. PMID:11382843

  9. Quantitative methods for analysing cumulative effects on fish migration success: a review.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J E; Patterson, D A; Martins, E G; Cooke, S J; Hinch, S G

    2012-07-01

    It is often recognized, but seldom addressed, that a quantitative assessment of the cumulative effects, both additive and non-additive, of multiple stressors on fish survival would provide a more realistic representation of the factors that influence fish migration. This review presents a compilation of analytical methods applied to a well-studied fish migration, a more general review of quantitative multivariable methods, and a synthesis on how to apply new analytical techniques in fish migration studies. A compilation of adult migration papers from Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka revealed a limited number of multivariable methods being applied and the sub-optimal reliance on univariable methods for multivariable problems. The literature review of fisheries science, general biology and medicine identified a large number of alternative methods for dealing with cumulative effects, with a limited number of techniques being used in fish migration studies. An evaluation of the different methods revealed that certain classes of multivariable analyses will probably prove useful in future assessments of cumulative effects on fish migration. This overview and evaluation of quantitative methods gathered from the disparate fields should serve as a primer for anyone seeking to quantify cumulative effects on fish migration survival. PMID:22803726

  10. Relative Quantification of Costal Cordillera (Ecuador) Uplift : Preliminary Results from Quantitative Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Pedro; Dauteuil, Olivier; Michaud, François

    2010-05-01

    The coastal cordillera of Ecuador (culminating point around 800 m) includes on its littoral margins uplifted marine terraces (maximum known 360 m). The coastal cordillera constitutes an important barrier of drainage and on nearly 600 km the drainage resulting from the Andes is diverted towards Río Guayas in the South and Río Esmeraldas in North. What is the uplifting mode of the coastal cordillera? For how long it has constituted a barrier of drainage? Does the coastal cordillera rising be linked with the littoral margin rising? Does the cordillera have raised in a homogeneous or segmented way? What is the geodynamic process of the uplift of the cordillera? Can this uplift be related with the subduction of the Carnegie ridge? The first objective of this work is to analyze the morphology of the coastal cordillera with helps of quantitative geomorphology using digital techniques such as DEM (realized with a resolution of 30 m by Marc Souris, IRD), to specify the evolution of the coastal cordillera uplift. This study was carried out starting combining analysis of morphology, maps derived from the slopes and anomalies of the drainage of the hydrographic network. In the second time, three methods were applied to DEM data using the ArcGIS software: 1) the digitalization and the interpolation of basal surface of the last marine formation of regional distribution (the Borbón formation on the geological map of Ecuador) to determine paleo-horizontal and to see its deformation; 2) the extraction of 109 profiles of rivers which allow us to calculate for each river the vertical, horizontal, and total deviation compared to the theoretical profile of the river and the associated SL index; 3) the measurement of the relief incision (depth + half width of the valley, on the whole 7500 measurements) according to the method of Bonnet et al. (1998). We adapted this method to be able to represent the state of incision in any point, correcting from the influence of the lithology and the influence of altitude. The analysis of the profiles of the rivers and incision combined with the morpho-structural analysis show that the coastal cordillera is segmented in blocks that have each one their own period of rising and their own rate of uplift. Six blocks are individualized. The results on the profiles of river show that the coastal area of the cordillera in as a whole in uplift. The results on the incisions show that the uplift is relatively more important in the northern part of the coastal cordillera. Two fault systems have guided the evolution of the coastal cordillera, the Jipijapa system and the Jama system that is prolonged in the East of Río Esmeraldas. The two systems seem to control the exhumation of the peninsula of Manta, whereas the system of Jama controls the rising of a North-west block. The coastal cordillera starts rising in its central part. The beginning of rising probably happens at the end of Pliocene. Rising continues then to the South-west and finally develops in the North and in the peninsula of Manta. The highest rates of relative uplift are seen in blocks of the North of the coastal cordillera that is not located in front of the Carnegie ridge.

  11. [Research on rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residue].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan-Xin; Chen, Bing-Tai; Yi, Sen; Sun, Ming

    2014-05-01

    The methods of physical-chemical inspection is adopted in the traditional pesticide residue detection, which require a lot of pretreatment processes, are time-consuming and complicated. In the present study, the authors take chlorpyrifos applied widely in the present agricultural field as the research object and propose a rapid and quantitative detection method for organophosphorus pesticide residues. At first, according to the chemical characteristics of chlorpyrifos and comprehensive chromogenic effect of several colorimetric reagents and secondary pollution, the pretreatment of the scheme of chromogenic reaction of chlorpyrifos with resorcin in a weak alkaline environment was determined. Secondly, by analyzing Uv-Vis spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples whose content were between 0. 5 and 400 mg kg-1, it was confirmed that the characteristic information after the color reaction mainly was concentrated among 360 approximately 400 nm. Thirdly, the full spectrum forecasting model was established based on the partial least squares, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 995 6, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 814 7 mg kg-1, and standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 8. 012 4 mg kg-1. Fourthly, the wavelengths whose center wavelength is 400 nm was extracted as characteristic region to build a forecasting model, whose correlation coefficient of calibration was 0. 999 6, correlation coefficient of prediction reached 0. 999 3, standard deviation of calibration (RMSEC) was 2. 566 7 mg kg-1 , standard deviation of verification (RMSEP) was 4. 886 6 mg kg-1, respectively. At last, by analyzing the near infrared spectrum data of chlorpyrifos samples with contents between 0. 5 and 16 mg kg-1, the authors found that although the characteristics of the chromogenic functional group are not obvious, the change of absorption peaks of resorcin itself in the neighborhood of 5 200 cm-' happens. The above-mentioned experimental results show that the proposed method is effective and feasible for rapid and quantitative detection prediction for organophosphorus pesticide residues. In the method, the information in full spectrum especially UV-Vis spectrum is strengthened by chromogenic reaction of a colorimetric reagent, which provides a new way of rapid detection of pesticide residues for agricultural products in the future. PMID:25095434

  12. A rapid spectrophotometric method for the quantitative estimation of octadecyl p-coumarates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nidiry, E. S. J.; Lokesha, A. N.

    2013-07-01

    The UV spectrum of octadecyl p-coumarates gives a peak at ?max(MeOH) = 308.6 nm (log ? = 4.13). On addition of alkali, the peak undergoes a bathochromic shift to 358.2 nm with a hyperchromic effect. A linear relationship found between the concentration of octadecyl p-coumarates and the hyperchromic effect can be used to quantitatively estimate octadecyl p-coumarates in samples devoid of other compounds exhibiting the similar hyperchromic effect. The method may also be useful for quantitative comparison of total alkyl coumarates in plant samples.

  13. Computational Methods in Developing Quantitative StructureActivity Relationships (QSAR): A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arkadiusz Z. Dudek; Tomasz Arodz; Jorge Galvez

    2006-01-01

    Virtual filtering and screening of combinatorial libraries have recently gained attention as methods complementing the high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry. These chemoinformatic techniques rely heavily on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, a field with established methodology and successful history. In this review, we discuss the computational methods for building QSAR models. We start with outlining their usefulness in high-throughput screening

  14. Development of a quantitative method to measure vision in children with chronic cortical visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Good, W V

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is the most common cause of bilateral vision impairment in children in Western countries. Better quantitative tools for measuring vision are needed to assess these children, to allow measurement of their visual deficit, and to monitor their response to treatment and rehabilitation. The author performed a series of experiments to assess the use of the sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) as a quantitative tool for measuring vision in CVI. METHODS: The first experiment was a reliability measure (test/retest) of VEP grating acuity thresholds of 23 children with CVI. To validate the VEP procedure, VEP grating acuity was compared to a clinical measure of vision, the Huo scale, and to a psychophysical measure of vision, the Teller Acuity Card procedure. Finally, the sweep VEP was tested as a tool for defining optimal luminance conditions for grating acuity in 13 children with CVI, by measuring grating thresholds under 2 different luminance conditions: 50 and 100 candela per square meter (cd/m2). RESULTS: Retest thresholds were similar to original thresholds (r2 = 0.662; P = .003, 1-tailed t test). Grating VEP measures correlate significantly with the clinical index (r2 = 0.63; P = .00004). Teller acuity measurements are also similar to VEP measures in children (r2 = 0.64; P = .0005) but show lower acuities compared to the VEP for children with particularly low vision. Finally, 3 of 13 children tested under 2 background luminance conditions showed paradoxical improvement in grating threshold with dimmer luminance. CONCLUSIONS: The sweep VEP tool is a reliable and valid means for measuring grating acuity in children with CVI. The tool also shows promise as a means of determining the optimal visual environment for children with CVI. PMID:11797314

  15. Accuracy, Precision, and Method Detection Limits of Quantitative PCR for Airborne Bacteria and Fungi ?

    PubMed Central

    Hospodsky, Denina; Yamamoto, Naomichi; Peccia, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for rapid and specific enumeration of microbial agents is finding increased use in aerosol science. The goal of this study was to determine qPCR accuracy, precision, and method detection limits (MDLs) within the context of indoor and ambient aerosol samples. Escherichia coli and Bacillus atrophaeus vegetative bacterial cells and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores loaded onto aerosol filters were considered. Efficiencies associated with recovery of DNA from aerosol filters were low, and excluding these efficiencies in quantitative analysis led to underestimating the true aerosol concentration by 10 to 24 times. Precision near detection limits ranged from a 28% to 79% coefficient of variation (COV) for the three test organisms, and the majority of this variation was due to instrument repeatability. Depending on the organism and sampling filter material, precision results suggest that qPCR is useful for determining dissimilarity between two samples only if the true differences are greater than 1.3 to 3.2 times (95% confidence level at n = 7 replicates). For MDLs, qPCR was able to produce a positive response with 99% confidence from the DNA of five B. atrophaeus cells and less than one A. fumigatus spore. Overall MDL values that included sample processing efficiencies ranged from 2,000 to 3,000 B. atrophaeus cells per filter and 10 to 25 A. fumigatus spores per filter. Applying the concepts of accuracy, precision, and MDL to qPCR aerosol measurements demonstrates that sample processing efficiencies must be accounted for in order to accurately estimate bioaerosol exposure, provides guidance on the necessary statistical rigor required to understand significant differences among separate aerosol samples, and prevents undetected (i.e., nonquantifiable) values for true aerosol concentrations that may be significant. PMID:20817798

  16. A Validated LC-MS-MS Method for Simultaneous Identification and Quantitation of Rodenticides in Blood.

    PubMed

    Bidny, Sergei; Gago, Kim; David, Mark; Duong, Thanh; Albertyn, Desdemona; Gunja, Naren

    2015-04-01

    A rapid, highly sensitive and specific analytical method for the extraction, identification and quantification of nine rodenticides from whole blood has been developed and validated. Commercially available rodenticides in Australia include coumatetralyl, warfarin, brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum, flocoumafen, difethialone, diphacinone and chlorophacinone. A Waters ACQUITY UPLC TQD system operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used to conduct the analysis. Two different ionization techniques, ES+ and ES-, were examined to achieve optimal sensitivity and selectivity resulting in detection by MS-MS using electrospray ionization in positive mode for difenacoum and brodifacoum and in negative mode for all other analytes. All analytes were extracted from 200 µL of whole blood with ethylacetate and separated on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH-C18 column using gradient elution. Ammonium acetate (10 mM, pH 7.5) and methanol were used as mobile phases with a total run time of 8 min. Recoveries were between 70 and 105% with limits of detection ranging from 0.5 to 1 ng/mL. The limit of quantitation was 2 ng/mL for all analytes. Calibration curves were linear within the range 2-200 ng/mL for all analytes with the coefficient of determination ?0.98. The application of the proposed method using liquid-liquid extraction in a series of clinical investigations and forensic toxicological analyses was successful. PMID:25595137

  17. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  18. Deep neural nets as a method for quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junshui; Sheridan, Robert P; Liaw, Andy; Dahl, George E; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2015-02-23

    Neural networks were widely used for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the 1990s. Because of various practical issues (e.g., slow on large problems, difficult to train, prone to overfitting, etc.), they were superseded by more robust methods like support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), which arose in the early 2000s. The last 10 years has witnessed a revival of neural networks in the machine learning community thanks to new methods for preventing overfitting, more efficient training algorithms, and advancements in computer hardware. In particular, deep neural nets (DNNs), i.e. neural nets with more than one hidden layer, have found great successes in many applications, such as computer vision and natural language processing. Here we show that DNNs can routinely make better prospective predictions than RF on a set of large diverse QSAR data sets that are taken from Merck's drug discovery effort. The number of adjustable parameters needed for DNNs is fairly large, but our results show that it is not necessary to optimize them for individual data sets, and a single set of recommended parameters can achieve better performance than RF for most of the data sets we studied. The usefulness of the parameters is demonstrated on additional data sets not used in the calibration. Although training DNNs is still computationally intensive, using graphical processing units (GPUs) can make this issue manageable. PMID:25635324

  19. Raman spectroscopy provides a rapid, non-invasive method for quantitation of starch in live, unicellular microalgae.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuetong; He, Yuehui; Cui, Yanbin; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Yun; Li, Yuanguang; Huang, Wei E; Xu, Jian

    2014-12-01

    Conventional methods for quantitation of starch content in cells generally involve starch extraction steps and are usually labor intensive, thus a rapid and non-invasive method will be valuable. Using the starch-producing unicellular microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model, we employed a customized Raman spectrometer to capture the Raman spectra of individual single cells under distinct culture conditions and along various growth stages. The results revealed a nearly linear correlation (R(2) = 0.9893) between the signal intensity at 478 cm(-1) and the starch content of the cells. We validated the specific correlation by showing that the starch-associated Raman peaks were eliminated in a mutant strain where the AGPase (ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase) gene was disrupted and consequentially the biosynthesis of starch blocked. Furthermore, the method was validated in an industrial algal strain of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. This is the first demonstration of starch quantitation in individual live cells. Compared to existing cellular starch quantitation methods, this single-cell Raman spectra-based approach is rapid, label-free, non-invasive, culture-independent, low-cost, and potentially able to simultaneously track multiple metabolites in individual live cells, therefore should enable many new applications. PMID:24906189

  20. Quantitative determination and identification of pharmaceuticals by means of Gran's potentiomentric method.

    PubMed

    Charkarova, P; Tencheva, J; Budevsky, O

    1976-01-01

    A method is proposed both for the quantitative determination and identification of pharmaceuticals, based on the data of a single pH-metric titration. As a new identification criterion the pK-value of the pharmaceutical is proposed. The latter is conveniently determined using the Gran's graphical method. A new equation is derived for the data treatment of very weak bases, where the Gran's original method can not be applied directly. The proposed method is applied with determination and the identification of many pharmaceuticals weak and very weak acids and bases. PMID:1019193

  1. Laboratory and field validation of a Cry1Ab protein quantitation method for water.

    PubMed

    Strain, Katherine E; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The widespread planting of crops expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has given rise to concerns regarding potential exposure to non-target species. These proteins are released from the plant throughout the growing season into soil and surface runoff and may enter adjacent waterways as runoff, erosion, aerial deposition of particulates, or plant debris. It is crucial to be able to accurately quantify Bt protein concentrations in the environment to aid in risk analyses and decision making. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used for quantitation of Bt proteins in the environment; however, there are no published methods detailing and validating the extraction and quantitation of Bt proteins in water. The objective of the current study was to optimize the extraction of a Bt protein, Cry1Ab, from three water matrices and validate the ELISA method for specificity, precision, accuracy, stability, and sensitivity. Recovery of the Cry1Ab protein was matrix-dependent and ranged from 40 to 88% in the validated matrices, with an overall method detection limit of 2.1 ng/L. Precision among two plates and within a single plate was confirmed with a coefficient of variation less than 20%. The ELISA method was verified in field and laboratory samples, demonstrating the utility of the validated method. The implementation of a validated extraction and quantitation protocol adds consistency and reliability to field-collected data regarding transgenic products. PMID:25059137

  2. Improved Methodical Approach for Quantitative BRET Analysis of G Protein Coupled Receptor Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Szalai, Bence; Hoffmann, Péter; Prokop, Susanne; Erdélyi, László; Várnai, Péter; Hunyady, László

    2014-01-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR) can form dimers or higher ordered oligomers, the process of which can remarkably influence the physiological and pharmacological function of these receptors. Quantitative Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (qBRET) measurements are the gold standards to prove the direct physical interaction between the protomers of presumed GPCR dimers. For the correct interpretation of these experiments, the expression of the energy donor Renilla luciferase labeled receptor has to be maintained constant, which is hard to achieve in expression systems. To analyze the effects of non-constant donor expression on qBRET curves, we performed Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the decrease of donor expression can lead to saturation qBRET curves even if the interaction between donor and acceptor labeled receptors is non-specific leading to false interpretation of the dimerization state. We suggest here a new approach to the analysis of qBRET data, when the BRET ratio is plotted as a function of the acceptor labeled receptor expression at various donor receptor expression levels. With this method, we were able to distinguish between dimerization and non-specific interaction when the results of classical qBRET experiments were ambiguous. The simulation results were confirmed experimentally using rapamycin inducible heterodimerization system. We used this new method to investigate the dimerization of various GPCRs, and our data have confirmed the homodimerization of V2 vasopressin and CaSR calcium sensing receptors, whereas our data argue against the heterodimerization of these receptors with other studied GPCRs, including type I and II angiotensin, ?2 adrenergic and CB1 cannabinoid receptors. PMID:25329164

  3. Quantitative proteomics: assessing the spectrum of in-gel protein detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Victoria J.; Wright, Elise P.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics research relies heavily on visualization methods for detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Commonly used staining approaches involve colorimetric dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue, fluorescent dyes including Sypro Ruby, newly developed reactive fluorophores, as well as a plethora of others. The most desired characteristic in selecting one stain over another is sensitivity, but this is far from the only important parameter. This review evaluates protein detection methods in terms of their quantitative attributes, including limit of detection (i.e., sensitivity), linear dynamic range, inter-protein variability, capacity for spot detection after 2D gel electrophoresis, and compatibility with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Unfortunately, many of these quantitative criteria are not routinely or consistently addressed by most of the studies published to date. We would urge more rigorous routine characterization of stains and detection methodologies as a critical approach to systematically improving these critically important tools for quantitative proteomics. In addition, substantial improvements in detection technology, particularly over the last decade or so, emphasize the need to consider renewed characterization of existing stains; the quantitative stains we need, or at least the chemistries required for their future development, may well already exist. PMID:21686332

  4. Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, Kohsuke, E-mail: gonda@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyashita, Minoru [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan)] [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan); Tada, Hiroshi [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Amari, Masakazu [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ohuchi, Noriaki [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan) [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

  5. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM); Kunz, Walter E. (Santa Fe, NM); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  6. A new quantitative method for the non-invasive documentation of morphological damage in paintings using RTI surface normals.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Marcello; Bearman, Greg; Williamson, Greg; Kronkright, Dale; Doehne, Eric; Jacobs, Megan; Marengo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a reliable surface imaging method for the non-invasive detection of morphological changes in paintings. Usually, the evaluation and quantification of changes and defects results mostly from an optical and subjective assessment, through the comparison of the previous and subsequent state of conservation and by means of condition reports. Using quantitative Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) we obtain detailed information on the geometry and morphology of the painting surface with a fast, precise and non-invasive method. Accurate and quantitative measurements of deterioration were acquired after the painting experienced artificial damage. Morphological changes were documented using normal vector images while the intensity map succeeded in highlighting, quantifying and describing the physical changes. We estimate that the technique can detect a morphological damage slightly smaller than 0.3 mm, which would be difficult to detect with the eye, considering the painting size. This non-invasive tool could be very useful, for example, to examine paintings and artwork before they travel on loan or during a restoration. The method lends itself to automated analysis of large images and datasets. Quantitative RTI thus eases the transition of extending human vision into the realm of measuring change over time. PMID:25010699

  7. Development of a Strain-Specific Molecular Method for Quantitating Individual Campylobacter Strains in Mixed Populations?

    PubMed Central

    Elvers, Karen T.; Helps, Christopher R.; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Allen, Vivien M.; Newell, Diane G.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of sites resulting in cross-contamination of poultry flocks in the abattoir and determination of the survival and persistence of campylobacters at these sites are essential for the development of intervention strategies aimed at reducing the microbial burden on poultry at retail. A novel molecule-based method, using strain- and genus-specific oligonucleotide probes, was developed to detect and enumerate specific campylobacter strains in mixed populations. Strain-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed for the short variable regions (SVR) of the flaA gene in individual Campylobacter jejuni strains. A 16S rRNA Campylobacter genus-specific probe was also used. Both types of probes were used to investigate populations of campylobacters by colony lift hybridization. The specificity and proof of principle of the method were tested using strains with closely related SVR sequences and mixtures of these strains. Colony lifts of campylobacters were hybridized sequentially with up to two labeled strain-specific probes, followed by the generic 16S rRNA probe. SVR probes were highly specific, differentiating down to 1 nucleotide in the target sequence, and were sufficiently sensitive to detect colonies of a single strain in a mixed population. The 16S rRNA probe detected all Campylobacter spp. tested but not closely related species, such as Arcobacter skirrowi and Helicobacter pullorum. Preliminary field studies demonstrated the application of this technique to target strains isolated from poultry transport crate wash tank water. This method is quantitative, sensitive, and highly specific and allows the identification and enumeration of selected strains among all of the campylobacters in environmental samples. PMID:18281428

  8. A method for operative quantitative interpretation of multispectral images of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    A method for operative retrieval of spatial distributions of biophysical parameters of a biological tissue by using a multispectral image of it has been developed. The method is based on multiple regressions between linearly independent components of the diffuse reflection spectrum of the tissue and unknown parameters. Possibilities of the method are illustrated by an example of determining biophysical parameters of the skin (concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin and bilirubin, blood oxygenation, and scattering coefficient of the tissue). Examples of quantitative interpretation of the experimental data are presented.

  9. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM).

    PubMed

    van Wendel de Joode, Berna; van Hemmen, Joop J; Meijster, Tim; Major, Vicky; London, Leslie; Kromhout, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment method (DREAM) by (i) studying inter-observer agreement, (ii) assessing the effect of individual observers on dermal exposure estimates for different tasks, and (iii) comparing inter-observer agreement for ranking of body parts according to their exposure level. Four studies were performed in which a total of 29 observers (mainly occupational hygienists) were asked to fill in DREAM while performing side-by-side observations for different tasks, comprising dermal exposures to liquids, solids, and vapors. Intra-class correlation coefficients ranged from 0.68 to 0.87 for total dermal exposure estimates, indicating good to excellent inter-observer agreement. The effects of individual observers on task estimates were estimated using a linear mixed effect model with logged DREAM estimates as explanatory variable; "task", "company/department", and the interaction of "task" and "company/department" as fixed effects; and "observer" as a random effect. Geometric mean (GM) dermal exposure estimates for different tasks were estimated by taking the exponent of the predicted betas for the tasks. By taking the exponent of the predicted observer's intercept (exp(omega i)), a multiplier (M(O)) was estimated for each observer. The effects of individual observers on task estimates were relatively small, as the maximum predicted mean observers' multiplier was only a factor 2, while predicted GMs of dermal exposure estimates for tasks ranged from 0 to 1226, and none of the predicted individual observers' multipliers differed significantly from 1 (t-test alpha = 0.05). Inter-observer agreement for ranking of dermal exposure of nine body parts was moderate to good, as median values of Spearman correlation coefficients for pairs of observers ranged from 0.29 to 0.93. DREAM provides reproducible results for a broad range of tasks with dermal exposures to liquids, solids, as well as vapors. DREAM appears to offer a useful advance for estimations of dermal exposure both for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice. PMID:15069425

  10. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Moffatt; Martin White; Joan Mackintosh; Denise Howel

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data were collected

  11. CTSI Quantitative Methods Pilot Program The Design, Biostatistics and Epidemiology (DBE) Core, the Pilot Core, and the Novel

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    1 CTSI Quantitative Methods Pilot Program The Design, Biostatistics and Epidemiology (DBE) Core, a quantitative methods researcher is an investigator with a background in statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology the career development of junior investigators in the fields of statistics, biostatistics, and epidemiology

  12. The channel ratio method of scatter correction for radionuclide image quantitation.

    PubMed

    Pretorius, P H; van Rensburg, A J; van Aswegen, A; Lötter, M G; Serfontein, D E; Herbst, C P

    1993-02-01

    The accuracy of quantitation of radionuclide distributions in human tissue with the scintillation camera is decreased by attenuation and scatter of photons. If scatter correction is applied satisfactorily, narrow beam attenuation can be applied. In this article, a scatter correction technique, the channel ratio (CR) method, is introduced. The CR scatter correction method is proposed for quantitation of the radionuclide distribution in organs. The improvement in the geometrical resolution was measured and examples of clinical images are presented. In this method, the change in the ratio of counts from two symmetrical adjacent energy windows straddling the energy photopeak was used to eliminate the contribution of scattered photons during imaging with 99mTc. The theory and methods for the empirical affirmation are described. To apply the CR scatter correction method, two constants, the ratio of primary photons G and the ratio of scattered photons H in the same windows, were determined. Different sized sources in varying depths of water were imaged. When the source activities were quantified after scatter correction with the CR method, the measurements ranged from 96%-108% in comparison to the reference value in 100 mm water. The scatter fraction increased from 0.20 in 10 mm water to 1.44 in 200 mm water. The geometrical resolution expressed as full width at tenth maximum in 150 mm water improved by 30.4% and was restored to the value of the geometrical resolution in air. The CR scatter correction method is a simple method to correct for scatter in order to facilitate accurate quantitation of the radionuclide distribution during imaging with a scintillation camera. PMID:8429357

  13. A quantitative (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) method for assessing the purity of iridoids and secoiridoids.

    PubMed

    Li, Zeyun; Welbeck, Edward; Yang, Li; He, Chunyong; Hu, Haijun; Song, Ming; Bi, Kaishun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2015-01-01

    This paper utilized a quantitative (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (qHNMR) method for assessing the purity of iridoids and secoiridoids. The method was fully validated, including specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and robustness. For optimization of experimental conditions, several experimental parameters were investigated, including relaxation delay (D1), scan numbers (NS) and power length (PL1). The quantification was based on the area ratios of H-3 from analytes relative to aromatic protons from 1,4-dinitrobenzene (internal standard) with methanol-d4 as solvent. Five iridoids and secoiridoids (sweroside, swertiamarin, gentiopicroside, geniposide, genipin) were analyzed. Furthermore, the results were validated by the high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) method. It can be concluded that the qHNMR method was simple, rapid, and accurate, providing a reliable and superior method for assessing the purity of iridoids and secoiridoids. PMID:25510321

  14. Evaluation of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Immobilized Trypsin Digestion and 18 O-Labeling Method for Quantitative Proteomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Hixson, Kim K.; Smallwood, Heather S.; Squier, Thomas C.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-08-01

    A new method that uses immobilized trypsin concomitant with ultrasonic irradiation results in ultra-rapid digestion and thorough 18O labeling for quantitative protein comparisons. The reproducible and highly efficient method provided effective digestions in <1 min and minimized the amount of enzyme required compared to traditional methods. This method was demonstrated for digestion of both simple and complex protein mixtures, including bovine serum albumin, a global proteome extract from bacteria Shewanella oneidensis, and mouse plasma, as well as for the labeling of complex protein mixtures, which validated the application of this method for differential proteomic measurements. This approach is simple, reproducible, cost effective, and rapid, and thus well-suited for automation.

  15. A Quantitative and Standardized Robotic Method for the Evaluation of Arm Proprioception after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Simo, Lucia S.; Ghez, Claude; Botzer, Lior; Scheidt, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Stroke often results in both motor and sensory deficits, which may interact in the manifested functional impairment. Proprioception is known to play important roles in the planning and control of limb posture and movement; however, the impact of proprioceptive deficits on motor function has been difficult to elucidate due in part to the qualitative nature of available clinical tests. We present a quantitative and standardized method for evaluating proprioception in tasks directly relevant to those used to assess motor function. Using a robotic manipulandum that exerted controlled displacements of the hand, stroke participants were evaluated, and compared with a control group, in their ability to detect such displacements in a 2-alternative, forced-choice paradigm. A psychometric function parameterized the decision process underlying the detection of the hand displacements. The shape of this function was determined by a signal detection threshold and by the variability of the response about this threshold. Our automatic procedure differentiates between participants with and without proprioceptive deficits and quantifies functional proprioceptive sensation on a magnitude scale that is meaningful for ongoing studies of degraded motor function in comparable horizontal movements. PMID:22256252

  16. Quantitative methods for genome-scale analysis of in situ hybridization and correlation with microarray data

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Kyu; Sunkin, Susan M; Kuan, Chihchau; Thompson, Carol L; Pathak, Sayan; Ng, Lydia; Lau, Chris; Fischer, Shanna; Mortrud, Marty; Slaughterbeck, Cliff; Jones, Allan; Lein, Ed; Hawrylycz, Michael

    2008-01-01

    With the emergence of genome-wide colorimetric in situ hybridization (ISH) data sets such as the Allen Brain Atlas, it is important to understand the relationship between this gene expression modality and those derived from more quantitative based technologies. This study introduces a novel method for standardized relative quantification of colorimetric ISH signal that enables a large-scale cross-platform expression level comparison of ISH with two publicly available microarray brain data sources. PMID:18234097

  17. A quantitative method to detect fucoidan in human plasma using a novel antibody

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Irhimeh; J. H. Fitton; R. M. Lowenthal; P. Kongtawelert

    2005-01-01

    SUMMARY We have developed an antibody-based method to assess plasma uptake of a proprietary Undaria-derived fucoidan galactofucan sulfate (GFS TM ) after oral ingestion by human volunteers. Fucoidans have high-molecular-weights but exert biological effects in experimental animals after oral intake. By using a novel antibody raised against sulfated polysaccharides, we carried out a competitive ELISA to quantitate GFS in plasma

  18. Validated TLC Method for Simultaneous Quantitation of Amlodipine Besylate and Valsartan in Bulk Drug and Formulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil R. Dhaneshwar; Narendra G. Patre; Mahadeo V. Mahadik

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new, simple, precise, and accurate TLC method for simultaneous quantitation of amlodipine (AML) besylate\\u000a and valsartan (VAL) as the bulk drug and in tablet dosage forms. Chromatographic separation of the drugs was performed on\\u000a aluminum plates precoated with silica gel 60 F\\u000a 254 as the stationary phase and the solvent system consisted of toluene:methanol:acetic acid 7:3:0.1

  19. Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Investigate Patterns in Marketing Channels and International Marketing Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prathap Oburai; Kok Wai Chew

    Changed agenda and paradigms require marketing’s research methods and tools of enquiry to reflect fully the need to intensify theory-building programmes. We examine the evolution of the case research strategy in the context of business markets and inter-organisational relations, and submit that there is marked convergence of its underlying methodological and philosophical perspectives. Given that marrying qualitative and quantitative is

  20. A new semiautomatic method for quantitative static and dynamic bone histology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut H. Malluche; David Sherman; Wolfgang Meyer; Shaul G. Massry

    1982-01-01

    Summary  A new semiautomatic technique combining advantages of the manual and fully automatic methods is described for obtaining quantitative\\u000a static and dynamic histologic data of bone. The hardware consists of a photomicroscope, digitizing platen, digitizer, plotter\\/printer,\\u000a floppy disc drive, and computer. The microscope is equipped with a drawing tube through which the image of the digitizing\\u000a platen is projected over the

  1. A method for the quantitative determination of individual oils in a blend

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Abu-Hadeed; Ahmed R. Kotb

    1988-01-01

    A matrix inversion method, based on the data obtained by GLC analysis of fatty acids, sterols, 4-methylsterols, triterpene\\u000a alcohols, tocopherols and squalene, was applied to quantitatively determine ingredients of vegetable oil blends. Identification\\u000a of individual oils in mixtures was achieved by comparison of a set of data derived on the basis of the level of certain characteristic\\u000a components in each

  2. Post-Reconstruction Non-Local Means Filtering Methods using CT Side Information for Quantitative SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Se Young; Fessler, Jeffrey A.; Dewaraja, Yuni K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative SPECT techniques are important for many applications including internal emitter therapy dosimetry where accurate estimation of total target activity and activity distribution within targets are both potentially important for dose-response evaluations. We investigated non-local means (NLM) post-reconstruction filtering for accurate I-131 SPECT estimation of both total target activity and the 3D activity distribution. We first investigated activity estimation versus number of ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) iterations. We performed simulations using the XCAT phantom with tumors containing a uniform and a non-uniform activity distribution, and measured the recovery coefficient (RC) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) to quantify total target activity and activity distribution, respectively. We observed that using more OSEM iterations is essential for accurate estimation of RC, but may or may not improve RMSE. We then investigated various post-reconstruction filtering methods to suppress noise at high iteration while preserving image details so that both RC and RMSE can be improved. Recently, NLM filtering methods have shown promising results for noise reduction. Moreover, NLM methods using high-quality side information can improve image quality further. We investigated several NLM methods with and without CT side information for I-131 SPECT imaging and compared them to conventional Gaussian filtering and to unfiltered methods. We studied four different ways of incorporating CT information in the NLM methods: two known (NLM CT-B and NLM CT-M) and two newly considered (NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H). We also evaluated the robustness of NLM filtering using CT information to erroneous CT. NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H yielded comparable RC values to unfiltered images while substantially reducing RMSE. NLM CT-S achieved ?2.7 to 2.6% increase of RC compared to no filtering and NLM CT-H yielded up to 6% decrease in RC while other methods yielded lower RCs than them: Gaussian filtering (up to 11.8% decrease in RC), NLM method without CT (up to 9.5% decrease in RC), and NLM CT-M and NLM CT-B (up to 19.4% decrease in RC). NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H achieved 8.2 to 33.9% and ?0.9 to 36% decreased RMSE on tumors compared to no filtering respectively while other methods yielded less reduced or increased RMSE: Gaussian filtering (up to 7.9% increase in RMSE), NLM method without CT (up to 18.3% increase in RMSE), and NLM CT-M and NLM CT-B (up to 31.5% increase in RMSE). NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H also yielded images with tumor shapes that better-matched the true shapes than other methods. All NLM methods using CT information were robust to small misregistration between SPECT and CT, but NLM CT-S and NLM CT-H were more sensitive than NLM CT-M and NLM CT-B to missing CT information. PMID:23956327

  3. Improved Methods for Capture, Extraction, and Quantitative Assay of Environmental DNA from Asian Bigheaded Carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cameron R.; Miller, Derryl J.; Coyne, Kathryn J.; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  4. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  5. Methods for Peptide and Protein Quantitation by Liquid Chromatography-Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Qinfeng; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Rahman, Jamshedur; Kikuchi, Takefume; Massion, Pierre P.; Carbone, David P.; Billheimer, Dean; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry of peptides using stable isotope dilution (SID) provides a powerful tool for targeted protein quantitation. However, the high cost of labeled peptide standards for SID poses an obstacle to multiple reaction monitoring studies. We compared SID to a labeled reference peptide (LRP) method, which uses a single labeled peptide as a reference standard for all measured peptides, and a label-free (LF) approach, in which quantitation is based on analysis of un-normalized peak areas for detected MRM transitions. We analyzed peptides from the Escherichia coli proteins alkaline phosphatase and ?-galactosidase spiked into lysates from human colon adenocarcinoma RKO cells. We also analyzed liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry data from a recently published interlaboratory study by the National Cancer Institute Clinical Proteomic Technology Assessment for Cancer network (Addona et al. (2009) Nat. Biotechnol. 27: 633–641), in which unlabeled and isotopically labeled synthetic peptides or their corresponding proteins were spiked into human plasma. SID displayed the highest correlation coefficients and lowest coefficient of variation in regression analyses of both peptide and protein spike studies. In protein spike experiments, median coefficient of variation values were about 10% for SID and 20–30% for LRP and LF methods. Power calculations indicated that differences in measurement error between the methods have much less impact on measured protein expression differences than biological variation. All three methods detected significant (p < 0.05) differential expression of three endogenous proteins in a test set of 10 pairs of human lung tumor and control tissues. Further, the LRP and LF methods both detected significant differences (p < 0.05) in levels of seven biomarker candidates between tumors and controls in the same set of lung tissue samples. The data indicate that the LRP and LF methods provide cost-effective alternatives to SID for many quantitative liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry applications. PMID:21357624

  6. Methods and results in characterizing electronic stethoscopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Watrous; D. M. Grove; D. L. Bowen

    2002-01-01

    Two methods for characterizing the acoustical properties of electronic stethoscopes are reported. The first method measures the frequency response of the stethoscope using a fluid-filled rubber ball that is excited by a mechanical shaker driven by broadband noise. The acoustic impedance of this phantom is designed to be similar to that of human body tissue. The second method measures the

  7. MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.

  8. Development and Application of Quantitative Detection Method for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Genogroup IVa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Si-Woo; Han, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa). The slope and R2 values of the primer set developed in this study were ?0.2928 (96% efficiency) and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID50) showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID50, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis. PMID:24859343

  9. Computational methods in developing quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR): a review.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Arkadiusz Z; Arodz, Tomasz; Gálvez, Jorge

    2006-03-01

    Virtual filtering and screening of combinatorial libraries have recently gained attention as methods complementing the high-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry. These chemoinformatic techniques rely heavily on quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis, a field with established methodology and successful history. In this review, we discuss the computational methods for building QSAR models. We start with outlining their usefulness in high-throughput screening and identifying the general scheme of a QSAR model. Following, we focus on the methodologies in constructing three main components of QSAR model, namely the methods for describing the molecular structure of compounds, for selection of informative descriptors and for activity prediction. We present both the well-established methods as well as techniques recently introduced into the QSAR domain. PMID:16533155

  10. The quantitative and qualitative recovery of Campylobacter from raw poultry using USDA and Health Canada methods.

    PubMed

    Sproston, E L; Carrillo, C D; Boulter-Bitzer, J

    2014-12-01

    Harmonisation of methods between Canadian government agencies is essential to accurately assess and compare the prevalence and concentrations present on retail poultry intended for human consumption. The standard qualitative procedure used by Health Canada differs to that used by the USDA for both quantitative and qualitative methods. A comparison of three methods was performed on raw poultry samples obtained from an abattoir to determine if one method is superior to the others in isolating Campylobacter from chicken carcass rinses. The average percent of positive samples was 34.72% (95% CI, 29.2-40.2), 39.24% (95% CI, 33.6-44.9), 39.93% (95% CI, 34.3-45.6) for the direct plating US method and the US enrichment and Health Canada enrichment methods, respectively. Overall there were significant differences when comparing either of the enrichment methods to the direct plating method using the McNemars chi squared test. On comparison of weekly data (Fishers exact test) direct plating was only inferior to the enrichment methods on a single occasion. Direct plating is important for enumeration and establishing the concentration of Campylobacter present on raw poultry. However, enrichment methods are also vital to identify positive samples where concentrations are below the detection limit for direct plating. PMID:25084671

  11. A Simple and Highly Sensitive Method for Magnetic Nanoparticle Quantitation Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Jonathan; Paranji, Rajan K.; Zhang, Miqin

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPIONs) have drawn significant attention because of their potential impact on medical diagnosis and therapy. However, the difficulty of achieving reliable and standardized quantification of these nanoparticles has limited the uniform study of nanoparticle systems. Current measurement techniques have limited sensitivity, and are sophisticated and subject to individual instrumental settings. Here, a characterization method using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy is presented that can quantify SPIONs regardless of surface modification. In addition to routine quantification of SPIONs during nanoparticle development, the method can also be used with in vitro nanoparticle assays and potentially with tissue samples for biodistribution studies. Specifically, measurement of water relaxivity shifts (R1 or R2) of dissolved SPION samples is correlated with nanoparticle concentration. Unmodified and dextran- and poly(ethylene glycol)-coated SPIONs gave linear correlations between SPION concentration and R1 and R2 relaxivities over five orders of magnitude, to below 10 ppb iron. Quantification of SPION concentration was also demonstrated in the presence of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. A linear correlation between the SPION concentration and relaxivities was observed to <10 ng Fe/mL. This method is a rapid and inexpensive approach for quantitation of SPIONs and exhibits a number of advantages over many of the current methods for quantitative SPION analysis. PMID:19883608

  12. A Comparison of Multivariate and Pre-Processing Methods for Quantitative Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Geologic Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. B.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III; Humphries, S. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument selected for the Curiosity rover is capable of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).[1] We used a remote LIBS instrument similar to ChemCam to analyze 197 geologic slab samples and 32 pressed-powder geostandards. The slab samples are well-characterized and have been used to validate the calibration of previous instruments on Mars missions, including CRISM [2], OMEGA [3], the MER Pancam [4], Mini-TES [5], and Moessbauer [6] instruments and the Phoenix SSI [7]. The resulting dataset was used to compare multivariate methods for quantitative LIBS and to determine the effect of grain size on calculations. Three multivariate methods - partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP ANNs) and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs - were used to generate models and extract the quantitative composition of unknown samples. PLS can be used to predict one element (PLS1) or multiple elements (PLS2) at a time, as can the neural network methods. Although MLP and CC ANNs were successful in some cases, PLS generally produced the most accurate and precise results.

  13. Methods for quantitative usability requirements: a case study on the development of the user interface of a mobile phone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Jokela; Jussi Koivumaa; Jani Pirkola; Petri Salminen; Niina Kantola

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative usability requirements are a critical but challenging, and hence an often neglected aspect of a usability engineering process. A case study is described where quantitative usability requirements played a key role in the development of a new user interface of a mobile phone. Within the practical constraints of the project, existing methods for determining usability requirements and evaluating the

  14. Ecology and affective behavior: selected results from a quantitative study among Efe foragers of northeast Zaire.

    PubMed

    De Zalduondo, B O

    1989-04-01

    This paper reports selected results of a quantitative study of the affective behavior of the Efe, exchange-dependent hunter-gatherers of the Ituri forest in northeastern Zaire. Measures of the amount and kind of affective display were based on systematic, direct observation of the routine behavior of three Efe bands in residential settings (camps), using a new technique to characterize affect-laden behavior according to nonlinguistic information conveyed in the voice. Resulting data provide a direct measure of the affective milieu of a foraging people, providing an objective indicator of the subjective impact of social and ecological conditions, which are thought to affect quality of life. In this paper, measures of "camp mood" are used to explore the psychosocial impact of a 3-month period of acute food shortage that occurred in the Ituri Project study area in 1983. Contrary to expectation, rates of behaviors conveying pleasure did not exhibit significant change, whereas a 44% increase in expressions of displeasure and a 17% drop in use of complaint tones were observed during the period of hunger. This and other findings support the view that systematic, direct observation in natural habitats can increase our understanding, both of the functions of affective behavior, and of the affective dimension of quality of life. PMID:2712165

  15. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of generic transuranic wastes from nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T. (Los Alamos, NM); Kunz, Walter E. (Santa Fe, NM); Atencio, James D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A combination of passive and active neutron measurements which yields quantitative information about the isotopic composition of transuranic wastes from nuclear power or weapons material manufacture reactors is described. From the measurement of prompt and delayed neutron emission and the incidence of two coincidentally emitted neutrons from induced fission of fissile material in the sample, one can quantify .sup.233 U, .sup.235 U and .sup.239 Pu isotopes in waste samples. Passive coincidence counting, including neutron multiplicity measurement and determination of the overall passive neutron flux additionally enables the separate quantitative evaluation of spontaneous fission isotopes such as .sup.240 Pu, .sup.244 Cm and .sup.252 Cf, and the spontaneous alpha particle emitter .sup.241 Am. These seven isotopes are the most important constituents of wastes from nuclear power reactors and once the mass of each isotope present is determined by the apparatus and method of the instant invention, the overall alpha particle activity can be determined to better than 1 nCi/g from known radioactivity data. Therefore, in addition to the quantitative analysis of the waste sample useful for later reclamation purposes, the alpha particle activity can be determined to decide whether "permanent" low-level burial is appropriate for the waste sample.

  16. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of generic transuranic wastes from nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Atencio, J.D.

    1982-03-31

    A combination of passive and active neutron measurements which yields quantitative information about the isotopic composition of transuranic wastes from nuclear power or weapons material manufacture reactors is described. From the measurement of prompt and delayed neutron emission and the incidence of two coincidentally emitted neutrons from induced fission of fissile material in the sample, one can quantify /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu isotopes in waste samples. Passive coincidence counting, including neutron multiplicity measurement and determination of the overall passive neutron flux additionally enables the separate quantitative evaluation of spontaneous fission isotopes such as /sup 240/Pu, /sup 244/Cm and /sup 252/Cf, and the spontaneous alpha particle emitter /sup 241/Am. These seven isotopes are the most important constituents of wastes from nuclear power reactors and once the mass of each isotope present is determined by the apparatus and method of the instant invention, the overall alpha particle activity can be determined to better than 1 nCi/g from known radioactivity data. Therefore, in addition to the quantitative analysis of the waste sample useful for later reclamation purposes, the alpha particle activity can be determined to decide whether permanent low-level burial is appropriate for the waste sample.

  17. Quantitative validation of the 3D SAR profile of hyperthermia applicators using the gamma method.

    PubMed

    de Bruijne, Maarten; Samaras, Theodoros; Chavannes, Nicolas; van Rhoon, Gerard C

    2007-06-01

    For quality assurance of hyperthermia treatment planning systems, quantitative validation of the electromagnetic model of an applicator is essential. The objective of this study was to validate a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model implementation of the Lucite cone applicator (LCA) for superficial hyperthermia. The validation involved (i) the assessment of the match between the predicted and measured 3D specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution, and (ii) the assessment of the ratio between model power and real-world power. The 3D SAR distribution of seven LCAs was scanned in a phantom bath using the DASY4 dosimetric measurement system. The same set-up was modelled in SEMCAD X. The match between the predicted and the measured SAR distribution was quantified with the gamma method, which combines distance-to-agreement and dose difference criteria. Good quantitative agreement was observed: more than 95% of the measurement points met the acceptance criteria 2 mm/2% for all applicators. The ratio between measured and predicted power absorption ranged from 0.75 to 0.92 (mean 0.85). This study shows that quantitative validation of hyperthermia applicator models is feasible and is worth considering as a part of hyperthermia quality assurance procedures. PMID:17505090

  18. Investigation of a diffuse optical measurements-assisted quantitative photoacoustic tomographic method in reflection geometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic tomography provides the distribution of absorbed optical energy density, which is the product of optical absorption coefficient and optical fluence distribution. We report the experimental investigation of a novel fitting procedure that quantitatively determines the optical absorption coefficient of chromophores. The experimental setup consisted of a hybrid system of a 64-channel photoacoustic imaging system with a frequency-domain diffused optical measurement system. The fitting procedure included a complete photoacoustic forward model and an analytical solution of a target chromophore using the diffusion approximation. The fitting procedure combines the information from the photoacoustic image and the background information from the diffuse optical measurements to minimize the photoacoustic measurements and forward model data and recover the target absorption coefficient quantitatively. 1-cm-cube phantom absorbers of high and low contrasts were imaged at depths of up to 3.0 cm. The fitted absorption coefficient results were at least 80% of their true values. The sensitivities of this fitting procedure to target location, target radius, and background optical properties were also investigated. We found that this fitting procedure was most sensitive to the accurate determination of the target radius and depth. Blood sample in a thin tube of radius 0.58 mm, simulating a blood vessel, was also studied. The photoacoustic images and fitted absorption coefficients are presented. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this fitting procedure to quantitatively characterize small lesions in breast imaging. PMID:22734743

  19. A quantitative method for measurement of HL-60 cell apoptosis based on diffraction imaging flow cytometry technique

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xu; Feng, Yuanming; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative method for measurement of apoptosis in HL-60 cells based on polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry technique is presented in this paper. Through comparative study with existing methods and the analysis of diffraction images by a gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm (GLCM), we found 4 GLCM parameters of contrast (CON), cluster shade (CLS), correlation (COR) and dissimilarity (DIS) exhibit high sensitivities as the apoptotic rates. It was further demonstrated that the CLS parameter correlates significantly (R2 = 0.899) with the degree of nuclear fragmentation and other three parameters showed a very good correlations (R2 ranges from 0.69 to 0.90). These results demonstrated that the new method has the capability for rapid and accurate extraction of morphological features to quantify cellular apoptosis without the need for cell staining. PMID:25071957

  20. A quantitative method for measurement of HL-60 cell apoptosis based on diffraction imaging flow cytometry technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Feng, Yuanming; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Wang; Sa, Yu; Hu, Xin-Hua

    2014-07-01

    A quantitative method for measurement of apoptosis in HL-60 cells based on polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry technique is presented in this paper. Through comparative study with existing methods and the analysis of diffraction images by a gray level co-occurrence matrix algorithm (GLCM), we found 4 GLCM parameters of contrast (CON), cluster shade (CLS), correlation (COR) and dissimilarity (DIS) exhibit high sensitivities as the apoptotic rates. It was further demonstrated that the CLS parameter correlates significantly (R(2) = 0.899) with the degree of nuclear fragmentation and other three parameters showed a very good correlations (R(2) ranges from 0.69 to 0.90). These results demonstrated that the new method has the capability for rapid and accurate extraction of morphological features to quantify cellular apoptosis without the need for cell staining. PMID:25071957

  1. Quantitative 1H NMR: Development and Potential of an Analytical Method – an Update

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Guido F.; Gödecke, Tanja; Jaki, Birgit U.; Lankin, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Covering the literature from mid-2004 until the end of 2011, this review continues a previous literature overview on quantitative 1H NMR (qHNMR) methodology and its applications in the analysis of natural products (NPs). Among the foremost advantages of qHNMR is its accurate function with external calibration, the lack of any requirement for identical reference materials, a high precision and accuracy when properly validated, and an ability to quantitate multiple analytes simultaneously. As a result of the inclusion of over 170 new references, this updated review summarizes a wealth of detailed experiential evidence and newly developed methodology that supports qHNMR as a valuable and unbiased analytical tool for natural product and other areas of research. PMID:22482996

  2. A Robust Method for Quantitative High-throughput Analysis of Proteomes by 18O Labeling*

    PubMed Central

    Bonzon-Kulichenko, Elena; Pérez-Hernández, Daniel; Núñez, Estefanía; Martínez-Acedo, Pablo; Navarro, Pedro; Trevisan-Herraz, Marco; del Carmen Ramos, María; Sierra, Saleta; Martínez-Martínez, Sara; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Miró-Casas, Elizabeth; García-Dorado, David; Redondo, Juan Miguel; Burgos, Javier S.; Vázquez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    MS-based quantitative proteomics plays an increasingly important role in biological and medical research and the development of these techniques remains one of the most important challenges in mass spectrometry. Numerous stable isotope labeling approaches have been proposed. However, and particularly in the case of 18O-labeling, a standard protocol of general applicability is still lacking, and statistical issues associated to these methods remain to be investigated. In this work we present an improved high-throughput quantitative proteomics method based on whole proteome concentration by SDS-PAGE, optimized in-gel digestion, peptide 18O-labeling, and separation by off-gel isoelectric focusing followed by liquid chromatography-LIT-MS. We demonstrate that the off-gel technique is fully compatible with 18O peptide labeling in any pH range. A recently developed statistical model indicated that partial digestions and methionine oxidation do not alter protein quantification and that variances at the scan, peptide, and protein levels are stable and reproducible in a variety of proteomes of different origin. We have also analyzed the dynamic range of quantification and demonstrated the practical utility of the method by detecting expression changes in a model of activation of Jurkat T-cells. Our protocol provides a general approach to perform quantitative proteomics by 18O-labeling in high-throughput studies, with the added value that it has a validated statistical model for the null hypothesis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where a general protocol for stable isotope labeling is tested in practice using a collection of samples and analyzed at this degree of statistical detail. PMID:20807836

  3. Result Demonstration: A Method That Works

    E-print Network

    Boleman, Chris; Dromgoole, Darrell A.

    2007-05-24

    : A Method That Works Chris Boleman, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist and Darrell A. Dromgoole, District Extension Administrator The Texas A&M University System O ne of the most effective educational tools for transferring research...

  4. Apparatus and method for quantitative determination of materials contained in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-09-07

    Apparatus and method for near real-time in-situ monitoring of particulates and vapors contained in fluids are described. Initial filtration of a known volume of the fluid sample is combined with laser-induced dielectric breakdown spectroscopy of the filter employed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information with high sensitivity. Application of the invention to monitoring of beryllium, beryllium oxide, or other beryllium-alloy dusts is shown. Significant shortening of analysis time is achieved from the usual chemical techniques of analysis.

  5. Apparatus and method for quantitative determination of materials contained in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Radziemski, Leon J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for near real-time in-situ monitoring of particulates and vapors contained in fluids. Initial filtration of a known volume of the fluid sample is combined with laser-induced dielectric breakdown spectroscopy of the filter employed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information with high sensitivity. Application of the invention to monitoring of beryllium, beryllium oxide, or other beryllium-alloy dusts is demonstrated. Significant shortening of analysis time is achieved from those of the usual chemical techniques of analysis.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization and quantitative determination of atorvastatin calcium impurities by novel HPLC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Seven process related impurities were identified by LC-MS in the atorvastatin calcium drug substance. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. The structure of impurities was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR and IR and physicochemical studies conducted by using synthesized authentic reference compounds. The synthesized reference samples of the impurity compounds were used for the quantitative HPLC determination. These impurities were detected by newly developed gradient, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The system suitability of HPLC analysis established the validity of the separation. The analytical method was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability of analytical solutions to demonstrate the power of newly developed HPLC method.

  7. A quantitative autoradiographic method for the measurement of local rates of brain protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.E.; Donatoni, P.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1982-05-01

    We have developed a new method for measuring local rates of brain protein synthesis in vivo. It combines the intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of low specific activity amino acid with quantitative autoradiography. This method has several advantages: 1) It is ideally suited for young or small animals or where immobilizing an animal is undesirable. 2 The amino acid injection ''floods'' amino acid pools so that errors in estimating precursor specific activity, which is especially important in pathological conditions, are minimized. 3) The method provides for the use of a radioautographic internal standard in which valine incorporation is measured directly. Internal standards from experimental animals correct for tissue protein content and self-absorption of radiation in tissue sections which could vary under experimental conditions.

  8. A method for estimating the effective number of loci affecting a quantitative character.

    PubMed

    Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-11-01

    A likelihood method is introduced that jointly estimates the number of loci and the additive effect of alleles that account for the genetic variance of a normally distributed quantitative character in a randomly mating population. The method assumes that measurements of the character are available from one or both parents and an arbitrary number of full siblings. The method uses the fact, first recognized by Karl Pearson in 1904, that the variance of a character among offspring depends on both the parental phenotypes and on the number of loci. Simulations show that the method performs well provided that data from a sufficient number of families (on the order of thousands) are available. This method assumes that the loci are in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium but does not assume anything about the linkage relationships. It performs equally well if all loci are on the same non-recombining chromosome provided they are in linkage equilibrium. The method can be adapted to take account of loci already identified as being associated with the character of interest. In that case, the method estimates the number of loci not already known to affect the character. The method applied to measurements of crown-rump length in 281 family trios in a captive colony of African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiopus sabaeus) estimates the number of loci to be 112 and the additive effect to be 0.26 cm. A parametric bootstrap analysis shows that a rough confidence interval has a lower bound of 14 loci. PMID:23973416

  9. Meta-analysis of results from quantitative trait loci mapping studies on pig chromosome 4.

    PubMed

    Silva, K M; Bastiaansen, J W M; Knol, E F; Merks, J W M; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; van Arendonk, J A M

    2011-06-01

    Meta-analysis of results from multiple studies could lead to more precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) position estimates compared to the individual experiments. As the raw data from many different studies are not readily available, the use of results from published articles may be helpful. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of QTL on chromosome 4 in pig, using data from 25 separate experiments. First, a meta-analysis was performed for individual traits: average daily gain and backfat thickness. Second, a meta-analysis was performed for the QTL of three traits affecting loin yield: loin eye area, carcass length and loin meat weight. Third, 78 QTL were selected from 20 traits that could be assigned to one of three broad categories: carcass, fatness or growth traits. For each analysis, the number of identified meta-QTL was smaller than the number of initial QTL. The reduction in the number of QTL ranged from 71% to 86% compared to the total number before the meta-analysis. In addition, the meta-analysis reduced the QTL confidence intervals by as much as 85% compared to individual QTL estimates. The reduction in the confidence interval was greater when a large number of independent QTL was included in the meta-analysis. Meta-QTL related to growth and fatness were found in the same region as the FAT1 region. Results indicate that the meta-analysis is an efficient strategy to estimate the number and refine the positions of QTL when QTL estimates are available from multiple populations and experiments. This strategy can be used to better target further studies such as the selection of candidate genes related to trait variation. PMID:21198696

  10. Development of a Quantitative Decision Metric for Selecting the Most Suitable Discretization Method for SN Transport Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunert, Sebastian

    In this work we develop a quantitative decision metric for spatial discretization methods of the SN equations. The quantitative decision metric utilizes performance data from selected test problems for computing a fitness score that is used for the selection of the most suitable discretization method for a particular SN transport application. The fitness score is aggregated as a weighted geometric mean of single performance indicators representing various performance aspects relevant to the user. Thus, the fitness function can be adjusted to the particular needs of the code practitioner by adding/removing single performance indicators or changing their importance via the supplied weights. Within this work a special, broad class of methods is considered, referred to as nodal methods. This class is naturally comprised of the DGFEM methods of all function space families. Within this work it is also shown that the Higher Order Diamond Difference (HODD) method is a nodal method. Building on earlier findings that the Arbitrarily High Order Method of the Nodal type (AHOTN) is also a nodal method, a generalized finite-element framework is created to yield as special cases various methods that were developed independently using profoundly different formalisms. A selection of test problems related to a certain performance aspect are considered: an Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) test suite for assessing accuracy and execution time, Lathrop's test problem for assessing resilience against occurrence of negative fluxes, and a simple, homogeneous cube test problem to verify if a method possesses the thick diffusive limit. The contending methods are implemented as efficiently as possible under a common SN transport code framework to level the playing field for a fair comparison of their computational load. Numerical results are presented for all three test problems and a qualitative rating of each method's performance is provided for each aspect: accuracy/efficiency, resilience against negative fluxes, and possession of the thick diffusion limit, separately. The choice of the most efficient method depends on the utilized error norm: in Lp error norms higher order methods such as the AHOTN method of order three perform best, while for computing integral quantities the linear nodal (LN) method is most efficient. The most resilient method against occurrence of negative fluxes is the simple corner balance (SCB) method. A validation of the quantitative decision metric is performed based on the NEA box-inbox suite of test problems. The validation exercise comprises two stages: first prediction of the contending methods' performance via the decision metric and second computing the actual scores based on data obtained from the NEA benchmark problem. The comparison of predicted and actual scores via a penalty function (ratio of predicted best performer's score to actual best score) completes the validation exercise. It is found that the decision metric is capable of very accurate predictions (penalty < 10%) in more than 83% of the considered cases and features penalties up to 20% for the remaining cases. An exception to this rule is the third test case NEA-III intentionally set up to incorporate a poor match of the benchmark with the "data" problems. However, even under these worst case conditions the decision metric's suggestions are never detrimental. Suggestions for improving the decision metric's accuracy are to increase the pool of employed data, to refine the mapping of a given configuration to a case in the database, and to better characterize the desired target quantities.

  11. The Quantitative Ideas and Methods in Assessment of Four Properties of Chinese Medicinal Herbs.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jialei; Pang, Jingxiang; Zhao, Xiaolei; Han, Jinxiang

    2014-11-14

    The purpose of this review is to summarize and reflect on the current status and problems of the research on the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs. Hot, warm, cold, and cool are the four properties/natures of Chinese medicinal herbs. They are defined based on the interaction between the herbs with human body. How to quantitatively assess the therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbs based on the theoretical system of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) remains to be a challenge. Previous studies on the topic from several perspectives have been presented. Results and problems were discussed. New ideas based on the technology of biophoton radiation detection are proposed. With the development of biophoton detection technology, detection and characterization of human biophoton emission has led to its potential applications in TCM. The possibility of using the biophoton analysis system to study the interaction of Chinese medicinal herbs with human body and to quantitatively determine the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbal is entirely consistent with the holistic concept of TCM theory. The statistical entropy of electromagnetic radiations from the biological systems can characterize the four properties of Chinese medicinal herbs, and the spectrum can characterize the meridian tropism of it. Therefore, we hypothesize that by the use of biophoton analysis system, the four properties and meridian tropism of Chinese medicinal herbs can be quantitatively expressed. PMID:25395193

  12. An Automated and Quantitative Method to Evaluate Progression of Striatal Pathology in Huntington's Disease Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xia; Wu, Jun; Egorova, Polina; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN). A number of genetic mouse models have been developed to model HD phenotype. Most of these models display impaired performance in motor coordination assays and variety of neuropathological abnormalities. Quantitative neuropathological assessment in these mice requires application of stereological techniques and very labor-intensive and time consuming. Here, we report a development of a novel paradigm that simplifies and accelerates quantitative evaluation of striatal atrophy in HD mice. To achieve this goal, we crossed YAC128 HD transgenic mice with Rgs9-EGFP mice. In Rgs9-EGFP mice the EGFP transgene is expressed selectively in MSN neurons at high levels. Using high resolution fluorescence laser scanning imager, we have been able to precisely measure striatal area and intensity of EGFP expression in coronal slices from these mice at 2 months, 4 months and 9 months of age. Using this approach, we demonstrated significant reduction in striatal volume in YAC128 mice at 4 months and 9 months of age when compared to wild type littermates. We evaluated behavior performance of these mice at 2 months, 4 months and 6 months of age and demonstrated significant impairment of YAC128 mice in beam walk assay at 4 months and 6 months of age. This new mouse model and the quantitative neuropathological scoring paradigm may simplify and accelerate discovery of novel neuroprotective agents for HD. PMID:25575955

  13. Methods for quantitative detection of antibody-induced complement activation on red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Meulenbroek, Elisabeth M; Wouters, Diana; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) can lead to complement activation resulting in an accelerated clearance via complement receptors in the liver (extravascular hemolysis) or leading to intravascular lysis of RBCs. Alloantibodies (e.g. ABO) or autoantibodies to RBC antigens (as seen in autoimmune hemolytic anemia, AIHA) leading to complement activation are potentially harmful and can be - especially when leading to intravascular lysis - fatal(1). Currently, complement activation due to (auto)-antibodies on RBCs is assessed in vitro by using the Coombs test reflecting complement deposition on RBC or by a nonquantitative hemolytic assay reflecting RBC lysis(1-4). However, to assess the efficacy of complement inhibitors, it is mandatory to have quantitative techniques. Here we describe two such techniques. First, an assay to detect C3 and C4 deposition on red blood cells that is induced by antibodies in patient serum is presented. For this, FACS analysis is used with fluorescently labeled anti-C3 or anti-C4 antibodies. Next, a quantitative hemolytic assay is described. In this assay, complement-mediated hemolysis induced by patient serum is measured making use of spectrophotometric detection of the released hemoglobin. Both of these assays are very reproducible and quantitative, facilitating studies of antibody-induced complement activation. PMID:24514151

  14. Development and validation of a LC-MS method for quantitation of ergot alkaloids in lateral saphenous vein tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of seven ergot alkaloids (lysergic acid, ergonovine, ergovaline, ergocornine, ergotamine, ergocryptine and ergocrystine) in vascular tissue was developed and validated. Reverse-phase chromatography, coupled to an...

  15. Malignant gliomas: current perspectives in diagnosis, treatment, and early response assessment using advanced quantitative imaging methods

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Rafay; Oborski, Matthew J; Hwang, Misun; Lieberman, Frank S; Mountz, James M

    2014-01-01

    Malignant gliomas consist of glioblastomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, anaplastic oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligoastrocytomas, and some less common tumors such as anaplastic ependymomas and anaplastic gangliogliomas. Malignant gliomas have high morbidity and mortality. Even with optimal treatment, median survival is only 12–15 months for glioblastomas and 2–5 years for anaplastic gliomas. However, recent advances in imaging and quantitative analysis of image data have led to earlier diagnosis of tumors and tumor response to therapy, providing oncologists with a greater time window for therapy management. In addition, improved understanding of tumor biology, genetics, and resistance mechanisms has enhanced surgical techniques, chemotherapy methods, and radiotherapy administration. After proper diagnosis and institution of appropriate therapy, there is now a vital need for quantitative methods that can sensitively detect malignant glioma response to therapy at early follow-up times, when changes in management of nonresponders can have its greatest effect. Currently, response is largely evaluated by measuring magnetic resonance contrast and size change, but this approach does not take into account the key biologic steps that precede tumor size reduction. Molecular imaging is ideally suited to measuring early response by quantifying cellular metabolism, proliferation, and apoptosis, activities altered early in treatment. We expect that successful integration of quantitative imaging biomarker assessment into the early phase of clinical trials could provide a novel approach for testing new therapies, and importantly, for facilitating patient management, sparing patients from weeks or months of toxicity and ineffective treatment. This review will present an overview of epidemiology, molecular pathogenesis and current advances in diagnoses, and management of malignant gliomas. PMID:24711712

  16. Quantitative analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis protein patterns: a method for studying genetic relationships among Globodera pallida populations.

    PubMed

    Fullaondo, A; Vicario, A; Aguirre, A; Barrena, I; Salazar, A

    2001-09-01

    A method based in two-dimensional protein gel electrophoresis has been developed in order to improve the analysis of genetic relationships among populations of Globodera. It has been used to estimate genetic divergence among nine Globodera pallida nematode populations. Sixty-one anonymous polypeptide spots were resolved using silver-stained high-resolution 2D gels and they were quantified in each population to establish genetic variation among G. pallida populations. The results of this analysis were compared with those obtained after a study of allelic frequency variation, which was carried out using seven previously described loci. Genetic distances among populations were calculated by means of both studies, the quantitative analysis and the allelic frequency variation, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each type of analysis. A correlation analysis between the two distance matrices was carried out and a bootstrap analysis was performed to determine the strength of the clusters obtained with each method. The results obtained support the idea that quantitative protein analysis can be successfully applied to phylogenetic analysis of G. pallida populations. PMID:11737273

  17. Rapid method for glutathione quantitation using high-performance liquid chromatography with coulometric electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Banu; Rimbach, Gerald; Frank, Jan; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba

    2014-01-15

    A rapid, sensitive, and direct method (without derivatization) was developed for the detection of reduced glutathione (GSH) in cultured hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The method was validated according to the guidelines of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in terms of linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LOQ), lower limit of detection (LOD), precision, accuracy, recovery, and stabilities of GSH standards and quality control samples. The total analysis time was 5 min, and the retention time of GSH was 1.78 min. Separation was carried out isocratically using 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 3.0) as a mobile phase with a fused-core column. The detector response was linear between 0.01 and 80 ?mol/L, and the regression coefficient (R(2)) was >0.99. The LOD for GSH was 15 fmol, and the intra- and interday recoveries ranged between 100.7 and 104.6%. This method also enabled the rapid detection (in 4 min) of other compounds involved in GSH metabolism such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, and glutathione disulfite. The optimized and validated HPLC-ECD method was successfully applied for the determination of GSH levels in HepG2 cells treated with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor, and ?-lipoic acid (?-LA), an inducer of GSH synthesis. As expected, the amount of GSH concentration-dependently decreased with BSO and increased with ?-LA treatments in HepG2 cells. This method could also be useful for the quantitation of GSH, uric acid, ascorbic acid, and glutathione disulfide in other biological matrices such as tissue homogenates and blood. PMID:24328299

  18. A simple and quantitative method for three-dimensional measurement of normal smiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Seok; Bae, Yong-Chan; Hwang, So-Min; Nam, Soo-Bong

    2005-04-01

    Smile reconstruction is one of the most challenging fields in plastic surgery. An understanding of the normal smile is essential in planning surgery for facial paralysis. The purpose of this study was to suggest a simple and quantitative method for the 3-dimensional analysis of smiles and to establish a basis for smile reconstruction in facial paralysis patients. The smiles of 50 volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were observed using a 6-mm digital video camera. Each subject had 10 points marked on the lips and nasolabial creases. Video editing programs were used to capture images of the resting and maximum smiles. The opacity of the image of maximum smile was adjusted and was merged with the resting image so that the migration of the points could be observed in 1 image. The migration distance (in millimeters) and the direction (in degrees) between each point were measured in frontal and both lateral views, and thus 3-dimensional vectors (x, y, z scalars) were obtained. The scalar values were converted to the values of a spherical coordinate system (distance, angle alpha and beta). Our work may offer a simple and quantitative method for measuring the smile and accurate guidance for reconstructive surgery. PMID:15785276

  19. Stress echocardiography: methods, indications and results

    PubMed Central

    Baur, L.H.B.

    2002-01-01

    Stress echocardiography has become an important clinical tool to detect cardiac ischaemia and viability in addition to single photon emission tomography. Stress echocardiography has a high positive and negative predictive value, is less expensive than the nuclear methods and has no radiation exposure. It can easily be used in an emergency room and coronary care unit. Because of its feasibility, low cost and high diagnostic accuracy, it will become a very important technique in every hospital and will soon be a real alternative to the more time-consuming and expensive nuclear techniques. The current article gives a review of the methods of stress echocardiography. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:25696080

  20. CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware): a probability density function (PDF)-based quantitative climate reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevalier, M.; Cheddadi, R.; Chase, B. M.

    2014-11-01

    Several methods currently exist to quantitatively reconstruct palaeoclimatic variables from fossil botanical data. Of these, probability density function (PDF)-based methods have proven valuable as they can be applied to a wide range of plant assemblages. Most commonly applied to fossil pollen data, their performance, however, can be limited by the taxonomic resolution of the pollen data, as many species may belong to a given pollen type. Consequently, the climate information associated with different species cannot always be precisely identified, resulting in less-accurate reconstructions. This can become particularly problematic in regions of high biodiversity. In this paper, we propose a novel PDF-based method that takes into account the different climatic requirements of each species constituting the broader pollen type. PDFs are fitted in two successive steps, with parametric PDFs fitted first for each species and then a combination of those individual species PDFs into a broader single PDF to represent the pollen type as a unit. A climate value for the pollen assemblage is estimated from the likelihood function obtained after the multiplication of the pollen-type PDFs, with each being weighted according to its pollen percentage. To test its performance, we have applied the method to southern Africa as a regional case study and reconstructed a suite of climatic variables (e.g. winter and summer temperature and precipitation, mean annual aridity, rainfall seasonality). The reconstructions are shown to be accurate for both temperature and precipitation. Predictable exceptions were areas that experience conditions at the extremes of the regional climatic spectra. Importantly, the accuracy of the reconstructed values is independent of the vegetation type where the method is applied or the number of species used. The method used in this study is publicly available in a software package entitled CREST (Climate REconstruction SofTware) and will provide the opportunity to reconstruct quantitative estimates of climatic variables even in areas with high geographical and botanical diversity.

  1. An ELISA method for quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii in culture and lung.

    PubMed

    Durkin, M M; Bartlett, M S; Queener, S F; Shaw, M M; Lee, C H; Smith, J W

    1991-01-01

    Numbers of Pneumocystis carinii in cultures or tissues traditionally have been determined by counting organisms on Giemsa-stained slides. For cultures, 10 microliters of culture supernatants have been sampled and counted on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Infectivity scores of P. carinii-infected animal lung have been determined by three examiners scoring lung impression smears stained with Giemsa using a roughly logarithmic scale. Both counting procedures are tedious and time consuming. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system which uses culture supernatants (in vitro) or homogenized animal lung (in vivo) as antigen, convalescent rat sera as primary antibody, and goat anti-rat alkaline phosphatase-conjugated immunoglobulin G as secondary antibody. The ELISA method shows good correlation with manual counts of Giemsa stains and allows a more rapid, more efficient method for quantitating P. carinii in both culture and infected lung. PMID:1818173

  2. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Topological study on the toxicity of ionic liquids on Vibrio fischeri by the quantitative structure-activity relationship method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fangyou; Shang, Qiaoyan; Xia, Shuqian; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Peisheng

    2015-04-01

    As environmentally friendly solvents, ionic liquids (ILs) are unlikely to act as air contaminants or inhalation toxins resulting from their negligible vapor pressure and excellent thermal stability. However, they can be potential water contaminants because of their considerable solubility in water; therefore, a proper toxicological assessment of ILs is essential. The environmental fate of ILs is studied by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model is obtained by topological method using toxicity data of 157 ILs on Vibrio fischeri, which are composed of 74 cations and 22 anions. The topological index developed in our research group is used for predicting the V. fischeri toxicity for the first time. The MLR model is precise for estimating LogEC50 of ILs on V. fischeri with square of correlation coefficient (R(2))=0.908 and the average absolute error (AAE)=0.278. PMID:25603290

  4. Transconvolution and the virtual positron emission tomograph-A new method for cross calibration in quantitative PET/CT imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Prenosil, George A.; Weitzel, Thilo; Hentschel, Michael; Klaeser, Bernd; Krause, Thomas [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, 3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) measurements on small lesions are impaired by the partial volume effect, which is intrinsically tied to the point spread function of the actual imaging system, including the reconstruction algorithms. The variability resulting from different point spread functions hinders the assessment of quantitative measurements in clinical routine and especially degrades comparability within multicenter trials. To improve quantitative comparability there is a need for methods to match different PET/CT systems through elimination of this systemic variability. Consequently, a new method was developed and tested that transforms the image of an object as produced by one tomograph to another image of the same object as it would have been seen by a different tomograph. The proposed new method, termed Transconvolution, compensates for differing imaging properties of different tomographs and particularly aims at quantitative comparability of PET/CT in the context of multicenter trials. Methods: To solve the problem of image normalization, the theory of Transconvolution was mathematically established together with new methods to handle point spread functions of different PET/CT systems. Knowing the point spread functions of two different imaging systems allows determining a Transconvolution function to convert one image into the other. This function is calculated by convolving one point spread function with the inverse of the other point spread function which, when adhering to certain boundary conditions such as the use of linear acquisition and image reconstruction methods, is a numerically accessible operation. For reliable measurement of such point spread functions characterizing different PET/CT systems, a dedicated solid-state phantom incorporating {sup 68}Ge/{sup 68}Ga filled spheres was developed. To iteratively determine and represent such point spread functions, exponential density functions in combination with a Gaussian distribution were introduced. Furthermore, simulation of a virtual PET system provided a standard imaging system with clearly defined properties to which the real PET systems were to be matched. A Hann window served as the modulation transfer function for the virtual PET. The Hann's apodization properties suppressed high spatial frequencies above a certain critical frequency, thereby fulfilling the above-mentioned boundary conditions. The determined point spread functions were subsequently used by the novel Transconvolution algorithm to match different PET/CT systems onto the virtual PET system. Finally, the theoretically elaborated Transconvolution method was validated transforming phantom images acquired on two different PET systems to nearly identical data sets, as they would be imaged by the virtual PET system. Results: The proposed Transconvolution method matched different PET/CT-systems for an improved and reproducible determination of a normalized activity concentration. The highest difference in measured activity concentration between the two different PET systems of 18.2% was found in spheres of 2 ml volume. Transconvolution reduced this difference down to 1.6%. In addition to reestablishing comparability the new method with its parameterization of point spread functions allowed a full characterization of imaging properties of the examined tomographs. Conclusions: By matching different tomographs to a virtual standardized imaging system, Transconvolution opens a new comprehensive method for cross calibration in quantitative PET imaging. The use of a virtual PET system restores comparability between data sets from different PET systems by exerting a common, reproducible, and defined partial volume effect.

  5. Testing alleged mediumship: Methods and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ciarán O'Keeffe; Richard Wiseman

    2005-01-01

    Mediums claim to be able to communicate with the deceased. Such claims attract a considerable amount of public interest and, if valid, have important implications for many areas of psychology. For over 100 years, researchers have tested alleged mediums. This work has obtained mixed results and provoked a considerable amount of methodological debate. This paper reviews the key issues in

  6. Simple Absolute Quantification Method Correcting for Quantitative PCR Efficiency Variations for Microbial Community Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bodenhausen, Natacha; Zeyer, Josef; Bürgmann, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique in microbial community analysis, allowing the quantification of the number of target genes in a community sample. Currently, the standard-curve (SC) method of absolute quantification is widely employed for these kinds of analysis. However, the SC method assumes that the amplification efficiency (E) is the same for both the standard and the sample target template. We analyzed 19 bacterial strains and nine environmental samples in qPCR assays, targeting the nifH and 16S rRNA genes. The E values of the qPCRs differed significantly, depending on the template. This has major implications for the quantification. If the sample and standard differ in their E values, quantification errors of up to orders of magnitude are possible. To address this problem, we propose and test the one-point calibration (OPC) method for absolute quantification. The OPC method corrects for differences in E and was derived from the ??CT method with correction for E, which is commonly used for relative quantification in gene expression studies. The SC and OPC methods were compared by quantifying artificial template mixtures from Geobacter sulfurreducens (DSM 12127) and Nostoc commune (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa [CCAP] 1453/33), which differ in their E values. While the SC method deviated from the expected nifH gene copy number by 3- to 5-fold, the OPC method quantified the template mixtures with high accuracy. Moreover, analyzing environmental samples, we show that even small differences in E between the standard and the sample can cause significant differences between the copy numbers calculated by the SC and the OPC methods. PMID:22492459

  7. A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal by HPLC analysis of perchloroethylene extracts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.J.; Murphy, P.M.; Chaven, C.

    1993-01-01

    A convenient method for the quantitative determination of elemental sulfur in coal is described. Elemental sulfur is extracted from the coal with hot perchloroethylene (PCE) (tetrachloroethene, C2Cl4) and quantitatively determined by HPLC analysis on a C18 reverse-phase column using UV detection. Calibration solutions were prepared from sublimed sulfur. Results of quantitative HPLC analyses agreed with those of a chemical/spectroscopic analysis. The HPLC method was found to be linear over the concentration range of 6 ?? 10-4 to 2 ?? 10-2 g/L. The lower detection limit was 4 ?? 10-4 g/L, which for a coal sample of 20 g is equivalent to 0.0006% by weight of coal. Since elemental sulfur is known to react slowly with hydrocarbons at the temperature of boiling PCE, standard solutions of sulfur in PCE were heated with coals from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample program. Pseudo-first-order uptake of sulfur by the coals was observed over several weeks of heating. For the Illinois No. 6 premium coal, the rate constant for sulfur uptake was 9.7 ?? 10-7 s-1, too small for retrograde reactions between solubilized sulfur and coal to cause a significant loss in elemental sulfur isolated during the analytical extraction. No elemental sulfur was produced when the following pure compounds were heated to reflux in PCE for up to 1 week: benzyl sulfide, octyl sulfide, thiane, thiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, sulfuric acid, or ferrous sulfate. A sluury of mineral pyrite in PCE contained elemental sulfur which increased in concentration with heating time. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  8. Development and field application of a quantitative method for examining natural assemblages of protists with oligonucleotide probes.

    PubMed Central

    Lim, E L; Caron, D A; Delong, E F

    1996-01-01

    A fluorescent in situ hybridization method that uses rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for counting protists in cultures and environmental water samples is described. Filtration, hybridization, and enumeration of fixed cells with biotinylated eukaryote-specific probes and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated avidin were performed directly on 0.4-microns-pore-size polycarbonate filters of Transwell cell culture inserts (Costar Corp., Cambridge, Mass.). Counts of various species of cultured protists by this probe hybridization method were not significantly different from counts obtained by the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and acridine orange (AO) staining methods. However, counts of total nanoplankton (TNAN) based on probe hybridizations in several field samples and in samples collected from a mesocosm experiment were frequently higher than TNAN counts obtained by staining with DAPI or AO. On the basis of these results, 25 to 70% of the TNAN determined with probes were not detectable by DAPI or AO staining. The underestimation of TNAN abundances in samples stained with DAPI or AO was attributed to the existence of small nanoplanktonic cells which could be detected with probes but not DAPI or AO and the difficulty associated with distinguishing DAPI- or AO-stained protists attached to or embedded in aggregates. We conclude from samples examined in this study that enumeration of TNAN with oligonucleotide probes provides estimates of natural TNAN abundances that are at least as high as (and in some cases higher than) counts obtained with commonly employed fluorochrome stains. The quantitative in situ hybridization method we have described here enables the direct enumeration of free-living protists in water samples with oligonucleotide probes. When combined with species-specific probes, this method will enable quantitative studies of the abundance and distribution of specific protistan taxa. PMID:8919803

  9. Quantitative ultrasound method for assessing stress-strain properties and the cross-sectional area of Achilles tendon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yung-Fu; Li, Chien-Ming; Lin, Chia-Hung; Yang, Chia-En; Wu, Jian-Xing; Chen, Tainsong

    2013-12-01

    The Achilles tendon is one of the most commonly observed tendons injured with a variety of causes, such as trauma, overuse and degeneration, in the human body. Rupture and tendinosis are relatively common for this strong tendon. Stress-strain properties and shape change are important biomechanical properties of the tendon to assess surgical repair or healing progress. Currently, there are rather limited non-invasive methods available for precisely quantifying the in vivo biomechanical properties of the tendons. The aim of this study was to apply quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods, including ultrasonic attenuation and speed of sound (SOS), to investigate porcine tendons in different stress-strain conditions. In order to find a reliable method to evaluate the change of tendon shape, ultrasound measurement was also utilized for measuring tendon thickness and compared with the change in tendon cross-sectional area under different stress. A total of 15 porcine tendons of hind trotters were examined. The test results show that the attenuation and broadband ultrasound attenuation decreased and the SOS increased by a smaller magnitude as the uniaxial loading of the stress-strain upon tendons increased. Furthermore, the tendon thickness measured with the ultrasound method was significantly correlated with tendon cross-sectional area (Pearson coefficient = 0.86). These results also indicate that attenuation of QUS and ultrasonic thickness measurement are reliable and potential parameters for assessing biomechanical properties of tendons. Further investigations are needed to warrant the application of the proposed method in a clinical setting.

  10. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: A review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Reeves, Anthony P; Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Buckler, Andrew J; Kim, Hyun J Grace; Barnhart, Huiman X; Jackson, Edward F; Giger, Maryellen L; Pennello, Gene; Toledano, Alicia Y; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V; Kinahan, Paul E; Myers, Kyle J; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Barboriak, Daniel P; Gillies, Robert J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24919829

  11. Simple, Rapid and Inexpensive Quantitative Fluorescent PCR Method for Detection of Microdeletion and Microduplication Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Stofanko, Martin; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Cunha, Pricila Silva; Pena, Heloísa B.; Vianna-Morgante, Angela M.; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2013-01-01

    Because of economic limitations, the cost-effective diagnosis of patients affected with rare microdeletion or microduplication syndromes is a challenge in developing countries. Here we report a sensitive, rapid, and affordable detection method that we have called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR). Our procedure is based on the finding of genomic regions with high homology to segments of the critical microdeletion/microduplication region. PCR amplification of both using the same primer pair, establishes competitive kinetics and relative quantification of amplicons, as happens in microsatellite-based Quantitative Fluorescence PCR. We used patients with two common microdeletion syndromes, the Williams-Beuren syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) and the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndromes and discovered that MQF-PCR could detect both with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Additionally, we demonstrated that the same principle could be reliably used for detection of microduplication syndromes, by using patients with the Lubs (MECP2 duplication) syndrome and the 17q11.2 microduplication involving the NF1 gene. We propose that MQF-PCR is a useful procedure for laboratory confirmation of the clinical diagnosis of microdeletion/microduplication syndromes, ideally suited for use in developing countries, but having general applicability as well. PMID:23620743

  12. Smaller, Scale-Free Gene Networks Increase Quantitative Trait Heritability and Result in Faster Population Recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob W. Malcom; Frederick R. Adler

    2011-01-01

    One of the goals of biology is to bridge levels of organization. Recent technological advances are enabling us to span from genetic sequence to traits, and then from traits to ecological dynamics. The quantitative genetics parameter heritability describes how quickly a trait can evolve, and in turn describes how quickly a population can recover from an environmental change. Here I

  13. Advanced bibliometric methods as quantitative core of peer review based evaluation and foresight exercises

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. J. van Raan

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the potentials and limitations of bibliometric methods for the assessment of strengths and weaknesses in research performance, and for monitoring scientific developments. We distinguish two different methods. In the first application, research performance assessment, the bibliometric method is based on advanced analysis of publication and citation data. We show that the resulting indicators are

  14. Evaluation of a rapid, quantitative real-time PCR method for enumeration of pathogenic Candida cells in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brinkman, Nichole E.; Haugland, Richard A.; Wymer, Larry J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Whitman, Richard L.; Vesper, Stephen J.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) technology, incorporating fluorigenic 5' nuclease (TaqMan) chemistry, was utilized for the specific detection and quantification of six pathogenic species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. lusitaniae) in water. Known numbers of target cells were added to distilled and tap water samples, filtered, and disrupted directly on the membranes for recovery of DNA for QPCR analysis. The assay's sensitivities were between one and three cells per filter. The accuracy of the cell estimates was between 50 and 200% of their true value (95% confidence level). In similar tests with surface water samples, the presence of PCR inhibitory compounds necessitated further purification and/or dilution of the DNA extracts, with resultant reductions in sensitivity but generally not in quantitative accuracy. Analyses of a series of freshwater samples collected from a recreational beach showed positive correlations between the QPCR results and colony counts of the corresponding target species. Positive correlations were also seen between the cell quantities of the target Candida species detected in these analyses and colony counts of Enterococcus organisms. With a combined sample processing and analysis time of less than 4 h, this method shows great promise as a tool for rapidly assessing potential exposures to waterborne pathogenic Candida species from drinking and recreational waters and may have applications in the detection of fecal pollution.

  15. A comparative uncertainty study of the calibration of macrolide antibiotic reference standards using quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance and mass balance methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Yu Liu; Chang-Qin Hu

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the general method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) for the calibration of reference standards of macrolide antibiotics. Several qNMR experimental conditions were optimized including delay, which is an important parameter of quantification. Three kinds of macrolide antibiotics were used to validate the accuracy of the qNMR method by comparison with the results obtained by the high

  16. A quantitative method for evaluating the detectability of lesions in digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Zanca, F; Van Ongeval, C; Jacobs, J; Marchal, G; Bosmans, H

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a quantitative method for evaluating the detectability of microcalcifications in digital mammography. Four hundred and twenty microcalcifications (with various morphology, size and contrast), simulated with a previously validated method, were used for the creation of image datasets. Lesions were inserted into 163 regions of interests of 59 selected raw digital mammograms with various anatomical backgrounds and acquired with a Siemens Novation DR. After processing, these composite images were scored by experienced radiologists, who located multiple simulated lesions and rated them under conditions of free-search. For statistical analysis, free-response receiver-operating characteristic curves are plotted; the use of jackknife free-response receiver-operating characteristic method has also been investigated. The main advantage of this methodology is that the exact number of inserted microcalcifications is well known and that the lesions are fully characterised in terms of pathology, size, morphology and peak contrast. A first application has been the evaluation of the effect of anatomical background on microcalcifications detection. Preliminary findings in this study indicate that this method may be a promising tool to evaluate factors that have an influence on the detectability of lesions, such as the clinical processing or the viewing conditions. PMID:18319282

  17. Comparison of quantitative spectral similarity analysis methods for protein higher-order structure confirmation.

    PubMed

    Teska, Brandon M; Li, Cynthia; Winn, Bradley C; Arthur, Kelly K; Jiang, Yijia; Gabrielson, John P

    2013-03-01

    Optical and vibrational spectroscopic techniques are important tools for evaluating secondary and tertiary structures of proteins. These spectroscopic techniques are routinely applied in biopharmaceutical development to elucidate structural characteristics of protein products, to evaluate the impact of processing and storage conditions on product quality, and to assess comparability of a protein product before and after manufacturing changes. Conventionally, the degree of similarity between two spectra has been determined visually. In addition to requiring a significant amount of analyst training and experience, visual inspection of spectra is inherently subjective, and any determination of comparability based on visual analysis of spectra is therefore arbitrary. Here, we discuss a general methodology for evaluating the suitability of numerical methods to calculate spectral similarity, and then we apply the methodology to compare four quantitative spectral similarity methods: the correlation coefficient, area of spectral overlap, derivative correlation algorithm, and spectral difference methods. While the most effective spectral similarity method may depend on the particular application, all four approaches are superior to visual evaluation, and each is suitable for assessing the degree of similarity between spectra. PMID:23219560

  18. A quantitative assessment of reliability of the TOPAZ-2 space NPS reactor unit based on ground development results

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Nechaev, Yuri A.; Khazanovich, Igor M.; Samodelov, Victor N.; Zakharov, Sergei M. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-10

    The paper discusses life-limiting factors (parameters) and statistics of random sudden failures, revealed in the course of ground development, for 4 given subsystems of the TOPAZ-2 space NPS reactor unit. Results are presented of a quantitative assessment of the lower confidence limits of the probability of failure-free operation.

  19. A quantitative assessment of reliability of the TOPAZ-2 space NPS reactor unit based on ground development results

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nechaev, Y.A.; Khazanovich, I.M.; Samodelov, V.N.; Zakharov, S.M. [RRC Kurchatov Institute Moscow123182 (Russia)

    1997-01-01

    The paper discusses life-limiting factors (parameters) and statistics of random sudden failures, revealed in the course of ground development, for 4 given subsystems of the TOPAZ-2 space NPS reactor unit. Results are presented of a quantitative assessment of the lower confidence limits of the probability of failure-free operation. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Quantitative Ultrasound of Cortical Bone in the Femoral Neck Predicts Femur Strength: Results of a Pilot Study

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ULTRASOUND; FEMUR; CORTICAL BONE; STRENGTH; QCT Introduction Osteoporotic hip fractures are associatedQuantitative Ultrasound of Cortical Bone in the Femoral Neck Predicts Femur Strength: Results of Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany ABSTRACT A significant risk of femoral neck (FN) fracture exists for men

  1. Methods for quantitative evaluation of dynamics of repair proteins within irradiated cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hable, V.; Dollinger, G.; Greubel, C.; Hauptner, A.; Krücken, R.; Dietzel, S.; Cremer, T.; Drexler, G. A.; Friedl, A. A.; Löwe, R.

    2006-04-01

    Living HeLa cells are irradiated well directed with single 100 MeV oxygen ions by the superconducting ion microprobe SNAKE, the Superconducting Nanoscope for Applied Nuclear (= Kern-) Physics Experiments, at the Munich 14 MV tandem accelerator. Various proteins, which are involved directly or indirectly in repair processes, accumulate as clusters (so called foci) at DNA-double strand breaks (DSBs) induced by the ions. The spatiotemporal dynamics of these foci built by the phosphorylated histone ?-H2AX are studied. For this purpose cells are irradiated in line patterns. The ?-H2AX is made visible under the fluorescence microscope using immunofluorescence techniques. Quantitative analysis methods are developed to evaluate the data of the microscopic images in order to analyze movement of the foci and their changing size.

  2. Rapid and inexpensive screening of genomic copy number variations using a novel quantitative fluorescent PCR method.

    PubMed

    Stofanko, Martin; Han, Joan C; Elsea, Sarah H; Pena, Heloísa B; Gonçalves-Dornelas, Higgor; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2013-01-01

    Detection of human microdeletion and microduplication syndromes poses significant burden on public healthcare systems in developing countries. With genome-wide diagnostic assays frequently inaccessible, targeted low-cost PCR-based approaches are preferred. However, their reproducibility depends on equally efficient amplification using a number of target and control primers. To address this, the recently described technique called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR) was shown to reliably detect four human syndromes by quantifying DNA amplification in an internally controlled PCR reaction. Here, we confirm its utility in the detection of eight human microdeletion syndromes, including the more common WAGR, Smith-Magenis, and Potocki-Lupski syndromes with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We present selection, design, and performance evaluation of detection primers using variety of approaches. We conclude that MQF-PCR is an easily adaptable method for detection of human pathological chromosomal aberrations. PMID:24288428

  3. Rapid and Inexpensive Screening of Genomic Copy Number Variations Using a Novel Quantitative Fluorescent PCR Method

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joan C.; Elsea, Sarah H.; Pena, Heloísa B.; Pena, Sérgio Danilo Junho

    2013-01-01

    Detection of human microdeletion and microduplication syndromes poses significant burden on public healthcare systems in developing countries. With genome-wide diagnostic assays frequently inaccessible, targeted low-cost PCR-based approaches are preferred. However, their reproducibility depends on equally efficient amplification using a number of target and control primers. To address this, the recently described technique called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR) was shown to reliably detect four human syndromes by quantifying DNA amplification in an internally controlled PCR reaction. Here, we confirm its utility in the detection of eight human microdeletion syndromes, including the more common WAGR, Smith-Magenis, and Potocki-Lupski syndromes with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We present selection, design, and performance evaluation of detection primers using variety of approaches. We conclude that MQF-PCR is an easily adaptable method for detection of human pathological chromosomal aberrations. PMID:24288428

  4. Quantitative radiochemical method for determination of major sources of natural radioactivity in ores and minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosholt, J.N., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    When an ore sample contains radioactivity other than that attributable to the uranium series in equilibrium, a quantitative analysis of the other emitters must be made in order to determine the source of this activity. Thorium-232, radon-222, and lead-210 have been determined by isolation and subsequent activity analysis of some of their short-lived daughter products. The sulfides of bismuth and polonium are precipitated out of solutions of thorium or uranium ores, and the ??-particle activity of polonium-214, polonium-212, and polonium-210 is determined by scintillation-counting techniques. Polonium-214 activity is used to determine radon-222, polonium-212 activity for thorium-232, and polonium-210 for lead-210. The development of these methods of radiochemical analysis will facilitate the rapid determination of some of the major sources of natural radioactivity.

  5. An Empirical Bayes Method for Updating Inferences in Analysis of Quantitative Trait Loci Using Information From Related Genome Scans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kui; Wiener, Howard; Beasley, Mark; George, Varghese; Amos, Christopher I.; Allison, David B.

    2006-01-01

    Individual genome scans for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping often suffer from low statistical power and imprecise estimates of QTL location and effect. This lack of precision yields large confidence intervals for QTL location, which are problematic for subsequent fine mapping and positional cloning. In prioritizing areas for follow-up after an initial genome scan and in evaluating the credibility of apparent linkage signals, investigators typically examine the results of other genome scans of the same phenotype and informally update their beliefs about which linkage signals in their scan most merit confidence and follow-up via a subjective–intuitive integration approach. A method that acknowledges the wisdom of this general paradigm but formally borrows information from other scans to increase confidence in objectivity would be a benefit. We developed an empirical Bayes analytic method to integrate information from multiple genome scans. The linkage statistic obtained from a single genome scan study is updated by incorporating statistics from other genome scans as prior information. This technique does not require that all studies have an identical marker map or a common estimated QTL effect. The updated linkage statistic can then be used for the estimation of QTL location and effect. We evaluate the performance of our method by using extensive simulations based on actual marker spacing and allele frequencies from available data. Results indicate that the empirical Bayes method can account for between-study heterogeneity, estimate the QTL location and effect more precisely, and provide narrower confidence intervals than results from any single individual study. We also compared the empirical Bayes method with a method originally developed for meta-analysis (a closely related but distinct purpose). In the face of marked heterogeneity among studies, the empirical Bayes method outperforms the comparator. PMID:16751667

  6. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of adhesive remnants and enamel loss resulting from debonding orthodontic molar tubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims Presenting a new method for direct, quantitative analysis of enamel surface. Measurement of adhesive remnants and enamel loss resulting from debonding molar tubes. Material and methods Buccal surfaces of fifteen extracted human molars were directly scanned with an optic blue-light 3D scanner to the nearest 2 ?m. After 20 s etching molar tubes were bonded and after 24 h storing in 0.9% saline - debonded. Then 3D scanning was repeated. Superimposition and comparison were proceeded and shape alterations of the entire objects were analyzed using specialized computer software. Residual adhesive heights as well as enamel loss depths have been obtained for the entire buccal surfaces. Residual adhesive volume and enamel loss volume have been calculated for every tooth. Results The maximum height of adhesive remaining on enamel surface was 0.76 mm and the volume on particular teeth ranged from 0.047 mm3 to 4.16 mm3. The median adhesive remnant volume was 0.988 mm3. Mean depths of enamel loss for particular teeth ranged from 0.0076 mm to 0.0416 mm. Highest maximum depth of enamel loss was 0.207 mm. Median volume of enamel loss was 0.104 mm3 and maximum volume was 1.484 mm3. Conclusions Blue-light 3D scanning is able to provide direct precise scans of the enamel surface, which can be superimposed in order to calculate shape alterations. Debonding molar tubes leaves a certain amount of adhesive remnants on the enamel, however the interface fracture pattern varies for particular teeth and areas of enamel loss are present as well. PMID:25208969

  7. Quantitative computed tomography of vertebral spongiosa: a sensitive method for detecting early bone loss after oophorectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Genant, H.K.; Cann, C.E.; Ettinger, B.; Gordan, G.S.

    1982-11-01

    The bone mineral loss was assessed serially in 37 premenopausal women for 24 months after oophorectomy and the dose-response for conjugated estrogen therapy in preventing this loss was determined. Spinal cancellous bone was measured by quantitative computed tomography and measurement of appendicular cortical bone by radial photon absorptiometry and metacarpal radiogrammetry. For the placebo and low-dose treatment groups, the mean annual bone mineral losses were 7% to 9% from the vertebral spongiosum and 1% to 3% from the peripheral cortex. The correlation between axial and appendicular loss was weak, precluding a reliable estimate of spinal loss from peripheral measurements. For the maximal-dose group (0.6 mg/d), the mean annual bone mineral losses were less than 0.5% from the axial and appendicular sites, and were not significant. The results indicate that spinal quantitative computed tomography provides a highly sensitive measurement of bone mineral loss after oophorectomy, that bone mineral loss is five- to sevenfold greater from the spinal spongiosum than from the appendicular cortex, and that conjugated estrogen in doses of less than 0.6 mg/d are inadequate to prevent the vertebral mineral loss.

  8. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  9. A validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the quantitation of dexamethasone, ondansetron and aprepitant, antiemetic drugs, in organogel.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Florence; Lecoeur, Marie; Duhaut, Marion; Odou, Pascal; Vaccher, Claude; Foulon, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of three anti-vomiting drugs (aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was optimized using a central composite design (CCD). Four main factors (borate buffer concentration, pH, methanol content and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration) were optimized in order to obtain best resolutions and peak efficiencies in a minimum runtime. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary. After optimization, the background electrolyte consisted of a borate buffer (62.5mM, pH 8.75) containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (77.5mM) and methanol (3.75%). Under these conditions, a complete separation of each antiemetic drug and its respective internal standards was achieved in 38min. The method was validated with trueness values from 94.9 to 107.2% and precision results (repeatability and intermediate precision) lower than 5.9%. MEKC-UV was the first method allowing the separation of aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron and was suitable for the quantitation of these three antiemetic drugs in organogel formulations. The rapid sample preparation coupled with an automated separation technique make this method convenient for quality control of extemporaneous magistral ready-to-use formulation. PMID:23978340

  10. A Novel Method for Relative Quantitation of N-Glycans by Isotopic Labeling Using 18O-Water

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Quantitation is an essential aspect of comprehensive glycomics study. Here, a novel isotopic-labeling method is described for N-glycan quantitation using 18O-water. The incorporation of the 18O-labeling into the reducing end of N-glycans is simply and efficiently achieved during peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-?-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase F release. This process provides a 2-Da mass difference compared with the N-glycans released in 16O-water. A mathematical calculation method was also developed to determine the 18O/16O ratios from isotopic peaks. Application of this method to several standard glycoprotein mixtures and human serum demonstrated that this method can facilitate the relative quantitation of N-glycans over a linear dynamic range of two orders, with high accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:25365792

  11. A novel method for relative quantitation of N-glycans by isotopic labeling using (18)o-water.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shujuan; Orlando, Ron

    2014-12-01

    Quantitation is an essential aspect of comprehensive glycomics study. Here, a novel isotopic-labeling method is described for N-glycan quantitation using (18)O-water. The incorporation of the (18)O-labeling into the reducing end of N-glycans is simply and efficiently achieved during peptide-N4-(N-acetyl-?-glucosaminyl) asparagine amidase F release. This process provides a 2-Da mass difference compared with the N-glycans released in (16)O-water. A mathematical calculation method was also developed to determine the (18)O/(16)O ratios from isotopic peaks. Application of this method to several standard glycoprotein mixtures and human serum demonstrated that this method can facilitate the relative quantitation of N-glycans over a linear dynamic range of two orders, with high accuracy and reproducibility. PMID:25365792

  12. Power and Precision of Alternate Methods for Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, H. H.; Fernando, R. L.; Dekkers, J. C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis in outbred populations uses historical recombinations to detect and fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Our objective was to evaluate the effect of various factors on power and precision of QTL detection and to compare LD mapping methods on the basis of regression and identity by descent (IBD) in populations of limited effective population size (Ne). An 11-cM region with 6–38 segregating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and a central QTL was simulated. After 100 generations of random mating with Ne of 50, 100, or 200, SNP genotypes and phenotypes were generated on 200, 500, or 1000 individuals with the QTL explaining 2 or 5% of phenotypic variance. To detect and map the QTL, phenotypes were regressed on genotypes or (assumed known) haplotypes, in comparison with the IBD method. Power and precision to detect QTL increased with sample size, marker density, and QTL effect. Power decreased with Ne, but precision was affected little by Ne. Single-marker regression had similar or greater power and precision than other regression models, and was comparable to the IBD method. Thus, for rapid initial screening of samples of adequate size in populations in which drift is the primary force that has created LD, QTL can be detected and mapped by regression on SNP genotypes without recovering haplotypes. PMID:17277369

  13. Quantitatively estimating defects in graphene devices using discharge current analysis method

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ukjin; Lee, Young Gon; Kang, Chang Goo; Lee, Sangchul; Kim, Jin Ju; Hwang, Hyeon June; Lim, Sung Kwan; Ham, Moon-Ho; Lee, Byoung Hun

    2014-01-01

    Defects of graphene are the most important concern for the successful applications of graphene since they affect device performance significantly. However, once the graphene is integrated in the device structures, the quality of graphene and surrounding environment could only be assessed using indirect information such as hysteresis, mobility and drive current. Here we develop a discharge current analysis method to measure the quality of graphene integrated in a field effect transistor structure by analyzing the discharge current and examine its validity using various device structures. The density of charging sites affecting the performance of graphene field effect transistor obtained using the discharge current analysis method was on the order of 1014/cm2, which closely correlates with the intensity ratio of the D to G bands in Raman spectroscopy. The graphene FETs fabricated on poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) are found to have a lower density of charging sites than those on SiO2/Si substrate, mainly due to reduced interfacial interaction between the graphene and the PEN. This method can be an indispensable means to improve the stability of devices using a graphene as it provides an accurate and quantitative way to define the quality of graphene after the device fabrication. PMID:24811431

  14. Quantitative analysis of extracted phycobilin pigments in cyanobacteria-an assessment of spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric methods.

    PubMed

    Sobiechowska-Sasim, Monika; Sto?-Egiert, Joanna; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Phycobilins are an important group of pigments that through complementary chromatic adaptation optimize the light-harvesting process in phytoplankton cells, exhibiting great potential as cyanobacteria species biomarkers. In their extracted form, concentrations of these water-soluble molecules are not easily determined using the chromatographic methods well suited to solvent-soluble pigments. Insights regarding the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of extracted phycobilins also remain limited. Here, we present an in-depth study of two methods that utilize the spectral properties of phycobilins in aqueous extracts. The technical work was carried out using high-purity standards of phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, and allophycocyanin. Calibration parameters for the spectrofluorometer and spectrophotometer were established. This analysis indicated the possibility of detecting pigments in concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 ?g cm(-3). Fluorescence data revealed a reproducibility of 95 %. The differences in detection limits between the two methods enable the presence of phycobilins to be investigated and their amounts to be monitored from oligotrophic to eutrophic aquatic environments. PMID:25346572

  15. Quantitative gadopentetate-enhanced MRI of breast tumors: testing of different analytic methods.

    PubMed

    Helbich, T H; Roberts, T P; Gossmann, A; Wendland, M F; Shames, D M; Adachi, M; Yang, S; Huber, S; Daldrup, H; Brasch, R C

    2000-12-01

    This study assessed several proposed imaging strategies and analytic methods based on gadopentetate-enhanced MRI to differentiate benign from malignant breast tumors in a blinded experimental animal study. Steady-state dynamic MRI and first-pass imaging, performed with either T(1)- or T*(2)- weighted sequences, were compared. Semiquantitative and quantitative analysis methods, based on empirical measures of the data or physiological models, were subsequently applied to the imaging datasets. Comparative measures provided pathologic distinction of benign from malignant tumors, tumor grading, and histologic determination of microvascular density. Of the eight tested methods, only one, an estimate of first-pass perfusion using T *(2)-weighted imaging, showed an almost significant (P = 0.05) difference between benign and malignant tumors and correlated almost significantly (r =.3, P = 0.06) with the tumor grade. All other tests, performed either with steady-state imaging or with T(1)-weighted first-pass imaging, failed to differentiate benign from malignant tumors. In addition, they yielded poor correlations with tumor grade and microvascular density. PMID:11108629

  16. Laboratory Evaluations of the Enterococcus qPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Method Performance and Sources of Uncertainty in Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BEACH Act of 2000 directed the U.S. EPA to establish more expeditious methods for the detection of pathogen indicators in coastal waters, as well as new water quality criteria based on these methods. Progress has been made in developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for en...

  17. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study, the final quantified data of each social norm showed highly positive correlations with their content value rather than their implementation value, which implied the final value of social norms are mainly affected by the content of social norms. And the implementation of social norms had reached a relatively high degree compare to their theoretical maxvalue (from 71.29% to 80.25%) because of the compelling force of themselves, while the content value of social norms is so weak (from 16.69% to 30.62%) that urgently need to be improved. Third, the method can be extended to quantify the social norms of other ecosystems and further contributed to our understanding of the Coupled Human and Natural Systems and sustainability research.;

  18. Colloquium on Textile Reinforced Structures (CTRS4) 1 Quantitative methods used to characterize the impregnation of a

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    4th Colloquium on Textile Reinforced Structures (CTRS4) 1 Quantitative methods used to characterize level of the yarn / matrix interface, in the case of Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC). These methods strength (BENTUR AND MINDESS [3]). Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is a fiber concrete composite material

  19. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  20. Evaluation of rapid DNA extraction methods for the quantitative detection of fungi using real-time PCR analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Haugland; Nichole Brinkman; Stephen J. Vesper

    2002-01-01

    Three comparatively rapid methods for the extraction of DNA from fungal conidia and yeast cells in environmental (air, water and dust) samples were evaluated for use in real-time PCR (TaqMan™) analyses. A simple bead milling method was developed to provide sensitive, accurate and precise quantification of target organisms in air and water (tap and surface) samples. However, quantitative analysis of

  1. Excised porcine skin experimental systems to validate quantitative microdialysis methods for determination of drugs in skin after topical application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshinobu Seki; Aiping Wang; Dan Yuan; Yuko Saso; Osamu Hosoya; Sumio Chono; Kazuhiro Morimoto

    2004-01-01

    Microdialysis is useful as a method to evaluate the disposition of drugs in the skin to design improved transdermal delivery systems (TDDSs). In this study, quantitative microdialysis methods were validated in excised porcine skin experimental systems in vitro. Flurbiprofen (FP), used as a model drug, showed high affinity for the skin tissues in equilibrium states between the medium and skin.

  2. Understanding Variation in Treatment Effects in Education Impact Evaluations: An Overview of Quantitative Methods. NCEE 2014-4017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Puma, Mike; Deke, John

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the complex research literature on quantitative methods for assessing how impacts of educational interventions on instructional practices and student learning differ across students, educators, and schools. It also provides technical guidance about the use and interpretation of these methods. The research topics addressed…

  3. Applying Three Strategies for Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Databases in a Mixed Methods Study of a Nontraditional Graduate Education Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicki L. Plano Clark; Amanda L. Garrett; Diandra L. Leslie-Pelecky

    2010-01-01

    A central issue for mixed methods research is for researchers to effectively integrate (or mix) the quantitative and qualitative data in their studies. Despite extensive methodological discussions about integration, researchers using mixed methods approaches struggle with translating these discussions into practice and often make inadequate use of integration in their studies. The authors examined their integration practices as they applied

  4. A novel method for quantitative monitoring of transplanted islets of Langerhans by positive contrast magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Lindsey A; Ris, Frederic; Nielles-Vallespin, Sonia; Speier, Peter; Masson, Solange; Armanet, Mathieu; Morel, P; Toso, Christian; Bosco, Domenico; Berney, Thierry; Vallee, Jean-Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Automatic Quantitative Ultrashort Echo Time imaging (AQUTE) protocol for serial MRI allows quantitative in-vivo monitoring of iron labeled pancreatic islets of Langerhans transplanted into the liver, quantifying graft implantation and persistence in a rodent model. Rats (n=14), transplanted with iron-oxide loaded cells (0–4000 islet equivalents, IEQ), were imaged using a 3D radial ultrashort echo time difference technique (dUTE) on a Siemens MAGNETOM 3T clinical scanner up to 5 months post-surgery. In-vivo 3D dUTE images gave positive contrast from labeled cells, suppressing liver signal and small vessels, allowing automatic quantification. Position of labeled islet clusters was consistent over time and quantification of hyperintense pixels correlated with the number of injected IEQs (R2= 0.898, p < 0.0001), and showed persistence over time (5 months post-transplantation). Automatic quantification was superior to standard imaging and manual counting methods, due to the uniform suppressed background and high contrast, resulting in significant timesavings, reproducibility and ease of quantification. 3D coverage of the whole liver in the absence of cardiac/respiratory artifact provided further improvement over conventional imaging. This imaging protocol reliably quantifies transplanted islet mass and has high translational potential to clinical studies of transplanted pancreatic islets. PMID:21564535

  5. Studies on the UV spectrum of poly(?-glutamic acid) based on development of a simple quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Zhang, Yunkai; Wu, Kongyang; Liang, Zhiqun

    2012-01-01

    A simple and valid ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric method for the determination of poly(?-glutamic acid) is developed. The method is based on the UV absorption spectrum of ?-PGA in aqueous solution, which exhibits a maximum absorption wavelength at 216 nm. The results obtained were comparable to those obtained with the reported high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method according to ICH guidelines. Under the proposed procedure, the calibration graph is linear over the range of 20-200 ?g/ml with regression correlation coefficient of 0.9997. Precision (%R.S.D.<1.50) and recovery (%R.>99.29%) are good. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) are 0.39 and 1.19 ?g/ml, respectively. These results agree well with those of HPLC method. Its spectrum properties studies showed that the spectrum of ?-PGA remarkably changed with an increase in temperature due to ?-PGA was digested into glutamate monomer. In spite of this, the determining procedure could carried out in a wide temperature range (25-50°C). In addition, the method is not influenced by the molecular weight, but the measurement system need to control in pH 3.0-10.0 and ionic strength not more than 0.5M. The proposed method is applied successfully for high-throughput quantification of poly(?-glutamic acid) in biological samples. The advantages of the UV method are simplicity of operation, rapidity, sensitive, low-cost and high-throughput. PMID:22521620

  6. A new sample preparation method for the absolute quantitation of a target proteome using (18)O labeling combined with multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiabin; Zhou, Lianqi; Wang, Huanhuan; Yan, Hui; Li, Nannan; Zhai, Rui; Jiao, Fenglong; Hao, Feiran; Jin, Zuyao; Tian, Fang; Peng, Bo; Zhang, Yangjun; Qian, Xiaohong

    2015-02-21

    A key step in the workflow of bottom-up proteomics is the proteolysis of proteins into peptides with trypsin. In addition, enzyme-catalytic (18)O labeled peptides as internal standards coupled with multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM MS) for the absolute quantitation of the target proteome is commonly used for its convenient operation and low cost. However, long digestion and labeling times, incomplete digestion and (18)O to (16)O back exchange limit its application, therefore, we developed a rapid and efficient digestion method based on a high ratio of trypsin to protein. In addition, after separation of the digested samples using pipette tips packed with reversed-phase packing materials in house, the trypsin can be separated, collected and reused at least four times. Based on this approach, a novel protein quantification method using (18)O-labeled QconCAT peptides as internal standards combined with MRM MS for the absolute quantitation of a target proteome is established. Experimental results showed that the novel method had high digestion and (18)O labeling efficiencies, and no (18)O to (16)O back-exchange occurred. A linear range covering 2 orders of magnitude and a limit of quantification (LOQ) as low as 5 fmol were achieved with an RSD below 10%. Then, the quantitative method is used for the absolute quantitation of drug metabolizing enzymes in human liver microsomes. The results are in good agreement with the previously reported data, which demonstrates that the novel method can be used for absolute quantitative analyses of target proteomes in complex biological samples. PMID:25568899

  7. New method for the detection of micro-organisms in blood: application of quantitative interpretation model to aerobic blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Debra E; Serebrennikova, Yulia M; Smith, Jennifer M; Leparc, German F; García-Rubio, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    The physical and chemical changes occurring in blood that has been inoculated into a blood culture bottle can be used as means to detect the presence of microorganisms in blood cultures. These changes include primarily the conversion of oxy- to deoxyhemoglobin within the red blood cells (RBCs) and changes in the cell number densities. These changes in the physical and chemical properties of blood can be readily detected using spectrophometric methods thus enabling the continuous monitoring of blood culture vials to provide quantitative information on the growth behavior of the microorganisms present. This paper reports on the application of spectrophotometric information obtained from diffuse reflectance measurements of aerobic blood cultures to detect microbial growth and compares the results to those obtained using the standard blood culture system. PMID:19566335

  8. A simple and convenient method for quantitation of corticosterone by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Yamada, K; Aizawa, Y

    1984-07-01

    This paper describes the quantitation of corticosterone in the rat serum and adrenal gland by high-performance liquid chromatography-Ultraviolet detection. The extraction and separation were optimized, resulting in an 80% recovery of corticosterone with a detection limit of 10 ng/ml serum. The separation was achieved in less than 5 min on a micro silica gel column using isocratic elution with hexane: chloroform: methanol (7:1:1, v/v) as the mobile phase. The levels of corticosterone in rat serum in the morning and the afternoon were 105.6 +/- 11.96 ng/ml (10:00 a.m., n = 28) and 174.8 +/- 17.60 ng/ml (17:00 p.m., n = 20), respectively. Because of its simplicity, this method provides a new promising analysis for determining hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function. PMID:6738084

  9. Network ‘Small-World-Ness’: A Quantitative Method for Determining Canonical Network Equivalence

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Mark D.; Gurney, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Background Many technological, biological, social, and information networks fall into the broad class of ‘small-world’ networks: they have tightly interconnected clusters of nodes, and a shortest mean path length that is similar to a matched random graph (same number of nodes and edges). This semi-quantitative definition leads to a categorical distinction (‘small/not-small’) rather than a quantitative, continuous grading of networks, and can lead to uncertainty about a network's small-world status. Moreover, systems described by small-world networks are often studied using an equivalent canonical network model – the Watts-Strogatz (WS) model. However, the process of establishing an equivalent WS model is imprecise and there is a pressing need to discover ways in which this equivalence may be quantified. Methodology/Principal Findings We defined a precise measure of ‘small-world-ness’ S based on the trade off between high local clustering and short path length. A network is now deemed a ‘small-world’ if S>1 - an assertion which may be tested statistically. We then examined the behavior of S on a large data-set of real-world systems. We found that all these systems were linked by a linear relationship between their S values and the network size n. Moreover, we show a method for assigning a unique Watts-Strogatz (WS) model to any real-world network, and show analytically that the WS models associated with our sample of networks also show linearity between S and n. Linearity between S and n is not, however, inevitable, and neither is S maximal for an arbitrary network of given size. Linearity may, however, be explained by a common limiting growth process. Conclusions/Significance We have shown how the notion of a small-world network may be quantified. Several key properties of the metric are described and the use of WS canonical models is placed on a more secure footing. PMID:18446219

  10. mcrA-Targeted Real-Time Quantitative PCR Method To Examine Methanogen Communities?

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Lisa M.; Regan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Methanogens are of great importance in carbon cycling and alternative energy production, but quantitation with culture-based methods is time-consuming and biased against methanogen groups that are difficult to cultivate in a laboratory. For these reasons, methanogens are typically studied through culture-independent molecular techniques. We developed a SYBR green I quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to quantify total numbers of methyl coenzyme M reductase ?-subunit (mcrA) genes. TaqMan probes were also designed to target nine different phylogenetic groups of methanogens in qPCR assays. Total mcrA and mcrA levels of different methanogen phylogenetic groups were determined from six samples: four samples from anaerobic digesters used to treat either primarily cow or pig manure and two aliquots from an acidic peat sample stored at 4°C or 20°C. Only members of the Methanosaetaceae, Methanosarcina, Methanobacteriaceae, and Methanocorpusculaceae and Fen cluster were detected in the environmental samples. The three samples obtained from cow manure digesters were dominated by members of the genus Methanosarcina, whereas the sample from the pig manure digester contained detectable levels of only members of the Methanobacteriaceae. The acidic peat samples were dominated by both Methanosarcina spp. and members of the Fen cluster. In two of the manure digester samples only one methanogen group was detected, but in both of the acidic peat samples and two of the manure digester samples, multiple methanogen groups were detected. The TaqMan qPCR assays were successfully able to determine the environmental abundance of different phylogenetic groups of methanogens, including several groups with few or no cultivated members. PMID:19447957

  11. Study of quantitative evaluation of surface and subsurface flaws by ultrasonic testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yokono, Y.; Minami, Y. [Non-Destructive Inspection Co. Ltd, Osaka (Japan); Nishio, K. [Kyushu Inst. of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    It is very important to detect and evaluate surface and subsurface flaws because of their influences on mechanical properties of materials. The authors apply ultrasound propagating along the test surface for estimating the depth, location and height of a flaw. In this paper the authors use both surface wave and surface SH wave for this purpose. As a result, it is made clear that surface wave is effective to estimate the depth of the upper edge of a subsurface flaw by frequency analysis and by measuring echo amplitude using broad-band surface wave probe. Surface SH wave can be used for estimating the height of surface and subsurface flaws, because echo amplitude is proportional to the height of a flaw when the height is smaller than about 4 mm. Accordingly, the procedure combined these two techniques is effective for evaluating surface and subsurface flaws quantitatively.

  12. Quantitative schlieren method for studying the wavefront reconstructed from a hologram

    SciTech Connect

    Lyalikov, A.M. [Kupala Grodno State Univ. (Belarus)

    1995-03-01

    A schlieren method is proposed for visualizing the deflection angles of the light beams reconstructed from a phase object hologram. The method is based on employing a stationary visualizing slit and selecting the image of a slit light source by a movable slit. This light source comprises several equidistant slit sources. Compensation for the aberrations of the hologram-recording system is considered. Experimental results of the evaluation tests showing the performance of the method developed are presented. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Osmotic pressure test: a simple, quantitative method to assess the mechanical stability of alginate microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Van Raamsdonk, J M; Chang, P L

    2001-02-01

    Implantation of microencapsulated, nonautologous cells and tissues is an effective method to deliver therapeutic proteins in vivo. Its success depends on the maintenance of the immunoisolating barrier provided by the microcapsule. Thus, one goal in the development of this technology is to create mechanically stable microcapsules. We have developed an osmotic pressure test to quantify the strength of microcapsules by exposing alginate microcapsules to a graded series of hypotonic solutions and quantifying the percentage of broken microcapsules. The test was validated by confirming the relative strengths of different types of alginate capsules, previously known from implantation in dogs to have differing mechanical stability in vivo. Thus, solid alginate microcapsules crosslinked with Ba(2+) were shown to be stronger than those crosslinked with Ca(2+), which in turn were shown to be stronger than the corresponding hollow alginate microcapsules. The incorporation of cells was demonstrated to reduce the mechanical stability of the microcapsules significantly. Hence, this test provides a simple and quantitative method for rapidly determining the strength of a large number of microcapsules. Thus, it is suitable for monitoring the mechanical stability of various types of microcapsules, predicting the performance of microcapsules in vivo, and for quality control of microcapsules during scale-up productions. PMID:11093187

  14. Quantitative bioluminometric method for DNA-based species/varietal identification in food authenticity assessment.

    PubMed

    Trantakis, Ioannis A; Christopoulos, Theodore K; Spaniolas, Stelios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis; Ioannou, Penelope C; Tucker, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    A method is reported for species quantification by exploiting single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). These single-base changes in DNA are particularly useful because they enable discrimination of closely related species and/or varieties. As a model, quantitative authentication studies were performed on coffee. These involved the determination of the percentage of Arabica and Robusta species based on a SNP in the chloroplastic trnL(UAA)-trnF(GAA) intraspacer region. Following polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the Robusta-specific and Arabica-specific fragments were subjected to 15 min extension reactions by DNA polymerase using species-specific primers carrying oligo(dA) tags. Biotin was incorporated into the extended strands. The products were captured in streptavidin-coated microtiter wells and quantified by using oligo(dT)-conjugated photoprotein aequorin. Aequorin was measured within 3 s via its characteristic flash-type bioluminescent reaction that was triggered by the addition of Ca(2+). Because of the close resemblance between the two DNA fragments, during PCR one species serves as an internal standard for the other. The percentage of the total luminescence signal obtained from a certain species was linearly related to the percent content of the sample with respect to this species. The method is accurate and reproducible. The microtiter well-based assay configuration allows high sample throughput and facilitates greatly the automation. PMID:22224624

  15. A method for quantitative recovery of DNA from plate lysates of bacteriophage lambda-derived clones.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A

    1993-11-01

    A method is described for the purification of DNA from recombinant clones in lambda vectors. Plate lysates are used as the starting material, with the phage suspension being either loaded directly onto mini-cesium chloride two-step gradients or first subjected to precipitation with polyethylene glycol-8000 before application to the gradients. A single centrifugation step is used and the DNA is isolated from the harvested bacteriophage by incubation at room temperature with formamide followed by ethanol precipitation. The small-volume gradients were effective in isolating phage particles in the range of 1.0 to 12.5 x 10(11) pfu with quantitative recovery of approximately 7 micrograms DNA/10(11) pfu. The method was tested with a cDNA clone in lambda gt10 (as an example of a lambda-derived vector which gives a plate lysate with a high titer) and rat genomic fragments cloned into EMBL3A (for which the plate lysates are of low titer). For both vectors, the purified DNA appeared free of inhibitory contaminants as assessed by restriction endonuclease digestion and subcloning of fragments. PMID:8109743

  16. Are extraction methods in quantitative assays of pharmacopoeia monographs exhaustive? A comparison with pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Basalo, Carlos; Mohn, Tobias; Hamburger, Matthias

    2006-10-01

    The extraction methods in selected monographs of the European and the Swiss Pharmacopoeia were compared to pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with respect to the yield of constituents to be dosed in the quantitative assay for the respective herbal drugs. The study included five drugs, Belladonnae folium, Colae semen, Boldo folium, Tanaceti herba and Agni casti fructus. They were selected to cover different classes of compounds to be analyzed and different extraction methods to be used according to the monographs. Extraction protocols for PLE were optimized by varying the solvents and number of extraction cycles. In PLE, yields > 97 % of extractable analytes were typically achieved with two extraction cycles. For alkaloid-containing drugs, the addition of ammonia prior to extraction significantly increased the yield and reduced the number of extraction cycles required for exhaustive extraction. PLE was in all cases superior to the extraction protocol of the pharmacopoeia monographs (taken as 100 %), with differences ranging from 108 % in case of parthenolide in Tanaceti herba to 343 % in case of alkaloids in Boldo folium. PMID:16924586

  17. A novel preclinical method to quantitatively evaluate early-stage metastatic events at the murine blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Chris E; Nounou, Mohamed I; Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Terrell-Hall, Tori B; Mohammad, Afroz S; Jagannathan, Rajaganapathi; Lockman, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The observation that approximately 15% of women with disseminated breast cancer will develop symptomatic brain metastases combined with treatment guidelines discouraging single-agent chemotherapeutic strategies facilitates the desire for novel strategies aimed at outright brain metastasis prevention. Effective and robust preclinical methods to evaluate early-stage metastatic processes, brain metastases burden, and overall mean survival are lacking. Here, we develop a novel method to quantitate early metastatic events (arresting and extravasation) in addition to traditional end time-point parameters such as tumor burden and survival in an experimental mouse model of brain metastases of breast cancer. Using this method, a reduced number of viable brain-seeking metastatic cells (from 3,331 ± 263 cells/brain to 1,079 ± 495 cells/brain) were arrested in brain one week postinjection after TGF? knockdown. Treatment with a TGF? receptor inhibitor, galunisertib, reduced the number of arrested cells in brain to 808 ± 82 cells/brain. Furthermore, we observed a reduction in the percentage of extravasated cells (from 63% to 30%) compared with cells remaining intralumenal when TGF? is knocked down or inhibited with galunisertib (40%). The observed reduction of extravasated metastatic cells in brain translated to smaller and fewer brain metastases and resulted in prolonged mean survival (from 36 days to 62 days). This method opens up potentially new avenues of metastases prevention research by providing critical data important to early brain metastasis of breast cancer events. PMID:25348853

  18. Development and Validation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Maize MIR162.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162. PMID:25743383

  19. UV partial least-squares calibration and liquid chromatographic methods for direct quantitation of levofloxacin in urine.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Emara, Samy; Mostafa, Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Levofloxacin was determined in human urine samples by application of a spectrophotometric multivariate calibration partial least-squares (PLS-1) method. A calibration set consisting of standards was prepared by using a multilevel multifactor experimental design. In order to ensure accurate results, the calibration matrix included a urine sample free of levofloxacin (i.e., urine blank). The components of the calibration matrix were levofloxacin and urine. The concentration of levofloxacin ranged from 0.5 to 16.5 microg/mL. Different urine concentrations were used as the second component of the calibration matrix in order to include the information inherent in the changes in the UV spectrum for urine upon dilution. In addition, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method was proposed. In this method, a Shim-pack amino column was used at ambient temperature with a mobile phase of 25 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH adjusted to 3.1 with phosphoric acid)-acetonitrile (70 + 30, v/v), and the flow rate was 1 mL/min. UV detection at 293 nm was used for quantitation. The proposed methods were applied to the determination of the dissolution rate for tablets containing levofloxacin. The urinary excretion pattern for the cumulative amount of levoflacin excreted was also calculated. PMID:17955970

  20. Development of a new quantitative X-ray microanalysis method for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Horny, Paula; Lifshin, Eric; Campbell, Helen; Gauvin, Raynald

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative X-ray microanalysis of thick samples is usually performed by measuring the characteristic X-ray intensities of each element in a sample and in corresponding standards. The ratio of the measured intensities from the unknown material to that from the standard is related to the concentration using the ZAF or ?(?z) equations. Under optimal conditions, accuracies approaching 1% are possible. However, all the experimental conditions must remain the same during the sample and standard measurements. This is not possible with cold field emission scanning electron microscopes (FE-SEMs) where beam current can fluctuate around 5% in its stable regime. Very little work has been done on variable beam current conditions (Griffin, B.J. & Nockolds, C.E., Scanning 13, 307-312, 1991), and none relating to cold FE-SEM applications. To address this issue, a new method was developed using a single spectral measurement. It is similar in approach to the Cliff-Lorimer method developed for the analytical transmission electron microscope. However, corrections are made for X rays generated from thick specimens using the ratio of the characteristic X-ray intensities of two elements in the same material. The proposed method utilizes the ratio of the intensity of a characteristic X-ray normalized by the sum of X-ray intensities of all the elements measured for the sample, which should also reduce the amplitude of error propagation. Uncertainties in the physical parameters of X-ray generation are corrected using a calibration factor that must be previously acquired or calculated. As an example, when this method was applied to the calculation of the composition of Au-Cu National Institute of Standards and Technology standards measured with a cold field emission source SEM, relative accuracies better than 5% were obtained. PMID:20961482

  1. The AutoQual ultrasound elastography method for quantitative assessment of lateral strain in post-rupture Achilles tendons.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phillip G; Alsousou, Joseph; Cooper, Ashley; Thompson, Mark S; Noble, J Alison

    2013-10-18

    This paper presents the AutoQual elastography method: a novel algorithm that improves the quality of 2D displacement field calculation from ultrasound radio frequency (RF) sequences of acutely ruptured Achilles tendons to determine image-lateral strain fields and has potential use for ligaments and muscles. This method uses 2D bicubic spline interpolation of the RF signal, Quality Determined Search, Automatic Search Range and Adaptive Block Size components as a novel combination that is designed to improve continuity and decrease displacement field noise, especially in areas of low signal strength. We present a simple experiment for quantitatively comparing the AutoQual method to a multiscale (MS) elastography method from ultrasound RF sequences of a 5% agar phantom for rigid body motion and known lateral strain loads with speeds up to 5mm/s. We finally present examples of four in vivo Achilles tendons in various damage states and with manual or artificially controlled passive flexion of the foot. Results show that the AutoQual method offers a substantial improvement on the MS method, achieving similar performance for rigid body tracking at all speeds, a lower normalized square error at all strains induced and a more continuous strain field at higher compression rates. AutoQual also showed a greater average normalized cross correlation for image blocks in the area of interest, a lower standard deviation of the strain field and a visually more acceptable point tracking for in vivo examples. This work demonstrates lateral ultrasound elastography which is robust to the complex passive motion of the Achilles and to various imaging artifacts associated with imaging tendon rupture. This method potentially has a wide clinical application for assessing in vivo strains in and hence mechanical function of any near skin surface tissues that are longitudinally loaded. PMID:24001929

  2. An improved method for the quantitative analysis of M-mode echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Brower, R W; van Dorp, W G; Vogel, J A; Roelandt, J R

    1975-10-01

    A computer-assisted system is described which speeds and extends the quantitative interpretation of M-mode echocardiographic recordings. The system consists of a digitizing tablet, minicomputer, TV monitor and a hard copy device. M-mode echocardiograms are placed on the digitizing surface and traced using the digitizing pen. The entered signal includes the endocardial surfaces of the anterior and posterior left ventricular wall for at least one cycle, and two Q waves from a simultaneously recorded ECG to identify end diastole and heart rate. End systole is determined automatically as corresponding to the minimum LV dimension. Results of analysis include continuous plots of estimated volume and circumferential fiber shortening rate (CFSR) vs time. Determinations of special interest are also displayed: enddiastolic volume (EDV) and endsystolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction, cardiac output, mean and peak CFSR. M-mode echocardiograms obtained from 25 normal volunteers are used to evaluate the system. The standard error of the estimate of the computer-assisted system is comparable to the error between observers, furthermore the computer system adds no significant systematic or random error. Comparison between M-mode estimated volumes and angiographically determined values has been described previously and Sy - x here is significantly greater. The main advantages of this system are: 1. a continuous plot of estimated LV volume and CFSR is provided; 2. beat-to-beat analyses are facilitated; 3. the automatic determination of end systole removes possible errors in judgement made previously; 4. it is time saving when one considers the amount of data obtained. With these advantages and the generally satisfactory performance in the clinical trials, this system appears to have extended the clinical quantitative capabilities of M-mode echocardiograms. PMID:1102317

  3. Effect of esterification condensation on the Folin-Ciocalteu method for the quantitative measurement of total phenols.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Yu; Cheng, Chien-Wei; Liang, Ji-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    The Folin-Ciocalteu method is widely applied for the determination of the total phenolic contents in natural products. This method is significantly affected by the addition of sodium carbonate. The currently applied Folin-Ciocalteu methods may have been modified without any validation in the quantitative standards and the order of processes. In this study, serial experiments were performed to investigate the effect of phenolic calibrations based on the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method. Esterification condensations were observed in the assays with prior basification for gallic acid and catechin used as quantitative standards. The phenolic contents obtained in the samples differed depending on when basification occurred compared with the gallic acid calibration. The bias of the classic Folin-Ciocalteu method derived from cross-linkage of molecules was first defined in this study. The performance of the Folin-Ciocalteu method is optimised and validated again. PMID:25306311

  4. Effect of platform, reference material, and quantification model on enumeration of Enterococcus by quantitative PCR methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is increasingly being used for the quantitative detection of fecal indicator bacteria in beach water. QPCR allows for same-day health warnings, and its application is being considered as an optionn for recreational water quality testi...

  5. Problems of a thermionic space NPS reactor unit quantitative reliability assessment on the basis of ground development results

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Nechaev, Yuri A.; Khazanovich, Igor M.; Samodelov, Victor N.; Pavlov, Konstantin A. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Central Scientific-Research Institute of Space Force Moscow K-160 (Russian Federation)

    1997-01-10

    The paper sets forth major problems that arose in the course of a quantitative assessment of reliability of a TOPAZ-2 space NPS reactor unit performed on the basis of ground development results. Proposals are made on the possible ways to solve those problems through development and introduction of individual standards especially for the ground development stage, which would specify the assessment algorithm and censoring rules, and exclude a number of existing uncertainties when making a decision on going to flight testing.

  6. Partial least-squares methods for spectral analyses. 1. Relation to other quantitative calibration methods and the extraction of qualitative information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Haaland; Edward V. Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Partial least-squares (PLS) methods for spectral analyses are related to other multivariate calibration methods such as classical least-squares (CLS), inverse least-squares (ILS), and principal component regression (PCR) methods which have been used often in quantitative spectral analyses. The PLS method which analyzes one chemical component at a time is presented, and the basis of each step in the algorithm is

  7. A Quantitative Method to Monitor Reactive Oxygen Species Production by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance in Physiological and Pathological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the “instantaneous” presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with “a posteriori” assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R2 = 0.95), plasma (R2 = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R2 = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001–0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  8. Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Quantitation of Cremophor EL and Its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya Bhaskar, V.; Middha, Anil

    2013-01-01

    A rapid sensitive and selective MRM based method for the determination of Cremophor EL (CrEL) in rat plasma was developed using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). CrEL and polypropylene glycol (internal standard) were extracted from rat plasma with acetonitrile and analysed on C18 column (XBridge, 50 × 4.6?mm, 3.5??m). The most abundant molecular ions corresponding to PEG oligomers at m/z 828, 872, 916 and 960 with daughter ion at m/z 89 were selected for multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in electrospray mode of ionisation. Plasma concentrations of CrEL were quantified after administration through oral and intravenous routes in male sprague dawley rats at a dose of 0.26?g/kg. The standard curve was linear (0.9972) over the concentration range of 1.00 to 200??g/mL. The lower limit of quantitation for CrEL was 1.00??g/mL using 50??L plasma. The coefficient of variation and relative error for inter and intra assay at three QC levels were 0.69 to 9.21 and ?7.60 to 4.74 respectively. A novel proposal was conveyed to the scientific community, where formulation excipient can be analysed as qualifier in the analysis of NCEs to address the spiky plasma concentration profiles. PMID:23983693

  9. A model independent method for quantitative estimation of $SU(3)$ flavor symmetry breaking using Dalitz plot

    E-print Network

    Sahoo, Dibyakrupa; Deshpande, N G

    2015-01-01

    The light hadron states are satisfactorily described in the quark model using $SU(3)$ flavor symmetry. If the $SU(3)$ flavor symmetry relating the light hadrons were exact, one would have an exchange symmetry between these hadrons arising out of the exchange of the up, down and strange quarks. This aspect of $SU(3)$ symmetry is used extensively to relate many decay modes of heavy quarks. However, the nature of the effects of $SU(3)$ breaking in such decays is not well understood and hence, a reliable estimate of $SU(3)$ breaking effects is missing. In this work we propose a new method to quantitatively estimate the extent of flavor symmetry breaking and better understand the nature of such breaking using Dalitz plot. We study the three non-commuting $SU(2)$ symmetries (subsumed in $SU(3)$ flavor symmetry): isospin (or $T$-spin), $U$-spin and $V$-spin, using the Dalitz plots of some three-body meson decays. We look at the Dalitz plot distributions of decays in which pairs of the final three particles are relat...

  10. A method for quantitation of hepatic, pancreatic, and intestinal function in conscious Yucatan miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Hand, M S; Phillips, R W; Miller, C W; Mason, R A; Lumb, W V

    1981-12-01

    A right laparotomy was performed in anesthetized miniature swine. A hepatic vein was catheterized through the diaphragmatic surface of the left lateral lobe of the liver or through the cut surface of the right lateral lobe following a partial lobectomy. Continuous wave Doppler flow cuffs were applied to the hepatic artery and portal vein. Portal vein catheterization was accomplished through a stab incision made through the center of a preplaced purse string suture. Catheters and flow cuff wires exited the abdomen at the dorsal limit of the incision and were placed in nylon packs. Sterile surgery of the right ventro-lateral cervical region allowed catheterization of the right external jugular vein and carotid artery. These catheters were passed subcutaneously to the dorsum of the neck and inserted into another nylon pack. This method allowed repetitive experiments on conscious miniature swine after recovery from surgery. It allowed accurate quantitative determination of hepatic extraction of hormones as well as extraction of production of metabolites. Rates of intestinal absorption and pancreatic hormone secretion also could be assessed. PMID:7343774

  11. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  12. Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

  13. A gradient-based method for quantitative photoacoustic tomography using the radiative transfer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saratoon, T.; Tarvainen, T.; Cox, B. T.; Arridge, S. R.

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography (QPAT) offers the possibility of high-resolution molecular imaging by quantifying molecular concentrations in biological tissue. QPAT comprises two inverse problems: (1) the construction of a photoacoustic image from surface measurements of photoacoustic wave pulses over time, and (2) the determination of the optical properties of the imaged region. The first is a well-studied area for which a number of solution methods are available, while the second is, in general, a nonlinear, ill-posed inverse problem. Model-based inversion techniques to solve (2) are usually based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and typically assume the acoustic inversion step has been solved exactly. Here, neither simplification is made: the full RTE is used to model the light propagation, and the acoustic propagation and image reconstruction are included in the simulations of measured data. Since Hessian- and Jacobian-based minimizations are computationally expensive for the large data sets typically encountered in QPAT, gradient-based minimization schemes provide a practical alternative. The acoustic pressure time series were simulated using a k-space, pseudo-spectral time domain model, and a time-reversal reconstruction algorithm was used to form a set of photoacoustic images corresponding to four illumination positions. A regularized, adjoint-assisted gradient inversion using a finite element model of the RTE was then used to determine the optical absorption and scattering coefficients.

  14. Toward a quantitative account of pitch distribution in spontaneous narrative: Method and validation

    PubMed Central

    Matteson, Samuel E.; Streit Olness, Gloria; Caplow, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is well-known both to animate human discourse and to convey meaning in communication. The study of the statistical population distributions of pitch in discourse will undoubtedly benefit from methodological improvements. The current investigation examines a method that parameterizes pitch in discourse as musical pitch interval H measured in units of cents and that disaggregates the sequence of peak word-pitches using tools employed in time-series analysis and digital signal processing. The investigators test the proposed methodology by its application to distributions in pitch interval of the peak word-pitch (collectively called the discourse gamut) that occur in simulated and actual spontaneous emotive narratives obtained from 17 middle-aged African-American adults. The analysis, in rigorous tests, not only faithfully reproduced simulated distributions imbedded in realistic time series that drift and include pitch breaks, but the protocol also reveals that the empirical distributions exhibit a common hidden structure when normalized to a slowly varying mode (called the gamut root) of their respective probability density functions. Quantitative differences between narratives reveal the speakers' relative propensity for the use of pitch levels corresponding to elevated degrees of a discourse gamut (the “e-la”) superimposed upon a continuum that conforms systematically to an asymmetric Laplace distribution. PMID:23654400

  15. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  16. Multiplexed LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of three novel hepatitis C antivirals, daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Kandoussi, Hamza; Zeng, Jianing; Wang, Jian; Demers, Roger; Eley, Timothy; He, Bing; Burrell, Richard; Easter, John; Kadiyala, Pathanjali; Pursley, Janice; Cojocaru, Laura; Baker, Chanda; Ryan, John; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2015-03-25

    Dual or triple combination regimens of novel hepatitis C direct-acting antivirals (DAA, daclatasvir, asunaprevir, or beclabuvir) provide high sustained virological response rates and reduced frequency of resistance compared to clinical monotherapy. To support pharmacokinetic (PK) assessments in clinical studies, a multiplexed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantitation of daclatasvir, asunaprevir, beclabuvir (BMS-791325) and its active metabolite (BMS-794712) in human plasma was developed and validated. Human plasma samples were extracted with methyl-t-butyl ether followed by an LC-MS/MS analysis, which was conducted in a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The lower limits of quantitation (LLOQ) were 1ng/mL for daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and BMS-794712, and 2ng/mL for beclabuvir. Intra-run precision (?4.5% CV), inter-run precision (?2.9% CV), and accuracy (±5.3% deviation) based on different concentration levels (low, geometric mean, mid and high) of the quality control samples (QCs) provided evidence of the methods accuracy and precision. Selectivity and matrix effect on LC-MS/MS detection, stability in plasma, and potential interference of coadministered drugs (ribavirin and interferon) were all evaluated and the results were acceptable. Method reproducibility was demonstrated by the reanalysis of a portion of study samples. The cross-validation results for QCs demonstrated the equivalency between this method and two single-analyte methods which were previously validated for quantitation of daclatasvir in human plasma. This approach of using a multiplexed LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of three DAAs is time- and cost-effective, and can maintain good data quality in sample analysis. PMID:25676854

  17. Spectral simulation methods for enhancing qualitative and quantitative analyses based on infrared spectroscopy and quantitative calibration methods for passive infrared remote sensing of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulub, Yusuf Ismail

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR) has over the years found a myriad of applications including passive environmental remote sensing of toxic pollutants and the development of a blood glucose sensor. In this dissertation, capabilities of both these applications are further enhanced with data analysis strategies employing digital signal processing and novel simulation approaches. Both quantitative and qualitative determinations of volatile organic compounds are investigated in the passive IR remote sensing research described in this dissertation. In the quantitative work, partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis is used to generate multivariate calibration models for passive Fourier transform IR remote sensing measurements of open-air generated vapors of ethanol in the presence methanol as an interfering species. A step-wise co-addition scheme coupled with a digital filtering approach is used to attenuate the effects of variation in optical path length or plume width. For the qualitative study, an IR imaging line scanner is used to acquire remote sensing data in both spatial and spectral domains. This technology is capable of not only identifying but also specifying the location of the sample under investigation. Successful implementation of this methodology is hampered by the huge costs incurred to conduct these experiments and the impracticality of acquiring large amounts of representative training data. To address this problem, a novel simulation approach is developed that generates training data based on synthetic analyte-active and measured analyte-inactive data. Subsequently, automated pattern classifiers are generated using piecewise linear discriminant analysis to predict the presence of the analyte signature in measured imaging data acquired in remote sensing applications. Near infrared glucose determinations based on the region of 5000--4000 cm-1 is the focus of the research in the latter part of this dissertation. A six-component aqueous matrix of glucose in the presence of five other interferent species, all spanning physiological levels, is analyzed quantitatively. Multivariate PLS regression analysis in conjunction with samples designated into a calibration set is used to formulate models for predicting glucose concentrations. Variations in the instrumental response caused by drift and environmental factors are observed to degrade the performance of these models. As a remedy, a model updating approach based on spectral simulation is developed that is highly successful in eliminating the adverse effects of non-chemical variations.

  18. Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2 ??? C T Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Livak; Thomas D. Schmittgen

    2001-01-01

    The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated

  19. Teaching Integrative Physiology Using the Quantitative Circulatory Physiology Model and Case Discussion Method: Evaluation of the Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Barbero, A.; Lopez-Novoa, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the problems that we have found when teaching human physiology in a Spanish medical school is that the degree of understanding by the students of the integration between organs and systems is rather poor. We attempted to remedy this problem by using a case discussion method together with the Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP)…

  20. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  1. Quantitative Methods for Verifying Semantic Equivalence of Translated Research Instruments: A Chinese Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Wang, Chia-Chih

    2004-01-01

    Back-translation is typically used to verify semantic equivalence (SE) of a translated measure to the original scale. Although validity of the adapted scale depends fundamentally on SE, back-translation always involves subjective evaluations. This study developed "dual-language, split-half quantitative methods of verification to supplement…

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID, QUANTITATIVE METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF INFECTIVE COXSACKIE AND ECHO VIRUSES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this research are to improve on the current analytical methods for quantitative detection of infective coxsackie and echo viruses in drinking water. The specific objectives of this research are to: (1) Improve the sensitivity and specificity of IMS-PCR for in...

  3. Quantitative analysis by the ultrasonic method of the effect of fluid of quenching on elastic and acoustical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -27 April 2012, Nantes, France 2005 #12;We have studied by an ultrasonic non destructive testing systemQuantitative analysis by the ultrasonic method of the effect of fluid of quenching on elastic are performed by an ultrasonic transducer with 5 MHz in the center frequency, working simultaneously

  4. Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel Taverniers; Erik Van Bockstaele; Marc De Loose

    2004-01-01

    Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions

  5. Comparison of TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR methods for quantitative gene expression in tung tree tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis due to its large dynamic range, tremendous sensitivity, high sequence-specificity, little to no post-amplification processing, and sample throughput. TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are two frequently used methods. However, dir...

  6. Quantitative elasticity imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. O'Donnell; S. Y. Emelianov; A. R. Skovoroda; M. A. Lubinski; W. F. Weitzel; R. C. Wiggins

    1993-01-01

    Quantitative elasticity imaging is investigated for a wide range of gel-based, tissue equivalent phantoms and excised tissue specimens. To do this, strain imaging methods have been developed for very large surface deformations. Images produced by this approach exhibit a high signal to noise ratio (SNR). Results are presented demonstrating both the accuracy and sensitivity of the method for imaging internal

  7. Quantitative assessment of trabecular bone micro-architecture of the wrist via 7 Tesla MRI: preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Chang; Ligong Wang; Guoyuan Liang; James S. Babb; Graham C. Wiggins; Punam K. Saha; Ravinder R. Regatte

    2011-01-01

    Object  The goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of performing quantitative 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment\\u000a of trabecular bone micro-architecture of the wrist, a common fracture site.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The wrists of 4 healthy subjects (1 woman, 3 men, 28±8.9 years) were scanned on a 7 T whole body MR scanner using a 3D fast\\u000a low-angle shot (FLASH) sequence

  8. Fast-Neutron Hodoscope at TREAT: Methods for Quantitative Determination of Fuel Dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    De Volci, A.; Fink, C. L.; Marsh, G. E.; Rhodes, E. A.; Stanford, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel-motion surveillance using the fast-neutron hodoscope in TREAT experiments has advanced from an initial role of providing time/location/velocity data to that of offering quantitative mass results. The material and radiation surroundings of tha test section contribute to intrinsic and instrumental effects upon hodoscope detectors that require detailed corrections. Depending upon the experiment, count rate compensation is usually required for deadtime, power level, nonlinear response, efficiency, background, and detector calibration. Depending on their magnitude and amenability to analytical and empirical treatment, systematic corrections may be needed for self-shielding, self-multiplication, self-attenuation, flux depression, and other effects. Current verified hodoscope response (for 1- to 7-pin fuel bundles) may be paramatrically characterized under optimum conditions by 1-ms time resolution; 0.25-mm lateral and 5-mm axial-motion displacement resolution; and 50-mg single-pin mass resolution. The experimental and theoretical foundation for this performance is given, with particular emphasis on the geometrical response function and the statistical limits of fuel-motion resolution. Comparisons are made with alternative diagnostic systems.

  9. A novel quantitative dual-isotope method for simultaneous ventilation and perfusion lung SPET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro Sánchez-Crespo; Johan Petersson; Sven Nyren; Margareta Mure; Robb W. Glenny; Jan-Olov Thorell; Hans Jacobsson; Sten G. Lindahl; Stig A. Larsson

    2002-01-01

    A quantitative dual-isotope single-photon emission tomography (SPET) technique for the assessment of lung ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) using, respectively, technetium-99m labelled Technegas (140 keV) and indium-113m labelled macro-aggregated albumin (392 keV), is presented, validated and clinically tested in a healthy volunteer. In order to assess V, Q and V\\/Q distributions in quantitative terms, algorithms which correct for down scattering,

  10. Qualitative and Quantitative Method Comparison in Animal-Assisted Therapy Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Denenholz

    2011-01-01

    While there have been many presentations and anecdotal evidence in support of AAT, quantitative empirically validated studies are very limited. Without quantitative empirical studies to support the effectiveness of AAT, it remains an unproven complement to traditional physical and psychotherapeutic practices (Kruger & Serpell,2010). The value and importance of non-empirical literature on AAT,including therapists’ observations, various author’s personal experiences, and

  11. Quantitative comparison of alternative methods for coarse-graining biological networks.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Gregory R; Meng, Luming; Huang, Xuhui

    2013-09-28

    Markov models and master equations are a powerful means of modeling dynamic processes like protein conformational changes. However, these models are often difficult to understand because of the enormous number of components and connections between them. Therefore, a variety of methods have been developed to facilitate understanding by coarse-graining these complex models. Here, we employ Bayesian model comparison to determine which of these coarse-graining methods provides the models that are most faithful to the original set of states. We find that the Bayesian agglomerative clustering engine and the hierarchical Nyström expansion graph (HNEG) typically provide the best performance. Surprisingly, the original Perron cluster cluster analysis (PCCA) method often provides the next best results, outperforming the newer PCCA+ method and the most probable paths algorithm. We also show that the differences between the models are qualitatively significant, rather than being minor shifts in the boundaries between states. The performance of the methods correlates well with the entropy of the resulting coarse-grainings, suggesting that finding states with more similar populations (i.e., avoiding low population states that may just be noise) gives better results. PMID:24089717

  12. An average enumeration method of hyperspectral imaging data for quantitative evaluation of medical device surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Le, Hanh N D; Kim, Moon S; Hwang, Jeeseong; Yang, Yi; Thainual, Paweena U; Kang, Jin U; Kim, Do-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    We propose a quantification method called Mapped Average Principal component analysis Score (MAPS) to enumerate the contamination coverage on common medical device surfaces. The method was adapted from conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on non-overlapped regions of a full frame hyperspectral image to resolve the percentage of contamination from the substrate. The concept was proven by using a controlled contamination sample with artificial test soil and color simulating organic mixture, and was further validated using a bacterial system including biofilm on stainless steel surface. We also validate the results of MAPS with other statistical spectral analysis including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The proposed method provides an alternative quantification method for hyperspectral imaging data, which can be easily implemented by basic PCA analysis. PMID:25360377

  13. An average enumeration method of hyperspectral imaging data for quantitative evaluation of medical device surface contamination

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hanh N. D.; Kim, Moon S.; Hwang, Jeeseong; Yang, Yi; Thainual, Paweena U; Kang, Jin U.; Kim, Do-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a quantification method called Mapped Average Principal component analysis Score (MAPS) to enumerate the contamination coverage on common medical device surfaces. The method was adapted from conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on non-overlapped regions of a full frame hyperspectral image to resolve the percentage of contamination from the substrate. The concept was proven by using a controlled contamination sample with artificial test soil and color simulating organic mixture, and was further validated using a bacterial system including biofilm on stainless steel surface. We also validate the results of MAPS with other statistical spectral analysis including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). The proposed method provides an alternative quantification method for hyperspectral imaging data, which can be easily implemented by basic PCA analysis. PMID:25360377

  14. Qualitative to quantitative: linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on HIV/AIDS in Goa, India.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ajay; Hutter, Inge

    2008-10-01

    With 3.1 million people estimated to be living with HIV/AIDS in India and 39.5 million people globally, the epidemic has posed academics the challenge of identifying behaviours and their underlying beliefs in the effort to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is frequently used to identify risk behaviours and adherence behaviour in the field of HIV/AIDS. Risk behaviour studies that apply HBM have been largely quantitative and use of qualitative methodology is rare. The marriage of qualitative and quantitative methods has never been easy. The challenge is in triangulating the methods. Method triangulation has been largely used to combine insights from the qualitative and quantitative methods but not to link both the methods. In this paper we suggest a linked trajectory of method triangulation (LTMT). The linked trajectory aims to first gather individual level information through in-depth interviews and then to present the information as vignettes in focus group discussions. We thus validate information obtained from in-depth interviews and gather emic concepts that arise from the interaction. We thus capture both the interpretation and the interaction angles of the qualitative method. Further, using the qualitative information gained, a survey is designed. In doing so, the survey questions are grounded and contextualized. We employed this linked trajectory of method triangulation in a study on the risk assessment of HIV/AIDS among migrant and mobile men. Fieldwork was carried out in Goa, India. Data come from two waves of studies, first an explorative qualitative study (2003), second a larger study (2004-2005), including in-depth interviews (25), focus group discussions (21) and a survey (n=1259). By employing the qualitative to quantitative LTMT we can not only contextualize the existing concepts of the HBM, but also validate new concepts and identify new risk groups. PMID:18825517

  15. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  16. Quantitative nondestructive in-service evaluation of stay cables of cable-stayed bridges: methods and practical experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weischedel, Herbert R.; Hoehle, Hans-Werner

    1995-05-01

    Stay cables of cable-stayed bridges have corrosion protection systems that can be elaborate. For example, such a system may simply consist of one or several coats of paint, or--more complex--of plastic pipes that are wrapped with tape and filled with grout. Frequently, these corrosion protection systems prevent visual inspections. Therefore, alternative nondestructive examination methods are called for. For example, modern dual-function electromagnetic (EM) instruments allow the simultaneous detection of external and internal localized flaws (such as external and internal broken wires and corrosion piting) and the measurement of loss of metallic cross-sectional area (typically caused by external or internal corrosion or wear). Initially developed for mining and skiing applications, these instruments have been successfully used for the inspection of stays of cable-stayed bridges, and for the inspection of guys of smoke stacks, flare stacks, broadcast towers, suspended roofs, etc. As a rule, guys and bridge cables are not subjected to wear and bending stresses. However, their safety can be compromised by corrosion caused by the failure of corrosion protection systems. Furthermore, live loads and wind forces create intermittent tensile stresses that can cause fatigue breaks of wires. This paper discusses the use of dual-function EM instruments for the detection and the nondestructive quantitative evaluation of cable deterioration. It explains the underlying principles. Experiences with this method together with field inspection results will be presented.

  17. Teaching integrative physiology using the quantitative circulatory physiology model and case discussion method: evaluation of the learning experience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A Rodriguez-Barbero (Universidad de Salamanca Fisiologia y Farmacologia)

    2008-12-01

    One of the problems that we have found when teaching human physiology in a Spanish medical school is that the degree of understanding by the students of the integration between organs and systems is rather poor. We attempted to remedy this problem by using a case discussion method together with the Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP) program. QCP is a Windows-based computer simulation program that offers almost real-time simulation and allows users to examine the time-dependent interactions of over 750 parameters. We evaluated students' perceptions by an anonymous questionnaire. Teachers' perceptions of this teaching approach were highly positive, as it improved students' perceptions of the complexity of biological processes, their ability to differentiate between acute and chronic responses, and promoted an integrative understanding of human body function. Teachers also identified some problems with the approach, including student difficulties in adopting self-directed learning, a lack of precision in student questions during the discussion sessions, and the lack of a tradition of using several textbooks to explain the changes observed. The results of the student questionnaire revealed that >70% of the students reported that this type of learning gave them a better understanding of the complexity of physiological processes and the role of coordinated actions of several systems in the homeostatic response and enabled them to acquire a better understanding of human body functions. Thus, we conclude that this approach promotes an integrative understanding of cardiovascular and renal functions that is difficult to achieve with other methods.

  18. Methods of experimentation with models and utilization of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert,

    1924-01-01

    The present report treats the subject of testing small models in a wind tunnel and of the methods employed for rendering the results constant, accurate and comparable with one another. Detailed experimental results are given.

  19. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization model and dashboard that demonstrates the use of statistical methods, statistical process control, sensitivity analysis, quantitative and optimization techniques to establish a baseline and predict future customer satisfaction index scores (outcomes). The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) model and industry benchmarks were used as a framework for the simulation model.

  20. Initial results and mixed directions for Research Methods Tutor 1

    E-print Network

    Wiemer-Hastings, Peter

    Initial results and mixed directions for Research Methods Tutor 1 Peter Wiemer-Hastings a,2 and Information Systems b DePaul University Department of Psychology Abstract. RMT (Research Methods Tutor on research methods in psychology. RMT has a web-based interface and uses a talking head to to present its

  1. Depth determination for shallow teleseismic earthquakes Methods and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seth Stein; Douglas A. Wiens

    1986-01-01

    Contemporary methods used to determine depths of moderate-sized shallow teleseismic earthquakes are described. These include techniques based on surface wave spectra, and methods which estimate focal depth from the waveforms of body waves. The advantages of different methods and their limitations are discussed, and significant results for plate tectonics, obtained in the last five years by the application of these

  2. A 3-Dimensional Absorbed Dose Calculation Method Based on Quantitative SPECT for Radionuclide Therapy: Evaluation for 131I Using Monte Carlo Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ljungberg, Michael; Sjögreen, Katarina; Liu, Xiaowei; Frey, Eric; Dewaraja, Yuni; Strand, Sven-Erik

    2009-01-01

    A general method is presented for patient-specific 3-dimensional absorbed dose calculations based on quantitative SPECT activity measurements. Methods The computational scheme includes a method for registration of the CT image to the SPECT image and position-dependent compensation for attenuation, scatter, and collimator detector response performed as part of an iterative reconstruction method. A method for conversion of the measured activity distribution to a 3-dimensional absorbed dose distribution, based on the EGS4 (electron-gamma shower, version 4) Monte Carlo code, is also included. The accuracy of the activity quantification and the absorbed dose calculation is evaluated on the basis of realistic Monte Carlo–simulated SPECT data, using the SIMIND (simulation of imaging nuclear detectors) program and a voxel-based computer phantom. CT images are obtained from the computer phantom, and realistic patient movements are added relative to the SPECT image. The SPECT-based activity concentration and absorbed dose distributions are compared with the true ones. Results Correction could be made for object scatter, photon attenuation, and scatter penetration in the collimator. However, inaccuracies were imposed by the limited spatial resolution of the SPECT system, for which the collimator response correction did not fully compensate. Conclusion The presented method includes compensation for most parameters degrading the quantitative image information. The compensation methods are based on physical models and therefore are generally applicable to other radionuclides. The proposed evaluation methodology may be used as a basis for future intercomparison of different methods. PMID:12163637

  3. Pressure Ulcer Prevention Algorithm Content Validation: A Mixed-methods, Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijk, Lia; Beitz, Janice M

    2015-04-01

    Translating pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) evidence-based recommendations into practice remains challenging for a variety of reasons, including the perceived quality, validity, and usability of the research or the guideline itself. Following the development and face validation testing of an evidence-based PUP algorithm, additional stakeholder input and testing were needed. Using convenience sampling methods, wound care experts attending a national wound care conference and a regional wound ostomy continence nursing (WOCN) conference and/or graduates of a WOCN program were invited to participate in an Internal Review Board-approved, mixed-methods quantitative survey with qualitative components to examine algorithm content validity. After participants provided written informed consent, demographic variables were collected and participants were asked to comment on and rate the relevance and appropriateness of each of the 26 algorithm decision points/steps using standard content validation study procedures. All responses were anonymous. Descriptive summary statistics, mean relevance/appropriateness scores, and the content validity index (CVI) were calculated. Qualitative comments were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Of the 553 wound care experts invited, 79 (average age 52.9 years, SD 10.1; range 23-73) consented to participate and completed the study (a response rate of 14%). Most (67, 85%) were female, registered (49, 62%) or advanced practice (12, 15%) nurses, and had > 10 years of health care experience (88, 92%). Other health disciplines included medical doctors, physical therapists, nurse practitioners, and certified nurse specialists. Almost all had received formal wound care education (75, 95%). On a Likert-type scale of 1 (not relevant/appropriate) to 4 (very relevant and appropriate), the average score for the entire algorithm/all decision points (N = 1,912) was 3.72 with an overall CVI of 0.94 (out of 1). The only decision point/step recommendation with a CVI of ?0.70 was the recommendation to provide medical-grade sheepskin for patients at high risk for friction/shear. Many positive and substantive suggestions for minor modifications including color, flow, and algorithm orientation were received. The high overall and individual item rating scores and CVI further support the validity and appropriateness of the PUP algorithm with the addition of the minor modifications. The generic recommendations facilitate individualization, and future research should focus on construct validation testing. PMID:25853377

  4. A rapid quantitative method for the preparation of 123 I-iodo-hippuric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Hawkins; A. Elliott; R. Shields; K. Herman; P. Horton; W. Little; C. Umbers

    1982-01-01

    The labelling of o-iodo-hippuric acid (hippuran) with 123I by several methods was investigated with a view to producing a simple one-step kit preparation. The requirements for the final product are high labelling efficiency and high radiochemical purity. A method which incorporates CuSO4·5H2O as a catalyst was found which gave promising preliminary results. Such variables as pH, mass of CuSO4·5H2O, volume

  5. Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results

    E-print Network

    Hultman, Nathan E.

    PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results S.J. Smith E;PNNL-14537 Historical Sulfur Dioxide Emissions 1850-2000: Methods and Results PNNL Research Report (Jan 2004) 2 ABSTRACT A global, self-consistent estimate of sulfur dioxide emissions over the last one

  6. Reference Genes Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Using RankAggreg Method in Different Tissues of Capra hircus

    PubMed Central

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  7. Novel X-ray phase-contrast tomography method for quantitative studies of heat induced structural changes in meat.

    PubMed

    Miklos, Rikke; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Einarsdóttir, Hildur; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Lametsch, René

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of X-ray phase-contrast tomography combined with 3D image segmentation to investigate the heat induced structural changes in meat. The measurements were performed at the Swiss synchrotron radiation light source using a grating interferometric setup. The non-destructive method allowed the same sample to be measured before and after cooking. Heat denaturation resulted in a 36% decrease in the volume of the muscle fibers, while solubilization of the connective tissues increased the volume from 8.4%to 24.9%. The cooking loss was quantified and separated into a water phase and a gel phase formed by the sarcoplasmic proteins in the exudate. The results show that X-ray phase contrast tomography offers unique possibilities in studies both the meat structure and the different meat component such as water, fat, connective tissue and myofibrils in a qualitative and quantitative manner without prior sample preparation as isolation of single muscle components, calibration or histology. PMID:25460128

  8. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric multimycotoxin method for quantitating 26 mycotoxins in maize silage.

    PubMed

    Van Pamel, Els; Verbeken, Annemieke; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; De Boever, Johan; Daeseleire, Els

    2011-09-28

    A multianalyte method was developed to identify and quantitate 26 mycotoxins simultaneously in maize silage by means of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The extraction and cleanup procedure consists of two extraction steps followed by purification on a Waters Oasis HLB column. The method developed was validated with the requirements of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC taken into account. The limit of detection and quantitation ranges were 5-348 and 11-695 ng/g, respectively. Apparent recovery varied between 61 and 116%, whereas repeatability and reproducibility were within the ranges of 3-45 and 5-49%, respectively. The method developed was successfully applied for maize silage samples taken at the cutting surface and 1 m behind that surface. Mainly Fusarium toxins (beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, enniatins, fumonisins, fusaric acid, and zearalenone) were detected, but postharvest toxins such as mycophenolic acid and roquefortine C were identified as well. PMID:21888373

  9. Depth determination for shallow teleseismic earthquakes Methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.; Wiens, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Contemporary methods used to determine depths of moderate-sized shallow teleseismic earthquakes are described. These include techniques based on surface wave spectra, and methods which estimate focal depth from the waveforms of body waves. The advantages of different methods and their limitations are discussed, and significant results for plate tectonics, obtained in the last five years by the application of these methods, are presented. 119 references.

  10. Depth determination for shallow teleseismic earthquakes Methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Seth; Wiens, Douglas A.

    1986-01-01

    Contemporary methods used to determine depths of moderate-sized shallow teleseismic earthquakes are described. These include techniques based on surface wave spectra, and methods which estimate focal depth from the waveforms of body waves. The advantages of different methods and their limitations are discussed, and significant results for plate tectonics, obtained in the last five years by the application of these methods, are presented.

  11. Problems of a thermionic space NPS reactor unit quantitative reliability assessment on the basis of ground development results

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Nechaev, Y.A.; Khazanovich, I.M.; Samodelov, V.N. [RRC Kurchatov Institute Moscow123182 (Russia); Pavlov, K.A. [Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Central Scientific-Research Institute of Space Force MoscowK-160 (Russia)

    1997-01-01

    The paper sets forth major problems that arose in the course of a quantitative assessment of reliability of a TOPAZ-2 space NPS reactor unit performed on the basis of ground development results. Proposals are made on the possible ways to solve those problems through development and introduction of individual standards especially for the ground development stage, which would specify the assessment algorithm and censoring rules, and exclude a number of existing uncertainties when making a decision on going to flight testing. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Method performance and multi-laboratory assessment of a normal phase HPLC/FLD method for the quantitation of flavanols and procyanidins in cocoa and chocolate containing samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quantitative parameters and method performance for a normal-phase HPLC separation of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing food products were optimized and assessed. The chromatographic separation based on degree of polymerization (DP) was achieved on a diol stationary ph...

  13. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain in utero: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Biegon, Anat; Hoffmann, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Application of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to the live fetus in utero is a relatively recent endeavor. The relative advantages and disadvantages of clinical MRI relative to the widely used and accepted ultrasonographic approach are the subject of a continuing debate; however the focus of this review is on the even younger field of quantitative MRI as applied to non-invasive studies of fetal brain development. The techniques covered under this header include structural MRI when followed by quantitative (e.g., volumetric) analysis, as well as quantitative analyses of diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI. The majority of the published work reviewed here reflects information gathered from normal fetuses scanned during the 3rd trimester, with relatively smaller number of studies of pathological samples including common congenital pathologies such as ventriculomegaly and viral infection. PMID:25170390

  14. A method to quantitatively apportion pollutants at high spatial and temporal resolution: the Stochastic Lagrangian Apportionment Method (SLAM).

    PubMed

    Lin, John C; Wen, Deyong

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a method to quantify upwind contributions to concentrations of atmospheric pollutants. The Stochastic Lagrangian Apportionment Method (SLAM) carries out the following: (1) account for chemical transformations and depositional losses; (2) incorporate the effects of turbulent dispersion; (3) simulate the locations of the sources with high spatial and temporal resolution; and (4) minimize the impact from numerical diffusion. SLAM accomplishes these four features by using a time-reversed Lagrangian particle dispersion model and then simulating chemical changes forward in time, while tagging and keeping track of different sources. As an example of SLAM's application, we show its use in apportioning sources contributing to ammonia (NH3) and ammonium particulates (p-NH4(+)) at a site in southern Ontario, Canada. Agricultural emissions are seen to dominate contributions to NH3 and p-NH4(+) at the site. The source region of NH3 was significantly smaller than that of p-NH4(+), which covered numerous states of the American Midwest. The source apportionment results from SLAM were compared against those from zeroing-out individual sources ("brute force method"; BFM). The comparisons show SLAM to produce almost identical results as BFM for NH3, but higher concentrations of p-NH4(+), likely due to indirect effects that affect BFM. Finally, uncertainties in the SLAM approach and ways to address such shortcomings by combining SLAM with inverse methods are discussed. PMID:25437345

  15. Simple radiometric method for accurately quantitating epitope densities of hapten-protein conjugates with sulfhydryl linkages.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Eric C; Hambuchen, Michael D; Tawney, Rachel L; Gunnell, Melinda G; Cowell, James L; Lay, Jackson O; Blough, Bruce E; Carroll, F Ivy; Owens, S Michael

    2014-12-17

    Control of small molecule hapten epitope densities on antigenic carrier proteins is essential for development and testing of optimal conditions for vaccines. Yet, accurate determination of epitope density can be extremely difficult to accomplish, especially with the use of small haptens, large molecular weight carrier proteins, and limited amounts of protein. Here we report a simple radiometric method that uses (14)C-labeled cystine to measure hapten epitope densities during sulfhydryl conjugation of haptens to maleimide activated carrier proteins. The method was developed using a (+)-methamphetamine (METH)-like hapten with a sulfhydryl terminus, and two prototype maleimide activated carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunocyanin monomers of keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The method was validated by immunochemical analysis of the hapten-BSA conjugates, and least-squares linear regression analysis of epitope density values determined by the new radiometric method versus values determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Results showed that radiometric epitope density values correlated extremely well with the mass spectrometrically derived values (r(2) = 0.98, y = 0.98x + 0.91). This convenient and simple method could be useful during several stages of vaccine development including the optimization and monitoring of conditions for hapten-protein conjugations, and choosing the most effective epitope densities for conjugate vaccines. PMID:25426820

  16. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.

    1982-07-07

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fission are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for /sup 239/Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.

  17. An Alternative Method for Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject ResearchesPercentage of Data Points Exceeding the Median

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsen-Hsing Ma

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold: (a) to compare the validation of percentage of nonoverlapping data approach and percentage of data points exceeding the median of baseline phase (PEM) approach, and (b) to demonstrate application of the PEM approach in conducting a quantitative synthesis of single-subject research investigating the effectiveness of self-control. The results show that the PEM

  18. A Search Relevancy Tuning Method Using Expert Results Content Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boris Mark Tylevich

    2004-01-01

    The article presents an online relevancy tuning method using explicit user\\u000afeedback. The author developed and tested a method of words' weights\\u000amodification based on search result evaluation by user. User decides whether\\u000athe result is useful or not after inspecting the full result content. The\\u000aexperiment proved that the constantly accumulated words weights base leads to\\u000abetter search quality

  19. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan image in acoustically homogeneous and layered anisotropic materials using three dimensional ray tracing method.

    PubMed

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. PMID:24008174

  20. Simplified and rapid method for extraction of ergosterol from natural samples and detection with quantitative and semi-quantitative methods using thin-layer chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Larsen; Jørgen Axelsen; Helle Weber Ravn

    2004-01-01

    A new and simplified method for extraction of ergosterol (ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3?-ol) from fungi in soil and litter was developed using pre-soaking extraction and paraffin oil for recovery. Recoveries of ergosterol were in the range of 94–100% depending on the solvent to oil ratio. Extraction efficiencies equal to heat-assisted extraction treatments were obtained with pre-soaking extraction. Ergosterol was detected with thin-layer chromatography

  1. A bioelectrochemical method for the quantitative description of the Hofmeister effect of ionic liquids in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Hu, Yan; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

    2012-09-13

    It is imperative to establish a simple, efficient, and practical method to investigate the Hofmeister effect of ionic liquids (ILs) on the behavior of proteins (enzymes). In this study, the effects of the cations and anions of different ILs in aqueous media on the structural stability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP), a model oxidoreductase, were systematically investigated using electrochemical methods. It is found that without ILs no direct electron transfer current signals of HRP appear at bare glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) even after incubation and accumulation at a negative potential. In the presence of ILs, however, a current signal occurs at GCE, depending on the structure of the IL and its concentration. A linear relationship between the peak currents and the scan rates demonstrates that the direct electron transfer is a surface-confined thin-layer electrochemical process. The redox signal at GCE is from the heme of HRP. An IL has a perturbing effect on the HRP structure. The anodic peak current of HRP at GCE, the catalytic activity of HRP, and the secondary structure of HRP are well correlated. Different cations or anions at varied concentrations have different effects on the structural stability of HRP, resulting in different current signals at GCE. Thus, the anodic peak current of HRP at GCE can be used as an indicator to quantitatively characterize the effect of ILs on the structural stability of HRP. The present Hofmeister series for cations and anions is in good agreement with that reported elsewhere. To our knowledge, this is a first attempt to establish a simple and practical electrochemical method to correlate Hofmeister effects with characteristics of ions and solvents. The present investigation not only deepens our understanding of the complex electrochemical behavior of proteins in ILs media but also offers a practical guidance to designing "green" and biocompatible ILs for protein (enzyme) separation, purification, and enzymatic catalysis and conversion. PMID:22897433

  2. Simple and validated quantitative ¹H NMR method for the determination of methylation, acetylation, and feruloylation degree of pectin.

    PubMed

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2014-09-17

    The knowledge of pectin esterification degree is of primary importance to predict gelling and other properties of pectin from different sources. This paper reports the development of a simple and rapid (1)H NMR-based method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of methylation, acetylation, and feruloylation degree of pectin isolated from various food sources. Pectin esters are hydrolyzed in NaOH/D2O, and the obtained methanol, acetic acid, and ferulic acid are directly measured by (1)H NMR. High accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were obtained, and the analysis time is reduced as compared to conventional chromatography- or titration-based methods. PMID:25137229

  3. Development of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for systematic quantitative analysis of chemical constituents in rhubarb.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Katsuko; Nagayama, Yorinobu; Tanaka, Ken; Ling, Yun; Basnet, Purusotam; Meselhy, Meselhy Ragab

    2006-07-01

    HPLC methods for the systematic determination of 30 compounds in Rhei Rhizoma (rhubarb) were developed. Using a combination of mobile phase gradient conditions and UV detection at 280 nm, all 30 compounds were separated satisfactorily with low detection limits (0.05-2 microg/ml). The developed methods provided a reliable calibration curve for each compound. By adopting these methods, the determination of 30 compounds in three kinds of rhubarb samples, derived from Rheum tanguticum, R. palmatum and R. officinale, was achieved. The constituent pattern of each rhubarb was clearly characterized through the quantitative composition of 30 major constituents of rhubarb. PMID:16819208

  4. A general Monte Carlo method for mapping multiple quantitative trait loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritsert C. Jansen

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we address the mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in line crosses for which the genetic data are highly incomplete. Such complicated situations occur, for instance, when dominant markers are used or when unequally informative markers are used in experiments with outbred populations. We describe a general and flexible Monte Carlo expectation-maximization (Monte Carlo EM) algorithm

  5. Methods for Evidence-Based Practice: Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Good quantitative evidence does not require large, aggregate group designs. The authors describe ground-breaking work in managing the conceptual and practical demands in developing meta-analytic strategies for single subject designs in an effort to add to evidence-based practice. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compounds: A Simple and Rapid Method for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen

    1973-01-01

    Describes the procedure for making a quantitative analysis of organic compounds suitable for secondary school chemistry classes. Using the Schoniger procedure, the organic compound, such as PVC, is decomposed in a conical flask with oxygen. The products are absorbed in a suitable liquid and analyzed by titration. (JR)

  7. Simple, rapid, and inexpensive cleanup method for quantitation of aflatoxins in important agricultural products by HPLC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, fast and cheap chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Aflatoxins were extracted from a ground sample with methanol-water (80:20, v/v), and after a cleanup step...

  8. Commutability of the Epstein-Barr Virus WHO International Standard across Two Quantitative PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Abeynayake, Janaki; Johnson, Ryan; Libiran, Paolo; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Cao, Hongbin; Bowen, Raffick; Chan, K. C. Allen; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    The commutability of international reference standards is critical for ensuring quantitative agreement across different viral load assays. Here, we demonstrate the commutability of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) WHO international standard for the BamHI-W and artus EBV assays. PMID:25078918

  9. Commutability of the Epstein-Barr virus WHO international standard across two quantitative PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Abeynayake, Janaki; Johnson, Ryan; Libiran, Paolo; Sahoo, Malaya K; Cao, Hongbin; Bowen, Raffick; Chan, K C Allen; Le, Quynh-Thu; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2014-10-01

    The commutability of international reference standards is critical for ensuring quantitative agreement across different viral load assays. Here, we demonstrate the commutability of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) WHO international standard for the BamHI-W and artus EBV assays. PMID:25078918

  10. A simple LIBS method for fast quantitative analysis of fly ashes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Stankova; Nicole Gilon; Lionel Dutruch; Viktor Kanicky

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of quantitative analysis of major elements (Ca, Al, Mg, Si and Fe) present in fly ashes was made using a simple and cost effective LIBS system. LIBS parameters were optimized to obtain best sensitivity and repeatability. In this purpose different binders were compared, leading to best sensitivity and mechanical stability when a binder containing silver and cellulose was

  11. Quantitative electroencephalography: A method to assess cerebral injury after hypothermic circulatory arrest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig K. Mezrow; Peter S. Midulla; Ali M. Sadeghi; Alejandro Gandsas; Weijia Wang; Howard H. Shiang; Carol Bodian; Otto E. Dapunt; Rosario Zappulla; Randall B. Griepp

    1995-01-01

    Although hypothermic circulatory arrest and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass are routinely used for surgical correction of congenital cardiac anomalies, use of long durations of arrest, often required for more complex repairs, raises serious concerns about cerebral safety. Searching for an intraoperative assessment that can reliably predict cerebral injury, we have found an excellent correlation between changes in quantitative electroencephalography intraoperatively and

  12. Quantitative detection of CMV DNA by PCR and hybridizaton methods in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Siennicka, J; Rechnio, M; Durlik, M; Litwi?ska, B; Ka?toch, M

    2000-01-01

    The comparison of two quantitative tests: hybridization (Murex Hybrid Capture System) and PCR (COBAS AMPLICOR CMV Monitor) detected CMV DNA was made. Investigation of viral load in serum by PCR gave better correlation with clinical manifestation in renal transplant recipients. PMID:11293659

  13. Outflow forces of low-mass embedded objects in Ophiuchus: a quantitative comparison of analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Y?ld?z, U. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The outflow force of molecular bipolar outflows is a key parameter in theories of young stellar feedback on their surroundings. The focus of many outflow studies is the correlation between the outflow force, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass. However, it is difficult to combine the results of different studies in large evolutionary plots over many orders of magnitude due to the range of data quality, analysis methods, and corrections for observational effects, such as opacity and inclination. Aims: We aim to determine the outflow force for a sample of low-luminosity embedded sources. We quantify the influence of the analysis method and the assumptions entering the calculation of the outflow force. Methods: We used the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map 12CO J = 3-2 over 2'× 2' regions around 16 Class I sources of a well-defined sample in Ophiuchus at 15? resolution. The outflow force was then calculated using seven different methods differing, e.g., in the use of intensity-weighted emission and correction factors for inclination. Two well studied outflows (HH 46 and NGC1 333 IRAS4A) are added to the sample and included in the comparison. Results: The results from the analysis methods differ from each other by up to a factor of 6, whereas observational properties and choices in the analysis procedure affect the outflow force by up to a factor of 4. Subtraction of cloud emission and integrating over the remaining profile increases the outflow force at most by a factor of 4 compared to line wing integration. For the sample of Class I objects, bipolar outflows are detected around 13 sources including 5 new detections, where the three nondetections are confused by nearby outflows from other sources. New outflow structures without a clear powering source are discovered at the corners of some of the maps. Conclusions: When combining outflow forces from different studies, a scatter by up to a factor of 5 can be expected. Although the true outflow force remains unknown, the separation method (separate calculation of dynamical time and momentum) is least affected by the uncertain observational parameters. The correlations between outflow force, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass are further confirmed down to low-luminosity sources. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Quantitative assessment of port-wine stains using chromametry: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beacco, Claire; Brunetaud, Jean Marc; Rotteleur, Guy; Steen, D. A.; Brunet, F.

    1996-12-01

    Objective assessment of the efficacy of different lasers for the treatment of port wine stains remains difficult. Chromametry gives reproducible information on the color of PWS, but its data are useless for a medical doctor. Thus a specific software was developed to allow graphic representation of PWS characteristics. Before the first laser treatment and after every treatment, tests were done using a chromameter on a marked zone of the PWS and on the control-lateral normal zone which represents the reference. The software calculates and represents graphically the difference of color between PWS and normal skin using data provided by the chromameter. Three parameters are calculated: (Delta) H is the difference of hue, (Delta) L is the difference of lightness and (Delta) E is the total difference of color. Each measured zone is represented by its coordinates. Calculated initial values were compared with the subjective initial color assessed by the dermatologist. The variation of the color difference was calculated using the successive values of (Delta) E after n treatments and was compared with the subjective classification of fading. Since January 1995, forty three locations have been measured before laser treatment. Purple PWS tended to differentiate from others but red and dark pink PWS could not be differentiated. The evolution of the color after treatment was calculated in 29 PWS treated 3 or 4 times. Poor result corresponded to an increase of (Delta) E. Fair and good results were associated to a decrease of (Delta) E. We did not observe excellent results during this study. These promising preliminary results need to be confirmed in a larger group of patients.

  15. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  16. Dans Revive the Past : Proceedings of the 39th Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Beijing, China, 12-16

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA), Beijing, China, 12-16 April 2011 - Annual Conference of Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (CAA 2011), Beijing : Chine (2011) - http://hal-paris1 and the understanding of research processes in Humanities, such as Archaeology. We believe that to properly understand

  17. Searching for seafloor massive sulfides: a quantitative review of high-resolution methods in deep sea sonar bathymetry for mining applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchley, Michael; Sears, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Seafloor massive sulphides are deep sea mineral deposits currently being examined as a potential mining resource. Conventional sonar bathymetry products gathered by sea surface platforms do not achieve adequate spatial resolution to detect these resources. High-resolution beamforming methods (such as multiple signal classification and estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques) improve the resolution of sonar bathymetry. We perform a quantitative review of these high-resolution methods using a novel simulator, showing results in the absence of platform motion for a single ping cycle. It was found that high-resolution methods achieved greater bathymetric accuracy and higher resolution than conventional beamforming and that these methods may be adequate for this style of marine exploration. These methods were also robust in the presence of unwanted persistent signals and low signal to noise ratios.

  18. Chiral selectors for enantioresolution and quantitation of the antidepressant drug fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulations by (19)F NMR spectroscopic method.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Dastjerdi, Leila Shafiee; Haghgoo, Soheila; Armspach, Dominique; Matt, Dominique; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2007-10-01

    (19)F NMR spectroscopy was applied to the quantitative determination of fluoxetine enantiomers using different chiral recognition agents in pharmaceutical formulations. Several parameters affecting the enantioresolution including the type and concentration of chiral selector, concentration of fluoxetine and temperature were studied. The chiral selectors investigated are the cyclic oligosaccharides alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin and a diamino derivative of methylated alpha-cyclodextrin (DAM-alpha-CD), linear polysaccharides (maltodextrin with dextrose equivalents of 4.0-7.0, 13.0-17.0 and 16.5-19.5) and the macrocyclic antibiotic vancomycin. Among the chiral selectors used, DAM-alpha-CD turned out to give the best resolution of the (19)F NMR signals of (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine. The calibration curve was linear for (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine over the range 0.10-1.35 mgmL(-1), the detection limits (S/N=3) being 5.9 and 7.5 microgmL(-1) for the pure solutions of (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine, respectively. The recovery studies performed on pharmaceutical samples ranged from about 90 to 110% with relative standard deviations of <8%. The results showed that the proposed method is rapid, precise and accurate. Applying statistical Student's t-test revealed insignificant difference between the real and measured contents at the 95% confidence level. PMID:17904479

  19. A Simple ERP Method for Quantitative Analysis of Cognitive Workload in Myoelectric Prosthesis Control and Human-Machine Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Deeny, Sean; Chicoine, Caitlin; Hargrove, Levi; Parrish, Todd; Jayaraman, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Common goals in the development of human-machine interface (HMI) technology are to reduce cognitive workload and increase function. However, objective and quantitative outcome measures assessing cognitive workload have not been standardized for HMI research. The present study examines the efficacy of a simple event-related potential (ERP) measure of cortical effort during myoelectric control of a virtual limb for use as an outcome tool. Participants trained and tested on two methods of control, direct control (DC) and pattern recognition control (PRC), while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded. Eighteen healthy participants with intact limbs were tested using DC and PRC under three conditions: passive viewing, easy, and hard. Novel auditory probes were presented at random intervals during testing, and significant task-difficulty effects were observed in the P200, P300, and a late positive potential (LPP), supporting the efficacy of ERPs as a cognitive workload measure in HMI tasks. LPP amplitude distinguished DC from PRC in the hard condition with higher amplitude in PRC, consistent with lower cognitive workload in PRC relative to DC for complex movements. Participants completed trials faster in the easy condition using DC relative to PRC, but completed trials more slowly using DC relative to PRC in the hard condition. The results provide promising support for ERPs as an outcome measure for cognitive workload in HMI research such as prosthetics, exoskeletons, and other assistive devices, and can be used to evaluate and guide new technologies for more intuitive HMI control. PMID:25402345

  20. Quantitative Evaluation of E1 Endoglucanase Recovery from Tobacco Leaves Using the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Nathaniel J.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    As a production platform for recombinant proteins, plant leaf tissue has many advantages, but commercialization of this technology has been hindered by high recovery and purification costs. Vacuum infiltration-centrifugation (VI-C) is a technique to obtain extracellularly-targeted products from the apoplast wash fluid (AWF). Because of its selective recovery of secreted proteins without homogenizing the whole tissue, VI-C can potentially reduce downstream production costs. Lab scale experiments were conducted to quantitatively evaluate the VI-C method and compared to homogenization techniques in terms of product purity, concentration, and other desirable characteristics. From agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, up to 81% of a truncated version of E1 endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was recovered with VI-C versus homogenate extraction, and average purity and concentration increases of 4.2-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, were observed. Formulas were developed to predict recovery yields of secreted protein obtained by performing multiple rounds of VI-C on the same leaf tissue. From this, it was determined that three rounds of VI-C recovered 97% of the total active recombinant protein accessible to the VI-C procedure. The results suggest that AWF recovery is an efficient process that could reduce downstream processing steps and costs for plant-made recombinant proteins. PMID:24971334

  1. Perception of mobbing during the study: results of a national quantitative research among Slovenian midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Došler, Anita Jug; Skubic, Metka; Mivšek, Ana Polona

    2014-09-01

    Mobbing, defined as sustained harassment among workers, in particular towards subordinates, merits investigation. This study aims to investigate Slovenian midwifery students' (2nd and 3rd year students of midwifery at the Faculty for Health Studies Ljubljana; the single educational institution for midwives in Slovenia) perception of mobbing, since management of acceptable behavioural interrelationships in midwifery profession forms already during the study, through professional socialization. Descriptive and causal-nonexperimental method with questionnaire was used. Basic descriptive statistics and measures for calculating statistical significance were carried out with SPSS 20.0 software version. All necessary ethical measures were taken into the consideration during the study to protect participants. The re- sults revealed that several participants experienced mobbing during the study (82.3%); 58.8% of them during their practical training and 23.5% from midwifery teachers. Students are often anxious and nervous in face of clinical settings (60.8%) or before faculty commitments (exams, presentations etc.) (41.2%). A lot of them (40.4%) estimate that mobbing affected their health. They did not show effective strategies to solve relationship problems. According to the findings, everyone involved in midwifery education, but above all students, should be provided with more knowledge and skills on successful management of conflict situations. PMID:25507371

  2. Perception of mobbing during the study: results of a national quantitative research among Slovenian midwifery students.

    PubMed

    Došler, Anita Jug; Skubic, Metka; Mivšek, Ana Polona

    2014-09-01

    Mobbing, defined as sustained harassment among workers, in particular towards subordinates, merits investigation. This study aims to investigate Slovenian midwifery students' (2nd and 3rd year students of midwifery at the Faculty for Health Studies Ljubljana; the single educational institution for midwives in Slovenia) perception of mobbing, since management of acceptable behavioural interrelationships in midwifery profession forms already during the study, through professional socialization. Descriptive and causal-nonexperimental method with questionnaire was used. Basic descriptive statistics and measures for calculating statistical significance were carried out with SPSS 20.0 software version. All necessary ethical measures were taken into the consideration during the study to protect participants. The re- sults revealed that several participants experienced mobbing during the study (82.3%); 58.8% of them during their practical training and 23.5% from midwifery teachers. Students are often anxious and nervous in face of clinical settings (60.8%) or before faculty commitments (exams, presentations etc.) (41.2%). A lot of them (40.4%) estimate that mobbing affected their health. They did not show effective strategies to solve relationship problems. According to the findings, everyone involved in midwifery education, but above all students, should be provided with more knowledge and skills on successful management of conflict situations. PMID:25420387

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Methods for Event-specific Detection of Genetically Modified Cotton Mon1445 and Mon531

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litao Yang; Aihu Pan; Kewei Zhang; Changsong Yin; Bingjun Qian; Jianxiu Chen; Cheng Huang; Dabing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the DNA sequences of the junctions between recombinant and cotton genomic DNA of the two genetically modified (GM)\\u000a cotton varieties, herbicide-tolerance Mon1445 and insect-resistant Mon531, event-specific primers and probes for qualitative\\u000a and quantitative PCR detection for both GM cotton varieties were designed, and corresponding detection methods were developed.\\u000a In qualitative PCR detection, the simplex and multiplex PCR detection

  4. Comparison of three rapid and easy bacterial DNA extraction methods for use with quantitative real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. van Tongeren; J. E. Degener; H. J. M. Harmsen

    The development of fast and easy on-site molecular detection and quantification methods for hazardous microbes on solid surfaces\\u000a is desirable for several applications where specialised laboratory facilities are absent. The quantification of bacterial\\u000a contamination necessitates the assessment of the efficiency of the used methodology as a whole, including the preceding steps\\u000a of sampling and sample processing. We used quantitative real-time

  5. Eliciting stakeholder preferences: An application of qualitative and quantitative methods to shrimp aquaculture in the Indian Sundarbans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Philcox; Duncan Knowler; Wolfgang Haider

    2010-01-01

    The Sundarbans region of West Bengal in India is inhabited by small-scale farmers and traditional rice paddy-cum-prawn cultivators. Recent policy initiatives by the Government of India may facilitate expansion of commercial shrimp aquaculture in the future, setting the stage for potential conflicts between local stakeholders. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the preferences of local stakeholders for alternative

  6. Testing the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method for comparison of EIA and SEA results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markku Kuitunen; Kimmo Jalava; Kimmo Hirvonen

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how the results of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) could be compared using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method.There are many tools and techniques that have been developed for use in impact assessment processes, including scoping, checklists, matrices, qualitative and quantitative models, literature reviews, and decision-support systems. While impact assessment processes have

  7. Quantitation of Hsp70 levels in Pimephales promelas using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method

    SciTech Connect

    Badami, C.; Dickson, K.L. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Inst. of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    In order to evaluate the expression of stress proteins as biomarkers of the effects of chemical exposure, studies were carried out with Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Experiments were designed in which 90 to 120 days old fathead minnows were stressed with varying concentrations (0.25 ppm to 4 ppM) of Cu{sup 2+}, for 4 hours. The levels of Hsp7O in muscle tissue were quantitated by using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that is highly specific and accurately measures the total pool of Hsp7O in tissues. In previous studies, the concentrations of Hsp7O were quantitated using ELISA in bovine tissue. Hsp70 (for calibration purposes) and antibodies that are specific to constitutive and inducible forms of Hsp7O were purchased commercially. Using this assay method the authors were able to confirm quantitatively, that relative to laboratory controls, higher levels of the inducible form of Hsp70 exists in the tissue of fish that were stressed with Cu{sup 2+}. This method allows for the rapid detection of stress proteins which could be used for field applications.

  8. Uniform hp convergence results for the mortar finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padmanabhan Seshaiyer; Manil Suri

    2000-01-01

    The mortar nite element is an example of a non-conforming method which can be used to decompose and re-compose a domain into sub- domains without requiring compatibility between the meshes on the separate components. We obtain stability and convergence results for this method that are uniform in terms of both the degree and the mesh used, without assum- ing quasiuniformity

  9. A new evaluation method of thermal transient measurement results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Székely

    1997-01-01

    Thermal transient recording is a commonly used method for characterization of IC packages. The evaluation of the measured data, however, has involved open questions. The article presents a new mathematical method for the evaluation of the recorded transient. The result of the evaluation is a detailed heat-flow map of the package structure, called the structure function. The paper also deals

  10. Quantitative methods for three-dimensional comparison and petrographic description of chondrites

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, J.M. (Fordham)

    2008-10-20

    X-ray computed tomography can be used to generate three-dimensional (3D) volumetric representations of chondritic meteorites. One of the challenges of using collected X-ray tomographic data is the extraction of useful data for 3D petrographic analysis or description. Here, I examine computer-aided quantitative 3D texture metrics that can be used for the classification of chondritic meteorites. These quantitative techniques are extremely useful for discriminating between chondritic materials, but yield little information on the 3D morphology of chondrite components. To investigate the morphology of chondrite minerals such as Fe(Ni) metal and related sulfides, the homology descriptors known as Betti numbers, are examined. Both methodologies are illustrated with theoretical discussion and examples. Betti numbers may be valuable for examining the nature of metal-silicate structural changes within chondrites with increasing degrees of metamorphism.

  11. Quantitative structure–pharmacokinetic relationships for drug clearance by using statistical learning methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Yap; Z. R. Li; Y. Z. Chen

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative structure–pharmacokinetic relationships (QSPkR) have increasingly been used for the prediction of the pharmacokinetic properties of drug leads. Several QSPkR models have been developed to predict the total clearance (CLtot) of a compound. These models give good prediction accuracy but they are primarily based on a limited number of related compounds which are significantly lesser in number and diversity than

  12. Method for quantitating cholesterol in subfractions of serum lipoproteins separated by gradient gel electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M.-L. Cheng; C. M. Kammerer; W. F. Lowe; B. Dyke; J. L. VandeBerg

    1988-01-01

    Extensive heterogeneity in particle size distribution of serum lipoproteins of baboons was resolved by a procedure that combined\\u000a Sudan black B prestaining, polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE), and quantitative densitometry. Each densitometric\\u000a scan represented a continuous distribution of the relative amount of cholesterol in a serum sample, as a function of the lipoprotein\\u000a particle size. For analytical purposes, each scan

  13. A field method for making a quantitative estimate of altered tuff in sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, R.A.

    1954-01-01

    The use of benzidine to identify altered tuff in sandstone is practical for field or field laboratory studies associated with stratigraphic correlations, mineral deposit investigations, or paleogeographic interpretations. The method is based on the ability of saturated benzidine (C12H12N2) solution to produce a blue stain on montmorillonite-bearing tuff grains. The method is substantiated by the results of microscopic, X-ray spectrometer, and spectrographic tests which lead to the conclusion that: (1) the benzidine stain test differentiates grains of different composition, (2) the white or gray grains which are stained a uniform blue color are fragments of altered tuff, and (3) white or gray grains which stain in a few small spots are probably silicified tuff. The amount of sand grains taken from a hand specimen or an outcrop which will be held by a penny is spread out on a nonabsorbent white surface and soaked with benzidine for 5 minutes. The approximate number blue grains and the average grain size are used in a chart to determine a reference number which measures relative order of abundance. The chart, based on a volume relationship, corrects for the variation in the number of grains in the sample as the grain size varies. Practical use of the method depends on a knowledge of several precautionary measures as well as an understanding of the limitations of benzidine staining tests.

  14. A method for representing search results in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Miller, M H

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for representing results of an information retrieval search in a three dimensional environment. Aside from the fact that users find 3-D interfaces visually appealing, there are strong practical reasons for developing 3-D representations of search results. Traditional information retrieval systems present results in ordered lists which are difficult to browse, and exclude useful information. The current method employs a multivariate statistical method called Local Latent Semantic Indexing (LLSI) to create meaningful local dimensions in which to view search results. A prototype Internet-ready system is described which utilizes Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) to display search results. Preliminary tests of this system with a small collection of MEDLINE articles are very encouraging. PMID:9357683

  15. Optimization of an Optical Inspection System Based on the Taguchi Method for Quantitative Analysis of Point-of-Care Testing

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Zhao, Zi-Qi; Shen, Pi-Lan; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an optical inspection system for detecting a commercial point-of-care testing product and a new detection model covering from qualitative to quantitative analysis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) strips (cut-off value of the hCG commercial product is 25 mIU/mL) were the detection target in our study. We used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor to detect the colors of the test line and control line in the specific strips and to reduce the observation errors by the naked eye. To achieve better linearity between the grayscale and the concentration, and to decrease the standard deviation (increase the signal to noise ratio, S/N), the Taguchi method was used to find the optimal parameters for the optical inspection system. The pregnancy test used the principles of the lateral flow immunoassay, and the colors of the test and control line were caused by the gold nanoparticles. Because of the sandwich immunoassay model, the color of the gold nanoparticles in the test line was darkened by increasing the hCG concentration. As the results reveal, the S/N increased from 43.48 dB to 53.38 dB, and the hCG concentration detection increased from 6.25 to 50 mIU/mL with a standard deviation of less than 10%. With the optimal parameters to decrease the detection limit and to increase the linearity determined by the Taguchi method, the optical inspection system can be applied to various commercial rapid tests for the detection of ketamine, troponin I, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP). PMID:25256108

  16. Quantitation of serogroups in multivalent polysaccharide-based meningococcal vaccines: optimisation of hydrolysis conditions and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew C; Bliu, Alex; Kunkel, Jeremy P

    2013-08-12

    Quantitative determination of the individual polysaccharide components in multivalent meningococcal vaccines is an important step in manufacturing and regulatory control. Current methods are complicated due to the use of multiple chromatographic setups and/or other analytical techniques for the four meningococcal serogroup polysaccharides (A, C, Y, W135). In addition, different methods are sometimes used depending on whether or not the polysaccharide is conjugated to a carrier protein. In an effort to simplify such analyses, hydrolysis conditions were determined for the optimal yield of each characteristic saccharide from the respective repeating units. One condition was identified for mannosamine-6-phosphate from MenA, one for neuraminic acid from MenC, and one for both glucose and galactose from MenY and MenW135, respectively. These conditions, initially assessed for monovalent solutions, were then confirmed for a quadrivalent solution. The monosaccharide products were separated, identified and quantitated using a single HPAEC-PAD protocol, with a customised multi-stage linear gradient eluent profile and one column setup, for determination of all four serogroup components. Comparison to calibration curves constructed from sets of monosaccharide or hydrolysed polysaccharide standards allowed for the quantitation of each characteristic serogroup monosaccharide in polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. When required, molecular size separation using a non-cellulosic centrifugal filter device effectively removed all interfering saccharide excipient without loss of serogroup polysaccharides. These methods were used to analyse multiple lots of a number of different monovalent or multivalent real polysaccharide-based vaccine products, in liquid or lyophilised powder formulations, with or without excipients. The methods were demonstrated to be highly reproducible and very useful for the evaluation of antigen content and lot-to-lot consistency of manufacture. The methods described here represent an increase in precision, level of accuracy and efficiency compared to current methods, and may be adaptable for evaluation of other types of polysaccharide-based vaccines. PMID:23764533

  17. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cappione, Amedeo; Lento, Joseph; Chernokalskaya, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5?mg/mL) and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2?µL); it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents. PMID:25371845

  18. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  19. Comparison of anaerobic susceptibility results obtained by different methods.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E; Murray, P R; Sonnenwirth, A C; Joyce, J L

    1979-03-01

    Susceptibility tests using 7 antimicrobial agents (carbenicillin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, penicillin, cephalothin, metronidazole, and tetracycline) were run against 35 anaerobes including Bacteroides fragilis (17), other gram-negative bacilli (7), clostridia (5), peptococci (4), and eubacteria (2). Results in triplicate obtained by the microbroth dilution method and the aerobic modification of the broth disk method were compared with those obtained with an agar dilution method using Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Media used in the microbroth dilution method included Wilkins-Chalgren broth, brain heart infusion broth, brucella broth, tryptic soy broth, thioglycolate broth, and Schaedler's broth. A result differing by more than one dilution from the Wilkins-Chalgren agar result was considered a discrepancy, and when there was a change in susceptibility status this was termed a significant discrepancy. The microbroth dilution method using Wilkins-Chalgren broth and thioglycolate broth produced the fewest total discrepancies (22 and 24, respectively), and Wilkins-Chalgren broth, thioglycolate, and Schaedler's broth had the fewest significant discrepancies (6, 5, and 5, respectively). With the broth disk method, there were 15 significant discrepancies, although half of these were with tetracycline, which was the antimicrobial agent associated with the highest number of significant discrepancies (33), considering all of the test methods and media. PMID:464560

  20. Validation of a simple liquid chromatographic method for determination and quantitation of residual ivermectin and doramectin in pig liver.

    PubMed

    Knold, Lone; Reitov, Marianne; Mortensen, Anna Birthe; Hansen-Møller, Jens

    2002-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative method for the extraction, derivatization, and liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection of ivermectin (IVM) and doramectin (DOM) residues in porcine liver was developed and validated. IVM and DOM were extracted from the liver samples with acetonitrile, the supernatant was evaporated to dryness at 37 degrees C under nitrogen, and the residue was reconstituted in 1-methylimidazole solution. After 2 min at room temperature, IVM and DOM were converted to a fluorescent derivative and then separated on a Hypersil ODS column. The derivatives of IVM and DOM were detected and quantitated with high specificity by fluorescence (excitation: 365 nm, emission: 475 nm). Abamectin was used as an internal standard. The mean extraction efficiencies from fortified samples (15 ng/g) were 75% for IVM and 70% for DOM. The limit of detection was 0.8 ng/g for both IVM and DOM. PMID:11990020

  1. Comparison of the Diagnostic Performance of Four Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion Estimation Methods Used in Cardiac MR Imaging: CE-MARC Substudy.

    PubMed

    Biglands, John D; Magee, Derek R; Sourbron, Steven P; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P; Radjenovic, Aleksandra

    2015-05-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of four tracer kinetic analysis methods to quantify myocardial perfusion from magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cardiac perfusion data sets in terms of their ability to lead to the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the regional ethics committee, and all patients gave written consent. A representative sample of 50 patients with suspected ischemic heart disease was retrospectively selected from the Clinical Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease trial data set. Quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) was estimated from rest and adenosine stress MR imaging perfusion data sets by using four established methods. A matching diagnosis of both an inducible defect as assessed with single photon emission computed tomography and a luminal stenosis of 70% or more as assessed with quantitative x-ray angiography was used as the reference standard for the presence of myocardial ischemia. Diagnostic performance was evaluated with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for each method, with stress MBF and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) serving as continuous measures. Results Area under the ROC curve with stress MBF and MPR as the outcome measures, respectively, was 0.86 and 0.92 for the Fermi model, 0.85 and 0.87 for the uptake model, 0.85 and 0.80 for the one-compartment model, and 0.87 and 0.87 for model-independent deconvolution. There was no significant difference between any of the models or between MBF and MPR, except that the Fermi model outperformed the one-compartment model if MPR was used as the outcome measure (P = .02). Conclusion Diagnostic performance of quantitative myocardial perfusion estimates is not affected by the tracer kinetic analysis method used. (©) RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25521666

  2. Bacterial interference in vitro. Comparison between a quantitative kinetic and a cocultivation blood agar test method.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A; Bergenholtz, A; Holm, S E

    1994-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare two methods for estimation of bacterial growth interference between various bacteria using a Bioscreen robot analyzer, allowing kinetic documentation, and a cocultivation test on blood agar plates. Six laboratory strains with different virulence and growth requirements were used: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The interference activity was correlated with a reference system of Streptococcus sanguis (strain alpha 89) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS serotypes T 9 and T 22). The methods used and results obtained were as follows: 1. Estimation of synergistic and antagonistic bacterial interferences using a Bioscreen robot analyzer. Suspensions of viable bacteria were added to microtiter plates with different concentrations of UV light-killed bacteria in liquid media. The Bioscreen analyzer monitored bacterial growth every 10 min for 24 h giving kinetic data during the growth period. Synergisms as well as antagonisms were demonstrated between the tested bacterial strains which have not earlier been reported in the literature. However, the antagonistic effect observed between the six strains was less than that induced by the S. sanguis strain on the two strains of S. pyogenes. 2. Cocultivation of bacterial strains on blood agar surface with precultivated or simultaneously stamped interfering bacteria indicated no detectable interference between the six tested bacterial strains, while the S. sanguis strain inhibited the growth of S. pyogenes strains as well as the hemolysis around the colonies. The Bioscreen method was found more sensitive for testing bacterial interference compared to the commonly used blood agar test. PMID:7833000

  3. Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research.

    PubMed

    McCusker, K; Gunaydin, S

    2014-11-01

    Research is fundamental to the advancement of medicine and critical to identifying the most optimal therapies unique to particular societies. This is easily observed through the dynamics associated with pharmacology, surgical technique and the medical equipment used today versus short years ago. Advancements in knowledge synthesis and reporting guidelines enhance the quality, scope and applicability of results; thus, improving health science and clinical practice and advancing health policy. While advancements are critical to the progression of optimal health care, the high cost associated with these endeavors cannot be ignored. Research fundamentally needs to be evaluated to identify the most efficient methods of evaluation. The primary objective of this paper is to look at a specific research methodology when applied to the area of clinical research, especially extracorporeal circulation and its prognosis for the future. PMID:25378417

  4. A quantitative analysis of CLIP methods for identifying binding sites of RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Shivendra; Jaskiewicz, Lukasz; Burger, Lukas; Hausser, Jean; Khorshid, Mohsen; Zavolan, Mihaela

    2011-07-01

    Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is increasingly used to map transcriptome-wide binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. We developed a method for CLIP data analysis, and applied it to compare CLIP with photoactivatable ribonucleoside-enhanced CLIP (PAR-CLIP) and to uncover how differences in cross-linking and ribonuclease digestion affect the identified sites. We found only small differences in accuracies of these methods in identifying binding sites of HuR, which binds low-complexity sequences, and Argonaute 2, which has a complex binding specificity. We found that cross-link-induced mutations led to single-nucleotide resolution for both PAR-CLIP and CLIP. Our results confirm the expectation from original CLIP publications that RNA-binding proteins do not protect their binding sites sufficiently under the denaturing conditions used during the CLIP procedure, and we show that extensive digestion with sequence-specific RNases strongly biases the recovered binding sites. This bias can be substantially reduced by milder nuclease digestion conditions. PMID:21572407

  5. New methods for the concentration of viruses from urban sewage using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Calgua, Byron; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Suñen, Esther; Calvo, Miquel; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Girones, Rosina

    2013-02-01

    Viruses are among the most important pathogens present in water contaminated with feces or urine and represent a serious risk to human health. Four procedures for concentrating viruses from sewage have been compared in this work, three of which were developed in the present study. Viruses were quantified using PCR techniques. According to statistical analysis and the sensitivity to detect human adenoviruses (HAdV), JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) and noroviruses genogroup II (NoV GGII): (i) a new procedure (elution and skimmed-milk flocculation procedure (ESMP)) based on the elution of the viruses with glycine-alkaline buffer followed by organic flocculation with skimmed-milk was found to be the most efficient method when compared to (ii) ultrafiltration and glycine-alkaline elution, (iii) a lyophilization-based method and (iv) ultracentrifugation and glycine-alkaline elution. Through the analysis of replicate sewage samples, ESMP showed reproducible results with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 16% for HAdV, 12% for JCPyV and 17% for NoV GGII. Using spiked samples, the viral recoveries were estimated at 30-95% for HAdV, 55-90% for JCPyV and 45-50% for NoV GGII. ESMP was validated in a field study using twelve 24-h composite sewage samples collected in an urban sewage treatment plant in the North of Spain that reported 100% positive samples with mean values of HAdV, JCPyV and NoV GGII similar to those observed in other studies. Although all of the methods compared in this work yield consistently high values of virus detection and recovery in urban sewage, some require expensive laboratory equipment. ESMP is an effective low-cost procedure which allows a large number of samples to be processed simultaneously and is easily standardizable for its performance in a routine laboratory working in water monitoring. Moreover, in the present study, a CV was applied and proposed as a parameter to evaluate and compare the methods for detecting viruses in sewage samples. PMID:23164995

  6. An Adapted Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Program for Elders in a Continuing Care Retirement Community: Quantitative and Qualitative Results From a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

  7. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

  8. HPLC Method for Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Quercetin and Curcuminoids in Traditional Chinese Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Lee Fung; Yam, Mun Fei; Fung, Yvonne Tan Tze; Kiang, Peh Kok; Darwin, Yusrida

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Quercetin and curcuminoids are important bioactive compounds found in many herbs. Previously reported high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) methods for the detection of quercetin and curcuminoids have several disadvantages, including unsatisfactory separation times and lack of validation according the standard guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use. Methods: A rapid, specific, reversed phase, HPLC-UV method with an isocratic elution of acetonitrile and 2% v/v acetic acid (40% : 60% v/v) (pH 2.6) at a flow rate of 1.3 mL/minutes, a column temperature of 35°C, and ultraviolet (UV) detection at 370 nm was developed. The method was validated and applied to the quantification of different types of market available Chinese medicine extracts, pills and tablets. Results: The method allowed simultaneous determination of quercetin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin in the concentration ranges of 0.00488 ? 200 ?g/mL, 0.625 ? 320 ?g/mL, 0.07813 ? 320 ?g/mL and 0.03906 ? 320 ?g/mL, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification, respectively, were 0.00488 and 0.03906 ?g/mL for quercetin, 0.62500 and 2.50000 ?g/mL for bisdemethoxycurcumin, 0.07813 and 0.31250 ?g/mL for demethoxycurcumin, and 0.03906 and 0.07813 ?g/mL for curcumin. The percent relative intra day standard deviation (% RSD) values were 0.432 ? 0.806 ?g/mL, 0.576 ? 0.723 ?g/mL, 0.635 ? 0.752 ?g/mL and 0.655 ? 0.732 ?g/mL for quercetin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin, respectively, and those for intra day precision were 0.323 ? 0.968 ?g/mL, 0.805 ? 0.854 ?g/mL, 0.078 ? 0.844 ?g/mL and 0.275 ? 0.829 ?g/mL, respectively. The intra day accuracies were 99.589% ? 100.821%, 98.588% ? 101.084%, 9.289% ? 100.88%, and 98.292% ? 101.022% for quercetin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, demethoxycurcumin and curcumin, respectively, and the inter day accuracy were 99.665% ? 103.06%, 97.669% ? 103.513%, 99.569% ? 103.617%, and 97.929% ? 103.606%, respectively. Conclusion: The method was found to be simple, accurate and precise and is recommended for routine quality control analysis of commercial Chinese medicine products containing the flour flavonoids as their principle components in the extracts.

  9. [Quantitative evaluation method of the informational value of initial symptoms based on Bayesian theory].

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Shigeru; Ieda, Mayuko; Yamamoto, Midori; Kobayashi, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with Article 25-2 of the Pharmacists Act, pharmacists provide patients with information about the initial symptoms of adverse drug reactions for detecting and preventing those reactions. Thus far, however, there have been no reports quantitatively evaluating the usefulness of such information. We present a theory of information evaluation using posterior probability (PP), positive likelihood ratio (LR(+)) and incidence of nonspecific initial symptoms (NIS)-a measure of general symptoms without anything come to mind. First, we calculated using the data from the clinical trials. For liver damage caused by loxoprofen sodium hydrate, the LR(+) was as high as 27.9 in the presence of rash, but the PP was 0.002067, which means there were only 2 liver damage cases among 1000 rash cases. Calculated in the same way for voriconazole, the LR(+) was 5 and the PP was 0.2 (1 liver damage case among 5 rash cases). This suggests that information about rash as an initial symptom of liver damage is useful for patients taking voriconazole. However, the PP was greatly reduced when it was calculated by considering NIS. Since patients cannot distinguish initial symptom of side effect from mere change in body condition, the calculation considering NIS is realistic. Therefore, it is necessary to study in order to raise the value of the information service of the pharmacist. Our study demonstrates how PP and NIS, our new effective measure, allow a quantitative evaluation of the usefulness of information about initial symptoms. PMID:22687735

  10. A qualitative and quantitative laser-based computer-aided flow visualization method. M.S. Thesis, 1992 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Braun, M. Jack

    1994-01-01

    The experimental approach presented here offers a nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of full field flow patterns applicable in various geometries in a variety of fluids. This Full Flow Field Tracking (FFFT) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, by means of particle tracers illuminated by a laser light sheet, offers an alternative to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and intrusive systems such as Hot Wire/Film Anemometry. The method makes obtainable the flow patterns, and allows quantitative determination of the velocities, accelerations, and mass flows of an entire flow field. The method uses a computer based digitizing system attached through an imaging board to a low luminosity camera. A customized optical train allows the system to become a long distance microscope (LDM), allowing magnifications of areas of interest ranging up to 100 times. Presented in addition to the method itself, are studies in which the flow patterns and velocities were observed and evaluated in three distinct geometries, with three different working fluids. The first study involved pressure and flow analysis of a brush seal in oil. The next application involved studying the velocity and flow patterns in a cowl lip cooling passage of an air breathing aircraft engine using water as the working fluid. Finally, the method was extended to a study in air to examine the flows in a staggered pin arrangement located on one side of a branched duct.

  11. A Rapid Ultra HPLC-MS/MS Method for the Quantitation and Pharmacokinetic Analysis of 3-Deazaneplanocin A in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Cody J.; Rao, Mahadev; Spencer, Shawn D.; Shahbazi, Shandiz; Steeg, Patricia S.; Schrump, David S.; Figg, William D.

    2013-01-01

    3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) has been shown to have anti-cancer activity in numerous cancer types and its continued preclinical, and eventual clinical, drug development will require rapid and sensitive bioanalytical methods in order to quantitate this drug for pharmacokinetic analyses. The ultra HPLC with positive thermospray tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) detection affords the most sensitive (limit of quantitation 5 ng/mL) and rapid (3 min run time) bioanalytical method to date for DZNep. Due to the polar nature of this drug and the internal standard (tubercidin), a hydrophilic-interaction column (HILIC) was used. The method was accurate, with less than 10% deviation from nominal values, as well as precise, where both within-day and between-day precisions were less than 15%. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure was able to recover ~90% of drug from a small volume (50 ?L) of mouse plasma. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice intravenously injected with DZNep. PMID:23352636

  12. A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitation of aripiprazole in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shen-Nan; Lamm, Lolita; Newton, Thomas F; Reid, Malcolm S; Moody, David E; Foltz, Rodger

    2009-06-01

    A rugged liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-ESI-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for accurate monitoring of steady-state plasma aripiprazole. Haloperidol-d(4) was chosen as the internal standard. ESI of aripiprazole and haloperidol-d(4) yielded abundant MH(+) ions, m/z 448 and 379, respectively. These ions were collision-dissociated to respective product ions of m/z 285 and 168. Ion-suppression experiments with blank plasma extracts showed substantial depressions of the product ions at retention times between 0.5 to 2 min, prohibiting development of a high-throughput LC-MS-MS method. A steep-gradient elution LC permitted a robust LC-ESI-MS-MS method with a 12-min analysis time. Aripiprazole was quantified from 0.2-mL aliquots of human plasma with acceptable precision and accuracy down to a lower limit of quantitation of 2 ng/mL. Aripiprazole was stable in plasma samples stored at room temperature for 24 h or exposed to three freeze-thaw cycles and in processed extracts stored at -20 degrees C for six days or on the autosampler at 10 degrees C for four days. The method has been successfully used for determinations of steady-state concentrations of aripiprazole in human subjects given daily oral doses of 15 mg. All measured concentrations were well within the quantitative range of 2 to 400 ng/mL. PMID:19671242

  13. A semi-quantitative serological method to assess the potency of inactivated rabies vaccine for veterinary use.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2012-08-01

    Potency is one of the most important indexes of inactivated vaccines. A number of methods have been established to assay the potency, of which the NIH test and single-dose mouse protection test are the "prescribed methods". Here, we report a method to semi-quantitatively assay the potency of an inactivated rabies vaccine, which uses fewer animals and takes less time to complete. Depending on the quality requirements of a vaccine (e.g. minimum potency), a rabies reference vaccine is, for example, diluted to the minimum potency, and 50 ?L of the dilution is taken to inoculate 10 mice. The same amount of the test rabies vaccine is inoculated into another 10 mice. After two weeks, all mice are bled and serum samples are assayed for viral neutralizing antibody by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test. By comparing the median and interquartile range of antibody titers of the reference vaccine with those of the test vaccine, the test vaccine potency can be semi-quantitatively judged as to whether it is in accord with the required quality. The reliability of this method was also confirmed in dogs. The procedure can be recommended for batch potency testing during inactivated rabies vaccine production. PMID:22899435

  14. A generic method for the quantitative analysis of aminoglycosides (and spectinomycin) in animal tissue using methylated internal standards and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van Holthoon, Frédérique L; Essers, Martien L; Mulder, Patrick J; Stead, Sara L; Caldow, Marianne; Ashwin, Helen M; Sharman, Matthew

    2009-04-01

    Aminoglycosides (AGs) are a large and diverse group of antibiotics. Although AGs may cause side effects of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity, they are still occasionally being used for the treatment of serious infections. In this study the development of a method is described for the quantitative determination and confirmation of seven aminoglycosides (and relevant isomers) and spectinomycin in animal tissues. The extraction was based on an extraction followed by a concentration and clean-up step using weak cation exchange solid phase extraction. The separation was performed by ion-pair liquid chromatography on a C(18) column followed by mass spectrometric detection. The method was validated according to the EU requirements for a quantitative confirmatory method. Permethylated aminoglycosides (in-house synthesised internal standards) were used for accurate quantification. The accuracy of the analyses of AGs in kidney ranged from 94 to 111%, intra-day precision ranged between 2.5 and 7.4% (R.S.D.(r)) and inter-day precision ranged between 2.2 and 17.3% (R.S.D.(RL), n=21, MRL level). Accuracy (muscle tissue) varied from 83 to 128% with an intra-day precision between 2.2 and 17.3% (R.S.D.(r), n=7, MRL level). From the results it was concluded that the method was able to monitor MRL levels which ranged from 750 to 20,000 microgkg(-1) for kidney and from 50 to 10,000 microgkg(-1) for muscle tissue. PMID:19286022

  15. Sensitive Method for the Quantitative Determination of Risperidone in Tablet Dosage Form by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Using Chlordiazepoxide as Internal Standard

    PubMed Central

    Ashour, Safwan; Kattan, Nuha

    2013-01-01

    A selective, sensitive and simple reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of risperidone in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. Risperidone can be separated on a Supelcosil LC8 DB column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m particle size) at 40°C with a mobile phase of methanol and 0.1 M ammonium acetate pH 5.50 (60:40, v/v), pumped at flow rate 1.0 mL min-1 and detected at 274 nm. Chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride was used as internal standard. The retention time of risperidone and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride was found to be 5.89 and 7.65 min, respectively. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and robustness. The linear range was 4.0-275.0 µg mL-1 (r2=0.9998) with limits of detection and quantification values of 0.48 and 1.59 ?g mL-1, respectively. The precision of the method was demonstrated using intra- and inter-day assay RSD values which were less than 3.27%, while the recovery was 99.00-101.12% (n=5). According to the validation results, the proposed method was found to be specific, accurate, precise and could be applied to the quantitative analysis of risperidone in raw material and tablets. PMID:23847459

  16. A method for epiduroscopy and spinaloscopy. Presentation of preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, R

    1985-01-01

    A method for endoscopic observation of the epidural space, epiduroscopy, and the subarachnoid space, spinaloscopy, in the lumbar region is described using the Olympus Selfoscope SES 1711 S. The preliminary results of 30 consecutive attempts at epiduroscopy on randomly chosen autopsy cases, with 28 successes, are presented. Five spinaloscopies were performed on the same material. The results justify the conclusion that epiduroscopy and spinaloscopy are methods that can be used for study of individual variation of the contents of the lumbar epidural and subarachnoid spaces. PMID:3976318

  17. Quantitative Pleistocene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy: preliminary results from the IODP Site U1385 (Exp 339), the Shackleton Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, B.; Flores, J. A.; Acton, G.; Alvarez Zarikian, C. A.; Grunert, P.; Hernandez-Molina, F. J.; Hodell, D. A.; Li, B.; Richter, C.; Sanchez Goni, M.; Sierro, F. J.; Singh, A.; Stow, D. A.; Voelker, A.; Xuan, C.

    2013-12-01

    In order to explore the effects of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) on North Atlantic circulation and climate, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow) cored a series of sites in the Gulf of Cadiz slope and off West Iberia (North East Atlantic). Site U1385 (37°48'N, 10°10?W, 3146 m water depth) was selected and drilled in the lower slope of the Portuguese margin, at a location close to the so-called Shackleton Site MD95-2042 (in honor of the late Sir Nicholas Shackleton), to provide a marine reference section of Pleistocene millennial-scale climate variability. Three holes were cored at Site U1385 using the Advanced Piston Corer (APC) to a depth of ~151 meters below seafloor in order to recover a continuous stratigraphic record covering the past 1.4 Ma. Here we present preliminary results of the succession of standard and alternative calcareous nannofossil events. Our quantitative study based on calcareous nannofossils shows well-preserved and abundant assemblages throughout the core. Most conventional Pleistocene events were recognized. Moreover, our quantitative investigations provide further data on the stratigraphic distribution of some species and groups, such as the large Emiliania huxleyi (>4 ?m), the small Gephyrocapsa group, and Reticulofenestra cisnerosii. A preliminary calibration of the calcareous nannofossil events with the paleomagnetic and astronomical signal, estimated by comparison with geophysical and logging parameters is also presented. *IODP Expedition 339 Scientists: Bahr, A., Ducassou. E., Flood, R., Furota, S., Jimenez-Espejo, F., Kim, J. K., Krissek, L., Kuroda, J., Llave, E., Lofi, J., Lourens, L., Miller, M., Nanayama, F., Nishida, N., Roque, C., Sloss, C., Takashimizu, Y., Tzanova, A., Williams, T.

  18. Transcending the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide with Mixed Methods Research: A Multidimensional Framework for Understanding Congruence and Completeness in the Study of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLafferty, Charles L., Jr.; Slate, John R.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative research dominates published literature in the helping professions. Mixed methods research, which integrates quantitative and qualitative methodologies, has received a lukewarm reception. The authors address the iterative separation that infuses theory, praxis, philosophy, methodology, training, and public perception and propose a…

  19. Flexible and robust methods for rare-variant testing of quantitative traits in trios and nuclear families.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunxuan; Conneely, Karen N; Epstein, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Most rare-variant association tests for complex traits are applicable only to population-based or case-control resequencing studies. There are fewer rare-variant association tests for family-based resequencing studies, which is unfortunate because pedigrees possess many attractive characteristics for such analyses. Family-based studies can be more powerful than their population-based counterparts due to increased genetic load and further enable the implementation of rare-variant association tests that, by design, are robust to confounding due to population stratification. With this in mind, we propose a rare-variant association test for quantitative traits in families; this test integrates the QTDT approach of Abecasis et al. [Abecasis et al., ] into the kernel-based SNP association test KMFAM of Schifano et al. [Schifano et al., ]. The resulting within-family test enjoys the many benefits of the kernel framework for rare-variant association testing, including rapid evaluation of P-values and preservation of power when a region harbors rare causal variation that acts in different directions on phenotype. Additionally, by design, this within-family test is robust to confounding due to population stratification. Although within-family association tests are generally less powerful than their counterparts that use all genetic information, we show that we can recover much of this power (although still ensuring robustness to population stratification) using a straightforward screening procedure. Our method accommodates covariates and allows for missing parental genotype data, and we have written software implementing the approach in R for public use. PMID:25044337

  20. A High Precision Method for Quantitative Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species in Frozen Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Mikael; Gustafsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH) was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. Materials and Methods Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K) using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP•) with known spin concentration. Results The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k?=?1). The spin concentration of samples stored at ?80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. Conclusion The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time. PMID:24603936

  1. Quantitative Analysis in the General Chemistry Laboratory: Training Students to Analyze Individual Results in the Context of Collective Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Chris D.; Bridgeman, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Titration experiments are ideal for generating large data sets for use in quantitative-analysis activities that are meaningful and transparent to general chemistry students. We report the successful implementation of a sophisticated quantitative exercise in which the students identify a series of unknown acids by determining their molar masses…

  2. Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley MDO method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of re- producible experiments. In the first phase of the study, three MDO methods were implemented in the SIGHT: framework and used to solve a set of ten relatively simple problems. In this paper, we comment on the general considerations for conducting method evaluation studies and report some initial results obtained to date. In particular, although the results are not conclusive because of the small initial test set, other formulations, optimality conditions, and sensitivity of solutions to various perturbations. Optimization algorithms are used to solve a particular MDO formulation. It is then appropriate to speak of local convergence rates and of global convergence properties of an optimization algorithm applied to a specific formulation. An analogous distinction exists in the field of partial differential equations. On the one hand, equations are analyzed in terms of regularity, well-posedness, and the existence and unique- ness of solutions. On the other, one considers numerous algorithms for solving differential equations. The area of MDO methods studies MDO formulations combined with optimization algorithms, although at times the distinction is blurred. It is important to

  3. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorleif Lund

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods are illustrated by the

  4. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods

  5. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thorleif Lund

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods are illustrated by the

  6. Development and validation of a fast and sensitive bioanalytical method for the quantitative determination of glucocorticoids--quantitative measurement of dexamethasone in rabbit ocular matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Earla, Ravinder; Boddu, Sai H S; Cholkar, Kishore; Hariharan, Sudharshan; Jwala, Jwala; Mitra, Ashim K

    2010-08-01

    A sensitive, selective, accurate and robust LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of glucocorticoids in rabbit ocular tissues. Samples were processed by a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation was performed on Phenomenex reversed phase C18 gemini column (50mmx4.6mm i.d.,) with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 30% of acetonitrile in water containing 0.1% of formic acid, at a flow rate 0.2mL/min. Dexamethasone (DEX), prednisolone (PD) and hydrocortisone (HD) were detected with proton adducts at m/z 393.20-->355.30, 361.30-->147.20 and 363.20-->121.0 in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) positive mode respectively. Finally, 50microL of 0.1% novel DEX mixed micellar formulation was topically administered to a rabbit eye and concentrations were measured. The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 2.7-617.6ng/mL. Lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of DEX and PD was measured in the concentration range of 2.7 and 11.0ng/mL respectively. The resulting method demonstrated intra and inter-day precision within 13.3% and 11.1% and accuracy within 19.3% and 12.5% for DEX and PD, respectively. Both analytes were found to be stable throughout freeze-thaw cycles and during bench top and postoperative stability studies (r(2)>0.999). DEX concentrations in various ocular tissue samples i.e., aqueous humor, cornea, iris ciliary body, sclera and retina choroid were found to be 344.0, 1050.07, 529.6, 103.9 and 48.5ng/mg protein respectively. Absorption of DEX after topical administration from a novel aqueous mixed micellar formulation achieved therapeutic concentration levels in posterior segment of the rabbit eye. PMID:20172680

  7. On Quantitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George

    2009-01-01

    "Quantitizing", commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance…

  8. Chemical methods for the simultaneous quantitation of metabolites and proteins from single cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Min; Wei, Wei; Su, Yapeng; Kim, Jungwoo; Shin, Young Shik; Mai, Wilson X; Nathanson, David A; Heath, James R

    2015-04-01

    We describe chemical approaches for integrated metabolic and proteomic assays from single cells. Quantitative assays for intracellular metabolites, including glucose uptake and three other species, are designed as surface-competitive binding assays with fluorescence readouts. This enables integration into a microarray format with functional protein immunoassays, all of which are incorporated into the microchambers of a single-cell barcode chip (SCBC). By using the SCBC, we interrogate the response of human-derived glioblastoma cancer cells to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition. We report, for the first time, on both the intercellular metabolic heterogeneity as well as the baseline and drug-induced changes in the metabolite-phosphoprotein correlation network. PMID:25789560

  9. Simple, sensitive, and quantitative electrochemical detection method for paper analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Scida, Karen; Cunningham, Josephine C; Renault, Christophe; Richards, Ian; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-07-01

    We report a new type of paper analytical device that provides quantitative electrochemical output and detects concentrations as low as 767 fM. The model analyte is labeled with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which provide 250,000-fold amplification. AgNPs eliminate the need for enzymatic amplification, thereby improving device stability and response time. The use of magnetic beads to preconcentrate the AgNPs at the detection electrode further improves sensitivity. Response time is improved by incorporation of a hollow channel, which increases the flow rate in the device by a factor of 7 and facilitates the use of magnetic beads. A key reaction necessary for label detection is made possible by the presence of a slip layer, a fluidic switch that can be actuated by manually slipping a piece of paper. The design of the device is versatile and should be useful for detection of proteins, nucleic acids, and microbes. PMID:24918259

  10. A new method for the characterisation and quantitative speciation of base metal smelter stack particulates.

    PubMed

    Skeaff, James M; Thibault, Yves; Hardy, David J

    2011-06-01

    Base metal smelters may be a source of particulates containing metals of environmental concern released to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the quantitative chemical speciation of particulate releases from base metal smelters will be of value in smelter emission fingerprinting, site-specific risk assessments, predictions of the behaviour of smelter stack particulates released to the environment and in resolving liability issues related to current and historic releases. Accordingly, we have developed an innovative approach comprising bulk chemical analysis, a leaching procedure, X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy/electron probe microanalysis characterisation in a step-wise apportioning procedure to derive the quantitative speciation of particulate samples from the stacks of three copper smelters designated as A, B and C. For the A smelter stack particulates, the major calculated percentages were 29 CuSO(4), 20 ZnSO(4).H(2)O, 13 (Cu(0.94)Zn(0.06))(2)(AsO(4))(OH), 11 PbSO(4) and four As(2)O(3). For the B smelter stack particulates, the primary calculated percentages were 20 ZnSO(4).H(2)O, 20 PbSO(4), 12 CuSO(4) and nine As(2)O(3). Finally, we calculated that the C smelter stack particulates mostly comprised 34 ZnSO(4).H(2)O, 19 (Cu(0.84)Zn(0.16))(AsO(3)OH), 11 PbSO(4), 10 As(2)O(3) and nine Zn(3)(AsO(4))(2). Between 56% and 67% by weight of the smelter stack particulates, including the As, was soluble in water. For these and other operations, the data and approach may be useful in estimating metals partitioning among water, soil and sediment, as well as predictions of the effects of the stack particulates released to the environment. PMID:20676929

  11. A Semisupervised Learning Method to Merge Search Engine Results

    E-print Network

    Callan, Jamie

    A Semisupervised Learning Method to Merge Search Engine Results LUO SI and JAMIE CALLAN Carnegie Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890; email: lsi@cs.cmu.edu; callan@cs.cmu.edu. Permission to make digital, October 2003, Pages 457­491. #12;458 · L. Si and J. Callan 1. INTRODUCTION The problem of finding

  12. Comparison of Two Quantitative Methods of Discerning Airspace Enlargement in Smoke-Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Richard E.; Carson, James P.; Gideon, Kathy M.; Amidan, Brett G.; Smith, Cathie L.; Lee, K. Monica

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we compare two methods for evaluating and quantifying pulmonary airspace enlargement in a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure. Standard stereological sample preparation, sectioning, and imaging of mouse lung tissues were performed for semi-automated acquisition of mean linear intercept (Lm) data. After completion of the Lm measurements, D2, a metric of airspace enlargement, was measured in a blinded manner on the same lung images using a fully automated technique developed in-house. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that although Lm was able to separate the smoke-exposed and control groups with statistical significance (p?=?0.034), D2 was better able to differentiate the groups (p<0.001) and did so without any overlap between the control and smoke-exposed individual animal data. In addition, the fully automated implementation of D2 represented a time savings of at least 24x over semi-automated Lm measurements. Although D2 does not provide 3D stereological metrics of airspace dimensions as Lm does, results show that it has higher sensitivity and specificity for detecting the subtle airspace enlargement one would expect to find in mild or early stage emphysema. Therefore, D2 may serve as a more accurate screening measure for detecting early lung disease than Lm. PMID:19688093

  13. A new quantitative method for the rapid evaluation of buildings against earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodzadeh, Amir [Civil Engineering Dept., Islamic Azad University, Nagafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi [Faculty member, Tehran University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08

    At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable.

  14. Development and validation of a simple and sensitive size-exclusion chromatography method for quantitative determination of heparin in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Matanovi?, Maja Radivojša; Grabnarm, Iztok; Grabnar, Pegi Ahlin; Roškar, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Heparin is widely used as an anticoagulant for the treatment and prevention of various thrombotic diseases. However, due to its high anionic charge, heterogeneity in size distribution and high polarity, its analysis is very challenging. In this paper, a novel method based on size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) for quantitative determination of intact heparin in pharmaceuticals is presented. Analyses were performed on a BioSep-SEC-S 2000 column with Larginine solution at pH 6.5 as mobile phase and UV detection at 210 nm. The proposed method was found to be selective, linear (R2 > 0.997) over the concentration range of 3.1 to 1222 ?g mL-1, with a limit of detection of 1.0 ?g mL-1. Intraday and inter-day precision were below 5.1 % and inaccuracy expressed as bias did not exceed 6.5 %. The reported method is simple, selective, sensitive, and requires no laborious sample preparation, which makes it appropriate for routine quantitative analysis of heparin in pharmaceuticals. PMID:25781703

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for the quantitative trace analysis of transition-metal carbonyl-labeled bioligands.

    PubMed

    Salmain, M; Vessières, A; Jaouen, G; Butler, I S

    1991-10-15

    A quantitative FT-IR spectroscopic method has been developed for the trace analysis in chlorinated organic solvents of transition-metal carbonyl-labeled bioligands. In order to illustrate the widespread analytical potential of the method, three derivatives of the female hormonal steroid 17 beta-estradiol, containing Cr(CO)3, Cp2Mo2(CO)4 (Cp = eta 5-C5H5), and Co2(CO)6 as labels, and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital, labeled with (eta 5-C5H4)Mn(CO)3, were examined. The cobalt carbonyl marker proved to be the best sulted for quantitative analysis purposes, and the minimum tracer quantity detectable for this particular marker (64 scans, 4-cm-1 resolution, 3.5 min) was optimized in CCl4 solution at about 300 fmol (or 0.3 pmol, 180 pg) by using an ultralow volume (23.0 microL), gold light-pipe IR solution cell and a liquid nitrogen cooled, InSb (indium antimonide) IR detector. The repeatability of this radically different analytical procedure over the concentration range 1.0 x 10(-6) to 5.0 x 10(-8) M was good (coefficient of variance less than or equal to 6%) and the method provides the basis for a new immunological test--carbonylmetalloimmunoassay (CMIA). PMID:1759715

  16. A New Technique for Quantitative Determination of Dexamethasone in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples Using Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Akhoundi-Khalafi, Ali Mohammad; Shishehbore, Masoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a type of steroidal medications that is prescribed in many cases. In this study, a new reaction system using kinetic spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of dexamethasone is proposed. The method is based on the catalytic effect of dexamethasone on the oxidation of Orange G by bromate in acidic media. The change in absorbance as a criterion of the oxidation reaction progress was followed spectrophotometrically. To obtain the maximum sensitivity, the effective reaction variables were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, calibration graph was linear over the range 0.2–54.0?mg?L?1. The calculated detection limit (3sb/m) was 0.14?mg?L?1 for six replicate determinations of blank signal. The interfering effect of various species was also investigated. The present method was successfully applied for the determination of dexamethasone in pharmaceutical and biological samples satisfactorily. PMID:25737724

  17. Large-visual-angle microstructure inspired from quantitative design of Morpho butterflies' lamellae deviation using the FDTD/PSO method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Weixin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di

    2013-01-15

    The wide angular range of the treelike structure in Morpho butterfly scales was investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) analysis. Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed. Then a wide angular range was realized by the PSO method from quantitatively designing the lamellae deviation (?y), which was a crucial parameter with angular range. The field map of the wide-range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the wide angular range. The tristimulus values and corresponding color coordinates for various viewing directions were calculated to confirm the blue color in different observation angles. The wide angular range realized by the FDTD/PSO method will assist us in understanding the scientific principles involved and also in designing artificial optical materials. PMID:23454951

  18. Methods for the quantitative comparison of molecular estimates of clade age and the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Boyd, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Approaches quantifying the relative congruence, or incongruence, of molecular divergence estimates and the fossil record have been limited. Previously proposed methods are largely node specific, assessing incongruence at particular nodes for which both fossil data and molecular divergence estimates are available. These existing metrics, and other methods that quantify incongruence across topologies including entirely extinct clades, have so far not taken into account uncertainty surrounding both the divergence estimates and the ages of fossils. They have also treated molecular divergence estimates younger than previously assessed fossil minimum estimates of clade age as if they were the same as cases in which they were older. However, these cases are not the same. Recovered divergence dates younger than compared oldest known occurrences require prior hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of the compared fossil record and standard assumptions about the relative timing of morphological and molecular change to be incorrect. Older molecular dates, by contrast, are consistent with an incomplete fossil record and do not require prior assessments of the fossil record to be unreliable in some way. Here, we compare previous approaches and introduce two new descriptive metrics. Both metrics explicitly incorporate information on uncertainty by utilizing the 95% confidence intervals on estimated divergence dates and data on stratigraphic uncertainty concerning the age of the compared fossils. Metric scores are maximized when these ranges are overlapping. MDI (minimum divergence incongruence) discriminates between situations where molecular estimates are younger or older than known fossils reporting both absolute fit values and a number score for incompatible nodes. DIG range (divergence implied gap range) allows quantification of the minimum increase in implied missing fossil record induced by enforcing a given set of molecular-based estimates. These metrics are used together to describe the relationship between time trees and a set of fossil data, which we recommend be phylogenetically vetted and referred on the basis of apomorphy. Differences from previously proposed metrics and the utility of MDI and DIG range are illustrated in three empirical case studies from angiosperms, ostracods, and birds. These case studies also illustrate the ways in which MDI and DIG range may be used to assess time trees resultant from analyses varying in calibration regime, divergence dating approach or molecular sequence data analyzed. PMID:25281846

  19. Quantitation of taurolidine decomposition in polymer solutions by chromotropic acid formaldehyde assay method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Sihn Sihn; J. K. Guillory; Lee E. Kirsch

    1997-01-01

    A sensitive, selective, and specific assay was needed to study the degradation kinetics of taurolidine and its stabilization by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of the chromotropic acid method and other formaldehyde or amine derivatization methods. The methods evaluated included formaldehyde derivatization with chromotropic acid, acetylacetone, 4-amino-5-hydrazino-3-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole, semicarbazide hydrochloride, or 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and

  20. Novel mathematical method for quantitative expression of deviation from the Higuchi model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mukesh C. Gohel; Maulik K. Panchal; Viral V. Jogani

    2000-01-01

    A simple mathematical method to express the deviation in release profile of a test product following Higuchi's kinetics from\\u000a an ideal Higuchi release profile was developed. The method is based on calculation of area under the curve (AUC) by using\\u000a the trapezoidal rule. The precision of prediction depends on the number of data points. The method is exemplified for 2

  1. A Quantitative Analysis and Performance Study for Similarity-Search Methods in High-Dimensional Spaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Weber; Hans-jörg Schek; Stephen Blott

    1998-01-01

    For similarity search in high-dimensional vec- tor spaces (or 'HDVSs'), researchers have pro- posed a number of new methods (or adapta- tions of existing methods) based, in the main, on data-space partitioning. However, the performance of these methods generally de- grades as dimensionality increases. Although this phenomenon-known as the 'dimensional curse'-is well known, little or no quantita- tive a.nalysis of

  2. A new quantitative evaluation method of spiral drawing for patients with Parkinson’s disease based on a polar coordinate system with varying origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Bei; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disease of the central nervous system among the elderly, and its complex symptoms bring up challenges for the clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a new method based on a polar coordinate system with varying origin was proposed in order to quantitatively evaluate the performance in spiral drawing tasks for patients with Parkinson's disease, since this method can assess the movement ability of spiral drawing before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) among the patients. In this paper, three normal subjects and twelve PD patients participated in spiral drawing experiment. The hand movements of patients, before and after DBS, were recorded by a digitized tablet respectively in this experiment. And the variation of origin, radius, degree and other characteristics of hand movements were evaluated by introducing a set of parameters for feature extraction. The result showed that the proposed polar coordinate system embraced good performance in the quantitative evaluation of spiral drawing. Therefore, the proposed method overcame the limitation of data processes with fixed origin for diagnosis and evaluation, and by combining with extraction and analysis of characteristic parameters it had clinical significance in measuring the effectiveness of operation or treatment for the PD patients.

  3. A Highly Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Ferric-Xylenol Orange Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian

    2013-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) has important biological roles in many organisms, thus attracting great attention from researchers to establish its detection methods. In this study, a new quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on ferric-xylenol orange (FeIIIXO) formation was established. This method showed that due to the conversion of FeII to FeIII by H2O2 and subsequent formation of FeIIIXO complex halo in agar medium, the logarithm of H2O2 concentration from 5 to 160 µM was linearly correlated to the diameter of purplish red FeIIIXO halo. By extracting the LAAO-generated H2O2 concentration, the LAAO activity can be quantitatively determined. This FeIIIXO agar assay is highly sensitive to detect H2O2 down to micromolar range. More importantly, it is easy to handle, cheap, reproducible, convenient and accurate. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, it can directly be used to determine the number and approximate molecular weight of LAAO in one assay. All these features make this in-gel FeIIIXO assay useful and convenient as a general procedure for following enzyme purification, assaying fractions from a column, or observing changes in activity resulting from enzyme modifications, hence endowing this method with broad applications. PMID:24376540

  4. Quantitative determination of mithramycin in human plasma by a novel, sensitive ultra-HPLC-MS/MS method for clinical pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Roth, Jeffrey; Peer, Cody J; Widemann, Brigitte; Cole, Diane E; Ershler, Rachel; Helman, Lee; Schrump, David; Figg, William D

    2014-11-01

    Mithramycin is a neoplastic antibiotic synthesized by various Streptomyces bacteria. It is under investigation as a chemotherapeutic treatment for a wide variety of cancers. Ongoing and forthcoming clinical trials will require pharmacokinetic analysis of mithramycin in humans, both to see if target concentrations are achieved and to optimize dosing and correlate outcomes (response/toxicity) with pharmacokinetics. Two published methods for mithramycin quantitation exist, but both are immunoassays that lack current bioanalytical standards of selectivity and sensitivity. To provide an upgraded and more widely applicable assay, a UPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of mithramycin in human plasma was developed. Solid-phase extraction allowed for excellent recoveries (>90%) necessary for high throughput analyses on sensitive instrumentation. However, a ?55% reduction in analyte signal was observed as a result of plasma matrix effects. Mithramycin and the internal standard chromomycin were separated on a Waters Acquity BEH C18 column (2.1×50 mm, 1.7 ?m) and detected using electrospray ionization operated in the negative mode at mass transitions m/z 1083.5?268.9 and 1181.5?269.0, respectively, on an AB Sciex QTrap 5500. The assay range was 0.5-500 ng/mL and proved to be linear (r(2)>0.996), accurate (?10% deviation), and precise (CV<15%). Mithramycin was stable in plasma at room temperature for 24 h, as well as through three freeze-thaw cycles. This method was subsequently used to quantitate mithramycin plasma concentrations from patients enrolled on two clinical trials at the NCI. PMID:25247492

  5. Validation of an efficient LC-microdialysis method for gemifloxacin quantitation in lung, kidney and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Bibiana Verlindo; Laureano, João Victor; Grünspan, Lauren Dockhorn; Dalla Costa, Teresa; Tasso, Leandro

    2013-03-01

    A liquid chromatography method has been established for the reliable determination of unbound gemifloxacin concentrations in kidney, lung and liver microdialysates of rats. Microdialysis probes were inserted into tissues of rats, and then dialysates were collected at regular time intervals after intravenous administration of gemifloxacin (40 mg kg(-1)). A pilot study was performed to assess gemifloxacin penetration in lung, kidney and liver of rats. Gemifloxacin was separated on a C(18) column eluted using triethylamine solution (0.5%, v/v), adjusted to pH 3.0±0.1 with 85% phosphoric acid, methanol and acetonitrile (71:15:14, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.1 mL min(-1). The fluorescence detector was set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 344 nm and 399 nm, respectively. The limit of quantitation was found to be 50 ng mL(-1). Linearity was found to be over a concentration range of 50-2000 ng mL(-1). The intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy values were determined from the analysis of six quality control samples. The results obtained at three concentration levels showed R.S.D. values lower than 6.06% and 4.10% for repeatability and intermediate precision, respectively. The accuracy (R.E.%) ranged from 90.0 to 106.5%. The chromatographic run time of each sample was performed in 9 min. Drug stability in microdialysates was shown at room temperature for 8h, after three freeze-thaw cycles, in freezer at -80 °C for 14 days, and in the autosampler after processing for 8h. The relative recoveries determined by extraction efficiency (EE) and retrodialysis (RD) in vitro employing a flow rate of 1.5 ?L min(-1) were 29.24±3.67% and 23.67±3.31%, respectively. In vivo recoveries determined by RD in Wistar rats' kidney, lung and liver were 27.69±2.09%, 23.12±3.79% and 17.38±0.68%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to investigate tissue penetration of unbound gemifloxacin into the kidney, lung and liver of rats. PMID:23411020

  6. Performance index: A method for quantitative evaluation of filters used in clinical SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Contino, J.; Touya, J.J.; Corbus, H.F.; Rahimian, J.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a method for optimal filter selection during the reconstruction of clinical SPECT images. Hamming, Bartlett, Parzen and Butterworth filters were evaluated at different cutoff frequencies when applied to reconstruction of the Jaszczak phantom and liver SPECTs. The phantom filled with 6 mCi of Tc-99m was imaged following 4 different protocols which varied in matrix sizes (128 x 128 or 64 x 64) and in number of steps (128 or 64). Total imaging time in the 4 protocols was 24 minutes. A total of 160 reconstructions were analyzed. Liver SPECTs from 2 patients with small metastatic lesions from colon Ca were similarly studied. An ECT Performance Index (ECT PI) was defined as the product of the contrast efficiency function (ECT C) and uniformity (ECT U). ECT C as a function of the radius was measured following Rollo's approach. ECT U was measured as the ratio between min. and max. counts per pixel in a known uniform region. ECT PI was computed on a slice through the void spheres region of the phantom. In liver SPECTs the ECT U was measured over the spleen. The most favorable ECT PI (0.35, radius 7.9 mm) was obtained with images in 128 x 128 matrices, 128 steps, processed with a Butterworth cutoff frequency of 0.19, filter order 4. When images were acquired in 64 x 64 matrices using 64 steps the ECT PI was lower and influenced to a lesser degree by both choice of filter and cutoff frequency. Results in the two liver SPECT examinations were parallel to those found in the phantom studies confirming the clinical usefulness of the ECT PI in the evaluation of filters for reconstruction of SPECT images.

  7. Qualitative and quantitative determination of human biomarkers by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Matei, C.; Cernat, R.; Popescu, A.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-07-01

    The hypothesis that blood, urine and other body fluids and tissues can be sampled and analyzed to produce clinical information for disease diagnosis or therapy monitoring is the basis of modern clinical diagnosis and medical practice. The analysis of breath air has major advantages because it is a non-invasive method, represents minimal risk to personnel collecting the samples and can be often sampled. Breath air samples from the human subjects were collected using aluminized bags from QuinTron and analyzed using the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) technique. LPAS is used to detect traces of ethylene in breath air resulting from lipid peroxidation in lung epithelium following the radiotherapy and also traces of ammonia from patients subjected to hemodialysis for treatment of renal failure. In the case of patients affected by cancer and treated by external radiotherapy, all measurements were done at 10P(14) CO2 laser line, where the ethylene absorption coefficient has the largest value (30.4 cm-1 atm-1), whereas for patients affected by renal failure and treated by standard dialysis, all measurements were performed at 9R(30) CO2 laser line, where the ammonia absorption coefficient has the maximum value of 57 cm-1 atm-1. The levels of ethylene and ammonia in exhaled air, from patients with cancer and renal failure, respectively, were measured and compared with breath air contents from healthy humans. Human gas biomarkers were measured at sub-ppb (parts per billion) concentration sensitivities. It has been demonstrated that LPAS technique will play an important role in the future of exhaled breath air analysis. The key attributes of this technique are sensitivity, selectivity, fast and real time response, as well as its simplicity.

  8. Quantitation of serrapeptase in formulations by UV method in the microplate format.

    PubMed

    Sandhya, K V; Devi, S Gayathri; Mathew, Sam T

    2008-10-01

    Serrapeptase is an anti-inflammatory, proteolytic enzyme isolated from the microorganism, Serratia sp. HY-6. Very few methods are available for the quantification of serrapeptase. The activity of the enzyme is determined by an ELISA assay, colorimetric method using casein as substrate or by HPLC method. These methods are lengthy, time consuming and require a number of reagents and solvents. Therefore an attempt was made to develop a simple alternative method for regular estimation of drug in formulations. Serrapeptase enzyme was estimated in formulations by using microplate readers which uses the principle of vertical photometry. Further this method was validated and the robustness of this method was checked by estimating the drug in various formulations including liposomes and marketed tablet formulations. A linear relationship between drug concentration and absorbance was observed between 1-4 microg/ml at 230 nm (R(2)=0.9911). The percentage recovery values of the drug in serrapeptase liposomes were found to lie within the standard limit (97-98%) which confirms the method is accurate and free from any positive or negative interference of the excipient. The low value of standard deviation obtained confirms the precision of the method. (+/-0.020 - +/-0.044). The drug content values in marketed tablets values obtained matched the label claim. The proposed microplate UV-method for determination of serrapeptase in formulations is novel, simple, inexpensive, fast, specific and robust. Thus this method could be a better alternative for regular estimation of drug in the various marketed formulations of serrapeptase. PMID:18855600

  9. A RAPID METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF FUNGAL DNA FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: EVALUATION IN THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEMNONIELLA ECHINATA CONIDIA USING REAL TIME DETECTION OF PCR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New technologies are creating the potential for using nucleic acid sequence detection to perform routine microbiological analyses of environmental samples. Our laboratory has recently reported on the development of a method for the quantitative detection of Stachybotrys chartarum...

  10. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 ?M, 29.40 ?M, and 26 ?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

  11. B1 Sequence-Based Real-Time Quantitative PCR: A Sensitive Method for Direct Measurement of Mouse Plasma DNA Levels After Gamma Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hengshan; Zhang, Steven B.; Sun Weimin; Yang Shanmin; Zhang Mei; Wang Wei; Liu Chaomei; Zhang Kunzhong; Swarts, Steven; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter; Maguire, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)], E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.edu; Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: Current biodosimetric techniques for determining radiation exposure have inherent delays, as well as quantitation and interpretation limitations. We have identified a new technique with the advantage of directly measuring circulating DNA by amplifying inter-B1 regions in the mouse genome, providing a sensitive method for quantitating plasma DNA. Methods and Materials: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect levels of DNA by amplifying inter-B1 genomic DNA in plasma samples collected at 0-48 h from mice receiving 0-10 Gy total- or partial-body irradiation ({sup 137}Cs {gamma}-ray source at {approx}1.86 Gy/min; homogeneity: {+-} 6.5%). Results: The correlation coefficient between DNA levels and the threshold cycle value (C{sub T}) was 0.996, and the average recoveries of DNA in the assay were 87%. This assay revealed that when BALB/c mice were exposed to 10 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), plasma DNA levels gradually increased beginning at 3 h after irradiation, peaked at 9 h, and returned to baseline within 48 h. Increased plasma DNA levels were also detected following upper-torso or lower-torso partial-body irradiation; however, TBI approximately doubled those plasma DNA levels at the same radiation dose. This technique therefore reflects total body cell damage. The advantages of this assay are that DNA extraction is not required, the assay is highly sensitive (0.002 ng), and results can be obtained within 2.5 h after collection of plasma samples. Conclusions: A radiation dose-dependent increase of plasma DNA was observed in the dose range from 2 to 10 Gy, suggesting that plasma DNA may be a useful radiation biomarker and adjunct to existing cell-based assays.

  12. A new method for the quantitative analysis of gated SPECT polar scintigraphic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanzi, F.; Novario, R.; Bianchi, C.; Nocco, U.; Garancini, S.; Conte, L.

    2006-03-01

    We have developed a software, which allows to do non conventional percent quantitative analysis on scintigraphic polar map obtained from conventional processing of gated-SPECT acquisitions. Polar maps are 8 bit images of perfusion, motion, ejection fraction (EF) and thickening, of the heart. The software is written in Matlab, analyses the whole polar map and four ROIs corresponding to the theoretical LAD, LCX, RCA territories (perfused by these arteries) and extra-ROIs region. An intensity segmentation is performed. The area corresponding to pixels lower and higher than a varying cut-off are calculated on the whole image and for each ROI. The software calculates an intensity-area histogram, which is the analogous of the Dose-Volume Histogram used in radiation therapy: in this case, the histogram has the meaning of a Perfusion- or a Motion-Volume histogram. Then, the software applies the Lyman-Wolbarst algorithm, to calculate the area equivalent histogram reduction (e.g. the perfused area in the hypothesis that all pixels are perfused at 100%.). The makes a direct comparison between two different polar maps by choice. The comparison between the numerical quantification of motion and perfusion maps, allows the physicians to get a clinical evaluation of the stunned myocardium.

  13. A quantitative screening method to detect rater-introduced bias in clinical ratings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We suggest a ‘screening test’ to examine large data files with clinical ratings for the occurrence of rater-introduced bias prior to using the data for quantitative analyses. The test is based on a statistical model in which a well-standardized interval-scale outcome (for example, milk yield) is related to clinical ratings (for example, body condition scores) obtained from multiple contexts (for example, dairy herds). Findings 84,968 calvings from 279 herds, with subsequent body condition scores performed by 117 veterinarians within the first 21?days postpartum were analyzed with a multilevel random coefficient regression model. The model included an independent variable, where body condition score was centered within veterinarian. This is a so-called comparison effect to describe possible rater-introduced bias in the body condition scores. A highly significant comparison effect was found for second and older parities, indicating occurrence of possible rater-introduced bias in this large multi-herd data file. Conclusions A within-group centering technique (the comparison effect) appeared to be useful for discriminating between biased and unbiased clinical scores. In some cases, this test for bias should prevent further analysis of the data and divert the focus of study to the calibration of raters or alternative study designs. PMID:22998736

  14. A Validated Reverse Phase HPLC Analytical Method for Quantitation of Glycoalkaloids in Solanum lycocarpum and Its Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tiossi, Renata Fabiane Jorge; Miranda, Mariza Abreu; de Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Praça, Fabíola Silva Garcia; Bentley, Maria Vitória Lopes Badra; McChesney, James Dewey; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2012-01-01

    Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) is native to the Brazilian Cerrado. Fruits of this species contain the glycoalkaloids solasonine (SN) and solamargine (SM), which display antiparasitic and anticancer properties. A method has been developed for the extraction and HPLC-UV analysis of the SN and SM in different parts of S. lycocarpum, mainly comprising ripe and unripe fruits, leaf, and stem. This analytical method was validated and gave good detection response with linearity over a dynamic range of 0.77–1000.00??g?mL?1 and recovery in the range of 80.92–91.71%, allowing a reliable quantitation of the target compounds. Unripe fruits displayed higher concentrations of glycoalkaloids (1.04%?±?0.01 of SN and 0.69%?±?0.00 of SM) than the ripe fruits (0.83%?±?0.02 of SN and 0.60%?±?0.01 of SM). Quantitation of glycoalkaloids in the alkaloidic extract gave 45.09%?±?1.14 of SN and 44.37%?±?0.60 of SM, respectively. PMID:22567576

  15. Development of a multipoint quantitation method to simultaneously measure enzymatic and structural components of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome protein complex.

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Andrew B; St Brice, Lois; Rodriguez, Miguel; Raman, Babu; Izquierdo, Javier; Cook, Kelsey D; Lynd, Lee R; Hettich, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has emerged as a leading bioenergy-relevant microbe due to its ability to solubilize cellulose into carbohydrates, mediated by multicomponent membrane-attached complexes termed cellulosomes. To probe microbial cellulose utilization rates, it is desirable to be able to measure the concentrations of saccharolytic enzymes and estimate the total amount of cellulosome present on a mass basis. Current cellulase determination methodologies involve labor-intensive purification procedures and only allow for indirect determination of abundance. We have developed a method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-MS) to simultaneously quantitate both enzymatic and structural components of the cellulosome protein complex in samples ranging in complexity from purified cellulosomes to whole cell lysates, as an alternative to a previously developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method of cellulosome quantitation. The precision of the cellulosome mass concentration in technical replicates is better than 5% relative standard deviation for all samples, indicating high precision for determination of the mass concentration of cellulosome components. PMID:24274857

  16. Acquisition and Retention of Quantitative Communication Skills in an Undergraduate Biology Curriculum: Long-Term Retention Results

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cary D. Chevalier

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess some of the effects of a nontraditional, experimental learning approach designed to improve rapid acquisition and long-term retention of quantitative communication skills (QCS) such as descriptive and inferential st

  17. Method for processing wastes resulting from production of phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Alzhanov, T.M.; Bykov, V.I.; Chernogorenko, V.B.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Ishkhanov, E.S.; Kipchakbaev, A.D.; Koverya, V.M.; Lynchak, K.A.; Markovsky, E.A.; Muchnik, S.V.; Pobortsev, M.E.; Sapian, V.G.; Sergienko, V.Y.; Vopilov, A.N.

    1980-03-11

    The method comprises processing slime and off-gases resulting from the production of phosphorus with an aqueous solution of copper sulphate having a concentration of from 15 to 50% at a temperature within the range of from 20* to 80* C. As a result, two products are obtained, i.e., a liquid product and a solid one. The solid product containing mainly copper phosphide as well as fluorides and chlorides of alkali metals and silicon, and silicates of calcium and aluminum, is used as a modifying and refining agent for hypereutectic silumines and for the manufacture of a copper-phosphorus alloy. The liquid product containing phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid and copper sulphate is used as starting product for the preparation of a copper-containing fertilizer. The method according to the present invention makes it possible to modify the production of phosphorus so as to eliminate the formation of secondary wastes and improve the environmental control.

  18. Quantitative angiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery: correlations with pressure gradient and results of exercise thallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Serruys, P.W.; Reiber, J.H.; van den Brand, M.; Simoons, M.L.; Kooijman, C.J.; Balakumaran, K.; Hugenholtz, P.G.

    1985-02-01

    To evaluate, during cardiac catheterization, what constitutes a physiologically significant obstruction to blood flow in the human coronary system, computer-based quantitative analysis of coronary angiograms was performed on the angiograms of 31 patients with isolated disease of the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery. The angiographic severity of stenosis was compared with the transstenotic pressure gradient measured with the dilation catheter during angioplasty and with the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A curvilinear relationship was found between the pressure gradient across the stenosis (normalized for the mean aortic pressure) and the residual minimal area of obstruction (after subtracting the area of the angioplasty catheter). This relationship was best fitted by the equation: normalized mean pressure gradient . a + b . log (obstruction area), r . .74. The measurements of the percent area of stenosis (cutoff 80%) and of the transstenotic pressure gradient (cutoff 0.30) obtained at rest correctly predicted the occurrence of thallium perfusion defects induced by exercise in 83% of the patients.

  19. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

  20. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

  1. NPEC Sourcebook on Assessment: Definitions and Assessment Methods for Communication, Leadership, Information Literacy, Quantitative Reasoning, and Quantitative Skills. NPEC 2005-0832

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Elizabeth A.; RiCharde, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    Faculty, instructional staff, and assessment professionals are interested in student outcomes assessment processes and tools that can be used to improve learning experiences and academic programs. How can students' skills be assessed effectively? What assessments measure skills in communication? Leadership? Information literacy? Quantitative

  2. Quantitative Profiling Method for Oxylipin Metabolome by Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Schmelzer, Kara; Georgi, Katrin; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and epoxygenase derived oxylipins, especially eicosanoids play important roles in many physiological processes. Assessment of oxidized fatty acid levels is important for understanding their homeostatic and pathophysiological roles. Most reported methods examine these pathways in isolation. The work described here employed a SPE-LC-ESI MS/MS method to monitor these metabolites. In 21 minutes, 39 oxylipins were quantified along with eight corresponding internal standards. The limits of quantification were between 0.07-32 pg (20 pM-10 nM). Finally, the validated method was used to evaluate oxylipin profiles in lipopolysaccharide-exposed mice, an established septic inflammatory model. The method described here offers a useful tool for the evaluation of complex regulatory oxylipin responses in in vitro or in vivo studies. PMID:19715299

  3. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  4. A method of online quantitative interpretation of diffuse reflection profiles of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a method of combined interpretation of spectral and spatial characteristics of diffuse reflection of biological tissues, which makes it possible to determine biophysical parameters of the tissue with a high accuracy in real time under conditions of their general variability. Using the Monte Carlo method, we have modeled a statistical ensemble of profiles of diffuse reflection coefficients of skin, which corresponds to a wave variation of its biophysical parameters. On its basis, we have estimated the retrieval accuracy of biophysical parameters using the developed method and investigated the stability of the method to errors of optical measurements. We have showed that it is possible to determine online the concentrations of melanin, hemoglobin, bilirubin, oxygen saturation of blood, and structural parameters of skin from measurements of its diffuse reflection in the spectral range 450-800 nm at three distances between the radiation source and detector.

  5. Evolution of quantitative methods for the study and management of avian populations: on the importance of individual contributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of quantitative methods for the study and management of avian populations: on the importance of individual contributions.-The EURING meetings and the scientists who have attended them have contributed substantially to the growth of knowledge in the field of estimating parameters of animal populations. The contributions of David R. Anderson to process modeling, parameter estimation and decision analysis are briefly reviewed. Metrics are considered for assessing individual contributions to a field of inquiry, and it is concluded that Anderson's contributions have been substantial. Important characteristics of Anderson and his career are the ability to identify and focus on important topics, the premium placed on dissemination of new methods to prospective users, the ability to assemble teams of complementary researchers, and the innovation and vision that characterized so much of his work. The paper concludes with a list of interesting current research topics for consideration by EURING participants.

  6. A quantitative analysis of CLIP methods for identifying binding sites of RNA-binding proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shivendra Kishore; Lukasz Jaskiewicz; Lukas Burger; Jean Hausser; Mohsen Khorshid; Mihaela Zavolan

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) is increasingly used to map transcriptome-wide binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. We developed a method for CLIP data analysis, and applied it to compare CLIP with photoactivatable ribonucleoside–enhanced CLIP (PAR-CLIP) and to uncover how differences in cross-linking and ribonuclease digestion affect the identified sites. We found only small differences in accuracies of these methods in identifying

  7. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  8. New spectrophotometric methods for the quantitative determination of chloramphenicol in pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. D. Naik; P. Nagaraja; H. S. Yathirajan; M. S. Hemanthakumar; B. M. Mohan

    2006-01-01

    Three new methods are proposed for the simple and sensitive spectrophotometric determination of chloramphenicol in pure form\\u000a and in related pharmaceutical preparations. Two methods are based on the diazotization of reduced chloramphenicol, followed\\u000a by coupling either with iminodibenzyl to give a violet colored product (?max = 590 nm) or with 3-aminophenol to produce an orange-red colored product (?max = 470

  9. QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF DIAZEPAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATION BY USING A NEW EXTRACTIVE-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Sadeghi; Rozita Takjoo; Soheila Haghgoo

    2002-01-01

    A simple and sensitive extraction-spectrophotometric method in the visible region is described for the determination of diazepam in bulk sample and pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on 1 : 1 ion-association complex formation with the acidic dye, bromocresol green at pH 3.5, which is extractable into chloroform from the aqueous phase. Spectrophotometric measurement was done at 410 nm. Different variable affecting the

  10. Method for the quantitative measurement of collecting lymphatic vessel contraction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Shan; Jones, Dennis; Cheng, Gang; Padera, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    Collecting lymphatic vessels are critical for the transport of lymph and its cellular contents to lymph nodes for both immune surveillance and the maintenance of tissue-fluid balance. Collecting lymphatic vessels drive lymph flow by autonomous contraction of smooth muscle cells that cover these vessels. Here we describe methods using intravital microscopy to image and quantify collecting lymphatic vessel contraction in mice. Our methods allow for the measurement of the strength of lymphatic contraction of an individual lymphangion in a mouse, which has not yet been demonstrated using other published methods. The ability to study murine collecting lymphatic vessel contraction—using the methods described here or other recently published techniques—allows the field to dissect the molecular mechanisms controlling lymphatic pumping under normal and pathological conditions using the wide variety of molecular tools and genetic models available in the mouse. We have used our methods to study lymphatic contraction in physiological and inflammatory conditions. The methods described here will facilitate the further study of lymphatic function in other pathological conditions that feature lymphatic complications. PMID:25512945

  11. Spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of iron (III) from iron polymaltose complex in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Fida; Arayne, M Saeed; Sultana, Najma

    2006-10-01

    A visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantification of iron (III) from iron polymaltose complex in pure and in pharmaceutical preparations. The method is based on hydrolysis of iron polymaltose complex under acidic conditions and the formation of red colored chromogen with ammonium thiocyanate, which showed absorption peak at 471 nm. This absorption wavelength can be used for the determination of iron (III) from iron polymaltose complex. The limit of detection of iron polymaltose complex at 476 nm was 6.207 ng mL(-1). The calibration was linear in the range of 19.8-22.2 microg mL(-1). Analytical parameters such as stability, selectivity, accuracy and precision have been established for the method in HAEMOTYL syrup and evaluated statistically to assess the application of the method. The method was validated under the ICH and USP guidelines and found to comprise the advantages for simplicity, stability, sensitivity, reproducibility and accuracy for using as a method for the routine analysis of the drug in pharmaceutical formulations and in pharmaceutical investigations involving iron polymaltose complex. PMID:17105708

  12. Development and validation of LC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of (-)-securinine in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Wabuyele, Simuli L; Wald, David; Xu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    (-)-Securinine (SE) is a major alkaloid found in plant Securinega suffruticosa, which has a wide range of pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-parasitic and central nervous system stimulating effects, etc. To aid the pharmacological study of SE, we developed an LC-MS/MS method for quantitative determination of SE in mouse plasma. In this method, plasma samples were first prepared with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction using cold acetonitrile (-20°C) and 2.00 M ammonium acetate. Separation of SE and the internal standard (IS) from sample matrix was achieved on a Gemini Nx C18 column using 40% acetonitrile and 60% 10.0mM ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.200 mL min(-1). Quantification of SE was accomplished with positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry using mass transitions m/z 218.1?84.1 for SE, and m/z 204.1?70.2 for the IS. This method has a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 0.600 ng mL(-1) and a linear calibration range up to 600 ng mL(-1) in mouse plasma. The intra- and inter-run accuracy (%RE) and precision (%CV) were ? ± 6% and 6%, respectively. The IS normalized matrix factors from six lots of plasma matrices ranged 0.92-1.07, and the recoveries of plasma SE were 99-109%. The validated method has been applied to the measurement of SE in plasma samples of a mouse study. PMID:24786218

  13. A quantitative evaluation method of flood risks in low-lying areas associated with increase of heavy rainfall in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change or other causes. Immediate measures such as strengthening of drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. Typically, drainage pump capacities of in paddy areas are planned by using a result of drainage analysis with design rainfall (e.g. 3-day rainfall amount with a 10-year return period). However, the result depends on a hyetograph of input rainfall even if a total amount of rainfall is equal, and the flood risk may be different with rainfall patterns. Therefore, it is important to assume various patterns of heavy rainfall for flood risk assessment. On the other hand, a rainfall synthesis simulation is useful to generate many patterns of rainfall data for flood studies. We previously proposed a rainfall simulation method called diurnal rainfall pattern generator which can generate short-time step rainfall and internal pattern of them. This study discusses a quantitative evaluation method for detecting a relationship between flood damage risk and heavy rainfall scale by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. In addition, we also approached an estimation of flood damage which focused on rice yield. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level on channels and paddies. Next, the heavy rainfall data for drainage analysis were generated. Here, the 3-day rainfalls amounts with 9 kinds of different return periods (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 50-, 100-, and 200-year) were derived, and three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. Finally, all data were input to the drainage model to estimate flood risk; hence, the resultant data would include the influence of different of internal patterns of rainfall on the flood risk. Simultaneously, we tried to clarify economic losses in paddies by using a yield loss curve showing the relation between submerged duration in paddies and rice yield reduction. In particular, we focused on the frequency distribution of peak water levels that exceed allowable flood levels at the lagoons as a flood occurrence risk in this area. The results showed that the risk would increase with rainfall amount, and we got a curve which showed the relation between rainfall amounts and the flood occurrence risk. By using this curve, we can estimate this risk easily in any rainfall amount or climate change scenario. Furthermore, the averaged inundation duration over a depth of more than 30 cm and decrease ratio of rice yield were estimated for paddies. It is indicated that paddies in low-lying areas were damaged so that they are particularly vulnerable to the increase of heavy rainfall amount. Mitigation measures such as revision of drainage planning and/or changing design standards for the capacity of drainage pumps would be necessary in the future.

  14. Development of a novel method combining HPLC fingerprint and multi-ingredients quantitative analysis for quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine preparation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Zhi; An, Yi-Qiang; Jiang, Xiang-Lan; Tang, Dao-Quan; Gao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhao, Hong-Tao; Wu, Xiao-Wen

    2011-08-15

    A novel method combining high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and simultaneous quantitative analysis of multiple active components was developed and validated for quality evaluation of one type of traditional Chinese medicine preparations: Shuang-huang-lian (SHL) oral liquid formulation. For fingerprint analysis, 45 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities among several different SHL oral liquid preparations collected from manufacturers. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of eleven markers, including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, forsythiaside, scutellarin, baicalin, forsythin, luteoloside, apigenin, baicalein and wogonin, was performed. Statistical analysis of the obtained data demonstrated that our method has achieved desired linearity, precision and accuracy. Finally, concentrations of these eleven markers in SHL oral liquid prepared by different manufacturers in China were determined. These results demonstrated that the combination of HPLC chromatographic fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient and reliable approach for quality evaluation of SHL oral liquid preparations. PMID:21726714

  15. [A new multivariate quantitative method of spectral analysis for multicomponent system].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ai-Qin; Yuan, Hong-Fu; Yao, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Ya-Fei; Song, Chun-Feng; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2014-11-01

    In the spectral analysis, a large-scale application of the traditional multivariate analysis methods has been limited by both high cost and poor applicability of the calibration models. A new multivariate analysis method was proposed for multicomponent systems in the present paper. Determining MTBE content in gasoline solution by infrared spectroscopy was studied. The spectra of five kinds of gasoline and their 50 narrow distillation fractions were used to build the background library. The oblique projection algorithm was applied to the spectra of MTBE gasoline solution samples to extract the purespectral signal of MTBE in the solution. A unary linear regression curve was built between the pure spectral signals of MTBE and their concentrations with a correlation coefficient of 0.995 2 and an intercept of 0.025. Compared with the orthogonal projection algorithm method and PLS model method, a large amounts of calibration samples and complex model are no longer needed by the new method which is simpler, more accurate and with better applicability. PMID:25752054

  16. Performance of quantitative vegetation sampling methods across gradients of cover in Great Basin plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, David S.; Arkle, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Resource managers and scientists need efficient, reliable methods for quantifying vegetation to conduct basic research, evaluate land management actions, and monitor trends in habitat conditions. We examined three methods for quantifying vegetation in 1-ha plots among different plant communities in the northern Great Basin: photography-based grid-point intercept (GPI), line-point intercept (LPI), and point-quarter (PQ). We also evaluated each method for within-plot subsampling adequacy and effort requirements relative to information gain. We found that, for most functional groups, percent cover measurements collected with the use of LPI, GPI, and PQ methods were strongly correlated. These correlations were even stronger when we used data from the upper canopy only (i.e., top “hit” of pin flags) in LPI to estimate cover. PQ was best at quantifying cover of sparse plants such as shrubs in early successional habitats. As cover of a given functional group decreased within plots, the variance of the cover estimate increased substantially, which required more subsamples per plot (i.e., transect lines, quadrats) to achieve reliable precision. For GPI, we found that that six–nine quadrats per hectare were sufficient to characterize the vegetation in most of the plant communities sampled. All three methods reasonably characterized the vegetation in our plots, and each has advantages depending on characteristics of the vegetation, such as cover or heterogeneity, study goals, precision of measurements required, and efficiency needed.

  17. A Quantitative Comparison of Prediction Methods for Daily Streamflow Time Series at Ungaged Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Julie; Farmer, William; Archfield, Stacey; Over, Thomas; Vogel, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The existence of reliable, continuous daily records of natural streamflow enhances our ability to manage our water resources. In many regions, due to a lack of adequate gaging resources, it is necessary to create representative records where none exist. Research on prediction in ungaged basins (PUB) has been very active over the past decade. We report the findings of an ongoing national study by the U.S. Geological Survey, which seeks to provide spatially and temporally continuous 30-year records of historical daily records of natural streamflow (1980-2010) at the watershed scale (HUC-12). Employing data from 182 nearly pristine basins in the Southeast United States, a three-fold validation procedure was used to simulate the ungaged case for each basin. Ungaged flows were estimated using transfer-based methods: standardizing by drainage area, mean flows, means and standard deviations, and using an interpolation of flow duration curves (QPPQ). The effect of index-gage selection was also considered: using the nearest-neighboring gage or the gage with the greatest correlation. These methods were compared with a daily version of the Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (AFINCH) model and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic model. We developed a multi-objective, comparative assessment of PUB methods. The selection of an optimal PUB method is shown to depend on the intended application of the estimated flow record. We identify the PUB methods that perform best across the 32 goodness-of-fit metrics considered.

  18. Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, John; Jacobsen, Jerrold J.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis is a visual library of techniques used in making volumetric measurements. This 40-minute VHS videotape is designed as a resource for introducing students to proper volumetric methods and procedures. The entire tape, or relevant segments of the tape, can also be used to review procedures used in subsequent experiments that rely on the traditional art of quantitative analysis laboratory practice. The techniques included are: Quantitative transfer of a solid with a weighing spoon Quantitative transfer of a solid with a finger held weighing bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a paper strap held bottle Quantitative transfer of a solid with a spatula Examples of common quantitative weighing errors Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to beaker to volumetric flask Quantitative transfer of a solid from dish to volumetric flask Volumetric transfer pipet A complete acid-base titration Hand technique variations The conventional view of contemporary quantitative chemical measurement tends to focus on instrumental systems, computers, and robotics. In this view, the analyst is relegated to placing standards and samples on a tray. A robotic arm delivers a sample to the analysis center, while a computer controls the analysis conditions and records the results. In spite of this, it is rare to find an analysis process that does not rely on some aspect of more traditional quantitative analysis techniques, such as careful dilution to the mark of a volumetric flask. Figure 2. Transfer of a solid with a spatula. Clearly, errors in a classical step will affect the quality of the final analysis. Because of this, it is still important for students to master the key elements of the traditional art of quantitative chemical analysis laboratory practice. Some aspects of chemical analysis, like careful rinsing to insure quantitative transfer, are often an automated part of an instrumental process that must be understood by the analyst. This video material carefully documents several options in the process of quantitatively weighing and transferring a solid, quantitatively transferring a liquid aliquot with a pipet, and the process of quantitative volumetric titration. There are many local variants in each of these procedures. For example, some prefer to transfer solid with a weighing spoon, some with a finger held bottle, and some with a paper-strap held bottle. Students should follow the local preference, but should be aware of other acceptable options. Whatever the technique option chosen, the procedure must be done reproducibly, if analysis quality is to be optimized. Acknowledgments Quantitative Techniques in Volumetric Analysis was created with support from Project SERAPHIM and the NSF Directorate for Education and Human Resources, grant MDR-9154099.

  19. A quantitative, semi-automated method for phytate phosphorus determination in sorghum and other cereals

    E-print Network

    Doherty, C. A

    1981-01-01

    nitrogen to anmonium sulfate. N1trogen, in the ammonia form was determ1ned with an Auto-Analyzer using Technicon method 334-74 w/B+. Absorbance at 660 nm of the green colored complex (formed 17 by the reaction of ansnonia, sodium salicylate, sodium...A QUANTITATIYE, SEMI-AUTOMATED METHOD FOR PHYTATE PHOSPHORUS DETERMINATION IN SORGHUM AND OTHER CEREALS A Thesis by CHERYL ANN DOHERTY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A@1 University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  20. Quantitative phase analysis of Mg:ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles by Rietveld refinement method

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, V., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com; Senthilkumaran, S., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com; Thangadurai, P., E-mail: thangadurai.p@gmail.com [Center for Nano Science and Technology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry- 605014 (India)

    2014-04-24

    To quantify the structural phases of nanocrystalline ZrO{sub 2} doped with Mg ions of varying concentrations (3, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) and annealed at different temperatures. Magnesia doped zirconia was prepared by chemical co-precipitation method and annealed up to 1000°C. The monoclinic and tetragonal phases present in Mg:ZrO{sub 2} were quantified using Rietveld refinement analysis of the X-ray diffraction data and compared with the Direct method based on peak intensity calculations. Tetragonal phase was dominant in the 600°C annealed Mg:ZrO{sub 2} for all Mg concentrations.