Sample records for quantitative methods results

  1. Guidelines for Reporting Quantitative Methods and Results in Primary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.; Plonsky, Luke; Ross, Steven J.; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Adequate reporting of quantitative research about language learning involves careful consideration of the logic, rationale, and actions underlying both study designs and the ways in which data are analyzed. These guidelines, commissioned and vetted by the board of directors of "Language Learning," outline the basic expectations for…

  2. Quantitative molecular methods in virology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Clementi; S. Menzo; A. Manzin; P. Bagnarelli

    1995-01-01

    Summary During the past few years, significant technical effort was made to develop molecular methods for the absolute quantitation of nucleic acids in biological samples. In virology, semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques of different principle, complexity, and reliability were designed, optimized, and applied in basic and clinical researches. The principal data obtained in successful pilot applications in vivo are reported in

  3. Quantitating heart lipids: comparison of results obtained using the Iatroscan method with those from phosphorus and gas chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Kramer, J K; Farnworth, E R; Thompson, B K

    1985-08-01

    The precision and accuracy of the Iatroscan method was evaluated by comparing the results obtained with established phosphorus and gas chromatographic techniques. A complete lipid class analysis of rat heart lipids was chosen in order to evaluate the performance of the Iatroscan method for biological samples which contained both neutral lipids and phospholipids. A partial scan and repeat development with chloroform/methanol/water (68.5:29:2.5) was introduced to achieve consistently good separations of the phospholipids on the Chromarods in the Iatroscan method. The results showed that the precision of the Iatroscan method for some lipid classes was comparable to that of phosphorus or gas chromatographic techniques, while for other lipid classes it was lower. Compared to the data obtained using the phosphorus method, the Iatroscan data were generally similar, while the gas chromatographic method generally gave lower values. These findings, together with the advantages of time required for analysis, size of sample, and universality of detection, suggest that the Iatroscan is a valuable complementary method for complex lipid analyses. PMID:4033372

  4. Comparison of Enterococcus quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis results from Midwest U.S. river samples using EPA Method 1611 and Method 1609 PCR reagents.

    PubMed

    Sivaganensan, Mano; Siefring, Shawn; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2014-06-01

    Enterococci target sequence density estimates from analyses of diluted river water DNA extracts by EPA Methods 1611 and 1609 and estimates with lower detection limits from undiluted DNA extracts by Method 1609 were indistinguishable. These methods should be equally suitable for comparison with U.S. EPA 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria values. PMID:24681207

  5. Method for quantitative estimation of thermal thresholds in patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Fruhstorfer; U Lindblom; W C Schmidt

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the examination of thermal sensibility was applied in 26 normal subjects and in patients with various neurological disorders. The stimulation technique resembled Békésy audiometry: the patient reversed the direction of the temperature change of a thermode whenever warm, cold, or thermal pain thresholds were reached. The resulting temperature curve enables a quantitative description of the subject's

  6. Quantitative results from the focusing schlieren technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, S. P.; Chokani, Ndaona

    1993-01-01

    An iterative theoretical approach to obtain quantitative density data from the focusing schlieren technique is proposed. The approach is based on an approximate modeling of the focusing action in a focusing schlieren system, and an estimation of an appropriate focal plane thickness. The theoretical approach is incorporated in a computer program, and results obtained from a supersonic wind tunnel experiment evaluated by comparison with CFD data. The density distributions compared favorably with CFD predictions. However, improvements to the system are required in order to reduce noise in the data, to improve specifications of a depth of focus, and to refine the modeling of the focusing action.

  7. A quantitative method to evaluate neutralizer toxicity against Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, S L; Rosenthal, R A

    1996-01-01

    A standard methodology for quantitatively evaluating neutralizer toxicity against Acanthamoeba castellanii does not exist. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative method for evaluating neutralizer toxicity against A. castellanii. Two methods were evaluated. A quantitative microtiter method for enumerating A. castellanii was evaluated by a 50% lethal dose endpoint method. The microtiter method was compared with the hemacytometer count method. A method for determining the toxicity of neutralizers for antimicrobial agents to A. castellanii was also evaluated. The toxicity to A. castellanii of Dey-Engley neutralizing broth was compared with Page's saline. The microtiter viable cell counts were lower than predicted by the hemacytometer counts. However, the microtiter method gives more reliable counts of viable cells. Dey-Engley neutralizing medium was not toxic to A. castellanii. The method presented gives consistent, reliable results and is simple compared with previous methods. PMID:8795247

  8. A quantitative method to evaluate neutralizer toxicity against Acanthamoeba castellanii.

    PubMed

    Buck, S L; Rosenthal, R A

    1996-09-01

    A standard methodology for quantitatively evaluating neutralizer toxicity against Acanthamoeba castellanii does not exist. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative method for evaluating neutralizer toxicity against A. castellanii. Two methods were evaluated. A quantitative microtiter method for enumerating A. castellanii was evaluated by a 50% lethal dose endpoint method. The microtiter method was compared with the hemacytometer count method. A method for determining the toxicity of neutralizers for antimicrobial agents to A. castellanii was also evaluated. The toxicity to A. castellanii of Dey-Engley neutralizing broth was compared with Page's saline. The microtiter viable cell counts were lower than predicted by the hemacytometer counts. However, the microtiter method gives more reliable counts of viable cells. Dey-Engley neutralizing medium was not toxic to A. castellanii. The method presented gives consistent, reliable results and is simple compared with previous methods. PMID:8795247

  9. Quantitative statistical methods for image quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Joyita; Ahn, Sangtae; Li, Quanzheng

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative measures of image quality and reliability are critical for both qualitative interpretation and quantitative analysis of medical images. While, in theory, it is possible to analyze reconstructed images by means of Monte Carlo simulations using a large number of noise realizations, the associated computational burden makes this approach impractical. Additionally, this approach is less meaningful in clinical scenarios, where multiple noise realizations are generally unavailable. The practical alternative is to compute closed-form analytical expressions for image quality measures. The objective of this paper is to review statistical analysis techniques that enable us to compute two key metrics: resolution (determined from the local impulse response) and covariance. The underlying methods include fixed-point approaches, which compute these metrics at a fixed point (the unique and stable solution) independent of the iterative algorithm employed, and iteration-based approaches, which yield results that are dependent on the algorithm, initialization, and number of iterations. We also explore extensions of some of these methods to a range of special contexts, including dynamic and motion-compensated image reconstruction. While most of the discussed techniques were developed for emission tomography, the general methods are extensible to other imaging modalities as well. In addition to enabling image characterization, these analysis techniques allow us to control and enhance imaging system performance. We review practical applications where performance improvement is achieved by applying these ideas to the contexts of both hardware (optimizing scanner design) and image reconstruction (designing regularization functions that produce uniform resolution or maximize task-specific figures of merit). PMID:24312148

  10. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  11. A quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. [aid to decision making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forthofer, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    When faced with choosing between alternatives, people tend to use a number of criteria (often subjective, rather than objective) to decide which is the best alternative for them given their unique situation. The subjectivity inherent in the decision-making process can be reduced by the definition and use of a quantitative method for evaluating alternatives. This type of method can help decision makers achieve degree of uniformity and completeness in the evaluation process, as well as an increased sensitivity to the factors involved. Additional side-effects are better documentation and visibility of the rationale behind the resulting decisions. General guidelines for defining a quantitative method are presented and a particular method (called 'hierarchical weighted average') is defined and applied to the evaluation of design alternatives for a hypothetical computer system capability.

  12. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel M Clegg; James E Barefield; Roger C Wiens; Melinda D Dyar; Martha W Schafer; Jonathan M Tucker

    2008-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by

  13. Quantitative laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy data using peak area step-wise regression analysis: an alternative method for interpretation of Mars science laboratory results

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, Samuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dyar, Melinda D [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Schafer, Martha W [LSU; Tucker, Jonathan M [MT HOLYOKE COLLEGE

    2008-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will include a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) to quantify major and minor elemental compositions. The traditional analytical chemistry approach to calibration curves for these data regresses a single diagnostic peak area against concentration for each element. This approach contrasts with a new multivariate method in which elemental concentrations are predicted by step-wise multiple regression analysis based on areas of a specific set of diagnostic peaks for each element. The method is tested on LIBS data from igneous and metamorphosed rocks. Between 4 and 13 partial regression coefficients are needed to describe each elemental abundance accurately (i.e., with a regression line of R{sup 2} > 0.9995 for the relationship between predicted and measured elemental concentration) for all major and minor elements studied. Validation plots suggest that the method is limited at present by the small data set, and will work best for prediction of concentration when a wide variety of compositions and rock types has been analyzed.

  14. Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

    1987-01-01

    The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade

  15. Method of quantitating dsDNA

    DOEpatents

    Stark, Peter C. (Los Alamos, NM); Kuske, Cheryl R. (Los Alamos, NM); Mullen, Kenneth I. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method for quantitating dsDNA in an aqueous sample solution containing an unknown amount of dsDNA. A first aqueous test solution containing a known amount of a fluorescent dye-dsDNA complex and at least one fluorescence-attenutating contaminant is prepared. The fluorescence intensity of the test solution is measured. The first test solution is diluted by a known amount to provide a second test solution having a known concentration of dsDNA. The fluorescence intensity of the second test solution is measured. Additional diluted test solutions are similarly prepared until a sufficiently dilute test solution having a known amount of dsDNA is prepared that has a fluorescence intensity that is not attenuated upon further dilution. The value of the maximum absorbance of this solution between 200-900 nanometers (nm), referred to herein as the threshold absorbance, is measured. A sample solution having an unknown amount of dsDNA and an absorbance identical to that of the sufficiently dilute test solution at the same chosen wavelength is prepared. Dye is then added to the sample solution to form the fluorescent dye-dsDNA-complex, after which the fluorescence intensity of the sample solution is measured and the quantity of dsDNA in the sample solution is determined. Once the threshold absorbance of a sample solution obtained from a particular environment has been determined, any similarly prepared sample solution taken from a similar environment and having the same value for the threshold absorbance can be quantified for dsDNA by adding a large excess of dye to the sample solution and measuring its fluorescence intensity.

  16. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  17. An improved quantitative analysis method for plant cortical microtubules.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi; Huang, Chenyang; Wang, Jia; Shang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of plant cortical microtubules can reflect the physiological state of cells. However, little attention has been paid to the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules so far. In this paper, Bidimensional Empirical Mode Decomposition (BEMD) algorithm was applied in the image preprocessing of the original microtubule image. And then Intrinsic Mode Function 1 (IMF1) image obtained by decomposition was selected to do the texture analysis based on Grey-Level Cooccurrence Matrix (GLCM) algorithm. Meanwhile, in order to further verify its reliability, the proposed texture analysis method was utilized to distinguish different images of Arabidopsis microtubules. The results showed that the effect of BEMD algorithm on edge preserving accompanied with noise reduction was positive, and the geometrical characteristic of the texture was obvious. Four texture parameters extracted by GLCM perfectly reflected the different arrangements between the two images of cortical microtubules. In summary, the results indicate that this method is feasible and effective for the image quantitative analysis of plant cortical microtubules. It not only provides a new quantitative approach for the comprehensive study of the role played by microtubules in cell life activities but also supplies references for other similar studies. PMID:24744684

  18. A quantitative method for determining the robustness of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jun; Wu, Hongrun; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin

    2013-06-01

    Most current studies estimate the invulnerability of complex networks using a qualitative method that analyzes the decay rate of network performance. This method results in confusion over the invulnerability of various types of complex networks. By normalizing network performance and defining a baseline, this paper defines the invulnerability index as the integral of the normalized network performance curve minus the baseline. This quantitative method seeks to measure network invulnerability under both edge and node attacks and provides a definition on the distinguishment of the robustness and fragility of networks. To demonstrate the proposed method, three small-world networks were selected as test beds. The simulation results indicate that the proposed invulnerability index can effectively and accurately quantify network resilience and can deal with both the node and edge attacks. The index can provide a valuable reference for determining network invulnerability in future research.

  19. Interlaboratory Comparison of Quantitative PCR Test Results for Dehalococcoides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques have been widely used to measure Dehalococcoides (Dhc) DNA in the groundwater at field sites for several years. Interpretation of these data may be complicated when different laboratories using alternate methods conduct the analysis. An...

  20. Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure

    E-print Network

    Quantitative Data Analysis Methods for 3D Microstructure Characterization of Solid Oxide Cells by the analysis of Ni-YSZ and LSC-CGO electrode samples. Automatic methods for preprocessing the raw 3D image data variation in the 3D image data. Routine use of quantitative three dimensional analysis of microstructure

  1. Blending Qualitative & Quantitative Research Methods in Theses and Dissertations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, R. Murray

    This guide discusses combining qualitative and quantitative research methods in theses and dissertations. It covers a wide array of methods, the strengths and limitations of each, and how they can be effectively interwoven into various research designs. The first chapter is "The Qualitative and the Quantitative." Part 1, "A Catalogue of…

  2. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jick, Todd D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the use of triangulation in a study by the author, and argues that triangulation heightens qualitative methods to their deserved prominence while demonstrating that quantitative methods can and should be used in a complementary fashion. (Author/IRT)

  3. Integrating Interpretive and Quantitative Methods in Socialization Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaskins, Suzanne

    1994-01-01

    Examines the strengths and weaknesses of interpretive and quantitative research methods in comparative developmental research. Cites three recent studies of the Yupno, Fiji, and Mayan peoples to show how the interpretive approach contributes to the understanding of the meaning of behavior in context whereas the quantitative approach contributes a…

  4. [Quantitative method of representative contaminants in groundwater pollution risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; He, Jiang-Tao; Lu, Yan; Liu, Li-Ya; Zhang, Xiao-Liang

    2012-03-01

    In the light of the problem that stress vulnerability assessment in groundwater pollution risk assessment is lack of an effective quantitative system, a new system was proposed based on representative contaminants and corresponding emission quantities through the analysis of groundwater pollution sources. And quantitative method of the representative contaminants in this system was established by analyzing the three properties of representative contaminants and determining the research emphasis using analytic hierarchy process. The method had been applied to the assessment of Beijing groundwater pollution risk. The results demonstrated that the representative contaminants hazards greatly depended on different research emphasizes. There were also differences between the sequence of three representative contaminants hazards and their corresponding properties. It suggested that subjective tendency of the research emphasis had a decisive impact on calculation results. In addition, by the means of sequence to normalize the three properties and to unify the quantified properties results would zoom in or out of the relative properties characteristic of different representative contaminants. PMID:22624367

  5. Results of a European interlaboratory method validation study for the quantitative determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins in raw and cooked shellfish based on high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Part I: collaborative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja These; Christine Klemm; Ingo Nausch; Steffen Uhlig

    2011-01-01

    A European interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted to validate a method for the quantitative determination of lipophilic\\u000a marine biotoxins based on high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. During this study, the diarrhetic\\u000a shellfish poisoning toxins okadaic acid, dinophysis toxin1 and 2 including their esters, the azaspiracids 1-3, pectenotoxin2,\\u000a and the yessotoxins were investigated at concentration levels near the limit of quantification

  6. ASSESSING QUANTITATIVE RESULTS IN ACCRETION SIMULATIONS: FROM LOCAL TO GLOBAL

    SciTech Connect

    Hawley, John F.; Guan Xiaoyue [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Krolik, Julian H., E-mail: jh8h@virginia.edu, E-mail: xg3z@virginia.edu, E-mail: jhk@pha.jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Discretized numerical simulations are a powerful tool for the investigation of nonlinear MHD turbulence in accretion disks. However, confidence in their quantitative predictions requires a demonstration that further refinement of the spatial grid scale would not result in any significant change. This has yet to be accomplished, particularly for global disk simulations. In this paper, we combine data from previously published stratified shearing box simulations and new global disk simulations to calibrate several quantitative diagnostics by which one can estimate progress toward numerical convergence of the magnetic field. Using these diagnostics, we find that the established criterion for an adequate numerical description of linear growth of the magneto-rotational instability (the number of cells across a wavelength of the fastest-growing vertical wavenumber mode) can be extended to a criterion for the adequate description of nonlinear MHD disk turbulence, but the standard required is more stringent. We also find that azimuthal resolution, which has received little attention in previous studies, can significantly affect the evolution of the poloidal magnetic field. We further analyze the comparative resolution requirements of a small sample of initial magnetic field geometries; not surprisingly, more complicated initial field geometries require higher spatial resolution. Otherwise, they tend to evolve to qualitatively similar states if evolved for sufficient time. Applying our quantitative resolution criteria to a sample of previously published global simulations, we find that, with perhaps a single exception, they are significantly underresolved, and therefore underestimate the magnetic turbulence and resulting stress levels throughout the accretion flow.

  7. Quantitative method to assess economic output of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jieming, C.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, economic output of climate change is picked from the historical data, and a methodology of quantitative predicted economic output of climate change is provided by an economic-climatic model (C-D-C model). A historical reciprocating examination is engaged, using the data of outputs of various crops and total outputs of grain in 8 agricultural areas of China from 1981 to 2000, as well as the meteorological data of 160 observatory stations in China in the same time interval. The results show the methods are reasonable in certain extent and good in application. Finally, meaningful summery is concluded. The authors try to give a way for studying the effect of the future climatic change on economy. The results in economic research are introduced to the global climatic change study.

  8. Forward–backward splitting method for quantitative photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Gao, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography (PAT) reconstructs optical maps using ultrasonic measurements, with improved resolution from conventional optical imaging due to significantly smaller acoustic scattering than optical scattering for detecting signals in depth. In this work, formulating quantitative PAT as a nonlinear least-squares problem with l1-norm sparsity regularization, we develop an efficient gradient-based reconstruction algorithm using a forward–backward splitting method, and prove its convergence for such a nonconvex problem.

  9. University Students' Orientation to Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    This study aimed to determine whether different orientations toward qualitative and quantitative methods can be found among students. Data were collected during 3 years from different research methodology course students. There were 195 Finnish students and 122 U.S. students who answered a questionnaire about the appreciation of research methods…

  10. Comparison of methods for quantitative evaluation of endoscopic distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Quanzeng; Castro, Kurt; Desai, Viraj N.; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Pfefer, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopy is a well-established paradigm in medical imaging, and emerging endoscopic technologies such as high resolution, capsule and disposable endoscopes promise significant improvements in effectiveness, as well as patient safety and acceptance of endoscopy. However, the field lacks practical standardized test methods to evaluate key optical performance characteristics (OPCs), in particular the geometric distortion caused by fisheye lens effects in clinical endoscopic systems. As a result, it has been difficult to evaluate an endoscope's image quality or assess its changes over time. The goal of this work was to identify optimal techniques for objective, quantitative characterization of distortion that are effective and not burdensome. Specifically, distortion measurements from a commercially available distortion evaluation/correction software package were compared with a custom algorithm based on a local magnification (ML) approach. Measurements were performed using a clinical gastroscope to image square grid targets. Recorded images were analyzed with the ML approach and the commercial software where the results were used to obtain corrected images. Corrected images based on the ML approach and the software were compared. The study showed that the ML method could assess distortion patterns more accurately than the commercial software. Overall, the development of standardized test methods for characterizing distortion and other OPCs will facilitate development, clinical translation, manufacturing quality and assurance of performance during clinical use of endoscopic technologies.

  11. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brent, Lauren J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus. PMID:24659839

  12. Applying Quantitative Genetic Methods to Primate Social Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blomquist, Gregory E; Brent, Lauren J N

    2014-02-01

    Increasingly, behavioral ecologists have applied quantitative genetic methods to investigate the evolution of behaviors in wild animal populations. The promise of quantitative genetics in unmanaged populations opens the door for simultaneous analysis of inheritance, phenotypic plasticity, and patterns of selection on behavioral phenotypes all within the same study. In this article, we describe how quantitative genetic techniques provide studies of the evolution of behavior with information that is unique and valuable. We outline technical obstacles for applying quantitative genetic techniques that are of particular relevance to studies of behavior in primates, especially those living in noncaptive populations, e.g., the need for pedigree information, non-Gaussian phenotypes, and demonstrate how many of these barriers are now surmountable. We illustrate this by applying recent quantitative genetic methods to spatial proximity data, a simple and widely collected primate social behavior, from adult rhesus macaques on Cayo Santiago. Our analysis shows that proximity measures are consistent across repeated measurements on individuals (repeatable) and that kin have similar mean measurements (heritable). Quantitative genetics may hold lessons of considerable importance for studies of primate behavior, even those without a specific genetic focus. PMID:24659839

  13. A Quantitative Method for Weight Selection in SGDDP.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qin; Chen, Gang; Yuan, Zhilong; Zhang, Ying; Wenrich, Judy

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRACT Ethnic factors pose major challenge to evaluating the treatment effect of a new drug in a targeted ethnic (TE) population in emerging regions based on the results from a multi-regional clinical trial (MRCT) (ICHE5, 1998). To address this issue with statistical rigor, Huang, et al. (2012) proposed a new design of a simultaneous global drug development program (SGDDP) which used weighted Z tests to combine the information collected from the non-targeted ethnic (NTE) group in the MRCT with that from the TE group in both the MRCT and a simultaneously designed local clinical trial (LCT). An important and open question in the SGDDP design was how to downweight the information collected from the NTE population to reflect the potential impact of ethnic factors and ensure that the effect size for TE patients is clinically meaningful. In this paper, we will relate the weight selection for the SGDDP to Method 1 proposed in the Japanese regulatory guidance published by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in 2007. Method 1 is only applicable when true effect sizes are assumed to be equal for both TE and NTE groups. We modified the Method 1 formula for more general scenarios, and use it to develop a quantitative method of weight selection for the design of the SGDDP which at the same time, also provides sufficient power to descriptively check the consistency of the effect size for TE patients to a clinically meaningful magnitude. PMID:25365548

  14. Quantitative methods for somatosensory evaluation in atypical odontalgia.

    PubMed

    Porporatti, André Luís; Costa, Yuri Martins; Stuginski-Barbosa, Juliana; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Conti, Paulo César Rodrigues; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to identify reliable somatosensory evaluation methods for atypical odontalgia (AO) patients. The computerized search included the main databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library). The studies included used the following quantitative sensory testing (QST) methods: mechanical detection threshold (MDT), mechanical pain threshold (MPT) (pinprick), pressure pain threshold (PPT), dynamic mechanical allodynia with a cotton swab (DMA1) or a brush (DMA2), warm detection threshold (WDT), cold detection threshold (CDT), heat pain threshold (HPT), cold pain detection (CPT), and/or wind-up ratio (WUR). The publications meeting the inclusion criteria revealed that only mechanical allodynia tests (DMA1, DMA2, and WUR) were significantly higher and pain threshold tests to heat stimulation (HPT) were significantly lower in the affected side, compared with the contralateral side, in AO patients; however, for MDT, MPT, PPT, CDT, and WDT, the results were not significant. These data support the presence of central sensitization features, such as allodynia and temporal summation. In contrast, considerable inconsistencies between studies were found when AO patients were compared with healthy subjects. In clinical settings, the most reliable evaluation method for AO in patients with persistent idiopathic facial pain would be intraindividual assessments using HPT or mechanical allodynia tests. PMID:25627886

  15. A Quantitative Assessment Method for Ascaris Eggs on Hands

    PubMed Central

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness. PMID:24802859

  16. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands.

    PubMed

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Sengupta, Mita E

    2014-01-01

    The importance of hands in the transmission of soil transmitted helminths, especially Ascaris and Trichuris infections, is under-researched. This is partly because of the absence of a reliable method to quantify the number of eggs on hands. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four different detergents (cationic [benzethonium chloride 0.1% and cetylpyridinium chloride CPC 0.1%], anionic [7X 1% - quadrafos, glycol ether, and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt] and non-ionic [Tween80 0.1% -polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate]) and two egg detection methods (McMaster technique and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands. The highest recovery rate (95.6%) was achieved with a hand rinse performed with 7X 1%. Washing hands with de-ionized water resulted in an egg recovery rate of 82.7%. This washing method performed with a low concentration of detergent offers potential for quantitative investigation of contamination of hands with Ascaris eggs and of their role in human infection. Follow-up studies are needed that validate the hand washing method under field conditions, e.g. including people of different age, lower levels of contamination and various levels of hand cleanliness. PMID:24802859

  17. Quantitative reviewing of medical literature. An approach to synthesizing research results in clinical pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Ottenbacher, K J; Petersen, P

    1984-08-01

    The quantitative literature review is presented as a unique type of research endeavor complete with formal stages that parallel those associated with primary or experimental research. This article provides a tutorial overview of the quantitative literature review procedure and, in conjunction with the companion article published in this issue, serves to illustrate the application of this technique in the review process. The stages in quantitative review include: (1) problem formation; (2) data collection; (3) data evaluation; (4) analysis and interpretation; and (5) reporting results. It is argued that inferences made in the research review process are as central to the establishment of valid biomedical and clinical knowledge as inferences made in primary research. Despite some limitations, quantitative reviewing procedures constitute a significant advance over the traditional narrative methods of integrating empirical research in an area of interest. The use of quantitative reviewing procedures represents a paradigm shift in which the literature review is conceptualized as a unique form of scientific inquiry complete with formal stages and methods. The adoption of these methods should assist researchers in the behavioral and biomedical sciences in establishing scientifically valid data bases to guide theory development and direct future clinical investigation. PMID:6734016

  18. Quantitative Methods Inquires ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD

    E-print Network

    de Leon, Alex R.

    Quantitative Methods Inquires 1 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON OF UNDER FIVE CHILD MORTALITY BETWEEN RURAL Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) Abstract: Knowledge of factors that affect the under-five year child from rich family and the 2nd or 3rd child have lower risk of death compared to poor and 1st child

  19. Quantitative Imaging of Corrosion in Plates by Eddy Current Methods

    E-print Network

    Santosa, Fadil

    Quantitative Imaging of Corrosion in Plates by Eddy Current Methods Bruno Luong \\Lambda and Fadil side of the plate with corrosion damage occuring on the opposite side. Our work is based on linearizing such as metals. It has found prevalent use in the aircraft industry, and in the vessels and piping industries

  20. Quantitative assessment of single-cell RNA-sequencing methods

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Angela R; Neff, Norma F; Kalisky, Tomer; Dalerba, Piero; Treutlein, Barbara; Rothenberg, Michael E; Mburu, Francis M; Mantalas, Gary L; Sim, Sopheak; Clarke, Michael F; Quake, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Interest in single-cell whole-transcriptome analysis is growing rapidly, especially for profiling rare or heterogeneous populations of cells. We compared commercially available single-cell RNA amplification methods with both microliter and nanoliter volumes, using sequence from bulk total RNA and multiplexed quantitative PCR as benchmarks to systematically evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of various single-cell RNA-seq approaches. We show that single-cell RNA-seq can be used to perform accurate quantitative transcriptome measurement in individual cells with a relatively small number of sequencing reads and that sequencing large numbers of single cells can recapitulate bulk transcriptome complexity. PMID:24141493

  1. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for technical performance assessment.

    PubMed

    Raunig, David L; McShane, Lisa M; Pennello, Gene; Gatsonis, Constantine; Carson, Paul L; Voyvodic, James T; Wahl, Richard L; Kurland, Brenda F; Schwarz, Adam J; Gönen, Mithat; Zahlmann, Gudrun; Kondratovich, Marina V; O'Donnell, Kevin; Petrick, Nicholas; Cole, Patricia E; Garra, Brian; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Technological developments and greater rigor in the quantitative measurement of biological features in medical images have given rise to an increased interest in using quantitative imaging biomarkers to measure changes in these features. Critical to the performance of a quantitative imaging biomarker in preclinical or clinical settings are three primary metrology areas of interest: measurement linearity and bias, repeatability, and the ability to consistently reproduce equivalent results when conditions change, as would be expected in any clinical trial. Unfortunately, performance studies to date differ greatly in designs, analysis method, and metrics used to assess a quantitative imaging biomarker for clinical use. It is therefore difficult or not possible to integrate results from different studies or to use reported results to design studies. The Radiological Society of North America and the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance with technical, radiological, and statistical experts developed a set of technical performance analysis methods, metrics, and study designs that provide terminology, metrics, and methods consistent with widely accepted metrological standards. This document provides a consistent framework for the conduct and evaluation of quantitative imaging biomarker performance studies so that results from multiple studies can be compared, contrasted, or combined. PMID:24919831

  2. Quantitative analytical method to evaluate the metabolism of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Mena-Bravo, A; Ferreiro-Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Maestro, M A; Mouriño, A; Quesada-Gómez, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

    2015-03-10

    A method for quantitative analysis of vitamin D (both D2 and D3) and its main metabolites - monohydroxylated vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) and dihydroxylated metabolites (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) in human serum is here reported. The method is based on direct analysis of serum by an automated platform involving on-line coupling of a solid-phase extraction workstation to a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. Detection of the seven analytes was carried out by the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and quantitative analysis was supported on the use of stable isotopic labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs). The detection limits were between 0.3-75pg/mL for the target compounds, while precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was below 13.0% for between-day variability. The method was externally validated according to the vitamin D External Quality Assurance Scheme (DEQAS) through the analysis of ten serum samples provided by this organism. The analytical features of the method support its applicability in nutritional and clinical studies targeted at elucidating the role of vitamin D metabolism. PMID:25575651

  3. Some results of a quantitative analysis of the SETI literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsov, V. V.

    A preliminary quantitative analysis of the SETI literature is presented, with 974 publications (1959-1979) scanned. Consideration is given to the 'dynamics' of the number of publications, and to the productivity of authors and sources. Conclusions are drawn as to the present state of the SETI literature. In particular, the need for an international multidisciplinary SETI journal is emphasized.

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT in suspected lung cancer: quantitative results

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, H H; Nellemann, H M; Rasmussen, T R; Thygesen, J; Hager, H; Andersen, N T; Rasmussen, F

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) could be used to characterise and safely distinguish between malignant and benign lung tumours in patients with suspected lung cancer. Methods: Using a quantitative approach to DCE-CT, two separate sets of regions of interest (ROIs) in tissues were placed in each tumour: large ROIs over the entire tumour and small ROIs over the maximally perfused parts of the tumour. Using mathematical modelling techniques and dedicated perfusion software, this yielded a plethora of results. Results: First, because of their non-normal distribution, DCE-CT measurements must be analysed using log scale data transformation. Second, there were highly significant differences between large ROI and small ROI measurements (p<0.001). Thus, the ROI method used in a given study should always be specified in advance. Third, neither quantitative parameters (blood flow and blood volume) nor semi-quantitative parameters (peak enhancement) could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign tumours. This was irrespective of the method of quantification used for large ROIs (0.13quantitative approach to DCE-CT is not a clinically usable method for characterising lung tumours. PMID:24029629

  5. Analysis of 129I in Groundwater Samples: Direct and Quantitative Results below the Drinking Water Standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2007-03-03

    Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years) and relatively unencumbered migration in subsurface environments, 129I has been recognized as a contaminant of concern at numerous federal, private, and international facilities. In order to understand the long-term risk associated with 129I at these locations, quantitative analysis of groundwater samples must be performed. However, the ability to quantitatively assess the 129I content in groundwater samples requires specialized extraction and sophisticated analytical techniques, which are complicated and not always available to the general scientific community. This paper highlights an analytical method capable of directly quantifying 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the MCL without the need for sample pre-concentration. Samples were analyzed on a Perkin Elmer ELAN DRC II ICP-MS after minimal dilution using O2 as the reaction gas. Analysis of continuing calibration verification standards indicated that the DRC mode could be used for quantitative analysis of 129I in samples below the drinking water standard (0.0057 ng/ml or 1 pCi/L). The low analytical detection limit of 129I analysis in the DRC mode coupled with minimal sample dilution (1.02x) resulted in a final sample limit of quantification of 0.0051 ng/ml. Subsequent analysis of three groundwater samples containing 129I resulted in fully quantitative results in the DRC mode, and spike recovery analyses performed on all three samples confirmed that the groundwater matrix did not adversely impact the analysis of 129I in the DRC mode. This analytical approach has been proven to be a cost-effective, high-throughput technique for the direct, quantitative analysis of 129I in groundwater samples at concentrations below the current MCL.

  6. Quantitative PCR method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Welch, Kevin D; Roper, Jessie M; Ralphs, Michael H; Green, Benedict T

    2009-07-22

    A fungal endophyte ( Undifilum oxytropis ) has been implicated in the synthesis of swainsonine in Oxytropis and Astragalus species, commonly known as locoweeds. A quantitative PCR method has been developed to measure the amount of endophyte in Oxytropis and Astragalus species. The limit of quantitation was estimated to be 0.2 pg of endophyte/ng of total DNA. This method of analysis was used to quantify the amount of endophyte in 10 plants each of Oxytropis sericea (white point locoweed), Astragalus mollissimus (wooly locoweed), and Astragalus lentiginosus (spotted locoweed). A significant amount of individual plant variability was observed in endophyte content among individuals in all three species. In one O. sericea and one A. lentiginosus plant swainsonine concentrations were near or below the limit of detection. These plants also had the lowest amounts of endophyte when compared to the other specimens. This method will be a useful tool in further investigating the role the endophyte plays in swainsonine production in various locoweed species. PMID:19545150

  7. Evaluation of DNA microarray results with quantitative gene expression platforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D Canales; Yuling Luo; James C Willey; Bradley Austermiller; Catalin C Barbacioru; Cecilie Boysen; Kathryn Hunkapiller; Roderick V Jensen; Charles R Knight; Kathleen Y Lee; Yunqing Ma; Botoul Maqsodi; Adam Papallo; Elizabeth Herness Peters; Karen Poulter; Patricia L Ruppel; Raymond R Samaha; Leming Shi; Wen Yang; Lu Zhang; Federico M Goodsaid

    2006-01-01

    We have evaluated the performance characteristics of three quantitative gene expression technologies and correlated their expression measurements to those of five commercial microarray platforms, based on the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) data set. The limit of detection, assay range, precision, accuracy and fold-change correlations were assessed for 997 TaqMan Gene Expression Assays, 205 Standardized RT (Sta)RT-PCR assays and 244 QuantiGene

  8. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashraf A. Yousef; Alaa B. Abbas; Bassam Sh. Badawi; Wafaa Y. Al-Jowhar; Esam A. Zain; Seham A. El-Mufti

    2012-01-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5

  9. Are Teacher Course Evaluations Biased against Faculty That Teach Quantitative Methods Courses?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Kenneth D.; Stockdale, Myrah R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated graduate students' responses to teacher/course evaluations (TCE) to determine if students' responses were inherently biased against faculty who teach quantitative methods courses. Item response theory (IRT) and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) techniques were utilized for data analysis. Results indicate students…

  10. Counting Better? An Examination of the Impact of Quantitative Method Teaching on Statistical Anxiety and Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, John Martyn; Hillier, John; Signoretta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of research concerned with students' statistical anxiety and confidence to both complete and learn to complete statistical tasks. Data were collected at the beginning and end of a quantitative method statistics module. Students recognised the value of numeracy skills but felt they were not necessarily relevant for…

  11. Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Mengqi

    2015-04-01

    Biological characteristics of crucian by quantitative inspection method Through quantitative inspection method , the biological characteristics of crucian was preliminary researched. Crucian , Belongs to Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae, Carassius auratus, is a kind of main plant-eating omnivorous fish,like Gregarious, selection and ranking. Crucian are widely distributed, perennial water all over the country all have production. Determine the indicators of crucian in the experiment, to understand the growth, reproduction situation of crucian in this area . Using the measured data (such as the scale length ,scale size and wheel diameter and so on) and related functional to calculate growth of crucian in any one year.According to the egg shape, color, weight ,etc to determine its maturity, with the mean egg diameter per 20 eggs and the number of eggs per 0.5 grams, to calculate the relative and absolute fecundity of the fish .Measured crucian were female puberty. Based on the relation between the scale diameter and length and the information, linear relationship between crucian scale diameter and length: y=1.530+3.0649. From the data, the fertility and is closely relative to the increase of age. The older, the more mature gonad development. The more amount of eggs. In addition, absolute fecundity increases with the pituitary gland.Through quantitative check crucian bait food intake by the object, reveals the main food, secondary foods, and chance food of crucian ,and understand that crucian degree of be fond of of all kinds of bait organisms.Fish fertility with weight gain, it has the characteristics of species and populations, and at the same tmes influenced by the age of the individual, body length, body weight, environmental conditions (especially the nutrition conditions), and breeding habits, spawning times factors and the size of the egg. After a series of studies of crucian biological character, provide the ecological basis for local crucian's feeding, breeding, proliferation, fishing, resources protection and management of specific plans.

  12. Quantitative methods to direct exploration based on hydrogeologic information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graettinger, A.J.; Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dethan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Quantitatively Directed Exploration (QDE) approaches based on information such as model sensitivity, input data covariance and model output covariance are presented. Seven approaches for directing exploration are developed, applied, and evaluated on a synthetic hydrogeologic site. The QDE approaches evaluate input information uncertainty, subsurface model sensitivity and, most importantly, output covariance to identify the next location to sample. Spatial input parameter values and covariances are calculated with the multivariate conditional probability calculation from a limited number of samples. A variogram structure is used during data extrapolation to describe the spatial continuity, or correlation, of subsurface information. Model sensitivity can be determined by perturbing input data and evaluating output response or, as in this work, sensitivities can be programmed directly into an analysis model. Output covariance is calculated by the First-Order Second Moment (FOSM) method, which combines the covariance of input information with model sensitivity. A groundwater flow example, modeled in MODFLOW-2000, is chosen to demonstrate the seven QDE approaches. MODFLOW-2000 is used to obtain the piezometric head and the model sensitivity simultaneously. The seven QDE approaches are evaluated based on the accuracy of the modeled piezometric head after information from a QDE sample is added. For the synthetic site used in this study, the QDE approach that identifies the location of hydraulic conductivity that contributes the most to the overall piezometric head variance proved to be the best method to quantitatively direct exploration. ?? IWA Publishing 2006.

  13. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  14. A novel semi-quantitative method for measuring tissue bleeding.

    PubMed

    Vukcevic, G; Volarevic, V; Raicevic, S; Tanaskovic, I; Milicic, B; Vulovic, T; Arsenijevic, S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a new semi-quantitative method for measuring the extent of bleeding in pathohistological tissue samples. To test our novel method, we recruited 120 female patients in their first trimester of pregnancy and divided them into three groups of 40. Group I was the control group, in which no dilation was applied. Group II was an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using classical mechanical dilators. Group III was also an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using a hydraulic dilator. Tissue samples were taken from the patients' cervical canals using a Novak's probe via energetic single-step curettage prior to any dilation in Group I and after dilation in Groups II and III. After the tissue samples were prepared, light microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs at 100x magnification. The surfaces affected by bleeding were measured in the microphotographs using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program and its "polylines" function. The lines were used to mark the area around the entire sample (marked A) and to create "polyline" areas around each bleeding area on the sample (marked B). The percentage of the total area affected by bleeding was calculated using the formula: N = Bt x 100 / At where N is the percentage (%) of the tissue sample surface affected by bleeding, At (A total) is the sum of the surfaces of all of the tissue samples and Bt (B total) is the sum of all the surfaces affected by bleeding in all of the tissue samples. This novel semi-quantitative method utilizes the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program, which is simple to use and widely available, thereby offering a new, objective and precise approach to estimate the extent of bleeding in tissue samples. PMID:24190861

  15. A fully automated method for quantitative cerebral hemodynamic analysis using DSC–MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnerud, Atle; Emblem, Kyrre E

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-based perfusion analysis from MR images has become an established method for analysis of cerebral blood volume (CBV) in glioma patients. To date, little emphasis has, however, been placed on quantitative perfusion analysis of these patients, mainly due to the associated increased technical complexity and lack of sufficient stability in a clinical setting. The aim of our study was to develop a fully automated analysis framework for quantitative DSC-based perfusion analysis. The method presented here generates quantitative hemodynamic maps without user interaction, combined with automatic segmentation of normal-appearing cerebral tissue. Validation of 101 patients with confirmed glioma after surgery gave mean values for CBF, CBV, and MTT, extracted automatically from normal-appearing whole-brain white and gray matter, in good agreement with literature values. The measured age- and gender-related variations in the same parameters were also in agreement with those in the literature. Several established analysis methods were compared and the resulting perfusion metrics depended significantly on method and parameter choice. In conclusion, we present an accurate, fast, and automatic quantitative perfusion analysis method where all analysis steps are based on raw DSC data only. PMID:20087370

  16. A method for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin from algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    A summary of a new technique for the extraction and quantitation of phycoerythrin (PHE) from algal samples is described. Results of analysis of four extracts representing three PHE types from algae including cryptomonad and cyanophyte types are presented. The method of extraction and an equation for quantitation are given. A graph showing the relationship of concentration and fluorescence units that may be used with samples fluorescing around 575-580 nm (probably dominated by cryptophytes in estuarine waters) and 560 nm (dominated by cyanophytes characteristics of the open ocean) is provided.

  17. A liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for the quantitative analysis of urinary endogenous estrogen metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Xu; Larry K Keefer; Regina G Ziegler; Timothy D Veenstra

    2007-01-01

    The ability to measure estrogen metabolites (EMs) quantitatively is important for investigating their individual roles in cancer screening, treatment and prevention, as well as in a host of other hormone-related disorders. In this protocol we describe a method that is capable of quantitating 15 distinct EMs in urine. Endogenous EMs are quantitatively measured using a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method

  18. Objective evaluation of reconstruction methods for quantitative SPECT imaging in the absence of ground truth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Song, Na; Caffo, Brian; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is emerging as an important tool in clinical studies and biomedical research. There is thus a need for optimization and evaluation of systems and algorithms that are being developed for quantitative SPECT imaging. An appropriate objective method to evaluate these systems is by comparing their performance in the end task that is required in quantitative SPECT imaging, such as estimating the mean activity concentration in a volume of interest (VOI) in a patient image. This objective evaluation can be performed if the true value of the estimated parameter is known, i.e. we have a gold standard. However, very rarely is this gold standard known in human studies. Thus, no-gold-standard techniques to optimize and evaluate systems and algorithms in the absence of gold standard are required. In this work, we developed a no-gold-standard technique to objectively evaluate reconstruction methods used in quantitative SPECT when the parameter to be estimated is the mean activity concentration in a VOI. We studied the performance of the technique with realistic simulated image data generated from an object database consisting of five phantom anatomies with all possible combinations of five sets of organ uptakes, where each anatomy consisted of eight different organ VOIs. Results indicate that the method pro- vided accurate ranking of the reconstruction methods. We also demonstrated the application of consistency checks to test the no-gold-standard output.

  19. Modeling conflict : research methods, quantitative modeling, and lessons learned.

    SciTech Connect

    Rexroth, Paul E.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Hendrickson, Gerald A.; Kobos, Peter Holmes; McNamara, Laura A.

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the factors that lead countries into conflict. Specifically, political, social and economic factors may offer insight as to how prone a country (or set of countries) may be for inter-country or intra-country conflict. Largely methodological in scope, this study examines the literature for quantitative models that address or attempt to model conflict both in the past, and for future insight. The analysis concentrates specifically on the system dynamics paradigm, not the political science mainstream approaches of econometrics and game theory. The application of this paradigm builds upon the most sophisticated attempt at modeling conflict as a result of system level interactions. This study presents the modeling efforts built on limited data and working literature paradigms, and recommendations for future attempts at modeling conflict.

  20. Comparison of conventional, model-based quantitative planar, and quantitative SPECT image processing methods for organ activity estimation using In-111 agents.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Frey, Eric C

    2006-08-21

    Accurate quantification of organ radionuclide uptake is important for patient-specific dosimetry. The quantitative accuracy from conventional conjugate view methods is limited by overlap of projections from different organs and background activity, and attenuation and scatter. In this work, we propose and validate a quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method based on maximum likelihood (ML) estimation of organ activities using 3D organ VOIs and a projector that models the image degrading effects. Both a physical phantom experiment and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) studies were used to evaluate the new method. In these studies, the accuracies and precisions of organ activity estimates for the QPlanar method were compared with those from conventional planar (CPlanar) processing methods with various corrections for scatter, attenuation and organ overlap, and a quantitative SPECT (QSPECT) processing method. Experimental planar and SPECT projections and registered CT data from an RSD Torso phantom were obtained using a GE Millenium VH/Hawkeye system. The MCS data were obtained from the 3D NCAT phantom with organ activity distributions that modelled the uptake of (111)In ibritumomab tiuxetan. The simulations were performed using parameters appropriate for the same system used in the RSD torso phantom experiment. The organ activity estimates obtained from the CPlanar, QPlanar and QSPECT methods from both experiments were compared. From the results of the MCS experiment, even with ideal organ overlap correction and background subtraction, CPlanar methods provided limited quantitative accuracy. The QPlanar method with accurate modelling of the physical factors increased the quantitative accuracy at the cost of requiring estimates of the organ VOIs in 3D. The accuracy of QPlanar approached that of QSPECT, but required much less acquisition and computation time. Similar results were obtained from the physical phantom experiment. We conclude that the QPlanar method, based on 3D organ VOIs and accurate models of the projection process, provided a substantial increase in accuracy of organ activity estimates from planar images compared to CPlanar processing and had accuracy approaching that of QSPECT. PMID:16885618

  1. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    PubMed Central

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of Kraszewski, in support of their conclusion that SOCT optimization should include window shape, next to choice of window size and analysis algorithm. PMID:25401016

  2. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples. PMID:25993858

  3. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works. Engineers need more quantitative information. In order to apply geophysical methods to engineering design works, quantitative interpretation is very important. The presentation introduces several case studies from different countries around the world (Fig. 2) from the integrated and quantitative points of view.

  4. Quantitative Methods for Evaluating the Efficacy of Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Essential Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Wastensson, Gunilla; Holmberg, Björn; Johnels, Bo; Barregard, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is a safe and efficient method for treatment of disabling tremor in patient with essential tremor (ET). However, successful tremor suppression after surgery requires careful selection of stimulus parameters. Our aim was to examine the possible use of certain quantitative methods for evaluating the efficacy of thalamic DBS in ET patients in clinical practice, and to compare these methods with traditional clinical tests. Methods We examined 22 patients using the Essential Tremor Rating Scale (ETRS) and quantitative assessment of tremor with the stimulator both activated and deactivated. We used an accelerometer (CATSYS tremor Pen) for quantitative measurement of postural tremor, and a eurythmokinesimeter (EKM) to evaluate kinetic tremor in a rapid pointing task. Results The efficacy of DBS on tremor suppression was prominent irrespective of the method used. The agreement between clinical rating of postural tremor and tremor intensity as measured by the CATSYS tremor pen was relatively high (rs?=?0.74). The agreement between kinetic tremor as assessed by the ETRS and the main outcome variable from the EKM test was low (rs?=?0.34). The lack of agreement indicates that the EKM test is not comparable with the clinical test. Discussion Quantitative methods, such as the CATSYS tremor pen, could be a useful complement to clinical tremor assessment in evaluating the efficacy of DBS in clinical practice. Future studies should evaluate the precision of these methods and long-term impact on tremor suppression, activities of daily living (ADL) function and quality of life. PMID:24255800

  5. Quantitative Methods for Comparing Different Polyline Stream Network Models

    SciTech Connect

    Danny L. Anderson; Daniel P. Ames; Ping Yang

    2014-04-01

    Two techniques for exploring relative horizontal accuracy of complex linear spatial features are described and sample source code (pseudo code) is presented for this purpose. The first technique, relative sinuosity, is presented as a measure of the complexity or detail of a polyline network in comparison to a reference network. We term the second technique longitudinal root mean squared error (LRMSE) and present it as a means for quantitatively assessing the horizontal variance between two polyline data sets representing digitized (reference) and derived stream and river networks. Both relative sinuosity and LRMSE are shown to be suitable measures of horizontal stream network accuracy for assessing quality and variation in linear features. Both techniques have been used in two recent investigations involving extracting of hydrographic features from LiDAR elevation data. One confirmed that, with the greatly increased resolution of LiDAR data, smaller cell sizes yielded better stream network delineations, based on sinuosity and LRMSE, when using LiDAR-derived DEMs. The other demonstrated a new method of delineating stream channels directly from LiDAR point clouds, without the intermediate step of deriving a DEM, showing that the direct delineation from LiDAR point clouds yielded an excellent and much better match, as indicated by the LRMSE.

  6. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  7. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    PubMed

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize. PMID:23470871

  8. Trojan Horse Method: Recent Results

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l'Ingegneria, Universita di Catania and Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-INFN, Catania (Italy)

    2008-01-24

    Owing the presence of the Coulomb barrier at astrophysically relevant kinetic energies, it is very difficult, or sometimes impossible to measure astrophysical reaction rates in laboratory. This is why different indirect techniques are being used along with direct measurements. The THM is unique indirect technique allowing one measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the main application of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming at the extraction of the bare S{sub b}(E) astrophysical factor and electron screening potentials U{sub e} for several two body processes are discussed.

  9. Quantitative results of stellar evolution and pulsation theories.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, K.; Stobie, R. S.; Strittmatter, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    The discrepancy between the masses of Cepheid variables deduced from evolution theory and pulsation theory is examined. The effect of input physics on evolutionary tracks is first discussed; in particular, changes in the opacity are considered. The sensitivity of pulsation masses to opacity changes and to the ascribed values of luminosity and effective temperature are then analyzed. The Cepheid mass discrepancy is discussed in the light of the results already obtained. Other astronomical evidence, including the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars, the solar neutrino flux, and cluster ages are also considered in an attempt to determine the most likely source of error in the event that substantial mass loss has not occurred.

  10. Quantitative biomechanical comparison of ankle fracture casting methods.

    PubMed

    Shipman, Alastair; Alsousou, Joseph; Keene, David J; Dyson, Igor N; Lamb, Sarah E; Willett, Keith M; Thompson, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    The incidence of ankle fractures is increasing rapidly due to the ageing demographic. In older patients with compromised distal circulation, conservative treatment of fractures may be indicated. High rates of malunion and complications due to skin fragility motivate the design of novel casting systems, but biomechanical stability requirements are poorly defined. This article presents the first quantitative study of ankle cast stability and hypothesises that a newly proposed close contact cast (CCC) system provides similar biomechanical stability to standard casts (SC). Two adult mannequin legs transected at the malleoli, one incorporating an inflatable model of tissue swelling, were stabilised with casts applied by an experienced surgeon. They were cyclically loaded in torsion, measuring applied rotation angle and resulting torque. CCC stiffness was equal to or greater than that of SC in two measures of ankle cast resistance to torsion. The effect of swelling reduction at the ankle site was significantly greater on CCC than on SC. The data support the hypothesis that CCC provides similar biomechanical stability to SC and therefore also the clinical use of CCC. They suggest that more frequent re-application of CCC is likely required to maintain stability following resolution of swelling at the injury site. PMID:25719278

  11. Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

  12. Quantitative electromechanical impedance method for nondestructive testing based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ji; Tan, Chi; Li, Faxin

    2015-06-01

    The electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, which holds great promise in structural health monitoring (SHM), is usually treated as a qualitative method. In this work, we proposed a quantitative EMI method based on a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever using the sample’s local contact stiffness (LCS) as the identification parameter for nondestructive testing (NDT). Firstly, the equivalent circuit of the contact vibration system was established and the analytical relationship between the cantilever’s contact resonance frequency and the LCS was obtained. As the LCS is sensitive to typical defects such as voids and delamination, the proposed EMI method can then be used for NDT. To verify the equivalent circuit model, two piezoelectric bimorph cantilevers were fabricated and their free resonance frequencies were measured and compared with theoretical predictions. It was found that the stiff cantilever’s EMI can be well predicted by the equivalent circuit model while the soft cantilever’s cannot. Then, both cantilevers were assembled into a homemade NDT system using a three-axis motorized stage for LCS scanning. Testing results on a specimen with a prefabricated defect showed that the defect could be clearly reproduced in the LCS image, indicating the validity of the quantitative EMI method for NDT. It was found that the single-frequency mode of the EMI method can also be used for NDT, which is faster but not quantitative. Finally, several issues relating to the practical application of the NDT method were discussed. The proposed EMI-based NDT method offers a simple and rapid solution for damage evaluation in engineering structures and may also shed some light on EMI-based SHM.

  13. Quantitation of Endogenous Peptides using Mass Spectrometry Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Romanova, Elena V.; Dowd, Sarah E.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    The mass spectrometry-based “omics” sub-discipline that focuses on comprehensive, often exploratory, analyses of endogenous peptides involved in cell-to-cell communication is oftentimes referred to as peptidomics. While the progress in bioanalytical technology development for peptide discovery has been tremendous, perhaps the largest advances have involved robust quantitative mass spectrometric approaches and data mining algorithms. These efforts have accelerated the discovery and validation of biomarkers, functionally important posttranslational modifications, and unexpected molecular interactions, information that aids drug development. In this article we outline the current approaches used in quantitative peptidomics and the technical challenges that stimulate new advances in the field, while also reviewing the newest literature on functional characterizations of endogenous peptides using quantitative mass spectrometry. PMID:23790312

  14. Sample Collection Method Bias Effects in Quantitative Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Kanshin, Evgeny; Tyers, Michael; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Current advances in selective enrichment, fractionation, and MS detection of phosphorylated peptides allowed identification and quantitation of tens of thousands phosphosites from minute amounts of biological material. One of the major challenges in the field is preserving the in vivo phosphorylation state of the proteins throughout the sample preparation workflow. This is typically achieved by using phosphatase inhibitors and denaturing conditions during cell lysis. Here we determine if the upstream cell collection techniques could introduce changes in protein phosphorylation. To evaluate the effect of sample collection protocols on the global phosphorylation status of the cell, we compared different sample workflows by metabolic labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cultures. We identified highly similar phosphopeptides for cells harvested in ice cold isotonic phosphate buffer, cold ethanol, trichloroacetic acid, and liquid nitrogen. However, quantitative analyses revealed that the commonly used phosphate buffer unexpectedly activated signaling events. Such effects may introduce systematic bias in phosphoproteomics measurements and biochemical analysis. PMID:26040406

  15. Quantitation of endogenous peptides using mass spectrometry based methods.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; Dowd, Sarah E; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2013-10-01

    The mass spectrometry-based 'omics' sub-discipline that focuses on comprehensive, often exploratory, analyses of endogenous peptides involved in cell-to-cell communication is oftentimes referred to as peptidomics. Although the progress in bioanalytical technology development for peptide discovery has been tremendous, perhaps the largest advances have involved robust quantitative mass spectrometric approaches and data mining algorithms. These efforts have accelerated the discovery and validation of biomarkers, functionally important posttranslational modifications, and unexpected molecular interactions, information that aids drug development. In this article we outline the current approaches used in quantitative peptidomics and the technical challenges that stimulate new advances in the field, while also reviewing the newest literature on functional characterizations of endogenous peptides using quantitative mass spectrometry. PMID:23790312

  16. A competitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for characterizing the population dynamics during kimchi fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Gee-Hyun; Moon, Jin Seok; Shin, So-Yeon; Min, Won Ki; Han, Nam Soo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a competitive quantitative-PCR (CQ-PCR) method for rapid analysis of the population dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in kimchi. For this, whole chromosome sequences of Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lb. brevis were compared and species-specific PCR primers targeting dextransucrase, 16S rRNA, and surface layer protein D (SlpD) genes, respectively, were constructed. The tested strains were quantified both in medium and kimchi by CQ-PCR and the results were compared with the data obtained using a conventional plate-counting method. As a result, the three species were successfully detected and quantified by the indicated primer sets. Our results show that the CQ-PCR method targeting species-specific genes is suitable for rapid estimation of LAB population to be used in the food fermentation industry. PMID:25475752

  17. Difficulties Experienced by Education and Sociology Students in Quantitative Methods Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari; Lehtinen, Erno

    2003-01-01

    Examined difficulties Finnish university students experienced in learning quantitative methods. Education and sociology students rated different topics on the basis of their difficulty. Overall, students considered statistics and quantitative methods more difficult than other domains. They tended to polarize academic subjects into "easier"…

  18. Second International Conference on Forest Measurements and Quantitative Methods and Management

    E-print Network

    García, Oscar

    International Conference on Forest Measurements and Quantitative Methods and Management SITE INDEX: CONCEPTSSecond International Conference on Forest Measurements and Quantitative Methods and Management of a conference held on 15-18 June 2004 Hot Springs, Arkansas USA Fiber Supply Assessment, Center for Forest

  19. Development and evaluation of an improved quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT method

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Ljungberg, Michael; Rault, Erwann; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Frey, Eric C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Yttrium-90 (90Y) is one of the most commonly used radionuclides in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT). Since it decays with essentially no gamma photon emissions, surrogate radionuclides (e.g., 111In) or imaging agents (e.g., 99mTc MAA) are typically used for treatment planning. It would, however, be useful to image 90Y directly in order to confirm that the distributions measured with these other radionuclides or agents are the same as for the 90Y labeled agents. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in quantitative imaging of 90Y bremsstrahlung photons using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. The continuous and broad energy distribution of bremsstrahlung photons, however, imposes substantial challenges on accurate quantification of the activity distribution. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate an improved quantitative 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT reconstruction method appropriate for these imaging applications. Methods: Accurate modeling of image degrading factors such as object attenuation and scatter and the collimator-detector response is essential to obtain quantitatively accurate images. All of the image degrading factors are energy dependent. Thus, the authors separated the modeling of the bremsstrahlung photons into multiple categories and energy ranges. To improve the accuracy, the authors used a bremsstrahlung energy spectrum previously estimated from experimental measurements and incorporated a model of the distance between 90Y decay location and bremsstrahlung emission location into the SIMIND code used to generate the response functions and kernels used in the model. This improved Monte Carlo bremsstrahlung simulation was validated by comparison to experimentally measured projection data of a 90Y line source. The authors validated the accuracy of the forward projection model for photons in the various categories and energy ranges using the validated Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. The forward projection model was incorporated into an iterative ordered subsets-expectation maximization (OS-EM) reconstruction code to allow for quantitative SPECT reconstruction. The resulting code was validated using both a physical phantom experiment with spherical objects in a warm background and a realistic anatomical phantom simulation. In the physical phantom study, the authors evaluated the method in terms of quantitative accuracy of activity estimates in the spheres; in the simulation study, the authors evaluated the accuracy and precision of activity estimates from various organs and compared them to results from a previously proposed method. Results: The authors demonstrated excellent agreement between the experimental measurement and Monte Carlo simulation. In the XCAT phantom simulation, the proposed method achieved much better accuracy in the modeling (error in photon counts was ?1.1?%) compared to a previously proposed method (errors were more than 20??%); the quantitative accuracy of activity estimates was excellent for all organs (errors were from ?1.6?% to 11.9?%) and comparable to previously published results for 131I using the same collimator. Conclusions: The proposed 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT reconstruction method provided very accurate estimates of organ activities, with accuracies approaching those previously observed for 131I. The method may be useful in verifying organ doses for targeted radionuclide therapy using 90Y. PMID:22559605

  20. Quantitative Methods for Administrative Decision Making in Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Benjamin Knox

    With the rapid increase in number and size of junior colleges, administrators must take advantage of the decision-making tools already used in business and industry. This study investigated how these quantitative techniques could be applied to junior college problems. A survey of 195 California junior college administrators found that the problems…

  1. Issues Related to Data Analysis and Quantitative Methods in PER

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Meltzer, David (David Elliott)

    This paper, presented at the 2002 Physics Education Research Conference, offers authors' discussion of some issues that always arise, implicitly or explicitly, when conducting quantitative research and carrying out data analysis in Physics Education Research. (Most are relevant for qualitative research as well.)

  2. Analyzing the Students' Academic Integrity using Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teodorescu, Daniel; Andrei, Tudorel; Tusa, Erika; Herteliu, Claudiu; Stancu, Stelian

    2007-01-01

    The transition period in Romania has generated a series of important changes, including the reforming of the Romanian tertiary education. This process has been accelerated after the signing of the Bologna treaty. Important changes were recorded in many of the quantitative aspects (such as number of student enrolled, pupil-student ratio etc) as…

  3. Quantitative Methods for Political Science I Government 1000

    E-print Network

    Sekhon, Jasjeet S.

    Jacob Kline, Teaching Fellow jkline@fas.harvard.edu Phone: TBA Office: TBA Office hours: TBA Sections: TBA Catalog Description Half Course. Introduction to major quantitative techniques used in political product and is available at no cost to Harvard students. The five books listed below are required

  4. Anesthesia of Artemia Larvae: Method for Quantitative Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur B. Robinson; Kenneth F. Manly; Michael P. Anthony; John F. Catchpool; Linus Pauling

    1965-01-01

    Potency of anesthetics is quantitatively measured with laboratory-hatched larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Statistical fluctuations are minimized in that 100,000 animals are used to determine a single median anesthetic dose value. The technique was developed to study molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia.

  5. Sequencing human ribs into anatomical order by quantitative multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, John; Henneberg, Maciej

    2012-06-01

    Little research has focussed on methods to anatomically sequence ribs. Correct anatomical sequencing of ribs assists in determining the location and distribution of regional trauma, age estimation, number of puncture wounds, number of individuals, and personal identification. The aim of the current study is to develop a method for placing fragmented and incomplete rib sets into correct anatomical position. Ribs 2-10 were used from eleven cadavers of an Australian population. Seven variables were measured from anatomical locations on the rib. General descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ANOVA with Bonferroni statistics. Considerable overlap was observed between ribs for univariate methods. Bivariate and multivariate methods were then applied. Results of the ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni statistics show that ratios of various dimensions of a single rib could be used to sequence it within adjacent ribs. Using multiple regression formulae, the most accurate estimation of the anatomical rib number occurs when the entire rib is found in isolation. This however, is not always possible. Even when only the head and neck of the rib are preserved, a modified multivariate regression formula assigned 91.95% of ribs into correct anatomical position or as an adjacent rib. Using multivariate methods it is possible to sequence a single human rib with a high level of accuracy and they are superior to univariate methods. Left and right ribs were found to be highly symmetrical. Some rib dimensions were greater in males than in females, but overall the level of sexual dimorphism was low. PMID:22560535

  6. A method for three-dimensional quantitative observation of the microstructure of biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengfei; Chen, Dieyan; Ma, Wanyun; Wu, Hongxin; Ji, Liang; Sun, Jialin; Lv, Danyu; Zhang, Lu; Li, Ying; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Jinggao; Zhao, Fengying

    2009-07-01

    Contemporary biology has developed into the era of cell biology and molecular biology, and people try to study the mechanism of all kinds of biological phenomena at the microcosmic level now. Accurate description of the microstructure of biological samples is exigent need from many biomedical experiments. This paper introduces a method for 3-dimensional quantitative observation on the microstructure of vital biological samples based on two photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM). TPLSM is a novel kind of fluorescence microscopy, which has excellence in its low optical damage, high resolution, deep penetration depth and suitability for 3-dimensional (3D) imaging. Fluorescent stained samples were observed by TPLSM, and afterward the original shapes of them were obtained through 3D image reconstruction. The spatial distribution of all objects in samples as well as their volumes could be derived by image segmentation and mathematic calculation. Thus the 3-dimensionally and quantitatively depicted microstructure of the samples was finally derived. We applied this method to quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of chromosomes in meiotic mouse oocytes at metaphase, and wonderful results came out last.

  7. Quantitative Laser Diffraction Method for the Assessment of Protein Subvisible Particles

    PubMed Central

    Totoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Gaku; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Laser diffraction (LD) has been recognized as a method for estimating particle size distribution. Here, a recently developed quantitative LD (qLD) system, which is an LD method with extensive deconvolution analysis, was employed for the quantitative assessment of protein particles sizes, especially aimed at the quantification of 0.2–10 ?m diameter subvisible particles (SVPs). The qLD accurately estimated concentration distributions for silica beads with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 10 ?m that have refractive indices similar to that of protein particles. The linearity of concentration for micrometer-diameter silica beads was confirmed in the presence of a fixed concentration of submicrometer diameter beads. Similarly, submicrometer-diameter silica beads could be quantified in the presence of micrometer-diameter beads. Subsequently, stir- and heat-stressed intravenous immunoglobulins were evaluated by using the qLD, in which the refractive index of protein particles that was determined experimentally was used in the deconvolution analysis. The results showed that the concentration distributions of protein particles in SVP size range differ for the two stresses. The number concentration of the protein particles estimated using the qLD agreed well with that obtained using flow microscopy. This work demonstrates that qLD can be used for quantitative estimation of protein aggregates in SVP size range. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:618–626, 2015 PMID:25449441

  8. Quantitative laser diffraction method for the assessment of protein subvisible particles.

    PubMed

    Totoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Gaku; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-02-01

    Laser diffraction (LD) has been recognized as a method for estimating particle size distribution. Here, a recently developed quantitative LD (qLD) system, which is an LD method with extensive deconvolution analysis, was employed for the quantitative assessment of protein particles sizes, especially aimed at the quantification of 0.2-10 ?m diameter subvisible particles (SVPs). The qLD accurately estimated concentration distributions for silica beads with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 10 ?m that have refractive indices similar to that of protein particles. The linearity of concentration for micrometer-diameter silica beads was confirmed in the presence of a fixed concentration of submicrometer diameter beads. Similarly, submicrometer-diameter silica beads could be quantified in the presence of micrometer-diameter beads. Subsequently, stir- and heat-stressed intravenous immunoglobulins were evaluated by using the qLD, in which the refractive index of protein particles that was determined experimentally was used in the deconvolution analysis. The results showed that the concentration distributions of protein particles in SVP size range differ for the two stresses. The number concentration of the protein particles estimated using the qLD agreed well with that obtained using flow microscopy. This work demonstrates that qLD can be used for quantitative estimation of protein aggregates in SVP size range. PMID:25449441

  9. An improved method for retrospective motion correction in quantitative T2* mapping.

    PubMed

    Nöth, Ulrike; Volz, Steffen; Hattingen, Elke; Deichmann, Ralf

    2014-05-15

    A new method for motion correction of T2*-weighted data and resulting quantitative T2* maps is presented. For this method, additional data sets with a reduced number of phase encoding steps covering the k-space centre are acquired. Motion correction is based on a 3-step procedure: (1) calculation of improved input data sets with reduced artefact levels from the original data, (2) creation of a target data set free of movement artefacts on the basis of the improved input data sets, and (3) fitting of original data to the target data set, yielding an optimum combination of acquired k-space data which suppresses lines affected by movement. The method was tested on healthy subjects performing pre-trained movement. Motion correction was successful unless the same k-space line was affected by movement in all data sets acquired on a specific subject. The method was applied to patients suffering from subarachnoid haemorrhage (group 1) or tumours (group 2) with accompanying edema in the brain. Motion correction improved the interpretability of T2*-weighted patient data and resulting quantitative T2* maps considerably by allowing a clear delineation between ventricle and edema and a clear localisation of haemorrhage (group 1) or a clear delineation of tumour accompanying edema (group 2) which was not possible in data affected by movement. PMID:24508652

  10. Facile colorimetric methods for the quantitative determination of tetramisole hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, A. S.; Dessouki, H. A.

    2002-10-01

    A facile, rapid and sensitive methods for the determination of tetramisole hydrochloride in pure and in dosage forms are described. The procedures are based on the formation of coloured products with the chromogenic reagents alizarin blue BB (I), alizarin red S (II), alizarin violet 3R (III) and alizarin yellow G (IV). The coloured products showed absorption maxima at 605, 468, 631 and 388 nm for I-IV, respectively. The colours obtained were stable for 24 h. The colour system obeyed Beer's law in the concentration range 1.0-36, 0.8-32, 1.2-42 and 0.8-30 ?g ml -1, respectively. The results obtained showed good recoveries with relative standard deviations of 1.27, 0.96, 1.13 and 1.35%, respectively. The detection and determination limits were found to be 1.0 and 3.8, 1.2 and 4.2, 1.0 and 3.9 and finally 1.4 and 4.8 ng ml -1 for I-IV complexes, respectively. Applications of the method to representative pharmaceutical formulations are represented and the validity assessed by applying the standard addition technique, which is comparable with that obtained using the official method.

  11. An ECL-PCR method for quantitative detection of point mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Debin; Xing, Da; Shen, Xingyan; Chen, Qun; Liu, Jinfeng

    2005-04-01

    A new method for identification of point mutations was proposed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a sequence from genomic DNA was followed by digestion with a kind of restriction enzyme, which only cut the wild-type amplicon containing its recognition site. Reaction products were detected by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay after adsorption of the resulting DNA duplexes to the solid phase. One strand of PCR products carries biotin to be bound on a streptavidin-coated microbead for sample selection. Another strand carries Ru(bpy)32+ (TBR) to react with tripropylamine (TPA) to emit light for ECL detection. The method was applied to detect a specific point mutation in H-ras oncogene in T24 cell line. The results show that the detection limit for H-ras amplicon is 100 fmol and the linear range is more than 3 orders of magnitude, thus, make quantitative analysis possible. The genotype can be clearly discriminated. Results of the study suggest that ECL-PCR is a feasible quantitative method for safe, sensitive and rapid detection of point mutation in human genes.

  12. A simplified method to create quantitative, "fixed" uranyl-contaminated metal coupons.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Catherine K; Davison, Brian H

    2004-05-01

    A method was developed and validated to quantitatively apply and "fix" uranyl contamination onto a metal surface (steel). Simple approaches are needed to create test surfaces in order to quantify contaminant removal or "decon" methods. We used steel discs sized to allow direct and accurate alpha counting in a Ludlum scanner from radioactive contaminants. A typical 3.8-cm-diameter coupon had a depleted uranyl loading of about 0.1 mg U cm with a count of 980 dpm. The resulting alpha radiation was measured with a precision of >97% for the same coupon. The alpha concentration on replicate coupons differed by as much as 9% (standard deviation). This method, based on earlier methods, required a uranyl solution to be dried but lowers the baking temperature to less than 100 degrees C to increase safety in a typical radiological laboratory. A dike was used to provide a uniform coating of the uranyl solution. PMID:15069301

  13. Reliability and Feasibility of Methods to Quantitatively Assess Peripheral Edema

    PubMed Central

    Brodovicz, Kimberly G.; McNaughton, Kristin; Uemura, Naoto; Meininger, Gary; Girman, Cynthia J.; Yale, Steven H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate methods to assess peripheral edema for reliability, feasibility and correlation with the classic clinical assessment of pitting edema. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Setting: Large primary care clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin, USA. Participants: Convenience sample of 20 patients with type 2 diabetes and a range of edema severity, including patients without edema. Methods: Eight methods of edema assessment were evaluated: (1) clinical assessment of pit depth and recovery at three locations, (2) patient questionnaire, (3) ankle circumference, (4) figure-of-eight (ankle circumference using eight ankle/foot landmarks), (5) edema tester (plastic card with holes of varying size pressed to the ankle with a blood pressure cuff), (6) modified edema tester (edema tester with bumps), (7) indirect leg volume (by series of ankle/leg circumferences), and (8) foot/ankle volumetry by water displacement. Patients were evaluated independently by three nurse examiners. Results: Water displacement and ankle circumference had high inter-examiner agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.93, 0.96 right; 0.97, 0.97 left). Agreement was inconsistent for figure-of-eight (0.64, 0.86), moderate for indirect leg volume (0.53, 0.66), and low for clinical assessments at all locations. Agreement was low for the edema testers but varied by the pressure administered. Correlation with the classic, subjective clinical assessment was good for the nurse-performed assessments and patient questionnaire. Ankle circumference and patient questionnaires each took 1 minute to complete. Other tools took >5 minutes to complete. Conclusions: Water displacement and ankle circumference showed excellent reliability; however, water displacement is a time-consuming measure and may pose implementation challenges in the clinical and clinical trial environments. Patient-reported level and frequency of edema, based on an unvalidated questionnaire, was generally well correlated with the physician assessment of edema severity and may prove to be another reliable and accurate method of assessing edema. Additional study is needed to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of these methods. PMID:19251582

  14. Validated high-performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of neohesperidine dihydrochalcone in foodstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Montijano; F. Borrego; I. Canales; F. A. Tomás-Barberán

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method to detect and quantitate neohesperidien dihydrochalcone in foodstuffs has been developed and validated in soft-drink applications. The method was shown to be sufficiently precise, accurate, selective and rugged in quantitating neohesperidien DC both at flavouring (1–5 mg\\/kg) and sweetening (5–50 mg\\/kg) levels. Applications of the method to determine neohesperidine DC in foodstuffs other than soft-drinks is also

  15. Syllabus for BE700 / PY895, Fall 2014 "Methods and Logic in Quantitative Biology"

    E-print Network

    Syllabus for BE700 / PY895, Fall 2014 "Methods and Logic in Quantitative Biology" Boston University Biology is in the midst of a transformation into a fully quantitative, theory-rich science. For example of theory and experiment in biology. Two (or three) important papers, read in advance by all students

  16. University Students' Research Orientations: Do Negative Attitudes Exist toward Quantitative Methods?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines university social science and education students' views of research methodology, especially asking whether a negative research orientation towards quantitative methods exists. Finnish (n = 196) and US (n = 122) students answered a questionnaire concerning their views on quantitative, qualitative, empirical, and theoretical…

  17. The quantitative methods component in social sciences curricula in view of journal content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wim P. M. Vijverberg

    1997-01-01

    What level of quantitative methods (or applied statistical analysis) should graduate students in the social sciences be prepared to master, if they are to be competitive in the job market? In the age of information technology, more data, in survey or other form, about any imaginable topic exist than ever before. Empirical analysis on the basis of more advanced quantitative

  18. A quantitative method for determining the efficacy of algicides in industrial cooling towers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Goysich; William F. McCoy

    1989-01-01

    Summary Quantitative sampling of periphyton from natural substrates is difficult and uncommon due to the nonhomogenous and irregular nature of most natural substrates. This paper describes an experimentally verified method for quantitative sampling of periphyton directly from the relatively homogenous and regular upper deck of a cooling tower.

  19. A method and metric for quantitatively defining low probability of detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Keith Townsend; J. A. Freebersyer

    1998-01-01

    The lack of a low probability of detection (LPD) waveform is often cited as one of the criteria against the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) communications systems in the tactical military environment. However, there is rarely any quantitative evidence given to support this understandable qualitative assertion. We propose a method for quantitatively defining LPD that is based on well known

  20. Quantitative methods of predicting relative effectiveness of corrosion inhibitive coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Aklian, J.H.; Lewis, K.J.; Zook, J.D. [Courtaulds Aerospace, Burbank, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Results from several test methods are corroborated in predicting relative protection by non-chromate corrosion inhibitors in coatings for aircraft aluminum. Candidates are compared to both uninhibited and chromate-inhibited controls. Greater corroboration of results under a variety of test conditions gives greater confidence that new materials will protect aircraft aluminum alloys for the life of an aircraft, in a large range of exposure environments. Visually evaluated salt spray and filiform exposures used by the aerospace industry to judge the effectiveness of chromate-inhibited coatings, do not provide an adequate picture for non-chromates. Additional tests, electrochemical in nature, are needed and are suggested herein. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on both bonded and non-bonded films distinguishes barrier properties of inhibited coatings from their electrochemical passivation activity, enabling more accurate prediction of long term field behavior. Passivation of aircraft aluminum alloys in acidic solution is a rapid predictor of crevice or pit corrosion inhibitor capability. Measurement of long term galvanic currents with a titanium cathode is recommended to determine capabilities of inhibited coatings in preventing localized (crevice) corrosion.

  1. A rapid, inexpensive, and semi-quantitative method for determining pollen tube extension using fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pollen tubes extend rapidly when pollen grains are incubated in defined media. Tube extension requires many critical functions of plant cells including molecular signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, secretion, and cell wall synthesis. Consequently, pollen tube growth has been established as a way to conduct primary screens of chemical libraries to identify compounds that perturb key cellular processes in plants. Results Here we report a simple, inexpensive, rapid and semi-quantitative method for measurement of pollen tube growth in microtiter plates. The method relies on Congo Red binding to pollen tubes and correlates dye fluorescence to tube length. Conclusions This method can be used in any laboratory without specialized equipment, and has the potential to enable larger screens as chemical libraries grow and to make chemical screening accessible to researchers building specialized libraries designed to probe pathways in plant biology. PMID:24456640

  2. Quantitative Decomposition of Dynamics of Mathematical Cell Models: Method and Application to Ventricular Myocyte Models

    PubMed Central

    Shimayoshi, Takao; Cha, Chae Young; Amano, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical cell models are effective tools to understand cellular physiological functions precisely. For detailed analysis of model dynamics in order to investigate how much each component affects cellular behaviour, mathematical approaches are essential. This article presents a numerical analysis technique, which is applicable to any complicated cell model formulated as a system of ordinary differential equations, to quantitatively evaluate contributions of respective model components to the model dynamics in the intact situation. The present technique employs a novel mathematical index for decomposed dynamics with respect to each differential variable, along with a concept named instantaneous equilibrium point, which represents the trend of a model variable at some instant. This article also illustrates applications of the method to comprehensive myocardial cell models for analysing insights into the mechanisms of action potential generation and calcium transient. The analysis results exhibit quantitative contributions of individual channel gating mechanisms and ion exchanger activities to membrane repolarization and of calcium fluxes and buffers to raising and descending of the cytosolic calcium level. These analyses quantitatively explicate principle of the model, which leads to a better understanding of cellular dynamics. PMID:26091413

  3. Quantitative estimation of poikilocytosis by the coherent optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safonova, Larisa P.; Samorodov, Andrey V.; Spiridonov, Igor N.

    2000-05-01

    The investigation upon the necessity and the reliability required of the determination of the poikilocytosis in hematology has shown that existing techniques suffer from grave shortcomings. To determine a deviation of the erythrocytes' form from the normal (rounded) one in blood smears it is expedient to use an integrative estimate. The algorithm which is based on the correlation between erythrocyte morphological parameters with properties of the spatial-frequency spectrum of blood smear is suggested. During analytical and experimental research an integrative form parameter (IFP) which characterizes the increase of the relative concentration of cells with the changed form over 5% and the predominating type of poikilocytes was suggested. An algorithm of statistically reliable estimation of the IFP on the standard stained blood smears has been developed. To provide the quantitative characterization of the morphological features of cells a form vector has been proposed, and its validity for poikilocytes differentiation was shown.

  4. Analyses on Regional Cultivated Land Changebased on Quantitative Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yingui; Yuan, Chun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Jing

    Three Gorges Project is the great project in the world, which accelerates economic development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project. In the process of development in the reservoir area of Three Gorges Project, cultivated land has become the important resources, a lot of cultivated land has been occupied and become the constructing land. In the same time, a lot of cultivated land has been flooded because of the rising of the water level. This paper uses the cultivated land areas and social economic indicators of reservoir area of Three Gorges in 1990-2004, takes the statistic analyses and example research in order to analyze the process of cultivated land, get the driving forces of cultivated land change, find the new methods to stimulate and forecast the cultivated land areas in the future, and serve for the cultivated land protection and successive development in reservoir area of Three Gorges. The results indicate as follow, firstly, in the past 15 years, the cultivated land areas has decreased 200142 hm2, the decreasing quantity per year is 13343 hm2. The whole reservoir area is divided into three different areas, they are upper reaches area, belly area and lower reaches area. The trends of cultivated land change in different reservoir areas are similar to the whole reservoir area. Secondly, the curve of cultivated land areas and per capita GDP takes on the reverse U, and the steps between the change rate of cultivated land and the change rate of GDP are different in some years, which indicates that change of cultivated land and change of GDP are decoupling, besides that, change of cultivated land is connection with the development of urbanization and the policy of returning forestry greatly. Lastly, the precision of multi-regression is lower than the BP neural network in the stimulation of cultivated land, then takes use of the BP neural network to forecast the cultivated land areas in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and the forecasting results are reasonable.

  5. A Novel Feature-Tracking Echocardiographic Method for the Quantitation of Regional Myocardial Function

    PubMed Central

    Pirat, Bahar; Khoury, Dirar S.; Hartley, Craig J.; Tiller, Les; Rao, Liyun; Schulz, Daryl G.; Nagueh, Sherif F.; Zoghbi, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to validate a novel, angle-independent, feature-tracking method for the echocardiographic quantitation of regional function. Background A new echocardiographic method, Velocity Vector Imaging (VVI) (syngo Velocity Vector Imaging technology, Siemens Medical Solutions, Ultrasound Division, Mountain View, California), has been introduced, based on feature tracking—incorporating speckle and endocardial border tracking, that allows the quantitation of endocardial strain, strain rate (SR), and velocity. Methods Seven dogs were studied during baseline, and various interventions causing alterations in regional function: dobutamine, 5-min coronary occlusion with reperfusion up to 1 h, followed by dobutamine and esmolol infusions. Echocardiographic images were acquired from short- and long-axis views of the left ventricle. Segment-length sonomicrometry crystals were used as the reference method. Results Changes in systolic strain in ischemic segments were tracked well with VVI during the different states of regional function. There was a good correlation between circumferential and longitudinal systolic strain by VVI and sonomicrometry (r = 0.88 and r = 0.83, respectively, p < 0.001). Strain measurements in the nonischemic basal segments also demonstrated a significant correlation between the 2 methods (r = 0.65, p < 0.001). Similarly, a significant relation was observed for circumferential and longitudinal SR between the 2 methods (r = 0.94, p < 0.001 and r = 0.90, p < 0.001, respectively). The endocardial velocity relation to changes in strain by sonomicrometry was weaker owing to significant cardiac translation. Conclusions Velocity Vector Imaging, a new feature-tracking method, can accurately assess regional myocardial function at the endocardial level and is a promising clinical tool for the simultaneous quantification of regional and global myocardial function. PMID:18261685

  6. Quantitative evaluation of degenerated tendon model using combined optical coherence elastography and acoustic radiation force method.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guangying; Li, Chunhui; Ling, Yuting; Yang, Ying; Vorstius, Jan B; Keatch, Robert P; Wang, Ruikang K; Huang, Zhihong

    2013-11-01

    Damage of collagen fibers in tendons is often directly related to changes in a tendon's mechanical properties. Direct quantitative elasticity measurement of tendons will provide important information in tendon dysfunction diagnosis and treatment assessment. A feasibility study of quantifying the mechanical properties of a degenerated tendon model by a nondestructive imaging modality, which combines optical coherence elastography and acoustic radiation force (ARF) method, is presented. The degenerated tendon model was produced by the partial degradation of chicken tendons through incubation with collagenase at different concentrations and incubation times. A 30-kHz longitudinal ultrasound transducer was used to provide an ARF signal, which was detected by an ultra-high sensitive phase sensitive optical coherence tomography (PhS-OCT) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the combination of ARF method and PhS-OCT can measure the elasticity of tendon quantitatively. The corresponding changes in tendon elasticity due to the application of collagenase have been revealed by this new imaging modality. This method can potentially be used in the assessment of tissue engineering products and in the diagnosis and treatment progression of tendon diseases. PMID:24193945

  7. Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method

    PubMed Central

    Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Gallo, Carmela; d’Ippolito, Giuliana; Cutignano, Adele; Sardo, Angela; Fontana, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids) in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc.) or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method) and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina) which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids. PMID:24084790

  8. Compatibility of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Studying Child Sexual Abuse in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Illustrates how the combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods were necessary in obtaining a clearer understanding of the process of incest in American society. Argues that the exclusive use of one methodology would have obscured important information. (FMW)

  9. Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION-AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE CELLS

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION- AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE) and spread with an ethanol-flamed glass rod. Cool glass rod on agar plat before spreading. Incubate the five

  10. IMPROVED QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR MULTIPLE NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL NON-INVASIVE BRAIN PET STUDIES

    E-print Network

    Fessler, Jeffrey A.

    i IMPROVED QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR MULTIPLE NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL NON-INVASIVE BRAIN PET STUDIES................................................................................ 3 1.2.1 Logan plot-bias reduction using Principal Component Analysis ...................... 4 1....................................................................................................... 10 2.3 Two tissue compartmental model

  11. Pre-PCR DNA quantitation of soil and sediment samples: method development and instrument design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Stark; K. I. Mullen; K. Banton; R. Russotti; D. Soran; C. R. Kuske

    2000-01-01

    A simple and straightforward method for the quantitation of dsDNA in soil and sediment matrices has been developed to support rapid, in-the-field PCR analysis of environmental samples. This method uses PicoGreen nucleic acid stain, and a combination of UV\\/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, to quantitate dsDNA in the presence of interfering humic materials. The practical utility of this approach is that

  12. Quantitative mineralogical composition of complex mineral wastes - Contribution of the Rietveld method

    SciTech Connect

    Mahieux, P.-Y. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC (Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions), 135, Avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Aubert, J.-E., E-mail: aubert@insa-toulouse.f [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC (Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions), 135, Avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Cyr, M.; Coutand, M.; Husson, B. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC (Laboratoire Materiaux et Durabilite des Constructions), 135, Avenue de Rangueil, F-31 077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)

    2010-03-15

    The objective of the work presented in this paper is the quantitative determination of the mineral composition of two complex mineral wastes: a sewage sludge ash (SSA) and a municipal solid waste incineration fly ash (MSWIFA). The mineral compositions were determined by two different methods: the first based on calculation using the qualitative mineralogical composition of the waste combined with physicochemical analyses; the second the Rietveld method, which uses only X-ray diffraction patterns. The results obtained are coherent, showing that it is possible to quantify the mineral compositions of complex mineral waste with such methods. The apparent simplicity of the Rietveld method (due principally to the availability of software packages implementing the method) facilitates its use. However, care should be taken since the crystal structure analysis based on powder diffraction data needs experience and a thorough understanding of crystallography. So the use of another, complementary, method such as the first one used in this study, may sometimes be needed to confirm the results.

  13. A method to assess search engine results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judit Bar-Ilan; Mark Levene

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to develop a methodology for assessing search results retrieved from different sources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a two phase method, where in the first stage users select and rank the ten best search results from a randomly ordered set. In the second stage they are asked to choose the best pre-ranked result

  14. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

    1992-07-01

    This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

  15. Quantitative methods of measuring the sensitivity of the mouse sperm morphology assay

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.H.; Bennett, D.E.; Kranzler, D.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1982-09-01

    In this study murine sperm were subjected to graded doses of X irradiation (0 to 120 rad) to determine whether quantitative measurements made on enlarged photographs of the sperm heads are related to radiation dose. We found that the Mahalanobis distance statistic, when used to measure distance in a multivariate space from a control group of measurements, could be used to classify sperm as normal or abnormal. The percent classified as abnormal by this method was found to be linearly related to dose. The results suggest that sensitivity of the murine sperm assay can be improved by selecting an optimal set of measurements. This improvement can reduce the doubling dose from approximately 70 rad to 10 to 15 rad while keeping the percentage of abnormal sperm in control mice at 3%, equal to the current visual method.

  16. Quantitative methods of measuring the sensitivity of the mouse sperm morphology assay.

    PubMed

    Moore, D H; Bennett, D E; Kranzler, D; Wyrobek, A J

    1982-09-01

    In this study murine sperm were subjected to graded doses of X irradiation (0 to 120 rad) to determine whether quantitative measurements made on enlarged photographs of the sperm heads are related to radiation dose. We found that the Mahalanobis distance statistic, when used to measure distance in a multivariate space from a control group of measurements, could be used to classify sperm as normal or abnormal. The percent classified as abnormal by this method was found to be linearly related to dose. The results suggest that sensitivity of the murine sperm assay can be improved by selecting an optimal set of measurements. This improvement can reduce the doubling dose from approximately 70 rad to 10 to 15 rad while keeping the percentage of abnormal sperm in control mice at 3%, equal to the current visual method. PMID:7149485

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Single Particle Trajectories: Mean Maximal Excursion Method

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Vincent; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphael; Jungmann, Ralf; Simmel, Friedrich; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Oddershede, Lene B.; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of experimental studies employ single particle tracking to probe the physical environment in complex systems. We here propose and discuss what we believe are new methods to analyze the time series of the particle traces, in particular, for subdiffusion phenomena. We discuss the statistical properties of mean maximal excursions (MMEs), i.e., the maximal distance covered by a test particle up to time t. Compared to traditional methods focusing on the mean-squared displacement we show that the MME analysis performs better in the determination of the anomalous diffusion exponent. We also demonstrate that combination of regular moments with moments of the MME method provides additional criteria to determine the exact physical nature of the underlying stochastic subdiffusion processes. We put the methods to test using experimental data as well as simulated time series from different models for normal and anomalous dynamics such as diffusion on fractals, continuous time random walks, and fractional Brownian motion. PMID:20371337

  18. A method and fortran program for quantitative sampling in paleontology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tipper, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The Unit Sampling Method is a binomial sampling method applicable to the study of fauna preserved in rocks too well cemented to be disaggregated. Preliminary estimates of the probability of detecting each group in a single sampling unit can be converted to estimates of the group's volumetric abundance by means of correction curves obtained by a computer simulation technique. This paper describes the technique and gives the FORTRAN program. ?? 1976.

  19. Spatial Access Priority Mapping (SAPM) with Fishers: A Quantitative GIS Method for Participatory Planning

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Katherine L.; Schoeman, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial management tools, such as marine spatial planning and marine protected areas, are playing an increasingly important role in attempts to improve marine management and accommodate conflicting needs. Robust data are needed to inform decisions among different planning options, and early inclusion of stakeholder involvement is widely regarded as vital for success. One of the biggest stakeholder groups, and the most likely to be adversely impacted by spatial restrictions, is the fishing community. In order to take their priorities into account, planners need to understand spatial variation in their perceived value of the sea. Here a readily accessible, novel method for quantitatively mapping fishers’ spatial access priorities is presented. Spatial access priority mapping, or SAPM, uses only basic functions of standard spreadsheet and GIS software. Unlike the use of remote-sensing data, SAPM actively engages fishers in participatory mapping, documenting rather than inferring their priorities. By so doing, SAPM also facilitates the gathering of other useful data, such as local ecological knowledge. The method was tested and validated in Northern Ireland, where over 100 fishers participated in a semi-structured questionnaire and mapping exercise. The response rate was excellent, 97%, demonstrating fishers’ willingness to be involved. The resultant maps are easily accessible and instantly informative, providing a very clear visual indication of which areas are most important for the fishers. The maps also provide quantitative data, which can be used to analyse the relative impact of different management options on the fishing industry and can be incorporated into planning software, such as MARXAN, to ensure that conservation goals can be met at minimum negative impact to the industry. This research shows how spatial access priority mapping can facilitate the early engagement of fishers and the ready incorporation of their priorities into the decision-making process in a transparent, quantitative way. PMID:23874623

  20. SWECS tower dynamics analysis methods and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. D.; Sexton, J. H.; Butterfield, C. P.; Thresher, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    Several different tower dynamics analysis methods and computer codes were used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of both guyed and freestanding wind turbine towers. These analysis methods are described and the results for two types of towers, a guyed tower and a freestanding tower, are shown. The advantages and disadvantages in the use of and the accuracy of each method are also described.

  1. A new method for fast quantitative mapping of absolute water content in vivo.

    PubMed

    Neeb, H; Zilles, K; Shah, N J

    2006-07-01

    The presence of brain edema, in its various forms, is an accompanying feature of many diseased states. Although the localized occurrence of brain edema may be demonstrated with MRI, the quantitative determination of absolute water content, an aspect that could play an important role in the objective evaluation of the dynamics of brain edema and the monitoring of the efficiency of treatment, is much more demanding. We present a method for the localized and quantitative measurement of absolute water content based on the combination of two fast multi-slice and multi-time point sequences QUTE and TAPIR for mapping the T(2)* and T(1) relaxation times, respectively. Incorporation of corrections for local B(1) field miscalibrations, temperature differences between the subject and a reference probe placed in the FOV, receiver profile inhomogeneities and T(1) saturation effects are included and allow the determination of water content with anatomical resolution and a precision >98%. The method was validated in phantom studies and was applied to the localized in vivo measurement of water content in a group of normal individuals and a patient with brain tumor. The results demonstrate that in vivo measurement of regional absolute water content is possible in clinically relevant measurement times with a statistical and systematic measurement error of <2%. PMID:16650780

  2. Penumbra Pattern Assessment in Acute Stroke Patients: Comparison of Quantitative and Non-Quantitative Methods in Whole Brain CT Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Alena B.; Meinel, Felix G.; Helck, Andreas D.; Opherk, Christian; Straube, Andreas; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Sommer, Wieland H.

    2014-01-01

    Background And Purpose While penumbra assessment has become an important part of the clinical decision making for acute stroke patients, there is a lack of studies measuring the reliability and reproducibility of defined assessment techniques in the clinical setting. Our aim was to determine reliability and reproducibility of different types of three-dimensional penumbra assessment methods in stroke patients who underwent whole brain CT perfusion imaging (WB-CTP). Materials And Methods We included 29 patients with a confirmed MCA infarction who underwent initial WB-CTP with a scan coverage of 100 mm in the z-axis. Two blinded and experienced readers assessed the flow-volume-mismatch twice and in two quantitative ways: Performing a volumetric mismatch analysis using OsiriX imaging software (MMVOL) and visual estimation of mismatch (MMEST). Complementarily, the semiquantitative Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score for CT perfusion was used to define mismatch (MMASPECTS). A favorable penumbral pattern was defined by a mismatch of ?30% in combination with a cerebral blood flow deficit of ?90 ml and an MMASPECTS score of ?1, respectively. Inter- and intrareader agreement was determined by Kappa-values and ICCs. Results Overall, MMVOL showed considerably higher inter-/intrareader agreement (ICCs: 0.751/0.843) compared to MMEST (0.292/0.749). In the subgroup of large (?50 mL) perfusion deficits, inter- and intrareader agreement of MMVOL was excellent (ICCs: 0.961/0.942), while MMEST interreader agreement was poor (0.415) and intrareader agreement was good (0.919). With respect to penumbra classification, MMVOL showed the highest agreement (interreader agreement: 25 agreements/4 non-agreements/?: 0.595; intrareader agreement 27/2/0.833), followed by MMEST (22/7/0.471; 23/6/0.577), and MMASPECTS (18/11/0.133; 21/8/0.340). Conclusion The evaluated approach of volumetric mismatch assessment is superior to pure visual and ASPECTS penumbra pattern assessment in WB-CTP and helps to precisely judge the extent of 3-dimensional mismatch in acute stroke patients. PMID:25144396

  3. A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. HALEY; S. A. KNOTI

    1992-01-01

    The use of flanking marker methods has proved to be a powerful tool for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. Methods to analyse these data, based on maximum-likelihood, have been developed and provide good estimates of QTL effects in some situations. Maximum-likelihood methods are, however, relatively complex and can

  4. Quantitative Fluorescence Method for Continuous Measurement of DNA Hybridization Kinetics Using a Fluorescent Intercalator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yguerabide; A. Ceballos

    1995-01-01

    We present a quantitative fluorescence method for continuous measurement of DNA or RNA hybridization (including renaturation) kinetics using a fluorescent DNA intercalator. The method has high sensitivity and can be used with reaction volumes as small as 1 ?l and amounts of DNA around 1 ng. The method is based on the observations that (i) for the usual hybridization conditions,

  5. Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

  6. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (?2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and the presence of key methodological components in published reports. PMID:22092040

  7. Method for the quantitative determination of protopine in Fumaria vaillantii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Rakhimova; E. K. Dobronravova; T. T. Shakirov

    1977-01-01

    In an investigation of the polarographic behavior of protopine against a background of 0.1 N (C2H5)4NOH in 70% dioxane, it was found that the product of the electrode reaction is dihydroprotopine. A chromatopolarographic method has been proposed for determining protopine inFumaria vaillantii Loisl.

  8. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR CROSS-SPECIES MAPPING (CSM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cross species extrapolation will be defined as prediction from one species to another without empirical verification. ross species mapping (CSM) is the same except empirical verification is performed. SM may be viewed as validation of methods for extrapolation. Algorithms for CSM...

  9. A Quantitative Comparison of Three Methods for Inflating Cortical Meshes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Bonner; Oscar Acosta; Jurgen Fripp; Olivier Salvado

    2009-01-01

    Polygon meshes representing the cerebral cortex have been increasingly used for visualisation and analysis in biomedical imaging in recent years. Due to the highly convoluted structure of the cerebral cortex, a number of methods have been proposed for inflating cortical meshes to expose information buried in sulci and simplify the surface for further computation. Such inflations necessarily introduce geometric metric

  10. Quantitative Approach to Software Management: the ami Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annie Kuntzmann-combelles

    1993-01-01

    The paper is describing the ami method to get started with metrication, a 12 steps supported approach. It ensures benefits for project planning and management, cost-effectiveness and match of quality objectives. The ami project is partly funded by the CEC and lead by practitioners in the European Software Industry.

  11. Optogalvanic intracavity quantitative detector and method for its use

    DOEpatents

    Zalewski, E.F.; Keller, R.A.; Apel, C.T.

    1981-02-25

    The disclosure relates to an optogalvanic intracavity detector and method for its use. Measurement is made of the amount of light absorbed by atoms, small molecules and ions in a laser cavity utilizing laser-produced changes in plasmas containing the same atoms, molecules or ions.

  12. Validation of PCR methods for quantitation of genetically modified plants in food.

    PubMed

    Hübner, P; Waiblinger, H U; Pietsch, K; Brodmann, P

    2001-01-01

    For enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients, quantitative detection methods such as quantitative competitive (QC-PCR) and real-time PCR are applied by official food control laboratories. The experiences of 3 European food control laboratories in validating such methods were compared to describe realistic performance characteristics of quantitative PCR detection methods. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) of GMO-specific, real-time PCR was experimentally determined to reach 30-50 target molecules, which is close to theoretical prediction. Starting PCR with 200 ng genomic plant DNA, the LOQ depends primarily on the genome size of the target plant and ranges from 0.02% for rice to 0.7% for wheat. The precision of quantitative PCR detection methods, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), varied from 10 to 30%. Using Bt176 corn containing test samples and applying Bt176 specific QC-PCR, mean values deviated from true values by -7to 18%, with an average of 2+/-10%. Ruggedness of real-time PCR detection methods was assessed in an interlaboratory study analyzing commercial, homogeneous food samples. Roundup Ready soybean DNA contents were determined in the range of 0.3 to 36%, relative to soybean DNA, with RSDs of about 25%. Taking the precision of quantitative PCR detection methods into account, suitable sample plans and sample sizes for GMO analysis are suggested. Because quantitative GMO detection methods measure GMO contents of samples in relation to reference material (calibrants), high priority must be given to international agreements and standardization on certified reference materials. PMID:11767156

  13. Functionally oriented and clinically feasible quantitative gait analysis method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Frigo; M. Rabuffetti; D. C. Kerrigan; L. C. Deming; A. Pedotti

    1998-01-01

    A protocol for clinical gait analysis is described, and data from 30 normal adult female subjects are presented. Extensive\\u000a application to pathologic subjects has proven to be feasible and sufficiently accurate. The method is based on a particular\\u000a location and attachment of retro-reflective markers on the body and on a particular arrangement of four TV cameras. A motion\\u000a analyser measures

  14. Result Demonstration: A Method That Works 

    E-print Network

    Boleman, Chris; Dromgoole, Darrell A.

    2007-05-24

    research trials and disseminating their results. Result demonstrations are the very foundation of Cooperative Extension. Through the work of Seaman A. Knapp and Walter C. Porter, these demonstrations helped show farmers how to reduce boll weevil damage... as a part of the Land-Grant Colleges and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). A result demonstration is a trial or exercise conducted to show the public how a practice, variety or technique works. No other educational method affects the rate...

  15. The quantitative methods boot camp: teaching quantitative thinking and computing skills to graduate students in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Melanie I; Gutlerner, Johanna L; Born, Richard T; Springer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the ability of biologists to collect large amounts of data. It is therefore vital that research biologists acquire the necessary skills during their training to visualize, analyze, and interpret such data. To begin to meet this need, we have developed a "boot camp" in quantitative methods for biology graduate students at Harvard Medical School. The goal of this short, intensive course is to enable students to use computational tools to visualize and analyze data, to strengthen their computational thinking skills, and to simulate and thus extend their intuition about the behavior of complex biological systems. The boot camp teaches basic programming using biological examples from statistics, image processing, and data analysis. This integrative approach to teaching programming and quantitative reasoning motivates students' engagement by demonstrating the relevance of these skills to their work in life science laboratories. Students also have the opportunity to analyze their own data or explore a topic of interest in more detail. The class is taught with a mixture of short lectures, Socratic discussion, and in-class exercises. Students spend approximately 40% of their class time working through both short and long problems. A high instructor-to-student ratio allows students to get assistance or additional challenges when needed, thus enhancing the experience for students at all levels of mastery. Data collected from end-of-course surveys from the last five offerings of the course (between 2012 and 2014) show that students report high learning gains and feel that the course prepares them for solving quantitative and computational problems they will encounter in their research. We outline our course here which, together with the course materials freely available online under a Creative Commons License, should help to facilitate similar efforts by others. PMID:25880064

  16. Improved Quantitative Mass Spectrometry Methods for Characterizing Complex Ubiquitin Signals

    PubMed Central

    Phu, Lilian; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Matsumoto, Marissa L.; Bustos, Daisy; Dynek, Jasmin N.; Fedorova, Anna V.; Bakalarski, Corey E.; Arnott, David; Deshayes, Kurt; Dixit, Vishva M.; Kelley, Robert F.; Vucic, Domagoj; Kirkpatrick, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitinated substrates can be recruited to macromolecular complexes through interactions between their covalently bound ubiquitin (Ub) signals and Ub receptor proteins. To develop a functional understanding of the Ub system in vivo, methods are needed to determine the composition of Ub signals on individual substrates and in protein mixtures. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an important tool for characterizing the various forms of Ub. In the Ubiquitin-AQUA approach, synthetic isotopically labeled internal standard peptides are used to quantify unbranched peptides and the branched -GG signature peptides generated by trypsin digestion of Ub signals. Here we have built upon existing methods and established a comprehensive platform for the characterization of Ub signals. Digested peptides and isotopically labeled standards are analyzed either by selected reaction monitoring on a QTRAP mass spectrometer or by narrow window extracted ion chromatograms on a high resolution LTQ-Orbitrap. Additional peptides are now monitored to account for the N terminus of ubiquitin, linear polyUb chains, the peptides surrounding K33 and K48, and incomplete digestion products. Using this expanded battery of peptides, the total amount of Ub in a sample can be determined from multiple loci within the protein, minimizing possible confounding effects of complex Ub signals, digestion abnormalities, or use of mutant Ub in experiments. These methods have been useful for the characterization of in vitro, multistage ubiquitination and have now been extended to reactions catalyzed by multiple E2 enzymes. One question arising from in vitro studies is whether individual protein substrates in cells may be modified by multiple forms of polyUb. Here we have taken advantage of recently developed polyubiquitin linkage-specific antibodies recognizing K48- and K63-linked polyUb chains, coupled with these mass spectrometry methods, to further evaluate the abundance of mixed linkage Ub substrates in cultured mammalian cells. By combining these two powerful tools, we show that polyubiquitinated substrates purified from cells can be modified by mixtures of K48, K63, and K11 linkages. PMID:21048196

  17. A novel generalized ridge regression method for quantitative genetics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xia; Alam, Moudud; Fikse, Freddy; Rönnegård, Lars

    2013-04-01

    As the molecular marker density grows, there is a strong need in both genome-wide association studies and genomic selection to fit models with a large number of parameters. Here we present a computationally efficient generalized ridge regression (RR) algorithm for situations in which the number of parameters largely exceeds the number of observations. The computationally demanding parts of the method depend mainly on the number of observations and not the number of parameters. The algorithm was implemented in the R package bigRR based on the previously developed package hglm. Using such an approach, a heteroscedastic effects model (HEM) was also developed, implemented, and tested. The efficiency for different data sizes were evaluated via simulation. The method was tested for a bacteria-hypersensitive trait in a publicly available Arabidopsis data set including 84 inbred lines and 216,130 SNPs. The computation of all the SNP effects required <10 sec using a single 2.7-GHz core. The advantage in run time makes permutation test feasible for such a whole-genome model, so that a genome-wide significance threshold can be obtained. HEM was found to be more robust than ordinary RR (a.k.a. SNP-best linear unbiased prediction) in terms of QTL mapping, because SNP-specific shrinkage was applied instead of a common shrinkage. The proposed algorithm was also assessed for genomic evaluation and was shown to give better predictions than ordinary RR. PMID:23335338

  18. Quantitative Ray Methods for Scattering of Sound by Spherical Shells.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargl, Steven Gregory

    1990-01-01

    The application of ray methods to the scattering of high-frequency plane waves from evacuated elastic spherical shells is investigated. The investigation of ray methods for spherical shells is a precursor to the application of such methods to shells having more complicated shapes. The scattered pressure in the farfield of the shell is p _{sc} = p_{i}(a/2r)f( theta)exp(ikr) where p_{i } is the plane wave amplitude. The outer radius of the shell is a, h = a - b is the shell's thickness, and r is the distance to an observation point. Ray models are developed to synthesize the form function f( theta,ka) where k is the wavenumber of the incident wave and theta is the scattering angle. The forward scattering amplitude, f(theta = 0), is related to the extinction cross section, sigma_{e}, by the optical theorem. If the absorption by the scatterer is negligible, then sigma_{rm e} is equal to the scattering cross section sigma_{t}. A ray synthesis partitions f(theta = 0) into a component for ordinary forward diffraction about the shell, f_{FD}, and contributions from surface guided elastic waves. For high -frequency scattering, the relevant surface guided elastic waves are leaky Lamb waves. A similar ray synthesis of the backscattering amplitude f(theta=pi) contains a specular reflection component, f _{^}(theta=pi), and leaky Lamb wave contributions. A generalization of the geometrical theory of diffraction is employed to synthesize f_{l}(theta=0, {ka }) and f_{l}(theta= pi, {ka}) for the lth leaky Lamb wave contribution. The syntheses for forward and backwards scattering correctly describe the leaky Lamb wave contributions and are expressible in a Fabry-Perot resonator form. While the ray description of backscattering ordinarily accurately reproduces exact computations and experiments with tone burst, certain anomalies are discussed. A ray synthesis of f_{^} demonstrates a significant longitudinal resonance effect when k _{L}h = npi,n = 1, 2,..., where k_ {L} = omega/c _{L} is the longitudinal wavenumber within the shell. The analysis of f_{^ } is for an elastic material with vanishing shear velocity. The relevant range of ka is 7 <=q ka <=q 100. The shell is surrounded by water and is composed of 440c stainless steel with inner-to-outer radii ratio b/a = 0.838.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of material degradation by Barkhausen noise method

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Atsunori; Maeda, Noriyoshi; Sugibayashi, Takuya [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation, Yokohama (Japan). JAPEIC Research Center

    1995-12-01

    Evaluation the life of nuclear power plant becomes inevitable to extend the plant operating period. This paper applied the magnetic method using Barkhausen noise (BHN) to detect the degradation by fatigue and thermal aging. Low alloy steel (SA 508 cl.2) was fatigued at the strain amplitudes of {+-}1% and {+-}0.4%, and duplex stainless steel (SCS14A) was heated at 400 C for a long period (thermal aging). For the degraded material by thermal aging, BHN was measured and good correlation between magnetic properties and absorption energy of the material was obtained. For fatigued material, BHNM was measured at each predetermined cycle and the effect of stress or strain of the material when it measured was evaluated, and good correlation between BHN and fatigue damage ratio was obtained.

  20. A simple method for the subnanomolar quantitation of seven ophthalmic drugs in the rabbit eye.

    PubMed

    Latreille, Pierre-Luc; Banquy, Xavier

    2015-05-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method capable of simultaneous quantitation of seven ophthalmic drugs-pilocarpine, lidocaine, atropine, proparacaine, timolol, prednisolone, and triamcinolone acetonide-within regions of the rabbit eye. The complete validation of the method was performed using an Agilent 1100 series high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled to a 4000 QTRAP MS/MS detector in positive TurboIonSpray mode with pooled drug solutions. The method sensitivity, evaluated by the lower limit of quantitation in two simulated matrices, yielded lower limits of quantitation of 0.25 nmol L(-1) for most of the drugs. The precision in the low, medium, and high ranges of the calibration curves, the freeze-thaw stability over 1 month, the intraday precision, and the interday precision were all within a 15% limit. The method was used to quantitate the different drugs in the cornea, aqueous humor, vitreous humor, and remaining eye tissues of the rabbit eye. It was validated to a concentration of up to 1.36 ng/g in humors and 5.43 ng/g in tissues. The unprecedented low detection limit of the present method and its ease of implementation allow easy, robust, and reliable quantitation of multiple drugs for rapid in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the local pharmacokinetics of these compounds. PMID:25749792

  1. Can You Repeat That Please?: Using Monte Carlo Simulation in Graduate Quantitative Research Methods Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carsey, Thomas M.; Harden, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Graduate students in political science come to the discipline interested in exploring important political questions, such as "What causes war?" or "What policies promote economic growth?" However, they typically do not arrive prepared to address those questions using quantitative methods. Graduate methods instructors must…

  2. A distillation method for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in rancid foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Basil G. Tarladgis; Betty M. Watts; Margaret T. Younathan; Leroy Dugan

    1960-01-01

    Summary  An improved distillation method is described for the quantitative determination of malonaldehyde in foods containing oxidized\\u000a fats. The procedure is compared with other methods in current use for the determination of malonaldehyde. A high correlation\\u000a of TBA numbers with rancid odor in cooked meats was established.

  3. Comparison of Overlap Methods for Quantitatively Synthesizing Single-Subject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolery, Mark; Busick, Matthew; Reichow, Brian; Barton, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Four overlap methods for quantitatively synthesizing single-subject data were compared to visual analysts' judgments. The overlap methods were percentage of nonoverlapping data, pairwise data overlap squared, percentage of data exceeding the median, and percentage of data exceeding a median trend. Visual analysts made judgments about 160 A-B data…

  4. Student Performance in a Quantitative Methods Course under Online and Face-to-Face Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Penny; Wakeling, Victor

    2011-01-01

    In a study conducted at a large public university, the authors assessed, for an upper-division quantitative methods business core course, the impact of delivery method (online versus face-toface) on the success rate (percentage of enrolled students earning a grade of A, B, or C in the course). The success rate of the 161 online students was 55.3%,…

  5. Developing Investigative Entry Points: Exploring the Use of Quantitative Methods in English Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraner, Kristin L.; Robbins, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Although many research questions in English education demand the use of qualitative methods, this paper will briefly explore how English education researchers and doctoral students may use statistics and quantitative methods to inform, complement, and/or deepen their inquiries. First, the authors will provide a general overview of the survey areas…

  6. A method for the quantitative determination of crystalline phases by X-ray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzenhauser, I.; Jaeger, P.

    1988-01-01

    A mineral analysis method is described for rapid quantitative determination of crystalline substances in those cases in which the sample is present in pure form or in a mixture of known composition. With this method there is no need for prior chemical analysis.

  7. Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…

  8. Quantitative method for the analysis of cell attachment using aligned scaffold structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Tian; H. Hosseinkhani; G. G. Estrada; H. Kobayashi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new quantitative method that evaluates the cell attachment affinity to aligned scaffold structures composed of poly (glycolic acid) PGA\\/collagen. The structures were fabricated by the electrospinning method. We analyzed the relationship between the number and length of attached cells to fibers of different diameters under different concentrations of PGA\\/collagen. The findings are three fold. Firstly, the

  9. Inverse perspective mapping and optic flow: A calibration method and a quantitative analysis

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Alan

    Inverse perspective mapping and optic flow: A calibration method and a quantitative analysis Sovira perspective mapping; Optic flow; Calibration methods 1. Introduction Obtaining information about the external difficult. We investigate the effects of perspective on optic flow in a driver assistance application

  10. A quantitative comparison of the commonly used methods for extracting carotenoids from avian plasma

    E-print Network

    McGraw, Kevin J.

    METHODS A quantitative comparison of the commonly used methods for extracting carotenoids from Abstract Interest in animal carotenoids, especially in birds, has exploded in recent years, and so too have and commonly per- formed procedure in this work has been the determination of carotenoid concentration from

  11. A quantitative method for photovoltaic encapsulation system optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, A., III; Minning, C. P.; Cuddihy, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the design of encapsulation systems for flat plate photovoltaic modules requires the fulfillment of conflicting design requirements. An investigation was conducted with the objective to find an approach which will make it possible to determine a system with optimum characteristics. The results of the thermal, optical, structural, and electrical isolation analyses performed in the investigation indicate the major factors in the design of terrestrial photovoltaic modules. For defect-free materials, minimum encapsulation thicknesses are determined primarily by structural considerations. Cell temperature is not strongly affected by encapsulant thickness or thermal conductivity. The emissivity of module surfaces exerts a significant influence on cell temperature. Encapsulants should be elastomeric, and ribs are required on substrate modules. Aluminum is unsuitable as a substrate material. Antireflection coating is required on cell surfaces.

  12. Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images: initial results for liver tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behnaz, Alexander S.; Snider, James; Chibuzor, Eneh; Esposito, Giuseppe; Wilson, Emmanuel; Yaniv, Ziv; Cohen, Emil; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative CT for volumetric analysis of medical images is increasingly being proposed for monitoring patient response during chemotherapy trials. An integrated MATLAB GUI has been developed for an oncology trial at Georgetown University Hospital. This GUI allows for the calculation and visualization of the volume of a lesion. The GUI provides an estimate of the volume of the tumor using a semi-automatic segmentation technique. This software package features a fixed parameter adaptive filter from the ITK toolkit and a tumor segmentation algorithm to reduce inter-user variability and to facilitate rapid volume measurements. The system also displays a 3D rendering of the segmented tumor, allowing the end user to have not only a quantitative measure of the tumor volume, but a qualitative view as well. As an initial validation test, several clinical cases were hand-segmented, and then compared against the results from the tool, showing good agreement.

  13. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    PubMed

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. PMID:25842334

  14. Comparison of concentration methods for quantitative detection of sewage-associated viral markers in environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Harwood, V J; Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-03-01

    Pathogenic human viruses cause over half of gastroenteritis cases associated with recreational water use worldwide. They are relatively difficult to concentrate from environmental waters due to typically low concentrations and their small size. Although rapid enumeration of viruses by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has the potential to greatly improve water quality analysis and risk assessment, the upstream steps of capturing and recovering viruses from environmental water sources along with removing PCR inhibitors from extracted nucleic acids remain formidable barriers to routine use. Here, we compared the efficiency of virus recovery for three rapid methods of concentrating two microbial source tracking (MST) viral markers human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) from one liter tap water and river water samples on HA membranes (90 mm in diameter). Samples were spiked with raw sewage, and viral adsorption to membranes was promoted by acidification (method A) or addition of MgCl2 (methods B and C). Viral nucleic acid was extracted directly from membranes (method A), or viruses were eluted with NaOH and concentrated by centrifugal ultrafiltration (methods B and C). No inhibition of qPCR was observed for samples processed by method A, but inhibition occurred in river samples processed by B and C. Recovery efficiencies of HAdVs and HPyVs were ?10-fold greater for method A (31 to 78%) than for methods B and C (2.4 to 12%). Further analysis of membranes from method B revealed that the majority of viruses were not eluted from the membrane, resulting in poor recovery. The modification of the originally published method A to include a larger diameter membrane and a nucleic acid extraction kit that could accommodate the membrane resulted in a rapid virus concentration method with good recovery and lack of inhibitory compounds. The frequently used strategy of viral absorption with added cations (Mg(2+)) and elution with acid were inefficient and more prone to inhibition, and will result in underestimation of the prevalence and concentrations of HAdVs and HPyVs markers in environmental waters. PMID:25576614

  15. High performance liquid chromatography assay method for simultaneous quantitation of formoterol and budesonide in Symbicort Turbuhaler.

    PubMed

    Assi, K H; Tarsin, W; Chrystyn, H

    2006-04-11

    A sensitive and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and used for the simultaneous determination of formoterol and budesonide in Symbicort Turbuhaler when assessing the aerodynamic characteristics of the emitted dose using Pharmacopoeial methods. This capability results in both time and cost saving. The mobile phase composition was acetonitrile-5 mM sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate, pH 3 (60: 40% v/v), and was passed at 1.5 ml min(-1) through a C18 column with a UV detection (wavelength 214 nm). The method was shown to give good analytical performance in terms of linearity, precision (using phenylpropanolamine as an internal standard), sensitivity and solution stability. The intra-day precision for both formoterol and budesonide were 0.75% and 1.11%, respectively (n = 10). The limit of quantitation for formoterol was 10 microgL(-1) and for budesonide was 120 microgL(-1), and the limit of detection were 3 and 30 microgL(-1), for both formoterol and budesonide, respectively. The method has been applied to determine the content of the emitted dose and the fine particle dose of Symbicort Turbuhaler. PMID:16378706

  16. [Detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in immunosuppressed patients using qualitative and quantitative molecular methods].

    PubMed

    Yalinay Cirak, Meltem; Külah, Canan; Aydin, Ayla; Türet, Sevgi; Rota, Seyyal

    2002-04-01

    In this study, blood samples collected from 101 immunosuppressive patients were investigated for the presence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, with qualitative nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and leukocytes obtained from these samples with quantitative hybrid capture assay (HCA). CMV-DNA was found positive in 32 (31.7%) and negative in 45 (44.5%) patients with both of the methods, and the agreement between the methods were estimated as 76.2%. The number of samples, which were PCR positive and HCA negative, were 24 (23.7%), while there were no samples which were PCR negative and HCA positive. All of the 56 CMV-DNA positive patients detected by PCR, were found positive for CMV-IgG, and 7 of them were also CMV-IgM positive. As a result, it was concluded that PCR is a practical and reliable method especially for the routine procedures for the investigation of CMV-DNA, however in cases which necessitate the detection of viral load, hybridization may be the preferable method. PMID:12652870

  17. Testing alleged mediumship: methods and results.

    PubMed

    O'keeffe, Ciarán; Wiseman, Richard

    2005-05-01

    Mediums claim to be able to communicate with the deceased. Such claims attract a considerable amount of public interest and, if valid, have important implications for many areas of psychology. For over 100 years, researchers have tested alleged mediums. This work has obtained mixed results and provoked a considerable amount of methodological debate. This paper reviews the key issues in this debate, describes how the authors devised a method of testing that aimed to prevent the many problems that have hindered past research, and how they then used this method to test several professional mediums. The results of this work did not support the existence of genuine mediumistic ability. Competing interpretations of these results are discussed, along with ways in which the methodology presented in the paper could be used to assess conceptually similar, but non-paranormal, claims made in clinical, occupational and forensic contexts. PMID:15969829

  18. Rapid-changing-color high-speed photography method and quantitative medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zengrong

    1995-05-01

    Many medical parameters of human body are in contact with 'Quantities', the diseases cause some change of 'Quantities'. If the 'Change of Quantities' is measured and understood, the disease and its course are diagnosed. The medicine requires that scientists should formulate various 'Quantitative' methods and instruments for measuring medical parameters of human body. In this paper, the developing reason and background of 'Quantitative Medicine' are discussed, the principle of 'Rapid-Changing-Color High Speed Photography Method' and main technical specifications of 'ZG-9000 Model Micro-High-Speed Photography System' are discussed emphatically. In addition, the applying situations are explained, and its wide-range applying prospects are betaken too.

  19. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    PubMed Central

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  20. Group-consensus method and results

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.A.; Peaslee, A.T. Jr.; Booker, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    This report focuses on the group consensus method, its application, results, and recommendations for future use. The method involves a group of qualified individuals who reach agreement on one answer after discussing the options in a face-to-face situation. The group method was used to elicit estimates on the relevance of weapon-related components to certain military threats or needs. In this study, the group consensus method was chosen from four possible methods to provide input data for a decision analysis model being tested for weapons-planning use. The major goal of the weapons-planning project was to determine the applicability of the decision anlaysis model, a modified linear utility model. This report examines whether the estimates (also referred to as weights) properly reflected the relationships between the components being judged. Statistical analysis (chi-square tests) indicated that the estimates were largely assigned according to the relationships between the components. Behavioral and cognitive factors could not be found to correlate to the assignment of the estimates. In sum, the group consensus method was judged suitable for situations in which a single estimate must be obtained from many estimates and stringent controls over the estimating process would be unacceptably burdensome.

  1. Precision of dehydroascorbic acid quantitation with the use of the subtraction method--validation of HPLC-DAD method for determination of total vitamin C in food.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Artur; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2015-04-15

    In food analysis, a method for determination of vitamin C should enable measuring of total content of ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) because both chemical forms exhibit biological activity. The aim of the work was to confirm applicability of HPLC-DAD method for analysis of total content of vitamin C (TC) and ascorbic acid in various types of food by determination of validation parameters such as: selectivity, precision, accuracy, linearity and limits of detection and quantitation. The results showed that the method applied for determination of TC and AA was selective, linear and precise. Precision of DHAA determination by the subtraction method was also evaluated. It was revealed that the results of DHAA determination obtained by the subtraction method were not precise which resulted directly from the assumption of this method and the principles of uncertainty propagation. The proposed chromatographic method should be recommended for routine determinations of total vitamin C in various food. PMID:25466057

  2. Method of vacuum correlation functions: Results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalian, A. M.; Simonov, Yu. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2006-10-01

    Basic results obtained within the QCD method of vacuum correlation functions over the past 20 years in the context of investigations into strong-interaction physics at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) are formulated Emphasis is placed primarily on the prospects of the general theory developed within QCD by employing both nonperturbative and perturbative methods. On the basis of ab initio arguments, it is shown that the lowest two field correlation functions play a dominant role in QCD dynamics. A quantitative theory of confinement and deconfinement, as well as of the spectra of light and heavy quarkonia, glueballs, and hybrids, is given in terms of these two correlation functions. Perturbation theory in a nonperturbative vacuum (background perturbation theory) plays a significant role, not possessing drawbacks of conventional perturbation theory and leading to the infrared freezing of the coupling constant ? s.

  3. Quantitative Method for Shape Description of Almond Cultivars ( Prunus amygdalus Batsch)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Antonucci; Corrado Costa; Federico Pallottino; Graziella Paglia; Valentina Rimatori; Donato De Giorgio; Paolo Menesatti

    The aim of the present work was to propose a rapid, non-invasive, and quantitative image analysis method based on elliptic\\u000a Fourier analysis (EFA) and on carpological measurements to discriminate between 18 cultivars and shape groups of almond kernels\\u000a and in-shell fruit. The shape groups were identified using two clustering techniques: a non-hierarchic method (k-means) and a hierarchical one (Ward’s method).

  4. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

  5. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts. PMID:21680168

  6. Relative Quantification of Costal Cordillera (Ecuador) Uplift : Preliminary Results from Quantitative Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Pedro; Dauteuil, Olivier; Michaud, François

    2010-05-01

    The coastal cordillera of Ecuador (culminating point around 800 m) includes on its littoral margins uplifted marine terraces (maximum known 360 m). The coastal cordillera constitutes an important barrier of drainage and on nearly 600 km the drainage resulting from the Andes is diverted towards Río Guayas in the South and Río Esmeraldas in North. What is the uplifting mode of the coastal cordillera? For how long it has constituted a barrier of drainage? Does the coastal cordillera rising be linked with the littoral margin rising? Does the cordillera have raised in a homogeneous or segmented way? What is the geodynamic process of the uplift of the cordillera? Can this uplift be related with the subduction of the Carnegie ridge? The first objective of this work is to analyze the morphology of the coastal cordillera with helps of quantitative geomorphology using digital techniques such as DEM (realized with a resolution of 30 m by Marc Souris, IRD), to specify the evolution of the coastal cordillera uplift. This study was carried out starting combining analysis of morphology, maps derived from the slopes and anomalies of the drainage of the hydrographic network. In the second time, three methods were applied to DEM data using the ArcGIS software: 1) the digitalization and the interpolation of basal surface of the last marine formation of regional distribution (the Borbón formation on the geological map of Ecuador) to determine paleo-horizontal and to see its deformation; 2) the extraction of 109 profiles of rivers which allow us to calculate for each river the vertical, horizontal, and total deviation compared to the theoretical profile of the river and the associated SL index; 3) the measurement of the relief incision (depth + half width of the valley, on the whole 7500 measurements) according to the method of Bonnet et al. (1998). We adapted this method to be able to represent the state of incision in any point, correcting from the influence of the lithology and the influence of altitude. The analysis of the profiles of the rivers and incision combined with the morpho-structural analysis show that the coastal cordillera is segmented in blocks that have each one their own period of rising and their own rate of uplift. Six blocks are individualized. The results on the profiles of river show that the coastal area of the cordillera in as a whole in uplift. The results on the incisions show that the uplift is relatively more important in the northern part of the coastal cordillera. Two fault systems have guided the evolution of the coastal cordillera, the Jipijapa system and the Jama system that is prolonged in the East of Río Esmeraldas. The two systems seem to control the exhumation of the peninsula of Manta, whereas the system of Jama controls the rising of a North-west block. The coastal cordillera starts rising in its central part. The beginning of rising probably happens at the end of Pliocene. Rising continues then to the South-west and finally develops in the North and in the peninsula of Manta. The highest rates of relative uplift are seen in blocks of the North of the coastal cordillera that is not located in front of the Carnegie ridge.

  7. Comparison of fluorometric detection methods for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Schiavo, Susan; Yang, Wen-Chu; Chin, Norman H L; Kruill, Ira S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we compared the sensitivity of two different detection methods for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Various amounts of a 75 mer single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragment, which can be used as a DNA label for the immuno-PCR (iPCR) assays, were amplified by PCR. The amount of amplified DNA fragments was determined by the fluorescence (FL) of SYBR Green dye that specifically interacts with double-stranded DNA fragments. In the first selected detection method, real-time PCR, FL measurements were carried out at each thermal cycle, as the DNA was being amplified by PCR. This was achieved using the Applied Biosystems (ABI) Prism 7000 Sequence Detection System and its standard protocol. In the second detection method, referred to as end-point detection, after the PCR amplification was completed, off-line FL measurements were subsequently carried out using a conventional plate reader. In order to achieve the lowest limit of detection (LOD) from the off-line measurement, we have optimized a wide variety of parameters. Our data have indicated the LOD of real-time PCR method was approximately three orders of magnitude lower than the end-point measurement method, with a linear range spanning six orders of magnitude; 10 fmol to 10 zmol of PCR template. The lower LOD of the real-time PCR method could be partly due to the ability to maximize the number of thermal cycles that could be carried out in PCR, without increasing the non-specific amplification of any contaminating DNA. The results of this study can be applied to the development of ultra-sensitive iPCR assays for various disease markers. PMID:15754800

  8. Quantitative 1H-NMR Method for the Determination of Tadalafil in Bulk Drugs and its Tablets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingyun; Qiu, Hui; Guo, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Xingning; Xue, Dan; Zhang, Jinlan; Wu, Song; Wang, Yinghong

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid, accurate, and selective quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance method for the determination of tadalafil in bulk drugs and its tablets was established and evaluated. Spectra were obtained in dimethylsulfoxide-d6 using 2,4-dinitrotoluene as the internal standard. In this study, the method's linearity, range, limit of quantification, stability, precision, and accuracy were validated. The results were consistent with those obtained from high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Thus, the proposed method is a useful and practical tool for the determination of tadalafil in bulk drugs and its tablets. PMID:26147583

  9. [A local regression method for near-infrared spectral quantitative analysis of tobacco samples].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xue; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Shao, Xue-Guang

    2008-11-01

    A local regression method based on distance criterion in principal component (PC) space for near-infrared (NIR) spectral quantitative analysis was proposed. In this method, principal component analysis (PCA) is firstly utilized to extract the information of the NIR spectra, and then, the calibration subsets are individually selected for each prediction sample according to the distance between the sample and calibration samples in the PCs space. Finally, the PLS local model for every prediction sample is established individually and the prediction of the sample is done with the local model. It was found that the Euclidean distance can more effectively measure the similarity of the samples than Mahalanobis distance. With an application of the local regression method to the quantitative determination of chlorine and nicotine in tobacco samples, it is proved that the prediction precision of local regression method is better than that of global regression methods, especially in the situation of predicting the low concentration components. PMID:19271490

  10. Measurable impact of RNA quality on gene expression results from quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Joëlle; De Preter, Katleen; Lefever, Steve; Nuytens, Justine; De Vloed, Fanny; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2011-05-01

    Compromised RNA quality is suggested to lead to unreliable results in gene expression studies. Therefore, assessment of RNA integrity and purity is deemed essential prior to including samples in the analytical pipeline. This may be of particular importance when diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic conclusions depend on such analyses. In this study, the comparative value of six RNA quality parameters was determined using a large panel of 740 primary tumour samples for which real-time quantitative PCR gene expression results were available. The tested parameters comprise of microfluidic capillary electrophoresis based 18S/28S rRNA ratio and RNA Quality Index value, HPRT1 5'-3' difference in quantification cycle (Cq) and HPRT1 3' Cq value based on a 5'/3' ratio mRNA integrity assay, the Cq value of expressed Alu repeat sequences and a normalization factor based on the mean expression level of four reference genes. Upon establishment of an innovative analytical framework to assess impact of RNA quality, we observed a measurable impact of RNA quality on the variation of the reference genes, on the significance of differential expression of prognostic marker genes between two cancer patient risk groups, and on risk classification performance using a multigene signature. This study forms the basis for further rational assessment of reverse transcription quantitative PCR based results in relation to RNA quality. PMID:21317187

  11. Method for the quantitative determination of adlumine in Corydalis sempervirens and as the isolated substance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Krivut; N. A. Fedyunina; N. N. Margvelashvili; L. M. Molodozhnikova

    1984-01-01

    A chromato-spectrometric method has been developed for the quantitative determination of the biologically active alkaloid adlumine of pale corydalis which permits the determination of adlumine in the plant material with an accuracy of ±3.62% and of the isolated substance with an accuracy of ±0.79%.

  12. Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

  13. Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

  14. COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS FOR THE QUANTITATION OF BETA-GLUCANS FROM SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal polysaccharides and glucans, including lentinan from shiitakes, have been identified as promoting human health, and consequently, the sale of mushroom-based health products has increased significantly in recent years. Reliable methods for the quantitation of lentinan must be available if shi...

  15. QUANTITATIVE METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Analysis of MultiplicativeCombination RulesWhen

    E-print Network

    Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    sumer psychology is Fishbein and Ajzen's Utility of each outcome, summed across (1975) model: AttitudeQUANTITATIVE METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Analysis of MultiplicativeCombination RulesWhen the Causal University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign at Indianapolis A variety of theories in psychology postulate

  16. An Elephant in the Room: Bias in Evaluating a Required Quantitative Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Joseph F.; Painter-Main, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate Political Science programs often require students to take a quantitative research methods course. Such courses are typically among the most poorly rated. This can be due, in part, to the way in which courses are evaluated. Students are generally asked to provide an overall rating, which, in turn, is widely used by students, faculty,…

  17. Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines several methodological issues associated with combining qualitative and quantitative methods by comparing the increasing interest in this topic with the earlier renewal of interest in qualitative research during the 1980s. The first section argues for the value of Kuhn's concept of paradigm shifts as a tool for examining…

  18. Identifying Schematized Views of Self With Significant Others: Convergence of Quantitative and Clinical Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Tunis; Bram M. Fridhandler; Mardi J. Horowitz

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to bring together quantitative and clinical methods to describe schematized views of self. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted on a single subject's ratings of self in nine contexts. Descriptors had been generated by the subject (seen in therapy for social phobia) in dream reports, interviews, and projective test responses. The four-cluster solution revealed that her

  19. Quantitatively assessing the vulnerability of critical information systems: A new method for evaluating security enhancements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandip C. Patel; James H. Graham; Patricia A. S. Ralston

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for assessing the organization's vulnerability to information-security breaches. Although much research has been done on qualitative approaches, the literature on numerical approaches to quantify information-security risk is scarce. This paper suggests a method to quantify risk in terms of a numeric value or “degree of cybersecurity”. To help quantitatively measure the level of cybersecurity

  20. A Numerical Method for Quantitatively Evaluating Orthodontic Force System during Orthodontic Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Wei; Wencheng Tang; Bing Yan; Baokuan Yang

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to elucidate a new method for quantitatively evaluating orthodontic force system during orthodontic treatment. Dental cast models were made to obtain digital models with impressions of a patient's dental arch at regular intervals. Then the displacement of each bracket for a period of time was obtained by computer aided inspection. The finite element model

  1. Analytic methods and theory of quantitative stereology for the determination of concrete proportioning in structural components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Zhang; Jihong Han

    2005-01-01

    The analytic methods and the theory of the quantitative stereology combining with micro-analysis for concrete proportion on structural components were systemically described in this paper, specifically, the effective mix proportion of structural concrete was identified through three levels macroscopic (coarse aggregate), mesoscopic (fine aggregate) and microscopic (cement paste). Moreover, the porosity and hydration degree of structural concrete could be understood

  2. Quantitative methods for evaluating optical and frictional properties of cationic polymers.

    PubMed

    Wu, W; Alkema, J; Shay, G D; Basset, D R

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents three quantitative methods to examine gloss, opacity, and friction of cationic polymers. The adsorption of cationic polymers onto hair and skin can be regarded as a thin film coating. Therefore, optical and frictional properties of polymer films are of significant relevance to the applications of cationic polymers in hair care products. Such properties reflect the desirable hair condition attributes consumers seek in shampoo and conditioner products. Using these test methods, polyquaternium-10 and cationic guar samples of varying molecular weight and cationic substitution were compared. The effect of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on polymer film properties was also investigated. Neat guar hydroxypropyl trimonium chloride imparts less friction than polyquaternium-10 but dulls the substrate employed in this study. The optical data show that polyquaternium-10 provides greater film clarity and gloss than cationic guars. In the presence of SDS, polyquaternium-10 also displays similar or lower friction than cationic guar. The comparative optical and frictional results are in good agreement with the visual assessment of the cationic polymer films. These results clearly demonstrate that polyquaternium-10 exhibits superior film properties in the forms of both neat polymer and polymer/surfactant complex. In addition, microscopic techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) provide powerful explanations for the differences noted between the two popular classes of cationic polymers. The test methods described in this paper can be utilized to differentiate the upper performance potential of cationic polymers. These objective and standardized test methods derived from the coatings industry are not affected by the variability of hair or the formulation complexity of end products. They can be useful tools in the product development process in quickly screening the relative performance of different polymers. PMID:11382843

  3. FT-IR method development and validation for quantitative estimation of zidovudine in bulk and tablet dosage form.

    PubMed

    Bansal, R; Guleria, A; Acharya, P C

    2013-04-01

    New, simple and cost effective infrared spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of zidovudine (CAS 30516-87-1) in bulk and tablet dosage form. The quantitative analysis of zidovudine was carried out in solid form using KBr pellet method and in liquid form using quartz cuvette. These methods were developed and validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Linearity range was found to be 0.8-1.6% w/w in KBr pellet method and 250-1 500 ?g ml-1 in solution. The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of zidovudine in pharmaceutical formulation (tablets). The results demonstrated that the proposed methods are accurate, precise and reproducible (relative standard deviation<2%), while being simple, economical and less time consuming than other available methods and can be used for estimation of zidovudine in different dosage forms. PMID:23471701

  4. Quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) method for bone and whole-body-composition analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gersh Z. Taicher; Frank C. Tinsley; Arcady Reiderman; Mark L. Heiman

    2003-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the applicability, precision, and accuracy of the new EchoMRI quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) method for in-vitro bovine bone analysis and in-vivo whole-body-composition analysis of conscious live mice. Research methods and procedures: bovine tibia bone samples were measured by QMR and dual-energy X-ray adsorptiometry (DEXA). Repeated measures of whole-body composition were made using live and dead mice with

  5. Development of a method for automated quantitative analysis of ores using LIBS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rosenwasser; G Asimellis; B Bromley; R Hazlett; J Martin; T Pearce; A Zigler

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the development of a method for real-time automated quantitative analysis of mineral ores using a commercial laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument, TRACER™ 2100, fitted with a recently developed computer controlled auto-sampler. The auto-sampler permits the execution of methods for performing calibrations and analysis of multiple elements on multiple samples. Furthermore, the analysis is averaged over multiple locations on

  6. A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan Han; Troy Story; Grace Han

    1999-01-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described. The sample containing bromine is first incubated with an excess of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). One molecule of TCEP is rapidly and irreversibly oxidized to TCEPO (TCEP oxide) by one molecule of bromine. The concentration of residual TCEP is then measured as 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate produced by reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). This method

  7. Research methods in sport and exercise psychology: quantitative and qualitative issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stuart J. H. Biddle; David Markland; David Gilbourne; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis; Andrew C. Sparkes

    2001-01-01

    Contemporary aspects of research methods in sport and exercise psychology are discussed in this wide-ranging review. After an introduction centred on trends in sport and exercise psychology methods, the review is organized around the major themes of quantitative and qualitative research. Our aim is to highlight areas that may be problematic or controversial (e.g. stepwise statistical procedures), underused (e.g. discriminant

  8. Deep neural nets as a method for quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ma, Junshui; Sheridan, Robert P; Liaw, Andy; Dahl, George E; Svetnik, Vladimir

    2015-02-23

    Neural networks were widely used for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) in the 1990s. Because of various practical issues (e.g., slow on large problems, difficult to train, prone to overfitting, etc.), they were superseded by more robust methods like support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), which arose in the early 2000s. The last 10 years has witnessed a revival of neural networks in the machine learning community thanks to new methods for preventing overfitting, more efficient training algorithms, and advancements in computer hardware. In particular, deep neural nets (DNNs), i.e. neural nets with more than one hidden layer, have found great successes in many applications, such as computer vision and natural language processing. Here we show that DNNs can routinely make better prospective predictions than RF on a set of large diverse QSAR data sets that are taken from Merck's drug discovery effort. The number of adjustable parameters needed for DNNs is fairly large, but our results show that it is not necessary to optimize them for individual data sets, and a single set of recommended parameters can achieve better performance than RF for most of the data sets we studied. The usefulness of the parameters is demonstrated on additional data sets not used in the calibration. Although training DNNs is still computationally intensive, using graphical processing units (GPUs) can make this issue manageable. PMID:25635324

  9. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  10. GC-MS Method for the Quantitation of Carbohydrate Intermediates in Glycation Systems.

    PubMed

    Milkovska-Stamenova, Sanja; Schmidt, Rico; Frolov, Andrej; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Glycation is a ubiquitous nonenzymatic reaction of carbonyl compounds with amino groups of peptides and proteins, resulting in the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and thereby affecting the properties and quality of thermally processed foods. In this context, mechanisms of the Maillard reaction of proteins need to be understood; that is, glycation products and intermediates (?-dicarbonyls and sugars) need to be characterized. Although the chemical analysis of proteins, peptides, and ?-dicarbonyls is well established, sensitive and precise determination of multiple sugars in glycation mixtures is still challenging. This paper presents a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for absolute quantitation of 22 carbohydrates in the model of phosphate-buffered glycation systems. The approach relied on the removal of the phosphate component by polymer-based ion exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by derivatization of carbohydrates and subsequent GC-MS analysis. Thereby, baseline separation for most of the analytes and detection limits of up to 10 fmol were achieved. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of in vitro glycation reactions. Thereby, at least seven sugar-related Maillard reaction intermediates could be identified and quantified. The most abundant reaction product was d-fructose, reaching 2.70 ± 0.12 and 2.38 ± 0.66 mmol/L after 120 min of incubation in the absence and presence of the model peptide, respectively. PMID:26043919

  11. Method for estimating total attenuation from a spatial map of attenuation slope for quantitative ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Pawlicki, Alexander D; O'Brien, William D

    2013-04-01

    Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in attenuation between different regions of the phantoms and the MAT tumor. Analyses of the attenuation maps of the phantoms suggest that the AS estimates are in good quantitative agreement with the known values for the phantoms. Furthermore, estimates of total attenuation from the attenuation maps are likewise in good quantitative agreement with known values. PMID:23493614

  12. A Quantitative Method for Assessment of Prescribing Patterns Using Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Schuemie, Martijn J.; Park, Man Young; Kim, Ju Han; Park, Rae Woong

    2013-01-01

    Background Most available quality indicators for hospitals are represented by simple ratios or proportions, and are limited to specific events. A generalized method that can be applied to diverse clinical events has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a simple method of evaluating physicians' prescription patterns for diverse events and their level of awareness of clinical practice guidelines. Methods and Findings We developed a quantitative method called Prescription pattern Around Clinical Event (PACE), which is applicable to electronic health records (EHRs). Three discrete prescription patterns (intervention, maintenance, and discontinuation) were determined based on the prescription change index (PCI), which was calculated by means of the increase or decrease in the prescription rate after a clinical event. Hyperkalemia and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) were used as example cases. We calculated the PCIs of 10 drugs related to hyperkalemia, categorized them into prescription patterns, and then compared the resulting prescription patterns with the known standards for hyperkalemia treatment. The hyperkalemia knowledge of physicians was estimated using a questionnaire and compared to the prescription pattern. Prescriptions for CDAD were also determined and compared to clinical knowledge. Clinical data of 1698, 348, and 1288 patients were collected from EHR data. The physicians prescribing behaviors for hyperkalemia and CDAD were concordant with the standard knowledge. Prescription patterns were well correlated with individual physicians' knowledge of hyperkalemia (??=?0.714). Prescribing behaviors according to event severity or clinical condition were plotted as a simple summary graph. Conclusion The algorithm successfully assessed the prescribing patterns from the EHR data. The prescription patterns were well correlated with physicians' knowledge. We expect that this algorithm will enable quantification of prescribers' adherence to clinical guidelines and be used to facilitate improved prescribing practices. PMID:24130689

  13. Quantitative evaluation of registration methods for atlas-based diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xue; Eggebrecht, Adam T.; Culver, Joseph P.; Zhan, Yuxuan; Basevi, Hector; Dehghani, Hamid

    2013-06-01

    In Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT), an atlas-based model can be used as an alternative to a subject-specific anatomical model for recovery of brain activity. The main step of the generation of atlas-based subject model is the registration of atlas model to the subject head. The accuracy of the DOT then relies on the accuracy of registration method. In this work, 11 registration methods are quantitatively evaluated. The registration method with EEG 10/20 systems with 19 landmarks and non-iterative point to point algorithm provides approximately 1.4 mm surface error and is considered as the most efficient registration method.

  14. Pleistocene Lake Bonneville and Eberswalde Crater of Mars: Quantitative Methods for Recognizing Poorly Developed Lacustrine Shorelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to quantify shoreline features on Earth has been aided by advances in acquisition of high-resolution topography through laser imaging and photogrammetry. Well-defined and well-documented features such as the Bonneville, Provo, and Stansbury shorelines of Late Pleistocene Lake Bonneville are recognizable to the untrained eye and easily mappable on aerial photos. The continuity and correlation of lesser shorelines must rely quantitative algorithms for processing high-resolution data in order to gain widespread scientific acceptance. Using Savitsky-Golay filters and the geomorphic methods and criteria described by Hare et al. [2001], minor, transgressive, erosional shorelines of Lake Bonneville have been identified and correlated across the basin with varying degrees of statistical confidence. Results solve one of the key paradoxes of Lake Bonneville first described by G. K. Gilbert in the late 19th century and point the way for understanding climatically driven oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum in the Great Basin of the United States. Similar techniques have been applied to the Eberswalde Crater area of Mars using HRiSE DEMs (1 m horizontal resolution) where a paleolake is hypothesized to have existed. Results illustrate the challenges of identifying shorelines where long term aeolian processes have degraded the shorelines and field validation is not possible. The work illustrates the promises and challenges of indentifying remnants of a global ocean elsewhere on the red planet.

  15. Improved Methodical Approach for Quantitative BRET Analysis of G Protein Coupled Receptor Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Szalai, Bence; Hoffmann, Péter; Prokop, Susanne; Erdélyi, László; Várnai, Péter; Hunyady, László

    2014-01-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR) can form dimers or higher ordered oligomers, the process of which can remarkably influence the physiological and pharmacological function of these receptors. Quantitative Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (qBRET) measurements are the gold standards to prove the direct physical interaction between the protomers of presumed GPCR dimers. For the correct interpretation of these experiments, the expression of the energy donor Renilla luciferase labeled receptor has to be maintained constant, which is hard to achieve in expression systems. To analyze the effects of non-constant donor expression on qBRET curves, we performed Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the decrease of donor expression can lead to saturation qBRET curves even if the interaction between donor and acceptor labeled receptors is non-specific leading to false interpretation of the dimerization state. We suggest here a new approach to the analysis of qBRET data, when the BRET ratio is plotted as a function of the acceptor labeled receptor expression at various donor receptor expression levels. With this method, we were able to distinguish between dimerization and non-specific interaction when the results of classical qBRET experiments were ambiguous. The simulation results were confirmed experimentally using rapamycin inducible heterodimerization system. We used this new method to investigate the dimerization of various GPCRs, and our data have confirmed the homodimerization of V2 vasopressin and CaSR calcium sensing receptors, whereas our data argue against the heterodimerization of these receptors with other studied GPCRs, including type I and II angiotensin, ?2 adrenergic and CB1 cannabinoid receptors. PMID:25329164

  16. Quantitative measurements of optical absorption in CVD-grown ZnS with the phase-shift photothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luk'yanov, A. Yu.; Tyukaev, R. V.; Pogorelko, A. A.; Gavrishchuk, E. M.; Pereskokov, A. A.

    2003-01-01

    A technique of measuring weak bulk optical absorption at a wavelength of 10.6 ?m in polished plates made of CVD-grown polycrystalline ZnS was developed on the basis of the phase-shift photothermal method. The results obtained are in good agreement with the data on the absorption of the samples under investigation, calculated from calorimetric and transmittance measurements. The possibility of highly sensitive local quantitative measurements of the optical-absorption coefficient using the phase-shift photothermal method is demonstrated.

  17. Development of a quantitative diagnostic method of estrogen receptor expression levels by immunohistochemistry using organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Gonda, Kohsuke, E-mail: gonda@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Miyashita, Minoru [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Watanabe, Mika; Takahashi, Yayoi [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Pathology, Tohoku University Hospital, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Goda, Hideki; Okada, Hisatake; Nakano, Yasushi [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan)] [Optical and Biological R and D Center, Konica Minolta Technology Center, Inc., No. 1 Sakuramachi, Hino-shi, Tokyo 191-8511 (Japan); Tada, Hiroshi [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)] [Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); Amari, Masakazu [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)] [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Ohuchi, Noriaki [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan) [Department of Nano-Medical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Department of Surgical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic fluorescent material-assembled nanoparticles for IHC were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nanoparticle fluorescent intensity was 10.2-fold greater than Qdot655. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels in tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanoparticle staining enhanced the quantitative sensitivity for ER diagnosis. -- Abstract: The detection of estrogen receptors (ERs) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using 3,3 Prime -diaminobenzidine (DAB) is slightly weak as a prognostic marker, but it is essential to the application of endocrine therapy, such as antiestrogen tamoxifen-based therapy. IHC using DAB is a poor quantitative method because horseradish peroxidase (HRP) activity depends on reaction time, temperature and substrate concentration. However, IHC using fluorescent material provides an effective method to quantitatively use IHC because the signal intensity is proportional to the intensity of the photon excitation energy. However, the high level of autofluorescence has impeded the development of quantitative IHC using fluorescence. We developed organic fluorescent material (tetramethylrhodamine)-assembled nanoparticles for IHC. Tissue autofluorescence is comparable to the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots, which are the most representative fluorescent nanoparticles. The fluorescent intensity of our novel nanoparticles was 10.2-fold greater than quantum dots, and they did not bind non-specifically to breast cancer tissues due to the polyethylene glycol chain that coated their surfaces. Therefore, the fluorescent intensity of our nanoparticles significantly exceeded autofluorescence, which produced a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio on IHC-imaged cancer tissues than previous methods. Moreover, immunostaining data from our nanoparticle fluorescent IHC and IHC with DAB were compared in the same region of adjacent tissues sections to quantitatively examine the two methods. The results demonstrated that our nanoparticle staining analyzed a wide range of ER expression levels with higher accuracy and quantitative sensitivity than DAB staining. This enhancement in the diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for ERs using our immunostaining method will improve the prediction of responses to therapies that target ERs and progesterone receptors that are induced by a downstream ER signal.

  18. Multi-Window Classical Least Squares Multivariate Calibration Methods for Quantitative ICP-AES Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMBERS,WILLIAM B.; HAALAND,DAVID M.; KEENAN,MICHAEL R.; MELGAARD,DAVID K.

    1999-10-01

    The advent of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometers (ICP-AES) equipped with charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector arrays allows the application of multivariate calibration methods to the quantitative analysis of spectral data. We have applied classical least squares (CLS) methods to the analysis of a variety of samples containing up to 12 elements plus an internal standard. The elements included in the calibration models were Ag, Al, As, Au, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Pd, and Se. By performing the CLS analysis separately in each of 46 spectral windows and by pooling the CLS concentration results for each element in all windows in a statistically efficient manner, we have been able to significantly improve the accuracy and precision of the ICP-AES analyses relative to the univariate and single-window multivariate methods supplied with the spectrometer. This new multi-window CLS (MWCLS) approach simplifies the analyses by providing a single concentration determination for each element from all spectral windows. Thus, the analyst does not have to perform the tedious task of reviewing the results from each window in an attempt to decide the correct value among discrepant analyses in one or more windows for each element. Furthermore, it is not necessary to construct a spectral correction model for each window prior to calibration and analysis: When one or more interfering elements was present, the new MWCLS method was able to reduce prediction errors for a selected analyte by more than 2 orders of magnitude compared to the worst case single-window multivariate and univariate predictions. The MWCLS detection limits in the presence of multiple interferences are 15 rig/g (i.e., 15 ppb) or better for each element. In addition, errors with the new method are only slightly inflated when only a single target element is included in the calibration (i.e., knowledge of all other elements is excluded during calibration). The MWCLS method is found to be vastly superior to partial least squares (PLS) in this case of limited numbers of calibration samples.

  19. A new quantitative method for the non-invasive documentation of morphological damage in paintings using RTI surface normals.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Marcello; Bearman, Greg; Williamson, Greg; Kronkright, Dale; Doehne, Eric; Jacobs, Megan; Marengo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a reliable surface imaging method for the non-invasive detection of morphological changes in paintings. Usually, the evaluation and quantification of changes and defects results mostly from an optical and subjective assessment, through the comparison of the previous and subsequent state of conservation and by means of condition reports. Using quantitative Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) we obtain detailed information on the geometry and morphology of the painting surface with a fast, precise and non-invasive method. Accurate and quantitative measurements of deterioration were acquired after the painting experienced artificial damage. Morphological changes were documented using normal vector images while the intensity map succeeded in highlighting, quantifying and describing the physical changes. We estimate that the technique can detect a morphological damage slightly smaller than 0.3 mm, which would be difficult to detect with the eye, considering the painting size. This non-invasive tool could be very useful, for example, to examine paintings and artwork before they travel on loan or during a restoration. The method lends itself to automated analysis of large images and datasets. Quantitative RTI thus eases the transition of extending human vision into the realm of measuring change over time. PMID:25010699

  20. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesC? approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  1. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesC? approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  2. Evaluation of a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound-Immobilized Trypsin Digestion and 18O-Labeling Method for Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    López-Ferrer, Daniel; Hixson, Kim K.; Smallwood, Heather; Squier, Thomas C.; Petritis, Konstantinos; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    A new method that uses immobilized trypsin concomitant with ultrasonic irradiation results in ultra-rapid digestion and thorough 18O labeling for quantitative protein comparisons. The reproducible and highly efficient method provided effective digestions in <1 min with a minimized amount of enzyme required compared to traditional methods. This method was demonstrated for digestion of both simple and complex protein mixtures, including bovine serum albumin, a global proteome extract from the bacteria Shewanella oneidensis, and mouse plasma, as well as 18O labeling of such complex protein mixtures, which validated the application of this method for differential proteomic measurements. This approach is simple, reproducible, cost effective, rapid, and thus well-suited for automation. PMID:19555078

  3. Quantitative method of analyzing the interaction of slightly selective radioligands with multiple receptor subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    McGonigle, P.; Neve, K.A.; Molinoff, P.B.

    1986-10-01

    Subclasses of receptors exist for most neurotransmitters. Frequently, two subtypes of receptors coexist in the same tissue and, in some cases, they mediate the same physiological response. In tissues with two classes of binding sites for a given hormone, an estimate of the proportion of each class of binding sites is obtained by inhibiting the binding of a single concentration of a radioligand with a selective unlabeled ligand. Accurate estimates of the density of each class of receptors will only be obtained, however, if the radioligand is entirely nonselective. Selectivity of just 2- to 3-fold can markedly influence the results of subtype analysis. The conclusion that a radioligand is nonselective is usually based on the results of a saturation binding curve. If Scatchard analysis results in a linear plot, the radioligand is nonselective. Scatchard analysis cannot distinguish between a radioligand that is nonselective and one that is slightly selective. The use of a slightly selective radioligand can lead to errors of 50% or more, depending on the concentration of the radioligand relative to the Kd values of the two classes of sites. A new method has been developed that can be used to quantitate 2- to 3-fold differences in the affinity of two distinct classes of binding sites for a radioligand. This approach requires that a series of inhibition experiments with a selective unlabeled ligand be performed in the presence of increasing concentrations of the radioligand. Analysis of the resulting inhibition curves, utilizing the mathematical modeling program MLAB on the PROPHET system, yields accurate estimates of the density of each class of receptor as well as the affinity of each receptor for the labeled and unlabeled ligands. This approach was used to determine whether /sup 125/I-iodopindolol shows selectivity for beta 1- or beta 2-adrenergic receptors.

  4. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  5. Integrated multiplatform method for in vitro quantitative assessment of cellular uptake for fluorescent polymer nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Lupi, Monica; Falcetta, Francesca; Bigini, Paolo; Paolella, Katia; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Bisighini, Cinzia; Salmona, Mario; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Morbidelli, Massimo; Moscatelli, Davide; Ubezio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Studies of cellular internalization of nanoparticles (NPs) play a paramount role for the design of efficient drug delivery systems, but so far they lack a robust experimental technique able to quantify the NP uptake in terms of number of NPs internalized in each cell. In this work we propose a novel method which provides a quantitative evaluation of fluorescent NP uptake by combining flow cytometry and plate fluorimetry with measurements of number of cells. Single cell fluorescence signals measured by flow cytometry were associated with the number of internalized NPs, exploiting the observed linearity between average flow cytometric fluorescence and overall plate fluorimeter measures, and previous calibration of the microplate reader with serial dilutions of NPs. This precise calibration has been made possible by using biocompatible fluorescent NPs in the range of 20-300 nm with a narrow particle size distribution, functionalized with a covalently bonded dye, Rhodamine B, and synthesized via emulsion free-radical polymerization. We report the absolute number of NPs internalized in mouse mammary tumor cells (4T1) as a function of time for different NP dimensions and surface charges and at several exposure concentrations. The obtained results indicate that 4T1 cells incorporated 103-104 polymer NPs in a short time, reaching an intracellular concentration 15 times higher than the external one.

  6. Localization and quantitation of chloroplast enzymes and light-harvesting components using immunocytochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mustardy, L.; Cunningham, F.X Jr.; Gantt, E. (Univ. of Maryland, College Park (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Seven chloroplast proteins were localized in Porphyridium cruentum (ATCC 50161) by immunolabeling with colloidal gold on electron microscope sections of log phase cells grown under red, green, and white light. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase labeling occurred almost exclusively in the pyrenoid. The major apoproteins of photosystem I (56-64 kD) occurred mostly over the stromal thylakoid region and also appeared over the thylakoids passing through the pyrenoid. Labeling for photosystem II core components (D2 and a 45 kD Chl-binding protein), for phycobilisomes (allophycocyanin, and a 91 kD L{sub CM} linker) and for ATP synthase ({beta} subunit) were predominantly present in the thylakoid region but not in the pyrenoid region of the chloroplast. Red light cells had increased labeling per thylakoid length for polypeptides of photosystem II and of phycobilisomes, while photosystem I density decreased, compared to white light cells. Conversely, green light cells had a decreased density of photosystem II and phycobilisome polypeptides, while photosystem I density changed little compared with white light cells. A comparison of the immunogold labeling results with data from spectroscopic methods and from rocket immunoelectrophoresis indicates that it can provide a quantitative measure of the relative amounts of protein components as well as their localization in specific organeller compartments.

  7. Application of quantitative 1H-NMR method to determination of paeoniflorin in Paeoniae radix.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Yamazaki, Marina; Hasada, Keiko; Nagatsu, Akito

    2013-07-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure paeoniflorin content in Paeoniae radix (dried root of Paeonia lactiflora), of which paeoniflorin is a major component. The purity of paeoniflorin was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the H-9 signal at ? 5.78 ppm of paeoniflorin to that of a hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The concentration of HMD was corrected with SI traceability by using bisphenol A of certified reference material (CRM) grade. The paeoniflorin content in 2 separate samples of Paeoniae radix was determined by qHNMR and was found to be 2.15 and 2.45%. We demonstrated that this method is useful for quantitative analysis of crude drugs. PMID:23081682

  8. A New Approach for the Quantitative Evaluation of the Clock Drawing Test: Preliminary Results on Subjects with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Pandis, Maria Francesca; Galli, Manuela; Vimercati, Sara; Cimolin, Veronica; De Angelis, Maria Vittoria; Albertini, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Aims. The realization of an experimental set-up for the quantitative and objective description of drawing using optoelectronic systems, which could be used when a quantification of the realization of specific drawing tests is required. Methods. Healthy subjects, subjects with Parkinson's Disease and subjects with Parkinson's Disease and Dementia were evaluated by the Mini Mental Scale Evaluation and by a new approach to the Clock Drawing Test, based on an optoelectronic acquisition. The new protocol hereby described aims to define a parameter related to the movement kinematics in the Clock Drawing test execution. Results. The experimental set-up revealed to be valid introducing new objective measurements beside the subjective Clock Drawing Test. This paper suggests the applicability of this protocol to other fields of motor and cognitive valuation, as well as the introduction of new parameters related to the graphic movement. PMID:21152211

  9. VALIDATED RP HPLC METHOD FOR THE QUANTITATION OF LAMIVUDINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. JOSE GNANA BABU; G. VIJAYA KUMAR

    A simple, specific, accurate, precise and sensitive reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitation of Lamivudine in both pure and tablet dosage forms. A Phenomenex Gemini C- 18, 5 µm column having 250×4.6 mm i.d. in isocratic mode with mobile phase containing 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate: methanol (40:60) adjusted to pH 3.8 using

  10. Models and methods for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman spectra.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Nyagilo, James O; Dave, Digant P; Gao, Jean

    2014-03-01

    The quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman spectra using scattering nanoparticles has shown the potential and promising applications in in vivo molecular imaging. The diverse approaches have been used for quantitative analysis of Raman pectra information, which can be categorized as direct classical least squares models, full spectrum multivariate calibration models, selected multivariate calibration models, and latent variable regression (LVR) models. However, the working principle of these methods in the Raman spectra application remains poorly understood and a clear picture of the overall performance of each model is missing. Based on the characteristics of the Raman spectra, in this paper, we first provide the theoretical foundation of the aforementioned commonly used models and show why the LVR models are more suitable for quantitative analysis of the Raman spectra. Then, we demonstrate the fundamental connections and differences between different LVR methods, such as principal component regression, reduced-rank regression, partial least square regression (PLSR), canonical correlation regression, and robust canonical analysis, by comparing their objective functions and constraints.We further prove that PLSR is literally a blend of multivariate calibration and feature extraction model that relates concentrations of nanotags to spectrum intensity. These features (a.k.a. latent variables) satisfy two purposes: the best representation of the predictor matrix and correlation with the response matrix. These illustrations give a new understanding of the traditional PLSR and explain why PLSR exceeds other methods in quantitative analysis of the Raman spectra problem. In the end, all the methods are tested on the Raman spectra datasets with different evaluation criteria to evaluate their performance. PMID:24058035

  11. Sensitive method for quantitation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Cheng Meng; Eduardo Balcells; Louis Dell'Italia; Joan Durand; Suzanne Oparil

    1995-01-01

    A novel sensitive and specific method for the measurement of tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity utilizing HPLC is described. ACE activity was determined in detergent-extracted canine hearts utilizing the synthetic ACE-specific substrate hippuryl histidyl leucine (HHL), both in the presence and the absence of the site-specific inhibitor captopril. Tissue ACE activity was quantitated from the moles of hippuric acid (HA)

  12. A new semiautomatic method for quantitative static and dynamic bone histology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut H. Malluche; David Sherman; Wolfgang Meyer; Shaul G. Massry

    1982-01-01

    Summary  A new semiautomatic technique combining advantages of the manual and fully automatic methods is described for obtaining quantitative\\u000a static and dynamic histologic data of bone. The hardware consists of a photomicroscope, digitizing platen, digitizer, plotter\\/printer,\\u000a floppy disc drive, and computer. The microscope is equipped with a drawing tube through which the image of the digitizing\\u000a platen is projected over the

  13. Using quantitative and qualitative data in health services research – what happens when mixed method findings conflict? [ISRCTN61522618

    PubMed Central

    Moffatt, Suzanne; White, Martin; Mackintosh, Joan; Howel, Denise

    2006-01-01

    Background In this methodological paper we document the interpretation of a mixed methods study and outline an approach to dealing with apparent discrepancies between qualitative and quantitative research data in a pilot study evaluating whether welfare rights advice has an impact on health and social outcomes among a population aged 60 and over. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected contemporaneously. Quantitative data were collected from 126 men and women aged over 60 within a randomised controlled trial. Participants received a full welfare benefits assessment which successfully identified additional financial and non-financial resources for 60% of them. A range of demographic, health and social outcome measures were assessed at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 month follow up. Qualitative data were collected from a sub-sample of 25 participants purposively selected to take part in individual interviews to examine the perceived impact of welfare rights advice. Results Separate analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data revealed discrepant findings. The quantitative data showed little evidence of significant differences of a size that would be of practical or clinical interest, suggesting that the intervention had no impact on these outcome measures. The qualitative data suggested wide-ranging impacts, indicating that the intervention had a positive effect. Six ways of further exploring these data were considered: (i) treating the methods as fundamentally different; (ii) exploring the methodological rigour of each component; (iii) exploring dataset comparability; (iv) collecting further data and making further comparisons; (v) exploring the process of the intervention; and (vi) exploring whether the outcomes of the two components match. Conclusion The study demonstrates how using mixed methods can lead to different and sometimes conflicting accounts and, using this six step approach, how such discrepancies can be harnessed to interrogate each dataset more fully. Not only does this enhance the robustness of the study, it may lead to different conclusions from those that would have been drawn through relying on one method alone and demonstrates the value of collecting both types of data within a single study. More widespread use of mixed methods in trials of complex interventions is likely to enhance the overall quality of the evidence base. PMID:16524479

  14. Method for quantitative determination of spatial polymer distribution in alginate beads using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Matthias; Meinberg, Holger; Büchs, Jochen; Koss, Hans-Jürgen; Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B

    2005-03-01

    A new method based on Raman spectroscopy is presented for non-invasive, quantitative determination of the spatial polymer distribution in alginate beads of approximately 4 mm diameter. With the experimental setup, a two-dimensional image is created along a thin measuring line through the bead comprising one spatial and one spectral dimension. For quantitative analysis of the Raman spectra, the method of indirect hard modeling was applied to make use of the information contained in the entire recorded spectra. For quantification of the alginate signals from within the beads, a calibration curve acquired from sodium alginate solutions was used after it was shown that only negligible differences occur between signals from alginate solutions and alginate gels. The distribution of alginate over the bead gel matrix was acquired with high spatial (51 microm) and time (12 s) resolution. The inhomogeneous distribution obtained using the new measuring technique is qualitatively in excellent agreement with data from the literature. In contrast to known measuring techniques, correct quantitative information about the spatial polymer distribution within the matrix was derived. It gave an alginate mass fraction of approximately 0.045 g/g at the edges and 0.02 g/g in the center of the beads. Next to the determination of mere polymer concentrations, the excellent time resolution of the presented method will enable investigation of the dynamic process of gel formation and it will also serve as a basis for investigation of mass transfer of small diffusing molecules in alginate matrices. PMID:15901307

  15. Improved methods for capture, extraction, and quantitative assay of environmental DNA from Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.).

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Miller, Derryl J; Coyne, Kathryn J; Corush, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Indirect, non-invasive detection of rare aquatic macrofauna using aqueous environmental DNA (eDNA) is a relatively new approach to population and biodiversity monitoring. As such, the sensitivity of monitoring results to different methods of eDNA capture, extraction, and detection is being investigated in many ecosystems and species. One of the first and largest conservation programs with eDNA-based monitoring as a central instrument focuses on Asian bigheaded carp (Hypophthalmichthys spp.), an invasive fish spreading toward the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, the standard eDNA methods of this program have not advanced since their development in 2010. We developed new, quantitative, and more cost-effective methods and tested them against the standard protocols. In laboratory testing, our new quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for bigheaded carp eDNA was one to two orders of magnitude more sensitive than the existing endpoint PCR assays. When applied to eDNA samples from an experimental pond containing bigheaded carp, the qPCR assay produced a detection probability of 94.8% compared to 4.2% for the endpoint PCR assays. Also, the eDNA capture and extraction method we adapted from aquatic microbiology yielded five times more bigheaded carp eDNA from the experimental pond than the standard method, at a per sample cost over forty times lower. Our new, more sensitive assay provides a quantitative tool for eDNA-based monitoring of bigheaded carp, and the higher-yielding eDNA capture and extraction method we describe can be used for eDNA-based monitoring of any aquatic species. PMID:25474207

  16. MODIS Radiometric Calibration Program, Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Guenther, Bruce; Angal, Amit; Barnes, William; Salomonson, Vincent; Sun, Junqiang; Wenny, Brian

    2012-01-01

    As a key instrument for NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has made significant contributions to the remote sensing community with its unprecedented amount of data products continuously generated from its observations and freely distributed to users worldwide. MODIS observations, covering spectral regions from visible (VIS) to long-wave infrared (LWIR), have enabled a broad range of research activities and applications for studies of the earth s interactive system of land, oceans, and atmosphere. In addition to extensive pre-launch measurements, developed to characterize sensor performance, MODIS carries a set of on-board calibrators (OBC) that can be used to track on-orbit changes of various sensor characteristics. Most importantly, dedicated and continuous calibration efforts have been made to maintain sensor data quality. This paper provides an overview of the MODIS calibration program, on-orbit calibration activities, methods, and performance. Key calibration results and lessons learned from the MODIS calibration effort are also presented in this paper.

  17. Evaluation of the 3D visualization of quantitative stereoelectroencephalographic information. New results.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evaluation of the 3D visualization of quantitative stereoelectroencephalographic information. New of the values. Our study is devoted to the evaluation of the quantitative visualization of these signals of the signals. This work describes an experiment conducted with human observers in order to evaluate three

  18. Methods for Peptide and Protein Quantitation by Liquid Chromatography-Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haixia; Liu, Qinfeng; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Ham, Amy-Joan L.; Slebos, Robbert J. C.; Rahman, Jamshedur; Kikuchi, Takefume; Massion, Pierre P.; Carbone, David P.; Billheimer, Dean; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry of peptides using stable isotope dilution (SID) provides a powerful tool for targeted protein quantitation. However, the high cost of labeled peptide standards for SID poses an obstacle to multiple reaction monitoring studies. We compared SID to a labeled reference peptide (LRP) method, which uses a single labeled peptide as a reference standard for all measured peptides, and a label-free (LF) approach, in which quantitation is based on analysis of un-normalized peak areas for detected MRM transitions. We analyzed peptides from the Escherichia coli proteins alkaline phosphatase and ?-galactosidase spiked into lysates from human colon adenocarcinoma RKO cells. We also analyzed liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry data from a recently published interlaboratory study by the National Cancer Institute Clinical Proteomic Technology Assessment for Cancer network (Addona et al. (2009) Nat. Biotechnol. 27: 633–641), in which unlabeled and isotopically labeled synthetic peptides or their corresponding proteins were spiked into human plasma. SID displayed the highest correlation coefficients and lowest coefficient of variation in regression analyses of both peptide and protein spike studies. In protein spike experiments, median coefficient of variation values were about 10% for SID and 20–30% for LRP and LF methods. Power calculations indicated that differences in measurement error between the methods have much less impact on measured protein expression differences than biological variation. All three methods detected significant (p < 0.05) differential expression of three endogenous proteins in a test set of 10 pairs of human lung tumor and control tissues. Further, the LRP and LF methods both detected significant differences (p < 0.05) in levels of seven biomarker candidates between tumors and controls in the same set of lung tissue samples. The data indicate that the LRP and LF methods provide cost-effective alternatives to SID for many quantitative liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry applications. PMID:21357624

  19. Quantitative methods for detecting aligned points: An application to the volcanic vents of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadge, G.; Cross, A.

    1988-09-01

    Sets of geologic features that can be treated as points on maps may be underlain by, and owe their position to, hidden linear crustal fractures. We present two complementary quantitative methods for determining the azimuthal directions of such aligned points applied to a field of cinder cones in southwestern Mexico, the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field. The two-point azimuth method is probabilistic and corrects for the bias of the areal shape of the field before testing for overall structural anisotropy at a regional scale. The Hough transform method searches the field locally and simulates the human visual capability of joining aligned and nearly aligned points. Our results for the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field show that although the shape of the field is elongated northeasterly, the regional structural anisotropy is northwesterly. Locally, easterly trending alignments of volcanic vents are the most common alignments detected by the Hough transform method.

  20. A Spectrophotometric Method for Quantitative Determination of Bromine Using Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Joan; Story, Troy; Han, Grace

    1999-07-01

    A simple spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of bromine is described. The sample containing bromine is first incubated with an excess of tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP). One molecule of TCEP is rapidly and irreversibly oxidized to TCEPO (TCEP oxide) by one molecule of bromine. The concentration of residual TCEP is then measured as 2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate produced by reaction with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). This method has a lower detection limit and is more convenient than the standard procedure of bromine assay by reaction with potassium iodide followed by titration of the liberated iodine with thiosulfate.

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of the Total Magnetic Moments of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Kinetics-based Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyi; Sun, Jianfei; Wang, Haoyao; Wang, Peng; Song, Lina; Li, Yang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-06-01

    A kinetics-based method is proposed to quantitatively characterize the collective magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles. The method is based on the relationship between the magnetic force on a colloidal droplet and the movement of the droplet under a gradient magnetic field. Through computational analysis of the kinetic parameters, such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration, the magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles can be calculated. In our experiments, the values measured by using our method exhibited a better linear correlation with magnetothermal heating, than those obtained by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and magnetic balance. This finding indicates that this method may be more suitable to evaluate the collective magnetism of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles under low magnetic fields than the commonly used methods. Accurate evaluation of the magnetic properties of colloidal nanoparticles is of great importance for the standardization of magnetic nanomaterials and for their practical application in biomedicine. PMID:25943076

  2. Investigation of a dual modal method for bone pathologies using quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Idan; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disease that has a catastrophic impact on patient's lives and overwhelming related healthcare costs. In recent works, we have developed a multi-spectral, frequency domain photoacoustic method for the evaluation of bone pathologies. This method has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it provides both molecular information from the bone absorption spectrum and bone mechanical status from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. These characteristics include both the Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasonic Attenuation (BUA). To test the method's quantitative predictions, we have constructed a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic setup. Here, we experimentally present a dual modality system, and compares between the methods on bone samples in-vitro. The differences between the two modalities are shown to provide valuable insight into the bone structure and functional status.

  3. New sensitive and quantitative analysis method for organic nitrogen compounds in urban aerosol samples.

    PubMed

    Özel, Mustafa Z; Hamilton, Jacqueline F; Lewis, Alastair C

    2011-02-15

    Atmospheric aerosols contain a highly complex mixture of organic and inorganic compounds; however, as a chemical class relatively little is known about organic nitrogen (ON) content, with few satisfactory methods for speciated analysis. In this paper we report a sensitive and quantitative method for the speciation of ON within ambient atmospheric aerosol. Aerosol samples, collected on quartz microfiber filters, were extracted in water followed by solid phase extraction, elution, and concentration before analysis by comprehensive gas chromatography with a nitrogen chemiluminescence detection system (GCxGC-NCD). The NCD detection method was optimized using liquid standards. The GCxGC-NCD method showed high selectivity, sensitivity, and equimolarity in its response to individual organic compounds. Limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) for four ON standards (1-nitropentane, o-toluidine, nonanenitrile, and quinoline) were determined to be in the range 0.16-0.27 pgN and 0.71-1.19 pgN, respectively. Between 21 and 57 different ON compounds were found in urban aerosol, (including 10 nitriles, 9 alkyl nitro compounds, 4 nitro-phenols, 4 amides, 3 nitrosamines, and 2 nitro-PAHs) on different dates from a city center location. Pyrrole (8.26-39.21 ngN m(-3) air) and N-butyl-benzenesulfonamide (6.23-20.87 ngN m(-3) air) were the most abundant ON compounds observed in all samples analyzed. The average mass loading of the total identified ON was 532.51 ngON m(-3) air. The sensitivity, selectivity, and relative ease of quantitation of unknown ON components makes the technique a significant improvement over previous laboratory methods. PMID:21210660

  4. Reported prevalence and quantitative LC-MS methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey: a review.

    PubMed

    Venable, Ryan; Haynes, Carion; Cook, Jo Marie

    2014-04-01

    Insect pollination increases the value and productivity of three-quarters of crop species grown for food. Declining beehive health in commercial apiaries has resulted in numerous reports from government laboratories worldwide of contamination with antimicrobial chemicals in honey. This review includes pertinent discussion of legislation and events leading to increased government oversight in the commercial honey market. A detailed summary of the variety and prevalence of veterinary drug residues being found in honey as well as a selection of robust quantitative and confirmatory LC-MS methods with an emphasis on those adopted by government testing laboratories are presented. PMID:24460830

  5. Electrochemical investigation of DNA-modified surfaces: From quantitation methods to experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bixia Ge; Yu-Chuan Huang; Dipankar Sen; Hua-Zhong Yu

    2007-01-01

    We have thoroughly compared cyclic voltammetry and chronocoulometry, the two commonly used electrochemical techniques in quantitative determination of DNA surface density on gold electrodes. The electrostatic binding of redox cations, such as [Ru(NH3)6]3+, to the anionic DNA phosphate backbone allows the determination of the number of phosphate residues and thereby the surface density of the oligonucleotide strands. The results obtained

  6. A Comparison of Multivariate and Pre-Processing Methods for Quantitative Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Geologic Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. B.; Morris, R. V.; Clegg, S. M.; Bell, J. F., III; Humphries, S. D.; Wiens, R. C.

    2011-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument selected for the Curiosity rover is capable of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).[1] We used a remote LIBS instrument similar to ChemCam to analyze 197 geologic slab samples and 32 pressed-powder geostandards. The slab samples are well-characterized and have been used to validate the calibration of previous instruments on Mars missions, including CRISM [2], OMEGA [3], the MER Pancam [4], Mini-TES [5], and Moessbauer [6] instruments and the Phoenix SSI [7]. The resulting dataset was used to compare multivariate methods for quantitative LIBS and to determine the effect of grain size on calculations. Three multivariate methods - partial least squares (PLS), multilayer perceptron artificial neural networks (MLP ANNs) and cascade correlation (CC) ANNs - were used to generate models and extract the quantitative composition of unknown samples. PLS can be used to predict one element (PLS1) or multiple elements (PLS2) at a time, as can the neural network methods. Although MLP and CC ANNs were successful in some cases, PLS generally produced the most accurate and precise results.

  7. Establishment and evaluation of event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean DP356043-5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Tao Xu; Nan Zhang; Yun Bo Luo; Zhi Fang Zhai; Ying Shang; Xing Hua Yan; Juan Juan Zheng; Kun Lun Huang

    With the increasing development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), labeling regulations have been introduced, which\\u000a require appropriate detection methods. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been the mainstay for GMO detection,\\u000a especially for event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods, which have become the internationally agreed\\u000a state-of-art. This paper describes the character and event-specific quantitative detection method of DP-356043-5

  8. Development and Application of Quantitative Detection Method for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Genogroup IVa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Si-Woo; Han, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa). The slope and R2 values of the primer set developed in this study were ?0.2928 (96% efficiency) and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID50) showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID50, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis. PMID:24859343

  9. Development and application of quantitative detection method for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Wi-Sik; Kim, Si-Woo; Han, Hyun-Ja; Kim, Jin Woo; Park, Myoung Ae; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a problematic pathogen in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) aquaculture farms in Korea. Thus, it is necessary to develop a rapid and accurate diagnostic method to detect this virus. We developed a quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) method based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene sequence of Korean VHSV isolate (Genogroup IVa). The slope and R² values of the primer set developed in this study were -0.2928 (96% efficiency) and 0.9979, respectively. Its comparison with viral infectivity calculated by traditional quantifying method (TCID??) showed a similar pattern of kinetic changes in vitro and in vivo. The qRT-PCR method reduced detection time compared to that of TCID??, making it a very useful tool for VHSV diagnosis. PMID:24859343

  10. Calibration, quality control, and stability of a quantitative enzyme immunochromatographic method for therapeutic drug monitoring.

    PubMed

    Opheim, K E; Statland, B E; Tillson, S A; Litman, D J

    1987-06-01

    We describe a noninstrumented quantitative method for therapeutic drug monitoring (AccuLevel test) that uses a factory-calibrated unit test format and a novel single-level approach to quality control. The AccuLevel method is based on the principles of immunochromatography, which provides a number of convenient protocol advantages without sacrificing assay performance or quality assurance. Most of the benefits of the immunochromatographic method derive by virtue of the fact that quantification is dependent on enzyme migration rather than enzyme activity. Since migration height is almost solely a function of a highly stable, immobilized, dry antibody reagent, the AccuLevel test is extremely insensitive to environmental factors. The predictable and uniform dependence of quantification on antibody site concentration allows complete reliability with a single-level control. These features of stability, factory calibration, and unitized test components make the AccuLevel immunochromatography method amenable to new quality control schemes. PMID:3303468

  11. "Do I Need Research Skills in Working Life?": University Students' Motivation and Difficulties in Quantitative Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtonen, Mari; Olkinuora, Erkki; Tynjala, Paivi; Lehtinen, Erno

    2008-01-01

    This study explored university students' views of whether they will need research skills in their future work in relation to their approaches to learning, situational orientations on a learning situation of quantitative methods, and difficulties experienced in quantitative research courses. Education and psychology students in both Finland (N =…

  12. Methods for quantitative usability requirements: a case study on the development of the user interface of a mobile phone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Jokela; Jussi Koivumaa; Jani Pirkola; Petri Salminen; Niina Kantola

    2006-01-01

    Quantitative usability requirements are a critical but challenging, and hence an often neglected aspect of a usability engineering process. A case study is described where quantitative usability requirements played a key role in the development of a new user interface of a mobile phone. Within the practical constraints of the project, existing methods for determining usability requirements and evaluating the

  13. COMPORTEMENT ALIMENTAIRE FEEDING BEHAVIOUR methode/quantit ingre/mastication method/feed intakelmastication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    animal, daily after dosing and intake was measured. The n-alkanes in herbage, faeces and pellet wereCOMPORTEMENT ALIMENTAIRE FEEDING BEHAVIOUR methode/quantité ingérée/mastication method/feed.00 with a pellet containing 120 mg C32. In the second week, for 7 d, a rectal fa3ces sample was collected from each

  14. Field Results of an In-Place, Quantitative Performance Test for Laboratory Fume Hoods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis J. Diberardinis; Melvin W. First; Raymond E. Ivany

    1991-01-01

    A new method for testing fume hood performance was developed and previously reported. It involves measurement of tracer chemical concentrations outside a hood that result from a steady release of sulfur hexafluoride tracer chemical inside the hood. The tracer chemical is released through a hollow rectangular diffuser that encloses the entire work area. Field surveys on 50 laboratory fume hoods

  15. Quantitative somatosensory thermotest. A key method for functional evaluation of small calibre afferent channels.

    PubMed

    Verdugo, R; Ochoa, J L

    1992-06-01

    The quantitative somatosensory thermotest (QST) assesses the function of afferent channels concerned with sensory submodalities served by small calibre fibres. Measured ramps of ascending or descending temperature are applied to the skin through a Peltier contact thermode, and detection thresholds are recorded as the subject signals the onset of a particular sensation. The present study describes underlying principles, methodological aspects and normal reference values for the QST. In patients, measurement of thresholds for cold sensation, warm sensation, cold-induced pain and heat-induced pain, applied to 465 individuals, yielded 13 abnormal patterns segregated into three main groups: (i) thermal (cold or warm) hypoaesthesia; (ii) thermal hyperalgesia (abnormally reduced threshold for cold and/or heat induced pain); (iii) thermal hypoaesthesia combined with thermal hyperalgesia. Critical analysis of these results yielded a number of observations of general relevance: (i) thermal specific (warm or cold) hypoaesthesia and thermal (heat or cold) hyperalgesia may occur in the absence of hypoaesthesia for tactile submodalities served by large calibre afferents; (ii) cold hypoaesthesia and warm hypoaesthesia may dissociate from each other; (iii) thermal pain hyperalgesias may occur in the absence of hypoaesthesias for specific cold or warm sensations; (iv) cold hyperalgesia and heat hyperalgesia may dissociate from each other. Thus, a negative routine sensory examination and unimpaired sensory nerve action potentials do not exclude possible somatosensory dysfunction. Furthermore, while most methods of sensory testing only document normality or deficit, the QST permits additional documentation of hyperalgesia, a positive sensory phenomenon that implies unusual pathophysiologies such as sensitization of receptors, central hyperexcitability, disinhibition or, possibly, ectopic nerve impulse discharge. This psychophysical test does not specify the level within afferent channels, between skin and brainmind, where the abnormality resides. It is recommended that the QST for all four thermal specific and thermal pain functions be incorporated in routine neurological assessment. PMID:1628207

  16. American Historical Archeology: Methods and Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Deetz

    1988-01-01

    For historical archeology to be effective, research methods must be employed that ensure that both archeological and historical data be synthesized in a constructive manner. An example from Flowerdew Hundred, a Virginia plantation, illustrates such an approach. Collections from eighteen sites (1619 to 1720) were studied and dated by the inside bore diameters of pipestem fragments from clay smoking pipes.

  17. QDMR: a quantitative method for identification of differentially methylated regions by entropy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Hongbo; Lv, Jie; Xiao, Xue; Zhu, Jiang; Liu, Xiaojuan; Su, Jianzhong; Li, Xia; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Fang; Cui, Ying

    2011-05-01

    DNA methylation plays critical roles in transcriptional regulation and chromatin remodeling. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have important implications for development, aging and diseases. Therefore, genome-wide mapping of DMRs across various temporal and spatial methylomes is important in revealing the impact of epigenetic modifications on heritable phenotypic variation. We present a quantitative approach, quantitative differentially methylated regions (QDMRs), to quantify methylation difference and identify DMRs from genome-wide methylation profiles by adapting Shannon entropy. QDMR was applied to synthetic methylation patterns and methylation profiles detected by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation microarray (MeDIP-chip) in human tissues/cells. This approach can give a reasonable quantitative measure of methylation difference across multiple samples. Then DMR threshold was determined from methylation probability model. Using this threshold, QDMR identified 10,651 tissue DMRs which are related to the genes enriched for cell differentiation, including 4740 DMRs not identified by the method developed by Rakyan et al. QDMR can also measure the sample specificity of each DMR. Finally, the application to methylation profiles detected by reduced representation bisulphite sequencing (RRBS) in mouse showed the platform-free and species-free nature of QDMR. This approach provides an effective tool for the high-throughput identification of potential functional regions involved in epigenetic regulation. PMID:21306990

  18. Apparatus and method for quantitative assay of generic transuranic wastes from nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Kunz, W.E.; Atencio, J.D.

    1982-03-31

    A combination of passive and active neutron measurements which yields quantitative information about the isotopic composition of transuranic wastes from nuclear power or weapons material manufacture reactors is described. From the measurement of prompt and delayed neutron emission and the incidence of two coincidentally emitted neutrons from induced fission of fissile material in the sample, one can quantify /sup 233/U, /sup 235/U and /sup 239/Pu isotopes in waste samples. Passive coincidence counting, including neutron multiplicity measurement and determination of the overall passive neutron flux additionally enables the separate quantitative evaluation of spontaneous fission isotopes such as /sup 240/Pu, /sup 244/Cm and /sup 252/Cf, and the spontaneous alpha particle emitter /sup 241/Am. These seven isotopes are the most important constituents of wastes from nuclear power reactors and once the mass of each isotope present is determined by the apparatus and method of the instant invention, the overall alpha particle activity can be determined to better than 1 nCi/g from known radioactivity data. Therefore, in addition to the quantitative analysis of the waste sample useful for later reclamation purposes, the alpha particle activity can be determined to decide whether permanent low-level burial is appropriate for the waste sample.

  19. Real-time quantitative optical method to study temperature dependence of crack propagation process in colloidal photonic crystal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dong-Feng; Xu, Yu-Zhuan; Shi, Jiang-Jian; Zhang, Yu; Luo, Yan-Hong; Li, Dong-Mei; Meng, Qing-Bo

    2015-07-01

    A real-time quantitative optical method to characterize crack propagation in colloidal photonic crystal film (CPCF) is developed based on particle deformation models and previous real-time crack observations. The crack propagation process and temperature dependence of the crack propagation rate in CPCF are investigated. By this method, the crack propagation rate is found to slow down gradually to zero when cracks become more numerous and dense. Meanwhile, with the temperature increasing, the crack propagation rate constant decreases. The negative temperature dependence of the crack propagation rate is due to the increase of van der Waals attraction, which finally results in the decrease of resultant force. The findings provide new insight into the crack propagation process in CPCF. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2012CB932903 and 2012CB932904) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51372270, 11474333, and 21173260).

  20. HPLC method for the quantitative determination of sarcophine, a source of cembranoids with cancer chemopreventive activity.

    PubMed

    Bilasy, Shymaa El-Shawadfy; Khalifa, Sherief I; Saleh, Samy M; Abou El-Ela, Soad H

    2008-03-13

    An accurate, reproducible and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of sarcophine in the organic extract of the Red Sea soft coral Sarcophyton species was developed and validated. Sarcophine concentration was determined by RP HPLC using ODS column. The mobile phase was made up of 70% acetonitrile in deionized water and the pH was adjusted to 3.5 with phosphoric acid. The flow rate was 1.5ml/min and the detector was set to 220nm. The HPLC analysis of several Sarcophyton glaucum samples collected from different locations in the Red Sea revealed that Hurghada had the highest sarcophine concentration. PMID:18178355

  1. Apparatus and method for quantitative determination of materials contained in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Radziemski, Leon J. (Los Alamos, NM); Cremers, David A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and method for near real-time in-situ monitoring of particulates and vapors contained in fluids. Initial filtration of a known volume of the fluid sample is combined with laser-induced dielectric breakdown spectroscopy of the filter employed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information with high sensitivity. Application of the invention to monitoring of beryllium, beryllium oxide, or other beryllium-alloy dusts is demonstrated. Significant shortening of analysis time is achieved from those of the usual chemical techniques of analysis.

  2. An evaluation of four quantitative laboratory fume hood performance test methods

    E-print Network

    Woodrow, Lisa Michele

    1987-01-01

    AN EVAIIKTION OF HX3R QUAI~IVE BQKSRMRY HJME HOOD PERIORMANCE TEST MEIBDDS A Thesis Submitted to the Gradate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of AUgUst 1987 Major Subject: Industrial... Hygiene AN EVALUATION OF FOUR QUANTITATIVE IABORATORY FUME HOOD PERFORMANCE TEST METHODS A Thesis Approved as to style and content by: Ri B. (Chair of Ccamrdttee) J. 4u s (~) J. er Calvin B. Parnell (~) . Kemb Bennett (Head of Department) August...

  3. Apparatus and method for quantitative determination of materials contained in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-09-07

    Apparatus and method for near real-time in-situ monitoring of particulates and vapors contained in fluids are described. Initial filtration of a known volume of the fluid sample is combined with laser-induced dielectric breakdown spectroscopy of the filter employed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information with high sensitivity. Application of the invention to monitoring of beryllium, beryllium oxide, or other beryllium-alloy dusts is shown. Significant shortening of analysis time is achieved from the usual chemical techniques of analysis.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization and quantitative determination of atorvastatin calcium impurities by novel HPLC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Seven process related impurities were identified by LC-MS in the atorvastatin calcium drug substance. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. The structure of impurities was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR and IR and physicochemical studies conducted by using synthesized authentic reference compounds. The synthesized reference samples of the impurity compounds were used for the quantitative HPLC determination. These impurities were detected by newly developed gradient, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The system suitability of HPLC analysis established the validity of the separation. The analytical method was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability of analytical solutions to demonstrate the power of newly developed HPLC method.

  5. A quantitative autoradiographic method for the measurement of local rates of brain protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.E.; Donatoni, P.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1982-05-01

    We have developed a new method for measuring local rates of brain protein synthesis in vivo. It combines the intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of low specific activity amino acid with quantitative autoradiography. This method has several advantages: 1) It is ideally suited for young or small animals or where immobilizing an animal is undesirable. 2 The amino acid injection ''floods'' amino acid pools so that errors in estimating precursor specific activity, which is especially important in pathological conditions, are minimized. 3) The method provides for the use of a radioautographic internal standard in which valine incorporation is measured directly. Internal standards from experimental animals correct for tissue protein content and self-absorption of radiation in tissue sections which could vary under experimental conditions.

  6. Sample preparation methods for quantitative detection of DNA by molecular assays and marine biosensors.

    PubMed

    Cox, Annie M; Goodwin, Kelly D

    2013-08-15

    The need for quantitative molecular methods is growing in environmental, food, and medical fields but is hindered by low and variable DNA extraction and by co-extraction of PCR inhibitors. DNA extracts from Enterococcus faecium, seawater, and seawater spiked with E. faecium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were tested by qPCR for target recovery and inhibition. Conventional and novel methods were tested, including Synchronous Coefficient of Drag Alteration (SCODA) and lysis and purification systems used on an automated genetic sensor (the Environmental Sample Processor, ESP). Variable qPCR target recovery and inhibition were measured, significantly affecting target quantification. An aggressive lysis method that utilized chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical disruption enhanced target recovery compared to commercial kit protocols. SCODA purification did not show marked improvement over commercial spin columns. Overall, data suggested a general need to improve sample preparation and to accurately assess and account for DNA recovery and inhibition in qPCR applications. PMID:23790450

  7. Protocol for quantitative analysis of paired helical filament solubilization: a method applicable to insoluble amyloids and inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Nagaraj, R H; Perry, G

    1997-08-01

    Biochemical studies of amyloidoses have been plagued by the sparing solubility of most amyloids in denaturant solvents. Consequently often only a subclass of amyloid protein is analyzed, a fact that is omitted in most studies. This means that there is often no evaluation of the chemical basis for amyloid insolubility, a factor that may provide valuable information concerning amyloid pathogenesis. We have devised a protocol to quantitatively evaluate the solubilization of insoluble amyloid proteins. Specifically, we use protein extraction and reduction in the volume of insoluble material as quantitative assays to establish solvents that dissolve all protein. Here we describe the application of this protocol to quantitatively establish complete solubilization of the paired helical filaments (PHFs) from Alzheimer disease. PHFs are distinct from the other amyloid that defines Alzheimer disease (AD), i.e., extracellular amyloid-beta deposits of senile plaques, nonetheless, PHFs share all the properties of, and are defined as, an amyloid, i.e., binding Congo red; beta-pleated sheet conformation and, most significantly, sparing solubility. PHFs of neurofibrillary tangles are the most striking intraneuronal change seen within the brains of patients with AD. Despite intense efforts to understand the molecular composition of this amyloid, quantitative biochemical analyses have been severely hampered by the extreme insolubility of PHF and by difficulties obtaining a homogeneous PHF fraction. Therefore, to date, all of the published studies on the biochemical composition of insoluble PHFs (SDS-insoluble) are qualitative and have provided little or no quantitative data on the proportion of material assayed. Using the solubilization protocol described herein, we found that only high pH was effective in solubilizing PHF while a variety of denaturants and chaotropes resulted in only partial release of component protein. Significantly, the approach is analytical because it allows direct assessment of the significance of two posttranslational modifications in mediating PHF insolubility, i.e., phosphorylation and glycation. Further this protocol provides solubilized protein that can be readily characterized. For example, coupling the method to immunoblotting, ELISA, microsequencing or other analytical techniques would identify components as well as provide a quantitative measure. PMID:9385061

  8. A quantitative method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hazenberg, B.; Limburg, P.; Bijzet, J.; van Rijswijk, M. H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe a new, quantitative, and reproducible method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue and to compare it with smears stained with Congo red.?METHODS—After extraction of at least 30 mg of abdominal fat tissue in guanidine, the amyloid A protein concentration was measured by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.?RESULTS—The concentrations in 24 patients with arthritis and AA amyloidosis (median 236, range 1.1-8530 ng/mg tissue) were higher (p<0.001) than in non-arthritic controls, uncomplicated rheumatoid arthritis, and other types of systemic amyloidosis (median 1.1, range 1.1-11.6 ng/mg tissue). Patients with extensive deposits, according to Congo red staining, had higher concentrations than patients with minute deposits.?CONCLUSION—This is a new, quantitative, and reproducible method for detecting deposits of amyloid A protein in aspirated fat tissue of patients with arthritis, even when minute deposits are present as detected in smears stained with Congo red.?? Keywords: amyloid A protein; fat tissue; arthritis PMID:10343524

  9. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi-component and the quality control of TCMs and TCM prescriptions. PMID:25618711

  10. Development and validation of a LC-MS method for quantitation of ergot alkaloids in lateral saphenous vein tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of seven ergot alkaloids (lysergic acid, ergonovine, ergovaline, ergocornine, ergotamine, ergocryptine and ergocrystine) in vascular tissue was developed and validated. Reverse-phase chromatography, coupled to an...

  11. Research note: The quantitative results of a questionnaire on state terrorism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Alan Sproat

    1996-01-01

    This article attempts to explain the reasoning behind, and quantitative answers to, a questionnaire on the topic of terrorism by those in power. The questionnaire was sent out to 247 academics between the period November 1993 and May 1995, with those who did not initially reply to the first being sent a second. All of the recipients of the questionnaire

  12. The Use of Multiple Markers in a Bayesian Method for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Uimari, P.; Thaller, G.; Hoeschele, I.

    1996-01-01

    Information on multiple linked genetic markers was used in a Bayesian method for the statistical mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Bayesian parameter estimation and hypothesis testing were implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. Variables sampled were the augmented data (marker-QTL genotypes, polygenic effects), an indicator variable for linkage or nonlinkage, and the parameters. The parameter vector included allele frequencies at the markers and the QTL, map distances of the markers and the QTL, QTL substitution effect, and polygenic and residual variances. The criterion for QTL detection was the marginal posterior probability of a QTL being located on the chromosome carrying the markers. The method was evaluated empirically by analyzing simulated granddaughter designs consisting of 2000 sons, 20 related sires, and their ancestors. PMID:8844168

  13. Rapid rp HPLC method for quantitative determination of lornoxicam in tablets.

    PubMed

    Attimarad, Mahesh

    2010-03-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a simple, rapid, specific and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of lornoxicam in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations. Chromatographic separation of the drug was performed on a eclipse C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) as stationary phase and mobile phase used is methanol: 0.1% formic acid in water (80:20 v/v), with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) and UV detection at 381 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the ranges of 0.5-20 ?g/ml. It can be conveniently adopted for routine quality control analysis of lornoxicam. PMID:24825976

  14. RAPID RP HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF LORNOXICAM IN TABLETS

    PubMed Central

    Attimarad, Mahesh

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a simple, rapid, specific and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of lornoxicam in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations. Chromatographic separation of the drug was performed on a eclipse C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) as stationary phase and mobile phase used is methanol: 0.1% formic acid in water (80:20 v/v), with a flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1 and UV detection at 381 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the ranges of 0.5-20 ?g/ml. It can be conveniently adopted for routine quality control analysis of lornoxicam. PMID:24825976

  15. Method for collecting and immobilizing individual cumulus cells enabling quantitative immunofluorescence analysis of proteins.

    PubMed

    Appeltant, R; Maes, D; Van Soom, A

    2015-07-01

    Most immunofluorescence methods rely on techniques dealing with a very large number of cells. However, when the number of cells in a sample is low (e.g., when cumulus cells must be analyzed from individual cumulus-oocyte complexes), specific techniques are required to conserve, fix, and analyze cells individually. We established and validated a simple and effective method for collecting and immobilizing low numbers of cumulus cells that enables easy and quick quantitative immunofluorescence analysis of proteins from individual cells. To illustrate this technique, we stained proprotein of a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin-like repeats-1 (proADAMTS-1) and analyzed its levels in individual porcine cumulus cells. PMID:25862082

  16. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. Methods for a quantitative evaluation of odd-even staggering effects

    E-print Network

    Olmi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Odd-even effects, also known as "staggering" effects, are a common feature observed in the yield distributions of fragments produced in different types of nuclear reactions. We review old methods, and we propose new ones, for a quantitative estimation of these effects as a function of proton or neutron number of the reaction products. All methods are compared on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that some are not well suited for the task, the most reliable ones being those based either on a non-linear fit with a properly oscillating function or on a third (or fourth) finite difference approach. In any case, high statistic is of paramount importance to avoid that spurious structures appear just because of statistical fluctuations in the data and of strong correlations among the yields of neighboring fragments.

  18. Methods for a quantitative evaluation of odd-even staggering effects

    E-print Network

    Alessandro Olmi; Silvia Piantelli

    2015-06-08

    Odd-even effects, also known as "staggering" effects, are a common feature observed in the yield distributions of fragments produced in different types of nuclear reactions. We review old methods, and we propose new ones, for a quantitative estimation of these effects as a function of proton or neutron number of the reaction products. All methods are compared on the basis of Monte Carlo simulations. We find that some are not well suited for the task, the most reliable ones being those based either on a non-linear fit with a properly oscillating function or on a third (or fourth) finite difference approach. In any case, high statistic is of paramount importance to avoid that spurious structures appear just because of statistical fluctuations in the data and of strong correlations among the yields of neighboring fragments.

  19. Heimdal monitoring. 3: Seismic monitoring, methods, and results

    SciTech Connect

    Blanche, J.P.; Capelle, P.; Marrauld, J.; Ducasse, M.L. [Elf Aquitaine Production, Pau (France)

    1994-12-31

    The operational objective of this study consisted in obtaining a quantitative estimate of the rise of the Gas-Liquid Contact from the seismic surveys acquired before and during production of the Heimdal gas field (Norway). To meet this objective, the authors checked (from cores and wireline log data) the sensitivity of elastic parameters to fluids. This corresponds to predictions obtained using Gassmann`s equations and justifies the used fan approach based on AVO (Versus-Offset) processing and of P-wave impedances. The best seismic-to-well ties were obtained, in the case of gas presence, provided the seismic lines had been properly AVO processed and the VSP data inverted in terms of acoustic impedance. Building on these results, the seismic monitoring method, that they deal with in this part 3, involves AVO processing. The gradient (or slope) attribute of the AVO process is used for picking Top of Gas. The migrated intercept attribute is used for typing-in with the wells. It also provides access to P-wave impedances by a multi-trace inversion algorithm. The most representative documents regarding water rise are then obtained by a statistical method applied to the ``differences in impedance`` sections acquired before (1986) and during (1993) field production. Interpretation of such differential sections relies, as a guide, on preliminary models based on Gassmann`s equation. The map of water rise in the field is deduced from a set of 11 paris of lines. It shows that average water rise is about 30 m. It is subsequently used as a constraint for the flow reservoir model which then becomes more reliable in its predictions. One immediate economic outcome of this study is that no further wells are needed for the moment to completely drain the gas in the field.

  20. ADvanced IMage Algebra (ADIMA): a novel method for depicting multiple sclerosis lesion heterogeneity, as demonstrated by quantitative MRI

    PubMed Central

    Tozer, Daniel J; Schmierer, Klaus; Chard, Declan T; Anderson, Valerie M; Altmann, Daniel R; Miller, David H; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia AM

    2013-01-01

    Background: There are modest correlations between multiple sclerosis (MS) disability and white matter lesion (WML) volumes, as measured by T2-weighted (T2w) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (T2-WML). This may partly reflect pathological heterogeneity in WMLs, which is not apparent on T2w scans. Objective: To determine if ADvanced IMage Algebra (ADIMA), a novel MRI post-processing method, can reveal WML heterogeneity from proton-density weighted (PDw) and T2w images. Methods: We obtained conventional PDw and T2w images from 10 patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) and ADIMA images were calculated from these. We classified all WML into bright (ADIMA-b) and dark (ADIMA-d) sub-regions, which were segmented. We obtained conventional T2-WML and T1-WML volumes for comparison, as well as the following quantitative magnetic resonance parameters: magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR), T1 and T2. Also, we assessed the reproducibility of the segmentation for ADIMA-b, ADIMA-d and T2-WML. Results: Our study’s ADIMA-derived volumes correlated with conventional lesion volumes (p < 0.05). ADIMA-b exhibited higher T1 and T2, and lower MTR than the T2-WML (p < 0.001). Despite the similarity in T1 values between ADIMA-b and T1-WML, these regions were only partly overlapping with each other. ADIMA-d exhibited quantitative characteristics similar to T2-WML; however, they were only partly overlapping. Mean intra- and inter-observer coefficients of variation for ADIMA-b, ADIMA-d and T2-WML volumes were all < 6 % and < 10 %, respectively. Conclusion: ADIMA enabled the simple classification of WML into two groups having different quantitative magnetic resonance properties, which can be reproducibly distinguished. PMID:23037551

  1. A validated RP-HPLC-UV method for quantitative determination of puerarin in Pueraria tuberosa DC tuber extract

    PubMed Central

    Maji, Amal K.; Maity, Niladri; Banerji, Pratim; Banerjee, Debdulal

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pueraria tuberosa (Fabaceae) is a well-known medicinal herbs used in Indian traditional medicines. The puerarin is one of the most important bioactive constituent found in the tubers of this plant. Quantitative estimation of bioactive molecules is essential for the purpose of quality control and dose determination of herbal medicines. The study was designed to develop a validated reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the quantification of puerarin in the tuber extract of P. tuberosa. Materials and Methods: The RP-HPLC system with Luna C18 (2) 100 Å, 250 × 4.6 mm column was used in this study. The analysis was performed using the mobile phase: 0.1% acetic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% acetic acid in water (90:10, v/v) under column temperature 25°C. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm with a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The method validation was performed according to the guidelines of International Conference on Harmonization. Results: The puerarin content of P. tuberosa extract was found to be 9.28 ±0.09%. The calibration curve showed good linearity relationship in the range of 200-1000?g/ml (r2>0.99). The LOD and LOQ were 57.12 and 181.26?g/ml, respectively and the average recovery of puerarin was 99.73% ±1.02%. The evaluation of system suitability, precision, robustness and ruggedness parameters were also found to produce satisfactory results. Conclusions: The developed method is very simple and rapid with excellent specificity, accuracy and precision which can be useful for the routine analysis and quantitative estimation of puerarin in plant extracts and formulations. PMID:23781483

  2. Simulation of collaborative studies for real-time PCR-based quantitation methods for genetically modified crops.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Sawada, Hiroshi; Naito, Shigehiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi; Hino, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    To study impacts of various random effects and parameters of collaborative studies on the precision of quantitation methods of genetically modified (GM) crops, we developed a set of random effects models for cycle time values of a standard curve-based relative real-time PCR that makes use of an endogenous gene sequence as the internal standard. The models and data from a published collaborative study for six GM lines at four concentration levels were used to simulate collaborative studies under various conditions. Results suggested that by reducing the numbers of well replications from three to two, and standard levels of endogenous sequence from five to three, the number of unknown samples analyzable on a 96-well PCR plate in routine analyses could be almost doubled, and still the acceptable repeatability RSD (RSDr < or = 25%) and the reproducibility RSD (RSDR < 35%) of the collaborative study could be met. Further, RSDr and RSD(R) were found most sensitive to random effects attributable to inhomogeneity among blind replicates, but they were little influenced by those attributable to DNA extractions. The proposed models are expected to be useful for optimizing standard curve-based relative quantitation methods for GM crops by real-time PCR and their collaborative studies. PMID:23767362

  3. Quantitation of changes in protein phosphorylation: A simple method based on stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Débora Bonenfant; Tobias Schmelzle; Estela Jacinto; José L. Crespo; Thierry Mini; Michael N. Hall; Paul Jenoe

    2003-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation plays an important role in many cellular processes. However, a simple and reliable method to measure changes in the extent of phosphorylation is lacking. Here, we present a method to quantitate the changes in phosphorylation occurring in a protein in response to a stimulus. The method consists of three steps: (i) enzymatic digestion in H216O or isotopically

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Blood Plasma Metabolites Using Isotope Enhanced NMR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nagana Gowda, G. A.; Tayyari, Fariba; Ye, Tao; Suryani, Yuliana; Wei, Siwei; Shanaiah, Narasimhamurthy; Raftery, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical tool for both qualitative and quantitative analysis. However, accurate quantitative analysis in complex fluids such as human blood plasma is challenging, and analysis using one-dimensional NMR is limited by signal overlap. It is impractical to use heteronuclear experiments involving natural abundance 13C on a routine basis due to low sensitivity, despite their improved resolution. Focusing on circumventing such bottlenecks, this study demonstrates the utility of a combination of isotope tagged NMR experiments to analyze metabolites in human blood plasma. 1H-15N HSQC and 1H-13C HSQC experiments on the isotope tagged samples combined with the conventional 1H one-dimensional and 1H-1H TOCSY experiments provide quantitative information on a large number of metabolites in plasma. The methods were first tested on a mixture of 28 synthetic analogues of metabolites commonly present in human blood; twenty-seven metabolites in a standard NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) human blood plasma were then identified and quantified with an average coefficient of variation of 2.4 % for 17 metabolites and 5.6% when all the metabolites were considered. Carboxylic acids and amines represent a majority of the metabolites in body fluids and their analysis by isotope tagging enables a significant enhancement of the metabolic pool for biomarker discovery applications. Improved sensitivity and resolution of NMR experiments imparted by 15N and 13C isotope tagging is attractive for both the enhancement of the detectable metabolic pool and accurate analysis of plasma metabolites. The approach can be easily extended to many additional metabolites in almost any biological mixture. PMID:20879716

  5. Development of an Effective Method for Recovery of Viral Genomic RNA from Environmental Silty Sediments for Quantitative Molecular Detection ?

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takayuki; Masago, Yoshifumi; Sano, Daisuke; Omura, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Nine approaches to recover viral RNA from environmental silty sediments were newly developed and compared to quantify RNA viruses in sediments using molecular methods. Four of the nine approaches employed direct procedures for extracting RNA from sediments (direct methods), and the remaining five approaches used indirect methods wherein viral particles were recovered before RNA extraction. A direct method using an SDS buffer with EDTA to lyse viral capsids in sediments, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol to extract RNA, isopropanol to concentrate RNA, and magnetic beads to purify RNA resulted in the highest rate of recovery (geometric mean of 11%, with a geometric standard deviation of 0.02; n = 7) of poliovirus 1 (PV1) inoculated in an environmental sediment sample. The direct method exhibiting the highest rate of PV1 recovery was applied to environmental sediment samples. One hundred eight sediment samples were collected from the Takagi River, Miyagi, Japan, and its estuary from November 2007 to April 2009, and the genomic RNAs of enterovirus and human norovirus in these samples were quantified by reverse transcription (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR). The human norovirus genome was detected in one sample collected at the bay, although its concentration was below the quantification limit. Meanwhile, the enterovirus genome was detected in two samples at the river mouth and river at concentrations of 8.6 × 102 and 2.4 × 102 copies/g (wet weight), respectively. This is the first report to obtain quantitative data for a human pathogenic virus in a river and in estuarine sediments using RT-qPCR. PMID:21515729

  6. Three-dimensional quantitative analysis of adhesive remnants and enamel loss resulting from debonding orthodontic molar tubes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aims Presenting a new method for direct, quantitative analysis of enamel surface. Measurement of adhesive remnants and enamel loss resulting from debonding molar tubes. Material and methods Buccal surfaces of fifteen extracted human molars were directly scanned with an optic blue-light 3D scanner to the nearest 2 ?m. After 20 s etching molar tubes were bonded and after 24 h storing in 0.9% saline - debonded. Then 3D scanning was repeated. Superimposition and comparison were proceeded and shape alterations of the entire objects were analyzed using specialized computer software. Residual adhesive heights as well as enamel loss depths have been obtained for the entire buccal surfaces. Residual adhesive volume and enamel loss volume have been calculated for every tooth. Results The maximum height of adhesive remaining on enamel surface was 0.76 mm and the volume on particular teeth ranged from 0.047 mm3 to 4.16 mm3. The median adhesive remnant volume was 0.988 mm3. Mean depths of enamel loss for particular teeth ranged from 0.0076 mm to 0.0416 mm. Highest maximum depth of enamel loss was 0.207 mm. Median volume of enamel loss was 0.104 mm3 and maximum volume was 1.484 mm3. Conclusions Blue-light 3D scanning is able to provide direct precise scans of the enamel surface, which can be superimposed in order to calculate shape alterations. Debonding molar tubes leaves a certain amount of adhesive remnants on the enamel, however the interface fracture pattern varies for particular teeth and areas of enamel loss are present as well. PMID:25208969

  7. Validation procedures for quantitative gluten ELISA methods: AOAC allergen community guidance and best practices.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Terry B; Abbott, Michael; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb; Popping, Bert; Yeung, Jupiter M; Diaz-Amigo, Carmen; Roberts, James; Taylor, Steve L; Baumert, Joseph L; Ulberth, Franz; Wehling, Paul; Koehler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The food allergen analytical community is endeavoring to create harmonized guidelines for the validation of food allergen ELISA methodologies to help protect food-sensitive individuals and promote consumer confidence. This document provides additional guidance to existing method validation publications for quantitative food allergen ELISA methods. The gluten-specific criterion provided in this document is divided into sections for information required by the method developer about the assay and information for the implementation of the multilaboratory validation study. Many of these recommendations and guidance are built upon the widely accepted Codex Alimentarius definitions and recommendations for gluten-free foods. The information in this document can be used as the basis of a harmonized validation protocol for any ELISA method for gluten, whether proprietary or nonproprietary, that will be submitted to AOAC andlor regulatory authorities or other bodies for status recognition. Future work is planned for the implementation of this guidance document for the validation of gluten methods and the creation of gluten reference materials. PMID:24282943

  8. Analysis of Post-transcriptional Regulations by a Functional, Integrated, and Quantitative Method*

    PubMed Central

    Laloo, Benoît; Simon, Delphine; Veillat, Véronique; Lauzel, Dorine; Guyonnet-Duperat, Véronique; Moreau-Gaudry, François; Sagliocco, Francis; Grosset, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    In the past 10 years, transcriptome and proteome analyses have provided valuable data on global gene expression and cell functional networks. However, when integrated, these analyses revealed partial correlations between mRNA expression levels and protein abundance thus suggesting that post-transcriptional regulations may be in part responsible for this discrepancy. In the present work, we report the development of a functional, integrated, and quantitative method to measure post-transcriptional regulations that we named FunREG. This method enables (i) quantitative measure of post-transcriptional regulations mediated by selected 3?-untranslated regions and exogenous small interfering-RNA or micro-RNAs and (ii) comparison of these regulatory processes in physiologically relevant systems (e.g. cancer versus primary untransformed cells). We applied FunREG to the study of liver cancer, and we demonstrate for the first time the differential regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression at a post-transcriptional level in normal and tumoral hepatic cells. As an example, translation efficiency mediated by heparin-binding epidermal growth factor 3?-untranslated region was increased 3-fold in liver cancer cells compared with normal hepatocytes, whereas stability of an mRNA containing a portion of Cyclin D1 3?-untranslated region was increased more than 2-fold in HepG2 cells compared with normal hepatocytes. Consequently we believe that the method presented herein may become an important tool in fundamental and medical research. This approach is convenient and easy to perform, accessible to any investigator, and should be adaptable to a large number of cell type, functional and chemical screens, as well as genome scale analyses. Finally FunREG may represent a helpful tool to reconcile transcriptome and proteome data. PMID:19411282

  9. Quantitative analysis of rib movement based on dynamic chest bone images: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sanada, S.; Oda, M.; Mitsutaka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sakuta, K.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-03-01

    Rib movement during respiration is one of the diagnostic criteria in pulmonary impairments. In general, the rib movement is assessed in fluoroscopy. However, the shadows of lung vessels and bronchi overlapping ribs prevent accurate quantitative analysis of rib movement. Recently, an image-processing technique for separating bones from soft tissue in static chest radiographs, called "bone suppression technique", has been developed. Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the usefulness of dynamic bone images created by the bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of rib movement. Dynamic chest radiographs of 10 patients were obtained using a dynamic flat-panel detector (FPD). Bone suppression technique based on a massive-training artificial neural network (MTANN) was applied to the dynamic chest images to create bone images. Velocity vectors were measured in local areas on the dynamic bone images, which formed a map. The velocity maps obtained with bone and original images for scoliosis and normal cases were compared to assess the advantages of bone images. With dynamic bone images, we were able to quantify and distinguish movements of ribs from those of other lung structures accurately. Limited rib movements of scoliosis patients appeared as reduced rib velocity vectors. Vector maps in all normal cases exhibited left-right symmetric distributions, whereas those in abnormal cases showed nonuniform distributions. In conclusion, dynamic bone images were useful for accurate quantitative analysis of rib movements: Limited rib movements were indicated as a reduction of rib movement and left-right asymmetric distribution on vector maps. Thus, dynamic bone images can be a new diagnostic tool for quantitative analysis of rib movements without additional radiation dose.

  10. Quantitative imaging biomarkers: a review of statistical methods for computer algorithm comparisons.

    PubMed

    Obuchowski, Nancy A; Reeves, Anthony P; Huang, Erich P; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Buckler, Andrew J; Kim, Hyun J Grace; Barnhart, Huiman X; Jackson, Edward F; Giger, Maryellen L; Pennello, Gene; Toledano, Alicia Y; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Apanasovich, Tatiyana V; Kinahan, Paul E; Myers, Kyle J; Goldgof, Dmitry B; Barboriak, Daniel P; Gillies, Robert J; Schwartz, Lawrence H; Sullivan, Daniel C

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative biomarkers from medical images are becoming important tools for clinical diagnosis, staging, monitoring, treatment planning, and development of new therapies. While there is a rich history of the development of quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) techniques, little attention has been paid to the validation and comparison of the computer algorithms that implement the QIB measurements. In this paper we provide a framework for QIB algorithm comparisons. We first review and compare various study designs, including designs with the true value (e.g. phantoms, digital reference images, and zero-change studies), designs with a reference standard (e.g. studies testing equivalence with a reference standard), and designs without a reference standard (e.g. agreement studies and studies of algorithm precision). The statistical methods for comparing QIB algorithms are then presented for various study types using both aggregate and disaggregate approaches. We propose a series of steps for establishing the performance of a QIB algorithm, identify limitations in the current statistical literature, and suggest future directions for research. PMID:24919829

  11. Quantitative Measurement of Element Distributions using the Neutron-transmission Resonance-absorption Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, M.; Parker, J. D.; Sawano, T.; Kubo, H.; Tanimori, T.; Shinohara, T.; Maekawa, F.; Sakai, K.

    The imaging method known as Neutron Resonance Absorption (NRA) is very suitable for nondestructive analysis of element distributions in a sample. The purposes of this study are to perform NRA test experiments using the Micro Pixel Chamber (?PIC), developed by Kyoto University and to confirm the quantitative quality of the measurements of the system. The experiment was performed at NOBORU in J-PARC. The detector was located at 14.5 m from the moderator in the experimental room. The samples, consisting of thin Cobalt, Tantalum and Molybdenum foils, were placed individually at the upstream from the detector. In the experiment, the transmission spectra with the samples and no sample were obtained. Background components were not so small in these measurements. From the neutron transport simulation, it was surmised that the origin of this background was due to scattering of neutrons in the experimental room. Therefore, the assumed background components were subtracted from the measurement data. Finally, it was found that the difference between the measurement data and the nuclear data was within about 20%. Issues remaining to be solved include how to obtain precise background data quantitatively in the case of a large absorption cross section.

  12. Some methods of obtaining quantitative structure-activity relationships for quantities of environmental interest

    SciTech Connect

    Charton, M.

    1985-09-01

    Methods are described for obtaining quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) for the estimation of quantities of environmental interest. Toxicities of alkylamines and of alkyl alkanoates are well correlated by the alkyl bioactivity branching equation (ABB). Narcotic activities of 1,1-disubstituted ethylenes are correlated by the intermolecular forces bioactivity (IMF) equation. When the data set has a limited number of substituents in equivalent positions the group number (GN) equation, derivable from the IMF equation, can be used for correlation. It has been successfully applied to aqueous solubilities, 1-octanol-water partition coefficients, and bioaccumulation factors and ecological magnifications for organochlorine compounds. A combination of the omega method for combining data sets for different organisms with the GN equation has been used to correlate toxicities of organochlorine insecticides in two species of fish. Toxicities of carbamates have been correlated by a combination of the zeta method and the IMFB equation. The ABB and the GN equations are particularly useful in that they generally do not require parameter tables, and that the parameters they use are error-free. The methods presented here, as shown by the examples given, should make it possible to establish a collection of QSAR for toxicities, bioaccumulation factors, aqueous solubilities, partition coefficients, and other properties of sets of compounds of environmental interest. 29 references.

  13. Cloned plasmid DNA fragments as calibrators for controlling GMOs: different real-time duplex quantitative PCR methods.

    PubMed

    Taverniers, Isabel; Van Bockstaele, Erik; De Loose, Marc

    2004-03-01

    Analytical real-time PCR technology is a powerful tool for implementation of the GMO labeling regulations enforced in the EU. The quality of analytical measurement data obtained by quantitative real-time PCR depends on the correct use of calibrator and reference materials (RMs). For GMO methods of analysis, the choice of appropriate RMs is currently under debate. So far, genomic DNA solutions from certified reference materials (CRMs) are most often used as calibrators for GMO quantification by means of real-time PCR. However, due to some intrinsic features of these CRMs, errors may be expected in the estimations of DNA sequence quantities. In this paper, two new real-time PCR methods are presented for Roundup Ready soybean, in which two types of plasmid DNA fragments are used as calibrators. Single-target plasmids (STPs) diluted in a background of genomic DNA were used in the first method. Multiple-target plasmids (MTPs) containing both sequences in one molecule were used as calibrators for the second method. Both methods simultaneously detect a promoter 35S sequence as GMO-specific target and a lectin gene sequence as endogenous reference target in a duplex PCR. For the estimation of relative GMO percentages both "delta C(T)" and "standard curve" approaches are tested. Delta C(T) methods are based on direct comparison of measured C(T) values of both the GMO-specific target and the endogenous target. Standard curve methods measure absolute amounts of target copies or haploid genome equivalents. A duplex delta C(T) method with STP calibrators performed at least as well as a similar method with genomic DNA calibrators from commercial CRMs. Besides this, high quality results were obtained with a standard curve method using MTP calibrators. This paper demonstrates that plasmid DNA molecules containing either one or multiple target sequences form perfect alternative calibrators for GMO quantification and are especially suitable for duplex PCR reactions. PMID:14689155

  14. A method to optimize selection on multiple identified quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Reena; Moreau, Laurence; Dekkers, Jack CM

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical approach was developed to model and optimize selection on multiple known quantitative trait loci (QTL) and polygenic estimated breeding values in order to maximize a weighted sum of responses to selection over multiple generations. The model allows for linkage between QTL with multiple alleles and arbitrary genetic effects, including dominance, epistasis, and gametic imprinting. Gametic phase disequilibrium between the QTL and between the QTL and polygenes is modeled but polygenic variance is assumed constant. Breeding programs with discrete generations, differential selection of males and females and random mating of selected parents are modeled. Polygenic EBV obtained from best linear unbiased prediction models can be accommodated. The problem was formulated as a multiple-stage optimal control problem and an iterative approach was developed for its solution. The method can be used to develop and evaluate optimal strategies for selection on multiple QTL for a wide range of situations and genetic models. PMID:12081805

  15. High pressure liquid chromatographic method for the separation and quantitation of water-soluble radiolabeled benzene metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Sabourin; W. E. Bechtold; R. F. Henderson

    1988-01-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of benzene metabolite as well as muconic acid and pre-phenyl- and phenylmercapturic acids were separated by ion-pairing HPLC. The HPLC method developed was suitable for automated analysis of a large number of tissue or excreta samples. p-Nitrophenyl (¹⁴C)glucuronide was used as an internal standard for quantitation of these water-soluble metabolites. Quantitation was verified by spiking

  16. Sensitive and selective gas chromatographic methods for the quantitation of camphor, menthol and methyl salicylate from human plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S Valdez; Debra K Martin; Michael Mayersohn

    1999-01-01

    Analytical methods using gas chromatography–flame ionization detection (GC–FID) for the quantitation of camphor and menthol and GC–MS for the quantitation of methyl salicylate have been developed for measurement of low concentrations from human plasma. Anethole serves as the internal standard for camphor and menthol and ethyl salicylate serves as the internal standard for methyl salicylate. Plasma samples undergo multiple, sequential

  17. Cerenkov radiation imaging as a method for quantitative measurements of beta particles in a microfluidic chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jennifer S.; Taschereau, Richard; Olma, Sebastian; Liu, Kan; Chen, Yi-Chun; K-F Shen, Clifton; van Dam, R. Michael; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2009-11-01

    It has been observed that microfluidic chips used for synthesizing 18F-labeled compounds demonstrate visible light emission without nearby scintillators or fluorescent materials. The origin of the light was investigated and found to be consistent with the emission characteristics from Cerenkov radiation. Since 18F decays through the emission of high-energy positrons, the energy threshold for beta particles, i.e. electrons or positrons, to generate Cerenkov radiation was calculated for water and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the most commonly used polymer-based material for microfluidic chips. Beta particles emitted from 18F have a continuous energy spectrum, with a maximum energy that exceeds this energy threshold for both water and PDMS. In addition, the spectral characteristics of the emitted light from 18F in distilled water were also measured, yielding a broad distribution from 300 nm to 700 nm, with higher intensity at shorter wavelengths. A photograph of the 18F solution showed a bluish-white light emitted from the solution, further suggesting Cerenkov radiation. In this study, the feasibility of using this Cerenkov light emission as a method for quantitative measurements of the radioactivity within the microfluidic chip in situ was evaluated. A detector previously developed for imaging microfluidic platforms was used. The detector consisted of a charge-coupled device (CCD) optically coupled to a lens. The system spatial resolution, minimum detectable activity and dynamic range were evaluated. In addition, the calibration of a Cerenkov signal versus activity concentration in the microfluidic chip was determined. This novel method of Cerenkov radiation measurements will provide researchers with a simple yet robust quantitative imaging tool for microfluidic applications utilizing beta particles.

  18. A method for cellular localization of gene expression via quantitative in situ hybridization in plants.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Seib, Laura Ort; Sivaguru, Mayandi; Hoekenga, Owen A; Kochian, Leon V

    2007-04-01

    A quantitative in situ hybridization technique (quantitative whole-mount in situ hybridization, QISH) for plants is described. It employs direct hybridization of fluorescently labelled gene-specific oligonucleotides in large tissue pieces combined with optical sectioning. It dramatically increases the throughput compared with conventional antibody- and microtome-based in situ mRNA hybridization methods, while simultaneously eliminating artefact-prone preparation steps that prevent reliable quantification in conventional methods. The key feature of this technique is the quantification of gene expression using housekeeping genes (cytosolic GAPDH and 18S RNA) as internal standards. This feature enables a correction of varying cytoplasm/vacuole ratios in different cell types, as well as tissue optical effects and non-specific signals. The quantitative nature of the technique allows for analysis of gene expression in response to different environmental conditions, as well as tissue- and age-dependent differences in gene expression patterns. In addition to testing tissue permeabilization, structural preservation, specificity, linearity and tissue optical effects, we verified the reliability of the technique with three Arabidopsis thaliana genes of known function and distribution. These were the rbcL gene for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, the developmentally related gene SCARECROW (AtSCR) and PHOT-1, a photoreceptor kinase. As expected, rbcL mRNA was found in all photosynthetic cells, while SCR mRNA was detected mainly in bundle sheath cells and PHOT-1 was found predominantly in epidermal and cortical cells of the apical hook of light-grown seedlings. As an application example, QISH was used to measure transcript abundance for a zinc transporter from the ZIP family of transporters in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator model plant, Thlaspi caerulescens, and the related non-accumulator Thlaspi arvense. This showed that QISH can be used to compare differences in mRNA levels between cell types, plant growth conditions and plant species. Messenger RNA for the zinc transporter gene ZNT1 was abundant in photosynthetic cells, but not in the epidermal storage cells where metal hyperaccumulation in T. caerulescens occurs. This indicates that ZNT1 does not directly participate in metal hyperaccumulation within the leaf. Growing T. caerulescens with high zinc levels strongly reduced ZNT1 transcript abundance in the spongy mesophyll cells, but less in the other cell types. In T. arvense, ZNT1 mRNA levels were generally much lower, and were furthermore drastically reduced by growth at increased zinc levels, confirming earlier reports regarding ZNT1 regulation in these two Thlaspi species. PMID:17397510

  19. A validated micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the quantitation of dexamethasone, ondansetron and aprepitant, antiemetic drugs, in organogel.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Florence; Lecoeur, Marie; Duhaut, Marion; Odou, Pascal; Vaccher, Claude; Foulon, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was developed for the determination of three anti-vomiting drugs (aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron) in pharmaceutical formulations. The method was optimized using a central composite design (CCD). Four main factors (borate buffer concentration, pH, methanol content and sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration) were optimized in order to obtain best resolutions and peak efficiencies in a minimum runtime. The separation was performed in a fused-silica capillary. After optimization, the background electrolyte consisted of a borate buffer (62.5mM, pH 8.75) containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (77.5mM) and methanol (3.75%). Under these conditions, a complete separation of each antiemetic drug and its respective internal standards was achieved in 38min. The method was validated with trueness values from 94.9 to 107.2% and precision results (repeatability and intermediate precision) lower than 5.9%. MEKC-UV was the first method allowing the separation of aprepitant, dexamethasone and ondansetron and was suitable for the quantitation of these three antiemetic drugs in organogel formulations. The rapid sample preparation coupled with an automated separation technique make this method convenient for quality control of extemporaneous magistral ready-to-use formulation. PMID:23978340

  20. Quantitative computed tomography of vertebral spongiosa: a sensitive method for detecting early bone loss after oophorectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Genant, H.K.; Cann, C.E.; Ettinger, B.; Gordan, G.S.

    1982-11-01

    The bone mineral loss was assessed serially in 37 premenopausal women for 24 months after oophorectomy and the dose-response for conjugated estrogen therapy in preventing this loss was determined. Spinal cancellous bone was measured by quantitative computed tomography and measurement of appendicular cortical bone by radial photon absorptiometry and metacarpal radiogrammetry. For the placebo and low-dose treatment groups, the mean annual bone mineral losses were 7% to 9% from the vertebral spongiosum and 1% to 3% from the peripheral cortex. The correlation between axial and appendicular loss was weak, precluding a reliable estimate of spinal loss from peripheral measurements. For the maximal-dose group (0.6 mg/d), the mean annual bone mineral losses were less than 0.5% from the axial and appendicular sites, and were not significant. The results indicate that spinal quantitative computed tomography provides a highly sensitive measurement of bone mineral loss after oophorectomy, that bone mineral loss is five- to sevenfold greater from the spinal spongiosum than from the appendicular cortex, and that conjugated estrogen in doses of less than 0.6 mg/d are inadequate to prevent the vertebral mineral loss.

  1. A field- and laboratory-based quantitative analysis of alluvium: Relating analytical results to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenrich, Melissa L.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over the McDowell Mountains northeast of Scottsdale, Arizona during August 1994. The raw data were processed to emphasize lithologic differences using a decorrelation stretch and assigning bands 5, 3, and 1 to red, green, and blue, respectively. Processed data of alluvium flanking the mountains exhibit moderate color variation. The objective of this study was to determine, using a quantitative approach, what environmental variable(s), in the absence of bedrock, is/are responsible for influencing the spectral properties of the desert alluvial surface.

  2. Laboratory Evaluations of the Enterococcus qPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Method Performance and Sources of Uncertainty in Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BEACH Act of 2000 directed the U.S. EPA to establish more expeditious methods for the detection of pathogen indicators in coastal waters, as well as new water quality criteria based on these methods. Progress has been made in developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for en...

  3. Use of ICDAS combined with quantitative light-induced fluorescence as a caries detection method.

    PubMed

    Ferreira Zandoná, A; Santiago, E; Eckert, G; Fontana, M; Ando, M; Zero, D T

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine a standardized visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), with a sensitive fluorescence-based system, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), to determine the ability to monitor caries lesion progression. This combination (QLF-I) has the potential to increase the sensitivity of the visual method without compromising specificity. A total of 460 children were enrolled and examined at baseline, 8 months and 12 months by ICDAS and QLF by a single examiner. The examiner repeatability for both methods was comparable, varying between weighted kappa of 0.70 and 0.79. The DMFT score was 6.0 (SD 5.8) at baseline and 6.4 (SD 6.3) at 12 months, and both methods were able to follow the increase in incidence. The QLF-I scored more surfaces at the early ICDAS scores (1 and 2) and score 4. Not all lesions progressed at the same rate, differing by score at baseline and surface type. PMID:20588022

  4. Use of ICDAS Combined with Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence as a Caries Detection Method

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Zandoná, A.; Santiago, E.; Eckert, G.; Fontana, M.; Ando, M.; Zero, D.T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine a standardized visually based system, the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), with a sensitive fluorescence-based system, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF), to determine the ability to monitor caries lesion progression. This combination (QLF-I) has the potential to increase the sensitivity of the visual method without compromising specificity. A total of 460 children were enrolled and examined at baseline, 8 months and 12 months by ICDAS and QLF by a single examiner. The examiner repeatability for both methods was comparable, varying between weighted kappa of 0.70 and 0.79. The DMFT score was 6.0 (SD 5.8) at baseline and 6.4 (SD 6.3) at 12 months, and both methods were able to follow the increase in incidence. The QLF-I scored more surfaces at the early ICDAS scores (1 and 2) and score 4. Not all lesions progressed at the same rate, differing by score at baseline and surface type. PMID:20588022

  5. Quantitative study of renormalization transformation method to correct the inhomogeneity in MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qing; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Glass, John O.; Krynetskiy, Evgeny

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of using a newly proposed renormalization transformation (RT) technique to correct nonuniformity in MR images. Simulated brain T1, T2 and PD weighted images with two types of bias fields and Gaussian white noise were created using the average signal intensities of white matter, gray matter, and CSF from segmented masks of actual patient examinations. These images were then corrected by the RT method and quantitatively compared with the original non-biased simulated images. This study demonstrated that a single optimal correction exists for the RT method. At the optimal correction, the RT method can remove more than 75 percent of the bias field without significant loss of useful contrast in the images. Unfortunately, this optimal correction can not be directly determined for actual patient images where the truth is not known. However, simulated images showed that the optimal correction could be estimated from changes in the contrast ratio map, where the contrast ratio is the ratio of the local intensity standard deviation and local average intensity. Using the contrast ratio map, the optimal correction can be reliably applied in patient images.

  6. Quantitative analysis of extracted phycobilin pigments in cyanobacteria-an assessment of spectrophotometric and spectrofluorometric methods.

    PubMed

    Sobiechowska-Sasim, Monika; Sto?-Egiert, Joanna; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Phycobilins are an important group of pigments that through complementary chromatic adaptation optimize the light-harvesting process in phytoplankton cells, exhibiting great potential as cyanobacteria species biomarkers. In their extracted form, concentrations of these water-soluble molecules are not easily determined using the chromatographic methods well suited to solvent-soluble pigments. Insights regarding the quantitative spectroscopic analysis of extracted phycobilins also remain limited. Here, we present an in-depth study of two methods that utilize the spectral properties of phycobilins in aqueous extracts. The technical work was carried out using high-purity standards of phycocyanin, phycoerythrin, and allophycocyanin. Calibration parameters for the spectrofluorometer and spectrophotometer were established. This analysis indicated the possibility of detecting pigments in concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 10 ?g cm(-3). Fluorescence data revealed a reproducibility of 95 %. The differences in detection limits between the two methods enable the presence of phycobilins to be investigated and their amounts to be monitored from oligotrophic to eutrophic aquatic environments. PMID:25346572

  7. Comparison of methods for quantitative analysis of additives in low-density polyethylene using supercritical fluid and enhanced solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, L Y; Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Taylor, L T

    1999-10-15

    On-line supercritical fluid extraction-supercritical fluid chromatography (SFE-SFC) with cryogenic trapping was used to extract and separate five additives from a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) sample. A glass tube filled with glass wool afforded excellent collection efficiency for the extracted analytes. Additive spiked sand was employed to optimize the various parameters of the on-line SFE-SFC system. Calibration curves from the spiked sand studies for on-line SFE-SFC were obtained with good linearities for quantitation. Results obtained on additives in LDPE from on-line SFE-SFC were comparable to those from off-line SFE-HPLC and off-line enhanced solvent extraction (ESE)-HPLC for all additives except Irganox 1076. However, the precision obtained with on-line SFE-SFC was lower than that from off-line SFE-HPLC and off-line ESE-HPLC due to the small sample size employed in the on-line system. Considerable clean-up of the ESE extract was required prior to chromatographic analysis. On-line SFE-SFC minimized the sample handling and eliminated the use of organic solvent. Despite the lower than expected precision, the on-line SFE-SFC method for quantitation of polymer additives appears to be reliable and robust for application in routine quality control analysis. PMID:10551353

  8. Understanding Variation in Treatment Effects in Education Impact Evaluations: An Overview of Quantitative Methods. NCEE 2014-4017

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schochet, Peter Z.; Puma, Mike; Deke, John

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the complex research literature on quantitative methods for assessing how impacts of educational interventions on instructional practices and student learning differ across students, educators, and schools. It also provides technical guidance about the use and interpretation of these methods. The research topics addressed…

  9. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) isogenic recombinant analysis: a method for high-resolution mapping of QTL within a single population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan D. Peleman; Crispin Wye; Jan Zethof; A. P. Sorensen; Henk Verbakel; Jan van Oeveren; A. G. M. Gerats; Jeroen Rouppe van der Voort

    2005-01-01

    In the quest for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a subcentimorgan scale, several methods that involve the construction of inbred lines and the generation of large progenies of such inbred lines have been developed (Complex Trait Consortium 2003). Here we present an alternative method that significantly speeds up QTL fine mapping by using one segregating population. As a

  10. Traversing the qualitative–quantitative divide using mixed methods: some reflections and reconciliations for sport and exercise psychology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry R. McGannon; Amanda N. Schweinbenz

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide commentary on one prevalent theme found in many of the articles within the current special issue: the notion of moving beyond a qualitative–quantitative divide using mixed methods to help navigate and\\/or reconcile this divide. This commentary highlights several key controversial issues in mixed methods literature within the social sciences in order to

  11. Evaluation of rapid DNA extraction methods for the quantitative detection of fungi using real-time PCR analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Haugland; Nichole Brinkman; Stephen J. Vesper

    2002-01-01

    Three comparatively rapid methods for the extraction of DNA from fungal conidia and yeast cells in environmental (air, water and dust) samples were evaluated for use in real-time PCR (TaqMan™) analyses. A simple bead milling method was developed to provide sensitive, accurate and precise quantification of target organisms in air and water (tap and surface) samples. However, quantitative analysis of

  12. Quantifying social norms: by coupling the ecosystem management concept and semi-quantitative sociological methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.; Xu, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over recent decades, human-induced environmental changes have steadily and rapidly grown in intensity and impact to where they now often exceed natural impacts. As one of important components of human activities, social norms play key roles in environmental and natural resources management. But the lack of relevant quantitative data about social norms greatly limits our scientific understanding of the complex linkages between humans and nature, and hampers our solving of pressing environmental and social problems. In this study, we built a quantified method by coupling the ecosystem management concept, semi-quantitative sociological methods and mathematical statistics. We got the quantified value of social norms from two parts, whether the content of social norms coincide with the concept of ecosystem management (content value) and how about the performance after social norms were put into implementation (implementation value) . First, we separately identified 12 core elements of ecosystem management and 16 indexes of social norms, and then matched them one by one. According to their matched degree, we got the content value of social norms. Second, we selected 8 key factors that can represent the performance of social norms after they were put into implementation, and then we got the implementation value by Delph method. Adding these two parts values, we got the final value of each social norms. Third, we conducted a case study in Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river in China, by selecting 12 official edicts related to the river basin ecosystem management of Heihe River Basin. By doing so, we first got the qualified data of social norms which can be directly applied to the research that involved observational or experimental data collection of natural processes. Second, each value was supported by specific contents, so it can assist creating a clear road map for building or revising management and policy guidelines. For example, in this case study, the final quantified data of each social norm showed highly positive correlations with their content value rather than their implementation value, which implied the final value of social norms are mainly affected by the content of social norms. And the implementation of social norms had reached a relatively high degree compare to their theoretical maxvalue (from 71.29% to 80.25%) because of the compelling force of themselves, while the content value of social norms is so weak (from 16.69% to 30.62%) that urgently need to be improved. Third, the method can be extended to quantify the social norms of other ecosystems and further contributed to our understanding of the Coupled Human and Natural Systems and sustainability research.;

  13. Performance of a new quantitative method for assessing dural ectasia in patients with FBN1 mutations and clinical features of Marfan syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bahar Söylen; Kerstin Hinz; Jana Prokein; Hartmut Becker; Jörg Schmidtke; Mine Arslan-Kirchner

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  This study presents a comparison of established methods for measuring dural ectasia with a new quantitative method of assessing\\u000a this clinical feature.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seventeen patients with an identified mutation in FBN1 were examined for dural ectasia. The results were compared with 17 age- and sex-matched controls. Our images were also evaluated\\u000a using the two methods of quantifying dural ectasia, namely those

  14. Does e-HRM contribute to HRM Effectiveness? Results from a quantitative study in a Dutch Ministry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya Bondarouk; Huub Ruel

    2006-01-01

    E-HRM is coming to a more full-grown stage within organisational life. Much is assumed and expressed about the advantages of e-HRM, however scientific proof of these advantages is scarce. No clarity exists about the answer to the question whether e-HRM contributes to HRM effectiveness. In this paper we present results from the first quantitative study on the contribution of e-HRM

  15. An improved method for the quantitative analysis of M-mode echocardiograms.

    PubMed

    Brower, R W; van Dorp, W G; Vogel, J A; Roelandt, J R

    1975-10-01

    A computer-assisted system is described which speeds and extends the quantitative interpretation of M-mode echocardiographic recordings. The system consists of a digitizing tablet, minicomputer, TV monitor and a hard copy device. M-mode echocardiograms are placed on the digitizing surface and traced using the digitizing pen. The entered signal includes the endocardial surfaces of the anterior and posterior left ventricular wall for at least one cycle, and two Q waves from a simultaneously recorded ECG to identify end diastole and heart rate. End systole is determined automatically as corresponding to the minimum LV dimension. Results of analysis include continuous plots of estimated volume and circumferential fiber shortening rate (CFSR) vs time. Determinations of special interest are also displayed: enddiastolic volume (EDV) and endsystolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction, cardiac output, mean and peak CFSR. M-mode echocardiograms obtained from 25 normal volunteers are used to evaluate the system. The standard error of the estimate of the computer-assisted system is comparable to the error between observers, furthermore the computer system adds no significant systematic or random error. Comparison between M-mode estimated volumes and angiographically determined values has been described previously and Sy - x here is significantly greater. The main advantages of this system are: 1. a continuous plot of estimated LV volume and CFSR is provided; 2. beat-to-beat analyses are facilitated; 3. the automatic determination of end systole removes possible errors in judgement made previously; 4. it is time saving when one considers the amount of data obtained. With these advantages and the generally satisfactory performance in the clinical trials, this system appears to have extended the clinical quantitative capabilities of M-mode echocardiograms. PMID:1102317

  16. Quantitative cytochemistry of glycogen in blood cells. Methods and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Gahrton, G; Yataganas, X

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative glycogen determinations can be made in single blood and bone marrow cells, using microspectrophotometry or microfluorometry after staining with variants of the periodic acid--Schiff (PAS) reaction. These PAS variant reactions generally do not indicate the presence of non-glycogen PAS-positive substances, known to be prevalent in various hematopoietic cells, possibly due to masking of reactive groups. The specificity of the reaction in blood cells was ascertained by alpha-amylase digestion, which removed more than 95% of the PAS-positive material. Calibration of the PAS reaction was undertaken with a microdroplet model of pure leukocyte glycogen. The glycogen amounts in the droplets were determined by microinterferometry, the droplets were stained with a variant PAS reaction, and the total extinction of the reaction product in the stained droplets was determined by microspectrophotometry. The extinction coefficient (k) was obtained from the equation k equals Etot divided by M where (Etot) is the total extinction as determined by microspectrophotometry and (M) the dry glycogen amount as determined by microinterferometry. The microinterferometric dry mass determinations were calibrated by X-ray absorption in order to obtain the absolute amounts of glycogen. For practical purposes a reference system was made of normal neutrophil leukocytes. The glycogen content in the reference neutrophils was first determined with the micromodel. These neutrophils, now with a known glycogen amount, were stained with the PAS reagents and measured microspectrophotometrically in parallel with cells containing an unknown glycogen amount. Alternatively, the staining was made with a fluorescent PAS reaction, and the glycogen content determined by microfluorometry. Both methods appeared suitable for determining the glycogen content of blood cells from patients with various diseases, though the microfluorometric method was preferable for measurements of small amounts of inhomogeneously distributed glycogen. The mean glycogen content of normal neutrophil leukocytes was found to be 13.6 times 10(-12) g. The content was increased in infectious diseases such as pneumonia and tonisillitis, as well as in polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis, while low amounts were found in untreated chronic myelocytic leukemia. In chronic myelocytic leukemia in remission, the glycogen content of mature neutrophils had completely normalized. Erythroblasts normally do not contain detectable amounts of glycogen. However, in certain diseases such as beta-thalassemia and Di Guglielomo's syndrome, appreciable amounts of glycogen accumulate in the erythropoietic precursor cells. In beta-thalassemia this was associated with an arrest in the proliferation of early polychromatic erythroblasts, which accumulate glycogen in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In all these diseases quantitative glycogen determinations in the blood cells have diagnostic importance. PMID:1070052

  17. Application of the 5?-Nuclease PCR Assay in Evaluation and Development of Methods for Quantitative Detection of Campylobacter jejuni

    PubMed Central

    Nogva, Hege Karin; Bergh, Anette; Holck, Askild; Rudi, Knut

    2000-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is recognized as a leading human food-borne pathogen. Traditional diagnostic testing for C. jejuni is not reliable due to special growth requirements and the possibility that this bacterium can enter a viable but nonculturable state. Nucleic acid-based tests have emerged as a useful alternative to traditional enrichment testing. In this article, we present a 5?-nuclease PCR assay for quantitative detection of C. jejuni and describe its evaluation. A probe including positions 381121 to 381206 of the published C. jejuni strain NCTC 11168 genome sequence was identified. When this probe was applied, the assay was positive for all of the isolates of C. jejuni tested (32 isolates, including the type strain) and negative for all other Campylobacter spp. (11 species tested) and several other bacteria (41 species tested). The total assay could be completed in 3 h with a detection limit of approximately 1 CFU. Quantification was linear over at least 6 log units. Quantitative detection methods are important for both research purposes and further development of C. jejuni detection methods. In this study, we used the assay to investigate to what extent the PCR signals generated by heat-killed bacteria interfere with the detection of viable C. jejuni after exposure at elevated temperatures for up to 5 days. An approach to the reduction of the PCR signal generated by dead bacteria was also investigated by employing externally added DNases to selectively inactivate free DNA and exposed DNA in heat-killed bacteria. The results indicated relatively good discrimination between exposed DNA from dead C. jejuni and protected DNA in living bacteria. PMID:10966425

  18. Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Somer Bekiroglu; Olle Myrberg; Kristina Östman; Marianne Ek; Torbjörn Arvidsson; Torgny Rundlöf; Birgit Hakkarainen

    2008-01-01

    A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy

  19. Path Integrals and Exotic Options:. Methods and Numerical Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormetti, G.; Montagna, G.; Moreni, N.; Nicrosini, O.

    2005-09-01

    In the framework of Black-Scholes-Merton model of financial derivatives, a path integral approach to option pricing is presented. A general formula to price path dependent options on multidimensional and correlated underlying assets is obtained and implemented by means of various flexible and efficient algorithms. As an example, we detail the case of Asian call options. The numerical results are compared with those obtained with other procedures used in quantitative finance and found to be in good agreement. In particular, when pricing at the money (ATM) and out of the money (OTM) options, path integral exhibits competitive performances.

  20. Application of stability-indicating HPTLC method for quantitative determination of metadoxine in pharmaceutical dosage form.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Neeraj; Agrawal, Himani; Patil, Bharat; Kakad, Abhijit; Dhaneshwar, S R

    2005-04-01

    A sensitive, selective, precise and stability-indicating high-performance thin-layer chromatographic method for analysis of metadoxine both as a bulk drug and in formulations was developed and validated. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of acetone-chloroform-methanol-ammonia (7.0:4.0:3.0:1.2, v/v/v/v). Densitometric analysis of metadoxine was carried out in the absorbance mode at 315 nm. This system was found to give compact spots for metadoxine (Rf value of 0.45+/-0.02, for six replicates). Metadoxine was subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry and wet heat treatment and photo and UV degradation. The drug undergoes degradation under all stress conditions. Also, the degraded products were well resolved from the pure drug with significantly different Rf values. The method was validated for linearity, precision, robustness, LOD, LOQ, specificity and accuracy. Linearity was found to be in the range of 100-1500 ng/spot with significantly high value of correlation coefficient r2=0.9997+/-1.02. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2=0.9999+/-0.58 in the working concentration range of 200-700 ng/spot. The mean value of slope and intercept were 0.11+/-0.04 and 18.73+/-1.89, respectively. The limits of detection and quantitation were 50 and 100 ng/spot, respectively. Statistical analysis proves that the method is repeatable and specific for the estimation of the said drug. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as a stability-indicating one. Moreover, the proposed HPTLC method was utilized to investigate the kinetics of acid and base degradation process. Arrhenius plot was constructed and activation energy was calculated respectively for acid and base degradation process. PMID:15848212

  1. A quantitative method to monitor reactive oxygen species production by electron paramagnetic resonance in physiological and pathological conditions.

    PubMed

    Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Gussoni, Maristella; Montorsi, Michela; Porcelli, Simone; Vezzoli, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in the role of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and in the assessment of oxidative stress in health and disease clashes with the lack of consensus on reliable quantitative noninvasive methods applicable. The study aimed at demonstrating that a recently developed Electron Paramagnetic Resonance microinvasive method provides direct evidence of the "instantaneous" presence of ROS returning absolute concentration levels that correlate with "a posteriori" assays of ROS-induced damage by means of biomarkers. The reliability of the choice to measure ROS production rate in human capillary blood rather than in plasma was tested (step I). A significant (P < 0.01) linear relationship between EPR data collected on capillary blood versus venous blood (R (2) = 0.95), plasma (R (2) = 0.82), and erythrocytes (R (2) = 0.73) was found. Then (step II) ROS production changes of various subjects' categories, young versus old and healthy versus pathological at rest condition, were found significantly different (range 0.0001-0.05 P level). The comparison of the results with antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage biomarkers concentrations showed that all changes indicating increased oxidative stress are directly related to ROS production increase. Therefore, the adopted method may be an automated technique for a lot of routine in clinical trials. PMID:25374651

  2. Quantitative determination of zopiclone and its impurity by four different spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Maha M; Naguib, Ibrahim A; El Ghobashy, Mohamed R; Ali, Nesma A

    2015-02-25

    Four simple, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric methods are presented for determination of Zopiclone (ZPC) and its impurity, one of its degradation products, namely; 2-amino-5-chloropyridine (ACP). Method A is a dual wavelength spectrophotometry; where two wavelengths (252 and 301 nm for ZPC, and 238 and 261 nm for ACP) were selected for each component in such a way that difference in absorbance is zero for the second one. Method B is isoabsorptive ratio method by combining the isoabsorptive point (259.8 nm) in the ratio spectrum using ACP as a divisor and the ratio difference for a single step determination of both components. Method C is third derivative (D(3)) spectrophotometric method which allows determination of both ZPC at 283.6 nm and ACP at 251.6 nm without interference of each other. Method D is based on measuring the peak amplitude of the first derivative of the ratio spectra (DD(1)) at 263.2 nm for ZPC and 252 nm for ACP. The suggested methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and can be applied for routine analysis in quality control laboratories. Statistical analysis of the results obtained from the proposed methods and those obtained from the reported method has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. PMID:25244295

  3. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods for four genetically modified maize varieties and maize DNA content in food.

    PubMed

    Brodmann, Peter D; Ilg, Evelyn C; Berthoud, Hélène; Herrmann, Andre

    2002-01-01

    Quantitative detection methods are needed for enforcement of the recently introduced labeling threshold for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food ingredients. This labeling threshold, which is set to 1% in the European Union and Switzerland, must be applied to all approved GMOs. Four different varieties of maize are approved in the European Union: the insect-resistant Bt176 maize (Maximizer), Btl 1 maize, Mon810 (YieldGard) maize, and the herbicide-tolerant T25 (Liberty Link) maize. Because the labeling must be considered individually for each ingredient, a quantitation system for the endogenous maize content is needed in addition to the GMO-specific detection systems. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection methods were developed for the 4 approved genetically modified maize varieties and for an endogenous maize (invertase) gene system. PMID:12083257

  4. Monochloramine Disinfection Kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea by Propidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR and Live/Dead BacLight Methods?

    PubMed Central

    Wahman, David G.; Wulfeck-Kleier, Karen A.; Pressman, Jonathan G.

    2009-01-01

    Monochloramine disinfection kinetics were determined for the pure-culture ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) by two culture-independent methods, namely, Live/Dead BacLight (LD) and propidium monoazide quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR). Both methods were first verified with mixtures of heat-killed (nonviable) and non-heat-killed (viable) cells before a series of batch disinfection experiments with stationary-phase cultures (batch grown for 7 days) at pH 8.0, 25°C, and 5, 10, and 20 mg Cl2/liter monochloramine. Two data sets were generated based on the viability method used, either (i) LD or (ii) PMA-qPCR. These two data sets were used to estimate kinetic parameters for the delayed Chick-Watson disinfection model through a Bayesian analysis implemented in WinBUGS. This analysis provided parameter estimates of 490 mg Cl2-min/liter for the lag coefficient (b) and 1.6 × 10?3 to 4.0 × 10?3 liter/mg Cl2-min for the Chick-Watson disinfection rate constant (k). While estimates of b were similar for both data sets, the LD data set resulted in a greater k estimate than that obtained with the PMA-qPCR data set, implying that the PMA-qPCR viability measure was more conservative than LD. For N. europaea, the lag phase was not previously reported for culture-independent methods and may have implications for nitrification in drinking water distribution systems. This is the first published application of a PMA-qPCR method for disinfection kinetic model parameter estimation as well as its application to N. europaea or monochloramine. Ultimately, this PMA-qPCR method will allow evaluation of monochloramine disinfection kinetics for mixed-culture bacteria in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:19561179

  5. Correlation between average tissue depth data and quantitative accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstructions measured by geometric surface comparison method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Joon; Wilkinson, Caroline M; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Sang-Mi

    2015-05-01

    Accuracy is the most important factor supporting the reliability of forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) comparing to the corresponding actual face. A number of methods have been employed to evaluate objective accuracy of FFR. Recently, it has been attempted that the degree of resemblance between computer-generated FFR and actual face is measured by geometric surface comparison method. In this study, three FFRs were produced employing live adult Korean subjects and three-dimensional computerized modeling software. The deviations of the facial surfaces between the FFR and the head scan CT of the corresponding subject were analyzed in reverse modeling software. The results were compared with those from a previous study which applied the same methodology as this study except average facial soft tissue depth dataset. Three FFRs of this study that applied updated dataset demonstrated lesser deviation errors between the facial surfaces of the FFR and corresponding subject than those from the previous study. The results proposed that appropriate average tissue depth data are important to increase quantitative accuracy of FFR. PMID:25739646

  6. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR-Based Detection Methods for Authorized Genetically Modified Cotton Events in India.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Rashmi; Randhawa, Gurinder Jit; Bhoge, Rajesh K; Singh, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative diagnostics for all five commercialized genetically modified (GM) cotton events for insect resistance in India is being reported for the first time in this paper. The cost-effective and robust multiplex PCR (MPCR)-based detection assay, distinguishing the insect resistant transgenic Bt cotton events, viz., MON531, MON15985, Event 1, GFM-cry1A, and MLS-9124, has been developed. This decaplex PCR assay targets nine transgenic elements, viz., sequences of four transgenes, three transgene constructs, and two event-specific sequences along with one endogenous reference gene. The LOD of the qualitative MPCR assay was up to 0.1%. A quantitative detection method for four widely commercially cultivated GM cotton events, namely, MON531, MON15985, Event 1, and GFM-cry1A, covering 99.5% of the total area under GM cultivation in the country, is also reported. A construct-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed for quantification of these GM cotton events with LOQ <0.05% and LOD <0.025%. The developed assays will be of great use to screen for the presence/absence of authorized GM cotton events in unknown samples and to check the authenticity of GM cotton seed samples. PMID:25902979

  7. A gradient-based method for quantitative photoacoustic tomography using the radiative transfer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saratoon, T.; Tarvainen, T.; Cox, B. T.; Arridge, S. R.

    2013-07-01

    Quantitative photoacoustic tomography (QPAT) offers the possibility of high-resolution molecular imaging by quantifying molecular concentrations in biological tissue. QPAT comprises two inverse problems: (1) the construction of a photoacoustic image from surface measurements of photoacoustic wave pulses over time, and (2) the determination of the optical properties of the imaged region. The first is a well-studied area for which a number of solution methods are available, while the second is, in general, a nonlinear, ill-posed inverse problem. Model-based inversion techniques to solve (2) are usually based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation (RTE) and typically assume the acoustic inversion step has been solved exactly. Here, neither simplification is made: the full RTE is used to model the light propagation, and the acoustic propagation and image reconstruction are included in the simulations of measured data. Since Hessian- and Jacobian-based minimizations are computationally expensive for the large data sets typically encountered in QPAT, gradient-based minimization schemes provide a practical alternative. The acoustic pressure time series were simulated using a k-space, pseudo-spectral time domain model, and a time-reversal reconstruction algorithm was used to form a set of photoacoustic images corresponding to four illumination positions. A regularized, adjoint-assisted gradient inversion using a finite element model of the RTE was then used to determine the optical absorption and scattering coefficients.

  8. Quantitative assessment of MS plaques and brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis using semiautomatic segmentation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Tomi; Dastidar, Prasun; Ryymin, Pertti; Lahtinen, Antti J.; Eskola, Hannu; Malmivuo, Jaakko

    1997-05-01

    Quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain is useful in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to obtain reliable indices of disease progression. The goal of this project was to estimate the total volume of gliotic and non gliotic plaques in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis with the help of a semiautomatic segmentation method developed at the Ragnar Granit Institute. Youth developed program running on a PC based computer provides de displays of the segmented data, in addition to the volumetric analyses. The volumetric accuracy of the program was demonstrated by segmenting MR images of fluid filed syringes. An anatomical atlas is to be incorporated in the segmentation system to estimate the distribution of MS plaques in various neural pathways of the brain. A total package including MS plaque volume estimation, estimation of brain atrophy and ventricular enlargement, distribution of MS plaques in different neural segments of the brain has ben planned for the near future. Our study confirmed that total lesion volumes in chronic MS disease show a poor correlation to EDSS scores but show a positive correlation to neuropsychological scores. Therefore accurate total volume measurements of MS plaques using the developed semiautomatic segmentation technique helped us to evaluate the degree of neuropsychological impairment.

  9. Development of Screening Method for an Frail Elderly by Measurement Quantitative Lower Limb Muscular Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Iwakami, Yumi; Imaizumi, Kazuya; Sato, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Sawako; Ino, Shuichi; Kawasumi, Masashi; Ifukube, Tohru

    Falling is one of the most serious problems for the elderly. The aim of this study was to develop a screening method for identifying factors that increase the risk of falling among the elderly, particularly with regard to lower limb muscular strength. Subjects were 48 elderly volunteers, including 25 classed as healthy and 23 classed as frail. All subjects underwent measurement of lower limb muscular strength via toe gap force and measurement of muscle strength of the hip joint adductor via knee gap force. In the frail group, toe gap force of the right foot was 20% lower than that in the healthy group; toe gap force of the left foot in the frail group was 23% lower than that in the healthy group, while knee gap force was 20% lower. Furthermore, we found that combining left toe gap force and knee gap force gave the highest odds ratio (6.05) with 82.6% sensitivity and 56.0% specificity when the toe gap force was 24 N and the knee gap force was 100 N. Thus, lower limb muscular strength can be used for simple and efficient screening, and approaches to prevent falls can be based on quantitative data such as lower limb muscular strength.

  10. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  11. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  12. Development of a planar chromatographic method for quantitation of anthocyanes in pomace, feed, juice and wine.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Stephanie; Urmann, Olessia; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2013-05-10

    An efficient HPTLC method was developed, which required minimal sample preparation for quantitation of the main anthocyanes in pomace, animal feed as well as various foods. The best separation of 11 anthocyanes was achieved on HPTLC plates silica gel 60 F254 with a mixture of ethyl acetate-2-butanone-formic acid-water for anthocyanins and ethyl acetate-toluene-formic acid-water for anthocyanidins. Due to the high flexibility of the HPTLC method, both anthocyane groups could be developed in a combined 2-step method. The second development was only necessary if anthocyanidins were detected in the samples. This normal phase separation was found superior to the best separation achieved on RP-18 phases with a mixture of water-n-propanol-formic acid. Absorbance measurement was performed using the multi-wavelength scan at 505 (or 510), 520, 530 and 555 nm. The correlation coefficients of the calibrations ranged between 0.9993 and 0.9999 for the 11 anthocyanes. LOQs were all ?90 ng/zone, most even ?30 ng/zone and for pn-3-glc and pg-3-glc even ?7 ng/zone. With regard to the analysis of mv-3-glc in grape seed/marc meal and supplemented animal feed samples, the mean repeatabilities were 1.4% (laboratory 1) and 1.8% (laboratory 2). The intermediate precisions within a laboratory over several months were ?6.7%. The ruggedness of the method was ?5.5%. The method was transferred to other sample types. Juice and wine samples, which were from the same plant source, showed a comparable anthocyanin pattern, whereas the pattern was characteristically different between plant sources. Unknown anthocyanin sample components were analyzed via HPTLC-ESI-MS by eluting the zones of interest with the TLC-MS Interface, which was helpful for further characterization of unknowns. An interesting tool was demonstrated by effect-directed analysis with regard to radical scavenging properties and general bioactivity based on detection with Vibrio fischeri bacteria. PMID:23570852

  13. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for residual mouse DNA and comparison of four sample purification methods for DNA isolation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hui; Gu, Xuelin; Scanlan, Mary S; Lively, Chris R

    2011-04-28

    Reliable and sensitive assays are required to determine whether a pharmaceutical product meets current regulatory guidelines for residual host cell DNA. In this study, the sensitivity of the qPCR assay was significantly improved by targeting the repetitive elements of mouse genome. This improved method allowed for sensitive and accurate quantitation of mouse genomic DNA in the range of 1 to 10(6)pg/mL. In addition, four sample purification methods for DNA isolation (Wako DNA extractor kit, MasterPure™ DNA purification kit, PrepSEQ™ residual DNA sample preparation kit, and phenol-chloroform extraction method with addition of glycogen), each representing a different strategy for DNA isolation from proteinaceous solutions, were evaluated by isolating DNA from a mouse monoclonal IgG antibody. Among these methods, Wako DNA extractor kit and MasterPure™ DNA purification kit demonstrated superior DNA recovery, repeatability, and sensitivity, with quantitation limits of 1pg/mL. To further evaluate these two DNA isolation methods, six replicates of an unspiked mouse polyclonal IgG antibody sample were tested by both methods, and both methods demonstrated a good degree of precision. Therefore, the residual mouse DNA quantitation methods described here represented rapid, accurate, precise, and sensitive procedures that can be used in quality control testing for regulatory compliance in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:21295933

  14. Effects of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative properties of essential oil of two basil landraces.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, Abdollah; Mahdad, Elahe; Craker, Lyle

    2013-12-01

    Sweet basil, a plant that is extensively cultivated in some countries, is used to enhance the flavour of salads, sauces, pasta and confectioneries as both a fresh and dried herb. To determine the effect of drying methods on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the plant and essential oil of basil, two landraces, Purple and Green, were dried in sunlight, shade, mechanical ovens at 40 °C and 60 °C, a microwave oven at 500 W and by freeze-drying. For comparison, the essential oils of all samples were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The highest essential oil yields (v/w on dry weight basis) were obtained from shade-dried tissue in both landraces followed by the freeze-dried sample of the purple landrace and the fresh sample of green landrace. Increasing the drying temperature significantly decreased the essential oil content of all samples. Significant changes in the chemical profile of the essential oils from each of the landrace were associated with the drying method, including the loss of most monoterpene hydrocarbons, as compared with fresh samples. No significant differences occurred among several constituents in the extracted essential oils, including methyl chavicol (estragole), the major compound in the oil of both landraces, whether the plants were dried in the shade or sun, oven at 40 °C or freeze-dried, as compared with a fresh sample. The percentage methyl chavicol in the oil, however, decreased significantly when the plant material was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. In addition, linalool, the second major compound in the purple landrace, and geranial and neral, major compounds in the green landrace, decreased significantly when the plant tissue was dried in the oven at 60 °C or microwaved. PMID:23870979

  15. High Accuracy Optical Flow Method Based on a Theory for Warping: Implementation and Qualitative\\/Quantitative Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Faisal; John Barron

    2007-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a 2D optical flow al- gorithm published in the European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV 2004) by Brox et al. (1) (best paper award) and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of it for a number of synthetic and real im- age sequences. Their optical flow method combines three assumptions: a brightness constancy assumption, a gradient

  16. An improved method for the identification and quantitation of biological lipids by HPIX: using laser light-scat tering detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Lutzke; J. M. Braughler

    Summary We have developed a simplified and improved high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection and quantitation of tissue lipid using a new laser light-scattering detector (Vara model ELSD 11). This detector has a limit of sensitivity of 50 ng for neutral lipid and 200 ng for most phospholipids with excellent reproducibility. By coupling the ELSD I1 with

  17. Analysis of Relative Gene Expression Data Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR and the 2 ??? C T Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Livak; Thomas D. Schmittgen

    2001-01-01

    The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated

  18. Comparison of TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR methods for quantitative gene expression in tung tree tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis due to its large dynamic range, tremendous sensitivity, high sequence-specificity, little to no post-amplification processing, and sample throughput. TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are two frequently used methods. However, dir...

  19. A NEW METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF WHOLE BLOOD PLATELET INTERACTION WITH EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX UNDER FLOW CONDITIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Varon; Rima Dardik; Boris Shenkman; Shlomo Kotev-Emeth; Nahid Farzame; Ilia Tamarin; Naphtali Savion

    1997-01-01

    A new method and device in which whole blood platelet deposition and aggregation on extracellular matrix (ECM) under defined shear conditions is quantitatively evaluated was developed. A 0.25 mL aliquot of citrated whole blood is placed on ECM and a defined shear rate is applied for 2 min using a cone and plate device. This is followed by staining and

  20. Validated method for the quantitation of quercetin from human plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iris Erlund; Georg Alfthan; Heli Siren; Kari Ariniemi; Antti Aro

    1999-01-01

    A validated method for the quantitation of trace levels of quercetin from human plasma to be used in pharmacokinetic and biomarker studies is presented. Quercetin conjugates were hydrolysed enzymatically, plasma proteins were removed using a Bond Elut C18 extraction column and additional interferences were removed by extracting them into a toluene–dichloromethane mixture. The HPLC system consisted of an Inertsil ODS-3

  1. Teaching Integrative Physiology Using the Quantitative Circulatory Physiology Model and Case Discussion Method: Evaluation of the Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Barbero, A.; Lopez-Novoa, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the problems that we have found when teaching human physiology in a Spanish medical school is that the degree of understanding by the students of the integration between organs and systems is rather poor. We attempted to remedy this problem by using a case discussion method together with the Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP)…

  2. Real Time Quantitative PCR as a Method to Evaluate Simian Virus 40 Removal During Pharmaceutical Protein Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liming Shi; Lenore A. Norling; Allen S. L. Lau; Sherrie Krejci; Alison J. Laney; Yuan Xu

    1999-01-01

    Continuous cell lines used for pharmaceutical protein manufacturing have the potential to be contaminated by viruses. To ensure the safety of pharmaceutical proteins derived from continuous cell lines, validation of the ability of the manufacturing process to clear potential contaminating viruses is required for product registration. In this paper, a real time quantitative PCR method has been applied to the

  3. Targeted LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantitation of Plant Lignans and Enterolignans in Biofluids from Humans and Pigs.

    PubMed

    Nørskov, Natalja P; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-07-15

    Lignans have gained nutritional interest due to their promising role in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. However, epidemiological studies are in need of more evidence to link the intake of lignans to this promising role. In this context, it is necessary to study large population groups to obtain sufficient statistical power. Therefore, there is a demand for fast, sensitive, and accurate methods for quantitation with high throughput of samples. This paper presents a validated LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of eight plant lignans (matairesinol, hydroxymatairesinol, secoisolariciresinol, lariciresinol, isolariciresinol, syringaresinol, medioresinol, and pinoresinol) and two enterolignans (enterodiol and enterolactone) in both human and pig plasma and urine. The method showed high selectivity and sensitivity allowing quantitation of lignans in the range of 0.024-100 ng/mL and with a run time of only 4.8 min per sample. The method was successfully applied to quantitate lignans in biofluids from ongoing studies with humans and pigs. PMID:26077973

  4. "What about People Our Age?" Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods to Uncover How Political Ads Alienate College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmelee, John H.; Perkins, Stephynie C.; Sayre, Judith J.

    2007-01-01

    This study uses a sequential transformative mixed methods research design to explain how political advertising fails to engage college students. Qualitative focus groups examined how college students interpret the value of political advertising to them, and a quantitative manifest content analysis concerning ad framing of more than 100 ads from…

  5. Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method to quantitate acyclovir in cross-linked chitosan microspheres produced by spray drying.

    PubMed

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Murakami, Fábio S; Silva, Marcos A S; Laranjeira, Mauro C M

    2008-07-01

    An accurate, simple, reproducible, and sensitive liquid chromatographic method is developed and validated to quantitate acyclovir (ACV) in cross-linked chitosan microspheres produced by spray drying. The analysis is carried out using a reversed-phase C18 column with UV-vis detection at 254 nm. The mobile phase is diluted with pure water and acetonitrile (95:5 v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. The parameters used in the validation process are: linearity, range, quantitation limit, detection limit, accuracy, specificity precision, and ruggedness. The retention time of acyclovir is approximately 3.5 min with symmetrical peaks. The linearity in the range of 1-10 microg/mL presents a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. The chitosan and the tripolyphosphate in the formulation do not interfere with the analysis, and the recovery is quantitative. Results are satisfactory, and the method proves to be suitable to quantitate ACV in cross-linked chitosan microspheres. PMID:18647469

  6. Validated capillary electrophoretic method for the quantitative analysis of histamine acid phosphate and/or benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Altria, K D; Elgey, J; Howells, J S

    1996-11-01

    A novel capillary electrophoresis method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of histamine acid phosphate (HAP) and/or benzalkonium chloride (BKC). The solutes were separated using a pH 2.5 phosphate electrolyte with detection at 200 nm. Acceptable precision was obtained using internal standardisation. The method was also acceptable for determining levels of histidine which is an impurity in HAP. Profiling of BKC homologues was demonstrated for batch identity purposes. This method is used routinely and it is intended to register this method in the British Pharmacopoeia to supplement current test methods of TLC and HPLC. PMID:8953198

  7. Spin echo SPI methods for quantitative analysis of fluids in porous media.

    PubMed

    Li, Linqing; Han, Hui; Balcom, Bruce J

    2009-06-01

    Fluid density imaging is highly desirable in a wide variety of porous media measurements. The SPRITE class of MRI methods has proven to be robust and general in their ability to generate density images in porous media, however the short encoding times required, with correspondingly high magnetic field gradient strengths and filter widths, and low flip angle RF pulses, yield sub-optimal S/N images, especially at low static field strength. This paper explores two implementations of pure phase encode spin echo 1D imaging, with application to a proposed new petroleum reservoir core analysis measurement. In the first implementation of the pulse sequence, we modify the spin echo single point imaging (SE-SPI) technique to acquire the k-space origin data point, with a near zero evolution time, from the free induction decay (FID) following a 90 degrees excitation pulse. Subsequent k-space data points are acquired by separately phase encoding individual echoes in a multi-echo acquisition. T(2) attenuation of the echo train yields an image convolution which causes blurring. The T(2) blur effect is moderate for porous media with T(2) lifetime distributions longer than 5 ms. As a robust, high S/N, and fast 1D imaging method, this method will be highly complementary to SPRITE techniques for the quantitative analysis of fluid content in porous media. In the second implementation of the SE-SPI pulse sequence, modification of the basic measurement permits fast determination of spatially resolved T(2) distributions in porous media through separately phase encoding each echo in a multi-echo CPMG pulse train. An individual T(2) weighted image may be acquired from each echo. The echo time (TE) of each T(2) weighted image may be reduced to 500 micros or less. These profiles can be fit to extract a T(2) distribution from each pixel employing a variety of standard inverse Laplace transform methods. Fluid content 1D images are produced as an essential by product of determining the spatially resolved T(2) distribution. These 1D images do not suffer from a T(2) related blurring. The above SE-SPI measurements are combined to generate 1D images of the local saturation and T(2) distribution as a function of saturation, upon centrifugation of petroleum reservoir core samples. The logarithm mean T(2) is observed to shift linearly with water saturation. This new reservoir core analysis measurement may provide a valuable calibration of the Coates equation for irreducible water saturation, which has been widely implemented in NMR well logging measurements. PMID:19307140

  8. Method Used and Highlight Results Achieved in FLOMANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Bunge; C. Mockett; F. Thiele

    This chapter describes the method used by the Technical University of Berlin and it summarises the highlight results obtained\\u000a with this method in the course of FLOMANIA. The main results are the successful implementation and calibration of DES for\\u000a three different models and the improved representation of flow physics with these DES implementations.

  9. Depth determination for shallow teleseismic earthquakes Methods and results

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, S.; Wiens, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Contemporary methods used to determine depths of moderate-sized shallow teleseismic earthquakes are described. These include techniques based on surface wave spectra, and methods which estimate focal depth from the waveforms of body waves. The advantages of different methods and their limitations are discussed, and significant results for plate tectonics, obtained in the last five years by the application of these methods, are presented. 119 references.

  10. Measurement and Meaning: Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Methods for the Analysis of Poverty and Social Exclusion in Latin America. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacitua-Mario, Estanislao, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    This report consists of a collection of case studies from Latin America combining qualitative and quantitative research methods for the analysis of poverty within a social exclusion framework. The first chapter provides an overview of the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, and the gains from using both types of methods in…

  11. The development of processing methods for a quantitative histological investigation of rat hearts 

    E-print Network

    Jetton, Emily Hope

    2004-11-15

    In order to understand the mechanical functions of the cardiac muscle it is important to first understand the microstructure of the tissue. Young et al. (1998) realized that quantitative three-dimensional information about ...

  12. A rapid approach for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging in thigh muscles using the pulsed saturation method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Dortch, Richard D; Kroop, Susan F; Huston, Joseph W; Gochberg, Daniel F; Park, Jane H; Damon, Bruce M

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging in skeletal muscle may be confounded by intramuscular adipose components, low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and voluntary and involuntary motion artifacts. Collectively, these issues could create bias and error in parameter fitting. In this study, technical considerations related to these factors were systematically investigated, and solutions were proposed. First, numerical simulations indicate that the presence of an additional fat component significantly underestimates the pool size ratio (F). Therefore, fat-signal suppression (or water-selective excitation) is recommended for qMT imaging of skeletal muscle. Second, to minimize the effect of motion and muscle contraction artifacts in datasets collected with a conventional 14-point sampling scheme, a rapid two-parameter model was adapted from previous studies in the brain and spinal cord. The consecutive pair of sampling points with highest accuracy and precision for estimating F was determined with numerical simulations. Its performance with respect to SNR and incorrect parameter assumptions was systematically evaluated. QMT data fitting was performed in healthy control subjects and polymyositis patients, using both the two- and five-parameter models. The experimental results were consistent with the predictions from the numerical simulations. These data support the use of the two-parameter modeling approach for qMT imaging of skeletal muscle as a means to reduce total imaging time and/or permit additional signal averaging. PMID:25839394

  13. Quantitative evaluation method of the bubble structure of sponge cake by using morphology image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatebe, Hironobu; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Katsuta, Yukio; Nonaka, Masahiko

    2005-12-01

    Now a day, many evaluation methods for the food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that are using for the quality evaluation. An advantage of the image processing is to be able to evaluate objectively. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner. Because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow, the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale values, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. First, input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  14. Teaching integrative physiology using the quantitative circulatory physiology model and case discussion method: evaluation of the learning experience

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A Rodriguez-Barbero (Universidad de Salamanca Fisiologia y Farmacologia)

    2008-12-01

    One of the problems that we have found when teaching human physiology in a Spanish medical school is that the degree of understanding by the students of the integration between organs and systems is rather poor. We attempted to remedy this problem by using a case discussion method together with the Quantitative Circulatory Physiology (QCP) program. QCP is a Windows-based computer simulation program that offers almost real-time simulation and allows users to examine the time-dependent interactions of over 750 parameters. We evaluated students' perceptions by an anonymous questionnaire. Teachers' perceptions of this teaching approach were highly positive, as it improved students' perceptions of the complexity of biological processes, their ability to differentiate between acute and chronic responses, and promoted an integrative understanding of human body function. Teachers also identified some problems with the approach, including student difficulties in adopting self-directed learning, a lack of precision in student questions during the discussion sessions, and the lack of a tradition of using several textbooks to explain the changes observed. The results of the student questionnaire revealed that >70% of the students reported that this type of learning gave them a better understanding of the complexity of physiological processes and the role of coordinated actions of several systems in the homeostatic response and enabled them to acquire a better understanding of human body functions. Thus, we conclude that this approach promotes an integrative understanding of cardiovascular and renal functions that is difficult to achieve with other methods.

  15. Quantitative determination of nucleic acids in salmonidae milt by various methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Karklinya; I. A. Birska; Yu. A. Limarenko

    1989-01-01

    Procedures for the determination of total nucleic acids from ultraviolet absorption and for the separate determination of DNA and RNA by means of color reactions using the same tissue extracts have been developed. The results of the total and separate determination of the nucleic acids and the analysis of milts preserved by various methods are given. The discrepancies between the

  16. International ring trial for the validation of an event-specific golden rice 2 quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method.

    PubMed

    Jacchia, Sara; Nardini, Elena; Bassani, Niccolò; Savini, Christian; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Trijatmiko, Kurniawan; Kreysa, Joachim; Mazzara, Marco

    2015-05-27

    This article describes the international validation of the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method for Golden Rice 2. The method consists of a taxon-specific assay amplifying a fragment of rice Phospholipase D ?2 gene, and an event-specific assay designed on the 3' junction between transgenic insert and plant DNA. We validated the two assays independently, with absolute quantification, and in combination, with relative quantification, on DNA samples prepared in haploid genome equivalents. We assessed trueness, precision, efficiency, and linearity of the two assays, and the results demonstrate that both the assays independently assessed and the entire method fulfill European and international requirements for methods for genetically modified organism (GMO) testing, within the dynamic range tested. The homogeneity of the results of the collaborative trial between Europe and Asia is a good indicator of the robustness of the method. PMID:25946377

  17. On sharing quantitative trait GWAS results in an era of multiple-omics data and the limits of genomic privacy.

    PubMed

    Im, Hae Kyung; Gamazon, Eric R; Nicolae, Dan L; Cox, Nancy J

    2012-04-01

    Recent advances in genome-scale, system-level measurements of quantitative phenotypes (transcriptome, metabolome, and proteome) promise to yield unprecedented biological insights. In this environment, broad dissemination of results from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) or deep-sequencing efforts is highly desirable. However, summary results from case-control studies (allele frequencies) have been withdrawn from public access because it has been shown that they can be used for inferring participation in a study if the individual's genotype is available. A natural question that follows is how much private information is contained in summary results from quantitative trait GWAS such as regression coefficients or p values. We show that regression coefficients for many SNPs can reveal the person's participation and for participants his or her phenotype with high accuracy. Our power calculations show that regression coefficients contain as much information on individuals as allele frequencies do, if the person's phenotype is rather extreme or if multiple phenotypes are available as has been increasingly facilitated by the use of multiple-omics data sets. These findings emphasize the need to devise a mechanism that allows data sharing that will facilitate scientific progress without sacrificing privacy protection. PMID:22463877

  18. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Fat Measurements in Humans correlate With Established Methods but Are Biased

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Dympna; Thornton, John C.; He, Qing; Wang, Jack; Yu, Wen; Bradstreet, Thomas E.; Burke, Joanne; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Rivas, Veronica M.; Kaufman, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    Precision and accuracy of the quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) system for measuring fat in phantoms and total body fat (TBF) in humans were investigated. Measurements were made using phantoms: oil, beef with water, beef with oil, and humans with oil and water. TBFQMR in humans was compared with TBF by a four-compartment model (TBF4C). The coefficient of variation (CV) for replicate TBFQMR was 0.437%. QMR fat was lower at 23 °C vs. 37 °C. The fat increase in QMR phantom studies was consistent with the oil increase. When oil was added with humans, the increase in TBFQMR was >250 g for the initial 250 g of oil. With additional oil increments, the increase in TBFQMR was consistent with the amount of oil added. When water was added with humans, the TBFQMR increased independent of the amount of water added. TBFQMR was significantly less (mean ± s.e.) than TBF4C (females: ?0.68 ± 0.27 kg, males: ?4.66 ± 0.62 kg; P = 0.0001), TBFBV (females: ?1.90 ± 0.40 kg; males: ?5.68 ± 0.75 kg; P = 0.0001), and TBFD2O for males, but greater for females (1.19 ± 0.43 kg vs. ?3.69 ± 0.81 kg for males; P = 0.0003). TBFQMR was lower than TBFiDXA with the difference greater in males (P = 0.001) and decreased with age (P = 0.011). The strong linear relationships between TBFQMR and TBF4C, TBFBV, and TBFD2O with slopes consistent with unity suggest that modifications are required to improve the accuracy. Should the latter be accomplished, QMR holds promise as a highly precise, rapid, and safe, noninvasive method for estimating the amount of and changes in TBF in overweight and severely obese persons. PMID:20448539

  19. 4D Seismic Monitoring at the Ketzin Pilot Site during five years of storage - Results and Quantitative Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüth, Stefan; Ivanova, Alexandra; Ivandic, Monika; Götz, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The Ketzin pilot site for geological CO2-storage has been operative between June 2008 and August 2013. In this period, 67 kt of CO2 have been injected (Martens et al., this conference). Repeated 3D seismic monitoring surveys were performed before and during CO2 injection. A third repeat survey, providing data from the post-injection phase, is currently being prepared for the autumn of 2015. The large scale 3D surface seismic measurements have been complemented by other geophysical and geochemical monitoring methods, among which are high-resolution seismic surface-downhole observations. These observations have been concentrating on the reservoir area in the vicinity of the injection well and provide high-resolution images as well as data for petrophysical quantification of the CO2 distribution in the reservoir. The Ketzin pilot site is a saline aquifer site in an onshore environment which poses specific challenges for a reliable monitoring of the injection CO2. Although much effort was done to ensure as much as possible identical acquisition conditions, a high degree of repeatability noise was observed, mainly due to varying weather conditions, and also variations in the acquisition geometries due to logistical reasons. Nevertheless, time-lapse processing succeeded in generating 3D time-lapse data sets which could be interpreted in terms of CO2 storage related amplitude variations in the depth range of the storage reservoir. The time-lapse seismic data, pulsed-neutron-gamma logging results (saturation), and petrophysical core measurements were interpreted together in order to estimate the amount of injected carbon dioxide imaged by the seismic repeat data. For the first repeat survey, the mass estimation was summed up to 20.5 ktons, which is approximately 7% less than what had been injected then. For the second repeat survey, the mass estimation was summed up to approximately 10-15% less than what had been injected. The deviations may be explained by several factors of uncertainty, and by partial dissolution of the injected CO2, thus reducing the amount of free gas, which can be detected by seismic time-lapse observations. These quantitative assessment studies have shown that conformity between injected and estimated CO2 quantities can only be achieved with some degree of uncertainty which needs to be quantified for a realistic assessment of conformity studies.

  20. Preparing systems engineering and computing science students in disciplined methods, quantitative, and advanced statistical techniques to improve process performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCray, Wilmon Wil L., Jr.

    The research was prompted by a need to conduct a study that assesses process improvement, quality management and analytical techniques taught to students in U.S. colleges and universities undergraduate and graduate systems engineering and the computing science discipline (e.g., software engineering, computer science, and information technology) degree programs during their academic training that can be applied to quantitatively manage processes for performance. Everyone involved in executing repeatable processes in the software and systems development lifecycle processes needs to become familiar with the concepts of quantitative management, statistical thinking, process improvement methods and how they relate to process-performance. Organizations are starting to embrace the de facto Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI RTM) Models as process improvement frameworks to improve business processes performance. High maturity process areas in the CMMI model imply the use of analytical, statistical, quantitative management techniques, and process performance modeling to identify and eliminate sources of variation, continually improve process-performance; reduce cost and predict future outcomes. The research study identifies and provides a detail discussion of the gap analysis findings of process improvement and quantitative analysis techniques taught in U.S. universities systems engineering and computing science degree programs, gaps that exist in the literature, and a comparison analysis which identifies the gaps that exist between the SEI's "healthy ingredients " of a process performance model and courses taught in U.S. universities degree program. The research also heightens awareness that academicians have conducted little research on applicable statistics and quantitative techniques that can be used to demonstrate high maturity as implied in the CMMI models. The research also includes a Monte Carlo simulation optimization model and dashboard that demonstrates the use of statistical methods, statistical process control, sensitivity analysis, quantitative and optimization techniques to establish a baseline and predict future customer satisfaction index scores (outcomes). The American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) model and industry benchmarks were used as a framework for the simulation model.

  1. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography method for analyte quantitation from pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Abhishek; Myrdal, Paul B

    2004-04-01

    A sensitive and rapid, on-line reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for quantitation of compounds at low concentrations in pressurized metered dose inhaler (MDI) systems was developed. Traditional methods for the quantitation of compounds in MDI formulations involve the opening of the MDI vial along with sample dilution prior to quantitation. The new method, reported in this study, involves a direct injection from the MDI vial into the needle injector port of a manual injector. Since there is no dilution step involved, this method can be used to quantitate low concentrations of compounds in MDIs with excellent precision. In addition, since the method requires a small injection volume of 5 microl, repeated analyses can be performed in order to generate multiple data points using the same MDI vial. Validation of the method was performed using ethanol-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (134a)-based MDIs. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), a corticosteroid used for the treatment of asthma, was used as a model compound. Phase separation studies were conducted to investigate the miscibility of the ethanol-134a mixtures with different mobile phase solvent compositions. For the MDI systems in this study, an acetonitrile-water (90:10, v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min was found to give acceptable chromatography for BDP on a Apollo C18 5 microm, 150 mm x 4.6 mm column (Alltech Associates, Deerfield, IL, USA). Ultraviolet detection was done at 240 nm and the retention time of BDP was 2.7 min. The on-line HPLC method was characterized to be accurate, precise, sensitive, and specific. PMID:15072294

  2. Quantitative measurement of high intensity focused ultrasound pressure field by optical phase contrast method applying non-continuous phase unwrapping algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahid, Mohd; Oyama, Seiji; Yasuda, Jun; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2015-07-01

    A fast and accurate ultrasound pressure field measurement is necessary for the progress of ultrasound application in medicine. In general, a hydrophone is used to measure the ultrasound field, which takes a long measurement time and might disturb the ultrasound field. Hence, we proposed a new method categorized in an optical method called Phase Contrast method to overcome the drawback in the hydrophone method. The proposed method makes use of the spatial DC spectrum formed in the focal plane to measure the modulated optical phase induced by ultrasound propagation in water. In this study, we take into account the decreased intensity of the DC spectrum at high ultrasound intensity to increase the measurement accuracy of the modulated optical phase. Then, we apply a non-continuous phase unwrapping algorithm to unwrap the modulated optical phase at high ultrasound intensity. From, the unwrapped result, we evaluate the quantitativeness of the proposed method.

  3. Estimating true human and animal host source contribution in quantitative microbial source tracking using the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Silkie, Sarah S; Nelson, Kara L; Wuertz, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Cultivation- and library-independent, quantitative PCR-based methods have become the method of choice in microbial source tracking. However, these qPCR assays are not 100% specific and sensitive for the target sequence in their respective hosts' genome. The factors that can lead to false positive and false negative information in qPCR results are well defined. It is highly desirable to have a way of removing such false information to estimate the true concentration of host-specific genetic markers and help guide the interpretation of environmental monitoring studies. Here we propose a statistical model based on the Law of Total Probability to predict the true concentration of these markers. The distributions of the probabilities of obtaining false information are estimated from representative fecal samples of known origin. Measurement error is derived from the sample precision error of replicated qPCR reactions. Then, the Monte Carlo method is applied to sample from these distributions of probabilities and measurement error. The set of equations given by the Law of Total Probability allows one to calculate the distribution of true concentrations, from which their expected value, confidence interval and other statistical characteristics can be easily evaluated. The output distributions of predicted true concentrations can then be used as input to watershed-wide total maximum daily load determinations, quantitative microbial risk assessment and other environmental models. This model was validated by both statistical simulations and real world samples. It was able to correct the intrinsic false information associated with qPCR assays and output the distribution of true concentrations of Bacteroidales for each animal host group. Model performance was strongly affected by the precision error. It could perform reliably and precisely when the standard deviation of the precision error was small (? 0.1). Further improvement on the precision of sample processing and qPCR reaction would greatly improve the performance of the model. This methodology, built upon Bacteroidales assays, is readily transferable to any other microbial source indicator where a universal assay for fecal sources of that indicator exists. PMID:20822794

  4. Novel X-ray phase-contrast tomography method for quantitative studies of heat induced structural changes in meat.

    PubMed

    Miklos, Rikke; Nielsen, Mikkel Schou; Einarsdóttir, Hildur; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Lametsch, René

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of X-ray phase-contrast tomography combined with 3D image segmentation to investigate the heat induced structural changes in meat. The measurements were performed at the Swiss synchrotron radiation light source using a grating interferometric setup. The non-destructive method allowed the same sample to be measured before and after cooking. Heat denaturation resulted in a 36% decrease in the volume of the muscle fibers, while solubilization of the connective tissues increased the volume from 8.4%to 24.9%. The cooking loss was quantified and separated into a water phase and a gel phase formed by the sarcoplasmic proteins in the exudate. The results show that X-ray phase contrast tomography offers unique possibilities in studies both the meat structure and the different meat component such as water, fat, connective tissue and myofibrils in a qualitative and quantitative manner without prior sample preparation as isolation of single muscle components, calibration or histology. PMID:25460128

  5. Reference Genes Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Using RankAggreg Method in Different Tissues of Capra hircus

    PubMed Central

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  6. Three-phase structure invariants and structure factors determined with the quantitative convergent-beam electron diffraction method.

    PubMed

    Høier; Birkeland; Holmestad; Marthinsen

    1999-03-01

    Quantitative convergent-beam electron diffraction is used to determine structure factors and three-phase structure invariants. The refinements are based on centre-disc intensities only. An algorithm for param-eter-sensitive pixel sampling of experimental intensities is implemented in the refinement procedure to increase sensitivity and computer speed. Typical three-beam effects are illustrated for the centrosymmetric case. The modified refinement method is applied to determine amplitudes and three-phase structure invariants in noncentrosymmetric InP. The accuracy of the results is shown to depend on the choice of the initial parameters in the refinement. Even unrealistic starting assumptions and incorrect temperature factor lead to stable results for the structure invariant. The examples show that the accuracy varies from 1 to 10 degrees in the electron three-phase invariants determined and from 0.5 to 5% for the amplitudes. Individual phases could not be determined in the present case owing to spatial intensity correlations between phase-sensitive pixels. However, for the three-phase structure invariant, stable solutions were found. PMID:10927248

  7. Reference genes selection for quantitative real-time PCR using RankAggreg method in different tissues of Capra hircus.

    PubMed

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  8. Pressure ulcer prevention algorithm content validation: a mixed-methods, quantitative study.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijk, Lia; Beitz, Janice M

    2015-04-01

    Translating pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) evidence-based recommendations into practice remains challenging for a variety of reasons, including the perceived quality, validity, and usability of the research or the guideline itself. Following the development and face validation testing of an evidence-based PUP algorithm, additional stakeholder input and testing were needed. Using convenience sampling methods, wound care experts attending a national wound care conference and a regional wound ostomy continence nursing (WOCN) conference and/or graduates of a WOCN program were invited to participate in an Internal Review Board-approved, mixed-methods quantitative survey with qualitative components to examine algorithm content validity. After participants provided written informed consent, demographic variables were collected and participants were asked to comment on and rate the relevance and appropriateness of each of the 26 algorithm decision points/steps using standard content validation study procedures. All responses were anonymous. Descriptive summary statistics, mean relevance/appropriateness scores, and the content validity index (CVI) were calculated. Qualitative comments were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Of the 553 wound care experts invited, 79 (average age 52.9 years, SD 10.1; range 23-73) consented to participate and completed the study (a response rate of 14%). Most (67, 85%) were female, registered (49, 62%) or advanced practice (12, 15%) nurses, and had > 10 years of health care experience (88, 92%). Other health disciplines included medical doctors, physical therapists, nurse practitioners, and certified nurse specialists. Almost all had received formal wound care education (75, 95%). On a Likert-type scale of 1 (not relevant/appropriate) to 4 (very relevant and appropriate), the average score for the entire algorithm/all decision points (N = 1,912) was 3.72 with an overall CVI of 0.94 (out of 1). The only decision point/step recommendation with a CVI of ? 0.70 was the recommendation to provide medical-grade sheepskin for patients at high risk for friction/shear. Many positive and substantive suggestions for minor modifications including color, flow, and algorithm orientation were received. The high overall and individual item rating scores and CVI further support the validity and appropriateness of the PUP algorithm with the addition of the minor modifications. The generic recommendations facilitate individualization, and future research should focus on construct validation testing. PMID:25853377

  9. Determination of low bacterial concentrations in hyperarid Atacama soils: comparison of biochemical and microscopy methods with real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Lauren E; Conley, Catharine A; Valdivia-Silva, Julio E; Perez-Montaño, Saul; Condori-Apaza, Renee; Kovacs, Gregory T A; Glavin, Daniel P; McKay, Christopher P

    2011-11-01

    Hyperarid Atacama soils are reported to contain significantly reduced numbers of microbes per gram of soil relative to soils from other environments. Molecular methods have been used to evaluate microbial populations in hyperarid Atacama soils; however, conflicting results across the various studies, possibly caused by this low number of microorganisms and consequent biomass, suggest that knowledge of expected DNA concentrations in these soils becomes important to interpreting data from any method regarding microbial concentrations and diversity. In this paper we compare the number of bacteria per gram of Atacama Desert soils determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the number of bacteria estimated by the standard methods of phospholipids fatty acid analysis, adenine composition (determined by liquid chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry), and SYBR-green microscopy. The number determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction as implemented in this study was several orders of magnitude lower than that determined by the other three methods and probably underestimates the concentrations of soil bacteria, most likely because of soil binding during the DNA extraction methods. However, the other methods very possibly overestimate the bacteria concentrations owing to desiccated, intact organisms, which would stain positive in microscopy and preserve both adenine and phospholipid fatty acid for the other methods. PMID:22035208

  10. Novel Method for Automated Analysis of Retinal Images: Results in Subjects with Hypertensive Retinopathy and CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    Cavallari, Michele; Stamile, Claudio; Umeton, Renato; Calimeri, Francesco; Orzi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Morphological analysis of the retinal vessels by fundoscopy provides noninvasive means for detecting and staging systemic microvascular damage. However, full exploitation of fundoscopy in clinical settings is limited by paucity of quantitative, objective information obtainable through the observer-driven evaluations currently employed in routine practice. Here, we report on the development of a semiautomated, computer-based method to assess retinal vessel morphology. The method allows simultaneous and operator-independent quantitative assessment of arteriole-to-venule ratio, tortuosity index, and mean fractal dimension. The method was implemented in two conditions known for being associated with retinal vessel changes: hypertensive retinopathy and Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL). The results showed that our approach is effective in detecting and quantifying the retinal vessel abnormalities. Arteriole-to-venule ratio, tortuosity index, and mean fractal dimension were altered in the subjects with hypertensive retinopathy or CADASIL with respect to age- and gender-matched controls. The interrater reliability was excellent for all the three indices (intraclass correlation coefficient ? 85%). The method represents simple and highly reproducible means for discriminating pathological conditions characterized by morphological changes of retinal vessels. The advantages of our method include simultaneous and operator-independent assessment of different parameters and improved reliability of the measurements. PMID:26167496

  11. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of the fetal brain in utero: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Biegon, Anat; Hoffmann, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Application of modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to the live fetus in utero is a relatively recent endeavor. The relative advantages and disadvantages of clinical MRI relative to the widely used and accepted ultrasonographic approach are the subject of a continuing debate; however the focus of this review is on the even younger field of quantitative MRI as applied to non-invasive studies of fetal brain development. The techniques covered under this header include structural MRI when followed by quantitative (e.g., volumetric) analysis, as well as quantitative analyses of diffusion weighted imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI. The majority of the published work reviewed here reflects information gathered from normal fetuses scanned during the 3rd trimester, with relatively smaller number of studies of pathological samples including common congenital pathologies such as ventriculomegaly and viral infection. PMID:25170390

  12. Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan image in acoustically homogeneous and layered anisotropic materials using three dimensional ray tracing method.

    PubMed

    Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. PMID:24008174

  13. Spectrophotometric quantitative determination of cilazapril and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets by chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Erdal; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2002-10-15

    Four chemometric methods were applied to simultaneous determination of cilazapril and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets. Classical least-square (CLS), inverse least-square (ILS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS) methods do not need any priori graphical treatment of the overlapping spectra of two drugs in a mixture. For all chemometric calibrations a concentration set of the random mixture consisting of the two drugs in 0.1 M HCI and methanol (1:1) was prepared. The absorbance data in the UV-Vis spectra were measured for the 15 wavelength points (from 222 to 276 nm) in the spectral region 210-290 nm considering the intervals of deltalambda = 4 nm. The calibration of the investigated methods involves only absorbance and concentration data matrices. The developed calibrations were tested for the synthetic mixtures consisting of two drugs and using the Maple V software the chemometric calculations were performed. The results of the methods were compared each other as well as with HPLC method and a good agreement was found. PMID:12367697

  14. [Real time quantitative PCR].

    PubMed

    Kim, D W

    2001-04-21

    So far, quantitative techniques, such as PCR and FISH, have been used to detect of DNA and RNA. However, it is difficult to measure and compare the exact amount of amplified products with the results of endpoint analysis in conventional PCR techniques. Theoretically, there is a quantitative relationship between amount of starting target sequence and amount of PCR product at any given cycle. The development of real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) has eliminated the variability associated with conventional quantitative PCR, thus allowing the routine and reliable quantitation of PCR products. Detection of fluorescence during the thermal cycling process can be performed using iCycler(Bio-Rad), the GeneAmp 5700 or 7700(ABI-PRISM), and Light-Cycler(Roche). Two fluorogenic probes are available for use on real time quantitation. The fluorogenic 5'-nuclease assay(Taqman method) uses a fluorogenic probe to enable the detection of a sequence specific PCR product. Fluorogenic probe is incorporated with the reporter dye on the 5' end and the quencher on the 3' end. The second method uses SYBR Green I dye which is a highly specific double-stranded DNA binding dye. Real-time PCR is able to be possible exact quantitation of DNA and RNA much more precise and reproducible because it is based on CT values acquired during the exponential phase of PCR rather than endpoint. In this review, the detail protocol of real time quantitative PCR technique will be introduced and our recently developed system for exact quantitation of BCR-ABL fusion gene in CML is going to be described. PMID:11708318

  15. Parents' decision-making about the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters: I. Quantitative results.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Knäuper, Bärbel; Gilca, Vladimir; Dubé, Eve; Perez, Samara; Joyal-Desmarais, Keven; Rosberger, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is an effective primary prevention measure for HPV-related diseases. For children and young adolescents, the uptake of the vaccine is contingent on parental consent. This study sought to identify key differences between parents who obtain (acceptors) and parents who refuse (non-acceptors) the HPV vaccine for their daughters. In the context of a free, universal, school-based HPV vaccination program in Québec, 774 parents of 9-10 year-old girls completed and returned a questionnaire by mail. The questionnaire was based on the theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), along with constructs from other theoretical frameworks. Of the 774 parents, 88.2% reported their daughter having received the HPV vaccine. Perceived susceptibility of daughters to HPV infection, perceived benefits of the vaccine, perceived barriers (including safety of the vaccine), and cues to action significantly distinguished between parents whose daughters had received the HPV vaccine and those whose daughters had not. Other significant factors associated with daughter vaccine uptake were parents' general vaccination attitudes, anticipated regret, adherence to other routinely recommended vaccines, social norms, and positive media influence. The results of this study identify a number of important correlates related to parents' decisions to accept or refuse the HPV vaccine uptake for their daughters. Future work may benefit from targeting such factors and incorporating other health behavior theories in the design of effective HPV vaccine uptake interventions. PMID:25692455

  16. Semi-quantitative characterisation of ambient ultrafine aerosols resulting from emissions of coal fired power stations.

    PubMed

    Hinkley, J T; Bridgman, H A; Buhre, B J P; Gupta, R P; Nelson, P F; Wall, T F

    2008-02-25

    Emissions from coal fired power stations are known to be a significant anthropogenic source of fine atmospheric particles, both through direct primary emissions and secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate from emissions of gaseous precursors. However, there is relatively little information available in the literature regarding the contribution emissions make to the ambient aerosol, particularly in the ultrafine size range. In this study, the contribution of emissions to particles smaller than 0.3 mum in the ambient aerosol was examined at a sampling site 7 km from two large Australian coal fired power stations equipped with fabric filters. A novel approach was employed using conditional sampling based on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) as an indicator species, and a relatively new sampler, the TSI Nanometer Aerosol Sampler. Samples were collected on transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids and examined using a combination of TEM imaging and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for qualitative chemical analysis. The ultrafine aerosol in low SO(2) conditions was dominated by diesel soot from vehicle emissions, while significant quantities of particles, which were unstable under the electron beam, were observed in the high SO(2) samples. The behaviour of these particles was consistent with literature accounts of sulfate and nitrate species, believed to have been derived from precursor emissions from the power stations. A significant carbon peak was noted in the residues from the evaporated particles, suggesting that some secondary organic aerosol formation may also have been catalysed by these acid seed particles. No primary particulate material was observed in the minus 0.3 mum fraction. The results of this study indicate the contribution of species more commonly associated with gas to particle conversion may be more significant than expected, even close to source. PMID:18054995

  17. Use of semi-quantitative and quantitative culture methods and typing for studying the epidemiology of central venous catheter-related infections in neonates on parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Premru, M; Gubina, M; Kaufmann, M E; Primozic, J; Cookson, B D

    1999-05-01

    To study the epidemiology - especially the impact of contaminated stopcocks - on central venous catheter (CVC) infection and catheter-related sepsis (CRS), semi-quantitative (SQ) and quantitative (Q) culture methods and typing of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were employed in 49 neonates with clinical signs of sepsis while receiving parenteral nutrition in the paediatric intensive care unit. The patients were divided into two groups according to stopcock contamination: group A consisted of 18 patients (36%) with contaminated stopcocks and group B consisted of 31 patients (64%) with sterile stopcocks. Five specimens were obtained from each patient, in addition to that from the stopcock: a swab taken from the skin surrounding the catheter puncture site; the CVC tip; the intradermal segment (IDC); and samples of parenteral fluid and blood. A total of 294 specimens (392 sites) was cultured and micro-organisms were identified. All CNS isolated were typed by biotyping, antibiogram, plasmid analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and the discriminatory power of the typing methods was compared. The CVC tips were infected in 25 patients (51%); 15 (83%) in group A and 10 (32%) in group B. Sepsis was detected in 24 neonates (49%), 13 in group A and 11 in group B. This was catheter-related in 15 patients (63%), 12 in group A and 3 in group B. CNS were recovered from 13 (52%) of 25 infected CVCs, nine in group A and four in group B. Sixty-five CNS isolates were recovered from these patients and belonged to 14 biotypes, 22 antibiograms, 22 plasmid profiles and 26 PFGE types. Typing showed that in six of nine patients in group A, CNS of the same type were recovered from the catheter tip and the stopcock, in one patient the catheter tip and skin isolates were the same and in two others the catheter tip isolates were different from stopcock and skin isolates. In all four patients in group B, different CNS types were recovered from CVC tips and skin. Bacteraemia was caused by CNS in 14 patients (58%), six in group A and eight in group B. Typing confirmed that nine cases (six in group A and three in group B) were catheter-related but five were not. SQ and Q culture methods and typing, especially by PFGE, allowed the study to determine that bacteria from contaminated stopcocks were frequently the source of CVC infection and CRS. PMID:10229542

  18. Commutability of the Epstein-Barr Virus WHO International Standard across Two Quantitative PCR Methods

    PubMed Central

    Abeynayake, Janaki; Johnson, Ryan; Libiran, Paolo; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Cao, Hongbin; Bowen, Raffick; Chan, K. C. Allen; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    The commutability of international reference standards is critical for ensuring quantitative agreement across different viral load assays. Here, we demonstrate the commutability of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) WHO international standard for the BamHI-W and artus EBV assays. PMID:25078918

  19. Berberine sulphate binding to mast cell polyanions: A cytofluorometric method for the quantitation of heparin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Enerbäck

    1974-01-01

    A cytofluorometric study on the binding of the fluorescent cationic dye Berberine sulphate to some tissue anions is reported. Measurements were performed on peritoneal cells and on models containing heparin or DNA. The dye was found to be suitable for cytofluorometric quantitation of heparin. At pH 4 a staining equilibrium was established when the dye apparently binds selectively to phosphate

  20. Methods for Quantitative Analysis of the Spatial Structure of Dendrites \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Katz, Matthew "Matya"

    . Thus, a major goal in neuroscience is to develop the methodology and tools to analyze quantitatively dense tree (see Figures 2(a,b) and 3(a,b)). (A single neuron may have several such trees.) The branches of the neuron are on the surface of these branches. The root of the tree is connected to the axon; it conveys

  1. Quantitative Evaluation of Matching Methods and Validity Measures for Stereo Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jasmine Banks; Peter I. Corke

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of various similarity measures that form the kernel of common area-based stereo-matching systems. The authors compare classical difference and correlation measures as well as nonparametric measures based on the rank and census transforms for a number of outdoor images. For robotic applications, important considerations include robustness to image defects such as intensity

  2. Development of quantitative imaging methods for the GE Hawkeye CT\\/SPECT system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth H. Wong; H. Roger Tang; George Segall; B. H. Hasegawa

    2001-01-01

    Combined CT\\/SPECT systems enable absolute quantitation in SPECT images. To date, this ability has been limited to use on unique research systems such as that at the UCSF Physics Research Laboratory. However, the advent of commercially developed combined imaging systems (e.g. General Electric Medical Systems Hawkeye) could allow more widespread use of this technology. We have investigated several of the

  3. A quantitative assessment of group delay methods for identifying glottal closures in voiced speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Brookes; Patrick A. Naylor; Jon Gudnason

    2006-01-01

    Measures based on the group delay of the LPC residual have been used by a number of authors to identify the time instants of glottal closure in voiced speech. In this paper, we discuss the theoretical properties of three such measures and we also present a new measure having useful properties. We give a quantitative assessment of each measure's ability

  4. Quantitative Evaluation of E1 Endoglucanase Recovery from Tobacco Leaves Using the Vacuum Infiltration-Centrifugation Method

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Nathaniel J.; McDonald, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    As a production platform for recombinant proteins, plant leaf tissue has many advantages, but commercialization of this technology has been hindered by high recovery and purification costs. Vacuum infiltration-centrifugation (VI-C) is a technique to obtain extracellularly-targeted products from the apoplast wash fluid (AWF). Because of its selective recovery of secreted proteins without homogenizing the whole tissue, VI-C can potentially reduce downstream production costs. Lab scale experiments were conducted to quantitatively evaluate the VI-C method and compared to homogenization techniques in terms of product purity, concentration, and other desirable characteristics. From agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, up to 81% of a truncated version of E1 endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus was recovered with VI-C versus homogenate extraction, and average purity and concentration increases of 4.2-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, were observed. Formulas were developed to predict recovery yields of secreted protein obtained by performing multiple rounds of VI-C on the same leaf tissue. From this, it was determined that three rounds of VI-C recovered 97% of the total active recombinant protein accessible to the VI-C procedure. The results suggest that AWF recovery is an efficient process that could reduce downstream processing steps and costs for plant-made recombinant proteins. PMID:24971334

  5. Outflow forces of low-mass embedded objects in Ophiuchus: a quantitative comparison of analysis methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Marel, N.; Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Y?ld?z, U. A.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-08-01

    Context. The outflow force of molecular bipolar outflows is a key parameter in theories of young stellar feedback on their surroundings. The focus of many outflow studies is the correlation between the outflow force, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass. However, it is difficult to combine the results of different studies in large evolutionary plots over many orders of magnitude due to the range of data quality, analysis methods, and corrections for observational effects, such as opacity and inclination. Aims: We aim to determine the outflow force for a sample of low-luminosity embedded sources. We quantify the influence of the analysis method and the assumptions entering the calculation of the outflow force. Methods: We used the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope to map 12CO J = 3-2 over 2'× 2' regions around 16 Class I sources of a well-defined sample in Ophiuchus at 15? resolution. The outflow force was then calculated using seven different methods differing, e.g., in the use of intensity-weighted emission and correction factors for inclination. Two well studied outflows (HH 46 and NGC1 333 IRAS4A) are added to the sample and included in the comparison. Results: The results from the analysis methods differ from each other by up to a factor of 6, whereas observational properties and choices in the analysis procedure affect the outflow force by up to a factor of 4. Subtraction of cloud emission and integrating over the remaining profile increases the outflow force at most by a factor of 4 compared to line wing integration. For the sample of Class I objects, bipolar outflows are detected around 13 sources including 5 new detections, where the three nondetections are confused by nearby outflows from other sources. New outflow structures without a clear powering source are discovered at the corners of some of the maps. Conclusions: When combining outflow forces from different studies, a scatter by up to a factor of 5 can be expected. Although the true outflow force remains unknown, the separation method (separate calculation of dynamical time and momentum) is least affected by the uncertain observational parameters. The correlations between outflow force, bolometric luminosity, and envelope mass are further confirmed down to low-luminosity sources. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Comparison of three rapid and easy bacterial DNA extraction methods for use with quantitative real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. van Tongeren; J. E. Degener; H. J. M. Harmsen

    The development of fast and easy on-site molecular detection and quantification methods for hazardous microbes on solid surfaces\\u000a is desirable for several applications where specialised laboratory facilities are absent. The quantification of bacterial\\u000a contamination necessitates the assessment of the efficiency of the used methodology as a whole, including the preceding steps\\u000a of sampling and sample processing. We used quantitative real-time

  7. Qualitative and Quantitative PCR Methods for Event-specific Detection of Genetically Modified Cotton Mon1445 and Mon531

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litao Yang; Aihu Pan; Kewei Zhang; Changsong Yin; Bingjun Qian; Jianxiu Chen; Cheng Huang; Dabing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Based on the DNA sequences of the junctions between recombinant and cotton genomic DNA of the two genetically modified (GM)\\u000a cotton varieties, herbicide-tolerance Mon1445 and insect-resistant Mon531, event-specific primers and probes for qualitative\\u000a and quantitative PCR detection for both GM cotton varieties were designed, and corresponding detection methods were developed.\\u000a In qualitative PCR detection, the simplex and multiplex PCR detection

  8. A high-throughput method for the quantitative analysis of indole-3-acetic acid and other auxins from plant tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lana S. Barkawi; Yuen-Yee Tam; Julie A. Tillman; Ben Pederson; Jessica Calio; Hussein Al-Amier; Michael Emerick; Jennifer Normanly; Jerry D. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    To investigate novel pathways involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, and response, we have developed a high-throughput screen for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. Historically, the quantitative analysis of IAA has been a cumbersome and time-consuming process that does not lend itself to the screening of large numbers of samples. The method described here can be performed with or without an

  9. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyejin; Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Ho-Young; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-?m size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 ?m × 100 ?m region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 ?m × 100 ?m area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice. PMID:26026551

  10. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hyejin; Kang, Homan; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lee, Ho-Young; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-?m size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 ?m × 100 ?m region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 ?m × 100 ?m area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  11. An accurate method of extracting fat droplets in liver images for quantitative evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Naoki; Komagata, Hideki; Shinoda, Kazuma; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Abe, Tokiya; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2015-03-01

    The steatosis in liver pathological tissue images is a promising indicator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the possible risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The resulting values are also important for ensuring the automatic and accurate classification of HCC images, because the existence of many fat droplets is likely to create errors in quantifying the morphological features used in the process. In this study we propose a method that can automatically detect, and exclude regions with many fat droplets by using the feature values of colors, shapes and the arrangement of cell nuclei. We implement the method and confirm that it can accurately detect fat droplets and quantify the fat droplet ratio of actual images. This investigation also clarifies the effective characteristics that contribute to accurate detection.

  12. Quantitation of Hsp70 levels in Pimephales promelas using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method

    SciTech Connect

    Badami, C.; Dickson, K.L. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Inst. of Applied Sciences

    1995-12-31

    In order to evaluate the expression of stress proteins as biomarkers of the effects of chemical exposure, studies were carried out with Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows). Experiments were designed in which 90 to 120 days old fathead minnows were stressed with varying concentrations (0.25 ppm to 4 ppM) of Cu{sup 2+}, for 4 hours. The levels of Hsp7O in muscle tissue were quantitated by using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method that is highly specific and accurately measures the total pool of Hsp7O in tissues. In previous studies, the concentrations of Hsp7O were quantitated using ELISA in bovine tissue. Hsp70 (for calibration purposes) and antibodies that are specific to constitutive and inducible forms of Hsp7O were purchased commercially. Using this assay method the authors were able to confirm quantitatively, that relative to laboratory controls, higher levels of the inducible form of Hsp70 exists in the tissue of fish that were stressed with Cu{sup 2+}. This method allows for the rapid detection of stress proteins which could be used for field applications.

  13. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume

    SciTech Connect

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R.; Shepherd, John A. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Research Institute, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States); Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California--San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Purpose: This study describes the design and characteristics of a highly accurate, precise, and automated single-energy method to quantify percent fibroglandular tissue volume (%FGV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) using digital screening mammography. Methods: The method uses a breast tissue-equivalent phantom in the unused portion of the mammogram as a reference to estimate breast composition. The phantom is used to calculate breast thickness and composition for each image regardless of x-ray technique or the presence of paddle tilt. The phantom adheres to the top of the mammographic compression paddle and stays in place for both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique screening views. We describe the automated method to identify the phantom and paddle orientation with a three-dimensional reconstruction least-squares technique. A series of test phantoms, with a breast thickness range of 0.5-8 cm and a %FGV of 0%-100%, were made to test the accuracy and precision of the technique. Results: Using test phantoms, the estimated repeatability standard deviation equaled 2%, with a {+-}2% accuracy for the entire thickness and density ranges. Without correction, paddle tilt was found to create large errors in the measured density values of up to 7%/mm difference from actual breast thickness. This new density measurement is stable over time, with no significant drifts in calibration noted during a four-month period. Comparisons of %FGV to mammographic percent density and left to right breast %FGV were highly correlated (r=0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Conclusions: An automated method for quantifying fibroglandular tissue volume has been developed. It exhibited good accuracy and precision for a broad range of breast thicknesses, paddle tilt angles, and %FGV values. Clinical testing showed high correlation to mammographic density and between left and right breasts.

  14. Single x-ray absorptiometry method for the quantitative mammographic measure of fibroglandular tissue volume

    PubMed Central

    Malkov, Serghei; Wang, Jeff; Kerlikowske, Karla; Cummings, Steven R.; Shepherd, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study describes the design and characteristics of a highly accurate, precise, and automated single-energy method to quantify percent fibroglandular tissue volume (%FGV) and fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV) using digital screening mammography. Methods: The method uses a breast tissue-equivalent phantom in the unused portion of the mammogram as a reference to estimate breast composition. The phantom is used to calculate breast thickness and composition for each image regardless of x-ray technique or the presence of paddle tilt. The phantom adheres to the top of the mammographic compression paddle and stays in place for both craniocaudal and mediolateral oblique screening views. We describe the automated method to identify the phantom and paddle orientation with a three-dimensional reconstruction least-squares technique. A series of test phantoms, with a breast thickness range of 0.5–8 cm and a %FGV of 0%–100%, were made to test the accuracy and precision of the technique. Results: Using test phantoms, the estimated repeatability standard deviation equaled 2%, with a ±2% accuracy for the entire thickness and density ranges. Without correction, paddle tilt was found to create large errors in the measured density values of up to 7%?mm difference from actual breast thickness. This new density measurement is stable over time, with no significant drifts in calibration noted during a four-month period. Comparisons of %FGV to mammographic percent density and left to right breast %FGV were highly correlated (r=0.83 and 0.94, respectively). Conclusions: An automated method for quantifying fibroglandular tissue volume has been developed. It exhibited good accuracy and precision for a broad range of breast thicknesses, paddle tilt angles, and %FGV values. Clinical testing showed high correlation to mammographic density and between left and right breasts. PMID:20095265

  15. On Quantitizing

    PubMed Central

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George

    2009-01-01

    Quantitizing, commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance inquiry. Among these assumptions are that qualitative and quantitative data constitute two kinds of data, that quantitizing constitutes a unidirectional process essentially different from qualitizing, and that counting is an unambiguous process. Among the judgments are deciding what and how to count. Among the compromises are balancing numerical precision with narrative complexity. The standpoints of “conditional complementarity,” “critical remediation,” and “analytic alternation” clarify the added value of converting qualitative data into quantitative form. PMID:19865603

  16. Optimization of an optical inspection system based on the Taguchi method for quantitative analysis of point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Zhao, Zi-Qi; Shen, Pi-Lan; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an optical inspection system for detecting a commercial point-of-care testing product and a new detection model covering from qualitative to quantitative analysis. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) strips (cut-off value of the hCG commercial product is 25 mIU/mL) were the detection target in our study. We used a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor to detect the colors of the test line and control line in the specific strips and to reduce the observation errors by the naked eye. To achieve better linearity between the grayscale and the concentration, and to decrease the standard deviation (increase the signal to noise ratio, S/N), the Taguchi method was used to find the optimal parameters for the optical inspection system. The pregnancy test used the principles of the lateral flow immunoassay, and the colors of the test and control line were caused by the gold nanoparticles. Because of the sandwich immunoassay model, the color of the gold nanoparticles in the test line was darkened by increasing the hCG concentration. As the results reveal, the S/N increased from 43.48 dB to 53.38 dB, and the hCG concentration detection increased from 6.25 to 50 mIU/mL with a standard deviation of less than 10%. With the optimal parameters to decrease the detection limit and to increase the linearity determined by the Taguchi method, the optical inspection system can be applied to various commercial rapid tests for the detection of ketamine, troponin I, and fatty acid binding protein (FABP). PMID:25256108

  17. An adapted mindfulness-based stress reduction program for elders in a continuing care retirement community: quantitative and qualitative results from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moss, Aleezé S; Reibel, Diane K; Greeson, Jeffrey M; Thapar, Anjali; Bubb, Rebecca; Salmon, Jacqueline; Newberg, Andrew B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program for elders in a continuing care community. This mixed-methods study used both quantitative and qualitative measures. A randomized waitlist control design was used for the quantitative aspect of the study. Thirty-nine elderly were randomized to MBSR (n = 20) or a waitlist control group (n = 19), mean age was 82 years. Both groups completed pre-post measures of health-related quality of life, acceptance and psychological flexibility, facets of mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological distress. A subset of MBSR participants completed qualitative interviews. MBSR participants showed significantly greater improvement in acceptance and psychological flexibility and in role limitations due to physical health. In the qualitative interviews, MBSR participants reported increased awareness, less judgment, and greater self-compassion. Study results demonstrate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of an adapted MBSR program in promoting mind-body health for elders. PMID:25492049

  18. A field method for making a quantitative estimate of altered tuff in sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cadigan, R.A.

    1954-01-01

    The use of benzidine to identify altered tuff in sandstone is practical for field or field laboratory studies associated with stratigraphic correlations, mineral deposit investigations, or paleogeographic interpretations. The method is based on the ability of saturated benzidine (C12H12N2) solution to produce a blue stain on montmorillonite-bearing tuff grains. The method is substantiated by the results of microscopic, X-ray spectrometer, and spectrographic tests which lead to the conclusion that: (1) the benzidine stain test differentiates grains of different composition, (2) the white or gray grains which are stained a uniform blue color are fragments of altered tuff, and (3) white or gray grains which stain in a few small spots are probably silicified tuff. The amount of sand grains taken from a hand specimen or an outcrop which will be held by a penny is spread out on a nonabsorbent white surface and soaked with benzidine for 5 minutes. The approximate number blue grains and the average grain size are used in a chart to determine a reference number which measures relative order of abundance. The chart, based on a volume relationship, corrects for the variation in the number of grains in the sample as the grain size varies. Practical use of the method depends on a knowledge of several precautionary measures as well as an understanding of the limitations of benzidine staining tests.

  19. [A new method for quantitative measurement of the cadmium absorbed by chick embryos].

    PubMed

    Gottofrey, J

    1984-01-01

    We attempted to determine the quantity of cadmium incorporated in hens eggs after immersion in cadmium solutions, and the cadmium concentration measured in embryos. We discussed equipment allowing simultaneous treatment of up to 42 samples, and called it " digestor ". It consisted of two gas-heated sand baths, two stands for cooling down solutions and an evacuation system for toxic vapours. Our method was based on wet mineralisation. It consisted of desintegrating experimental chick embryos in a HNO3/H2O2 mixed solution. After heating and evaporating, the quantity of cadmium in the remnant was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The reliability of such a technique was tested by studying as controls controls 17 days-old chick embryos injected with a known quantity of Cd(NO3). It showed no loss of cadmium. We also compared our procedure with a dry ashing method. The latter showed unacceptable losses and insufficient precision for the problems we wanted to investigate. Our method gave us much more precise results. The equipment we developed has functioned wholly satisfactorily and allowed us to investigate for instance cadmium distribution and concentration in embryonic organs of 17 days-old chicks. It could also be useful for researches concerning other biological samples analyzed for different heavy metals. PMID:6724786

  20. Efficient and sensitive method for quantitative analysis of alkaloids in hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lili; Hopkins, Andrew A; Huhman, David V; Sumner, Lloyd W

    2006-12-13

    An efficient high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the analysis of alkaloids in hardinggrass (Phalaris aquatica L.) was developed. The method employed HPTLC glass plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of ethyl acetate/chloroform/7 N NH4OH in methanol (8:2:1, v/v/v). Using unidimensional double-development, bands were well separated for 10 alkaloid standards as well as alkaloids observed in hardinggrass plant extracts. Identities of compounds observed using HPTLC were validated by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Software was used to quantify individual alkaloids in plant samples based on HPTLC retention factors and intensities relative to standards of known concentration. Correlation coefficients of 0.99 were obtained between estimated and actual concentrations for four standards (methyltyramine, hordenine, gramine, and 5-methoxydimethyltryptamine), with linearity in the range of 120-3840 ng/spot. The HPTLC method is repeatable and specific for beta-carboline, tryptamine, gramine, and tyramine type alkaloids in mixed standard and plant extracts. Initial results indicate substantial variation in alkaloid composition among and within hardinggrass populations. PMID:17147408

  1. Quantitative Inspection of Broken Wire in Wire Ropes: Method and Apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hongjian; Kechong; Shuzi

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a complete system for automatic inspecting broken wire in wire ropes. The development of this technique is reviewed. It is followed by a description of the hardware and software of the apparatus. The hardware uses magnetic concentrators and Hall effect sensors. Signal analysis is based on wavelet processing. Quantitative identification of broken wire in wire ropes is based on a pattern recognition approach of the neural network. PMID:10602576

  2. A Quantitative Evaluation of Fixed-Pattern Noise Reduction Methods in Imaging Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pablo Meza; César San Martín; Esteban Vera; Sergio N. Torres

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a Fixed-pattern noise is a common feature in several uncalibrated imaging systems, and it typically appears as striping and\\u000a grid-like nonuniformity artifacts in hyperspectral and infrared cameras. In this work, we present a quantitative and comparative\\u000a analysis of fixed-pattern noise reduction, or calibrating techniques, by using several image quality indexes. A special emphasis\\u000a is made in demonstrating the correspondence between the

  3. Quantitative thermographic analysis method for evaluating the thermal properties of PET irradiated by ultra-violet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hae Young Choi; Jung Soon Lee

    2008-01-01

    A thermograph is used to determine the real-time temperature distribution on the skin temperature wearing clothing treated\\u000a by different ultra-violet (UV) energy. The thermogram images of body wearing clothing with the 4-channel PET knit fabric irradiated\\u000a by UV, were compared visually with each other and analyzed quantitatively with image analysis. We analyzed the thermogram\\u000a in a color image. For image

  4. A scanning electron microscope method for automated, quantitative analysis of mineral matter in coal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Creelman; Colin R. Ward

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative mineralogical analysis has been carried out on a series of nine coal samples from Australia, South Africa and China using a newly-developed automated image analysis system coupled to a scanning electron microscope. The image analysis system (QEM ? SEM) gathers X-ray spectra and backscattered electron data from a number of points on a conventional grain-mount polished section under the

  5. Potential of Multivariate Quantitative Methods for Delineation and Visualization of Ecoregions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Hargrove; Forrest M. Hoffman

    2004-01-01

    Multivariate clustering based on fine spatial resolution maps of elevation, temperature, precipitation, soil characteristics,\\u000a and solar inputs has been used at several specified levels of division to produce a spectrum of quantitative ecoregion maps\\u000a for the conterminous United States. The coarse ecoregion divisions accurately capture intuitively-understood regional environmental\\u000a differences, whereas the finer divisions highlight local condition gradients, ecotones, and clines.

  6. A rapid & sensitive liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitation of busulfan levels in plasma & application for routine therapeutic monitoring in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Desire, Salamun; Mohanan, Ezhil Pavai; George, Biju; Mathews, Vikram; Chandy, Mammen; Srivastava, Alok; Balasubramanian, Poonkuzhali

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Busulfan (Bu) in combination with cyclophosphamide is widely used in myeloablative conditioning regimen prior to haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Its narrow therapeutic range and toxic side effects at high systemic exposure and graft rejection at low exposure emphasize the need for busulfan dose optimization using targeted dose adjustment prior to HSCT. We report here a rapid and sensitive method to quantitate busulfan plasma levels in patients receiving busulfan as part of pre-transplant conditioning. Methods: The method involves simple protein precipitation of the plasma followed by analysis using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with tandem mass spectrometry - electrospray ionization technique (LC-ESI MS/MS) in positive ionization mode and quantified using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Deuterated busulfan (d8-busulf`an) was used as the internal standard. Results: The method was linear for the concentration ranging from 0 to 4000 ng/ml of busulfan with a limit of detection of 2 ng/ml and limit of quantitation of 5 ng/ml. The assay was accurate for serial concentrations of Bu in plasma for five consecutive days and the CV was less than 10 per cent. Conclusion: Using this rapid and sensitive method, busulfan levels were targeted and subsequent doses adjusted at our center in 26 patients receiving high dose busulfan in combination with cyclophosphamide or fludarabine. PMID:23703347

  7. Bias in estimates of quantitative-trait-locus effect in genome scans: demonstration of the phenomenon and a method-of-moments procedure for reducing bias.

    PubMed

    Allison, David B; Fernandez, Jose R; Heo, Moonseong; Zhu, Shankuan; Etzel, Carol; Beasley, T Mark; Amos, Christopher I

    2002-03-01

    An attractive feature of variance-components methods (including the Haseman-Elston tests) for the detection of quantitative-trait loci (QTL) is that these methods provide estimates of the QTL effect. However, estimates that are obtained by commonly used methods can be biased for several reasons. Perhaps the largest source of bias is the selection process. Generally, QTL effects are reported only at locations where statistically significant results are obtained. This conditional reporting can lead to a marked upward bias. In this article, we demonstrate this bias and show that its magnitude can be large. We then present a simple method-of-moments (MOM)-based procedure to obtain more-accurate estimates, and we demonstrate its validity via Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, limitations of the MOM approach are noted, and we discuss some alternative procedures that may also reduce bias. PMID:11836648

  8. Development of Mass Spectrometry Selected Reaction Monitoring Method for Quantitation and Pharmacokinetic Study of Stepharine in Rabbit Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Arthur T.; Kuznetsova, Ksenia G.; Mikhailova, Olga M.; Moshkin, Andrey G.; Turkin, Vladimir V.; Alimov, Andrei A.

    2014-01-01

    Highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry method on triple quadrupole (QQQ) mass spectrometer was successfully applied for pharmacokinetic study of stepharine in rabbit plasma. Specific ion transitions of stepharine protonated precursor ion were selected and recorded in the certain retention time employing dynamic selected reaction monitoring mode. The developed method facilitated quantitative measurements of stepharine in plasma samples in linear range of five orders of magnitude with high accuracy and low standard deviation coefficient and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated. The apparent volume of stepharine distribution (estimated as ratio of clearance to elimination rate constant, data not shown) allows us to assume that stepharine was extensively distributed throughout the body. PMID:24696679

  9. A new quantitative analytical method of serum biotinidase activity using biocytin as a substrate and its clinical significance in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazunari Kumasaka; Makoto Muratsugu; Toru Fukui; Masahiko Kimura; Yashusi Takagi; Naotaka Hashizume

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a new quantitative analytical method of serum biotinidase activity, which uses the native substrate biocytin, and to which can be applied the improved agar plate method of biotin bioassay. Assay characteristics were within acceptable ranges (intra-assay CVs, 4.44% and 1.95% at 1.82±0.08 and 3.08±0.06 pmol\\/min\\/ml; day-to-day CV, 5.92% at 2.68±0.16 pmol\\/min\\/ml). The enzyme activity with biocytin was

  10. A simple method for using silicone elastomer masks for quantitative analysis of cell migration without cellular damage or substrate disruption

    PubMed Central

    Sherry, David M; Parks, Eileen E; Bullen, Elizabeth C; Updike, Dawn L; Howard, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Cell migration is fundamental to many biological processes, including development, normal tissue remodeling, wound healing, and many pathologies. However, cell migration is a complex process, and understanding its regulation in health and disease requires the ability to manipulate and measure this process quantitatively under controlled conditions. This report describes a simple in vitro assay for quantitative analysis of cell migration in two-dimensional cultures that is an inexpensive alternative to the classic “scratch” assay. The method described utilizes flexible silicone masks fabricated in the lab according to the research demands of the specific experiment to create a cell-free area for cells to invade, followed by quantitative analysis based on widely available microscopic imaging tools. This experimental approach has the important advantage of visualizing cell migration in the absence of the cellular damage and disruption of the substrate that occurs when the “wound” is created in the scratch assay. This approach allows the researcher to study the intrinsic migratory characteristics of cells in the absence of potentially confounding contributions from cellular responses to injury and disruption of cell–substrate interactions. This assay has been used with vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and epithelial cell types, but should be applicable to the study of practically any type of cultured cell. Furthermore, this method can be easily adapted for use with fluorescence microscopy, molecular biological, or pharmacological manipulations to explore the molecular mechanisms of cell migration, live cell imaging, fluorescence microscopy, and correlative immunolabeling. PMID:24430202

  11. Current and emerging quantitative magnetic resonance imaging methods for assessing and predicting the response of breast cancer to neoadjuvant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Abramson, Richard G; Arlinghaus, Lori R; Weis, Jared A; Li, Xia; Dula, Adrienne N; Chekmenev, Eduard Y; Smith, Seth A; Miga, Michael I; Abramson, Vandana G; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    Reliable early assessment of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) would provide considerable benefit to patient care and ongoing research efforts, and demand for accurate and noninvasive early-response biomarkers is likely to increase. Response assessment techniques derived from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hold great potential for integration into treatment algorithms and clinical trials. Quantitative MRI techniques already available for assessing breast cancer response to neoadjuvant therapy include lesion size measurement, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Emerging yet promising techniques include magnetization transfer MRI, chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI, magnetic resonance elastography, and hyperpolarized MR. Translating and incorporating these techniques into the clinical setting will require close attention to statistical validation methods, standardization and reproducibility of technique, and scanning protocol design. PMID:23154619

  12. Initial Results of an MDO Method Evaluation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Natalia M.; Kodiyalam, Srinivas

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley MDO method evaluation study seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for using promising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzing computational data for such methods. The data are collected by conducting a series of re- producible experiments. In the first phase of the study, three MDO methods were implemented in the SIGHT: framework and used to solve a set of ten relatively simple problems. In this paper, we comment on the general considerations for conducting method evaluation studies and report some initial results obtained to date. In particular, although the results are not conclusive because of the small initial test set, other formulations, optimality conditions, and sensitivity of solutions to various perturbations. Optimization algorithms are used to solve a particular MDO formulation. It is then appropriate to speak of local convergence rates and of global convergence properties of an optimization algorithm applied to a specific formulation. An analogous distinction exists in the field of partial differential equations. On the one hand, equations are analyzed in terms of regularity, well-posedness, and the existence and unique- ness of solutions. On the other, one considers numerous algorithms for solving differential equations. The area of MDO methods studies MDO formulations combined with optimization algorithms, although at times the distinction is blurred. It is important to

  13. Analysis of Perfluorinated Chemicals in Sludge: Method Development and Initial Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fast, rigorous method was developed to maximize the extraction efficacy for ten perfluorocarboxylic acids and perfluorooctanesulfonate from wastewater-treatment sludge and to quantitate using liquid chromatography, tandem-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). First, organic solvents w...

  14. Comparison of Rapid Quantitative PCR-Based and Conventional Culture-Based Methods for Enumeration of Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli in Recreational Waters?

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Rachel T.; Blackwood, A. Denene; Griffith, John F.; McGee, Charles D.; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Recreational water quality is currently monitored using culture-based methods that require 18 to 96 h for results. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) methods that can be completed in less than 2 h have been developed, but they could yield different results than the conventional methods. We present two studies in which samples were processed simultaneously for Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli using two culture-based methods (EPA method 1600 and Enterolert/Colilert-18) and QPCR. The proprietary QPCR assays targeted the 23S rRNA (Enterococcus spp.) and uidA (E. coli) genes and were conducted using lyophilized beads containing all reagents. In the first study, the QPCR method developers processed 54 blind samples that were inoculated with sewage or pure cultures or were ambient beach samples. The second study involved 163 samples processed by water quality personnel. The correlation between results of QPCR and EPA 1600 during the first study (r2) was 0.69 for Enterococcus spp., which was less than that observed between the culture-based methods (r2, 0.87). During the second study, the correlations were similar. No false positives occurred in either study when QPCR-based assays were used with blank samples. Levels of reproducibility measured through coefficients of variation were similar for results by Enterococcus QPCR and culture-based methods during both studies but were higher for E. coli QPCR results in the first study. Regarding the concentration at which beach management decisions are issued in the State of California, the agreement between results of Enterococcus QPCR and EPA method 1600 was 88%, compared to 94% agreement between EPA method 1600 and Enterolert. The beach management decision agreement between E. coli QPCR and Colilert-18 was 94%. The samples showing disagreement suggested an underestimation bias for QPCR. PMID:20870786

  15. Evaluating Multiple Prevention Programs: Methods, Results, and Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler-Baeder, Francesca; Kerpelman, Jennifer; Griffin, Melody M.; Schramm, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Extension faculty and agents/educators are increasingly collaborating with local and state agencies to provide and evaluate multiple, distinct programs, yet there is limited information about measuring outcomes and combining results across similar program types. This article explicates the methods and outcomes of a state-level evaluation of…

  16. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  17. A triangulation method for the quantitative measurement of arterial blood velocity magnitude and direction in humans.

    PubMed

    Schrank, E; Phillips, D J; Moritz, W E; Strandness, D E

    1990-01-01

    A triangulation method has been applied to a duplex ultrasound scanner to quantify blood flow velocities in two dimensions. A position locating system (PLS) connected to the scanhead locates the sample volume (SV) in 3-D space to a precision of 1 mm. The PLS is used to obtain flow velocity data from two independent lines of sight in the human femoral artery. Data are gathered from anatomic sites of interest along one line of sight. Later the computer directs the SV to interrogate the same points in space from a second line of sight. Water tank studies using both constant velocity and pulsatile string targets were used to validate the method. Velocity magnitudes could be calculated to within 5% error for Doppler angles below 75 degrees for various string depths and speeds; the error in Doppler angle calculation was usually less than 3 degrees. Results from the superficial femoral artery show flow velocity vectors are nearly parallel to the vessel walls. Peak systolic velocity magnitudes range from 63-66 cm/s in three presumed normal individuals. Following the validation studies addressed in this paper, this triangulation approach is intended in future work to document the complex nonaxial character of blood flow that occurs normally at branch points and in regions of intraluminal disease. PMID:2238256

  18. Therapeutic monitoring of opioids: a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of several opioids including hydrocodone and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Langman, Loralie J; Korman, Eric; Stauble, M Elaine; Boswell, Mark V; Baumgartner, Richard N; Jortani, Saeed A

    2013-06-01

    For pain management, opioid therapy is a mainstay for treating acute pain and relieving moderate to severe chronic pain. Quantitative measurement of opioids and their metabolites in urine is used mainly for confirmation of screened results obtained for clinical and forensic purposes. Due to limitations in interpretation of urine results for pain management testing purposes, the use of blood or serum to assess opioids and their metabolites may be of benefit. This report describes a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the detection of hydrocodone and its metabolites hydromorphone, norhydrocodone, and dihydrocodeine, and other common opiates that patients may be taking, including morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in a single extraction. The method uses solid-phase extraction of 500 µL of sample with quantitation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The assay is linear from 1.0 to 100 ng/mL and has a between-day coefficient of variation of <10%. The major advantage of this method is that a single extraction can detect hydrocodone and its metabolites and other opiates or opioids that patients frequently use simultaneously with hydrocodone. PMID:23666565

  19. High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids in Ginkgo biloba plants, extracts, and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhao, Jianping; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avonto, Cristina; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Wylie, Philip L; Parcher, Jon F; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2014-12-17

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with selected ion monitor method focusing on the characterization and quantitative analysis of ginkgolic acids (GAs) in Ginkgo biloba L. plant materials, extracts, and commercial products was developed and validated. The method involved sample extraction with (1:1) methanol and 10% formic acid, liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane, and derivatization with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (TMSH). Separation of two saturated (C13:0 and C15:0) and six unsaturated ginkgolic acid methyl esters with different positional double bonds (C15:1 ?8 and ?10, C17:1 ?8, ?10, and ?12, and C17:2) was achieved on a very polar (88% cyanopropyl) aryl-polysiloxane HP-88 capillary GC column. The double bond positions in the GAs were determined by ozonolysis. The developed GC/MS method was validated according to ICH guidelines, and the quantitation results were verified by comparison with a standard high-performance liquid chromatography method. Nineteen G. biloba authenticated and commercial plant samples and 21 dietary supplements purported to contain G. biloba leaf extracts were analyzed. Finally, the presence of the marker compounds, terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides for Ginkgo biloba in the dietary supplements was determined by UHPLC/MS and used to confirm the presence of G. biloba leaf extracts in all of the botanical dietary supplements. PMID:25383633

  20. Sensitive quantitative detection of Ralstonia solanacearum in soil by the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuhiro; Nakaho, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-01

    We developed a sensitive quantitative assay for detecting Ralstonia solanacearum in soil by most probable number (MPN) analysis based on bio-PCR results. For development of the detection method, we optimized an elution buffer containing 5 g/L skim milk for extracting bacteria from soil and reducing contamination of polymerase inhibitors in soil extracts. Because R. solanacearum can grow in water without any added nutrients, we used a cultivation buffer in the culture step of the bio-PCR that contained only the buffer and antibiotics to suppress the growth of other soil microorganisms. To quantify the bacterial population in soil, the elution buffer was added to 10 g soil on a dry weight basis so that the combined weight of buffer, soil, and soil-water was 50 g; 5 mL of soil extract was assumed to originate from 1 g of soil. The soil extract was divided into triplicate aliquots each of 5 mL and 500, 50, and 5 ?L. Each aliquot was diluted with the cultivation buffer and incubated at 35 °C for about 24 h. After incubation, 5 ?L of culture was directly used for nested PCR. The number of aliquots showing positive results was collectively checked against the MPN table. The method could quantify bacterial populations in soil down to 3 cfu/10 g dried soil and was successfully applied to several types of soil. We applied the method for the quantitative detection of R. solanacearum in horticultural soils, which could quantitatively detect small populations (9.3 cfu/g), but the semiselective media were not able to detect the bacteria. PMID:24584461

  1. A qualitative and quantitative laser-based computer-aided flow visualization method. M.S. Thesis, 1992 Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canacci, Victor A.; Braun, M. Jack

    1994-01-01

    The experimental approach presented here offers a nonintrusive, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of full field flow patterns applicable in various geometries in a variety of fluids. This Full Flow Field Tracking (FFFT) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, by means of particle tracers illuminated by a laser light sheet, offers an alternative to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV), and intrusive systems such as Hot Wire/Film Anemometry. The method makes obtainable the flow patterns, and allows quantitative determination of the velocities, accelerations, and mass flows of an entire flow field. The method uses a computer based digitizing system attached through an imaging board to a low luminosity camera. A customized optical train allows the system to become a long distance microscope (LDM), allowing magnifications of areas of interest ranging up to 100 times. Presented in addition to the method itself, are studies in which the flow patterns and velocities were observed and evaluated in three distinct geometries, with three different working fluids. The first study involved pressure and flow analysis of a brush seal in oil. The next application involved studying the velocity and flow patterns in a cowl lip cooling passage of an air breathing aircraft engine using water as the working fluid. Finally, the method was extended to a study in air to examine the flows in a staggered pin arrangement located on one side of a branched duct.

  2. Quantitative method for the assignment of hinge and shear mechanism in protein domain movements

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Daniel; Cawley, Gavin; Hayward, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: A popular method for classification of protein domain movements apportions them into two main types: those with a ‘hinge’ mechanism and those with a ‘shear’ mechanism. The intuitive assignment of domain movements to these classes has limited the number of domain movements that can be classified in this way. Furthermore, whether intended or not, the term ‘shear’ is often interpreted to mean a relative translation of the domains. Results: Numbers of occurrences of four different types of residue contact changes between domains were optimally combined by logistic regression using the training set of domain movements intuitively classified as hinge and shear to produce a predictor for hinge and shear. This predictor was applied to give a 10-fold increase in the number of examples over the number previously available with a high degree of precision. It is shown that overall a relative translation of domains is rare, and that there is no difference between hinge and shear mechanisms in this respect. However, the shear set contains significantly more examples of domains having a relative twisting movement than the hinge set. The angle of rotation is also shown to be a good discriminator between the two mechanisms. Availability and implementation: Results are free to browse at http://www.cmp.uea.ac.uk/dyndom/interface/. Contact: sjh@cmp.uea.ac.uk. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:25078396

  3. A quantitative structure- property relationship of gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric retention data of 85 volatile organic compounds as air pollutant materials by multivariate methods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) study is suggested for the prediction of retention times of volatile organic compounds. Various kinds of molecular descriptors were calculated to represent the molecular structure of compounds. Modeling of retention times of these compounds as a function of the theoretically derived descriptors was established by multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). The stepwise regression was used for the selection of the variables which gives the best-fitted models. After variable selection ANN, MLR methods were used with leave-one-out cross validation for building the regression models. The prediction results are in very good agreement with the experimental values. MLR as the linear regression method shows good ability in the prediction of the retention times of the prediction set. This provided a new and effective method for predicting the chromatography retention index for the volatile organic compounds. PMID:22594439

  4. Nonlinear Force-Free Modeling of Coronal Magnetic Fields Part I: A Quantitative Comparison of Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; De Rosa, Marc L.; Metcalf, Thomas R.; Liu, Yang; McTiernan, Jim; Régnier, Stéphane; Valori, Gherardo; Wheatland, Michael S.; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    We compare six algorithms for the computation of nonlinear force-free (NLFF) magnetic fields (including optimization, magnetofrictional, Grad Rubin based, and Green's function-based methods) by evaluating their performance in blind tests on analytical force-free-field models for which boundary conditions are specified either for the entire surface area of a cubic volume or for an extended lower boundary only. Figures of merit are used to compare the input vector field to the resulting model fields. Based on these merit functions, we argue that all algorithms yield NLFF fields that agree best with the input field in the lower central region of the volume, where the field and electrical currents are strongest and the effects of boundary conditions weakest. The NLFF vector fields in the outer domains of the volume depend sensitively on the details of the specified boundary conditions; best agreement is found if the field outside of the model volume is incorporated as part of the model boundary, either as potential field boundaries on the side and top surfaces, or as a potential field in a skirt around the main volume of interest. For input field (B) and modeled field (b), the best method included in our study yields an average relative vector error E n = < |B-b|>/< |B|> of only 0.02 when all sides are specified and 0.14 for the case where only the lower boundary is specified, while the total energy in the magnetic field is approximated to within 2%. The models converge towards the central, strong input field at speeds that differ by a factor of one million per iteration step. The fastest-converging, best-performing model for these analytical test cases is the Wheatland, Sturrock, and Roumeliotis (2000) optimization algorithm as implemented by Wiegelmann (2004).

  5. A High Precision Method for Quantitative Measurements of Reactive Oxygen Species in Frozen Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Mikael; Gustafsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Objective An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique using the spin probe cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH) was introduced as a versatile method for high precision quantification of reactive oxygen species, including the superoxide radical in frozen biological samples such as cell suspensions, blood or biopsies. Materials and Methods Loss of measurement precision and accuracy due to variations in sample size and shape were minimized by assembling the sample in a well-defined volume. Measurement was carried out at low temperature (150 K) using a nitrogen flow Dewar. The signal intensity was measured from the EPR 1st derivative amplitude, and related to a sample, 3-carboxy-proxyl (CP•) with known spin concentration. Results The absolute spin concentration could be quantified with a precision and accuracy better than ±10 µM (k?=?1). The spin concentration of samples stored at ?80°C could be reproduced after 6 months of storage well within the same error estimate. Conclusion The absolute spin concentration in wet biological samples such as biopsies, water solutions and cell cultures could be quantified with higher precision and accuracy than normally achievable using common techniques such as flat cells, tissue cells and various capillary tubes. In addition; biological samples could be collected and stored for future incubation with spin probe, and also further stored up to at least six months before EPR analysis, without loss of signal intensity. This opens for the possibility to store and transport incubated biological samples with known accuracy of the spin concentration over time. PMID:24603936

  6. Improved Quantitative Analysis of Spectra Using a New Method of Obtaining Derivative Spectra Based on a Singular Perturbation Technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Wang, Qiaoyun; Lv, Jiangtao; Ma, Zhenhe; Yang, Linjuan

    2015-06-01

    Spectroscopy is often applied when a rapid quantitative analysis is required, but one challenge is the translation of raw spectra into a final analysis. Derivative spectra are often used as a preliminary preprocessing step to resolve overlapping signals, enhance signal properties, and suppress unwanted spectral features that arise due to non-ideal instrument and sample properties. In this study, to improve quantitative analysis of near-infrared spectra, derivatives of noisy raw spectral data need to be estimated with high accuracy. A new spectral estimator based on singular perturbation technique, called the singular perturbation spectra estimator (SPSE), is presented, and the stability analysis of the estimator is given. Theoretical analysis and simulation experimental results confirm that the derivatives can be estimated with high accuracy using this estimator. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the estimator for processing noisy infrared spectra is evaluated using the analysis of beer spectra. The derivative spectra of the beer and the marzipan are used to build the calibration model using partial least squares (PLS) modeling. The results show that the PLS based on the new estimator can achieve better performance compared with the Savitzky-Golay algorithm and can serve as an alternative choice for quantitative analytical applications. PMID:25954978

  7. HPLC method for quantitation of cholesterol and four of its major oxidation products in muscle and liver tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Saari Csallany; S. E. Kindom; P. B. Addis; Joo-Hee Lee

    1989-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the quantitation of cholesterol and four\\u000a of its major oxidation products: 3?-hydroxycholest-5-en-7-one (7-ketocholesterol), cholest-5-ene-3?, 7?-diol (7?-hydroxycholesterol),\\u000a cholest-5-ene-3?,7?-diol (7?-hydroxycholesterol), and cholest-5-ene-3?,25-diol (25-hydroxycholesterol). In this procedure\\u000a 2?1 chloroform:methanol (v\\/v) extracts of tissue homogenate were combined, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, evaporated to dryness under N2 and dissolved with a mobile phase

  8. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2003-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies (ITAGCT) has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future reusable vehicle concepts.

  9. Test Results for Entry Guidance Methods for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (or any space vehicle that enters an atmosphere) safety and reliability, and reducing the cost. This paper examines some approaches to entry guidance. An effort called Integration and Testing of Advanced Guidance and Control Technologies has recently completed a rigorous testing phase where these algorithms faced high-fidelity vehicle models and were required to perform a variety of representative tests. The algorithm developers spent substantial effort improving the algorithm performance in the testing. This paper lists the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, shows an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and displays results of the tests. Results show a significant improvement over previous guidance approaches. The two best-scoring algorithm approaches show roughly equivalent results and are ready to be applied to future vehicle concepts.

  10. A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.D.

    1993-12-01

    As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis.

  11. An experimental method for evaluating the contribution of deleterious mutations to quantitative trait variation

    E-print Network

    Kelly, John K.

    1999-06-01

    is often formally defined as a ratio.) Under the model outlined above, the directional dominance associated with a single locus is fi2pqd (Cockerham & Weir, 1984). The overall value for B is the sum of this quantity across all quantitative trait loci. Using...?809), we find the approximate bias and sampling variance of the ratio of V a *toC ad *: E 9 C ad * V a * fi C ad V a : E 1 V a # 9 s aa 0 C ad V a 1 fis ad : (3) and V 9 C ad * V a * : E 1 V a # 9 s aa 0 C ad V a 1 # ?s dd fi2s ad 0 C ad V a 1: , (4) where...

  12. Magnetic Fields in M-dwarfs: Quantitative Results from Detailed Spectral Synthesis in FeH Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyak, D.; Reiners, A.; Wende, S.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.; Seifahrt, A.

    2011-12-01

    Strong surface magnetic fields are ubiquitously found in M-dwarfs with mean intensities on the order of few thousand Gauss -- three orders of magnitude higher than the mean surface magnetic field of the Sun. These fields and their interaction with photospheric convection are the main source of stellar activity, which is of big interest to study links between parent stars and their planets. Moreover, the understanding of stellar magnetism, as well as the role of different dynamo-actions in particular, is impossible without explaining magnetic fields in M-dwarfs. Measuring magnetic field intensities and geometries in such cool objects, however, is strongly limited to our ability to simulate the Zeeman effect in molecular lines. In this work, we present quantitative results of modelling and analysis of the magnetic fields in selected M-dwarfs in FeH Wing-Ford lines and strong atomic lines. Some particular FeH lines are found to be the excellent probes of the magnetic field.

  13. Magnetic fields in M-dwarfs: quantitative results from detailed spectral synthesis in FeH lines

    E-print Network

    Shulyak, D; Wende, S; Kochukhov, O; Piskunov, N; Seifahrt, A

    2010-01-01

    Strong surface magnetic fields are ubiquitously found in M-dwarfs with mean intensities on the order of few thousand Gauss-three orders of magnitude higher than the mean surface magnetic field of the Sun. These fields and their interaction with photospheric convection are the main source of stellar activity, which is of big interest to study links between parent stars and their planets. Moreover, the understanding of stellar magnetism, as well as the role of different dynamo-actions in particular, is impossible without explaining magnetic fields in M-dwarfs. Measuring magnetic field intensities and geometries in such cool objects, however, is strongly limited to our ability to simulate the Zeeman effect in molecular lines. In this work, we present quantitative results of modelling and analysis of the magnetic fields in selected M-dwarfs in FeH Wing-Ford lines and strong atomic lines. Some particular FeH lines are found to be the excellent probes of the magnetic field.

  14. A New Technique for Quantitative Determination of Dexamethasone in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples Using Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method

    PubMed Central

    Akhoundi-Khalafi, Ali Mohammad; Shishehbore, Masoud Reza

    2015-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a type of steroidal medications that is prescribed in many cases. In this study, a new reaction system using kinetic spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of dexamethasone is proposed. The method is based on the catalytic effect of dexamethasone on the oxidation of Orange G by bromate in acidic media. The change in absorbance as a criterion of the oxidation reaction progress was followed spectrophotometrically. To obtain the maximum sensitivity, the effective reaction variables were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, calibration graph was linear over the range 0.2–54.0?mg?L?1. The calculated detection limit (3sb/m) was 0.14?mg?L?1 for six replicate determinations of blank signal. The interfering effect of various species was also investigated. The present method was successfully applied for the determination of dexamethasone in pharmaceutical and biological samples satisfactorily. PMID:25737724

  15. Quantitative comparison of polar approach versus fitting method in time domain FLIM image analysis.

    PubMed

    Leray, A; Spriet, C; Trinel, D; Blossey, R; Usson, Y; Héliot, L

    2011-02-01

    We calculate here analytically the performance of the polar approach (or phasor) in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and F values when performing time-domain Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to determine the minimal number of photons necessary for FLIM measurements (which is directly related to the F value), and compare them to those obtained from a well-known fitting strategy using the Least Square Method (LSM). The importance of the fluorescence background on the lifetime measurement precision is also investigated. We demonstrate here that the LSM does not provide the best estimator of the lifetime parameter for fluorophores exhibiting mono-exponential intensity decays as soon as fluorescence background is superior to 5%. The polar approach enables indeed to determine more precisely the lifetime values for a limited range corresponding to usually encountered fluorescence lifetime values. These theoretical results are corroborated with Monte Carlo simulations. We finally demonstrate experimentally that the polar approach allows distinguishing in living cells two fluorophores undetectable with usual time-domain LSM fitting software. PMID:21265008

  16. Comprehensive exon array data processing method for quantitative analysis of alternative spliced variants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ping; Lepikhova, Tatiana; Hu, Yizhou; Monni, Outi; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2011-01-01

    Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA generates protein diversity. Dysfunction of splicing machinery and expression of specific transcripts has been linked to cancer progression and drug response. Exon microarray technology enables genome-wide quantification of expression levels of the majority of exons and facilitates the discovery of alternative splicing events. Analysis of exon array data is more challenging than the analysis of gene expression data and there is a need for reliable quantification of exons and alternatively spliced variants. We introduce a novel, computationally efficient methodology, Multiple Exon Array Preprocessing (MEAP), for exon array data pre-processing, analysis and visualization. We compared MEAP with existing pre-processing methods, and validation of six exons and two alternatively spliced variants with qPCR corroborated MEAP expression estimates. Analysis of exon array data from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines revealed several transcripts associated with 11q13 amplification, which is related with decreased survival and metastasis in HNSCC patients. Our results demonstrate that MEAP produces reliable expression values at exon, alternatively spliced variant and gene levels, which allows generating novel experimentally testable predictions. PMID:21745820

  17. A new quantitative method for the rapid evaluation of buildings against earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmoodzadeh, Amir [Civil Engineering Dept., Islamic Azad University, Nagafabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Mohammad Mehdi [Faculty member, Tehran University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-08

    At the present time there exist numerous weak buildings which are not able to withstand earthquakes. At the same time, both private and public developers are trying to use scientific methods to prioritize and allocate budget in order to reinforce the above mentioned structures. This is because of the limited financial resources and time. In the recent years the procedure of seismic assessment before rehabilitation of vulnerable buildings has been implemented in many countries. Now, it seems logical to reinforce the existing procedures with the mass of available data about the effects caused by earthquakes on buildings. The main idea is driven from FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) in quality management where the main procedure is to recognize the failure, the causes, and the priority of each cause and failure. Specifying the causes and effects which lead to a certain shortcoming in structural behavior during earthquakes, an inventory is developed and each building is rated through a yes-or-no procedure. In this way, the rating of the structure is based on some standard forms which along with relative weights are developed in this study. The resulted criteria by rapid assessment will indicate whether the structure is to be demolished, has a high, medium or low vulnerability or is invulnerable.

  18. A Highly Sensitive Method for Quantitative Determination of L-Amino Acid Oxidase Activity Based on the Visualization of Ferric-Xylenol Orange Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ju; Zhou, Ning; Zhao, Chuntian

    2013-01-01

    L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) has important biological roles in many organisms, thus attracting great attention from researchers to establish its detection methods. In this study, a new quantitative in-gel determination of LAAO activity based on ferric-xylenol orange (FeIIIXO) formation was established. This method showed that due to the conversion of FeII to FeIII by H2O2 and subsequent formation of FeIIIXO complex halo in agar medium, the logarithm of H2O2 concentration from 5 to 160 µM was linearly correlated to the diameter of purplish red FeIIIXO halo. By extracting the LAAO-generated H2O2 concentration, the LAAO activity can be quantitatively determined. This FeIIIXO agar assay is highly sensitive to detect H2O2 down to micromolar range. More importantly, it is easy to handle, cheap, reproducible, convenient and accurate. Coupled with SDS-PAGE, it can directly be used to determine the number and approximate molecular weight of LAAO in one assay. All these features make this in-gel FeIIIXO assay useful and convenient as a general procedure for following enzyme purification, assaying fractions from a column, or observing changes in activity resulting from enzyme modifications, hence endowing this method with broad applications. PMID:24376540

  19. A new quantitative evaluation method of spiral drawing for patients with Parkinson’s disease based on a polar coordinate system with varying origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Bei; Zou, Junzhong; Nakamura, Masatoshi

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disease of the central nervous system among the elderly, and its complex symptoms bring up challenges for the clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a new method based on a polar coordinate system with varying origin was proposed in order to quantitatively evaluate the performance in spiral drawing tasks for patients with Parkinson's disease, since this method can assess the movement ability of spiral drawing before and after deep brain stimulation (DBS) among the patients. In this paper, three normal subjects and twelve PD patients participated in spiral drawing experiment. The hand movements of patients, before and after DBS, were recorded by a digitized tablet respectively in this experiment. And the variation of origin, radius, degree and other characteristics of hand movements were evaluated by introducing a set of parameters for feature extraction. The result showed that the proposed polar coordinate system embraced good performance in the quantitative evaluation of spiral drawing. Therefore, the proposed method overcame the limitation of data processes with fixed origin for diagnosis and evaluation, and by combining with extraction and analysis of characteristic parameters it had clinical significance in measuring the effectiveness of operation or treatment for the PD patients.

  20. D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method based on Cu foam electrode.

    PubMed

    Jiaojiao, Jin; Yangyang, Ge; Gangying, Zheng; Yanping, Cai; Wei, Liu; Guohua, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Here, D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis method using Cu foam electrode had been investigated. Porous Cu foam material was prepared by electrodeposition strategy, and used as working electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) explained sweetener electro-oxidation process occurring on Cu foam electrode. Amperometric i-t scanning results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode fast responded to D-glucose, D-galactose, and D-lactose in linear concentration range between 0.18 mM and 3.47 mM with significant sensitivity of 1.79 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), 0.57 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), and 0.64 mA cm(-2)mM(-1), respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) was 9.30 ?M, 29.40 ?M, and 26 ?M respectively (S/N=3). Sweetener species was decided by stochastic resonance (SR) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen peak located noise intensities. Interference experiment results demonstrated that Cu foam electrode selectively responded to sweeteners against interference chemicals. The proposed method provides a promising way for sweetener non-enzyme quantitative and qualitative analysis. PMID:25577110

  1. Proposal for the assessment to quantitative dermal exposure limits in occupational environments: Part 2. Feasibility study for application in an exposure scenario for MDA by two different dermal exposure sampling methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Brouwer; L. Hoogendoorn; P. M. Bos; P. J. Boogaard; J. J. van Hemmen

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate two different techniques for assessing dermal exposure to 4,4'-methylene dianiline (MDA) in a field study. The results were used to test the applicability of a recently proposed quantitative dermal occupational exposure limit (DOEL) for MDA in a workplace scenario. METHODS: For two consecutive weeks six workers were monitored for exposure to MDA in a factory that made

  2. A RAPID METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF FUNGAL DNA FROM ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES: EVALUATION IN THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MEMNONIELLA ECHINATA CONIDIA USING REAL TIME DETECTION OF PCR PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New technologies are creating the potential for using nucleic acid sequence detection to perform routine microbiological analyses of environmental samples. Our laboratory has recently reported on the development of a method for the quantitative detection of Stachybotrys chartarum...

  3. All students majoring in Sociology must successfully complete one of three courses in Sociological Analysis: SYA 4510 (Quantitative Methods), SYA 4310 (Qualitative and/or

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    All students majoring in Sociology must successfully complete one of three courses in Sociological Analysis: SYA 4510 (Quantitative Methods), SYA 4310 (Qualitative and/or Comparative Historical project on an issue central to contemporary sociology. CONTENT KNOWLEDGE (Research Skills): Students

  4. A Fuzzy-Based Fusion Method of Multimodal Sensor-Based Measurements for the Quantitative Evaluation of Eye Fatigue on 3D Displays

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Jae Won; Choi, Jong-Suk; Heo, Hwan; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid increase of 3-dimensional (3D) content, considerable research related to the 3D human factor has been undertaken for quantitatively evaluating visual discomfort, including eye fatigue and dizziness, caused by viewing 3D content. Various modalities such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), biomedical signals, and eye responses have been investigated. However, the majority of the previous research has analyzed each modality separately to measure user eye fatigue. This cannot guarantee the credibility of the resulting eye fatigue evaluations. Therefore, we propose a new method for quantitatively evaluating eye fatigue related to 3D content by combining multimodal measurements. This research is novel for the following four reasons: first, for the evaluation of eye fatigue with high credibility on 3D displays, a fuzzy-based fusion method (FBFM) is proposed based on the multimodalities of EEG signals, eye blinking rate (BR), facial temperature (FT), and subjective evaluation (SE); second, to measure a more accurate variation of eye fatigue (before and after watching a 3D display), we obtain the quality scores of EEG signals, eye BR, FT and SE; third, for combining the values of the four modalities we obtain the optimal weights of the EEG signals BR, FT and SE using a fuzzy system based on quality scores; fourth, the quantitative level of the variation of eye fatigue is finally obtained using the weighted sum of the values measured by the four modalities. Experimental results confirm that the effectiveness of the proposed FBFM is greater than other conventional multimodal measurements. Moreover, the credibility of the variations of the eye fatigue using the FBFM before and after watching the 3D display is proven using a t-test and descriptive statistical analysis using effect size. PMID:25961382

  5. Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

  6. Qualitative and quantitative determination of human biomarkers by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, C.; Bratu, A. M.; Matei, C.; Cernat, R.; Popescu, A.; Dumitras, D. C.

    2011-07-01

    The hypothesis that blood, urine and other body fluids and tissues can be sampled and analyzed to produce clinical information for disease diagnosis or therapy monitoring is the basis of modern clinical diagnosis and medical practice. The analysis of breath air has major advantages because it is a non-invasive method, represents minimal risk to personnel collecting the samples and can be often sampled. Breath air samples from the human subjects were collected using aluminized bags from QuinTron and analyzed using the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) technique. LPAS is used to detect traces of ethylene in breath air resulting from lipid peroxidation in lung epithelium following the radiotherapy and also traces of ammonia from patients subjected to hemodialysis for treatment of renal failure. In the case of patients affected by cancer and treated by external radiotherapy, all measurements were done at 10P(14) CO2 laser line, where the ethylene absorption coefficient has the largest value (30.4 cm-1 atm-1), whereas for patients affected by renal failure and treated by standard dialysis, all measurements were performed at 9R(30) CO2 laser line, where the ammonia absorption coefficient has the maximum value of 57 cm-1 atm-1. The levels of ethylene and ammonia in exhaled air, from patients with cancer and renal failure, respectively, were measured and compared with breath air contents from healthy humans. Human gas biomarkers were measured at sub-ppb (parts per billion) concentration sensitivities. It has been demonstrated that LPAS technique will play an important role in the future of exhaled breath air analysis. The key attributes of this technique are sensitivity, selectivity, fast and real time response, as well as its simplicity.

  7. A Simple Method to Quantitate IP-10 in Dried Blood and Plasma Spots

    PubMed Central

    Aabye, Martine G.; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Werlinrud, Anne Marie; Holm, Line Lindebo; Tuuminen, Tamara; Ravn, Pernille; Ruhwald, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Background Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-?, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screening. Aim To develop a robust and sensitive ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection in plasma, dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS); to validate the ELISA in clinically relevant samples; and to assess the performance of the assay for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and M.tuberculosis specific immune responses. Method We raised mice and rat monoclonal antibodies against human IP-10 and developed an ELISA. The assay was validated and applied to the detection of CMV and M.tuberculosis specific responses in 18 patients with immune reactivity towards M.tuberculosis and 32 healthy controls of which 22 had immune reactivity towards CMV and none towards M.tuberculosis. We compared the performance of this new assay to IFN-?. Results The ELISA was reliable for IP-10 detection in both plasma and filter paper samples. The linear range of the ELISA was 2.5–600 pg/ml. IFN-? was not readily detectable in DPS samples. IP-10 was stabile in filter paper samples for at least 4 weeks at 37°C. The correlation between IP-10 detected in plasma, DPS and DBS samples was excellent (r2>0.97). Conclusions This newly developed assay is reliable for IP-10 quantification in plasma, DBS and DPS samples from antigen stimulated and non-stimulated whole blood. The filter paper assays enable easy sample acquisition and transport at ambient temperature e.g. via the postal system. The system can potentially simplify diagnostic assays for M.tuberculosis and CMV infection. PMID:22761744

  8. [Comparison of results from two dietary interview methods].

    PubMed

    Urteaga Ribbeck, Carmen; Pinheiro Fernandes, Anna Christina; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the food consumption and nutrient intakes obtained through a 24-h dietary recall (DR) and a consumption tendency interview (CTI). Both instruments DR and CTI were applied simultaneously in groups of 264 schoolchildren and 272 adults. Information on age, sex, literacy, occupation, and head of family's social security system was also obtained. Body weight and height were measured and the body mass index BMI was calculated. Food portions and nutrient intakes were described and compared by using means, standard deviation. ANOVA, and product moment Pearson' correlation. No significant differences were detected between both methods with respect to mean consumption of cereals, fruits, meats and sugars. Dairy products and oil consumption were found to be larger according to CTI: 0.6 +/- 1.7 y 0.3 +/- 0.9 portions, respectively (p < 0.01). In terms of nutrient intakes, there were no differences in beta-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, and zinc. Mean differences of energy and selected nutrients were lower than 10% of total intake, except by omega-3 fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin E, and folate. Correlation coefficient between both methods was < 0.4 for most foods and nutrient intakes. Correlation was slightly higher in adults regarding cereals dairy and sugar (approximately 0.5). Both methods DR and CTI produce similar results when applied at the population level, but can be significant different on individuals. The suitability of each method will depend on the objectives of the study. PMID:14528607

  9. Quantitative Comparison of Three Standardization Methods Using a One-Way ANOVA for Multiple Mean Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrows, Russell D.

    2007-01-01

    A one-way ANOVA experiment is performed to determine whether or not the three standardization methods are statistically different in determining the concentration of the three paraffin analytes. The laboratory exercise asks students to combine the three methods in a single analytical procedure of their own design to determine the concentration of…

  10. Methods for Quantitative Analysis of Variability and Uncertainty in Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Christopher Frey

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we employ bootstrap simulation methods to quantify both variability and uncertainty in air pollutant emissions. We illustrate the methods using examples of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from coal-fired power plants. Variability is the heterogeneity of values with respect to time, space, or a population. Variability may be quantified using frequency distributions. Uncertainty arises due to lack

  11. An average enumeration method of hyperspectral imaging data for quantitative evaluation of medical device surface contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We propose a quantification method called Mapped Average Principal Component Analysis Score (MAPS) to enumerate the contamination coverage on common medical device surfaces. The method was adapted from conventional Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on non-overlapped regions on a full frame hyperspe...

  12. Spatial-resolution optimization of 3D high-frequency quantitative ultrasound methods to

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    and treatment of cancer require accurate detection of lymph-node metastases, but current his- tological methods (QUS) methods to identify metastatic regions in freshly excised lymph nodes from cancer patients on estimate bias and variance was investigated using a database of 101 lymph nodes of colorectal-cancer

  13. Determination of Acetaminophen in Analgesics by the Standard Addition Method: A Quantitative Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huggins Z. Msimanga; Jilliann Wiese

    2005-01-01

    The ability of the standard addition method to correct for interference was evaluated by analyzing Tylenol and Migraine tablets for acetaminophen. These formulations are ideal for standard addition method study because they provide varying degrees of interference. For Tylenol tablets, the spectrum of diphenhydramine interferes with that of acetaminophen around 200 to 235 nm while there is minimum interference between

  14. A high-throughput method for the quantitative analysis of indole-3-acetic acid and other auxins from plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Barkawi, Lana S; Tam, Yuen-Yee; Tillman, Julie A; Pederson, Ben; Calio, Jessica; Al-Amier, Hussein; Emerick, Michael; Normanly, Jennifer; Cohen, Jerry D

    2008-01-15

    To investigate novel pathways involved in auxin biosynthesis, transport, metabolism, and response, we have developed a high-throughput screen for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels. Historically, the quantitative analysis of IAA has been a cumbersome and time-consuming process that does not lend itself to the screening of large numbers of samples. The method described here can be performed with or without an automated liquid handler and involves purification solely by solid-phase extraction in a 96-well format, allowing the analysis of up to 96 samples per day. In preparation for quantitative analysis by selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the carboxylic acid moiety of IAA is derivatized by methylation. The derivatization of the IAA described here was also done in a 96-well format in which up to 96 samples can be methylated at once, minimizing the handling of the toxic reagent, diazomethane. To this end, we have designed a custom diazomethane generator that can safely withstand high flow and accommodate larger volumes. The method for IAA analysis is robust and accurate over a range of plant tissue weights and can be used to screen for and quantify other indolic auxins and compounds including indole-3-butyric acid, 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid, and indole-3-propionic acid. PMID:17889819

  15. A processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed.

  16. Detection of Legionella species in environmental water by the quantitative PCR method in combination with ethidium monoazide treatment.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Takama, Tomoko; Yoshizaki, Miwa; Agata, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    We detected Legionella species in 111 bath water samples and 95 cooling tower water samples by using a combination of conventional plate culture, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qPCR combined with ethidium monoazide treatment (EMA-qPCR) methods. In the case of bath water samples, Legionella spp. were detected in 30 samples by plate culture, in 85 samples by qPCR, and in 49 samples by EMA-qPCR. Of 81 samples determined to be Legionella-negative by plate culture, 56 and 23 samples were positive by qPCR and EMA-qPCR, respectively. Therefore, EMA treatment decreased the number of Legionella-positive bath water samples detected by qPCR. In contrast, EMA treatment had no effect on cooling tower water samples. We therefore expect that EMA-qPCR is a useful method for the rapid detection of viable Legionella spp. from bath water samples. PMID:25817816

  17. Evolution of quantitative methods for the study and management of avian populations: on the importance of individual contributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolution of quantitative methods for the study and management of avian populations: on the importance of individual contributions.-The EURING meetings and the scientists who have attended them have contributed substantially to the growth of knowledge in the field of estimating parameters of animal populations. The contributions of David R. Anderson to process modeling, parameter estimation and decision analysis are briefly reviewed. Metrics are considered for assessing individual contributions to a field of inquiry, and it is concluded that Anderson's contributions have been substantial. Important characteristics of Anderson and his career are the ability to identify and focus on important topics, the premium placed on dissemination of new methods to prospective users, the ability to assemble teams of complementary researchers, and the innovation and vision that characterized so much of his work. The paper concludes with a list of interesting current research topics for consideration by EURING participants.

  18. A quantitative evaluation method of flood risks in low-lying areas associated with increase of heavy rainfall in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakawa, H.; Masumoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    An increase in flood risk, especially in low-lying areas, is predicted as a consequence of global climate change or other causes. Immediate measures such as strengthening of drainage capacity are needed to minimize the damage caused by more-frequent flooding. Typically, drainage pump capacities of in paddy areas are planned by using a result of drainage analysis with design rainfall (e.g. 3-day rainfall amount with a 10-year return period). However, the result depends on a hyetograph of input rainfall even if a total amount of rainfall is equal, and the flood risk may be different with rainfall patterns. Therefore, it is important to assume various patterns of heavy rainfall for flood risk assessment. On the other hand, a rainfall synthesis simulation is useful to generate many patterns of rainfall data for flood studies. We previously proposed a rainfall simulation method called diurnal rainfall pattern generator which can generate short-time step rainfall and internal pattern of them. This study discusses a quantitative evaluation method for detecting a relationship between flood damage risk and heavy rainfall scale by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. In addition, we also approached an estimation of flood damage which focused on rice yield. Our study area was in the Kaga three-lagoon basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. There are two lagoons in the study area, and the low-lying paddy areas extend over about 4,000 ha in the lower reaches of the basin. First, we developed a drainage analysis model that incorporates kinematic and diffusive runoff models for calculating water level on channels and paddies. Next, the heavy rainfall data for drainage analysis were generated. Here, the 3-day rainfalls amounts with 9 kinds of different return periods (2-, 3-, 5-, 8-, 10-, 15-, 50-, 100-, and 200-year) were derived, and three hundred hyetograph patterns were generated for each rainfall amount by using the diurnal rainfall pattern generator. Finally, all data were input to the drainage model to estimate flood risk; hence, the resultant data would include the influence of different of internal patterns of rainfall on the flood risk. Simultaneously, we tried to clarify economic losses in paddies by using a yield loss curve showing the relation between submerged duration in paddies and rice yield reduction. In particular, we focused on the frequency distribution of peak water levels that exceed allowable flood levels at the lagoons as a flood occurrence risk in this area. The results showed that the risk would increase with rainfall amount, and we got a curve which showed the relation between rainfall amounts and the flood occurrence risk. By using this curve, we can estimate this risk easily in any rainfall amount or climate change scenario. Furthermore, the averaged inundation duration over a depth of more than 30 cm and decrease ratio of rice yield were estimated for paddies. It is indicated that paddies in low-lying areas were damaged so that they are particularly vulnerable to the increase of heavy rainfall amount. Mitigation measures such as revision of drainage planning and/or changing design standards for the capacity of drainage pumps would be necessary in the future.

  19. A simple method for quantitating the propensity for calcium oxalate crystallization in urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wabner, C. L.; Pak, C. Y.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the propensity for spontaneous crystallization of calcium oxalate in urine, the permissible increment in oxalate is calculated. The previous method required visual observation of crystallization with the addition of oxalate, this warranted the need for a large volume of urine and a sacrifice in accuracy in defining differences between small incremental changes of added oxalate. Therefore, this method has been miniaturized and spontaneous crystallization is detected from the depletion of radioactive oxalate. The new "micro" method demonstrated a marked decrease (p < 0.001) in the permissible increment in oxalate in urine of stone formers versus normal subjects. Moreover, crystallization inhibitors added to urine, in vitro (heparin or diphosphonate) or in vivo (potassium citrate administration), substantially increased the permissible increment in oxalate. Thus, the "micro" method has proven reliable and accurate in discriminating stone forming from control urine and in distinguishing changes of inhibitory activity.

  20. Novel quantitative methods for characterization of chemical induced functional alteration in developing neuronal cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT BODY: Thousands of chemicals lack adequate testing for adverse effects on nervous system development, stimulating research into alternative methods to screen chemicals for potential developmental neurotoxicity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) collect action potential spiking...

  1. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow visualization holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows, where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  2. Spectrophotometric quantitative determination of cilazapril and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets by chemometric methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erdal Dinç; Dumitru Baleanu

    2002-01-01

    Four chemometric methods were applied to simultaneous determination of cilazapril and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets. Classical least-square (CLS), inverse least-square (ILS), principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares (PLS) methods do not need any priori graphical treatment of the overlapping spectra of two drugs in a mixture. For all chemometric calibrations a concentration set of the random mixture consisting of the

  3. An evaluation of four quantitative laboratory fume hood performance test methods 

    E-print Network

    Woodrow, Lisa Michele

    1987-01-01

    hood perfo~ test methods were evaluated, including: EPA uranus dye; ASHRAE Freon; EPA SF6, . and modified EPA SF6. Each of these ~ were evaluated, based on the following criteria: (1) variability and reproducibility; (2) practical applicaticns... and Reproducibility of Test Methods 66 66 67 67 68 Instrument Variability . Ejector Output Variability . Variability ~ Test Replicates EPA SF6 Test Instnaaent Variability 70 71 73 73 1X TABIE OF (XWHWIS (Mntinued) Manifold Output Variability...

  4. Beam-modulation methods in quantitative and flow-visualization holographic interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    Heterodyne holographic interferometry and time-average holography with a frequency shifted reference beam are discussed. Both methods will be used for the measurement and visualization of internal transonic flows where the target facility is a flutter cascade. The background and experimental requirements for both methods are reviewed. Measurements using heterodyne holographic interferometry are presented. The performance of the laser required for time-average holography of time-varying transonic flows is discussed.

  5. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis of bird migration with a tracking radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruderer, B.; Steidinger, P.

    1972-01-01

    Methods of analyzing bird migration by using tracking radar are discussed. The procedure for assessing the rate of bird passage is described. Three topics are presented concerning the grouping of nocturnal migrants, the velocity of migratory flight, and identification of species by radar echoes. The height and volume of migration under different weather conditions are examined. The methods for studying the directions of migration and the correlation between winds and the height and direction of migrating birds are presented.

  6. HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the quantitative determination of flaxseed lignans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jatinder Kaur Mukker; Valeriya Kotlyarova; Ravi Shankar Prasad Singh; Jane Alcorn

    2010-01-01

    We report a rapid and simple HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the quantification of the major flaxseed lignan, secoisolarisiresinol diglucoside (SDG) and its major metabolites. The method is specific for SDG, secoisolarisiresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and entrolactone (EL) in rat serum. The assay procedure involves chromatographic separation using a Waters Symmetry C18 reversed-phase column (4.6mm×150mm, 5?m) and mobile phase

  7. A quantitative comparison of the commonly used methods for extracting carotenoids from avian plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. McGraw; Elizabeth A. Tourville; Michael W. Butler

    2008-01-01

    Interest in animal carotenoids, especially in birds, has exploded in recent years, and so too have the methods employed to\\u000a investigate the nature and function of these pigments. Perhaps the most easily and commonly performed procedure in this work\\u000a has been the determination of carotenoid concentration from avian plasma. Over the past 20 years of research on avian carotenoids,\\u000a numerous methods

  8. A sensitive and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of trace amount of bromocriptine in small clinical prolactinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qingce; Liu, Yang; He, Jiuming; Yue, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Renzhi; Abliz, Zeper

    2015-05-01

    Usually, insufficient intratumoral concentration of therapeutic drugs is one of the reasons for tumor treatment failure. However, little is known about intratumoral distribution of bromocriptine in non-responding prolactinomas because of extremely low drug concentration and small prolactinoma tissue samples. In this study, a sensitive, rapid and high-throughput quantitative bioanalytical method has been established by using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of bromocriptine at trace level in human prolactinoma tissue. As little as 20 mg (wet weight) tissue sample was required and total analysis time was 6 min in this method. The assay quantifies over a linear range of 50 fg/mg to 5 pg/mg, and has a 25 fg/mg limit of detection at a signal/noise ratio of 3. This validated method was successfully used to quantitatively determine bromocriptine in clinical post-operative bromocriptine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. The results revealed bromocriptine concentration in resistant prolactinomas (0.49-1.25 pg/mg) was significantly higher than that in sensitive prolactinomas (0.057-0.47 pg/mg). These results provided direct evidence to demonstrate the reseaon for failure of bromocriptine treatment in some patients with prolactinoma was "intrinsic" tumor (cell) resistence, rather than insufficient drug concentration in tumor tissue. Additionaly, this HPLC-MS/MS method has been shown to be suitable for bromocriptine analysis in small amount tissue sample and could be adapted for therapeutic drug monitoring of other clinical medicine. PMID:25813902

  9. SC3-seq: a method for highly parallel and quantitative measurement of single-cell gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Aramaki, Shinya; Yokobayashi, Shihori; Kurimoto, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamamoto, Takuya; Saitou, Mitinori

    2015-01-01

    Single-cell mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) methods have undergone rapid development in recent years, and transcriptome analysis of relevant cell populations at single-cell resolution has become a key research area of biomedical sciences. We here present single-cell mRNA 3-prime end sequencing (SC3-seq), a practical methodology based on PCR amplification followed by 3-prime-end enrichment for highly quantitative, parallel and cost-effective measurement of gene expression in single cells. The SC3-seq allows excellent quantitative measurement of mRNAs ranging from the 10,000-cell to 1-cell level, and accordingly, allows an accurate estimate of the transcript levels by a regression of the read counts of spike-in RNAs with defined copy numbers. The SC3-seq has clear advantages over other typical single-cell RNA-seq methodologies for the quantitative measurement of transcript levels and at a sequence depth required for the saturation of transcript detection. The SC3-seq distinguishes four distinct cell types in the peri-implantation mouse blastocysts. Furthermore, the SC3-seq reveals the heterogeneity in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) cultured under on-feeder as well as feeder-free conditions, demonstrating a more homogeneous property of the feeder-free hiPSCs. We propose that SC3-seq might be used as a powerful strategy for single-cell transcriptome analysis in a broad range of investigations in biomedical sciences. PMID:25722368

  10. SC3-seq: a method for highly parallel and quantitative measurement of single-cell gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Yabuta, Yukihiro; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Aramaki, Shinya; Yokobayashi, Shihori; Kurimoto, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Nakagawa, Masato; Yamamoto, Takuya; Saitou, Mitinori

    2015-05-19

    Single-cell mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq) methods have undergone rapid development in recent years, and transcriptome analysis of relevant cell populations at single-cell resolution has become a key research area of biomedical sciences. We here present single-cell mRNA 3-prime end sequencing (SC3-seq), a practical methodology based on PCR amplification followed by 3-prime-end enrichment for highly quantitative, parallel and cost-effective measurement of gene expression in single cells. The SC3-seq allows excellent quantitative measurement of mRNAs ranging from the 10,000-cell to 1-cell level, and accordingly, allows an accurate estimate of the transcript levels by a regression of the read counts of spike-in RNAs with defined copy numbers. The SC3-seq has clear advantages over other typical single-cell RNA-seq methodologies for the quantitative measurement of transcript levels and at a sequence depth required for the saturation of transcript detection. The SC3-seq distinguishes four distinct cell types in the peri-implantation mouse blastocysts. Furthermore, the SC3-seq reveals the heterogeneity in human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) cultured under on-feeder as well as feeder-free conditions, demonstrating a more homogeneous property of the feeder-free hiPSCs. We propose that SC3-seq might be used as a powerful strategy for single-cell transcriptome analysis in a broad range of investigations in biomedical sciences. PMID:25722368

  11. Development of a quantitative method for the detection of enteroviruses in soil.

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, C J; Gerba, C P

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for efficiently concentrating enteroviruses from soil. Viruses were eluted from soil by mechanical agitation in high pH glycine buffer containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The eluted viruses were concentrated on a floc that formed de novo upon adjustment of the soil eluate to 0.06 M aluminum chloride and pH 3.5. Viruses not pelleted with the floc were concentrated by adsorption to and elution from membrane filters. This method yielded an average efficiency of 66% recovery from loamy sand soil for four enteroviruses. Virus recovery from soil was consistently high, with samples ranging in size from 25 to 500 g. The method was used successfully to isolate naturally occurring viruses from soil beneath a wastewater land treatment site. Recovery of enteroviruses by this method form different types of soil was dependent on percentage of clay, surface area, and cation exchange capacity. Recovery was not dependent on soil saturation pH or on percentage of organic matter. This method should prove useful for studying enterovirus migration and survival during the land application of domestic sewage. PMID:36845

  12. A Quantitative Comparison of Prediction Methods for Daily Streamflow Time Series at Ungaged Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Julie; Farmer, William; Archfield, Stacey; Over, Thomas; Vogel, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The existence of reliable, continuous daily records of natural streamflow enhances our ability to manage our water resources. In many regions, due to a lack of adequate gaging resources, it is necessary to create representative records where none exist. Research on prediction in ungaged basins (PUB) has been very active over the past decade. We report the findings of an ongoing national study by the U.S. Geological Survey, which seeks to provide spatially and temporally continuous 30-year records of historical daily records of natural streamflow (1980-2010) at the watershed scale (HUC-12). Employing data from 182 nearly pristine basins in the Southeast United States, a three-fold validation procedure was used to simulate the ungaged case for each basin. Ungaged flows were estimated using transfer-based methods: standardizing by drainage area, mean flows, means and standard deviations, and using an interpolation of flow duration curves (QPPQ). The effect of index-gage selection was also considered: using the nearest-neighboring gage or the gage with the greatest correlation. These methods were compared with a daily version of the Analysis of Flows in Networks of Channels (AFINCH) model and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a deterministic model. We developed a multi-objective, comparative assessment of PUB methods. The selection of an optimal PUB method is shown to depend on the intended application of the estimated flow record. We identify the PUB methods that perform best across the 32 goodness-of-fit metrics considered.

  13. Quantitative Method To Determine Sporicidal Decontamination of Building Surfaces by Gaseous Fumigants, and Issues Related to Laboratory-Scale Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vipin K.; Wallace, Lalena; Smith, Lisa S.; Ryan, Shawn P.; Martin, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide gas and vaporous hydrogen peroxide sterilant have been used in the cleanup of building interiors contaminated with spores of Bacillus anthracis. A systematic study, in collaboration with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, was jointly undertaken by the U.S. Army-Edgewood Chemical Biological Center to determine the sporicidal efficacies of these two fumigants on six building structural materials: carpet, ceiling tile, unpainted cinder block, painted I-beam steel, painted wallboard, and unpainted pinewood. Critical issues related to high-throughput sample processing and spore recovery from porous and nonporous surfaces included (i) the extraction of spores from complex building materials, (ii) the effects of titer challenge levels on fumigant efficacy, and (iii) the impact of bioburden inclusion on spore recovery from surfaces and spore inactivation. Small pieces (1.3 by 1.3 cm of carpet, ceiling tile, wallboard, I-beam steel, and pinewood and 2.5 by 1.3 cm for cinder block) of the materials were inoculated with an aliquot of 50 ?l containing the target number (1 × 106, 1 × 107, or 1 × 108) of avirulent spores of B. anthracis NNR1?1. The aliquot was dried overnight in a biosafety cabinet, and the spores were extracted by a combination of a 10-min sonication and a 2-min vortexing using 0.5% buffered peptone water as the recovery medium. No statistically significant drop in the kill efficacies of the fumigants was observed when the spore challenge level was increased from 6 log units to 8 log units, even though a general trend toward inhibition of fumigant efficacy was evident. The organic burden (0 to 5%) in the spore inoculum resulted in a statistically significant drop in spore recovery (at the 2 or 5% level). The effect on spore killing was a function of the organic bioburden amount and the material type. In summary, a high-throughput quantitative method was developed for determining the efficacies of fumigants, and the spore recoveries from five porous materials and one nonporous material ranged between 20 and 80%. PMID:19346341

  14. Groundwater vulnerability and pollution risk assessment of porous aquifers to nitrate: Modifying the DRASTIC method using quantitative parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazakis, Nerantzis; Voudouris, Konstantinos S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present study the DRASTIC method was modified to estimate vulnerability and pollution risk of porous aquifers to nitrate. The qualitative parameters of aquifer type, soil and impact of the vadose zone were replaced with the quantitative parameters of aquifer thickness, nitrogen losses from soil and hydraulic resistance. Nitrogen losses from soil were estimated based on climatic, soil and topographic data using indices produced by the GLEAMS model. Additionally, the class range of each parameter and the final index were modified using nitrate concentration correlation with four grading methods (natural breaks, equal interval, quantile and geometrical intervals). For this reason, seventy-seven (77) groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for nitrate. Land uses were added to estimate the pollution risk to nitrates. The two new methods, DRASTIC-PA and DRASTIC-PAN, were then applied in the porous aquifer of Anthemountas basin together with the initial versions of DRASTIC and the LOSN-PN index. The two modified methods displayed the highest correlations with nitrate concentrations. The two new methods provided higher discretisation of the vulnerability and pollution risk, whereas the high variance of the (ANOVA) F statistic confirmed the increase of the average concentrations of NO3-, increasing from low to high between the vulnerability and pollution risk classes. The importance of the parameters of hydraulic resistance of the vadose zone, aquifer thickness and land use was confirmed by single-parameter sensitivity analysis.

  15. Modelling the molecular Zeeman-effect in M-dwarfs: methods and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulyak, D.; Reiners, A.; Wende, S.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.; Seifahrt, A.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We present first quantitative results of the surface magnetic field measurements in selected M-dwarfs based on detailed spectra synthesis conducted simultaneously in atomic and molecular lines of the FeH Wing-Ford F4 ? - X4 ? transitions. Methods: A modified version of the Molecular Zeeman Library (MZL) was used to compute Landé g-factors for FeH lines in different Hund's cases. Magnetic spectra synthesis was performed with the Synmast code. Results: We show that the implementation of different Hund's case for FeH states depending on their quantum numbers allows us to achieve a good fit to the majority of lines in a sunspot spectrum in an automatic regime. Strong magnetic fields are confirmed via the modelling of atomic and FeH lines for three M-dwarfs YZ CMi, EV Lac, and AD Leo, but their mean intensities are found to be systematically lower than previously reported. A much weaker field (1.7-2 kG against 2.7 kG) is required to fit FeH lines in the spectra of GJ 1224. Conclusions: Our method allows us to measure average magnetic fields in very low-mass stars from polarized radiative transfer. The obtained results indicate that the fields reported in earlier works were probably overestimated by about 15-30%. Higher quality observations are needed for more definite results.

  16. A quantitative, semi-automated method for phytate phosphorus determination in sorghum and other cereals 

    E-print Network

    Doherty, C. A

    1981-01-01

    OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE Structure . Chelation Factors Other Phosphorus Compounds Present Location and Levels Methods of Analysis Potential Problems in Phytic Acid Analysis MATERIALS AND METHODS... al l975, McCance and Widdowson 1935). Current interest in phyt1c acid 1s due to recent nutritional stud1es which have shown phyt1c acid to chelate di and trivalent cations, particularly 1ron, calcium, zinc and magnesium render1ng them unavailable...

  17. Quantitative analysis of resorcinol, quinol and cathechol by IRT-method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacheva, K. I.; Belcheva, R.; Dimov, N.

    1984-03-01

    In the present paper the determination of resorcinol(I), quinol(II) and catechol(III) in mixture is demonstrated by IRT method using nonsophisticated IR spectrophotometer. The sample dissolved in acetone is poured in the sample cell. The absorbances at 963 cm -1 (I), 829 cm -1 (II) and 745 cm -1 (III) are consecutively compensated by titration of pure acetone in the reference cell with solutions of I,II,III respectively. The accuracy obtained is 1,5 %, 4,7 % and 10 % rel. The method is applied for quatitative investigation of reactionary mixtures containing resorcinol and quinol.

  18. An integrated methodology for quantitative assessment of proliferation resistance of advanced nuclear systems using probabilistic methods

    E-print Network

    Ham, Hyeongpil

    2005-01-01

    Proliferation is the results of a competition between the proliferating country (proliferation) and the party to resist the proliferation efforts (safeguarder). An integrated evaluation methodology to evaluate proliferation ...

  19. Unified gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method for quantitating tyrosine metabolites in urine and plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert L Shroads; George N Henderson; Jang Cheung; Margaret O James; Peter W Stacpoole

    2004-01-01

    Tyrosine and many of its catabolites play significant roles in the in the toxicity associated with acquired and congenital forms of hypertyrosinemia. We now report a specific and sensitive GC\\/MS method for the simultaneous determination of tyrosine metabolites maleylacetone (MA), fumarylacetone (FA), succinylacetone (SA), fumarate and acetoacetate in urine and plasma. Tyrosine metabolites and an internal standard, 2-oxohexanoic acid (OHA),

  20. A quantitative classification method for assessing resistance to Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae in strawberry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. E. van de Weg; S. Giezen; B. Henken; A. P. M. den Nijs

    1996-01-01

    Race specific resistance to red core (red stele) root rot, caused by Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, is known to occur in the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.), but frequently this resistance does not completely prevent infection. We therefore developed a classification method which distinguishes partial and complete resistance. It accounts for differences in the aggressiveness of isolates and in

  1. A Quantitative Method for the Specific Assessment of Caspase-6 Activity in Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E.; Skotte, Niels H.; Savill, Jane; Nguyen, Yen T. N.; Ladha, Safia; Cao, Li-Ping; Dullaghan, Edie; Hayden, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Aberrant activation of caspase-6 has recently emerged as a major contributor to the pathogeneses of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Huntington disease. Commercially available assays to measure caspase-6 activity commonly use the VEID peptide as a substrate. However these methods are not well suited to specifically assess caspase-6 activity in the presence of other, confounding protease activities, as often encountered in cell and tissue samples. Here we report the development of a method that overcomes this limitation by using a protein substrate, lamin A, which is highly specific for caspase-6 cleavage at amino acid 230. Using a neo-epitope antibody against cleaved lamin A, we developed an electrochemiluminescence-based ELISA assay that is suitable to specifically detect and quantify caspase-6 activity in highly apoptotic cell extracts. The method is more sensitive than VEID-based assays and can be adapted to a high-content imaging platform for high-throughput screening. This method should be useful to screen for and characterize caspase-6 inhibitor compounds and other interventions to decrease intracellular caspase-6 activity for applications in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:22140457

  2. A Quick Spectrographic Method for Semi-Quantitative Analysis of Radioactive Iodine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Anou El-Nour

    1975-01-01

    The need for quick and accurate determination of trace but harmful impurities in radioactive iodine, to be used for medical purposes, led to establishing a spectrographic method of analysis using the copper-spark technique and based on the disappearing spectral line intensity principle. The least amounts of the relevant trace elements of harmful effect namely, Al, As, Ba, Be, B, Cd,

  3. A Quantitative Comparison of Single-Cell Whole Genome Amplification Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianbin; Gawad, Charles; Quake, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell sequencing is emerging as an important tool for studies of genomic heterogeneity. Whole genome amplification (WGA) is a key step in single-cell sequencing workflows and a multitude of methods have been introduced. Here, we compare three state-of-the-art methods on both bulk and single-cell samples of E. coli DNA: Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA), Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC), and the PicoPLEX single-cell WGA kit (NEB-WGA). We considered the effects of reaction gain on coverage uniformity, error rates and the level of background contamination. We compared the suitability of the different WGA methods for the detection of copy-number variations, for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and for de-novo genome assembly. No single method performed best across all criteria and significant differences in characteristics were observed; the choice of which amplifier to use will depend strongly on the details of the type of question being asked in any given experiment. PMID:25136831

  4. QUANTITATIVE FATTY ACID SIGNATURE ANALYSIS: A NEW METHOD OF ESTIMATING PREDATOR DIETS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara J. Iverson; Chris Field; W. Don Bowen; Wade Blanchard

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the diets of predators are required in many areas of ecology, but for many species current methods are imprecise, limited to the last meal, and often biased. The diversity of fatty acids and their patterns in organisms, coupled with the narrow limitations on their biosynthesis, properties of digestion in monogastric animals, and the prevalence of large storage

  5. Spin echo SPI methods for quantitative analysis of fluids in porous media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linqing Li; Hui Han; Bruce J. Balcom

    2009-01-01

    Fluid density imaging is highly desirable in a wide variety of porous media measurements. The SPRITE class of MRI methods has proven to be robust and general in their ability to generate density images in porous media, however the short encoding times required, with correspondingly high magnetic field gradient strengths and filter widths, and low flip angle RF pulses, yield

  6. Rapid Method for the Quantitative Extraction and Simultaneous Class Separation of Milk Lipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Maxwell; Donna Mondimore; Joseph Tobias

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for the isolation of lipids from milk, cream, or buttermilk. Lipid isolation is accomplished by solvent elution of a column containing a mixture of the milk product, anhydrous sodium sulfate, and Celite 545. Total lipids are isolated by elution with a 90:10 mixture of dichloromethane: methanol. Aherna- tively, lipids may be separated into a neutral lipid

  7. A Simple RP-HPLC Method for Quantitation of Itopride HCl in Tablet Dosage Form

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvengada, Rajan VS; Mohamed, Saleem TS; Ramkanth, S; Alagusundaram, M; Ganaprakash, K; Madhusudhana, Chetty C

    2010-01-01

    An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm has been developed for the quantification of itopride hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The quantification was carried out using C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5-?m particle size SS column. The mobile phase comprised of two solvents (Solvent A: buffer 1.4 mL ortho-phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethyl amine and Solvent B: acetonitrile). The ratio of Solvent A: Solvent B was 75:25 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL -1with UV detection at 220 nm. The method has been validated and proved to be robust. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 80-120% with coefficient of correlation 0.9995. The percentage recovery for itopride HCl was 100.01%. The proposed method was validated for its selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of itopride HCl in tablet dosage formulation. PMID:21264104

  8. A Simple RP-HPLC Method for Quantitation of Itopride HCl in Tablet Dosage Form.

    PubMed

    Thiruvengada, Rajan Vs; Mohamed, Saleem Ts; Ramkanth, S; Alagusundaram, M; Ganaprakash, K; Madhusudhana, Chetty C

    2010-10-01

    An isocratic reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm has been developed for the quantification of itopride hydrochloride in tablet dosage form. The quantification was carried out using C(8) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm), 5-?m particle size SS column. The mobile phase comprised of two solvents (Solvent A: buffer 1.4 mL ortho-phosphoric acid adjusted to pH 3.0 with triethyl amine and Solvent B: acetonitrile). The ratio of Solvent A: Solvent B was 75:25 v/v. The flow rate was 1.0 mL (-1)with UV detection at 220 nm. The method has been validated and proved to be robust. The calibration curve was linear in the concentration range of 80-120% with coefficient of correlation 0.9995. The percentage recovery for itopride HCl was 100.01%. The proposed method was validated for its selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The method was found to be suitable for the quality control of itopride HCl in tablet dosage formulation. PMID:21264104

  9. Quantitative evaluation of the sensitivity of library-based Raman spectral correlation methods.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Jason D; Westenberger, Benjamin J; Buhse, Lucinda F; Kauffman, John F

    2011-06-01

    Library-based Raman spectral correlation methods are widely used in surveillance applications in multiple areas including the pharmaceutical industry, where Raman spectroscopy is commonly used in verification screening of incoming raw materials. While these spectral correlation methods are rapid and require little or no sample preparation, their sensitivity to the presence of contaminants has not been adequately evaluated. This is particularly important when dealing with pharmaceutical excipients, which are susceptible to economically motivated adulteration by substances having similar physical/chemical/spectroscopic properties. We report a novel approach to evaluating the sensitivity of library-based Raman spectral correlation methods to contaminants in binary systems using a hit-quality index model. We examine three excipient/contaminant systems, glycerin/diethylene glycol, propylene glycol/diethylene glycol, and lactose/melamine and find that the sensitivity to contaminant for each system is 18%, 32%, and 4%, respectively. These levels are well-correlated to the minimum contaminant composition that can be detected by both verification and identification methods. Our studies indicate that the most important factor that determines the sensitivity of a spectral correlation measurement to the presence of contaminant is the relative Raman scattering cross section of the contaminant. PMID:21548558

  10. Validation of HPTLC and HPLC methods for the quantitative determination of allyl disulfide in some polyherbal oils.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Nitin; Dubey, Nidhi; Mehta, Rajendra

    2012-01-01

    Allium sativum L (garlic) is an essential component of many polyherbal oils used in traditional systems of medicine. Allyl disulfide has been a major component found in vegetable oil macerate of garlic, and can be used as reliable marker for determination of garlic in oil macerates of garlic. The HPLC separation of allyl disulfide was achieved on a Phenomenex Luna C18 (25 cm x 4.6 mm id x 5 pm particle size) column using acetonitrile-water-tetrahydrofuran (70 + 27 + 3, v/v/v) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 298 nm over the concentration range 8-48 microg/mL. HPTLC separation of allyl disulfide was achieved on an aluminum-backed layer of silica gel 60 F254 using n-hexane mobile phase. Quantitation was achieved by densitometric analysis at 298 nm over the 200-1200 ng/band concentration range. The methods were validated according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. PMID:23451371

  11. Development of a calibration method for quantitative x-ray powder diffraction of size-segregated aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Sindelar, L.E.

    1990-07-01

    X-ray power diffraction (XPD) is an important tool for the chemical characterization of atmospheric aerosol samples particularly when combined with elemental analysis obtained from x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of the same specimen. The present study focuses on evaluating potential problems associated with XPD analysis of thin layers of particles collected on membrane filters such as would be the case for atmospheric aerosol samples and certain other classes of environmental and geological samples. These samples differ from those previously investigated in quantitative XPD in that absorption effects are minimized but particle size and preferential alignment artifacts may be more significant. The current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) aerosol monitoring programs emphasize the use of sampling devices which collect size-segregated aerosols of aerodynamic equivalent diameter less than 10 {mu}m. The approach used in the present experiments is to prepare thin deposits of size-segregated particles and compare the extent to which conventional thin film XRF calibration methods can be applied to quantitative XPD analysis. 13 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. High pressure liquid chromatographic method for the separation and quantitation of water-soluble radiolabeled benzene metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Sabourin, P.J.; Bechtold, W.E.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-05-01

    The glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of benzene metabolite as well as muconic acid and pre-phenyl- and phenylmercapturic acids were separated by ion-pairing HPLC. The HPLC method developed was suitable for automated analysis of a large number of tissue or excreta samples. p-Nitrophenyl (/sup 14/C)glucuronide was used as an internal standard for quantitation of these water-soluble metabolites. Quantitation was verified by spiking liver tissue with various amounts of phenylsulfate or glucuronides of phenol, catechol, or hydroquinone and analyzing by HPLC. Values determined by HPLC analysis were within 10% of the actual amount with which the liver was spiked. The amount of metabolite present in urine following exposure to (/sup 3/H)benzene was determined using p-nitrophenyl (/sup 14/C)glucuronide as an internal standard. Phenylsulfate was the major water-soluble metabolite in the urine of F344 rats exposed to 50 ppm (/sup 3/H)benzene for 6 h. Muconic acid and an unknown metabolite which decomposed in acidic media to phenylmercapturic acid were also present. Liver, however, contained a different metabolic profile. This indicates that urinary metabolite profiles may not be a true reflection of what is seen in individual tissues.

  13. Proposal of a New Method for Measuring Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) Rapidly, Quantitatively and Non-Destructively

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Paul Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The process of radiationless energy transfer from a chromophore in an excited electronic state (the “donor”) to another chromophore (an “acceptor”), in which the energy released by the donor effects an electronic transition, is known as “Förster Resonance Energy Transfer” (FRET). The rate of energy transfer is dependent on the sixth power of the distance between donor and acceptor. Determining FRET efficiencies is tantamount to measuring distances between molecules. A new method is proposed for determining FRET efficiencies rapidly, quantitatively, and non-destructively on ensembles containing donor acceptor pairs: at wavelengths suitable for mutually exclusive excitations of donors and acceptors, two laser beams are intensity-modulated in rectangular patterns at duty cycle ½ and frequencies f1 and f2 by electro-optic modulators. In an ensemble exposed to these laser beams, the donor excitation is modulated at f1, and the acceptor excitation, and therefore the degree of saturation of the excited electronic state of the acceptors, is modulated at f2. Since the ensemble contains donor acceptor pairs engaged in FRET, the released donor fluorescence is modulated not only at f1 but also at the beat frequency ?f: = |f1 ? f2|. The depth of the latter modulation, detectable via a lock-in amplifier, quantitatively indicates the FRET efficiency. PMID:23202903

  14. Susceptibility Testing by Polymerase Chain Reaction DNA Quantitation: A Method to Measure Drug Resistance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eron, Joseph J.; Gorczyca, Paul; Kaplan, Joan C.; D'Aquila, Richard T.

    1992-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA quantitation (PDQ) susceptibility testing rapidly and directly measures nucleoside sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates. PCR is used to quantitate the amount of HIV-1 DNA synthesized after in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The relative amounts of HIV-1 DNA in cell lysates from cultures maintained at different drug concentrations reflect drug inhibition of virus replication. The results of PDQ susceptibility testing of 2- or 3-day cultures are supported by assays measuring HIV-1 p24 antigen production in supernatants of 7- or 10-day cultures. DNA sequence analyses to identify mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene that cause resistance to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine also support the PDQ results. With the PDQ method, both infectivity titration and susceptibility testing can be performed on supernatants from primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PDQ susceptibility testing should facilitate epidemiologic studies of the clinical significance of drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates.

  15. Use of Quantitative PCR and Culture Methods To Characterize Ecological Flux in Bacterial Biofilms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dalwai; D. A. Spratt; J. Pratten

    2007-01-01

    Inadequate oral hygiene leads to dental plaque accumula- tion around the gingival margin, resulting in inflammation of the gingiva. The environmental changes which occur as a result drive the ecological changes in the oral microbiota at this site, such as the ascendancy of Actinomyces spp. and gram-negative rods at the expense of Streptococcus spp. (19, 20, 26, 31). With the

  16. Minimal effect of delayed sample processing on results of quantitative PCR for cytomegalovirus DNA in leukocytes compared to results of an antigenemia assay.

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, P; Tenschert, W; Gutensohn, K; Laufs, R

    1997-01-01

    Quantitative cytomegalovirus antigenemia and DNAemia were determined in peripheral leukocytes of 25 patients stored for up to 72 h at room temperature (RT) and 4 degrees C before processing. Numbers of antigen-positive cells significantly decreased with time. The decline was greater at RT than at 4 degrees C. In contrast, no significant alterations in DNAemia occurred. PMID:9041425

  17. Quantitative assessment of the impact of biomedical image acquisition on the results obtained from image analysis and processing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dedicated, automatic algorithms for image analysis and processing are becoming more and more common in medical diagnosis. When creating dedicated algorithms, many factors must be taken into consideration. They are associated with selecting the appropriate algorithm parameters and taking into account the impact of data acquisition on the results obtained. An important feature of algorithms is the possibility of their use in other medical units by other operators. This problem, namely operator’s (acquisition) impact on the results obtained from image analysis and processing, has been shown on a few examples. Material and method The analysed images were obtained from a variety of medical devices such as thermal imaging, tomography devices and those working in visible light. The objects of imaging were cellular elements, the anterior segment and fundus of the eye, postural defects and others. In total, almost 200'000 images coming from 8 different medical units were analysed. All image analysis algorithms were implemented in C and Matlab. Results For various algorithms and methods of medical imaging, the impact of image acquisition on the results obtained is different. There are different levels of algorithm sensitivity to changes in the parameters, for example: (1) for microscope settings and the brightness assessment of cellular elements there is a difference of 8%; (2) for the thyroid ultrasound images there is a difference in marking the thyroid lobe area which results in a brightness assessment difference of 2%. The method of image acquisition in image analysis and processing also affects: (3) the accuracy of determining the temperature in the characteristic areas on the patient’s back for the thermal method - error of 31%; (4) the accuracy of finding characteristic points in photogrammetric images when evaluating postural defects – error of 11%; (5) the accuracy of performing ablative and non-ablative treatments in cosmetology - error of 18% for the nose, 10% for the cheeks, and 7% for the forehead. Similarly, when: (7) measuring the anterior eye chamber – there is an error of 20%; (8) measuring the tooth enamel thickness - error of 15%; (9) evaluating the mechanical properties of the cornea during pressure measurement - error of 47%. Conclusions The paper presents vital, selected issues occurring when assessing the accuracy of designed automatic algorithms for image analysis and processing in bioengineering. The impact of acquisition of images on the problems arising in their analysis has been shown on selected examples. It has also been indicated to which elements of image analysis and processing special attention should be paid in their design. PMID:24997012

  18. Deciphering the protein-RNA recognition code: Combining large-scale quantitative methods with structural biology.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Janosch; Sattler, Michael

    2015-08-01

    RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are key factors for the regulation of gene expression by binding to cis elements, i.e. short sequence motifs in RNAs. Recent studies demonstrate that cooperative binding of multiple RBPs is important for the sequence-specific recognition of RNA and thereby enables the regulation of diverse biological activities by a limited set of RBPs. Cross-linking immuno-precipitation (CLIP) and other recently developed high-throughput methods provide comprehensive, genome-wide maps of protein-RNA interactions in the cell. Structural biology gives detailed insights into molecular mechanisms and principles of RNA recognition by RBPs, but has so far focused on single RNA binding proteins and often on single RNA binding domains. The combination of high-throughput methods and detailed structural biology studies is expected to greatly advance our understanding of the code for protein-RNA recognition in gene regulation, as we review in this article. PMID:26059946

  19. Inner filter effects and other traps in quantitative spectrofluorimetric measurements: Origins and methods of correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Credi, Alberto; Prodi, Luca

    2014-12-01

    Spectrofluorimetry is an analytical technique endowed with excellent versatility and high sensitivity. The low cost, handiness of use, and compact size of modern spectrofluorimeters has fostered their widespread availability in chemical laboratories. However, the utilization of spectrofluorimetry to determine concentrations - an essential task to investigate intermolecular association phenomena - is complicated by the non-linear instrument-dependent relationship between the concentration of the luminescent analyte and the detected emission signal, as well as by the spectrophotometric characteristics of the sample. Here we discuss the instrumental factors affecting the luminescence intensity observed in solution experiments with fixed excitation and emission wavelengths, and we propose a simple data correction method that converts the measured intensity value into a quantity which is linearly proportional to the concentration of the luminophore of interest. Two examples illustrating the method and its application for the study of self-assembly processes, taken from our research, will also be presented.

  20. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  1. Simple method for the quantitative examination of extra column band broadening in microchromatographic systems.

    PubMed

    Beisler, Amy T; Schaefer, Kathleen E; Weber, Stephen G

    2003-02-01

    In recent years capillary chromatography has gained popularity for trace analyses. Most often UV or electrochemical detection is employed because the small peak volumes make post-column derivatization challenging. We have developed a simple method based on flow injection for determining contributions to peak broadening from post-column reactors. The only requirement for application of our methodology is that diffusion be in the Taylor regime so that radial concentration gradients are relaxed enabling mixing purely by diffusion. PMID:12597631

  2. AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

  3. A flexible quantitative method for NC machining verification using a space-division based solid model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasumasa Kawashima; Kumiko Itoh; Tomotoshi Ishida; Shiro Nonaka; Kazuhiko Ejiri

    1991-01-01

    A geometric-modeling method called Graftree and a system design of an NC (numerical control) machining verifier based on Graftree are proposed. Graftree is constructed by combining Oct-tree and constructive solid geometry (CSG) so as to simulate machining processes precisely in three-dimensional space. Using Graftree, the Boolean operation produces no risk of yielding topological conflicts, which often cause the simulation to

  4. HPLC-UV method for the quantitation of nevirapine in biological matrices following solid phase extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W Pav; Lois S Rowland; Deborah J Korpalski

    1999-01-01

    Nevirapine (VIRAMUNE®) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), currently marketed for the treatment of HIV-1 infected adults. A reverse phase HPLC-UV method was optimized and validated for the determination of nevirapine in human plasma, serum, milk and cerebrospinal fluid. The analyte was extracted from 250 ?l of biofluid using a bonded

  5. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  6. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2006-10-31

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  7. HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the quantitative determination of flaxseed lignans.

    PubMed

    Mukker, Jatinder Kaur; Kotlyarova, Valeriya; Singh, Ravi Shankar Prasad; Alcorn, Jane

    2010-11-15

    We report a rapid and simple HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the quantification of the major flaxseed lignan, secoisolarisiresinol diglucoside (SDG) and its major metabolites. The method is specific for SDG, secoisolarisiresinol (SECO), enterodiol (ED) and entrolactone (EL) in rat serum. The assay procedure involves chromatographic separation using a Waters Symmetry C(18) reversed-phase column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 ?m) and mobile phase gradient conditions consisting of acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) and water (0.1% formic acid). SDG extraction from serum requires the use of Centrifuge filters while SECO, ED and EL are extracted with diethyl ether. The organic layer is evaporated and reconstituted in 100 ?L of mobile phase and 50 ?L of reconstituted sample or filtrate is injected onto the column. Total run time is 25 min. Calibration curves are linear (r² ? 0.997) from 0.05 to 10 ?g/mL for SDG and EL and 0.01-10 ?g/mL for SECO and ED. Precision and accuracy are within USFDA specified limits. The stability of all lignans is established in auto-injector, bench-top, freeze-thaw and long-term stability at -80 °C for 30 days. The method's reasonable sensitivity and reliance on more widely available HPLC technology should allow for its straightforward application to pharmacokinetic evaluations of lignans in animal model systems such as the rat. PMID:20970390

  8. Development of a method for the quantitation of chloro-, bromo-, and iodoacetic acids in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes

    2012-01-25

    Chloroacetic, bromoacetic, and iodoacetic acids can be found in alcoholic beverages when they are used as preservatives/stabilizers or as disinfectants. As they are toxic components, their addition is not permitted under European Union and U.S. regulations. To date, no sensitive methods are available, and those proposed are very laborious. This paper describes a sensitive and straightforward method for the determination of the three monohalogenated acetic acids (m-HAAs) in wines and beers using static headspace extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Prior to extraction, the target analytes were esterified to increase their volatility, and all parameters related to the extraction/methylation process were optimized to achieve high efficiency (>90%). The study examined the influence both of the ethanol concentration on the headspace partitioning and of the primary acids present in wine on the derivatization reaction of the m-HAAs. The proposed method allows the determination of these compounds at microgram per liter levels in alcoholic beverages. PMID:22225467

  9. An exploratory method to detect tephras from quantitative XRD scans: Examples from Iceland and east Greenland marine sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, John T.; Eberl, D.D.; Kristjansdottir, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    Tephras, mainly from Iceland, are becoming increasingly important in interpreting leads and lags in the Holocene climate system across NW Europe. Here we demonstrate that Quantitative Phase Analysis of x-ray diffractograms of the 150 um fraction and identify these same peaks in XRD scans - two of these correlate geochemically and chronologically with Hekla 1104 and 3. At a distal site to the WNW of Iceland, on the East Greenland margin (core MD99-2317), the weight% of volcanic glass reaches values of 11% at about the time of the Saksunarvatn tephra. The XRD method identifies the presence of volcanic glass but not its elemental composition; hence it will assist in focusing attention on specific sections of sediment cores for subsequent geochemical fingerprinting of tephras. ?? 2006 SAGE Publications.

  10. The Future of Toxicity Testing: A Focus on In Vitro Methods Using a Quantitative High Throughput Screening Platform

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sunita J.; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P.; Xia, Menghang

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Tox21 collaborative program represents a paradigm shift in toxicity testing of chemical compounds from traditional in vivo tests to less expensive and higher throughput in vitro methods to prioritize compounds for further study, identify mechanisms of action, and ultimately develop predictive models for adverse health effects in humans. The NIH Chemical Genomics Center (NCGC) is an integral component of the Tox21 collaboration due to its quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) paradigm, in which titration-based screening is used to profile hundreds of thousands of compounds per week. Here, we describe the Tox21 collaboration, qHTS-based compound testing, and the various Tox21 screening assays that have been validated and tested at the NCGC to date. PMID:20708096

  11. Initial Results Of An Mdo Method Evaluation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia M. Alexandrov; Srinivas Kodiyalam

    1998-01-01

    The NASA Langley MDO method evaluationstudy seeks to arrive at a set of guidelines for usingpromising MDO methods by accumulating and analyzingcomputational data for such methods. Thedata are collected by conducting a series of reproducibleexperiments. In the first phase of thestudy, three MDO methods were implemented in theiSIGHTzframework and used to solve a set of ten relativelysimple problems. In this

  12. A 1Hour Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Quantitation of Acrolein and Hydroxynonenal-Modified Proteins by Epitope-Bound Casein Matrix Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimihiko Satoh; Satoshi Yamada; Yukiko Koike; Yasuo Igarashi; Shinya Toyokuni; Takayuki Kumano; Takenori Takahata; Makoto Hayakari; Shigeki Tsuchida; Koji Uchida

    1999-01-01

    A simple and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for quantitation of acrolein and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE)-modified proteins was developed. Microtiter plate wells were precoated and blocked simultaneously with epitope-bound bovine caseins as matrix proteins, and aldehyde-modified proteins were quantitated by a competition assay with a monoclonal antibody specific for acrolein-modified lysine or HNE-modified histidine epitopes. Minimal reaction times required for

  13. A semi-quantitative RT-PCR method to readily compare expression levels within Botrytis cinerea multigenic families in vitro and in planta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Choquer; Martine Boccara; Anne Vidal-Cros

    2003-01-01

    A straightforward and easy-to-apply semi-quantitative RT-PCR method was developed to study multigenic expression in the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. This procedure is based on the one-step reverse transcription-amplification of a specific transcript within total RNA and product amount determination by densitometric analysis of ethidium bromide fluorescence upon gel electrophoresis. The semi-quantitative analysis is achieved, at a fixed PCR cycle-number, within

  14. A new HPLC-based method for the quantitative analysis of inner stratum corneum lipids with special reference to the free fatty acid fraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Norlén; Ingrid Nicander; Anders Lundsjö; Tomas Cronholm; Bo Forslind

    1998-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract The inner stratum corneum is likely to represent the location of the intact skin barrier, unperturbed by degradation processes.\\u000a In our studies of the physical skin barrier a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based method was developed\\u000a for the quantitative analysis of lipids of the inner stratum corneum. All main lipid classes were separated and quantitated\\u000a by HPLC\\/light scattering detection

  15. Quantitative estimation of calcium dynamics from ratiometric measurements: a direct, nonratioing method.

    PubMed

    Joucla, Sébastien; Pippow, Andreas; Kloppenburg, Peter; Pouzat, Christophe

    2010-02-01

    Measuring variations of intracellular free calcium concentration through the changes in fluorescence of a calcium-sensitive dye is a ubiquitous technique in neuroscience. Despite its popularity, confidence intervals (CIs) on the estimated parameters of calcium dynamics models are seldom given. To address this issue, we have developed a two-stage model for ratiometric measurements obtained with a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. Its first element embeds a parametric calcium dynamics model into a fluorescence intensity model and its second element probabilistically describes the fluorescence measurements by a CCD camera. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we first show that the classical ratiometric transformation gives reliable CIs for time constants only and not baseline calcium concentration nor influx. We then introduce a direct method, which consists of fitting directly and simultaneously the fluorescence transients at both wavelengths, without any data ratioing. This approach uses a probabilistic description of the camera, leading to the construction of meaningful CIs for the calcium parameters. Moreover, using approaches inspired by constrained linear regression, we can take into account the finite precision on calibrated parameters (such as the dye dissociation constant in the cell). These key features are illustrated on simulated data using Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, we illustrate the strength of the direct method on experimental recordings from insect olfactory interneurons. In particular, we show how to handle a time-dependent buffer concentration, thereby considerably improving our goodness of fit. The direct method was implemented in the open-source software R and is freely distributed in the CalciOMatic package. PMID:19955286

  16. Development of a 5-plex SILAC Method Tuned for the Quantitation of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Tzouros, Manuel; Golling, Sabrina; Avila, David; Lamerz, Jens; Berrera, Marco; Ebeling, Martin; Langen, Hanno; Augustin, Angélique

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of phosphorylation downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases is a key dynamic cellular event involved in signal transduction, which is often deregulated in disease states such as cancer. Probing phosphorylation dynamics is therefore crucial for understanding receptor tyrosine kinases' function and finding ways to inhibit their effects. MS methods combined with metabolic labeling such as stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) have already proven successful in deciphering temporal phosphotyrosine perturbations. However, they are limited in terms of multiplexing, and they also are time consuming, because several experiments need to be performed separately. Here, we introduce an innovative approach based on 5-plex SILAC that allows monitoring of phosphotyrosine signaling perturbations induced by a drug treatment in one single experiment. Using this new labeling strategy specifically tailored for phosphotyrosines, it was possible to generate the time profiles for 318 unique phosphopeptides belonging to 215 proteins from an erlotinib-treated breast cancer cell line model. Hierarchical clustering of the time profiles followed by pathway enrichment analysis highlighted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB1) and ErbB2 signaling as the major pathways affected by erlotinib, thereby validating the method. Moreover, based on the similarity of its time profile to those of other proteins in the ErbB pathways, the phosphorylation at Tyr453 of protein FAM59A, a recently described adaptor of EGFR, was confirmed as tightly involved in the signaling cascade. The present investigation also demonstrates the remote effect of EGFR inhibition on ErbB3 phosphorylation sites such as Tyr1289 and Tyr1328, as well as a potential feedback effect on Tyr877 of ErbB2. Overall, the 5-plex SILAC is a straightforward approach that extends sample multiplexing and builds up the arsenal of methods for tyrosine phosphorylation dynamics. PMID:23882028

  17. Improved method for isotopic and quantitative analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon in natural water samples.

    PubMed

    Assayag, Nelly; Rivé, Karine; Ader, Magali; Jézéquel, Didier; Agrinier, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present here an improved and reliable method for measuring the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and its isotope composition (delta(13)C(DIC)) in natural water samples. Our apparatus, a gas chromatograph coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GCIRMS), runs in a quasi-automated mode and is able to analyze about 50 water samples per day. The whole procedure (sample preparation, CO(2(g))-CO(2(aq)) equilibration time and GCIRMS analysis) requires 2 days. It consists of injecting an aliquot of water into a H(3)PO(4)-loaded and He-flushed 12 mL glass tube. The H(3)PO(4) reacts with the water and converts the DIC into aqueous and gaseous CO(2). After a CO(2(g))-CO(2(aq)) equilibration time of between 15 and 24 h, a portion of the headspace gas (mainly CO(2)+He) is introduced into the GCIRMS, to measure the carbon isotope ratio of the released CO(2(g)), from which the delta(13)C(DIC) is determined via a calibration procedure. For standard solutions with DIC concentrations ranging from 1 to 25 mmol . L(-1) and solution volume of 1 mL (high DIC concentration samples) or 5 mL (low DIC concentration samples), delta(13)C(DIC) values are determined with a precision (1sigma) better than 0.1 per thousand. Compared with previously published headspace equilibration methods, the major improvement presented here is the development of a calibration procedure which takes the carbon isotope fractionation associated with the CO(2(g))-CO(2(aq)) partition into account: the set of standard solutions and samples has to be prepared and analyzed with the same 'gas/liquid' and 'H(3)PO(4)/water' volume ratios. A set of natural water samples (lake, river and hydrothermal springs) was analyzed to demonstrate the utility of this new method. PMID:16810706

  18. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred W.; Bridges, Robert A.; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Lorinovich, Caitlin J.; Lu, Silong

    2003-02-07

    This project involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field, California. Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contained approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley.

  19. Development of a new quantitative gas permeability method for dental implant-abutment connection tightness assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacques-Henri Torres; Michael Mechali; Olivier Romieu; Paul Tramini; Sylvie Callas; Frédéric JG Cuisinier; Bernard Levallois

    2011-01-01

    Background  Most dental implant systems are presently made of two pieces: the implant itself and the abutment. The connection tightness\\u000a between those two pieces is a key point to prevent bacterial proliferation, tissue inflammation and bone loss. The leak has\\u000a been previously estimated by microbial, color tracer and endotoxin percolation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A new nitrogen flow technique was developed for implant-abutment connection leakage

  20. Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantitation of sildenafil in human plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingwu Wang; Jiang Wang; Yimin Cui; J. Paul Fawcett; Jingkai Gu

    2005-01-01

    A method to determine sildenafil in human plasma involving liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) has been developed. Sildenafil and the internal standard (I.S.), diazepam, are extracted from human plasma with ether–dichloromethane (3:2, v\\/v) at basic pH and analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using methanol–10mM ammonium acetate pH 7.0 (85:15, v\\/v) as the mobile phase. Detection by electrospray positive