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1

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Using Guided Waves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with two applications of guided waves in quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE): the detection of cracks in beams and the determination of elastic material constants of filament-wound cylindrical composite shells. As an alternative to the use of bulk waves, the reflection characteristics of guided waves having a wavelength much larger than the size of a defect are used

J. Dual

1992-01-01

2

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation: Requirements for tomorrow's reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) is the technology of measurement, analysis, and prediction of the state of material/structural systems for safety, reliability, and mission assurance. QNDE has impact on everyday life from the cars we drive, the planes we fly, the buildings we work or live in, literally to the infrastructure of our world. Here, researchers highlight some of the new sciences and technologies that are part of a safer, cost effective tomorrow. Specific technologies that are discussed are thermal QNDE of aircraft structural integrity, ultrasonic QNDE for materials characterization, and technology spinoffs from aerospace to the medical sector. In each case, examples are given of how new requirements result in enabling measurement technologies, which in turn change the boundaries of design/practice.

Heyman, Joseph S.

1991-01-01

3

Modeling for quantitative non-destructive evaluation.  

PubMed

A quantitative approach to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) must be based on models of the measurement processes. A model's purpose is to predict, from first principles, the measurement system's response to material properties and anomalies in a material or structure. For the ultrasonic case a measurement model should include modeling of the generation, propagation and reception of ultrasonic signals, and the ultrasonic interactions that generate the system's response function. A measurement model has many benefits, which are discussed in the paper. Three examples of the productive use of quantitative modeling in conjunction with measured data are presented: the detection and sizing of fatigue cracks which emanate from weep holes in the risers of wing panels in the interior of an aircraft wing by the use of ultrasound generated on the exterior surface of the wing, the determination of the elastic constants of anisotropic thin films deposited on a substrate, and the detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks by the use of the laser-source scanning technique for laser generated and detected ultrasound. PMID:12159913

Achenbach, Jan D

2002-05-01

4

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation of materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation was undertaken to quantify damage tolerance and resistance in composite materials impacted using the drop-weight method. Tests were conducted on laminates of several different carbon-fiber composite systems, such as epoxies, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics. Impacted composite specimens were examined using destructive and non-destructive techniques to establish the characteristic damage states. Specifically, optical microscopy, ultrasonic, and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to identify impact induced damage mechanisms. Damage propagation during post impact compression was also studied.

Smith, Barry T.

1991-01-01

5

Nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Research reported in the thrust area of nondestructive evaluation includes: advanced 3-D imaging technologies; new techniques in laser ultrasonic testing; infrared computed tomography for thermal NDE of materials, structures, sources, and processes; automated defect detection for large laser optics; multistatic micropower impulse radar imaging for nondestructive evaluation; and multi-modal NDE for AVLIS pod shielding components.

Martz, H.E.

1997-02-01

6

Advanced quantitative magnetic nondestructive evaluation methods - Theory and experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews the scale of fatigue crack phenomena in relation to the size detection capabilities of nondestructive evaluation methods. An assessment of several features of fatigue in relation to the inspection of ball and roller bearings suggested the use of magnetic methods; magnetic domain phenomena including the interaction of domains and inclusions, and the influence of stress and magnetic field on domains are discussed. Experimental results indicate that simplified calculations can be used to predict many features of these results; the data predicted by analytic models which use finite element computer analysis predictions do not agree with respect to certain features. Experimental analyses obtained on rod-type fatigue specimens which show experimental magnetic measurements in relation to the crack opening displacement and volume and crack depth should provide methods for improved crack characterization in relation to fracture mechanics and life prediction.

Barton, J. R.; Kusenberger, F. N.; Beissner, R. E.; Matzkanin, G. A.

1979-01-01

7

Application of neural networks to quantitative nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

This paper concentrates on the quantitative analysis of reflection and transmission characteristics of structural waves in notched beams using neural networks. At one end of a rod a piezoelectric transducer excites a flexural guided wave, which propagates through the structure and is reflected from the notch as well as from the ends of the rod. At another point, a laser interferometer measures the resulting displacement versus time, which is recorded and serves as the digital fingerprint of the experiment. Our aim is to obtain quantitative information about the notch characteristics, i.e. its location and depth, on the basis of these digital recordings. This requires an inverse problem to be solved using neural networks. For the training of the network, synthetically produced wave patterns are used. The results of the corresponding wave experiment simulations compare well with experimental data. For fixed location, the calculated wave patterns could be quantitatively analysed to yield the depth of the notch if it is greater than a twentieth of the diameter. Another network could be trained for the localization with an accuracy of 2 cm for 93% of the training patterns. On the basis of these results a strategy is formulated on how neural networks could be trained to evaluate quantitatively both of the notch characteristics. PMID:8701542

Wendel, R; Dual, J

1996-06-01

8

Review of progress in quantitative NDE. [Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)  

SciTech Connect

This booklet is composed of abstracts from papers submitted at a meeting on quantitative NDE. A multitude of topics are discussed including analysis of composite materials, NMR uses, x-ray instruments and techniques, manufacturing uses, neural networks, eddy currents, stress measurements, magnetic materials, adhesive bonds, signal processing, NDE of mechanical structures, tomography,defect sizing, NDE of plastics and ceramics, new techniques, optical and electromagnetic techniques, and nonlinear techniques. (GHH)

Not Available

1991-01-01

9

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of damage in composite materials using transmitted and reflected ultrasound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of ultrasound for the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite materials is summarized. Quantitative indices from fundamental acoustic parameters of the inhomogeneous materials were derived. The investigations into the estimation of the average attenuation from backscattered ultrasound are described. The use of a centroid-shift technique in inhomogeneous materials is reported and investigation into the use of the Wigner distribution for attenuation estimation is summarized.

Miller, J. G.

1985-01-01

10

Quantitative magneto-optic imager for nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magneto-Optical Imagers (MOI) appear to be good alternatives to conventional eddy current sensors for defect detection in large metallic structures. Indeed, they allow short time inspection of large structures such as airplanes fuselage or wings, thanks to the visualization of "real time" images relative to the presence of defects [1]. The basic principle of the MOI is to combine a magnetic inductor, used to induce the circulation of eddy currents into the structure under test, with an optical set-up used to image the resultant magnetic field, thanks to the Faraday effect occurring in a magneto-optical garnet. The MOI designed by G. L. Fitzpatrick and Physical Research Instrumentation provides two-level images relative to the presence of defects, with an adjustable detection threshold. These so-called qualitative images, although highly contrasted, are rather poor and limited in terms of defect characterization possibilities. In, this paper, the authors present a new kind of MOI, called Quantitative Magneto-Optical Imager (Q-MOI), based on the use of a dedicated "linear" magneto-optical garnet associated with a specific instrumentation. The Q-MOI should considerably reduce the inspection time and allow to fully characterize the encountered defects. First images obtained with a demonstration prototype are shown for surface and buried flaws and further enhancements of the device are proposed.

Pinassaud, Jean; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Lemistre, Michel

2005-05-01

11

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic parameters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into the nondestructive evaluation of advanced reinforced composite laminates is summarized. The applicability of the Framers-Kronig equations to the nondestructive evaluation of composite materials is described.

Miller, James G.

1987-01-01

12

Nondestructive evaluations  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) thrust area which supports initiatives that advance inspection science and technology. The goal of the NDE thrust area is to provide cutting-edge technologies that have promise of inspection tools three to five years in the future. In selecting projects, the thrust area anticipates the needs of existing and future Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) programs. NDE provides materials characterization inspections, finished parts, and complex objects to find flaws and fabrication defects and to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. NDE also encompasses process monitoring and control sensors and the monitoring of in-service damage. For concurrent engineering, NDE becomes a frontline technology and strongly impacts issues of certification and of life prediction and extension. In FY-92, in addition to supporting LLNL programs and the activities of nuclear weapons contractors, NDE has initiated several projects with government agencies and private industries to study aging infrastructures and to advance manufacturing processes. Examples of these projects are (1) the Aging Airplanes Inspection Program for the Federal Aviation Administration, (2) Signal Processing of Acoustic Signatures of Heart Valves for Shiley, Inc.; and (3) Turbine Blade Inspection for the Air Force, jointly with Southwest Research Institute and Garrett. In FY-92, the primary contributions of the NDE thrust area, described in this report were in fieldable chemical sensor systems, computed tomography, and laser generation and detection of ultrasonic energy.

Kulkarni, S.

1993-03-01

13

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of high-temperature superconducting materials  

SciTech Connect

Even though the currently intensive research efforts on high- temperature superconducting materials have not yet converged on a well specified practical material, the indications are that such a material may be quite brittle, anisotropic, and may contain many flaws such as microcracks and voids at grain boundaries. Consequently, practical applications of high temperature superconducting materials will require a very careful strength analysis based on fracture mechanics considerations. Because of the high sensitivity of the strength of such materials to the presence of defects, methods of quantitative non-destructive evaluation may be expected to play an important role in strength determinations. This proposal is concerned with the use of ultrasonic methods to detect and characterize isolated cracks, clusters of microcracks and microcracks distributed throughout the material. Particular attention has been, and will continue to be devoted to relating ultrasonic results to fracture mechanics considerations.

Achenbach, J.D.

1991-06-14

14

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of high-temperature superconducting materials  

SciTech Connect

Even though the currently intensive research efforts on high-temperature superconducting materials have not yet converged on a well specified material, the strong indications are that such a material will be brittle, anisotropic, and may contain many flaws such as microcracks and voids at grain boundaries. Consequently, practical applications of high temperature superconducting materials will require a very careful strength analysis based on fracture mechanics considerations. Because of the high sensitivity of the strength of such materials to the presence of defects, methods of quantitative non-destructive evaluation may be expected to play an important role in strength determinations. This proposal is concerned with the use of ultrasonic methods to detect and characterize isolated cracks, clusters of microcracks and microcracks distributed throughout the material. Particular attention will be devoted to relating ultrasonic results directly to deterministic and statistical linear elastic fracture mechanics considerations.

Achenbach, J.D.

1990-09-15

15

Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Progress Report, we describe our current research activities concerning the development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of stitched composite materials and bonded aluminum plate specimens. One purpose of this investigation is to identify and characterize specific features of polar backscatter interrogation which enhance the ability of ultrasound to detect flaws in a stitched composite laminate. Another focus is to explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize bonded aluminum lap joints. As an approach to implementing quantitative ultrasonic inspection methods to both of these materials, we focus on the physics that underlies the detection of flaws in such materials.

Miller, James G.

1993-01-01

16

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Progress Report, we describe our further development of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns transmitted through water only and transmitted through water and a thin woven composite. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the JPEG format and Adobe TM Portable Document Format (PDF), in addition to the inclusion of hardcopies of the images contained in this report. In our previous semi-annual Progress Report (NAG 1-1848, December, 1996), we proposed a simple model to simulate the effect of a thin woven composite on an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. This initial approach provided an avenue to begin development of a robust measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of anisotropic materials. In this Progress Report, we extend that work by performing experimental measurements on a single layer of a five-harness biaxial woven composite to investigate how a thin, yet architecturally complex, material interacts with the insonifying ultrasonic field. In Section 2 of this Progress Report we describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. We also briefly describe the thin composite specimen investigated. Section 3 details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section 5.

Miller, James G.

1997-01-01

17

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall goal of this research has been to enhance our understanding of the scientific principles necessary to develop advanced ultrasonic nondestructive techniques for the quantitative characterization of advanced composite structures. To this end, we have investigated a thin woven composite (5-harness biaxial weave). We have studied the effects that variations of the physical parameters of the experimental setup can have on the ultrasonic determination of the material properties for this thin composite. In particular, we have considered the variation of the nominal center frequency and the f-number of the transmitting transducer which in turn address issues such as focusing and beam spread of ultrasonic fields. This study has employed a planar, two-dimensional, receiving pseudo-array that has permitted investigation of the diffraction patterns of ultrasonic fields. Distortion of the ultrasonic field due to the spatial anisotropy of the thin composite has prompted investigation of the phenomenon of phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture, piezoelectric receiver. We have performed phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive analyses to provide a measure of the amount of phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture, piezoelectric receiver. The pursuit of robust measurements of received energy (i.e., those not susceptible to phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture, piezoelectric receiver) supports the development of robust techniques to determine material properties from measure ultrasonic parameters.

Miller, James G.

1998-01-01

18

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of high-temperature superconducting materials. Technical progress report, September 1, 1989--August 30, 1990  

SciTech Connect

Even though the currently intensive research efforts on high-temperature superconducting materials have not yet converged on a well specified material, the strong indications are that such a material will be brittle, anisotropic, and may contain many flaws such as microcracks and voids at grain boundaries. Consequently, practical applications of high temperature superconducting materials will require a very careful strength analysis based on fracture mechanics considerations. Because of the high sensitivity of the strength of such materials to the presence of defects, methods of quantitative non-destructive evaluation may be expected to play an important role in strength determinations. This proposal is concerned with the use of ultrasonic methods to detect and characterize isolated cracks, clusters of microcracks and microcracks distributed throughout the material. Particular attention will be devoted to relating ultrasonic results directly to deterministic and statistical linear elastic fracture mechanics considerations.

Achenbach, J.D.

1990-09-15

19

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of high-temperature superconducting materials. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Even though the currently intensive research efforts on high- temperature superconducting materials have not yet converged on a well specified practical material, the indications are that such a material may be quite brittle, anisotropic, and may contain many flaws such as microcracks and voids at grain boundaries. Consequently, practical applications of high temperature superconducting materials will require a very careful strength analysis based on fracture mechanics considerations. Because of the high sensitivity of the strength of such materials to the presence of defects, methods of quantitative non-destructive evaluation may be expected to play an important role in strength determinations. This proposal is concerned with the use of ultrasonic methods to detect and characterize isolated cracks, clusters of microcracks and microcracks distributed throughout the material. Particular attention has been, and will continue to be devoted to relating ultrasonic results to fracture mechanics considerations.

Achenbach, J.D.

1991-06-14

20

Quantitative nondestructive in-service evaluation of stay cables of cable-stayed bridges: methods and practical experience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stay cables of cable-stayed bridges have corrosion protection systems that can be elaborate. For example, such a system may simply consist of one or several coats of paint, or--more complex--of plastic pipes that are wrapped with tape and filled with grout. Frequently, these corrosion protection systems prevent visual inspections. Therefore, alternative nondestructive examination methods are called for. For example, modern dual-function electromagnetic (EM) instruments allow the simultaneous detection of external and internal localized flaws (such as external and internal broken wires and corrosion piting) and the measurement of loss of metallic cross-sectional area (typically caused by external or internal corrosion or wear). Initially developed for mining and skiing applications, these instruments have been successfully used for the inspection of stays of cable-stayed bridges, and for the inspection of guys of smoke stacks, flare stacks, broadcast towers, suspended roofs, etc. As a rule, guys and bridge cables are not subjected to wear and bending stresses. However, their safety can be compromised by corrosion caused by the failure of corrosion protection systems. Furthermore, live loads and wind forces create intermittent tensile stresses that can cause fatigue breaks of wires. This paper discusses the use of dual-function EM instruments for the detection and the nondestructive quantitative evaluation of cable deterioration. It explains the underlying principles. Experiences with this method together with field inspection results will be presented.

Weischedel, Herbert R.; Hoehle, Hans-Werner

1995-05-01

21

[Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Capabilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These poster boards display the United Space Alliance's (USA) systems and equipment used for Nondestructive Evaluation. These include: (1) the Robotic Inspection Facility, (2) CAT-Scan and Laminography, (3) Laser Surface Profilometry, (4) Remote Eddy Current, (5) Ultrasonic Phased Array, (7) Infrared Flash Thermography, and (8) Backscatter X-Ray (BSX)

Born, Martin

2010-01-01

22

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Progress Report, we describe our recent developments of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns for a thin woven composite in an immersion setup. In addition, we compare apparent signal loss measurements of the thin woven composite for phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive detection methods. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the Adobe(Trademark) Portable Document Format (PDF). Due to the extensive amount of data, however, hardcopies of only a small representative selection of the images are included within the printed report. This Progress Report presents experimental results that support successful implementation of single element as well as one and two-dimensional ultrasonic array technologies for the inspection of textile composite structures. In our previous reports, we have addressed issues regarding beam profiles of ultrasonic pressure fields transmitted through a water reference path and transmitted through a thin woven composite sample path. Furthermore, we presented experimental results of the effect of a thin woven composite on the magnitude of an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. In addition to the study of ultrasonic beam profiles, we consider issues relevant to the application of single-element, one-dimensional, and two-dimensional array technologies towards probing the mechanical properties of advanced engineering composites and structures. We provide comparisons between phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive detection methods for determination of textile composite structure parameters. We also compare phase-sensitive and phase-insensitive - - ---- ----- apparent signal loss measurements in an effort to study the phenomenon of phase cancellation at the face of a finite-aperture single-element receiver. Furthermore, in this Progress Report we extend our work on ultrasonic beam profile issues through investigation of the phase fronts of the pressure field. In Section H of this Progress Report we briefly describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. Section III details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section IV. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section V.

Miller, James G.

1997-01-01

23

Concept of nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The history of nondestructive evaluation, a recently evolved basic testing philosophy, and some application of NDE are examined with emphasis on aerospace applications. The discussion covers the definition of NDE, chronological development, NDE methods and systems, the use of NDE for process control, NDE for ceramics and composites, NDE for fracture control in glass, and science aspects of NDE. Specific examples of NDE applications are given.

Chern, E. J.

1991-01-01

24

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Plates Using Eddy Current Methods David C. Dobson \\Lambda Department­93­1­0500 and grant F49620­95­1­0305. 1 #12; While this nondestructive evaluation method has been quite effective quantitative nondestructive evaluation using eddy current methods. The methods can be roughly separated

Santosa, Fadil

25

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The size, shape, and orientation of damage correlates well between the polar backscatter technique and the deply technique. There is good quantitative correlation between the areas of damage indicated by the two techniques. These results suggest that the polar backscatter technique is sensitive to specific orientations of damage. The polar backscatter technique provides a good qualitative image of the size and shape of the largest zone of damage in each of the principal orientations. A quantitative estimate of the extent of these largest damage zones is obtained from the polar backscatter technique. The selective sensitivity of polar backscatter provides a useful tool for further studies of the mechanisms of impact damage in graphite fiber reinforced composite laminates.

Miller, J. G.

1984-01-01

26

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of porous composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two complementary ultrasonic techniques for characterizing porosity in fiber-reinforced composite laminates are evaluated. Five uniaxial graphite-fiber/epoxy-matrix composites having a range of 1 to 8 percent volume fraction of solid glass inclusions to model porosity were investigated. In one technique, signal loss was measured in transmission mode and slope of attenuation, obtained from the first order coefficient of a two-parameter polynomial fit about the center frequency of the useful bandwidth, was used as the ultrasonic parameter to characterize the porosity. The results of these transmission mode measurements displayed a good correlation between the volume fraction of porosity and the slope of attenuation. Integrated polar backscatter was used as a second ultrasonic parameter for the characterization of the porosity in these samples. A single transducer insonified the samples and measured the resulting backscatter at a polar angle of 30 deg with respect to the normal of the sample surface with the azimuthal angles centered at 0 deg with respect to the fiber orientation (i.e., along the fibers). Integrated polar backscatter also displayed good correlation with the volume fraction of porosity.

Miller, James G.

1988-01-01

27

Nondestructive evaluation technique guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A total of 70 individual nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are described. Information is presented that permits ease of comparison of the merits and limitations of each technique with respect to various NDE problems. An NDE technique classification system is presented. It is based on the system that was adopted by the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB). The classification system presented follows the NMAB system closely with the exception of additional categories that have been added to cover more advanced techniques presently in use. The rationale of the technique is explained. The format provides for a concise description of each technique, the physical principles involved, objectives of interrogation, example applications, limitations of each technique, a schematic illustration, and key reference material. Cross-index tabulations are also provided so that particular NDE problems can be referred to appropriate techniques.

Vary, A.

1973-01-01

28

Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of composite materials requires a better understanding of the physics underlying the interaction of ultrasound with the material. The purpose of this investigation is to identify and characterize the features of complex, three dimensional materials that limit the ability of ultrasound to detect flaws in this broad class of emerging materials. In order to explore the interaction of ultrasound with such complex media, we investigate the characteristics of ultrasonic fields which have propagated through samples with complex geometries and/or internal architecture. We focus on the physics that underlies the detection of flaws in such materials.

Miller, James G.

1992-01-01

29

NONDESTRUCTIVE DAMAGE EVALUATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPONENTS USING A HYBRID,  

E-print Network

NONDESTRUCTIVE DAMAGE EVALUATION OF ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPONENTS USING A HYBRID, COMPUTATIONAL. This, in turn, indicates a need for effective quantitative testing methodologies. In this paper, a novel hybridized use of nondestructive, noninvasive, remote, full field of view, quantitative opto

Furlong, Cosme

30

Evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a series of experiments performed in the evaluation of nondestructive tensile testing of chip and wire bonds are presented. Semiconductor devices were subjected to time-temperature excursions, static-load life testing and multiple pre-stressing loads to determine the feasibility of a nondestructive tensile testing approach. The report emphasizes the importance of the breaking angle in determining the ultimate tensile strength of a wire bond, a factor not generally recognized nor implemented in such determinations.

Bowe, J. J.; Polcari, S. M.

1971-01-01

31

Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Progress Report, we describe our continuing research activities concerning the development and implementation of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the inspection and characterization of complex composite structures. We explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize complex materials. As an initial step toward the application of linear array imaging technology to the interrogation of a wide range of complex composite structures, we present images obtained using an unmodified medical ultrasonic imaging system of two epoxy-bonded aluminum plate specimens, each with intentionally disbonded regions. These images are compared with corresponding conventional ultrasonic contact transducer measurements in order to assess whether these images can detect disbonded regions and provide information regarding the nature of the disbonded region. We present a description of a standoff/delay fixture which has been designed, constructed, and implemented on a Hewlett-Packard SONOS 1500 medical imaging system. This standoff/delay fixture, when attached to a 7.5 MHz linear array probe, greatly enhances our ability to interrogate flat plate specimens. The final section of this Progress Report describes a woven composite plate specimen that has been specially machined to include intentional flaws. This woven composite specimen will allow us to assess the feasibility of applying linear array imaging technology to the inspection and characterization of complex textile composite materials. We anticipate the results of this on-going investigation may provide a step toward the development of a rapid, real-time, and portable method of ultrasonic inspection and characterization based on linear array technology.

Miller, James G.

1994-01-01

32

Physical interpretation and development of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation techniques applied to the quantitative characterization of textile composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Progress Report, the author describes the continuing research to explore the feasibility of implementing medical linear array imaging technology as a viable ultrasonic-based nondestructive evaluation method to inspect and characterize complex materials. Images obtained using an unmodified medical ultrasonic imaging system of a bonded aluminum plate sample with a simulated disbond region are presented. The disbond region was produced by adhering a piece of plain white paper to a piece of cellophane tape and applying the paper-tape combination to one of the aluminum plates. Because the area under the paper was not adhesively bonded to the aluminum plate, this arrangement more closely simulates a disbond. Images are also presented for an aluminum plate sample with an epoxy strip adhered to one side to help provide information for the interpretation of the images of the bonded aluminum plate sample containing the disbond region. These images are compared with corresponding conventional ultrasonic contact transducer measurements in order to provide information regarding the nature of the disbonded region. The results of this on-going investigation may provide a step toward the development of a rapid, real-time, and portable method of ultrasonic inspection and characterization based on linear array technology. In Section 2 of this Progress Report, the preparation of the aluminum plate specimens is described. Section 3 describes the method of linear array imaging. Sections 4 and 5 present the linear array images and results from contact transducer measurements, respectively. A discussion of the results are presented in Section 6.

Miller, James G.

1995-01-01

33

Nondestructive Evaluation of Pavements Ultrasonic  

E-print Network

Nondestructive Evaluation of Pavements Ð Ultrasonic Tomography Kyle Hoegh, Graduate Student Dr. Lev ­! The transducers act on the test object surface with oscillating piezoelectric elements for wave production from the specs (about 3 miles of testing in 50 ft intervals). Field Application ­ Atlanta Georgia

Minnesota, University of

34

Assessment of and standardization for quantitative nondestructive test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present capabilities and limitations of nondestructive testing (NDT) as applied to aerospace structures during design, development, production, and operational phases are assessed. It will help determine what useful structural quantitative and qualitative data may be provided from raw materials to vehicle refurbishment. This assessment considers metal alloys systems and bonded composites presently applied in active NASA programs or strong contenders for future use. Quantitative and qualitative data has been summarized from recent literature, and in-house information, and presented along with a description of those structures or standards where the information was obtained. Examples, in tabular form, of NDT technique capabilities and limitations have been provided. NDT techniques discussed and assessed were radiography, ultrasonics, penetrants, thermal, acoustic, and electromagnetic. Quantitative data is sparse; therefore, obtaining statistically reliable flaw detection data must be strongly emphasized. The new requirements for reusable space vehicles have resulted in highly efficient design concepts operating in severe environments. This increases the need for quantitative NDT evaluation of selected structural components, the end item structure, and during refurbishment operations.

Neuschaefer, R. W.; Beal, J. B.

1972-01-01

35

Quantitative nondestructive characterization of visco-elastic materials at high pressure  

SciTech Connect

New anvil apparatus was developed to realize high pressure atmosphere suitable to investigation of viscoelastic behaviors of such soft materials as polymers, lubricants, proteins and so forth. In addition, ultrasonic spectroscopy system was also newly constructed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of elasticity and viscosity of soft materials at high pressure. In order to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the developed system and methodology for quantitative nondestructive visco-elastic characterization, various silicone oils are employed, and measured spectra are compared to the theoretical results calculated by the three linear element model.

Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy; Ohno, Jun [Hitachi, Ltd., Odawara (Japan)

1995-11-01

36

Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications  

PubMed Central

Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

2011-01-01

37

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION (NDE) OF DAMAGED STRUCTURAL CERAMICS  

SciTech Connect

A combination of destructive and nondestructive testing methods was utilized to evaluate the impact velocity and energy conditions that caused fracture in alumina structural ceramics. Drop tower testing was used for low velocity impact with a high mass indenter and fragment simulating projectile testing was used for high velocity impact with a low mass projectile. The damaged samples were nondestructively evaluated using digital radiography and ultrasound C-scan imaging. The bulk damage detected by these techniques was compared to surface damage observed by visual inspection.

Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H.; Sands, J. M.; Yu, J. H. [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 (United States)

2009-03-03

38

Non-destructive evaluation of composite materials using ultrasound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation of the nondestructive evaluation of advanced composite-laminates is summarized. Indices derived from the measurement of fundamental acoustic parameters are used in order to quantitatively estimate the local material properties of the laminate. The following sections describe ongoing studies of phase insensitive attenuation measurements, and discuss several phenomena which influences the previously reported technique of polar backscatter. A simple and effective programmable gate circuit designed for use in estimating attenuation from backscatter is described.

Miller, J. G.

1984-01-01

39

Thermographic nondestructive evaluation: overview of recent progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a summary of recent research activities carried out at our laboratory in the field of Infrared Thermography for Nondestructive Evaluation (TNDE). First, we explore the latest developments in signal improvement. We describe three approaches: multiple pulse stimulation; the use of Synthetic Data for de-noising of the signal; and a new approach derived from the Fourier diffusion equation

Clemente Ibarra-Castanedo; Francois Galmiche; Akbar Darabi; Mariacristina Pilla; Matthieu Klein; Adel Ziadi; Steve Vallerand; Jean-François Pelletier; Xavier P. Maldague

2003-01-01

40

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a

Roger H. L. Chen; Alejandro Kiriakidis

1999-01-01

41

Techniques for enhancing laser ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is an extremely powerful tool for characterizing materials and detecting defects. A majority of the ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation is performed with piezoelectric transducers that generate and detect high frequency acoustic energy. The liquid needed to couple the high frequency acoustic energy from the piezoelectric transducers restricts the applicability of ultrasonics. For example, traditional ultrasonics cannot evaluate parts at elevated temperatures or components that would be damaged by contact with a fluid. They are developing a technology that remotely generates and detects the ultrasonic pulses with lasers and consequently there is no requirement for liquids. Thus the research in laser-based ultrasound allows them to solve inspection problems with ultrasonics that could not be done before. This technology has wide application in many Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory programs, especially when remote and/or non-contact sensing is necessary.

Candy, J; Chinn, D; Huber, R; Spicer, J; Thomas, G

1999-02-16

42

Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final report consists of 5 published papers in referred journals and a technical letter to the technical monitor. These papers include the following: (1) Comparison of the effects of debonds and voids in adhesive; (2) On the peak shear stresses in adhesive joints with voids; (3) Nondestructive evaluation of adhesively bonded joints by acousto-ultrasonic technique and acoustic emission; (4) Multiaxial fatigue life evaluation of tubular adhesively bonded joints; (5) Theoretical and experimental evaluation of the bond strength under peeling loads. The letter outlines the progress of the research. Also included is preliminary information on the study of nondestructive evaluation of composite materials subjected to localized heat damage. The investigators studied the effects of localized heat on unidirectional fiber glass epoxy composite panels. Specimens of the fiber glass epoxy composites were subjected to 400 C heat for varying lengths of time. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive tests. The specimens were then pulled to their failure and acoustic emission of these specimens were measured. The analysis of the data was continuing as of the writing of the letter, and includes a finite element stress analysis of the problem.

Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

1997-01-01

43

Nondestructive evaluation of sintered ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiography and several acoustic and thermoacoustic microscopy techniques are investigated for application to structural ceramics for advanced heat engines. A comparison is made of the results obtained from the use of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM), scanning laser acoustic microscopy (SLAM), and thermoacoustic microscopy (TAM). These techniques are evaluated on research samples of green and sintered monolithic silicon nitrides and silicon carbides in the form of modulus-of-rupture (MOR) bars containing deliberately introduced flaws. Strengths and limitations of the techniques are described, with the emphasis being on statistics of detectability of flaws that constitute potential fracture origins. Further, it is shown that radiographic evaluation and guidance helped develop uniform high-density Si3N4 MOR bars with improved four-point flexural strength (875, 544, and 462 MPa at room temperature, 1200 C, 1370 C, respectively) and reduced scatter in bend strength.

Baaklini, George Y.; Klima, Stanley J.; Sanders, William A.

1988-01-01

44

Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of armor ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ceramic materials have been incorporated into armor systems to reduce their weight while providing high hardness, strength, and elastic response to stress. However, the presence of defects and flaws in armor ceramics can lead to ballistic failure. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been studied to locate and characterize defects and inhomogeneities in these materials. High frequency ultrasound NDE has been explored for detecting and locating micron-range defects and identifying microstructural changes in dense armor ceramics such as silicon carbide (SiC). Ultrasound parameters such as transducer frequency have been analyzed to determine system conditions necessary for obtaining C-scan image maps based on differences in intensity of the collected ultrasound signals (reflected signal amplitudes) or transit time of ultrasound energy through materials (time-of-flight TOF). While TOF has have been used to evaluate changes in thickness, velocity, density, and acoustic impedance, reflected signal amplitude has been used to analyze attenuation, or loss, through a test specimen. Reflected signal amplitude and TOF C-scan imaging have been useful for identifying and locating isolated defects and microstructural differences. Elastic property maps have been developed to plot differences in Poisson's ratio, elastic modulus, shear modulus, and bulk modulus. Quantitative analysis techniques have been used to evaluate cumulative effects of reflected signal amplitude and TOF changes over scanned regions and their distributions over selected areas. Amplitude and TOF histogram curves, which have been characterized by area-under-the-curve values, full-width at half-maximum values, and critical tail regions, have provided a valuable means of sample comparison. Generally, more narrow distributions of amplitude and TOF values have corresponded to high density armor-grade samples, while broad distributions have indicated defects or inhomogeneous regions in the samples. In addition to developing techniques for determining individual defect size distributions within a bulk specimen, histogram simulations have been explored to study amplitude and TOF distribution trends by analyzing how the addition of defects of varying size, quantity, and acoustic impedance affect histogram characteristics. These data have been utilized to establish a representative materials fingerprint that provides defect input data which can be further quantified and applied to property, design, and performance modeling of armor ceramic materials.

Brennan, Raymond Edwin, IV

45

Nondestructive evaluation by acousto-ultrasonics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acousto-ultrasonics is an ultrasonic technique that was originally devised to cope with the particular problems associated with nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of fiber/polymer composite structures. The fiber/polymer composites are more attenuating to ultrasound than any other material presently of interest. This limits the applicability of high-frequency ultrasonics. A common use of ultrasound is the imaging of flaws internal to a structure by scattering from the interface with the flaw. However, structural features of composites can scatter ultrasound internally, thus obscuring the flaws. A need relative to composites is to be able to nondestructively measure the strength of laminar boundaries in order to assess the integrity of a structure. Acousto-ultrasonics has exhibited the ability to use the internal scattering to provide information for determining the strength of laminar boundaries. Analysis of acousto-ultrasonic signals by the wave ray paths that compose it leads to waveform partitioning that enhances the sensitivity to mechanical strength parameters.

Kautz, Harold E.

1988-01-01

46

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear-Grade Graphite  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive Evaluation of Nuclear Grade Graphite Dennis C. Kunerth and Timothy R. McJunkin Idaho National Laboratory Idaho Falls, ID, 83415 This paper discusses the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear grade graphite performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Graphite is a composite material highly dependent on the base material and manufacturing methods. As a result, material variations are expected within individual billets as well billet to billet and lot to lot. Several methods of evaluating the material have been explored. Particular technologies each provide a subset of information about the material. This paper focuses on techniques that are applicable to in-service inspection of nuclear energy plant components. Eddy current examination of the available surfaces provides information on potential near surface structural defects and although limited, ultrasonics can be utilized in conventional volumetric inspection. Material condition (e.g. micro-cracking and porosity induced by radiation and stress) can be derived from backscatter or acousto-ultrasound (AU) methods. Novel approaches utilizing phased array ultrasonics have been attempted to expand the abilities of AU techniques. By combining variable placement of apertures, angle and depth of focus, the techniques provide the potential to obtain parameters at various depths in the material. Initial results of the study and possible procedures for application of the techniques are discussed.

Dennis C. Kunerth; Timothy R. McJunkin

2011-07-01

47

Non-destructive assessment of human ribs mechanical properties using quantitative ultrasound.  

PubMed

Advanced finite element models of the thorax have been developed to study, for example, the effects of car crashes. While there is a need for material properties to parameterize such models, specific properties are largely missing. Non-destructive techniques applicable in vivo would, therefore, be of interest to support further development of thorax models. The only non-destructive technique available today to derive rib bone properties would be based on quantitative computed tomography that measures bone mineral density. However, this approach is limited by the radiation dose. Bidirectional ultrasound axial transmission was developed on long bones ex vivo and used to assess in vivo health status of the radius. However, it is currently unknown if the ribs are good candidates for such a measurement. Therefore, the goal of this study is to evaluate the relationship between ex vivo ultrasonic measurements (axial transmission) and the mechanical properties of human ribs to determine if the mechanical properties of the ribs can be quantified non-destructively. The results show statistically significant relationships between the ultrasonic measurements and mechanical properties of the ribs. These results are promising with respect to a non-destructive and non-ionizing assessment of rib mechanical properties. This ex vivo study is a first step toward in vivo studies to derive subject-specific rib properties. PMID:24581799

Mitton, David; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Talmant, Maryline; Ellouz, Rafaa; Rongieras, Frédéric; Laugier, Pascal; Bruyère-Garnier, Karine

2014-04-11

48

Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

2011-06-01

49

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or excessive back pulsing conditions and high temperature transient) could be reflected from the shift of vibration frequencies. These shifts are due to changes in structural properties such as stiffness, which are directly related to the Young's modulus of the candle filters. Further studies are necessary in implementing and verifying the applicability of dynamic NDE characterization methods for actual in-situ conditions, and in establishing a systematic testing procedure for field applications. Also investigations on the filter's natural frequency due to the effect of dust cake or due to the change of boundary conditions may provide insight as to how the filter will perform in the field.

Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

1999-09-01

50

Nondestructive dynamic testing of apples for firmness evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nondestructive dynamic test methods, low-mass impact and acoustic response, were tested and compared with destructive compression and penetration tests to evaluate apple firmness. The purpose of the study was to analyze the performance of the impact test methods for nondestructive firmness evaluation, and to assess whether the acoustic tests could add sorting capacity to low-mass impact testing in apples.

I Shmulevich; N Galili; M. S Howarth

2003-01-01

51

Preliminary nondestructive evaluation manual for the space shuttle. [preliminary nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) requirements are presented for some 134 potential fracture-critical structural areas identified, for the entire space shuttle vehicle system, as those possibly needing inspection during refurbishment/turnaround and prelaunch operations. The requirements include critical area and defect descriptions, access factors, recommended NDE techniques, and descriptive artwork. Requirements discussed include: Orbiter structure, external tank, solid rocket booster, and thermal protection system (development area).

Pless, W. M.

1974-01-01

52

Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactive Powder Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has been introduced as a structural material for civil engineering applications. The material consists of a finely graded combination of cement, sand, ground quartz and silica fume which combined with water form a cement paste. Small steel fibers measuring approximately 0.2 mm in diameter and 12 mm in length are distributed throughout the cement matrix and the combined material has very high compressive strength and toughness. The material is proposed for use in the primary load bearing members in bridges, and as such nondestructive evaluation technologies are needed to evaluate material quality and monitor in-service condition. This paper reports on research to determine the effectiveness of ultrasonic testing for determining the elastic properties of RPC. Comparison between static modulus of elasticity and ultrasonic modulus measurements is presented. A system for determining elastic moduli as a quality control tool is discussed. The effect of curing conditions on ultrasonic velocities and resulting calculated moduli values is presented and compared with traditional measurement methods.

Washer, Glenn; Fuchs, Paul; Graybeal, Benjamin; Rezaizadeh, Ali

2004-02-01

53

Physical Model Assisted Probability of Detection in Nondestructive Evaluation for Detecting of Flaws in Titanium  

E-print Network

, Mixed effects, Titanium forging, Ultrasonic testing. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Nondestructive1 Physical Model Assisted Probability of Detection in Nondestructive Evaluation for Detecting for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 R. Bruce Thompson Department of Aerospace

54

Nondestructive evaluation of advanced ceramic composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation techniques were developed to characterize performance degrading conditions in continuous fiber-reinforced silicon carbide/silicon carbide composites. Porosity, fiber-matrix interface bond strength, and physical damage were among the conditions studied. The material studied is formed by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of the matrix material into a preform of woven reinforcing fibers. Acoustic, ultrasonic, and vibration response techniques were studied. Porosity was investigated because of its inherent presence in the CVI process and of the resultant degradation of material strength. Correlations between porosity and ultrasonic attenuation and velocity were clearly demonstrated. The ability of ultrasonic transmission scanning techniques to map variations in porosity in a single sample was also demonstrated. The fiber-matrix interface bond was studied because of its importance in determining the fracture toughness of the material. Correlations between interface bonding and acoustic and ultrasonic properties were observed. These results are presented along with those obtained form acoustic and vibration response measurements on material samples subjected to mechanical impact damage. This is the final report on research sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program. 10 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

Lott, L.A.; Kunerth, D.C.; Walter, J.B.

1991-09-01

55

Nondestructive tests of regenerative chambers. [evaluating nondestructive methods of determining metal bond integrity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The capabilities and limitations of nondestructive evaluation methods were studied to detect and locate bond deficiencies in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers for rocket engines. Flat test panels and a cylinder were produced to simulate regeneratively cooled thrust chamber walls. Planned defects with various bond integrities were produced in the panels to evaluate the sensitivity, accuracy, and limitations of nondestructive methods to define and locate bond anomalies. Holography, acoustic emission, and ultrasonic scan were found to yield sufficient data to discern bond quality when used in combination and in selected sequences. Bonding techniques included electroforming and brazing. Materials of construction included electroformed nickel bonded to Nickel 200 and OFHC copper, electroformed copper bonded to OFHC copper, and 300 series stainless steel brazed to OFHC copper. Variations in outer wall strength, wall thickness, and defect size were evaluated for nondestructive test response.

Malone, G. A.; Vecchies, L.; Wood, R.

1974-01-01

56

Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

1984-01-01

57

Nondestructive Evaluation Correlated with Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced materials are being developed for use in high-temperature gas turbine applications. For these new materials to be fully utilized, their deformation properties, their nondestructive evaluation (NDE) quality and material durability, and their creep and fatigue fracture characteristics need to be determined by suitable experiments. The experimental findings must be analyzed, characterized, modeled and translated into constitutive equations for stress analysis and life prediction. Only when these ingredients - together with the appropriate computational tools - are available, can durability analysis be performed in the design stage, long before the component is built. One of the many structural components being evaluated by the NDE group at the NASA Lewis Research Center is the flywheel system. It is being considered as an energy storage device for advanced space vehicles. Such devices offer advantages over electrochemical batteries in situations demanding high power delivery and high energy storage per unit weight. In addition, flywheels have potentially higher efficiency and longer lifetimes with proper motor-generator and rotor design. Flywheels made of fiber-reinforced polymer composite material show great promise for energy applications because of the high energy and power densities that they can achieve along with a burst failure mode that is relatively benign in comparison to those of flywheels made of metallic materials Therefore, to help improve durability and reduce structural uncertainties, we are developing a comprehensive analytical approach to predict the reliability and life of these components under these harsh loading conditions. The combination of NDE and two- and three-dimensional finite element analyses (e.g., stress analyses and fracture mechanics) is expected to set a standardized procedure to accurately assess the applicability of using various composite materials to design a suitable rotor/flywheel assembly.

Abdul-Azid, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

1999-01-01

58

Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

Arens, Ellen

2010-01-01

59

Guided wave nuances for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Recent developments in guided wave generation, reception, and mode control show that increased penetration power and sensitivity are possible. A tone burst function generator and appropriate signal processing are generally used. Variable angle beam and comb-type transducers are the key to this effort. Problems in tubing, piping, hidden corrosion detection in aging aircraft, adhesive and diffusion bonding, and ice detection are discussed. Additionally, sample configurations, inspection objectives, and logic are being developed for such sample problems as defect detection and analysis in lap splice joints, tear straps, cracks in a second layer, hidden corrosion in multiple layers, cracks from rivet holes, transverse cracking in a beam, and cracks in landing gear assembly. Theoretical and experimental aspects of guided wave analysis include phase velocity, group velocity, and attenuation dispersion curves; boundary element model analysis for reflection and transmission factor analysis; use of wave structure for defect detection sensitivity; source influence on the phase velocity spectrum, and the use of angle beam and comb transducer technology. Probe design and modeling considerations are being explored. Utilization of in-plane and out-of-plane displacement patterns on the surface and longitudinal power distribution across the structural cross-section are considered for improved sensitivity, penetration power, and resolution in nondestructive evaluation. Methods of controlling the phase velocity spectrum for mode and frequency selection are available. Such features as group velocity change, mode cut-off measurements, mode conversion, amplitude ratios of transmission, and reflection factors of specific mode and frequency as input will be introduced for their ability to be used in flaw and material characterization analysis. PMID:18238584

Rose, J L

2000-01-01

60

Non-destructive evaluation and quality control of surface treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect and quantify beneficial surface and subsurface residual stresses, and operational damage in aerospace materials/structures in a reliable and efficient manner presents significant challenges to existing nondestructive inspection technologies. Induced Positron Analysis (IPA) has demonstrated the ability to nondestructively quantify shot peening/surface treatments and relaxation effects in single crystal superalloys, steels, titanium and aluminum with a single measurement as part of a National Science Foundation SBIR program and in projects with commercial companies. IPA measurement of surface treatment effects provides a demonstrated ability to quantitatively measure initial treatment effectiveness along with the effect of operationally induced changes over the life of the treated component. Use of IPA to nondestructively quantify surface and subsurface residual stresses in turbine engine materials and components has the potential to significantly improve the understanding at the microscale level the effects of surface coatings and treatments on the durability and fatigue life of critical components.

Rideout, Curtis A.; Ritchie, Scott J.

2007-04-01

61

Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4, 410Cb stainless steel, and IN100 nickel-base superalloy specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

Cantrell, John H., Jr.

2008-01-01

62

Nondestructive Evaluation of Metal Fatigue Using Nonlinear Acoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe-life and damage-tolerant design philosophies of high performance structures have driven the development of various methods to evaluate nondestructively the accumulation of damage in such structures resulting from cyclic loading. Although many techniques have proven useful, none has been able to provide an unambiguous, quantitative assessment of damage accumulation at each stage of fatigue from the virgin state to fracture. A method based on nonlinear acoustics is shown to provide such a means to assess the state of metal fatigue. The salient features of an analytical model are presented of the microelastic-plastic nonlinearities resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with fatigue-generated dislocation substructures and cracks that predictably evolve during the metal fatigue process. The interaction is quantified by the material (acoustic) nonlinearity parameter ? extracted from acoustic harmonic generation measurements. The ? parameters typically increase monotonically by several hundred percent over the fatigue life of the metal, thus providing a unique measure of the state of fatigue. Application of the model to aluminum alloy 2024-T4 and 410 Cb stainless steel specimens fatigued using different loading conditions yields good agreement between theory and experiment. Application of the model and measurement technique to the on-site inspection of steam turbine blades is discussed.

Cantrell, John H.

2009-03-01

63

Case study of nonlinear inverse problems: mammography and nondestructive evaluation  

E-print Network

Case study of non­linear inverse problems: mammography and non­destructive evaluation O. Kosheleva, e.g., that the actual image is non­negative). In most real­life problems, this linear description into consideration non­linear terms. This may be a minor improvement for normal image processing, but these non­linear

Kreinovich, Vladik

64

Nondestructive evaluation of new coiled tubing and pipe  

SciTech Connect

The nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE) of coiled tubing and pipe during manufacture has not previously been described. This paper outlines the NDE methods employed during the production of such material, along with flaw removal criteria. This paper describes coiled tubing and pipe up to 3.5 inches diameter for both downhole and line pipe use.

Stanley, R.K. [Quality Tubing Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

65

Airborne Ultrasonics for Nondestructive Evaluation of Leather Quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our recent research has shown that besides Acoustic Emission (AE), Airborne Ultrasonics (AU) can also be applied for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of leather quality. Implementation of these methods in the manufacturing process could save a considerable amount of money, decrease the use of ch...

66

Evaluation of methods for nondestructive testing of brazed joints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of nondestructive methods of testing brazed joints reveals that ultrasonic testing is effective in the detection of nonbonds in diffusion bonded samples. Radiography provides excellent resolutions of void or inclusion defects, and the neutron radiographic technique shows particular advantage for brazing materials containing cadmium.

Kanno, A.

1968-01-01

67

Hyperspectral imaging for nondestructive evaluation of tomatoes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Machine vision methods for quality and defect evaluation of tomatoes have been studied for online sorting and robotic harvesting applications. We investigated the use of a hyperspectral imaging system for quality evaluation and defect detection for tomatoes. Hyperspectral reflectance images were a...

68

Aging management of major LWR components with nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation of material damage can contribute to continued safe, reliable, and economical operation of nuclear power plants through their current and renewed license period. The aging mechanisms active in the major light water reactor components are radiation embrittlement, thermal aging, stress corrosion cracking, flow-accelerated corrosion, and fatigue, which reduce fracture toughness, structural strength, or fatigue resistance of the components and challenge structural integrity of the pressure boundary. This paper reviews four nondestructive evaluation methods with the potential for in situ assessment of damage caused by these mechanisms: stress-strain microprobe for determining mechanical properties of reactor pressure vessel and cast stainless materials, magnetic methods for estimating thermal aging damage in cast stainless steel, positron annihilation measurements for estimating early fatigue damage in reactor coolant system piping, and ultrasonic guided wave technique for detecting cracks and wall thinning in tubes and pipes and corrosion damage to embedded portion of metal containments.

Shah, V.N.; MacDonald, P.E.; Akers, D.W.; Sellers, C. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Murty, K.L.; Miraglia, P.Q.; Mathew, M.D. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Haggag, F.M. [Advanced Technology Corp. (United States)

1997-12-31

69

Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratoriers: User Test Planning Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users. The Materials and Nondestructive Evaluation Laboratory Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non- NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in materials analysis planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the analysis process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define scope of analysis, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

Schaschl, Leslie

2011-01-01

70

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Carbon Fiber Composite Reinforcement Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of light-weight, high-strength composite materials in motors, generators, and energy storage devices has become common as a means to maximize energy density. To ensure reliability, non-destructive and destructive evaluation techniques have been employed to measure the mechanical properties of fabricated components. In carbon fiber-reinforced, polymer matrix composites, mechanical strength is primarily derived from the fiber volume fraction. Due

D. J. Dorsey; R. Hebner; W. S. Charlton

2004-01-01

71

Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Response  

SciTech Connect

This study aims at the development of an effective nondestructive evaluation technique to predict the remaining useful life of a ceramic candle filter during a power plant's annual maintenance shutdown. The objective of the present on-going study is to establish the vibration signatures of ceramic candle filters at varying degradation levels due to different operating hours, and to study the various factors involving the establishment of the signatures.

Chen, Roger H. L.; Kiriakidis, Alejandro C.; Peng, Steve W.

1997-07-01

72

A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems

E. James Chern; David W. Butler

1994-01-01

73

Nondestructive Evaluation of the VSC-17 Cask  

SciTech Connect

In 2003, representatives from the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) requested development of a project with the objective of determining the performance of a concrete spent nuclear fuel storage cask. Radiation and environmental effects may cause chemical alteration of the concrete that could result in excessive cracking, spalling, and loss of compressive strength. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project team and CRIEPI representatives identified the Ventilated Storage Cask (VSC 17) spent nuclear fuel storage cask, originally located at the INL Test Area North, as a candidate to study cask performance because it had been used to store fuel as part of a dry cask storage demonstration project for over 15 years. The project involved investigating the properties of the concrete shield. INL performed a survey of the cask in the summers of 2003 and 2004. The INL team met with the CRIEPI representatives in December of 2004 to discuss the next steps. As a result of that meeting, CRIEPI requested that in the summer 2005 INL perform additional surveys on the VSC 17 cask with participation of CRIEPI scientists. This document summarizes the evaluation methods used on the VSC 17 to evaluate the cask for compressive strength, concrete cracking, concrete thickness, and temperature distribution.

Sheryl Morton; Al Carlson; Cecilia Hoffman; James Rivera; Phil Winston; Koji Shirai; Shin Takahashi; Masaharo Tanaka

2006-01-01

74

Nondestructive Damage Evaluation in Ceramic Matrix Composites for Aerospace Applications  

PubMed Central

Infrared thermography (IRT) and acoustic emission (AE) are the two major nondestructive methodologies for evaluating damage in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for aerospace applications. The two techniques are applied herein to assess and monitor damage formation and evolution in a SiC-fiber reinforced CMC loaded under cyclic and fatigue loading. The paper explains how IRT and AE can be used for the assessment of the material's performance under fatigue. IRT and AE parameters are specifically used for the characterization of the complex damage mechanisms that occur during CMC fracture, and they enable the identification of the micromechanical processes that control material failure, mainly crack formation and propagation. Additionally, these nondestructive parameters help in early prediction of the residual life of the material and in establishing the fatigue limit of materials rapidly and accurately. PMID:23935428

Dassios, Konstantinos G.; Kordatos, Evangelos Z.; Aggelis, Dimitrios G.; Matikas, Theodore E.

2013-01-01

75

A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

1994-01-01

76

A versatile nondestructive evaluation imaging workstation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are of the pointwise type evaluation systems that rely on a mechanical scanner to physically maneuver a probe relative to the specimen point by point in order to acquire data and generate images. Since the ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging systems are based on the same mechanical scanning mechanisms, the two systems can be combined using the same PC platform with a common mechanical manipulation subsystem and integrated data acquisition software. Based on this concept, we have developed an IBM PC-based combined ultrasonic C-scan and eddy current imaging system. The system is modularized and provides capacity for future hardware and software expansions. Advantages associated with the combined system are: (1) eliminated duplication of the computer and mechanical hardware, (2) unified data acquisition, processing and storage software, (3) reduced setup time for repetitious ultrasonic and eddy current scans, and (4) improved system efficiency. The concept can be adapted to many engineering systems by integrating related PC-based instruments into one multipurpose workstation such as dispensing, machining, packaging, sorting, and other industrial applications.

Chern, E. James; Butler, David W.

1994-02-01

77

Porosity evaluation of PoSi wafer using a nondestructive ultrasonic technic  

E-print Network

travelling through it, ultrasonic non-destructive testing can be a good way to measure these parameters [9Porosity evaluation of PoSi wafer using a nondestructive ultrasonic technic J. Bustilloa , J measurement methods of PoSi are currently destructive. Therefore in this study a nondestructive ultrasonic

Boyer, Edmond

78

Nondestructive evaluation of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy  

SciTech Connect

The nondestructive evaluation of nickel titanium (Ni-Ti) alloys for applications such as heat treatment for biomaterials applications (dental) and welding was investigated. Ni-Ti alloys and its ternary alloys are valued for mechanical properties in addition to the shape memory effect. Two analytical approaches were perused in this work. Assessment of the microstructure of the alloy that determines the martensitic start temperature (Ms) of Ni-Ti alloy as a function of heat treatment, and secondly, an attempt to evaluate a Friction Stir Welding, which involves thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy.

Meir, S.; Gordon, S.; Karsh, M.; Ayers, R.; Olson, D. L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Wiezman, A. [Netania (Israel)

2011-06-23

79

Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermography inspection is an optic based technology that can reduce the time and cost required to inspect propellant tanks or aero structures fabricated from composite materials. Usually areas identified as suspect in the thermography inspection are examined with ultrasonic methods to better define depth, orientation and the nature of the anomaly. This combination of nondestructive evaluation techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James L.; Workman, Gary; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

80

Evaluation of Nondestructive Assay/Nondestructive Examination Capabilities for Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes an evaluation of the potential use of nondestructive assay (NDA) and nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies on DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF). It presents the NDA/NDE information necessary for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) and the SNF storage sites to use when defining that role, if any, of NDA/NDE in characterization and certification processes. Note that the potential role for NDA/NDE includes confirmatory testing on a sampling basis and is not restricted to use as a primary, item-specific, data collection method. The evaluation does not attempt to serve as a basis for selecting systems for development or deployment. Information was collected on 27 systems being developed at eight DOE locations. The systems considered are developed to some degree, but are not ready for deployment on the full range of DOE SNF and still require additional development. The system development may only involve demonstrating performance on additional SNF, packaging the system for deployment, and developing calibration standards, or it may be as extensive as performing additional basic research. Development time is considered to range from one to four years. We conclude that NDA/NDE systems are capable of playing a key role in the characterization and certification of DOE SNF, either as the primary data source or as a confirmatory test. NDA/NDE systems will be able to measure seven of the nine key SNF properties and to derive data for the two key properties not measured directly. The anticipated performance goals of these key properties are considered achievable except for enrichment measurements on fuels near 20% enrichment. NDA/NDE systems can likely be developed to measure the standard canisters now being considered for co-disposal of DOE SNF. This ability would allow the preparation of DOE SNF for storage now and the characterization and certification to be finalize later.

Luptak, A.J.; Bulmahn, K.D.

1998-09-01

81

Liberty Bell 7 Recovery Evaluation and Nondestructive Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An inspection of the Mercury capsule, Liberty Bell 7, and its contents was made on September 1 and 2, 1999. The condition of the capsule and its contents was consistent with long-term exposure to salt water and high pressures at the bottom of the ocean. Many of the metallic materials suffered corrosion, whereas the polymer-based materials seem to have survived remarkably well. No identifiable items or structures were found that appeared to have any scientific value. At this time, no further nondestructive evaluation appears to be justified.

Madaras, Eric I.; Smith, William L.

1999-01-01

82

Experimental implementation of reverse time migration for nondestructive evaluation applications.  

PubMed

Reverse time migration (RTM) is a commonly employed imaging technique in seismic applications (e.g., to image reservoirs of oil). Its standard implementation cannot account for multiple scattering/reverberation. For this reason it has not yet found application in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). This paper applies RTM imaging to NDE applications in bounded samples, where reverberation is always present. This paper presents a fully experimental implementation of RTM, whereas in seismic applications, only part of the procedure is done experimentally. A modified RTM imaging condition is able to localize scatterers and locations of disbonding. Experiments are conducted on aluminum samples with controlled scatterers. PMID:21302980

Anderson, Brian E; Griffa, Michele; Bas, Pierre-Yves Le; Ulrich, Timothy J; Johnson, Paul A

2011-01-01

83

Nondestructive Degradation Evaluation of Ceramic Candle Filters Using Vibration Signatures  

SciTech Connect

The structural integrity of ceramic candle filters is a key element for hot gas cleanup systems, They protect the heat exchanger and gas turbine components from getting clogged and also prevent erosion. Ceramic candle filters used in the recent demonstration plant have experienced degradation and fracturing. Preliminary examination of these ceramic filters indicated that damage of the filters may have resulted from strength degradation at consistent high temperature operation, thermal transient events, excessive ash accumulation and bridging and pulse cleaning. The ceramic candle filter is a slender structure made of layers of porous materials. The structure has high acoustic attenuation which has greatly limited the conventional ultrasonic detection capability. In general, stiffness reduction of a structure will cause the change of the modal parameters of the structure. This study proposes a nondestructive approach for evaluating the structural properties of the ceramic filters using dynamic characterization method. The vibration signatures of the ceramic filters at different degradation levels are established using transient impact-response technique. Results from this study indicate that the vibration signatures of the filters can be used as an index to quantify the darnage condition of the filters. The results also indicate the feasibility of using the vibration mode shapes to predict the damage location. The application of this study can be implemented to develop a nondestructive evaluation method for future in-situ inspection of the ceramic filters.

Chen, R.H.L.; Parthasarathy, B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-12-31

84

MULTIPLE SENSOR PERIODIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF A CONCRETE BRIDGE DECK  

E-print Network

results of periodically multiple sensor nondestructive testing of a reinforced concrete slab of nondestructive testing tools and methods that are suitable for an objective condition assessment of bridge nondestructive testing measurements have been successfully carried out for new construction or in

Huston, Dryver R.

85

Proceedings of the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative adhesive bond strength measurement has been an issue for over thirty years. Utilization of nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods has shown more effectiveness than linear methods on adhesive bond analysis, resulting in an increased sensitivity to changes in bondline conditions. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown and could relate to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. This increased sensitivity will assist in getting closer to quantitative measurement of adhesive bond strength. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been successfully measured. This paper reviews nonlinear bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the First Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1997.

Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

86

Application of Raman Spectroscopy for Nondestructive Evaluation of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper will present an overview of efforts to investigate the application of Raman spectroscopy for the characterization of Kevlar materials. Raman spectroscopy is a laser technique that is sensitive to molecular interactions in materials such as Kevlar, graphite and carbon used in composite materials. The overall goal of this research reported here is to evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). Characterization of the Raman spectra of Kevlar yarn and strands will be presented and compared with analytical models provided in the literature. Results of testing to investigate the effects of creep and high-temperature aging on the Raman spectra will be presented.

Washer, Glenn A.; Brooks, Thomas M. B.; Saulsberry, Regor

2007-01-01

87

Induction thermography for non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adhesive bonding is widely used in automotive industry in the recent times. One of the major problems with adhesive bonds is the lack of a suitable non-destructive evaluation technique for assessing bonding. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to apply induction thermography technique to evaluate adhesively bonded steel plates. Samples were fabricated with artificial defects such as air gap, foreign material, and improper adhesive filling. Induction thermography technique was found to detect defects and foreign inclusions. The sample specimen was also inspected using standard techniques such as Ultrasonic testing and Radiography testing. Defect detecting capabilities of the three techniques are compared. Induction thermography heating was FE modelled in 3D using COMSOL 3.5a. The simulated Induction thermography model was compared and validated with experimental results.

Balaji, L.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

2013-01-01

88

Evaluating quantitative research reports.  

PubMed

As a novice reviewer, it is often difficult to trust your evaluation of a research report. You may feel uncertain in your interpretations. These are common concerns and can be remedied by reading and discussing research reports on research listservs, through journal clubs, or with other nephrology nurses. Practice using the criteria for research report evaluation and you too can perfect critiquing a research report! PMID:15787085

Russell, Cynthia L

2005-01-01

89

Acoustic diagnosis for nondestructive evaluation of ceramic coatings on steel substrates  

SciTech Connect

New methodology is proposed and developed to make quantitative nondestructive evaluation of TiN coated SKH steel substrates. Since the measured acoustic structure is in precise correspondence with the multi-layered elastic media, change of elastic properties by degradation and damage can be easily distinguished by the acoustic spectro microscopy. In particular, rather complex acoustic structure can be measured by the present method for ceramic coated steel substrate system, but it is completely described by the two-layer model in two dimensional elasticity. Typical example is the cut-off phenomenon where the dispersion curve for the leaky surface wave velocity is forced to be terminated by alternative activation of shear wave instead of it. The quantitative nondestructive diagnosis was developed on the basis of this predictable acoustic structure. Furthermore, the effect of coating conditions on the acoustic structure is also discussed to make residual stress distribution analysis in coating by the acoustic spectro microscopy with reference to the X-ray stress analysis. Some comments are made on further advancement of the present acoustic spectro microscopy adaptive to precise characterization of ceramic coatings and practical sensing system working in practice.

Aizawa, Tatsuhiko; Kihara, Junji [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Metallurgy; Ito, Manabu [Toppan Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

1995-11-01

90

Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

2014-10-21

91

Nondestructive Evaluation Methodologies Developed for Certifying Composite Flywheels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manufacturing readiness of composite rotors and certification of flywheels depend in part on the maturity of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology for process optimization and quality assurance, respectively. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the capabilities and limitations of x-ray-computed tomography and radiography, as well as advanced ultrasonics were established on NDE ring and rotor standards with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches and drilled holes. Also, intentionally seeded delamination, tow break, and insert of bagging material were introduced in hydroburst-rings to study the NDE detection capabilities of such anomalies and their effect on the damage tolerance and safe life margins of subscale rings and rotors. Examples of possible occurring flaws or anomalies in composite rings as detected by NDE and validated by destructive metallography are shown. The general NDE approach to ensure the quality of composite rotors and to help in the certification of flywheels is briefly outlined.

Baaklini, George Y.; Konno, Kevin E.; Martin, Richard E.; Thompson, Richard

2001-01-01

92

Millimeter-wave imaging for nondestructive evaluation of materials  

SciTech Connect

A millimeter-wave imaging system has been developed in the W band (75--110 GHz) for nondestructive evaluation of low-loss materials. The system employs a focused beam to provide spatial resolution of about one wavelength. A plane-wave model is used to calculate the effective reflection (or transmission) coefficient of a multilayer geometry. Theoretical analysis is used to optimize the measurement frequency for higher image contrast and to interpret the experimental results. Both reflection and transmission images, based on backscattered and forward-scattered powers, were made with Kevlar/epoxy samples containing artificially introduced defects such as subsurface voids and disbonds. The results indicate that millimeter wave imaging has high potential for noncontact detection of defects in low-loss materials.

Gopalsami, N; Bakhtiari, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Lepper, M.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.)

1994-03-01

93

Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

94

Physical model assisted probability of detection in nondestructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation is used widely in many engineering and industrial areas to detect defects or flaws such as cracks inside parts or structures during manufacturing or for products in service. The standard statistical model is a simple empirical linear regression between the (possibly transformed) signal response variables and the (possibly transformed) explanatory variables. For some applications, such a simple empirical approach is inadequate. An important alternative approach is to use knowledge of the physics of the inspection process to provide information about the underlying relationship between the response and explanatory variables. Use of such knowledge can greatly increase the power and accuracy of the statistical analysis and enable, when needed, proper extrapolation outside the range of the observed explanatory variables. This paper describes a set of physical model-assisted analyses to study the capability of two different ultrasonic testing inspection methods to detect synthetic hard alpha inclusion and flat-bottom hole defects in a titanium forging disk.

Li, M.; Meeker, W. Q. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation and Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Thompson, R. B. [Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2011-06-23

95

Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Inspection of Composite Sandwich Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite honeycomb structures are widely used in aerospace applications due to their low weight and high strength advantages. Developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) inspection methods are essential for their safe performance. Flash thermography is a commonly used technique for composite honeycomb structure inspections due to its large area and rapid inspection capability. Flash thermography is shown to be sensitive for detection of face sheet impact damage and face sheet to core disbond. Data processing techniques, using principal component analysis to improve the defect contrast, are discussed. Limitations to the thermal detection of the core are investigated. In addition to flash thermography, X-ray computed tomography is used. The aluminum honeycomb core provides excellent X-ray contrast compared to the composite face sheet. The X-ray CT technique was used to detect impact damage, core crushing, and skin to core disbonds. Additionally, the X-ray CT technique is used to validate the thermography results.

Zalameda, Joseph N.; Parker, F. Raymond

2014-01-01

96

Super-resolution image reconstruction for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic testing is one of the most successful nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for the inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) materials. This paper discusses the application of the iterative backprojection (IBP) super-resolution image reconstruction technique to carbon epoxy laminates with simulated defects to obtain high-resolution images for NDE. Super-resolution image reconstruction is an approach used to overcome the inherent resolution limitations of an existing ultrasonic system. It can greatly improve the image quality and allow more detailed inspection of the region of interest (ROI) with high resolution, improving defect evaluation and accuracy. First, three artificially simulated delamination defects in a CFRP panel were considered to evaluate and validate the application of the IBP method. The results of the validation indicate that both the contrast-tonoise ratio (CNR) and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) value of the super-resolution result are better than the bicubic interpolation method. Then, the IBP method was applied to the low-resolution ultrasonic C-scan image sequence with subpixel displacement of two types of defects (delamination and porosity) which were obtained by the micro-scanning imaging technique. The result demonstrated that super-resolution images achieved better visual quality with an improved image resolution compared with raw C-scan images. PMID:24297023

Li, Shanglei; Chu, Tsuchin Philip

2013-12-01

97

Nondestructive testing of asphalt pavements for structural condition evaluation: a state of the art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive testing provides ideal means to test pavement structure in a rapid and convenient manner. In last few years, significant development has taken place in this field. This paper, presents some of the major conventional as well as emerging nondestructive evaluation methods for in situ structural assessment of asphalt pavements. Discussion of methods is primarily directed towards the estimation of

Amit Goel; Animesh Das

2008-01-01

98

Institute for Materials Science and Engineering, Nondestructive Evaluation: technical activities, 1989. Annual report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the Nondestructive Evaluation Program at NIST for fiscal year 1989 is presented in the annual report. Topics include the following: Intelligent processing of rapidly solidified metal powders; Nondestructive characterization of ceramic sintering; Monitoring of machined ceramic surfaces by thermal waves; Eddy-current temperature sensing; Ultrasonic sensor for sheet metal formability; Ultrasonic metrology for surface finish and part thickness;

Yolken

1989-01-01

99

Study Methods to Characterize and Implement Thermography Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The limits and conditions under which an infrared thermographic nondestructive evaluation can be utilized to assess the quality of aerospace hardware is demonstrated in this research effort. The primary focus of this work is on applying thermography to the inspection of advanced composite structures such as would be found in the International Space Station Instrumentation Racks, Space Shuttle Cargo Bay Doors, Bantam RP-1 tank or RSRM Nose Cone. Here, the detection of delamination, disbond, inclusion and porosity type defects are of primary interest. In addition to composites, an extensive research effort has been initiated to determine how well a thermographic evaluation can detect leaks and disbonds in pressurized metallic systems "i.e. the Space Shuttle Main Engine Nozzles". In either case, research into developing practical inspection procedures was conducted and thermographic inspections were performed on a myriad of test samples, subscale demonstration articles and "simulated" flight hardware. All test samples were fabricated as close to their respective structural counterparts as possible except with intentional defects for NDE qualification. As an added benefit of this effort to create simulated defects, methods were devised for defect fabrication that may be useful in future NDE qualification ventures.

Walker, James L.

1998-01-01

100

Nondestructive evaluation of hydrogel mechanical properties using ultrasound  

PubMed Central

The feasibility of using ultrasound technology as a noninvasive, nondestructive method for evaluating the mechanical properties of engineered weight-bearing tissues was evaluated. A fixture was designed to accurately and reproducibly position the ultrasound transducer normal to the test sample surface. Agarose hydrogels were used as phantoms for cartilage to explore the feasibility of establishing correlations between ultrasound measurements and commonly used mechanical tissue assessments. The hydrogels were fabricated in 1–10% concentrations with a 2–10 mm thickness. For each concentration and thickness, six samples were created, for a total of 216 gel samples. Speed of sound was determined from the time difference between peak reflections and the known height of each sample. Modulus was computed from the speed of sound using elastic and poroelastic models. All ultrasonic measurements were made using a 15 MHz ultrasound transducer. The elastic modulus was also determined for each sample from a mechanical unconfined compression test. Analytical comparison and statistical analysis of ultrasound and mechanical testing data was carried out. A correlation between estimates of compressive modulus from ultrasonic and mechanical measurements was found, but the correlation depended on the model used to estimate the modulus from ultrasonic measurements. A stronger correlation with mechanical measurements was found using the poroelastic rather than the elastic model. Results from this preliminary testing will be used to guide further studies of native and engineered cartilage. PMID:21773854

Walker, Jason M.; Myers, Ashley M.; Schluchter, Mark D.; Goldberg, Victor M.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Berilla, Jim A.; Mansour, Joseph M.; Welter, Jean F.

2012-01-01

101

Nondestructive evaluation techniques for nickel-cadmium aerospace battery cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ac impedance characteristics of Ni-Cd cells as an in-situ, nondestructive means of determining cell lifetime, particularly with respect to the probability of premature failure were evaluated. Emphasis was on evaluating Ni-Cd cell impedance over a wide frequency range (10,000 to 0.0004 Hz) as the cells were subjected to charge/discharge cycle testing. The results indicate that cell degradation is reflected in the low frequency (Warburg) impedance characteristics associated with diffusion processes. The Warburg slope (W) was found to steadily increase as a function of cell aging for completely discharged cells. In addition, based on data for two cells, a high or rapidly increasing value for W signals imminent cell failure by one mechanism. Degradation by another mechanism is apparently reflected in a fall-off (roll-over) of W at lower frequencies. As a secondary result, the frequency dependence of the absolute cell impedance at low frequencies (5 - 500 mHz) was found to be a good indication of the cell state-of-charge.

Haak, R.; Tench, D.

1982-01-01

102

Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R and D Roadmap for Concrete, 'Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap', focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

2014-02-18

103

Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic candle filter with various boundary conditions  

SciTech Connect

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using a dynamic characterization technique was conducted to study ceramic candle filters. Ceramic candle filters are hollow cylindrical structures made of porous ceramic materials used to protect gas turbine in coal-fired power plants. Deterioration and failure of ceramic filters occurs after being exposed to high-temperature and high-pressure operational environment over a period of time. This paper focuses on the development of an NDE method that can predict the in-situ structural stiffness of the candle filters while still being attached to the plenum. A combination of laboratory testing, theoretical analysis, and finite element method (FEM) simulations are presented. The candle filters were tested using a laser vibrometer/accelerometer setup with variable boundary restraints. A variable end-restraint Timoshenko beam equation was derived to determine the dynamic response of the candle filters with simulated in-situ boundary conditions. Results from the FEM simulation were verified with the analysis to determine the stiffness degradation of the candle filters as well as the boundary conditions. Results from this study show that the vibration characteristics can be used effectively to evaluate both the structural stiffness and the in-situ boundary restraints of the ceramic candle filters during field inspections.

Chen, H.L.; Kiriakidis, A.C. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

2005-06-01

104

Research in nondestructive evaluation techniques for nuclear reactor concrete structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of the Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop the scientific basis for understanding and predicting longterm environmental degradation behavior of material in nuclear power plants and to provide data and methods to assess the performance of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) essential to safe and sustained nuclear power plant operations. The understanding of aging-related phenomena and their impacts on SSCs is expected to be a significant issue for any nuclear power plant planning for long-term operations (i.e. service beyond the initial license renewal period). Management of those phenomena and their impacts during long-term operations can be better enable by improved methods and techniques for detection, monitoring, and prediction of SSC degradation. The MAaD Pathway R&D Roadmap for Concrete, "Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap", focused initial research efforts on understanding the recent concrete issues at nuclear power plants and identifying the availability of concrete samples for NDE techniques evaluation and testing. [1] An overview of the research performed by ORNL in these two areas is presented here.

Clayton, Dwight; Smith, Cyrus

2014-02-01

105

Incorporation of nondestructive evaluation in Pontis Bridge Management System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The highway system in the United States includes nearly 577,000 bridges, the majority of which were built during two major bridge building periods -- just before World War II (1930s) and in the first two decades of the Cold War (1950s and 1960s). Given the age and increased usage of these bridges over the years, many now require substantial maintenance to satisfy their desired level of service. The complex task of allocating scarce funds for the repair, maintenance, and rehabilitation of this large number of bridges led to the development of several optimization studies and two major bridge management system, namely BRIDGIT and Pontis. Pontis has emerged as the system of choice for all states in the Nation. At this time over 40 highway agencies continue to license, evaluate and implement the current AASHTOWARE Program, Pontis V. 3.2. However, all data currently required by Pontis to assess the structural stability and resulting suggestions for repair and maintenance of bridges are based on visual inspection and judgement. Consequently, all suggestions are based on that visual inspection. This paper discusses development of a plan for how non-destructive evaluation (NDE) data can be used to provide more information than visual inspection.

Hadavi, Ahmad

1998-03-01

106

Quantitative nondestructive electronic and magnetic property assessment of heat treated grade p91 steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural steels experience aging from fatigue, creep and corrosion. Prolonged high temperature service accelerates creep and stress-corrosion cracking. Microstructural degradation of structural steels is a serious problem that limits the integrity of high-temperature parts in power plants. Some power plants that utilize fossil fuels have experienced lifecycle issues with heat-treated steel alloys that have experienced progressive damage over time. A nondestructive technique for the evaluation of the microstructure of key structural materials and the prediction of lifecycle has been the focus of extensive research for many years. Advanced nondestructive wave assessment techniques are being developed using electronic and magnetic perturbation analysis. These methods are applied to ferrous materials to determine whether a designed heat-treatment provides an acceptable microstructure offering specific set of required properties for the full service life of the component. The methods used in this research include impedance spectroscopy and hysteresis measurement as preliminary assessment methods and hysteresis frequency analysis and Barkhausen noise measurement as secondary assessment methods.

Meir, Shai Shmuel

107

Laser-induced focused ultrasound for nondestructive testing and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Focused ultrasound pulses generated by photoacoustic transformation at a metal surface immersed in water possess a pronounced compression phase on the nanosecond time scale. For 8 ns laser pump pulses, the spectrum of the initially generated ultrasonic pulse covered a frequency range between 0.1 and 150 MHz. A concave spherical geometry of the light-absorbing metal surface can be used to achieve focusing. In the present experiments a conical ultrasound beam was directed at a solid glass plate or silicon wafer, where the tilt of the normal of the metal mirror defined the efficiency of mode conversion at the water-solid interface. Depending on the configuration, focused bulk waves as well as Rayleigh and Lamb waves could be launched in the sample with this setup. The laser probe-beam-deflection method was employed for local detection of elastic disturbances at the sample surface. Due to the nonlinear elastic response of water and harmonics generation, frequencies >100 MHz were realized, despite a strong attenuation in this frequency range. Gradual increase of the laser power density from 5 to 14 MW/cm2 led to shock formation in the compressive pressure pulse in water and shortening of the Rayleigh pulse induced at the surface of the glass plate. The observed transient surface profiles were highly sensitive to nearby mechanical discontinuities such as a microcrack in glass or an edge discontinuity in silicon. Therefore, laser-induced focused ultrasound seems to be a very promising method of accomplishing diverse tasks of nondestructive evaluation.

Kozhushko, Victor V.; Hess, Peter

2008-06-01

108

Synchronized Electronic Shutter System (SESS) for Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to describe a new method for thermal nondestructive evaluation. This method uses a synchronized electronic shutter system (SESS) to remove the heat lamp's influence on the thermal data during and after flash heating. There are two main concerns when using flash heating. The first concern is during the flash when the photons are reflected back into the camera. This tends to saturate the detectors and potentially introduces unknown and uncorrectable errors when curve fitting the data to a model. To address this, an electronically controlled shutter was placed over the infrared camera lens. Before firing the flash lamps, the shutter is opened to acquire the necessary background data for offset calibration. During flash heating, the shutter is closed to prevent the photons from the high intensity flash from saturating the camera's detectors. The second concern is after the flash heating where the lamps radiate heat after firing. This residual cooling introduces an unwanted transient thermal response into the data. To remove this residual effect, a shutter was placed over the flash lamps to block the infrared heat radiating from the flash head after heating. This helped to remove the transient contribution of the flash. The flash lamp shutters were synchronized electronically with the camera shutter. Results are given comparing the use of the thermal inspection with and without the shutter system.

Zalameda, Joseph N.

2001-01-01

109

Nondestructive evaluation of conformal sonar hull array manufacture and installation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Conformal Array VElocity Sonar (CAVES) consists of an array of neutrally buoyant accelerometers mounted on a compliant layer that is adhered to the hull with an approximately one inch thick layer of Versathane. The performance of this sonar is dependent upon having uniform material properties and on having a bond to the hull free of voids and delaminations. Due to the high propagation loss in the compliant layer, conventional ultrasonic techniques cannot be utilized. There is also the need to directly measure the physical properties of the compliant layer since it has been demonstrated that QA samples do not have the same properties. Two non-destructive evaluation techniques are presented. In the first, a point drive is used to excite elastic waves in the compliant layer. The resulting motions are measured with a Laser-Doppler Vibrometer and an optimization technique is used to determine the complex (real and imaginary components) material properties. This method also lends itself to finding macrovoids within the compliant layer. In the second technique the vibration source excites the bond layer from a free edge. The array sensors are then used to determine the presence of bond failures. Both theory and experimental results are presented.

Doane, John W.; Trivett, David H.; Jarzynski, Jacek; Batel, Mehdi

2002-11-01

110

Lead-free transducer for non-destructive evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead-free piezoelectric ceramics with the formula 0.90(Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3 - 0.05(Bi0.5K0.5)TiO3 - 0.015(Bi0.5Li0.5)TiO3-0.05BaTiO3 (abbreviated as BNKLBT-1.5) were prepared by a conventional mixed-oxide method. A disc of this material was fabricated and used to construct an ultrasonic transducer suitable for use in non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Using a laser vibrometer, it was observed that both BNKLBT and PZT exhibited a surface displacement pattern indicative of coupling of the radial mode vibration with the thickness mode vibration. This is consistent with the measurements of electrical impedance vs frequency which showed that for both discs a strong radial mode with many harmonics was clearly observed and many (usually undesired) modes existed near the thickness mode resonance frequency. The discs were mounted in stainless steel housings with appropriate electrical connections to form transducers. Tungsten/epoxy backing was incorporated to provide a very short ring-down time, a characteristic required for many NDE applications. The characteristics of the BNKLBT transducer were quite similar to that of a PZT transducer of similar structure, showing that this lead-free material has the potential to replace PZT in transducers for NDE applications.

Edwards, G. C.; Choy, S. H.; Chan, H. L. W.; Scott, D. A.; Batten, A.

2007-07-01

111

Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Ares I Common Bulkhead  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large scale bonding demonstration test article was fabricated to prove out manufacturing techniques for the current design of the NASA Ares I Upper Stage common bulkhead. The common bulkhead serves as the single interface between the liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen portions of the Upper Stage propellant tank. The bulkhead consists of spin-formed aluminum domes friction stir welded to Y-rings and bonded to a perforated phenolic honeycomb core. Nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed for assessing core integrity and the core-to-dome bond line of the common bulkhead. Detection of manufacturing defects such as delaminations between the core and face sheets as well as service life defects such as crushed or sheared core resulting from impact loading are all of interest. The focus of this work will be on the application of thermographic, shearographic, and phased array ultrasonic methods to the bonding demonstration article as well as various smaller test panels featuring design specific defect types and geometric features.

Walker, James

2010-01-01

112

Investigation of capacitively coupled ultrasonic transducer system for nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Capacitive coupling offers a simple solution to wirelessly probe ultrasonic transducers. This paper investigates the theory, feasibility, and optimization of such a capacitively coupled transducer system (CCTS) in the context of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications. The noncontact interface relies on an electric field formed between four metal plates-two plates are physically connected to the electrodes of a transducer, the other two are in a separate probing unit connected to the transmit/receive channel of the instrumentation. The complete system is modeled as an electric network with the measured impedance of a bonded piezoelectric ceramic disc representing a transducer attached to an arbitrary solid substrate. A transmission line model is developed which is a function of the physical parameters of the capacitively coupled system, such as the permittivity of the material between the plates, the size of the metal plates, and their relative positions. This model provides immediate prediction of electric input impedance, pulse-echo response, and the effect of plate misalignment. The model has been validated experimentally and has enabled optimization of the various parameters. It is shown that placing a tuning inductor and series resistor on the transmitting side of the circuit can significantly improve the system performance in terms of the signal-to-crosstalk ratio. Practically, bulk-wave CCTSs have been built and demonstrated for underwater and through-composite testing. It has been found that electrical conduction in the media between the plates limits their applications. PMID:24297024

Zhong, Cheng Huan; Wilcox, Paul D; Croxford, Anthony J

2013-12-01

113

Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for structural ceramics.  

SciTech Connect

During the past year, the focus of our work on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods was on the development and application of these methods to technologies such as ceramic matrix composite (CMC) hot-gas filters, CMC high-temperature heat exchangers, and CMC ceramic/ceramic joining. Such technologies are critical to the ''Vision 21 Energy-Plex Fleet'' of modular, high-efficiency, low-emission power systems. Specifically, our NDE work has continued toward faster, higher sensitivity, volumetric X-ray computed tomographic imaging with new amorphous silicon detectors to detect and measure axial and radial density variations in hot-gas filters and heat exchangers; explored the potential use of high-speed focal-plane-array infrared imaging technology to detect delaminations and variations in the thermal properties of SiC/SiC heat exchangers; and explored various NDE methods to characterize CMC joints in cooperation with various industrial partners. Work this year also addressed support of Southern Companies Services Inc., Power Systems Development Facility, where NDE is needed to assess the condition of hot-gas candle filters. This paper presents the results of these efforts.

Ellingson, W. A.

1998-08-19

114

Assessment of FRP-confined concrete : understanding behavior and issues in nondestructive evaluation using radar  

E-print Network

Increase in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for strengthening and retrofitting of concrete columns and bridge piers has urged the development of' an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) ...

Ortega, Jose Alberto, 1978-

2006-01-01

115

Real-time nondestructive evaluation of airframe structures for health monitoring and residual life prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents real-time non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of fatigue crack damage using ultrasonic sensing. The damage sensing system is suitable for health monitoring and residual life prediction in both aging and new aircraft structures

Eric Keller; Asok Ray

2001-01-01

116

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials Using Pulsed Microwave Interrogating Signals and Acoustic Wave  

E-print Network

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials Using Pulsed Microwave Interrogating Signals and Acoustic. Such techniques are therefore applicable in non-invasive examination of tissue, which is a low conductive

117

Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and imaging of defects in reinforced cementitious materials  

E-print Network

Characterization of defect is one of the important objectives of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for condition assessment of structures. Among many other NDE techniques, ultrasonic methods play a prominent role in the both ...

Wang, Ji-yong, 1967-

2003-01-01

118

Corrosion Evaluation of Carbon Steels Using Nondestructive Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary water stress corrosion crack (PWSCC) in the piping used at the nuclear power plant has been one of the major issues for the safety of plant. The major objective in this paper is to clarify the corrosion degree and damage by the PWSCC using nondestructive technique. The instrument of the tube typed reactor with the internal conditions of the temperature of 473K under pressure of 10 MPa was designed for corrosion of the material. The tensile specimens of the same material with the reactor were corroded in the reactor for evaluation of mechanical properties according to the corrosion. The corrosion of the specimen was maintained over one year, and an acoustic emission technique was applied to inspect the corrosion damage of the specimen periodically. A tensile test was performed for the corroded specimen, and then the elastic waves caused the deformation of the corroded specimen were analyzed. With the increase of the corrosion time the elastic waves generated in the specimen due to the tensile load showed a little difference, and these differences of the waves work as a cause of the change of acoustic emission (AE) parameters. The number of AE events at the beginning of the load increased with the corrosion time. AE parameters of amplitude and energy decreased as the corrosion times increased, while the level of duration time and count were increased with the corrosion periods. The velocity and attenuation of the elastic wave were also analyzed for the specimen, and these factors showed a close relation with the corrosion times. In addition, SEM and XRD analysis were performed to evaluate the damage behavior of the carbon steel due to corrosion.

Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Lee, Moon Hee; Lee, Joon Hyun; Park, Jun Young

119

A utility evaluation of nondestructive testing devices used on asphalt concrete pavements  

E-print Network

A UTILITY EVALUATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING DEVICES USED ON ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS A Thesis by SHELLEY MARIE STOFFELS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Civil Engineering A UTILITY EVALUATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING DEVICES USED ON ASPHALT CONCRETE PAVEMENTS A Thesis by SHELLEY MARIE STOFFELS Approved as to style and content by: Robe L. Lytt red...

Stoffels, Shelley Marie

1986-01-01

120

Nondestructive Evaluation for the Space Shuttle's Wing Leading Edge  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia highlighted concerns about the integrity of the Shuttle's thermal protection system, which includes Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) on the leading edge. This led NASA to investigate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for certifying the integrity of the Shuttle's wing leading edge. That investigation was performed simultaneously with a large study conducted to understand the impact damage caused by errant debris. Among the many advanced NDE methods investigated for applicability to the RCC material, advanced digital radiography, high resolution computed tomography, thermography, ultrasound, acoustic emission and eddy current systems have demonstrated the maturity and success for application to the Shuttle RCC panels. For the purposes of evaluating the RCC panels while they are installed on the orbiters, thermographic detection incorporating principal component analysis (PCA) and eddy current array scanning systems demonstrated the ability to measure the RCC panels from one side only and to detect several flaw types of concern. These systems were field tested at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and at several locations where impact testing was being conducted. Another advanced method that NASA has been investigating is an automated acoustic based detection system. Such a system would be based in part on methods developed over the years for acoustic emission testing. Impact sensing has been demonstrated through numerous impact tests on both reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. A variety of impact materials and conditions have been evaluated including foam, ice, and ablator materials at ascent velocities as well as simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. These tests have successfully demonstrated the capability to detect and localize impact events on Shuttle's wing structures. A first generation impact sensing system has been designed for the next Shuttle flight and is undergoing final evaluation for deployment on the Shuttle's first return to flight. This system will employ wireless accelerometer sensors that were qualified for other applications on previous Shuttle flights. These sensors will be deployed on the wing's leading edge to detect impacts on the RCC leading edge panels. The application of these methods will help to insure the continued integrity of the Shuttle wing's leading edge system as the Shuttle flights resume and until their retirement.

Madaras, Eric I.; Winfree, William P.; Prosser, William H.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Cramer, K. Elliot

2005-01-01

121

Rapid Prototyping Integrated With Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. Rapid prototyping (RP) refers to the practical ability to build high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer aided design (CAD) files. Using rapid prototyping, full-scale models or patterns can be built using a variety of materials in a fraction of the time required by more traditional prototyping techniques (refs. 1 and 2). Many software packages have been developed and are being designed to tackle the reverse engineering and rapid prototyping issues just mentioned. For example, image processing and three-dimensional reconstruction visualization software such as Velocity2 (ref. 3) are being used to carry out the construction process of three-dimensional volume models and the subsequent generation of a stereolithography file that is suitable for CAD applications. Producing three-dimensional models of objects from computed tomography (CT) scans is becoming a valuable nondestructive evaluation methodology (ref. 4). Real components can be rendered and subjected to temperature and stress tests using structural engineering software codes. For this to be achieved, accurate high-resolution images have to be obtained via CT scans and then processed, converted into a traditional file format, and translated into finite element models. Prototyping a three-dimensional volume of a composite structure by reading in a series of two-dimensional images generated via CT and by using and integrating commercial software (e.g. Velocity2, MSC/PATRAN (ref. 5), and Hypermesh (ref. 6)) is being applied successfully at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The building process from structural modeling to the analysis level is outlined in reference 7. Subsequently, a stress analysis of a composite cooling panel under combined thermomechanical loading conditions was performed to validate this process.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.

2001-01-01

122

Technologies for Nondestructive Evaluation of Surfaces and Thin Coatings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effort included in this project included several related activities encompassing basic understanding, technological development, customer identification and commercial transfer of several methodologies for nondestructive evaluation of surfaces and thin surface coatings. Consistent with the academic environment, students were involved in the effort working with established investigators to further their training, provide a nucleus of experienced practitioners in the new technologies during their industrial introduction, and utilize their talents for project goals. As will be seen in various portions of the report, some of the effort has led to commercialization. This process has spawned other efforts related to this project which are supported from outside sources. These activities are occupying the efforts of some of the people who were previously supported within this grant and its predecessors. The most advanced of the supported technologies is thermography, for which the previous joint efforts of the investigators and NASA researchers have developed several techniques for extending the utility of straight thermographic inspection by producing methods of interpretation and analysis accessible to automatic image processing with computer data analysis. The effort reported for this technology has been to introduce the techniques to new user communities, who are then be able to add to the effective uses of existing products with only slight development work. In a related development, analysis of a thermal measurement situation in past efforts led to a new insight into the behavior of simple temperature probes. This insight, previously reported to the narrow community in which the particular measurement was made, was reported to the community of generic temperature measurement experts this year. In addition to the propagation of mature thermographic techniques, the development of a thermoelastic imaging system has been an important related development. Part of the work carried out in the effort reported here has been to prepare reports introducing the newly commercially available thermoelastic measurements to the appropriate user communities.

1999-01-01

123

Non-Destructive Damage Evaluation Based on Element Strain Energies  

E-print Network

should apply to 1-D as well as 2-D and 3-D structures with single or multiple damage locations. To achieve the objectives listed above, the following four tasks are addressed: (1) the development of the theoretical foundations of the nondestructive...

Li, Ran

2013-05-01

124

Nondestructive evaluation of low carbon steel by magnetic adaptive testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three series of low carbon steel samples, plastically deformed by cold rolling to five consecutive stages of deformation, were investigated by the method of magnetic adaptive testing (MAT), typical by its low required magnetisation of samples. Samples in one series were magnetically closed; those in the other two series were magnetically open. Results of the nondestructive magnetic tests were compared

Gabor Vertesy; Ivan Tomas; Satoru Kobayashi

2010-01-01

125

Development of techniques and instrumentation for the nondestructive evaluation of multi-layer insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of techniques and instrumentation suitable for the nondestructive evaluation of purged multilayer insulation prior to and after a shuttle orbiter flight is discussed. These techniques are desirable because of the possibility that corrosion, compression, or tearing of the insulation will degrade the performance of the insulation during subsequent flights. A second objective was the application of the developed technology to the evaluation of other insulation types. Three nondestructive evaluation techniques, electromagnetic, thermal, and acoustic were selected for evaluation. The results of evaluation of each technique are described.

1972-01-01

126

Nondestructive evaluation of the complex modulus master curve of asphalt concrete specimens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamic Young's modulus of asphalt concrete is directly related to pavement quality and is used in thickness design of pavements. There is a need for a nondestructive laboratory method to evaluate the complex modulus, which can be linked to nondestructive field measurements. This study applies seismic measurements to an asphalt concrete beam where resonant acoustic spectroscopy and optimization of frequency response functions are used to estimate the complex moduli. A good estimation of the master curve is obtained.

Gudmarsson, A.; Ryden, N.; Birgisson, B.

2013-01-01

127

The Nuclear Renaissance — Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad

Regis A. Matzie

2007-01-01

128

The Nuclear Renaissance - Implications on Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not even have access to electricity. With this increased energy demand and the high and volatile price of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is experiencing resurgence. This so-called nuclear renaissance is broad

Regis A. Matzie; Regis A

2007-01-01

129

Quantitative magneto-optic imager for nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magneto-Optical Imagers (MOI) appear to be good alternatives to conventional eddy current sensors for defect detection in large metallic structures. Indeed, they allow short time inspection of large structures such as airplanes fuselage or wings, thanks to the visualization of \\

Jean Pinassaud; Pierre-Yves Joubert; Michel Lemistre

2005-01-01

130

Quantitative evaluation of Alzheimer's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a single, quantitative metric called the disease evaluation factor (DEF) and assess its efficiency at estimating disease burden in normal, control subjects (CTRL) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study group consisted in 75 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and 75 age-matched normal CTRL without neurological or neuropsychological deficit. We calculated a reference eigenspace of MRI appearance from reference data, in which our CTRL and probable AD subjects were projected. We then calculated the multi-dimensional hyperplane separating the CTRL and probable AD groups. The DEF was estimated via a multidimensional weighted distance of eigencoordinates for a given subject and the CTRL group mean, along salient principal components forming the separating hyperplane. We used quantile plots, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and ?2 tests to compare the DEF values and test that their distribution was normal. We used a linear discriminant test to separate CTRL from probable AD based on the DEF factor, and reached an accuracy of 87%. A quantitative biomarker in AD would act as an important surrogate marker of disease status and progression.

Duchesne, S.; Frisoni, G. B.

2009-02-01

131

Nondestructive Evaluation of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustor liners fabricated from a SiC/SiC composite were nondestructively interrogated before and after combustion rig testing by X-ray, ultrasonic and thermographic techniques. In addition, mechanical test results were obtained from witness coupons, representing the as-manufactured liners, and from coupons machined from the components after combustion exposure. Thermography indications were found to correlate with reduced material properties obtained after rig testing. The thermography indications in the SiC/SiC liners were delaminations and damaged fiber tows, as determined through microstructural examinations. [copyright] 2003 American Institute of Physics

Sun, J. G.; Verrilli, M. J.; Stephan, R.; Barnett, T. R.; Ojard, G.

2003-01-01

132

Laser modulated scattering as a nondestructive evaluation tool for optical surfaces and thin film coatings  

SciTech Connect

Laser modulated scattering (LMS) is introduced as a non-destructive evaluation tool for defect inspection and characterization of optical surfaces and thin film coatings. This technique is a scatter sensitive version of the well-known photothermal microscopy (PTM) technique. It allows simultaneous measurement of the DC and AC scattering signals of a probe laser beam from an optical surface. By comparison between the DC and AC scattering signals, one can differentiate absorptive defects from non-absorptive ones. This paper describes the principle of the LMS technique and the experimental setup, and illustrates examples on using LMS as a tool for nondestructive evaluation of high quality optics.

Feit, M D; Kozlowski, M R; Rubenchik, A M; Sheehan, L; Wu, Z L

1999-12-22

133

Nondestructive 3D confocal laser imaging with deconvolution of seven whole stardust tracks with complementary XRF and quantitative analysis  

SciTech Connect

We present a nondestructive 3D system for analysis of whole Stardust tracks, using a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy and synchrotron XRF. 3D deconvolution is used for optical corrections, and results of quantitative analyses of several tracks are presented. The Stardust mission to comet Wild 2 trapped many cometary and ISM particles in aerogel, leaving behind 'tracks' of melted silica aerogel on both sides of the collector. Collected particles and their tracks range in size from submicron to millimeter scale. Interstellar dust collected on the obverse of the aerogel collector is thought to have an average track length of {approx}15 {micro}m. It has been our goal to perform a total non-destructive 3D textural and XRF chemical analysis on both types of tracks. To that end, we use a combination of Laser Confocal Scanning Microscopy (LCSM) and X Ray Florescence (XRF) spectrometry. Utilized properly, the combination of 3D optical data and chemical data provides total nondestructive characterization of full tracks, prior to flattening or other destructive analysis methods. Our LCSM techniques allow imaging at 0.075 {micro}m/pixel, without the use of oil-based lenses. A full textural analysis on track No.82 is presented here as well as analysis of 6 additional tracks contained within 3 keystones (No.128, No.129 and No.140). We present a method of removing the axial distortion inherent in LCSM images, by means of a computational 3D Deconvolution algorithm, and present some preliminary experiments with computed point spread functions. The combination of 3D LCSM data and XRF data provides invaluable information, while preserving the integrity of the samples for further analysis. It is imperative that these samples, the first extraterrestrial solids returned since the Apollo era, be fully mapped nondestructively in 3D, to preserve the maximum amount of information prior to other, destructive analysis.

Greenberg, M.; Ebel, D.S. (AMNH)

2009-03-19

134

DECONVOLUTION OF ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION SIGNALS USING HIGHER-ORDER STATISTICS  

E-print Network

DECONVOLUTION OF ULTRASONIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION SIGNALS USING HIGHER-ORDER STATISTICS Darmouth North Darmouth, MA 02747-2300. USA. E-mail: ghoutiBccse.kfupm.edu.sa ABSTRACT In ultrasonic of the measuring instruments, the prop- agation paths taken by the ultrasonic pulses, and are corrupted by additive

Ghouti, Lahouari

135

Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Polymer Composites and Adhesive Thin Layer  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Polymer Composites and Adhesive Thin Layer Wan J. Lee, Wei, University of Southern California A precision ultrasonic measurement system has been developed in our strength. Longitudinal and shear ultrasonic waves could be used to characterize the adhesive properties

Southern California, University of

136

Contemporary ultrasonic signal processing approaches for nondestructive evaluation of multilayered structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various signal processing techniques have been used for the enhancement of defect detection and defect characterisation. Cross-correlation, filtering, autoregressive analysis, deconvolution, neural network, wavelet transform and sparse signal representations have all been applied in attempts to analyse ultrasonic signals. In ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, a large number of materials have multilayered structures. NDE of multilayered structures leads to some

Guang-Ming Zhang; David M. Harvey

2012-01-01

137

Contemporary ultrasonic signal processing approaches for nondestructive evaluation of multilayered structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various signal processing techniques have been used for the enhancement of defect detection and defect characterisation. Cross-correlation, filtering, autoregressive analysis, deconvolution, neural network, wavelet transform and sparse signal representations have all been applied in attempts to analyse ultrasonic signals. In ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications, a large number of materials have multilayered structures. NDE of multilayered structures leads to some

Guang-Ming Zhang; David M. Harvey

2011-01-01

138

Non-destructive evaluation of plasma sprayed functionally graded thermal barrier coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic emission (AE) as a non-destructive evaluation technique has recently been used in a number of studies to investigate the performance and failure behavior of plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings. The mechanism of coating failure is complex, especially when considering the composite nature of the coating. In the present paper, the thermal shock tests with in situ acoustic emission are

L Fu; K. A Khor; H. W Ng; T. N Teo

2000-01-01

139

Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of materials using laser beam generation and detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format, the possibility of using laser generation and detection of ultrasound to replace piezoelectric transducers for the acousto-ultrasonic technique is advanced. The advantages and disadvantages of laser acousto-ultrasonics are outlined. Laser acousto-ultrasonics complements standard piezoelectric acousto-ultrasonics and offers non-contact nondestructive evaluation.

Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.; Vary, Alex; Kautz, Harold

1990-01-01

140

Fast Solver for Large Scale Eddy Current Non-Destructive Evaluation Problems  

E-print Network

important role in non-destructive evaluations (NDE) of con- ducting test samples. Based on Faraday's law- rent Probe with Bobbin Pickup Coil for Steam Generator Tubes Inspection", NDT&E International, Vol.54 Rotating Magnetic Field Eddy Current Probe", Magnetics, IEEE Trans. on, Vol.47, No.5, May. 2011 · Naiguang

141

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nondestructive Evaluation Program for Safe and Reliable Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program is presented. As a result of the loss of seven astronauts and the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, NASA has undergone many changes in its organization. NDE is one of the key areas that are recognized by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) that needed to be

Ed Generazio

2006-01-01

142

Nondestructive evaluation methods used to detect and characterize explosives in terrorist devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present an overview of recent developments in nondestructive\\/nonintrusive evaluation methods that are used for the detection and characterization of explosives and other materials used in IEDs. These include x-ray diffraction, x-ray radiography, neutron reaction methods, nuclear quadrupole resonance, magnetic resonance imaging, and canine and electronic chemical ``noses''.

Gary W. Carriveau

1999-01-01

143

Nondestructive evaluation methods used to detect and characterize explosives in terrorist devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will present an overview of recent developments in nondestructive\\/nonintrusive evaluation methods that are used for the detection and characterization of explosives and other materials used in IEDs. These include x-ray diffraction, x-ray radiography, neutron reaction methods, nuclear quadrupole resonance, magnetic resonance imaging, and canine and electronic chemical “noses”.

Gary W. Carriveau

1999-01-01

144

Low velocity impact testing and nondestructive evaluation of transparent materials  

SciTech Connect

Advanced transparent materials are used in protective systems for enhancing the survivability of ground vehicles, air vehicles, and personnel in applications such as face shields, riot gear, and vehicle windows. Low velocity impact damage can limit visibility and compromise the structural integrity of a transparent system, increasing the likelihood of further damage or penetration from a high velocity impact strike. For this reason, it is critical to determine damage tolerance levels of transparent systems to indicate whether or not a component should be replaced. In this study, transparent laminate systems will be tested by comparing baseline conditions to experimentally controlled damage states. Destructive testing including air gun and sphere impact testing will be used to replicate low velocity impacts in the field. Characterization of the damaged state will include basic visual inspection as well as nondestructive techniques including cross-polarization, x-ray, and ultrasound. The combination of destructive testing and characterization of the resulting damage can help to establish a damage acceptance criterion for materials used in protective systems.

Brennan, R. E.; Green, W. H. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005-5066 (United States)

2011-06-23

145

Nondestructive spectroscopic and imaging techniques for quality evaluation and assessment of fish and fish products.  

PubMed

Nowadays, people have increasingly realized the importance of acquiring high quality and nutritional values of fish and fish products in their daily diet. Quality evaluation and assessment are always expected and conducted by using rapid and nondestructive methods in order to satisfy both producers and consumers. During the past two decades, spectroscopic and imaging techniques have been developed to nondestructively estimate and measure quality attributes of fish and fish products. Among these noninvasive methods, visible/near-infrared (VIS/NIR) spectroscopy, computer/machine vision, and hyperspectral imaging have been regarded as powerful and effective analytical tools for fish quality analysis and control. VIS/NIR spectroscopy has been widely applied to determine intrinsic quality characteristics of fish samples, such as moisture, protein, fat, and salt. Computer/machine vision on the other hand mainly focuses on the estimation of external features like color, weight, size, and surface defects. Recently, by incorporating both spectroscopy and imaging techniques in one system, hyperspectral imaging cannot only measure the contents of different quality attributes simultaneously, but also obtain the spatial distribution of such attributes when the quality of fish samples are evaluated and measured. This paper systematically reviews the research advances of these three nondestructive optical techniques in the application of fish quality evaluation and determination and discuss future trends in the developments of nondestructive technologies for further quality characterization in fish and fish products. PMID:24915393

He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

2015-01-01

146

Argonne National Laboratory's Nondestructive  

E-print Network

and extensive track record of success in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT/ NDE) of critical componentsArgonne National Laboratory's Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies NDE #12;Over45yearsexperienceinNondestructiveEvaluation... Argonne National Laboratory's world-renowned researchers have a proven

Kemner, Ken

147

Evaluating quantitative research designs: Part 1.  

PubMed

This article has provided an overview of the three major types of quantitative designs commonly used in nursing research, as well as some criteria for evaluating the designs of published research. The next column will include additional criteria for critiquing quantitative research designs. PMID:7859458

Haughey, B P

1994-10-01

148

Nondestructive evaluation of a graphite/aluminum composite space radiator panel. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

Graphite aluminum composites which employ graphite fibers for mechanical reinforcement have applications in the aerospace industry. They are particularly attractive for spacecraft thermal management systems due to their ability to efficiently transport heat. The detection and evaluation of damage in structures fabricated from this material is necessary to the efficiency and application of these materials. This technical report presents research on a graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composite space radiator panel. The panel was evaluated after each of four fabrication stages by four nondestructive techniques: ultrasound, x-ray, dye penetrant, and visual inspection. The results illustrate the importance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) from the time the composite is fabricated through the time it is implemented into the spacecraft. These NDE technologies will help detect external or internal irregularities (anomalies) at each increment of the fabrication and qualification testing of the composite radiator panel.

Feldman, N.M.; Foltz, J.V.

1991-12-01

149

Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Minor The NDE Minor at Iowa State University is a unique opportunity to get a multi-disciplinary engineering qualification in the  

E-print Network

Testing (3Cr.-Spring) MatE/EM 362L Nondestructive Testing Laboratory (1Cr.-Spring) NDE Specific courses (2Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Minor The NDE Minor at Iowa State University is a unique of Nondestructive Evaluation. Below is the current list of approved courses for the minor, totaling 16 required

Lin, Zhiqun

150

Nondestructive evaluation of helicopter rotor blades using guided Lamb modes.  

PubMed

This paper presents an application for turning and direct modes in a complex composite laminate structure. The propagation and interaction of turning modes and fundamental Lamb modes are investigated in the skin, spar and web sections of a helicopter rotor blade. Finite element models were used to understand the various mode conversions at geometric discontinuities such as web-spar joints. Experimental investigation was carried out with the help of air coupled ultrasonic transducers. The turning and direct modes were confirmed with the help of particle displacements and velocities. Experimental B-Scans were performed on damaged and undamaged samples for qualitative and quantitative assessment of the structure. A strong correlation between the numerical and experimental results was observed and reported. PMID:24210414

Chakrapani, Sunil Kishore; Barnard, Daniel; Dayal, Vinay

2014-03-01

151

A high accuracy ultrasonic measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in welded pipings  

SciTech Connect

Today`s nuclear power plants are marked by increasing needs for non-destructive inspection techniques in preventive maintenance programs. Additionally, it is becoming more important to evaluate residual stress which may be a key parameter for crack propagations in welded pipings. The authors have developed an ultrasonic velocity measurement method which obtains ultrasonic velocity changes by residual stress with a high accuracy. The ultrasonic velocity measurement is composed of three procedures. They are as follows. (1) Highly accurate propagation time measurements; (2) Pipe thickness correction; (3) Residual stress evaluation. The ultrasonic velocity measurements have been applied to the residual stress evaluation of carbon steel welded pipings. Destructive testing using stress strain gauges was done after the ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation of the residual stress. The experimental results verified that residual stress in carbon steel welded pipings can be measured by the ultrasonic method within an error of 40MPa, and the non-destructive values are equivalent to the average between inner and outer surface stresses measured by strain gauges.

Takahashi, F.; Koike, M.; Oda, M. [Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Mochizuki, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tsuchiura (Japan)

1995-08-01

152

Evaluation of Damage in Steels Subjected to Exploitation Loading - Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage due to creep and plastic flow is assessed using destructive and non-destructive methods in steels (40HNMA and P91). In the destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after prestraining and variations of the selected tension parameters were taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for both steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The last step of the experimental programme contained microscopic observations. A very promising correlation between parameters of methods for damage development evaluation was achieved. It is well proved for the ultimate tensile stress and birefringence coefficient.

Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Mackiewicz, S?awomir; Szel??ek, Jacek; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Augustyniak, Boles?aw

153

Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonics, microwaves, optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE), and computational chemistry approaches have shown relevance to bond strength determination. Nonlinear ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods, however, have shown the most effectiveness over other methods on adhesive bond analysis. Correlation to changes in higher order material properties due to microstructural changes using nonlinear ultrasonics has been shown related to bond strength. Nonlinear ultrasonic energy is an order of magnitude more sensitive than linear ultrasound to these material parameter changes and to acoustic velocity changes caused by the acoustoelastic effect when a bond is prestressed. Signal correlations between non-linear ultrasonic measurements and initialization of bond failures have been measured. This paper reviews bond strength research efforts presented by university and industry experts at the Second Annual Symposium for Nondestructive Evaluation of Bond Strength organized by the NDE Sciences Branch at NASA Langley in November 1998.

Roberts, Mark J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

154

Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites: A Technology Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Because of their increasing utilization in structural applications, the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites continues to receive considerable research and development attention. Due to the heterogeneous nature of composites, the form of defects is often very different from a metal and fracture mechanisms are more complex. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview and technology assessment of the current state-of-the-art with respect to NDE of advanced fiber reinforced polymer composites.

Yolken, H. Thomas; Matzkanin, George A.

2009-01-01

155

Nondestructive evaluation of micro-cracks in a ceramic ferrule by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a nondestructive evaluation of micro-cracks in ceramic ferrules for optical fiber connectors by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS). The ferrules were cylinders 10mm in length and 2.5mm in diameter. The acceptable ferrules had no cracks or ones below 5?m and the defective ferrules had cracks from 5 to 25?m in length. The acceptable ferrules could be distinguished from the

Tadaharu Adachi; Yasunori Kondo; Akihiko Yamaji; Soon-Ho Yang; In-Young Yang

2005-01-01

156

Nondestructive evaluation of various materials using a SQUID-based eddy-current system  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the applicability of SQUIDs for nondestructive evaluation of various materials from industrial production. For this purpose, we tested production samples and compared the results with other NDE methods such as conventional eddy-current or ultrasonic testing. The materials investigated included niobium sheets for superconducting resonators and indium-tin-oxide sputtering targets for solar panels. Especially for the case of thick,

Michael Mück; Matthias Korn; Christian Welzel; Stefan Grawunder; Friedhold Schölz

2005-01-01

157

Nondestructive Evaluation of Anisotropy in Composite Materials Via Acoustic Birefringence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linearly polarized ultrasonic shear wave propagating in fiber-reinforced composites produces an elliptical vibration pattern due to birefringence. The acoustic birefringence of shear waves is analyzed and applied for evaluation of in-plane stiffness anisotropy of uni-axial nonfabric, biaxial, and quadra-axial fabric composite materials. The parameters of the elliptical motion are determined by measurements of the amplitude and phase of the

Igor Solodov; Klaus Pfleiderer; Daniel Doring; Gerd Busse

2008-01-01

158

Efficient Nondestructive Evaluation of Prototype Carbon Fiber Reinforced Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermography and shearography methods of inspection rely on optic based technologies and can reduce the time and cost required to inspect composite tanks or aerostructures. Usually areas identified as suspect in the initial inspection results are reexamined with ultrasonic methods. This combination of techniques results in a rapid and comprehensive inspection of composite structures. Development of useful defect standards will be discussed. Examples of application of this inspection philosophy to prototype, GSE, and flight hardware will be presented. Methods organizing the inspection and evaluating the results will be considered.

Russell, Samuel S.; Walker, James; Thom, Robert (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

159

Nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in anisotropic materials  

SciTech Connect

The specific focus on anisotropic materials in the research was addressed in a manner which was primarily analytical. All of the experiments involving materials with substantial elastic or plastic anisotropy indicated that the materials in question exhibited a level of acoustoelastic response which was at or below the limit for useful stress evaluation. Nevertheless, the analysis performed indicates that if an experimental system is built which allows determination of the velocity variation roughly an order of magnitude more precisely than is possible with the system used in this work, the complete state of residual stress may be obtained, despite the presence of anisotropy. This report consists of a detailed description of the technique and experimental system proposed for the evaluation of residual stress states. The underlying analytical developments are reviewed, and a numerical investigation into the application of this approach for anisotropic materials is presented. It is shown that an accurate assessment of the complete residual stress state may be obtained even in cases of extreme anisotropy. Finally, an experimental investigation of the technique is presented in which the experimentally determined stress state is compared with that predicted numerically. It is shown that the two estimates of stress agree well for the material involved. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Johnson, G.C. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1990-05-01

160

[Activities of Center for Nondestructive Evaluation, Iowa State University  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final report of NASA funded activities at Iowa State University (ISU) for the period between 1/96 and 1/99 includes two main areas of activity. The first is the development and delivery of an x-ray simulation package suitable for evaluating the impact of parameters affects the inspectability of an assembly of parts. The second area was the development of images processing tools to remove reconstruction artifacts in x-ray laminagraphy images. The x-ray simulation portion of this work was done by J. Gray and the x-ray laminagraphy work was done by J. Basart. The report is divided into two sections covering the two activities respectively. In addition to this work reported the funding also covered NASA's membership in the NSF University/Industrial Cooperative Research Center.

Gray, Joe

2002-01-01

161

Quantitative evaluation of optical lock-in and pulsed thermography for aluminum foam material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, quantitative evaluation of optical thermographic techniques relative to the non-destructive inspection of aluminum foam material is studied. For this purpose, a set of aluminum foam specimens with flat-bottom holes (FBH) was inspected by both optical lock-in thermography (LT) and pulsed thermography (PT). Probability of detection (PoD) analysis, as a quantitative method to estimate the capability and reliability of a particular inspection technique, was studied and compared for both optical LT and PT inspection results.

Duan, Yuxia; Huebner, Stefanie; Hassler, Ulf; Osman, Ahmad; Ibarra-Castanedo, Clemente; Maldague, Xavier P. V.

2013-09-01

162

Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Evaluation of Corrosion Under Paint in Steel Structures  

SciTech Connect

Millimeter wave nondestructive evaluation techniques have shown great potential for detection of corrosion under paint in steel structures. They may also provide for detection of other anomalies associated with the corrosion process such as precursor pitting. This paper presents the results of an extensive investigation spanning a frequency range of 30-100 GHz and using magnitude- and phase-sensitive reflectometers. Using 2D automated scanning mechanisms, raster images of two corrosion patches are produced showing the spatial resolution capabilities of these systems as well as their potential for evaluating localized corrosion severity.

Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R. [Applied Microwave Nondestructive Testing Laboratory (amntl), Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

2006-03-06

163

Nondestructive and quantitative characterization of TRU and LLW mixed-waste using active and passive gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

The technology being proposed by LLNL is an Active and Passive Computed Tomography (A P CT) Drum Scanner for contact-handled (CH) wastes. It combines the advantages offered by two well-developed nondestructive assay technologies: gamma-ray spectrometry and computed tomography (CT). Coupled together, these two technologies offer to nondestructively and quantitatively characterize mixed- wastes forms. Gamma-ray spectroscopy uses one or more external radiation detectors to passively and nondestructively measure the energy spectrum emitted from a closed container. From the resulting spectrum one can identify most radioactivities detected, be they transuranic isotopes, mixed-fission products, activation products or environmental radioactivities. Spectral libraries exist at LLNL for all four. Active (A) or transmission CT is a well-developed, nondestructive medical and industrial technique that uses an external-radiation beam to map regions of varying attenuation within a container. Passive (P) or emission CT is a technique mainly developed for medical application, e.g., single-photon emission CT. Nondestructive industrial uses of PCT are under development and just coming into use. This report discuses work on the A P CT Drum Scanner at LLNL.

Camp, D.C.; Martz, H.E.

1991-11-12

164

Evaluation of Ultrasonic and Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation for the Characterization of Aging Degradation in Braided Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper examines the ability of traditional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to measure the degradation of braided polymer composite materials subjected to thermal-humidity cycling to simulate aging. A series of braided composite coupons were examined using immersion ultrasonic and pulsed thermography techniques in the as received condition. These same specimens were then examined following extended thermal-humidity cycling. Results of this examination did not show a significant change in the resulting (NDE) signals.

Martin, Richard E.

2010-01-01

165

Language program evaluation: Quantitative or qualitative approach?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tóm t?t. As in many other disciplines, research methodology in language program evaluation is classified into different paradigms by different scholars. No matter what classification each researcher follows, research in language program evaluation can be conducted according to two general approaches: positivistic\\/quantitative and naturalistic\\/qualitative. This article will attempt to review these two major paradigms by (i) giving the definition of

Tran Thi; Thanh Van; Cau Giay

2008-01-01

166

Development of nondestructive non-contact acousto-thermal evaluation technique for damage detection in materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development of a new non-contact acousto-thermal signature (NCATS) nondestructive evaluation technique. The physical basis of the method is the measurement of the efficiency of the material to convert acoustic energy into heat, and a theoretical model has been used to evaluate this. The increase in temperature due to conversion of acoustic energy injected into the material without direct contact was found to depend on the thermal and elastic properties of the material. In addition, it depends on the experimental parameters of the acoustic source power, the distance between sample and acoustic source, and the period of acoustic excitation. Systematic experimental approaches to optimize each of the experimental variables to maximize the observed temperature changes are described. The potential of the NCATS technique to detect microstructural-level changes in materials is demonstrated by evaluating accumulated damage due to plasticity in Ti-6Al-4V and low level thermal damage in polymer matrix composites. The ability of the technique for macroscopic applications in nondestructive evaluation is demonstrated by imaging a crack in an aluminum test sample.

Sathish, Shamachary; Welter, John T.; Jata, Kumar V.; Schehl, Norman; Boehnlein, Thomas

2012-09-01

167

Highly sensitive anisotropic magnetoresistance magnetometer for Eddy-current nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

Using a commercially available anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) sensor of HMC1001, we developed a sensitive magnetometer. It could operate in amplifier mode or feedback mode. The magnetic field sensitivity of the AMR sensor was about 3.2 mV/V G. When the AMR sensor was biased by a voltage of 24 V, the magnetic field resolutions of the AMR magnetometer were about 12 pT/square root(Hz) at 1 kHz and 20 pT/square root(Hz) at 100 Hz. We used the AMR magnetometer for Eddy-current nondestructive evaluation in unshielded environment. PMID:19334957

He, D F; Tachiki, M; Itozaki, H

2009-03-01

168

A DATA FUSION SYSTEM FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPES  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall. (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. During this reporting period, Rowan University designed, developed and exercised multisensor data fusion algorithms for identifying defect related information present in magnetic flux leakage, ultrasonic testing and thermal imaging nondestructive evaluation signatures of a test-specimen suite representative of benign and anomalous indications in gas transmission pipelines.

Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

2004-04-01

169

Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Terahertz time domain spectroscopy (TDS) was assessed as a nondestructive evaluation technique for aircraft composites. Damage to glass fiber was studied including voids, delaminations, mechanical damage, and heat damage. Measurement of the material properties on samples with localized heat damage showed that burning did not change the refractive index or absorption coefficient noticeably; however, material blistering was detected. Voids were located by TDS transmissive imaging using amplitude and phase techniques. The depth of delaminations was measured via the timing of Fabry-Perot reflections after the main pulse. Evidence of bending stress damage and simulated hidden cracks was also detected with terahertz imaging. PMID:18852814

Stoik, Christopher D; Bohn, Matthew J; Blackshire, James L

2008-10-13

170

Non-destructive evaluation of metal-to-metal adhesive joints using vibration analysis: experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibration based non-destructive evaluation shows promise for damage detection in metal-to-metal adhesive joints. This research investigates an experimental technique to diagnose damage in single-lap adhesive joints subject to cyclical tensile loading. Vibration analysis reveals that damage can be correlated with changes in identified modal damping ratios. Constant amplitude forcing functions are employed to eliminate amplitude-dependent nonlinearities in the dynamic response profiles. Damping estimates obtained from time-domain analyses correlate well with damage magnitudes. Finite element modal analysis of the lap joints supports the experimental results.

Pandurangan, Pradeep; Buckner, Gregory D.

2006-03-01

171

Nondestructive Evaluation Tests Performed on Space Shuttle Leading- Edge Materials Subjected to Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the space shuttle Return To Flight efforts at the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tests were performed on reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) composite panels subjected to ballistic foam impact. The impact tests were conducted to refine and verify analytical models of an external tank foam strike on the space shuttle leading edge. The NDE tests were conducted to quantify the size and location of the resulting damage zone as well as to identify hidden damage.

Roth, Don J.; Martin, Richard E.; Bodis, James R.

2005-01-01

172

Using the World-Wide Web to Facilitate Communications of Non-Destructive Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high reliability required for Aeronautical components is a major reason for extensive Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation. Here at Langley Research Center (LaRC), there are highly trained and certified personal to conduct such testing to prevent hazards from occurring in the workplace and on the research projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The purpose of my studies was to develop a communication source to educate others of the services and equipment offered here. This was accomplished by creating documents that are accessible to all in the industry via the World Wide Web.

McBurney, Sean

1995-01-01

173

Non-Destructive Evaluation Method and Apparatus for Measuring Acoustic Material Nonlinearity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An acoustic non-linearity parameter (beta) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members obviates the need for electronic calibration of the measuring equipment. Unlike known substitutional measuring techniques requiring elaborate calibration procedures, the electrical outputs of the capacitive detector of a sample with known beta and the test sample of unknown beta are compared to determine the unknown beta. In order to provide the necessary stability of the present-inventive reference-based approach, the bandpass filters of the measurement system are maintained in a temperature-controlled environment, and the line voltage supplied to said amplifiers is well-regulated.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

174

Non-destructive and rapid evaluation of chemical vapor deposition graphene by dark field optical microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-destructive and rapid evaluation of graphene directly on the growth substrate (Cu foils) by dark field (DF) optical microscopy is demonstrated. Without any additional treatment, graphene on Cu foils with various coverages can be quickly identified by DF imaging immediately after chemical vapor deposition growth with contrast comparable to scanning electron microscopy. The improved contrast of DF imaging compared to bright field optical imaging was found to be due to Rayleigh scattering of light by the copper steps beneath graphene. Indeed, graphene adlayers are readily distinguished, due to the different height of copper steps beneath graphene regions of different thickness.

Kong, X. H.; Ji, H. X.; Piner, R. D.; Li, H. F.; Magnuson, C. W.; Tan, C.; Ismach, A.; Chou, H.; Ruoff, R. S.

2013-07-01

175

Nondestructive Evaluation of Foam Insulation for the External Tank Return to Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nondestructive evaluation methods have been developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography have been brought from prototype lab systems to production hardened inspection tools in just a few years. These methods have been demonstrated to be capable of detecting void type defects under many inches of foam which, if not repaired, could lead to detrimental foam loss. The evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed.

Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

2006-01-01

176

Nondestructive evaluation of reactor pressure vessel steels using the giant magnetoimpedance sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect found in amorphous wires has been noticed as a method for sensing a magnetic field. The GMI sensor was applied to nondestructive evaluation of microstructural changes for reactor pressure vessel steels passing through the refining process. They were measured by using a GMI sensor and the measured GMI signals were strongly influenced by the microstructural features. The signals are closely related to the grain size, carbide morphology, lath width, and lath boundary that act as a barrier to irreversible domain wall motion.

Kim, D. J.; Park, D. G.; Hong, J. H.

2002-05-01

177

Nondestructive Integrity Evaluation of PC Pile Using Wigner-Ville Distribution Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used for years to provide a quality control of the construction for both drilled shafts and driven concrete piles. This trace is typically made up of transient pulses reflected from structural features of the pile or changes in its surrounding environment. It is often analyzed in conjunction with the spectral response, mobility curve, arrival time, etc. The Wigner-Ville Distribution is a new numerical analysis tool for signal process technique in the time-frequency domain and it can offer assistance and enhance signal characteristics for better resolution both easily and quickly. In this study, five single pre-cast concrete piles have been tested and evaluated by both sonic echo method and Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD). Furthermore, two difficult problems in nondestructive evaluation problems are discussed and solved: the first one is with a pile with slight defect, whose necking area percentage is less than 10%, and the other is a pile with multiple defects. The results show that WVD can not only recognize the characteristics easily, but also locate the defects more clearly than the traditional pile integrity testing method.

Ni, Sheng-Huoo; Lo, Kuo-Feng; Huang, Yan-Hong

178

Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Nuclear Materials Using Non-Destructive Ball Indentation Technique  

SciTech Connect

Integrity of structural components depends on the deformation and fracture behavior of materials. For evaluating the material condition in-service, it is generally not feasible or practical or advisable to cut samples from operating structures. Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are required to evaluate the mechanical properties. Although several NDT techniques such as ultrasound, magnetic strength, Barkhausen noise, microhardness etc., are employed for estimating the mechanical property degradation, these methodologies are generally empirical and indirect. Automated Ball Indentation (ABI) is a non-destructive testing technique for direct measurement of mechanical and fracture properties of metallic engineering materials. Because of the small area over which the test is carried out, it is possible to determine point to point variations in the mechanical and fracture properties, such as those that exist in weldments. Although ABI technique is non-intrusive, it is a state-of-the-art mechanical test that measures directly the current/local deformation behavior of the material. In this paper, we present results from studies on the application of ABI technique to determine tensile and fracture properties of ferritic steels, an austenitic stainless steel, a nickel base superalloy and Zircaloy in different thermo-mechanical conditions. The effects of aging and cold work on these properties were determined from the ABI tests. Gradients in mechanical properties of ferritic steel welds, particularly in the narrow heat-affected zone, were clearly established. ABI technique was found to be useful in determining the anisotropy in the tensile properties of Zircaloy cladding tubes. The technique has potential as a non-destructive method for assessing structural integrity of aged components. (authors)

Mathew, M.D. [Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, 603102 (India); Linga Murty, K. [North Carolina State University, Nuclear Engineering Department, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States)

2002-07-01

179

Nondestructive evaluation of orthopaedic implant stability in THA using highly nonlinear solitary waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new biomedical sensing technique based on highly nonlinear solitary waves to assess orthopaedic implant stability in a nondestructive and efficient manner. We assemble a granular crystal actuator consisting of a one-dimensional tightly packed array of spherical particles, to generate acoustic solitary waves. Via direct contact with the specimen, we inject acoustic solitary waves into a biomedical prosthesis, and we nondestructively evaluate the mechanical integrity of the bone-prosthesis interface, studying the properties of the waves reflected from the contact zone between the granular crystal and the implant. The granular crystal contains a piezoelectric sensor to measure the travelling solitary waves, which allows it to function also as a sensor. We perform a feasibility study using total hip arthroplasty (THA) samples made of metallic stems implanted in artificial composite femurs using polymethylmethacrylate for fixation. We first evaluate the sensitivity of the proposed granular crystal sensor to various levels of prosthesis insertion into the composite femur. Then, we impose a sequence of harsh mechanical loading on the THA samples to degrade the mechanical integrity at the stem-cement interfaces, using a femoral load simulator that simulates aggressive, accelerated physiological loading. We investigate the implant stability via the granular crystal sensor-actuator during testing. Preliminary results suggest that the reflected waves respond sensitively to the degree of implant fixation. In particular, the granular crystal sensor-actuator successfully detects implant loosening at the stem-cement interface following violent cyclic loading. This study suggests that the granular crystal sensor and actuator has the potential to detect metal-cement defects in a nondestructive manner for orthopaedic applications.

Yang, Jinkyu; Silvestro, Claudio; Sangiorgio, Sophia N.; Borkowski, Sean L.; Ebramzadeh, Edward; De Nardo, Luigi; Daraio, Chiara

2012-01-01

180

Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic and metal matrix composites for NASA's HITEMP and enabling propulsion materials programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a preliminary study, ultrasonic, x-ray opaque, and fluorescent dye penetrants techniques were used to evaluate and characterize ceramic and metal matrix composites. Techniques are highlighted for identifying porosity, fiber alignment, fiber uniformity, matrix cracks, fiber fractures, unbonds or disbonds between laminae, and fiber-to-matrix bond variations. The nondestructive evaluations (NDE) were performed during processing and after thermomechanical testing. Specific examples are given for Si3N4/SiC (SCS-6 fiber), FeCrAlY/Al2O3 fibers, Ti-15-3/SiC (SCS-6 fiber) materials, and Si3N4/SiC (SCS-6 fiber) actively cooled panel components. Results of this study indicate that the choice of the NDE tools to be used can be optimized to yield a faithful and accurate evaluation of advanced composites.

Generazio, Edward R.

1992-01-01

181

Shearography for Non-Destructive Evaluation with Applications to BAT Mask Tile Adhesive Bonding and Specular Surface Honeycomb Panels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this report we examine the applicability of shearography techniques for nondestructive inspection and evaluation in two unique application areas. In the first application, shearography is used to evaluate the quality of adhesive bonds holding lead tiles to the BAT gamma ray mask for the NASA Swift program. By exciting the mask with a vibration, the more poorly bonded tiles can be distinguished by their greater displacement response, which is readily identifiable in the shearography image. A quantitative analysis is presented that compares the shearography results with a destructive pull test measuring the force at bond failure. Generally speaking, the results show good agreement. Further investigation would be useful to optimize certain test parameters such as vibration frequency and amplitude. The second application is to evaluate the bonding between the skin and core of a honeycomb structure with a specular (mirror-like) surface. In standard shearography techniques, the object under test must have a diffuse surface to generate the speckle patterns in laser light, which are then sheared. A novel configuration using the specular surface as a mirror to image speckles from a diffuser is presented, opening up the use of shearography to a new class of objects that could not have been examined with the traditional approach. This new technique readily identifies large scale bond failures in the panel, demonstrating the validity of this approach. For the particular panel examined here, some scaling issues should be examined further to resolve the measurement scale down to the very small size of the core cells. In addition, further development should be undertaken to determine the general applicability of the new approach and to establish a firm quantitative foundation.

Lysak, Daniel B.

2003-01-01

182

Assessing Primary Water Stress Corrosion Crack Morphology and Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability  

SciTech Connect

A research program on primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In this program, the material degradation problem in Alloys 600, 182 and 82 is being investigated, with objectives that include compiling a knowledge base on all cracking in nickel-base materials at all degradation sites in nuclear power plants, assessing nondestructive evaluation methods using mockups to quantify the detection, sizing, and characterization of tight cracks, determining the role of material parameters, such as welding processes, in the degradation. This work is being conducted as a part of an international cooperative research project that has been set up to leverage efforts in several countries to address a significant and common problem. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is leading this cooperative project to address this generic problem in a systematic manner over the next four years. In this paper, published information on the failure history of Alloys 600, 182, and 82 is compiled and presented. The configurations of the welded assemblies that contain these alloys are shown to be important considerations for NDE reliability measurements. The product forms and the welding processes represented in the degraded components are described. The relevant data on crack morphology parameters such as shape and orientation are presented, and their impact on nondestructive evaluation (NDE) reliability is discussed.

Doctor, Steven R.; Schuster, George J.; Anderson, Michael T.

2005-12-01

183

A Quantitative, Non-Destructive Methodology for Habitat Characterisation and Benthic Monitoring at Offshore Renewable Energy Developments  

PubMed Central

Following governments' policies to tackle global climate change, the development of offshore renewable energy sites is likely to increase substantially over coming years. All such developments interact with the seabed to some degree and so a key need exists for suitable methodology to monitor the impacts of large-scale Marine Renewable Energy Installations (MREIs). Many of these will be situated on mixed or rocky substrata, where conventional methods to characterise the habitat are unsuitable. Traditional destructive sampling is also inappropriate in conservation terms, particularly as safety zones around (MREIs) could function as Marine Protected Areas, with positive benefits for biodiversity. Here we describe a technique developed to effectively monitor the impact of MREIs and report the results of its field testing, enabling large areas to be surveyed accurately and cost-effectively. The methodology is based on a high-definition video camera, plus LED lights and laser scale markers, mounted on a “flying array” that maintains itself above the seabed grounded by a length of chain, thus causing minimal damage. Samples are taken by slow-speed tows of the gear behind a boat (200 m transects). The HD video and randomly selected frame grabs are analysed to quantify species distribution. The equipment was tested over two years in Lyme Bay, UK (25 m depth), then subsequently successfully deployed in demanding conditions at the deep (>50 m) high-energy Wave Hub site off Cornwall, UK, and a potential tidal stream energy site in Guernsey, Channel Islands (1.5 ms?1 current), the first time remote samples from such a habitat have been achieved. The next stage in the monitoring development process is described, involving the use of Remote Operated Vehicles to survey the seabed post-deployment of MREI devices. The complete methodology provides the first quantitative, relatively non-destructive method for monitoring mixed-substrate benthic communities beneath MPAs and MREIs pre- and post-device deployment. PMID:21206748

Sheehan, Emma V.; Stevens, Timothy F.; Attrill, Martin J.

2010-01-01

184

Non-destructive evaluation of depth of surface cracks using ultrasonic frequency analysis.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic is one of the most common uses of a non-destructive evaluation method for crack detection and characterization. The effectiveness of the acoustic-ultrasound Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for the determination of the depth of the surface crack was presented. A method for ultrasonic sizing of surface cracks combined with the time domain and frequency spectrum was adopted. The ultrasonic frequency spectrum was obtained by Fourier transform technique. A series of test specimens with various depths of surface crack ranging from 1 mm to 8 mm was fabricated. The depth of the surface crack was evaluated using the pulse-echo technique. In this work, three different longitudinal waves with frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz were employed to investigate the effect of frequency on the sizing detection of surface cracks. Reasonable accuracies were achieved with measurement errors less than 7%. PMID:25225875

Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Tung

2014-01-01

185

Nondestructive Evaluation of the J-2X Direct Metal Laser Sintered Gas Generator Discharge Duct  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The J-2X program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) procured a direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) gas generator discharge duct from Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and Morris Technologies for a test program that would evaluate the material properties and durability of the duct in an engine-like environment. DMLS technology was pursued as a manufacturing alternative to traditional techniques, which used off nominal practices to manufacture the gas generator duct's 180 degree turn geometry. MSFC's Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Team performed radiographic, ultrasonic, computed tomographic, and fluorescent penetrant examinations of the duct. Results from the NDE examinations reveal some shallow porosity but no major defects in the as-manufactured material. NDE examinations were also performed after hot-fire testing the gas generator duct and yielded similar results pre and post-test and showed no flaw growth or development.

Esther, Elizabeth A.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Lash, Rhonda K.

2012-01-01

186

Compressive strength evaluation of structural lightweight concrete by non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method.  

PubMed

In this paper the compressive strength of a wide range of structural lightweight aggregate concrete mixes is evaluated by the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method. This study involves about 84 different compositions tested between 3 and 180 days for compressive strengths ranging from about 30 to 80 MPa. The influence of several factors on the relation between the ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength is examined. These factors include the cement type and content, amount of water, type of admixture, initial wetting conditions, type and volume of aggregate and the partial replacement of normal weight coarse and fine aggregates by lightweight aggregates. It is found that lightweight and normal weight concretes are affected differently by mix design parameters. In addition, the prediction of the concrete's compressive strength by means of the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test is studied. Based on the dependence of the ultrasonic pulse velocity on the density and elasticity of concrete, a simplified expression is proposed to estimate the compressive strength, regardless the type of concrete and its composition. More than 200 results for different types of aggregates and concrete compositions were analyzed and high correlation coefficients were obtained. PMID:23351273

Bogas, J Alexandre; Gomes, M Glória; Gomes, Augusto

2013-07-01

187

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Grain Structure Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonics  

SciTech Connect

Cast material has a grain structure that is relatively non-uniform. There is a desire to evaluate the grain structure of this material non-destructively. Traditionally, grain size measurement is a destructive process involving the sectioning and metallographic imaging of the material. Generally, this is performed on a representative sample on a periodic basis. Sampling is inefficient and costly. Furthermore, the resulting data may not provide an accurate description of the entire part's average grain size or grain size variation. This project is designed to develop a non-destructive acoustic scanning technique, using Chirp waveforms, to quantify average grain size and grain size variation across the surface of a cast material. A Chirp is a signal in which the frequency increases or decreases over time (frequency modulation). As a Chirp passes through a material, the material's grains reduce the signal (attenuation) by absorbing the signal energy. Geophysics research has shown a direct correlation with Chirp wave attenuation and mean grain size in geological structures. The goal of this project is to demonstrate that Chirp waveform attenuation can be used to measure grain size and grain variation in cast metals (uranium and other materials of interest). An off-axis ultrasonic inspection technique using air-coupled ultrasonics has been developed to determine grain size in cast materials. The technique gives a uniform response across the volume of the component. This technique has been demonstrated to provide generalized trends of grain variation over the samples investigated.

Belvin, A. D.; Burrell, R. K.; Cole, E.G.

2009-08-01

188

Quantitative evaluation of signal integrity for magnetocardiography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetocardiography (MCG) is a non-invasive diagnostic tool used to investigate the activity of the heart. For applications in an unshielded environment, in order to extract the very weak signal of interest from the much higher background noise, dedicated hardware configuration and sophisticated signal processing techniques have been developed during the last decades. Being powerful in noise rejection, the signal processing may introduce signal distortions, if not properly designed and applied. However, there is a lack of an effective tool to quantitatively evaluate the signal integrity for MCG at present. In this paper, we have introduced a very simple method by using a small coil driven by a human ECG signal to generate a simulated MCG signal. Three key performance indexes were proposed, which are correlation in time domain, relative heights of different peaks and correlation in frequency domain, to evaluate the MCG system performance quantitatively. This evaluation method was applied to a synthetic gradiometer consisting of a second-order axial gradiometer and three orthogonal reference magnetometers. The evaluation turned out to be very effective in optimizing the parameters for signal processing. In addition, the method can serve as a useful tool for hardware improvement.

Zhang, Shulin; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Huiwu; Jiang, Shiqin; Xie, Xiaoming

2009-08-01

189

Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of engineering properties in metals, composites and ceramics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic technology from the perspective of nondestructive evaluation approaches to material strength prediction and property verification is reviewed. Emergent advanced technology involving quantitative ultrasonic techniques for materials characterization is described. Ultrasonic methods are particularly useful in this area because they involve mechanical elastic waves that are strongly modulated by the same morphological factors that govern mechanical strength and dynamic failure processes. It is emphasized that the technology is in its infancy and that much effort is still required before all the available techniques can be transferred from laboratory to industrial environments.

Vary, A.

1980-01-01

190

Challenges in integrating nondestructive evaluation and finite-element methods for realistic structural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity2 in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

2000-05-01

191

Nondestructive evaluation of silicon-nitride ceramic valves from engine duration test.  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we investigated impact and wear damage in silicon-nitride ceramic valves that were subjected to an engine duration test in a natural-gas engine. A high-speed automated laser-scattering system was developed for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of 10 SN235P silicon-nitride valves. The NDE system scans the entire valve surface and generates a two-dimensional scattering image that is used to identify location, size and relative severity of subsurface damage in the valves. NED imaging data were obtained at before and at 100 and 500 hours of the engine duration test. The NDE data were analyzed and compared with surface photomicrographs. Wear damage was found in the impact surface of all valves, expecially for exhaust valves. However, the NDE examination did not detect subsurface damage such as cracks or spalls in these engine-tested valves.

Sun, J. G.; Trethewey, J. S.; Vanderspiegle, N. N.; Jensen, J. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Caterpillar, Inc.

2008-01-01

192

The probability of flaw detection and the probability of false calls in nondestructive evaluation equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The space industry has developed many composite materials that have high durability in proportion to their weights. Many of these materials have a likelihood for flaws that is higher than in traditional metals. There are also coverings (such as paint) that develop flaws that may adversely affect the performance of the system in which they are used. Therefore there is a need to monitor the soundness of composite structures. To meet this monitoring need, many nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems have been developed. An NDE system is designed to detect material flaws and make flaw measurements without destroying the inspected item. Also, the detection operation is expected to be performed in a rapid manner in a field or production environment. Some of the most recent video-based NDE methodologies are shearography, holography, thermography, and video image correlation.

Temple, Enoch C.

1994-01-01

193

Nondestructive testing and evaluation of composites by non-invasive IR Imaging techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InfraRed Thermography (IRT) is one of the promising technique for non-destructive testing method for characterization of materials. This technique relies on evaluation of the surface temperature variations to detect the presence of surface and subsurface anomalies within the material. Due to its whole field and remote testing capabilities, IRT has gained significant importance in testing of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) materials. A GFRP sample with defects of various sizes at a given depth was inspected using non-stationary thermographic techniques. In order to highlight the defect detection capabilities of the proposed non-stationary schemes, a comparison has been made using matched excitation energy in frequency domain by taking signal to noise ratio into consideration.

Mulaveesala, Ravibabu; Siddiqui, Juned A.; Arora, Vanita; Ghali, S. V.; Muniyappa, Amarnath; Takei, Masahiro

2013-05-01

194

Nondestructive evaluation and characterization of damage and repair to continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.  

SciTech Connect

Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications. Because of the high costs of making these components, minor damage incurred during manufacturing or operation must be rewired in order to extend the life of the components. In this study, five ceramic-grade Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC-matrix composite panels were intentionally damaged with a pendulum-type impactor during an impact test. The damaged panels were then repaired at Dow Corning Corporation. Three nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods were used to study the characteristics of the panels after the damage and again after the panels were repaired. The NDE methods were X-ray radiography, infrared thermal imaging, and air-coupled ultrasound. The results showed that the impact test induced various types of damage in the panels. The NDE data that were obtained by the three NDE methods were correlated with each other.

Sun, J. G.; Petrak, D. R.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

1998-04-01

195

Risk assessment of turbine rotor failure using probabilistic ultrasonic non-destructive evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The study presents a method and application of risk assessment methodology for turbine rotor fatigue failure using probabilistic ultrasonic nondestructive evaluations. A rigorous probabilistic modeling for ultrasonic flaw sizing is developed by incorporating the model-assisted probability of detection, and the probability density function (PDF) of the actual flaw size is derived. Two general scenarios, namely the ultrasonic inspection with an identified flaw indication and the ultrasonic inspection without flaw indication, are considered in the derivation. To perform estimations for fatigue reliability and remaining useful life, uncertainties from ultrasonic flaw sizing and fatigue model parameters are systematically included and quantified. The model parameter PDF is estimated using Bayesian parameter estimation and actual fatigue testing data. The overall method is demonstrated using a realistic application of steam turbine rotor, and the risk analysis under given safety criteria is provided to support maintenance planning.

Guan, Xuefei; Zhang, Jingdan; Zhou, S. Kevin [Siemens Corporation, Corporate Technology, 755 College Rd. E., Princeton NJ 08540 (United States); Rasselkorde, El Mahjoub; Abbasi, Waheed A. [Siemens Energy Inc., 841 Old Frankstown Road, Pittsburgh PA 15239 (United States)

2014-02-18

196

Nondestructive evaluation inspection of the Arlington Memorial Bridge using a robotic assisted bridge inspection tool (RABIT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information presented in this report provides a detailed assessment of the condition of the Arlington Memorial Bridge (AMB) deck. The field-data collection was obtained by both the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool and a number of semi-automated non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. The deployment of the semi-automated NDE tools was performed to inspect the AMB deck condition and also to validate data obtained by the RABIT™ Bridge Inspection Tool. Data mining and analysis were accomplished through enhanced data interpretation and visualization capabilities using advanced data integration, fusion, and 2D rendering. One of the major challenges that the research team had to overcome in assessing the condition of the AMB deck was the presence of an asphalt overlay on the entire bridge deck.

Gucunski, Nenad; Boone, Shane D.; Zobel, Rob; Ghasemi, Hamid; Parvardeh, Hooman; Kee, Seong-Hoon

2014-04-01

197

Challenges in Integrating Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Methods for Realistic Structural Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Capabilities and expertise related to the development of links between nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) at Glenn Research Center (GRC) are demonstrated. Current tools to analyze data produced by computed tomography (CT) scans are exercised to help assess the damage state in high temperature structural composite materials. A utility translator was written to convert velocity (an image processing software) STL data file to a suitable CAD-FEA type file. Finite element analyses are carried out with MARC, a commercial nonlinear finite element code, and the analytical results are discussed. Modeling was established by building MSC/Patran (a pre and post processing finite element package) generated model and comparing it to a model generated by Velocity in conjunction with MSC/Patran Graphics. Modeling issues and results are discussed in this paper. The entire process that outlines the tie between the data extracted via NDE and the finite element modeling and analysis is fully described.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Zagidulin, Dmitri; Rauser, Richard W.

2000-01-01

198

Process for Nondestructive Evaluation of the Quality of a Crimped Wire Connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process and apparatus for collecting data for nondestructive evaluation of the quality of a crimped wire connector are provided. The process involves providing a crimping tool having an anvil and opposing jaw for crimping a terminal onto a stranded wire, moving the jaw relative to the anvil to close the distance between the jaw and the anvil and thereby compress the terminal against the wire, while transmitting ultrasonic waves that are propagated through the terminal-wire combination and received at a receiving ultrasonic transducer as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil, and detecting and recording the position of the jaw relative to the anvil as a function of time and detecting and recording the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave that is received at the receiving ultrasonic transducer as a function of time as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Williams, Keith A. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

199

Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Development and Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Based Superstructures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently, multiple commercial vendors have developed capability for the production of large-scale quantities of high-quality carbon nanotube sheets and yarns. While the materials have found use in electrical shielding applications, development of structural systems composed of a high volume fraction of carbon nanotubes is still lacking. A recent NASA program seeks to address this by prototyping a structural nanotube composite with strength-toweight ratio exceeding current state-of-the-art carbon fiber composites. Commercially available carbon nanotube sheets, tapes, and yarns are being processed into high volume fraction carbon nanotube-polymer nanocomposites. Nondestructive evaluation techniques have been applied throughout this development effort for material characterization and process control. This paper will report on the progress of these efforts, including magnetic characterization of residual catalyst content, Raman scattering characterization of nanotube diameter, defect ratio, and nanotube strain, and polarized Raman scattering for characterization of nanotube alignment.

Wincheski, Buzz; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wainwright, Elliot; Williams, Phillip; Siochi, Emile J.

2014-01-01

200

Research and Development Roadmaps for Nondestructive Evaluation of Cables, Concrete, Reactor Pressure Vessels, and Piping Fatique  

SciTech Connect

To address these research needs, the MAaD Pathway supported a series of workshops in the summer of 2012 for the purpose of developing R&D roadmaps for enhancing the use of Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technologies and methodologies for detecting aging and degradation of materials and predicting the remaining useful life. The workshops were conducted to assess requirements and technical gaps related to applications of NDE for cables, concrete, reactor pressure vessels (RPV), and piping fatigue for extended reactor life. An overview of the outcomes of the workshops is presented here. Details of the workshop outcomes and proposed R&D also are available in the R&D roadmap documents cited in the bibliography and are available on the LWRS Program website (http://www.inl.gov/lwrs).

Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)] [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL] [ORNL; Simmons, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Coble, Jamie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Brenchley, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Meyer, Ryan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

2013-01-01

201

A DATA FUSION SYSTEM FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPES  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall. (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. During this reporting period, Rowan University fabricated test specimens with simulated defects for nondestructive evaluation (NDE); designed and developed two versions of a test platform for performing multi-sensor interrogation of test specimens under loaded conditions simulating pressurized gas pipelines; and performed acoustic emission (AE) NDE on the test specimens. The data resulting from this work will be employed for designing multi-sensor data fusion algorithms during the next reporting period.

Dr. Shreekanth Mandayam; Dr. Robi Polikar; Dr. John C. Chen

2003-06-01

202

A DATA FUSION SYSTEM FOR THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF NON-PIGGABLE PIPES  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research project are: (1) To design sensor data fusion algorithms that can synergistically combine defect related information from heterogeneous sensors used in gas pipeline inspection for reliably and accurately predicting the condition of the pipe-wall. (2) To develop efficient data management techniques for signals obtained during multisensor interrogation of a gas pipeline. During this reporting period, Rowan University fabricated test specimens with simulated defects for nondestructive evaluation (NDE); designed and developed two versions of a test platform for performing multi-sensor interrogation of test specimens under loaded conditions simulating pressurized gas pipelines; and performed magnetic flux leakage (MFL), ultrasonic testing (UT), thermal imaging and acoustic emission (AE) NDE on the test specimens. The data resulting from this work will be employed for designing multi-sensor data fusion algorithms.

Shreekanth Mandayam; Robi Polikar; John C. Chen

2004-04-01

203

Nondestructive Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing State-of-the-Discipline Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) state of the art of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for additive manufacturing (AM), or "3-D printed", hardware. NASA's unique need for highly customized spacecraft and instrumentation is suited for AM, which offers a compelling alternative to traditional subtractive manufacturing approaches. The Agency has an opportunity to push the envelope on how this technology is used in zero gravity, an enable in-space manufacturing of flight spares and replacement hardware crucial for long-duration, manned missions to Mars. The Agency is leveraging AM technology developed internally and by industry, academia, and other government agencies for its unique needs. Recent technical interchange meetings and workshops attended by NASA have identified NDE as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing. The impact of NDE on AM is cross cutting and spans materials, processing quality assurance, testing and modeling disciplines. Appropriate NDE methods are needed before, during, and after the AM production process.

Waller, Jess M.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Walker, James L.

2014-01-01

204

C/C composite brake disk nondestructive evaluation by IR thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the non-destructive evaluation of thick Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composite aircraft brake disks by using transient infrared thermography (IRT) approach. Thermal diffusivity measurement technique was applied to identify the subsurface anomalies in thick C/C brake disks. In addition, finite element analysis (FEA) modeling tool was used to determine the transient thermal response of the C/C disks that were subjected to flash heating. For this, series of finite element models were built and thermal responses with various thermal diffusivities subjected to different heating conditions were investigated. Experiments were conducted to verify the models by using custom built in-house IRT system and commercial turnkey system. The analysis and experimental results showed good correlation between thermal diffusivity value and anomalies within the disk. It was demonstrated that the step-heating transient thermal approach could be effectively applied to obtain the whole field thermal diffusivity value of C/C composites.

Chu, Tsuchin P.; Poudel, Anish; Filip, Peter

2012-06-01

205

System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material  

DOEpatents

A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

Jiles, David C. (Ames, IA); Sipahi, Levent B. (Ames, IA)

1994-05-17

206

Two-dimensional virtual array for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation using a time-reversal chaotic cavity.  

PubMed

Despite its introduction more than a decade ago, a two-dimensional ultrasonic array remains a luxury in nondestructive evaluation because of the complexity and cost associated with its fabrication and operation. This paper describes the construction and performance of a two-dimensional virtual array that solves these problems. The virtual array consists of only two transducers (one each for transmit and receive) and an aluminum chaotic cavity, augmented by a 10? × ?10 matrix array of rectangular rods. Each rod, serving as an elastic waveguide, is calibrated to emit a collimated pulsed sound beam centered at 2.5 MHz using the reciprocal time reversal. The resulting virtual array is capable of pulse-echo interrogation of a solid sample in direct contact along 10? × ?10 scan lines. Three-dimensional imaging of an aluminum test piece, the nominal thickness of which is in the order of 1 cm, is successfully carried out using the virtual array. PMID:22087900

Choi, Youngsoo; Lee, Hunki; Hong, Hyun; Ohm, Won-Suk

2011-11-01

207

Performance evaluation of a gamma-ray imaging system for nondestructive testing of welded pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a continuation of our radiographic testing (RT) R&D, we have developed a gamma-ray imaging system to be suitable for nondestructive testing of welded pipes. The system consists of an imaging detector having a CdTe/CMOS-based pixel array (AJAT, SCAN1000), a collimated 75Se gamma source having about 78.7 Ci activities, a gear track mounted around test pipes for image scan, and a computer-controlled microstep motor for precise control of the scan speed. All the components of the imaging system were assembled tightly by a chain belt. From the imaging system, we obtained useful gamma images of a stainless steel pipe (30 cm in internal diameter and 1 cm in thickness) having a weld line. Using standard techniques for evaluation of the radiography quality, we assessed the imaging characteristics of the detector in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), the noise power spectrum (NPS), and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE).

Cho, H. S.; Oh, J. E.; Choi, S. I.; Cho, H. M.; Park, Y. O.; Hong, D. K.; Lee, M. S.; Yang, Y. J.; Je, U. K.; Kim, D. S.; Woo, T. H.; Lee, B. S.; Lee, H. K.

2011-10-01

208

Modeling of Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy Based Nondestructive Evaluation Using the "XYZ-Algorithm"  

SciTech Connect

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is employed as a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool in a number of metal/ceramic forming industries [1]. The presence of volumetric defects in an otherwise flaw-free object affects the resonance characteristics of the object. The changes in resonance behavior depend on the number, locations, volume, and material properties of the defects. Since the normal modes of an object depend on its geometry and the position-dependent material properties, namely the density and the complex elastic stiffness tensor, by accurate measurement of a specimen’s resonance frequencies and amplitudes, one can detect and characterize flaws embedded within it. A correct forward mathematical model to predict resonance characteristics is vital to the required analyses. In this paper, we present several computational results depicting the influence of the presence of embedded flaws/defects in a test specimen having simple geometrical shape. The mathematical model is based on the computationally efficient “XYZ Algorithm” of Visscher et al.

Ahmed, Salahuddin; Bond, Leonard J.

2007-05-03

209

The Evolution of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for the Space Shuttle External Tank Thermal Protection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three nondestructive evaluation methods are being developed to identify defects in the foam thermal protection system (TPS) of the Space Shuttle External Tank (ET). Shearography is being developed to identify shallow delaminations, shallow voids and crush damage in the foam while terahertz imaging and backscatter radiography are being developed to identify voids and cracks in thick foam regions. The basic theory of operation along with factors affecting the results of these methods will be described. Also, the evolution of these methods from lab tools to implementation on the ET will be discussed. Results from both test panels and flight tank inspections will be provided to show the range in defect sizes and types that can be readily detected.

Walker, James L.; Richter, Joel D.

2006-01-01

210

PREDICTION OF DISSOLVER LIFETIMES THROUGH NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND LABORATORY TESTING  

SciTech Connect

Non-destructive evaluation was used as the primary method of monitoring the corrosion degradation of nuclear material dissolvers and assessing the remaining lifetimes. Materials were typically processed in nitric acid based (4-14M) solutions containing fluoride concentrations less than 0.2 M. The primary corrosion issue for the stainless steel dissolvers is the occurrence of localized corrosion near the tank bottom and the heat affected zones of the welds. Laboratory data for a range of operational conditions, including solution chemistry and temperature, was used to assess the impact of processing changes on the dissolver corrosion rate. Experimental and NDE-based general corrosion rates were found to be in reasonable agreement for standard dissolution chemistries consisting of nitric acid with fluorides and at temperatures less than 95 C. Greater differences were observed when chloride was present as an impurity and temperatures exceeded 100 C.

Mickalonis, J.; Woodsmall, T.; Hinz, W.; Edwards, T.

2011-10-03

211

Evaluation of nondestructive testing techniques for the space shuttle nonmetallic thermal protection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program was conducted to evaluate nondestructive analysis techniques for the detection of defects in rigidized surface insulation (a candidate material for the Space Shuttle thermal protection system). Uncoated, coated, and coated and bonded samples with internal defects (voids, cracks, delaminations, density variations, and moisture content), coating defects (holes, cracks, thickness variations, and loss of adhesion), and bondline defects (voids and unbonds) were inspected by X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, high-frequency ultrasonic, beta backscatter, thermal, holographic, and visual techniques. The detectability of each type of defect was determined for each technique (when applicable). A possible relationship between microwave reflection measurements (or X-ray-radiography density measurements) and the tensile strength was established. A possible approach for in-process inspection using a combination of X-ray radiography, acoustic, microwave, and holographic techniques was recommended.

Tiede, D. A.

1972-01-01

212

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Nondestructive Evaluation Program for Safe and Reliable Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Program is presented. As a result of the loss of seven astronauts and the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 1, 2003, NASA has undergone many changes in its organization. NDE is one of the key areas that are recognized by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) that needed to be strengthened by warranting NDE as a discipline with Independent Technical Authority (iTA). The current NASA NDE system and activities are presented including the latest developments in inspection technologies being applied to the Space Transportation System (STS). The unfolding trends and directions in NDE for the future are discussed as they apply to assuring safe and reliable operations.

Generazio, Ed

2005-01-01

213

Standard practice for digital imaging and communication nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for computed radiography (CR) test methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of computed radiography (CR) imaging and data acquisition equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This practice is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information objec...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

214

Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for ultrasonic test methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of ultrasonic imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E 2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E 2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, transfer and archival storage. The goal of Practice E 2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E 2339 provides a data dictionary and set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E 2339 by providing information object definitions, information ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2008-01-01

215

Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy, as Applied to Nondestructive Evaluation and Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) can be an elegantly simple nondestructive evaluation tool. The resonance spectrum of any specimen is dependent on, and sensitive at ppm levels to, its density, geometry, elastic and thermal properties, and boundary conditions. The measurement of spectrum is fast, taking between 15 and 90 seconds with state-of-the-art instrumentation, making it appropriate for following properties as a

Timothy Marvin Whitney

1996-01-01

216

MUSIC-TYPE ALGORITHM FOR EDDY-CURRENT NONDESTRUC-TIVE EVALUATION OF SMALL DEFECTS IN METAL PLATES  

E-print Network

developed for the detection of one or several spherical defects in a dielectric half-space, in the MHz bandMUSIC-TYPE ALGORITHM FOR EDDY-CURRENT NONDESTRUC- TIVE EVALUATION OF SMALL DEFECTS IN METAL PLATES as is presented in [3]. In general, only the position and size of the defect is of interest in the nondestructive

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

217

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non-destructive technique originally developed for evaluating  

E-print Network

RUS Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non- destructive technique originally developed measurement results. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is a non-destructive material characterisation

218

Nondestructive Evaluation of Advanced Materials with X-ray Phase Mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray radiation has been widely used for imaging applications since Rontgen first discovered X-rays over a century ago. Its large penetration depth makes it ideal for the nondestructive visualization of the internal structure and/or defects of materials unobtainable otherwise. Currently used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tools, X-ray radiography and tomography, are absorption-based, and work well in heavy-element materials where density or composition variations due to internal structure or defects are high enough to produce appreciable absorption contrast. However, in many cases where materials are light-weight and/or composites that have similar mass absorption coefficients, the conventional absorption-based X-ray methods for NDE become less useful. Indeed, the light-weight and ultra-high-strength requirements for the most advanced materials used or developed for current flight mission and future space exploration pose a great challenge to the standard NDE tools in that the absorption contrast arising from the internal structure of these materials is often too weak to be resolved. In this presentation, a solution to the problem, the use of phase information of X-rays for phase contrast X-ray imaging, will be discussed, along with a comparison between the absorption-based and phase-contrast imaging methods. Latest results on phase contrast X-ray imaging of lightweight Space Shuttle foam in 2D and 3D will be presented, demonstrating new opportunities to solve the challenging issues encountered in advanced materials development and processing.

Hu, Zhengwei

2005-01-01

219

Non-destructive evaluation of thermal barrier coatings using impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the oxidation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) non-destructively is essential for monitoring the performance of TBCs and predicting the lifetime of TBCs in service. In this research, impedance spectroscopy was used, as a non-destructive tool, to examine the oxidation of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Impedance diagrams obtained from impedance measurements at 623 K, were analysed according to equivalent circuit

Xin Wang; Junfa Mei; Ping Xiao

2001-01-01

220

The nondestructive evaluation of thermal barrier coatings: Measurements of thermal properties and associated defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phase of thermal emission spectroscopy is developed to nondestructively determine the thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Harmonic heating of the coating is established using a CO2 laser. The phase of thermal emission is measured from the front surface as a function of laser frequency. A mathematical model is developed to describe the heat transport in the measurement and establish all important dependencies of the emission phase. Least square fitting of the experimental measurement using the model permits determination of the unknown properties of the TBC. Besides the thermal diffusivity of the coating, both the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the coating can be determined simultaneously. A UCSB TBC deposited by electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) is measured and used to illustrate the measurement and analysis. Various TBC samples deposited by different deposition techniques with varying process parameters and materials are measured with phase of thermal emission spectroscopy. A set of TBC specimens deposited by EB-PVD with varying process parameters are measured. The influences of coating thickness, rotation rate, and deposition tilt on the thermal properties of coatings are studied. Another set of TBC samples deposited by directed vapor deposition (EB-DVD) with various processing parameters and different coating materials are also measured. The effects of rotation rate of the substrate and the substrate temperature for deposition are investigated. The thermal properties of two kinds of coating materials, 7wt% yittria, partially stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) and samarium zirconate (Sm2Zr2O7) are compared. Based on the phase of thermal emission spectroscopy, a surface area mapping method is developed for inspecting defects in TBCs non-destructively, which is desirable for monitoring the performance and predicting the failures of TBCs in service. Mapping the phase shift over a region of interest can be used to characterize changes in coating properties and the presence of defects. By varying the modulation frequency, this method is able to provide depth information concerning the defects. The unknown properties of the delaminated TBC and the thermal contact resistance introduced by a local delamination are determined quantitatively by phase of thermal emission spectroscopy.

Yu, Fengling

2005-11-01

221

Phenomenological and mechanics aspects of nondestructive evaluation and characterization by sound and ultrasound of material and fracture properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Developments in fracture mechanics and elastic wave theory enhance the understanding of many physical phenomena in a mathematical context. Available literature in the material, and fracture characterization by NDT, and the related mathematical methods in mechanics that provide fundamental underlying principles for its interpretation and evaluation are reviewed. Information on the energy release mechanism of defects and the interaction of microstructures within the material is basic in the formulation of the mechanics problems that supply guidance for nondestructive evaluation (NDE).

Fu, L. S. W.

1982-01-01

222

Nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in aluminum 2024 by x-ray diffraction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aluminum alloys are widely used in the automobile and aerospace industries. This is due to their attractive low density-high modulus and low density-high strength characteristics. Unfortunately, cyclic stress-strain deformations alter the microstructure of aluminum alloys when they are placed into service. These structural changes can lead to fatigue damage and ultimately service failure. Since x-ray diffraction analysis is known to be a sensitive nondestructive indicator of structural changes due to deformations, this technique is being used to evaluate changes in the microstructure of cycled aluminum 2024 commercial alloys. Line shapes, widths, and positions in an x-ray diffraction pattern depend on microstructural properties such as grain size, grain orientation, residual stress, microstrain, etc. Changes in the microstructure due to fatigue will appear as changes in the diffraction pattern. One parameter used to characterize a reflection in a diffraction pattern is the full width at half maximum (FWHM). Preliminary x-ray diffraction results on cycled Al 2024 indicate that the (111) and (222) reflections of the matrix phase do not show any variations in the FWHM due to an increase in the fatigue cycles. However, the FWHM of the (200) and (400) reflections of the same phase unexpectedly showed a dramatic decrease. These results can be interpreted as due to the relaxation of some initial nonuniform residual stresses in the matrix phase lattice. Further work is in progress to evaluate the FWHM of the second phase of the cycled alloys.

Ferguson, Milton W.

1994-01-01

223

Thermo-elastic nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in PMR-15 resin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoset polyimide resins are used as the polymer matrix in high temperature composites for aerospace applications such as engine shrouds. At these locations the components have to withstand high temperatures and significant vibration. A number of studies have investigated the effects of thermal exposure on mechanical properties of polyimide resins, and the effects of fatigue on thermoplastics have been discussed at length. However, the effects of fatigue on thermosets, in particular polyimides, have largely been overlooked. In this paper we present studies of nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in a thermoset polyimide resin, PMR-15, performed by measuring the changes in the evolution of heat in the samples during cyclic loading. The temperature changes are measured using a high sensitivity IR camera as a function of number of fatigue cycles. Interrupted fatigue tests were performed on four samples. The temperature rise during an increment of fatigue cycling shows two linear regions each with a different slope (region 1 and region 2). Region 1 remains constant for every increment of fatigue, while region 2 increases. The onset of region 2 occurs at the same increase in temperature due to hysteretic heating for all samples. Experimental observations are explained using a phenomenological two phase model based on crosslinking density variations in observed in other thermoset resins at microscopic scales. The results of these experiments are discussed in reference to utilizing this technique for detection and evaluation of fatigue in PMR-15 resin and composites.

Welter, J. T.; Sathish, S.; Tandon, G. P.; Schehl, N.; Cherry, M.; Nalladega, V.; Lindgren, E. A.; Hall, R.

2012-05-01

224

A time-domain finite element boundary integration method for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

A 2-D and 3-D numerical modeling approach for calculating the elastic wave scattering signals from complex stress-free defects is evaluated. In this method, efficient boundary integration across the complex boundary of the defect is coupled with a time-domain finite element (FE) solver. The model is designed to simulate time-domain ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation in bulk media. This approach makes use of the hybrid concept of linking a local numerical model to compute the near-field scattering behavior and theoretical mathematical formulas for postprocessing to calculate the received signals. It minimizes the number of monitoring signals from the FE calculation so that the computation effort in postprocessing decreases significantly. In addition, by neglecting the conventional regular monitoring box, the region for FE calculation can be made smaller. In this paper, the boundary integral method is implemented in a commercial FE code, and it is validated by comparing the scattering signals with results from corresponding full FE models. The coupled method is then implemented in real inspection scenarios in both 2-D and 3-D, and the accuracy and the efficiency are demonstrated. The limitations of the proposed model and future works are also discussed. PMID:25474780

Shi, Fan; Choi, Wonjae; Skelton, Elizabeth A; Lowe, Michael J S; Craster, Richard V

2014-12-01

225

Dynamic laser speckle for non-destructive quality evaluation of bread  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent illumination of a diffuse object yields a randomly varying interference pattern, which changes over time at any modification of the object. This phenomenon can be used for detection and visualization of physical or biological activity in various objects (e.g. fruits, seeds, coatings) through statistical description of laser speckle dynamics. The present report aims at non-destructive full-field evaluation of bread by spatial-temporal characterization of laser speckle. The main purpose of the conducted experiments was to prove the ability of the dynamic speckle method to indicate activity within the studied bread samples. In the set-up for acquisition and storage of dynamic speckle patterns an expanded beam from a DPSS laser (532 nm and 100mW) illuminated the sample through a ground glass diffuser. A CCD camera, adjusted to focus the sample, recorded regularly a sequence of images (8 bits and 780 x 582 squared pixels, sized 8.1 × 8.1 ?m) at sampling frequency 0.25 Hz. A temporal structure function was calculated to evaluate activity of the bread samples in time using the full images in the sequence. In total, 7 samples of two types of bread were monitored during a chemical and physical process of bread's staling. Segmentation of images into matrixes of isometric fragments was also utilized. The results proved the potential of dynamic speckle as effective means for monitoring the process of bread staling and ability of this approach to differentiate between different types of bread.

Stoykova, E.; Ivanov, B.; Shopova, M.; Lyubenova, T.; Panchev, I.; Sainov, V.

2010-10-01

226

Nondestructive Evaluation of Stiffness and Stresses of Ceramic Candle Filters at Elevated Temperature under Vibrational Environment  

SciTech Connect

In recent years a significant amount of effort has been devoted to develop damage-tolerant hot gas filter elements, which can withstand chemical, high pressure and extreme thermal cyclic loading in the coal-based environment (Alvin 1999, Spain and Starrett 1999). Ceramic candle filters have proven to be an effective filter for the ash laden gas streams, protecting the gas turbine components from exposure to particulate matter (Lippert et al. 1994). Ceramic candle filters need to sustain extreme thermal environment and vibration-induced stresses over a great period of time. Destructive tests have been used to describe physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the filters and to relate these properties and behaviors to in-service performance, and ultimately to predict the useful life of the filter materials (Pontius and Starrett 1994, Alvin et al. 1994). Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been developed to determine the deterioration or the presence of damage and to estimate the remaining stiffness of ceramic candle filters (Chen and Kiriakidis 2001). This paper presents a study of parameters involved in the prediction of remaining life of ceramic candle filters under service conditions. About one hundred ceramic candle filters from previous studies (Chen and Kiriakidis 2000) and forty-six filters received during this project have been nondestructively evaluated. They are divided in Pall Vitropore, Schumacher and Coors filters. Forty-six of these filters were used having various in-service exposure times at the PSDF and the rest were unused filters. Dynamic characterization tests were employed to investigate the material properties of ceramic candle filters. The vibration frequency changes due to exposure hours, dust cake accumulation, candle's axisymmetry, boundary conditions and elevated temperatures are studied. Investigations on fatigue stresses of the filters due to vibration of the plenum and back pulse shaking are also studied. Finite element models (FEM) are built to calculate the filter's dynamic response with different boundary conditions at various temperatures. The experimental natural frequencies of the candle filters were also compared with an analysis of a general Timoshenko beam equation that includes various boundary restraints.

Chen, R.H.L.; Kiriakidia, A.

2002-09-19

227

Fast solver for large scale eddy current non-destructive evaluation problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy current testing plays a very important role in non-destructive evaluations of conducting test samples. Based on Faraday's law, an alternating magnetic field source generates induced currents, called eddy currents, in an electrically conducting test specimen. The eddy currents generate induced magnetic fields that oppose the direction of the inducing magnetic field in accordance with Lenz's law. In the presence of discontinuities in material property or defects in the test specimen, the induced eddy current paths are perturbed and the associated magnetic fields can be detected by coils or magnetic field sensors, such as Hall elements or magneto-resistance sensors. Due to the complexity of the test specimen and the inspection environments, the availability of theoretical simulation models is extremely valuable for studying the basic field/flaw interactions in order to obtain a fuller understanding of non-destructive testing phenomena. Theoretical models of the forward problem are also useful for training and validation of automated defect detection systems. Theoretical models generate defect signatures that are expensive to replicate experimentally. In general, modelling methods can be classified into two categories: analytical and numerical. Although analytical approaches offer closed form solution, it is generally not possible to obtain largely due to the complex sample and defect geometries, especially in three-dimensional space. Numerical modelling has become popular with advances in computer technology and computational methods. However, due to the huge time consumption in the case of large scale problems, accelerations/fast solvers are needed to enhance numerical models. This dissertation describes a numerical simulation model for eddy current problems using finite element analysis. Validation of the accuracy of this model is demonstrated via comparison with experimental measurements of steam generator tube wall defects. These simulations generating two-dimension raster scan data typically takes one to two days on a dedicated eight-core PC. A novel direct integral solver for eddy current problems and GPU-based implementation is also investigated in this research to reduce the computational time.

Lei, Naiguang

228

Interrelationship of Nondestructive Evaluation Methodologies Applied to Testing of Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are commonly used in spacecraft for containment of pressurized gases and fluids, incorporating strength and weight savings. The energy stored is capable of extensive spacecraft damage and personal injury in the event of sudden failure. These apparently simple structures, composed of a metallic media impermeable liner and fiber/resin composite overwrap are really complex structures with numerous material and structural phenomena interacting during pressurized use which requires multiple, interrelated monitoring methodologies to monitor and understand subtle changes critical to safe use. Testing of COPVs at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands T est Facility (WSTF) has employed multiple in-situ, real-time nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methodologies as well as pre- and post-test comparative techniques to monitor changes in material and structural parameters during advanced pressurized testing. The use of NDE methodologies and their relationship to monitoring changes is discussed based on testing of real-world spacecraft COPVs. Lessons learned are used to present recommendations for use in testing, as well as a discussion of potential applications to vessel health monitoring in future applications.

Leifeste, Mark R.

2007-01-01

229

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Wind Turbine Blades Using an Infrared Camera  

SciTech Connect

The use of a digital infrared as a non-destructive evaluation thermography camera (NDE) tool was ex- plored in two separate wind turbine blade fatigue tests. The fwst test was a fatigue test of part of a 13.1 meter wood-epoxy-composite blade. The second test was on a 4.25 meter pultruded fiber glass blade section driven at several mechanical resonant frequencies. The digital infrared camera can produce images of either the static temperature distribution on the surface of the specimen, or the dynamic temperature distribution that is in phase with a specific frequency on a vibrating specimen. The dynamic temperature distribution (due to thermoplastic effects) gives a measure of the sum of the principal stresses at each point on the surface. In the wood- epoxy-composite blade fatigue test, the point of ultimate failure was detected long before failure occurred. The mode shapes obtained with the digital infrared camera, from the resonant blade tests, were in very good agree- ment with the finite-element calculations. In addition, the static temperature images of the resonating blade showed two areas that contained cracks. Close-up dy- namic inf%red images of these areas showed the crack structure that agreed with subsequent dye-penetrant analysis.

Beattie, A.G.; Rumsey, M.

1998-12-17

230

PHOTOACOUSTIC NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND IMAGING OF CARIES IN DENTAL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

Dental caries is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure. Traditional dental radiography has its limitations for detecting early stage caries. In this study, a photoacoustic (PA) imaging system with the near-infrared light source has been applied to postmortem dental samples to obtain 2-D and 3-D images. Imaging results showed that the PA technique can be used to image human teeth caries. For non-destructive photoacoustic evaluation and imaging, the induced temperature and pressure rises within biotissues should not cause physical damage to the tissue. For example, temperature rises above 5 deg. C within live human teeth will cause pulpal necrosis. Therefore, several simulations based on the thermoelastic effect have been applied to predict temperature and pressure fields within samples. Predicted temperature levels are below corresponding safety limits, but care is required to avoid nonlinear absorption phenomena. Furthermore, PA imaging results from the phantom provide evidence for high sensitivity, which shows the imaging potential of the PA technique for detecting early stage disease.

Li, T.; Dewhurst, R. J. [Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

2010-02-22

231

Evaluation of scanners for C-scan imaging in nondestructive inspection of aircraft  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to produce a document that contains information on the usability and performance of commercially available, fieldable, and portable scanner systems as they apply to aircraft NDI inspections. In particular, the scanners are used to generate images of eddy current, ultrasonic, or bond tester inspection data. The scanner designs include manual scanners, semiautomated scanners, and fully automated scanners. A brief description of the functionality of each scanner type, a sketch, and a fist of the companies that support the particular design are provided. Vendors of each scanner type provided hands-on demonstrations of their equipment on real aircraft samples in the FAA Aging Aircraft Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (AANC) in Albuquerque, NM. From evaluations recorded during the demonstrations, a matrix of scanner features and factors and ranking of the capabilities and limitations of the design, portability, articulation, performance, usability, and computer hardware/software was constructed to provide a quick reference for comparing the different scanner types. Illustrations of C-scan images obtained during the demonstration are shown.

Gieske, J.H.

1994-04-01

232

Compensation electronics for larger dynamic range of a SQUID based nondestructive evaluation system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a compensation system for any given SQUID sensor which allows sensitive eddy current measurements above 100 Hz in the presence of strong and slowly varying background fields. High Tc SQUIDs have been used successfully in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems based on eddy current excitation when searching for defects in conductive samples such as aircraft parts. Due to their high and frequency independent field resolution and their excellent spatial resolution, SQUIDs provide in the case of deep lying defects—compared to other conventional electromagnetic NDE systems—a more reliable crack detection. Fast readout electronics having an unsurpassed dynamic range of up to eight orders of magnitude enabled us to perform measurements in an environment polluted with electromagnetic noise, e.g., an aircraft hangar. Nevertheless, test objects containing ferromagnetic structures with a high remanent magnetization, such as aircraft wheels or steel bolts in an aircraft wing, very often cause instabilities of the flux-locked loop operation of the SQUID. To prevent unlocking, we have developed a new background field compensation scheme. Special compensation electronics take care of slowly varying magnetic fields of up to 1 mT/s and allow us to perform eddy current measurements in the presence of slow (<30 Hz) background field variations of up to 5 mT.

Kreutzbruck, M. v.; Theiss, A.; Mück, M.; Heiden, C.

1999-09-01

233

Comparison of ultrasonic array imaging algorithms for non-destructive evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic array imaging algorithms have been widely used and developed in nondestructive evaluation in the last 10 years. In this paper, three imaging algorithms (Total Focusing Method (TFM), Phase Coherent Imaging (PCI), and Spatial Compounding Imaging (SCI)) are compared through both simulation and experimental measurements. In the simulation, array data sets were generated using a hybrid forward model containing a single defect amongst a multitude of randomly distributed point scatterers to represent backscatter from material microstructure. The Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the final images and their resolution were used to indicate the quality of the different imaging algorithms. The images of different types of defect (point reflectors and planar cracks) were used to investigate the robustness of the imaging algorithms. It is shown that PCI can yield higher image resolution than the TFM, but that the images of cracks are distorted. Overall, the TFM is the most robust algorithm across a range of different types of defects. It is also shown that the detection limit of all three imaging algorithms is almost equal for weakly scattering defects.

Zhang, J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Wilcox, P. D.

2013-01-01

234

Laser Doppler technique for nondestructive evaluation of mechanical heart valves kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser techniques for vibration measurement, due to their non-contact nature, represents an interesting alternative investigational tool to be tested in biomedical and clinic fields. A particular application could be as evaluation method in design and quality control of artificial organs. Aim of this study is to investigate the application of laser vibrometry to the study of mechanical heart valves in-vitro, with an ad hoc set-up. A heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometry system, which allows the measurement of both vibrational velocity and displacement was used. Three different approaches have been carried out, in order to stress the limits of the laser vibrometry technique for testing heart valve prostheses. Critical points and difficulties to build up experimental studies in this field were clearly pointed out. In the present study only one laser head was used, the aim of the authors being to test the feasibility of a simplified approach on mechanical cardiac valves. Starting from that analysis a comparison could be made to assess the capability to discriminate between normal and malfunctioning devices. The advantage of the proposed test bench is that it could provide a non-contact, non-destructive analysis of the valve under the same working conditions as those upon implantation. The proposed method could furnish a typical "fingerprint" characterizing each valve behavior in repeatable experimental conditions.

Grigioni, Mauro; Daniele, Carla; Morbiducci, U.; Del Gaudio, C.; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Di Meo, D.; Barbaro, Vincenzo

2004-06-01

235

Multi-frequency time-reversal-based imaging for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation using full matrix capture.  

PubMed

In this paper, two multi-frequency time-reversal (TR)-based imaging algorithms are explored for application to the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) imaging of defects in solids: time reversal with multiple signal classification (TRMUSIC) and a related phase-coherent form (PC-MUSIC). These algorithms are tested with simulated and experimental ultrasonic array data acquired using the full matrix capture (FMC) process. The performance of these algorithms is quantified in terms of their spatial resolution and robustness to noise. The effect of frequency bandwidth is investigated and the results are compared with the single-frequency versions of these algorithms. It is shown that both TR-MUSIC and PCMUSIC are capable of resolving lateral targets spaced closer than the Rayleigh limit, achieving super-resolution imaging. TR-MUSIC can locate the positions of scatterers correctly, whereas the results from PC-MUSIC are less clear because of the presence of multiple peaks in the vicinity of target. However, an advantage of PC-MUSIC is that it can overcome the elongated point spread function that appears in TR-MUSIC images, and hence provide enhanced axial resolution. For high noise levels, TR-MUSIC and PC-MUSIC are shown to provide stable images and suppress the presence of artifacts seen in their single-frequency equivalents. PMID:25474781

Fan, Chengguang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu; Drinkwater, Bruce

2014-12-01

236

Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3 mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used since they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while x-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally-cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with x-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

Roth, Don J.; Rauser, Richard W.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

2009-01-01

237

Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) for Characterizing Oxidation Damage in Cracked Reinforced Carbon-Carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, coated reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) samples of similar structure and composition as that from the NASA space shuttle orbiter's thermal protection system were fabricated with slots in their coating simulating craze cracks. These specimens were used to study oxidation damage detection and characterization using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. These specimens were heat treated in air at 1143 C and 1200 C to create cavities in the carbon substrate underneath the coating as oxygen reacted with the carbon and resulted in its consumption. The cavities varied in diameter from approximately 1 to 3mm. Single-sided NDE methods were used because they might be practical for on-wing inspection, while X-ray micro-computed tomography (CT) was used to measure cavity sizes in order to validate oxidation models under development for carbon-carbon materials. An RCC sample having a naturally cracked coating and subsequent oxidation damage was also studied with X-ray micro-CT. This effort is a follow-on study to one that characterized NDE methods for assessing oxidation damage in an RCC sample with drilled holes in the coating.

Roth, Don J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Rauser, Richard W.; Wincheski, Russell A.; Walker, James L.; Cosgriff, Laura A.

2010-01-01

238

Solution of Boundary Integral Equations for Eddy Current Nondestructive Evaluation in Three Dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of airframe structures involves the detection of electromagnetic field irregularities due to non-conducting inhomogeneities in an electrically conducting material, which often treats with complicated geometrical features such as cracks, fasteners, sharp corners/edges, multi-layered structures, etc. The eddy-current problem can be formulated by the boundary integral equations (BIE) and discretized into matrix equations by the method of moments (MoM) or the boundary element method (BEM). This paper introduces the implementation of Stratton-Chu formulation for the conductive medium, in which the induced electric and magnetic surface currents are expanded in terms of Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) vector basis function and the normal component of magnetic field is expanded in terms of pulse basis function. Also, a low frequency approximation is applied in the external medium, that is, free space in our case. Computational tests are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and capability of the BIE method with a complex wave number for three-dimensional objects described by a number of triangular patches. This work prepares the BIE solution procedure that will be embedded with the Fast Multipole Method (FMM), which is a well-established and effective method for accelerating numerical solutions of the matrix equations. When accelerated by the FMM, the BIE method will have the capability of solving large-scale electromagnetic wave propagation and eddy-current problems.

Yang, Ming; Song, Jiming; Nakagawa, Norio

2009-03-01

239

An Analysis of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Polymer Matrix Composite Sandwich Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural sandwich materials composed of triaxially braided polymer matrix composite material face sheets sandwiching a foam core are being utilized for applications including aerospace components and recreational equipment. Since full scale components are being made from these sandwich materials, it is necessary to develop proper inspection practices for their manufacture and in-field use. Specifically, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques need to be investigated for analysis of components made from these materials. Hockey blades made from sandwich materials and a flat sandwich sample were examined with multiple NDE techniques including thermographic, radiographic, and shearographic methods to investigate damage induced in the blades and flat panel components. Hockey blades used during actual play and a flat polymer matrix composite sandwich sample with damage inserted into the foam core were investigated with each technique. NDE images from the samples were presented and discussed. Structural elements within each blade were observed with radiographic imaging. Damaged regions and some structural elements of the hockey blades were identified with thermographic imaging. Structural elements, damaged regions, and other material variations were detected in the hockey blades with shearography. Each technique s advantages and disadvantages were considered in making recommendations for inspection of components made from these types of materials.

Cosgriff, Laura M.; Roberts, Gary D.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Zheng, Diahua; Averbeck, Timothy; Roth, Donald J.; Jeanneau, Philippe

2006-01-01

240

Modal Test Technology as Non-Destructive Evaluation of Space Shuttle Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Modal test and analysis Is being used for nondestructive evaluation of Space Shuttle structures. The purpose of modal testing is to measure the dynamic characteristics of a structure to extract its resonance frequencies, damping, and mode shapes. These characteristics are later compared to subsequently acquired characteristics. Changes in the modal characteristics indicate damage in the structure. Use of modal test technology as a damage detection tool was developed at JSC during the Shuttle acoustic certification program and subsequent test programs. The Shuttle Modal Inspection System was created in order to inspect areas that are impossible or impractical to inspect with conventional methods. Areas on which this technique has been applied include control surfaces, which are covered with thermal protection tiles, and the Forward Reaction Control Module, which is a frame structure that supports various tanks, thrusters, and fluid lines, which requires major disassembly to inspect. This paper traces the development of the technology, gives a status of its implementation on the Shuttle, explains challenges involved in implementing this type of inspection program, and suggests future improvements in data analysis and interpretation. Dual-use applications of the technology include inspections of bridges, oil-platforms, and aircraft.

Grygler, Micheal S.

1994-01-01

241

Automated nondestructive evaluation method for characterizing ceramic and metallic hot gas filters.  

SciTech Connect

In advanced coal-fired power generation, one technology under development to clean up hot gases before their use as fuel for gas turbines is rigid ceramic candle filters. These porous filters are typically 1.5 m long and 60 mm in diameter and are made of various ceramic materials, including clay-bonded SiC. The high costs of downtime in a large utility demands that nondestructive evaluation/characterization (NDE/C) methods be available. At shutdowns, data from such analysis are needed to decide which filters are still usable and which need to be replaced, and if possible, to estimate the remaining lifetimes. Thus our objective was to develop reliable low-cost NDE technology for these filters. Our approach was to develop NDE/C technology, referred to as acousto-ultrasonics (AU), for application to hot gas filters. Lamb waves generated by the AU method were analyzed to derive a stress wave factor (SWF). This technology was tested by comparing SWF data with the measured strength for a variety of rigid ceramic filters and was shown to work on iron-aluminide filters as well but no strength data have been obtained on the iron-aluminides at this time.

Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Deemer, C.; Pastilla, P.; Wheeler, B.; Forster, G. A.

2002-06-03

242

Development of Natural Flaw Samples for Evaluating Nondestructive Testing Methods for Foam Thermal Protection Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low density polyurethane foam has been an important insulation material for space launch vehicles for several decades. The potential for damage from foam breaking away from the NASA External Tank was not realized until the foam impacts on the Columbia Orbiter vehicle caused damage to its Leading Edge thermal protection systems (TPS). Development of improved inspection techniques on the foam TPS is necessary to prevent similar occurrences in the future. Foamed panels with drilled holes for volumetric flaws and Teflon inserts to simulate debonded conditions have been used to evaluate and calibrate nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. Unfortunately the symmetric edges and dissimilar materials used in the preparation of these simulated flaws provide an artificially large signal while very little signal is generated from the actual defects themselves. In other words, the same signal are not generated from the artificial defects in the foam test panels as produced when inspecting natural defect in the ET foam TPS. A project to create more realistic voids similar to what actually occurs during manufacturing operations was began in order to improve detection of critical voids during inspections. This presentation describes approaches taken to create more natural voids in foam TPS in order to provide a more realistic evaluation of what the NDT methods can detect. These flaw creation techniques were developed with both sprayed foam and poured foam used for insulation on the External Tank. Test panels with simulated defects have been used to evaluate NDT methods for the inspection of the External Tank. A comparison of images between natural flaws and machined flaws generated from backscatter x-ray radiography, x-ray laminography, terahertz imaging and millimeter wave imaging show significant differences in identifying defect regions.

Workman, Gary L.; Davis, Jason; Farrington, Seth; Walker, James

2007-01-01

243

Non-destructive evaluation of concrete with ultrasonic C-scan and digital image enhancement techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of concrete slabs using Ultrasonic C-Scan and image-enhancement algorithms for the detection and extraction of damage information from raw data. Two fabricated concrete slabs, one undamaged and the other with three rectangular voids were used for the test. Damage was evaluated by using ultrasonic through transmission C-Scan method. A 500 kHz transducer with pulse rates of 100 Hz to 5000 Hz was investigated to determine the best pulse rate for scanning concrete. The amplitude scan shows accurately the position of the voids present in the damaged concrete with respect to the reference edge. The results also show the inherent in-homogeneity of the concrete slab due to the presence of air pockets that invariably arise during the fabrication. Three statistical filtering techniques (Median, Mean and Gaussian) and one wavelet filtering technique were comparatively evaluated to enhance the quality of the digital image. The results show clearly the presence of the rectangular voids. Median filtering technique was the best in enhancing the image obtained from the C-Scan in terms of removing noise and preserving the details of the defects. Wavelet filtering technique was good in terms of overall noise reduction, but it resulted in loss of details of the defects producing a comparatively blurred image. This technique can be used to determine the quality of concrete at any stage in its working lifecycle thus making it a useful tool in the field of health monitoring of concrete.

Okafor, A. Chukwujekwu; Dutta, Amitabha

2014-02-01

244

Acousto-ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of materials using laser beam generation and detection. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acousto-ultrasonic method has proven to be a most interesting technique for nondestructive evaluation of the mechanical properties of a variety of materials. Use of the technique or a modification thereof, has led to correlation of the associated stress wave factor with mechanical properties of both metals and composite materials. The method is applied to the nondestructive evaluation of selected fiber reinforced structural composites. For the first time, conventional piezoelectric transducers were replaced with laser beam ultrasonic generators and detectors. This modification permitted true non-contact acousto-ultrasonic measurements to be made, which yielded new information about the basic mechanisms involved as well as proved the feasibility of making such non-contact measurements on terrestrial and space structures and heat engine components. A state-of-the-art laser based acousto-ultrasonic system, incorporating a compact pulsed laser and a fiber-optic heterodyne interferometer, was delivered to the NASA Lewis Research Center.

Huber, Robert D.; Green, Robert E., Jr.

1990-01-01

245

Quantitative Ultrasonic Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Engineering Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength of engineering materials is reviewed. A dormant concept in nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is invoked. The availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions is discussed. It was shown that ultrasonic methods yield measurements of elastic moduli, microstructure, hardness, fracture toughness, tensile strength, yield strength, and shear strength for a wide range of materials (including many types of metals, ceramics, and fiber composites). It was also indicated that although most of these methods were shown feasible in laboratory studies, more work is needed before they can be used on actual parts in processing, assembly, inspection, and maintenance lines.

Vary, A.

1978-01-01

246

Material properties and nondestructive evaluation of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) made from Pinus oocarpa and P. kesiya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at evaluating the mechanical, physical and biological properties of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) made from\\u000a Pinus oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl (PO) and Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon (PK) and at providing a nondestructive characterization thereof. Four PO and four PK LVL boards from 22 randomly\\u000a selected 2-mm thickness veneers were produced according to the following characteristics: phenol-formaldehyde

Frederico de Souza; C. H. S. Del Menezzi

2011-01-01

247

Nondestructive Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints by Acousto-Ultrasonic Technique and Acoustic Emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reliable applications of adhesively bonded joints require an effective nondestructive evaluation technique for their bond strength prediction. To properly evaluate factors affecting bond strength, effects of defects such as voids and disbonds on stress distribution in the overlap region must be understood. At the same time, in order to use acousto-ultrasonic (AU) technique to evaluate bond quality, the effect of these defects on dynamic response of single lap joints must be clear. The stress distribution in a single lap joint with and without defects (void or disbond) is analyzed. A bar-Theta parameter which contains adherend and adhesive thickness and properties is introduced. It is shown for bonded joints with bar-Theta greater than 10, that a symmetric void or disbond in the middle of overlap up to the 70 percent of overlap length has negligible effect on bond strength. In contrast frequency response analyses by a finite element technique showed that the dynamic response is affected significantly by the presence of voids or disbonds. These results have direct implication in the interpretations of AU results. Through transmission attenuation and a number of AU parameters for various specimens with and without defects are evaluated. It is found that although void and disbond have similar effects on bond strength (stress distribution), they have completely different effects on wave propagation characteristics. For steel-adhesive-steel specimens with voids, the attenuation changes are related to the bond strength. However, the attenuation changes for specimens with disbond are fairly constant over a disbond range. In order to incorporate the location of defects in AU parameters, a weighting function is introduced. Using an immersion system with focused transducers, a number of AU parameters are evaluated. It is found that by incorporating weighting functions in these parameters better sensitivities (AU parameters vs. bond strength) are achieved. Acoustic emission (AE) activities of steel-adhesive-steel specimens with bar-Theta equal to 3.4 are monitored. Two different formats of energy vs. time have resulted, each corresponding to the perfect specimens or the specimens with void or disbond. The relative acoustic energy and the number of events at failure are found to be a means for predicting the bond strength.

Nayeb-Hashemi, Hamid; Rossettos, J. N.

1997-01-01

248

Non-destructive microwave evaluation of TBC delamination induced by acute angle laser drilling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser drilling has been applied to the production of cooling holes of various size and angles in the modern aerospace gas turbine components such as turbine blades, nozzle guide vanes, combustion chambers and afterburner. These parts are usually made of heat resistant nickel superalloys. The superalloy substrate is coated with yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to protect them from reaching excessive temperatures in hot engine environments. Drilling the parts at acute angles to the surface is complicated because (i) multiple layers are being drilled through, (ii) the melt ejection and heat flow patterns around the hole are non-symmetrical and (iii) the drilling distance is greater than when drilling normal to the surface. In a previous investigation by the authors, delamination of TBC was addressed as a main problem of angled drilling and mechanisms involved were discussed. Characterization of delamination cracks was normally performed via metallographic techniques. It involves sectioning the samples using an abrasive cutting machine, grinding with successively finer silicon carbide paper up to the centre of the hole and polishing to allow optical microscopic analysis of the cracks. However, clamping and sectioning process of thermal-spray-coated workpieces can introduce cracks in brittle coatings due to the drag of the cut-off wheels. Hence, it is not possible to decide if the delamination is caused as a result of post-process sectioning or laser drilling. In this paper, a microwave non-destructive testing (NDT) technique is employed to evaluate the integrity of TBC after acute angle laser drilling. An Agilent 8510 XF network analyser operating over the frequency range of 45 MHz to 110 GHz was used to measure the amplitude and phase variations of scattered waves. The results significantly indicated the existence of delamination of 1-1.5 mm long at the TBC/substrate interface on the leading edge part of an acute-angled hole laser drilled using a 400 W Nd:YAG laser.

Sezer, H. K.; Li, Lin; Wu, Z.; Anderson, B.; Williams, P.

2007-01-01

249

Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Evaluation of the Space Shuttle External Tank Insulating Foam  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Shuttle Columbia s catastrophic failure has been attributed to a piece of external fuel tank insulating SOFI (Spray On Foam Insulation) foam striking the leading edge of the left wing of the orbiter causing significant damage to some of the protecting heat tiles. The accident emphasizes the growing need to develop effective, robust and life-cycle oriented methods of nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) of complex conductor-backed insulating foam and protective acreage heat tiles used in the space shuttle fleet and in future multi-launch space vehicles. The insulating SOFI foam is constructed from closed-cell foam. In the microwave regime this foam is in the family of low permittivity and low loss dielectric materials. Near-field microwave and millimeter wave NDT methods were one of the techniques chosen for this purpose. To this end several flat and thick SOFI foam panels, two structurally complex panels similar to the external fuel tank and a "blind" panel were used in this investigation. Several anomalies such as voids and disbonds were embedded in these panels at various locations. The location and properties of the embedded anomalies in the "blind" panel were not disclosed to the investigating team prior to the investigation. Three frequency bands were used in this investigation covering a frequency range of 8-75 GHz. Moreover, the influence of signal polarization was also investigated. Overall the results of this investigation were very promising for detecting the presence of anomalies in different panels covered with relatively thick insulating SOFI foam. Different types of anomalies were detected in foam up to 9 in thick. Many of the anomalies in the more complex panels were also detected. When investigating the blind panel no false positives were detected. Anomalies in between and underneath bolt heads were not easily detected. This paper presents the results of this investigation along with a discussion of the capabilities of the method used.

Shrestha, S.; Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Hepburn, F

2005-01-01

250

Low-Cost Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies for General Aviation Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) Program has as a goal to reduce the overall cost of producing private aviation aircraft while maintaining the safety of these aircraft. In order to successfully meet this goal, it is necessary to develop nondestructive inspection techniques which will facilitate the production of the materials used in these aircraft and assure the quality necessary to maintain airworthiness. This paper will discuss a particular class of general aviation materials and several nondestructive inspection techniques that have proven effective for making these inspections. Additionally, this paper will discuss the investigation and application of other commercially available quality control techniques applicable to these structures.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Gavinsky, Bob; Semanskee, Grant

1998-01-01

251

Philosophy for nondestructive testing of fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of a nondestructive testing philosophy for fiber composites is presented. The position is taken that the nondestructive test indications must be quantitatively correlated to the required engineering performance properties of the composite article. The currently unknown defect strcture in many fiber composites is discussed with respect to nondestructive testing. A few examples from the literature of the above

Hamstad

1977-01-01

252

An Evaluation of Leaf Biomass?:?Length Ratio as a Tool for Nondestructive Assessment in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.)  

PubMed Central

The characterization of biomass and its dynamics provides valuable information for the assessment of natural and transplanted eelgrass populations. The need for simple, nondestructive assessments has led to the use of the leaf biomass-to-length ratio for converting leaf-length measurements, which can be easily obtained, to leaf growth rates through the plastochrone method. Using data on leaf biomass and length collected in three natural eelgrass populations and a mesocosm, we evaluated the suitability of a leaf weight-to-length ratio for nondestructive assessments. For the data sets considered, the isometric scaling that sustains the weight-to-length proxy always produced inconsistent fittings, and for leaf-lengths greater than a threshold value, the conversion of leaf length to biomass generated biased estimations. In contrast, an allometric scaling of leaf biomass and length was highly consistent in all the cases considered. And these nondestructive assessments generated reliable levels of reproducibility in leaf biomass for all the ranges of variability in leaf lengths. We argue that the use of allometric scaling for the representation of leaf biomass in terms of length provides a more reliable approach for estimating eelgrass biomass. PMID:22645432

Echavarria-Heras, Hector; Solana-Arellano, Elena; Lee, Kun-Seop; Hosokawa, Shinya; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto

2012-01-01

253

An evaluation of leaf biomass : length ratio as a tool for nondestructive assessment in eelgrass (Zostera marina L.).  

PubMed

The characterization of biomass and its dynamics provides valuable information for the assessment of natural and transplanted eelgrass populations. The need for simple, nondestructive assessments has led to the use of the leaf biomass-to-length ratio for converting leaf-length measurements, which can be easily obtained, to leaf growth rates through the plastochrone method. Using data on leaf biomass and length collected in three natural eelgrass populations and a mesocosm, we evaluated the suitability of a leaf weight-to-length ratio for nondestructive assessments. For the data sets considered, the isometric scaling that sustains the weight-to-length proxy always produced inconsistent fittings, and for leaf-lengths greater than a threshold value, the conversion of leaf length to biomass generated biased estimations. In contrast, an allometric scaling of leaf biomass and length was highly consistent in all the cases considered. And these nondestructive assessments generated reliable levels of reproducibility in leaf biomass for all the ranges of variability in leaf lengths. We argue that the use of allometric scaling for the representation of leaf biomass in terms of length provides a more reliable approach for estimating eelgrass biomass. PMID:22645432

Echavarria-Heras, Hector; Solana-Arellano, Elena; Lee, Kun-Seop; Hosokawa, Shinya; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto

2012-01-01

254

Evaluation of nondestructive assay characterization methods for pipe-over-pack containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of Transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) packed in Pipe-Over-Pack Containers or POC's exhibit a number of complexities. The POC is highly attenuating to both gamma rays and neutrons which presents a difficult waste matrix for correct quantification of material in the container. Also, chemical and matrix properties of the Pu contaminated waste

S. B. Stanfield; J. R. Wachter; D. L. Cramer

2007-01-01

255

X-ray and gamma-ray computed tomography for industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of two recently constructed computed tomography (CT) scanners that have been designed to provide structural information for industrially relevant materials and components. CT enables cross-sectional slices of an object to be nondestructively imaged and represented as a map of linear attenuation coefficient. As linear attenuation is the product of mass attenuation and density, this usually

Ian Costello; Peter Wells; John R. Davis; Nino Benci; David Skerrett; D. R. Davies

1994-01-01

256

Non-destructive ultrasonic evaluation of CFRP–concrete specimens subjected to accelerated aging conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to utilize surface acoustic waves (SAWs) for non-destructive structural health monitoring of concrete specimens externally bonded with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites and subjected to accelerated aging conditions. Both experimental testing and signal processing schemes of ultrasonic wave propagation through the CFRP substrate are described. The surface waves are generated and received at the

Ahmed M. Mahmoud; Hussein H. Ammar; Osama M. Mukdadi; Indrajit Ray; Fatemeh S. Imani; An Chen; Julio F. Davalos

2010-01-01

257

Nondestructive evaluation of cementite content in steel and white cast iron using inductive Barkhausen noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nondestructive testing method for the determination of the cementite content in iron-carbon steel and white cast iron is presented. The method is based on micromagnetic measuring parameters derived from inductive Barkhausen noise measurements taken under room temperature and with temperatures above the Curie temperature. The influence of different cementite contents and cementite modifications on the micromagnetic measuring quantities for

I. Altpeter

1996-01-01

258

Evaluation of electrode shape and nondestructive evaluation method for welded solar cell interconnects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Resistance welds of solar cell interconnect tabs were evaluated. Both copper-silver and silver-silver welds were made with various heat inputs and weld durations. Parallel gap and annular gap weld electrode designs were used. The welds were analyzed by light microscope, electron microprobe and scanning laser acoustic microscope. These analyses showed the size and shape of the weld, the relationship between the acoustic micrographs, the visible electrode footprint, and the effect of electrode misalignment. The effect of weld heat input on weld microstructure was also shown.

Baraona, C. R.; Klima, S. J.; Moore, T. J.; Frey, W. E.; Forestieri, A. F.

1982-01-01

259

Optical Calibration Process Developed for Neural-Network-Based Optical Nondestructive Evaluation Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A completely optical calibration process has been developed at Glenn for calibrating a neural-network-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. The NDE method itself detects very small changes in the characteristic patterns or vibration mode shapes of vibrating structures as discussed in many references. The mode shapes or characteristic patterns are recorded using television or electronic holography and change when a structure experiences, for example, cracking, debonds, or variations in fastener properties. An artificial neural network can be trained to be very sensitive to changes in the mode shapes, but quantifying or calibrating that sensitivity in a consistent, meaningful, and deliverable manner has been challenging. The standard calibration approach has been difficult to implement, where the response to damage of the trained neural network is compared with the responses of vibration-measurement sensors. In particular, the vibration-measurement sensors are intrusive, insufficiently sensitive, and not numerous enough. In response to these difficulties, a completely optical alternative to the standard calibration approach was proposed and tested successfully. Specifically, the vibration mode to be monitored for structural damage was intentionally contaminated with known amounts of another mode, and the response of the trained neural network was measured as a function of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the contaminating mode. The neural network calibration technique essentially uses the vibration mode shapes of the undamaged structure as standards against which the changed mode shapes are compared. The published response of the network can be made nearly independent of the contaminating mode, if enough vibration modes are used to train the net. The sensitivity of the neural network can be adjusted for the environment in which the test is to be conducted. The response of a neural network trained with measured vibration patterns for use on a vibration isolation table in the presence of various sources of laboratory noise is shown. The output of the neural network is called the degradable classification index. The curve was generated by a simultaneous comparison of means, and it shows a peak-to-peak sensitivity of about 100 nm. The following graph uses model generated data from a compressor blade to show that much higher sensitivities are possible when the environment can be controlled better. The peak-to-peak sensitivity here is about 20 nm. The training procedure was modified for the second graph, and the data were subjected to an intensity-dependent transformation called folding. All the measurements for this approach to calibration were optical. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of the vibration modes were measured using heterodyne interferometry, and the modes themselves were recorded using television (electronic) holography.

Decker, Arthur J.

2004-01-01

260

A Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Method Evaluating Compromise Solutions  

E-print Network

A Mixed Quantitative/Qualitative Method for Evaluating Compromise Solutions to Conflicts by allowing expressed preferences of design teams to be qualitative as well as quantitative, by allowing teams engineering is an approach to design in which, in order to avoid costly redesign, aspects of the product life

Bahler, Dennis R.

261

Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation of laser-processing performance using optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-destructive diagnostic tool for evaluating laser-processing performance by imaging the features of a pit and a rim. A pit formed on a material at different laser-processing conditions is imaged using both a conventional scanning electron microscope (SEM) and OCT. Then using corresponding images, the geometrical characteristics of the pit are analyzed and compared. From the results, we could verify the feasibility and the potential of the application of OCT to the monitoring of the laser-processing performance. PMID:24932051

Kim, Youngseop; Choi, Eun Seo; Kwak, Wooseop; Shin, Yongjin; Jung, Woonggyu; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chen, Zhongping

2014-01-01

262

Applying quantitative models to evaluate complexity in video game systems  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes a games evaluation model that reports significant statistics about the complexity of a game's various systems. Quantitative complexity measurements allow designers to make accurate decisions about how ...

Tanwanteng, Matthew (Matthew E.)

2009-01-01

263

Performance evaluation of a gamma-ray imaging system for nondestructive testing of welded pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of our radiographic testing (RT) R&D, we have developed a gamma-ray imaging system to be suitable for nondestructive testing of welded pipes. The system consists of an imaging detector having a CdTe\\/CMOS-based pixel array (AJAT, SCAN1000), a collimated 75Se gamma source having about 78.7 Ci activities, a gear track mounted around test pipes for image scan, and

H. S. Cho; J. E. Oh; S. I. Choi; H. M. Cho; Y. O. Park; D. K. Hong; M. S. Lee; Y. J. Yang; U. K. Je; D. S. Kim; T. H. Woo; B. S. Lee; H. K. Lee

2011-01-01

264

Performance evaluation of a gamma-ray imaging system for nondestructive testing of welded pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of our radiographic testing (RT) R&D, we have developed a gamma-ray imaging system to be suitable for nondestructive testing of welded pipes. The system consists of an imaging detector having a CdTe\\/CMOS-based pixel array (AJAT, SCAN1000), a collimated 75Se gamma source having about 78.7Ci activities, a gear track mounted around test pipes for image scan, and a

H. S. Cho; J. E. Oh; S. I. Choi; H. M. Cho; Y. O. Park; D. K. Hong; M. S. Lee; Y. J. Yang; U. K. Je; D. S. Kim; T. H. Woo; B. S. Lee; H. K. Lee

2011-01-01

265

MGAHI: A plutonium gamma-ray isotopic analysis code for nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gamma-ray multigroup analysis (MGA) code developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is widely used in the area of gamma-ray nondestructive plutonium assay. This plutonium isotopic analysis code deconvolutes the complicated, 100-keV X-ray and gamma-ray region to obtain ratios of the Pu isotopes. Calibration of the detector efficiency is not required but is determined intrinsically from the measured spectra. The

T. F. Wang; K. E. Raschke; W. D. Ruhter; S. A. Kreek

1999-01-01

266

Simulated aircraft load testing and non-destructive evaluation of bituminous pavements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Federal Aviation Administration's National Airport Pavement Test Facility was constructed to generate full-scale accelerated pavement test data for the development of advanced airport pavement design criteria. During the first round of traffic testing, a six-wheel (Boeing 777) landing gear and a four-wheel (Boeing 747) landing gear were trafficked on flexible test pavements until they were deemed failed. Non-destructive

Kasthurirangan Gopalakrishnan; Marshall R. Thompson

2008-01-01

267

Nondestructive Evaluation of Rubber Compounds by Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rubber compounds were investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Terahertz absorption spectra of crude rubbers and additives were measured as well as those of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber compounds, which included the additives. It was found that carbon black, which is one of the additives and serves as a filler, dominates the terahertz absorption owing to its metallic characteristics. Thus, terahertz spectroscopy is a useful method for rapid nondestructive inspection during the rubber production.

Hirakawa, Yasuyuki; Ohno, Yoshitomo; Gondoh, Toyohiko; Mori, Tetsuo; Takeya, Kei; Tonouchi, Masayoshi; Ohtake, Hideyuki; Hirosumi, Tomoya

2011-12-01

268

Development of advanced SQUID system for nondestructive evaluation of material degradation in power plants  

SciTech Connect

A newer and more advanced version of the SQUID sensor system for estimating the degradation of materials in power plants have been developed. The miniaturized SQUID sensor developed for nondestructive measurement is 262 mm high, 152 mm in diameter, and 5 kg in weight, making it only one-twelfth the size and one-tenth the weight of a conventional SQUID sensor. Tests have demonstrated that the new SQUID sensor can successfully estimate fatigue damage in Type 316 stainless steel.

Otaka, M.; Hayashi, E. [Hitachi, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

1995-08-01

269

Formulation and Evaluation of a Protein-loaded Solid Dispersions by Non-destructive Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to develop solid dispersion (SD) formulation of cyclosporine (CyA) using polyethylene\\u000a glycol (PEG-6000) to enhance its dissolution rate followed by nondestructive method for the prediction of both drug and carrier.\\u000a SD formulations were prepared by varying the ratio of CyA and PEG-6000 by solvent evaporation technique and characterized\\u000a by dissolution, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),

Ziyaur Rahman; Ahmed S. Zidan; Mansoor A. Khan

2010-01-01

270

Nondestructive testing and crack evaluation of ferromagnetic material by using the linearly integrated hall sensor array  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic flux leakage testing (MFLT), which measures the distribution of a magnetic field on a magnetized specimen by using\\u000a a magnetic sensor such as a Hall sensor, is an effective nondestructive testing (NDT) method for detecting surface cracks\\u000a on magnetized ferromagnetic materials. A scan-type magnetic camera, based on the principle of MFLT, uses an inclined Hall\\u000a sensor array on a

Jinyi Lee; Jiseong Hwang; Jongwoo Jun; Seho Choi

2008-01-01

271

Development of Standards for Nondestructive Evaluation of COPVs Used in Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite OverWrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are currently accepted by NASA based on design and qualification requirements and generally not verified by NDE for the following reasons: (1) Manufactures and end users generally do not have experience and validated quantitative methods of detecting flaws and defects of concern (1-a) If detected, the flaws are not adequately quantified and it is unclear how they may contribute to degradation in mechanical response (1-b) Carbon-epoxy COPVs also extremely sensitive to impact damage and impacts may be below the visible detection threshold (2) If damage is detected, this generally results in rejection since the effect on mechanical response is generally not known (3) NDE response has not generally been fully characterized, probability of detection (POD) established, and processes validated for evaluation of vessel condition as manufactured and delivered.

Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

2012-01-01

272

Nondestructive Evaluation on Hydrided LWR Fuel Cladding by Small Angle Incoherent Neutron Scattering of Hydrogen  

SciTech Connect

A non-destructive neutron scattering method was developed to precisely measure the uptake of total hydrogen in nuclear grade Ziraloy-4 cladding. The hydriding apparatus consists of a closed stainless steel vessel that contains Zr alloy specimens and H gas. By controlling the initial H gas pressure in the vessel and the temperature profile, target H concentrations from tens of ppm to a few thousands of wppm have been successfully achieved. Following H charging, the H content of the hydrided specimens was measured using the vacuum hot extraction method (VHE), by which the samples with desired H concentration were selected for the neutron study. Small angle neutron incoherent scattering (SANIS) were performed in the High Flux Isotope Reactor at Oak Ridge national Laboratory (ORNL). Our study indicates that a very small amount ( 20 ppm) H in commercial Zr cladding can be measured very accurately in minutes for a wide range of H concentration by a nondestructive method. The H distribution in a tube sample was obtained by scaling the neutron scattering rate with a factor, which is determined by calibration process with direct chemical analysis method on the specimen. This scale factor can be used for future test with unknown H concentration, thus provide a nondestructive method for absolute H concentration determination.

Yan, Yong [ORNL; Qian, Shuo [ORNL; Littrell, Ken [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL; Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Plummer, Lee K [ORNL

2013-01-01

273

Nondestructive Evaluation of Tissue Engineered Articular Cartilage Using Time-Resolved Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Ultrasound Backscatter Microscopy  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study is to evaluate the ability of a bimodal technique integrating time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS) and ultrasound backscatter microscopy (UBM) for nondestructive detection of changes in the biochemical, structural, and mechanical properties of self-assembled engineered articular cartilage constructs. The cartilage constructs were treated with three chemical agents (collagenase, chondroitinase-ABC, and ribose) to induce changes in biochemical content (collagen and glycosaminoglycan [GAG]) of matured constructs (4 weeks); and to subsequently alter the mechanical properties of the construct. The biochemical changes were evaluated using TRFS. The microstructure and the thickness of the engineered cartilage samples were characterized by UBM. The optical and ultrasound results were validated against those acquired via conventional techniques including collagen and GAG quantification and measurement of construct stiffness. Current results demonstrated that a set of optical parameters (e.g., average fluorescence lifetime and decay constants) showed significant correlation (p<0.05) with biochemical and mechanical data. The high-resolution ultrasound images provided complementary cross-section information of the cartilage samples morphology. Therefore, the technique was capable of nondestructively evaluating the composition of extracellular matrix and the microstructure of engineered tissue, demonstrating great potential as an alternative to traditional destructive assays. PMID:22010819

Responte, Donald; Xie, Hongtao; Liu, Jing; Fatakdawala, Hussain; Hu, Jerry; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.

2012-01-01

274

Development and optimization of thermographic techniques for Non-Destructive Evaluation of multilayered structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quality control of modern materials is of the utmost importance in science and industry. Methods for nondestructive evaluation of material properties and the presence of defects are numerous. They differ in terms of their sensitivity and applicability in various conditions, and they provide different kinds of data such as the speed of sound in the material, its hardness, radiation absorption, etc. Based on measured characteristics an analyst makes a decision on the material studied. This work addresses a class of methods known as active thermographic analysis. Thermography analyzes the temperature of the surface of the sample under different external conditions. By keeping track of temperature changes at the surface caused by a deposition of heat on the sample one can determine its material properties such as theand processing the data captured it is possible to make decisions on parameters of this sample. Among the data which can be acquired are such important information as the location of internal defects (e.g., detachments, hollows, inclusions), thickness of the material layers, thermal parameters of the material and the location of internal defects (e.g., detachments, hollows, inclusions). The first part of this research investigates a method for analysis of layered composite materials using the approach based on interference of so called temperature waves. As demonstrated using the expressions derived, one can determine the thermal properties of the layers of the sample by applying a harmonically modulated heat flux to the surfaces and measuring the phase of the periodically changing surface temperature. This approach can be of use in the field of designing and analysis of composite thermal insulation coatings. In the second part of this work a method of analyzing objects of fine art was investigated, particularly - detection of subsurface defects. In the process of preserving art it is of primary importance to determine whether restoration is necessary. Moreover, this analysis should be done on a regular basis to prevent defects from increasing in size over time. Conventional methods, such as infrared photography and X-ray radiography may not be suitable for this application, because most of detachments are too deep for infrared to reach them, and too thin for providing enough contrast on X-ray images. This highlights the need for the development of methodsfor detection of hidden defects and structure of art pieces to detect the structure of art pieces and any hidden defects present. Thermography has strong potential as a tool for non-invasive analysis of works of art and only recently has it been actively promoted into this field. However, due to the general unpredictability of the structure of brushstrokes as well as the properties of paint, it is difficult to apply a physical model to the analysis of paintings. In addition, an improved method is proposed. This proposed method is mainly based on PCT, but it is capable of returning clear images of subsurface defects and the structure of the support. Unlike standard PCT images, the images acquired by this method do not exhibit visually similar features.

Gavrilov, Dmitry J.

275

Nondestructive Evaluation of Foam Insulation on the Space Shuttle External Tank  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Foam loss on the External Tank (ET) during launch can be caused by a number of factors. Voids are the best understood mechanism of foam loss, although it is known that delaminations, cracks and crushed foam can also lead to liberation of foam. Shortly after the Columbia accident, work began on non-destructive evaluation of foam targeted at finding voids and delaminations. After several months of searching for candidate methods capable of inspecting ET foam, the five most promising techniques were taken through a blind test and narrowed down to two methods to develop and use for inspection of the ET. These methods were backscatter radiography and terahertz imaging. The backscatter radiography system measures a test part by detecting Compton backscattered x-ray energy generated by a collimated beam of x-rays directed at the test subject. This collimated beam is scanned across the subject, recording scatter intensity data one pixel at a time until the area of interest is covered. The resulting data can be used to generate an image similar to a radiograph. Some depth information can be gathered utilizing apertures or collimation on the detectors. The detectors are located around the collimated source, making this a single sided inspection. The void detection limit with the currently utilized system is around 0.5 inches in diameter by 0.2 inches high. The terahertz imaging system inspects a test part by utilizing a transceiver to emit a pulse focused at the aluminum skin of the ET, which reflects it back to the transceiver where it is analyzed. The transceiver is scanned across the area of interest until a measurement has been taken at every location. Amplitude, time delay and frequency content are examined to note any discontinuities which may be the result of a void or other type of defect. The pulse currently utilized is in the millimeter wave regime. The void detection limit with this system is around 0.5 inches in diameter by 0.2 inches high. With increased interest in other causes of foam loss following the flight of Discovery in July 2005, laser shearography was added to the techniques used for inspecting ET foam. The shearography method records a sheared image of a laser speckle pattern projected on a test part before And after some sort of excitation. The resultant fringe pattern allows the slope of the out of plane displacement to be measured. For crushed and delaminated foam applications, a non-contact air coupled acoustic force is used to excite the surface of the foam. Regions without defects tend to respond differently to the sound energy than do regions with defects, generating a map of the foam integrity. Foam crushed to a depth of about 0.1 inches is detectable with shearography even after it has relaxed to its original shape.

Richter, Joel; Walker, James L.

2006-01-01

276

Quantitative evaluation of passage retrieval algorithms for question answering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passage retrieval is an important component common to many question answering systems. Because most evaluations of question answering systems focus on end-to-end performance, comparison of common components becomes difficult. To address this shortcoming, we present a quantitative evaluation of various passage retrieval algorithms for question answering, implemented in a framework called Pauchok. We present three important findings: Boolean querying schemes

Stefanie Tellex; Boris Katz; Jimmy J. Lin; Aaron Fernandes; Gregory Marton

2003-01-01

277

Quantitative evaluation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): Executive briefing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of an independent quantitative evaluation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) for central station applications are summarized. A central station power plant located in the Gulf of Mexico and delivering power to the mainland United States was emphasized. The evaluation of OTEC is based on three important issues: resource availability, technical feasibility, and cost.

Gritton, E. C.; Pei, R. Y.; Hess, R. W.

1980-08-01

278

Pulse thermography for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of sound, de-mineralized and re-mineralized enamel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current limitations for diagnosing mineralization state of tooth enamel can lead to improper surgical treatments. A method is investigated by which the tooth health state is characterized according to its thermal response, which is hypothesized to be sensitive to increased porosity in enamel that is caused by demineralization. Several specimens consisting of previously extracted human teeth a re prepared by exposure to Streptococcus mutans A32-2 in trypticase-soy-borth supplemented with 5% sucrose at 37°C for 3 or 6 days to de-mineralize two 1×1mm2-windows on each tooth. One of these windows is then re-mineralized with 250 or 1,100ppm-F as NaF for 10 days by pH-cyclic-model. Pulse thermography is used to measure the thermal response of these sections as well as the sound (healthy) portions of the specimen. A spatial profile of the thermal parameters of the specimens is then extracted from the thermography data and are used to compare the sound, de-mineralized, and re-mineralized areas. Results show that the thermal parameters are sensitive to the mineralization state of the tooth and that this method has the potential to accurately and quickly characterize the mineralization state of teeth, thereby allowing future dentists to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment for teeth that have experienced demineralization.

Ando, Masatoshi; Sharp, Nathan; Adams, Douglas

2012-04-01

279

Quantitative non-destructive evaluation of porous composite materials based on ultrasonic wave propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Porosity in composite media using ultrasonic waves is characterized. The derivation of local approximations to the Kramers-Kronig relations are presented and it is shown that they may also be applicable to systems that could conceivably exhibit considerable dispersion such as composite laminates containing porosity.

Miller, James G.

1987-01-01

280

The RAMANITA © method for non-destructive and in situ semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "RAMANITA ©" method, for semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts and mathematical calculation by simultaneous equations, is published here in detail in English for the first time. It was conceived by the present writer 20 years ago for binary and ternary pyroxene and garnet systems. The mathematical description was set out in 1989, but in an abstract in an obscure French special publication. Detailed "step-by-step" calibration of two garnet ternaries, followed by their linking, by M. Pinet and D.C. Smith in the early 1990s provided a hexary garnet database. Much later, using this garnet database, which forms part of his personal database called RAMANITA ©, the present writer began to develop the method by improving the terminology, automating the calculations, discussing problems and experimenting with different real chemical problems in archaeometry. Although this RAMANITA © method has been very briefly mentioned in two recent books, the necessary full mathematical explanation is given only here. The method will find application in any study which requires obtaining a non-destructive semi-quantitative chemical analysis from mineral solid solutions that cannot be analysed by any destructive analytical method, in particular for archaeological, geological or extraterrestrial research projects, e.g. from gemstones or other crystalline artworks of the cultural heritage (especially by Mobile Raman Microscopy (MRM)) in situ in museums or at archaeological sites, including under water for subaquatic archaeometry; from scientifically precious mineral microinclusions (such as garnet or pyroxene within diamond); from minerals in rocks analysed in situ on planetary bodies by a rover (especially "at distance" by telescopy). Recently some other workers have begun deducing chemical compositions from Raman wavenumber shifts in multivariate chemical space, but the philosophical approach is quite different.

Smith, David C.

2005-08-01

281

Pod Generator Project, Development of Numerical Modeling Tools for Quantitative Assessment of the Performance of Non-Destructive Inspection Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Risk based inspection strategies rely on detailed knowledge of the performance of inspection techniques. It is well known that every inspection technique has limitations in terms of reliability and effectiveness. Moreover, these are influenced by many factors. E.g. it depends on operator skills, inspection procedure, defect and object geometry as well as technique specific instrument properties and settings. The objective of the "POD generator" project is to develop a numerical modeling approach to assess inspection effectiveness for a specific technique and situation flexibly and reliably yet at acceptable costs. Besides the models to simulate various degradation mechanisms, numerical models have been developed and validated for accurately simulating the physics of inspection techniques. Also the human factor is taken into account. These numerical models are then used to generate quantitative probability of detection (POD) curves. This will be illustrated for ultrasonic time-of-flight-diffraction (TOFD) inspection of fatigue cracks.

Bloom, J. G. P.; Stelwagen, U.; Mast, A.; Volker, A. W. F.; Krom, A. H. M.; Mohamoud, A. A.; Van Gils, G. P.

2009-03-01

282

Preliminary technique assessment for nondestructive evaluation certification of the NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] disposal container closure  

SciTech Connect

Under the direction of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) program, the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project is evaluating a candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a participant in the NNWSI project, is developing waste package designs to meet the NRC requirements. One aspect of this waste package is the nondestructive testing of the final closure of the waste container. The container closure weld can best be nondestructively examined (NDE) by a combination of ultrasonics and liquid penetrants. This combination can be applied remotely and can meet stringent quality control requirements common to nuclear applications. Further development in remote systems and inspection will be required to meet anticipated requirements for flaw detection reliability and sensitivity. New research is not required but might reduce cost or inspection time. Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant methods can examine all closure methods currently being considered, which include fusion welding and inertial welding, among others. These NDE methods also have a history of application in high radiation environments and a well developed technology base for remote operation that can be used to reduce development and design costs. 43 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Day, R.A.

1988-12-31

283

Enhancements of eddy current testing techniques for quantitative nondestructive testing of key structural components of nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, studies on upgrade of eddy current testing (ECT) techniques for inspection of stress corrosion cracks (SCC) in key structural components of a nuclear power plant are reported. Access and scanning vehicle (robot), advanced probes for steam generator (SG) tube inspection, developments and evaluations of new ECT probes for welding joint, and ECT-based crack sizing technique are described,

Zhenmao Chen; Noritaka Yusa; Kenzo Miya

2008-01-01

284

Electromagnetic Nondestructive Evaluation of Wire Insulation and Models of Insulation Material Properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Polymers have been widely used as wiring electrical insulation materials in space/air-craft. The dielectric properties of insulation polymers can change over time, however, due to various aging processes such as exposure to heat, humidity and mechanical stress. Therefore, the study of polymers used in electrical insulation of wiring is important to the aerospace industry due to potential loss of life and aircraft in the event of an electrical fire caused by breakdown of wiring insulation. Part of this research is focused on studying the mechanisms of various environmental aging process of the polymers used in electrical wiring insulation and the ways in which their dielectric properties change as the material is subject to the aging processes. The other part of the project is to determine the feasibility of a new capacitive nondestructive testing method to indicate degradation in the wiring insulation, by measuring its permittivity.

Bowler, Nicola; Kessler, Michael R.; Li, Li; Hondred, Peter R.; Chen, Tianming

2012-01-01

285

Rapid, non-destructive evaluation of ultrathin WSe{sub 2} using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

SciTech Connect

The utilization of tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) in electronic and optoelectronic devices depends on the ability to understand and control the process-property relationship during synthesis. We demonstrate that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an excellent technique for accurate, non-destructive determination of ultra-thin (<30 nm) WSe{sub 2} properties. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were found to be independent of thickness down to 1.3 nm, and were used to determine film thickness, which was confirmed to be within 9% of values found via atomic force microscopy. Finally, the optical bandgap was found to closely correlate with thickness, ranging from 1.2 to 1.55 eV as the WSe{sub 2} is thinned to the equivalent of 2 atomic layers.

Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hossain, Lorraine [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Eichfeld, Chad M. [Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Robinson, Joshua A., E-mail: jrobinson@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

2014-09-01

286

Nondestructive Impedance Spectroscopy Evaluation of the Bond Coat Oxidation in Thermal Barrier Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the impedance spectroscopy technique was employed to examine nondestructively the isothermal oxidation of air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in air at 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were also used to characterize the microstructure evolution of TBCs. After oxidation, the thermally grown oxide (TGO), which was mainly composed of alumina as confirmed by EDX, formed at the upper ceramic coat/bond coat interface, the lower bond coat/substrate interface, and the bond coat. Impedance diagrams obtained from impedance measurements at room temperature were analyzed according to the equivalent circuit model proposed for the TBCs. Various observed electrical responses relating to the growth of oxides and the sintering of YSZ were explained by simulating the impedance spectra of the TBCs.

Yang, L.; Zhou, Y. C.; Mao, W. G.; Liu, Q. X.

287

Main geophysical techniques used for non-destructive evaluation in cultural built heritage: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical methodologies have been implemented, tested and validated as diagnostic and /or monitoring tools in artworks or historical monuments. They are non-destructive and can give an image of internal structure of investigated medium. This paper is a review about the main geophysical techniques applied to the study of cultural built heritage (excluding the archaeology field). A brief description of the used methodologies is presented, the main investigations done in this field are showed, the method or methods most appropriate to answer each problem (moisture detection, characterization of the materials, study of the structural continuity of the material, assessment of intervention’s effectiveness) are indicated and the main advances and gaps and future developments are also pointed out.

Martinho, E.; Dionísio, A.

2014-10-01

288

Nondestructive evaluation of acoustic properties of fuel cell proton-exchange membranes by vector contrast acoustic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, the interest in the research and development of "green energy" has increased dramatically, with numerous research grants and investment in the areas of wind power, solar power and fuel cell technology. We present results obtained from the evaluation of the acoustic properties of proton-exchange membranes used in hydrogen fuel cells, which relate directly to the microelastic properties of such membranes. These properties play an important role in the durability and applicability as well as the efficiency of such membranes. DuPont Nafion membranes are the most commonly used polymeric membranes in hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and are therefore used as examples in this study. The microscope used in this non-destructive characterization study is a vector-contrast version of the scanning acoustic microscope which yields images in magnitude- and phase contrast.

Kamanyi, Albert E.; Grill, Wolfgang

2012-04-01

289

Non-Destructive Evaluation Method of Pharmaceutical Tablet by Terahertz-Time-Domain Spectroscopy: Application to Sound-Alike Medicines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) as a promising tool for discriminating pharmaceutical tablets, THz-TDS has been applied for discrimination between pharmaceutical tablets with sound-alike names. Two sets of medicine tablets with sound-alike names, that is, Amaryl and Almarl, Zyloric and Zantac, are examined in this study. Based on the difference in THz absorption spectra, we have succeeded in distinguishing between sound-alike medicine tablets clearly for each set. The results in this study suggest that THz-TDS is a useful tool that is indispensable for medical security maintenance, such as a non-destructive way to prevent mix-up of medicine.

Kawase, Masaya; Yamamoto, Kohji; Takagi, Keita; Yasuda, Ryohei; Ogawa, Masafumi; Hatsuda, Yasutoshi; Kawanishi, Sonoyo; Hirotani, Yoshihiko; Myotoku, Michiaki; Urashima, Yoko; Nagai, Katsuhito; Ikeda, Kenji; Konishi, Hiroki; Yamakawa, Junji; Tani, Masahiko

2013-09-01

290

High temperature ultrasonic transducers for the generation of guided waves for non-destructive evaluation of pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Applications for non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring of steam generators require ultrasonic transducers capable of withstanding the high temperatures of the pipes and heat exchangers. These applications require a strong coupling of the transducer to the heat exchanger's complex geometry at the elevated temperatures. Our objective is to use spray-on piezo-electrics for depositing comb transducers onto the curved surfaces. This paper shows results for composite transducers such as lead zirconate titanate/ bismuth titanate and bismuth titanate/ lithium niobate. The comb transducers were prepared by precision laser ablation. The feasibility of producing second harmonic waves in rods with these spay-on comb transducers was demonstrated and paves the way toward measuring material degradation early-on before crack initiation occurs.

Sinding, K.; Searfass, C.; Malarich, N.; Reinhardt, B.; Tittmann, B. R.

2014-02-01

291

Nondestructive Evaluation of the Gimbal Joint Flowliner Slots in the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Hydrogen Feedline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fatigue cracks were discovered in the STS-112 Liquid Hydrogen Feedline flowliners in 2002. This led to a development program aimed at providing nondestructive evaluation methods and techniques to verify the existence of these types of cracks in oval shaped slots cut into the ends of the feedlines above the bellows joints. These slots were used to improve flow dynamics and to facilitate cleaning in the bellow joint region. These types of fatigue cracks posed a possible metal debris ingestion threat for the Space Shuttle Main Engines, which attached to these particular joints. Results of this program produced three reliable inspection techniques utilizing the imaging of replisets with a Scanning Electron microscope, eddy current, and ultrasound. The program developed unique probes and fixtures and in the case of eddy current and ultrasound, provided qualification and certification of the particular techniques by various Design of Experiments and Probability of Detection studies utilizing multiple inspectors.

Suits, Michael W.; Bryson, Craig C.

2006-01-01

292

High temperature ultrasonic transducers for the generation of guided waves for non-destructive evaluation of pipes  

SciTech Connect

Applications for non-destructive evaluation and structural health monitoring of steam generators require ultrasonic transducers capable of withstanding the high temperatures of the pipes and heat exchangers. These applications require a strong coupling of the transducer to the heat exchanger’s complex geometry at the elevated temperatures. Our objective is to use spray-on piezo-electrics for depositing comb transducers onto the curved surfaces. This paper shows results for composite transducers such as lead zirconate titanate/ bismuth titanate and bismuth titanate/ lithium niobate. The comb transducers were prepared by precision laser ablation. The feasibility of producing second harmonic waves in rods with these spay-on comb transducers was demonstrated and paves the way toward measuring material degradation early-on before crack initiation occurs.

Sinding, K.; Searfass, C.; Malarich, N.; Reinhardt, B.; Tittmann, B. R. [Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2014-02-18

293

Non-destructive evaluation means and method of flaw reconstruction utilizing an ultrasonic multi-viewing transducer data acquistion system  

DOEpatents

A multi-viewing ultrasound transducer acquisition system for non-destructive evaluation, flaw detection and flaw reconstruction in materials. A multiple transducer assembly includes a central transducer surrounded by a plurality of perimeter transducers, each perimeter transducer having an axis of transmission which can be angularly oriented with respect to the axis of transmission of the central transducer to intersect the axis of transmission of the central transducer. A control apparatus automatically and remotely positions the transducer assembly with respect to the material by a positioning apparatus and adjusts the pe GRANT REFERENCE This invention was conceived and reduced to practice at least in part under a grant from the Department of Energy under Contract No. W-7407-ENG-82.

Thompson, Donald O. (Ames, IA); Wormley, Samuel J. (Ames, IA)

1989-03-28

294

Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for X-ray computed tomography (CT) test methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival storage methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE test results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitio...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

295

Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for digital radiographic (DR) test methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of digital X-ray imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitions, information modules and a ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01

296

Survey over image thresholding techniques and quantitative performance evaluation  

E-print Network

thresholding methods from various categories are compared in the context of nondestructive testing applications image modalities for nondestructive testing NDT applications, such as ultrasonic images in Ref. 10, eddy the thresholding algorithms that perform uniformly better over nonde- structive testing and document image

Aksoy, Selim

297

The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) test is one of the most com-monly used tools for nondestructive evaluation of flexible pavements.  

E-print Network

for nondestructive evaluation of flexible pavements. Although the test is intrinsically dynamic, the stateThe falling weight deflectometer (FWD) test is one of the most com- monly used tools in estimation of the pavement's stiffness characteristics. Because of the decided dynamic nature of the FWD test

Guzina, Bojan

298

Quantitative evaluation of Parkinson's disease using sensor based smart glove  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative movement disorder. The motor status of patients with PD can be characterized by the Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS). However, the UPDRS evaluates the movement disorders on a descriptive level only. Diagnosis and therapy of PD could be augmented if a quantitative assessment could be implemented. Thus, a wireless wearable sensor system

K. Niazmand; K. Tonn; A. Kalaras; U. M. Fietzek; J. H. Mehrkens; T. C. Lueth

2011-01-01

299

A Quantitative Evaluation of the AVITEWRITE Model Handwriting Learning  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Evaluation of the AVITEWRITE Model of Handwriting Learning R. W. Paine *, S develops through imitation, as during the learning of handwriting by children. Such complex sequential acts. The Adaptive Vector Integration to Endpoint Handwriting (AVITEWRITE) model of Grossberg and Paine (2000

Grossberg, Stephen

300

Shearographic and thermographic nondestructive evaluation of the space shuttle structure and thermal protection systems (TPS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shearography and thermography have shown promising results on orbiter structure and external tank (ET) and solid rocket booster (SRB) thermal protection systems (TPS). The orbiter uses a variety of composite structure, the two most prevalent materials being aluminum and graphite-epoxy honeycomb. Both techniques have detected delaminations as small at 0.25 inches diameter in the orbiter payload bay doors graphite-epoxy honeycomb structure. Other applications include the robotic manipulator system (RMS) and the rudder speed brake structure. The ET uses spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) as the TPS and the SRB forward section uses marshall sprayable ablative as the TPS. Debonding SOFI damage to the orbiter 'belly' tile and exposes the ET to thermal loading. Voids in SOFI test panels as small as 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of not more than 10 inches of water or 0.4 pounds per square inch. Preliminary results of the X33 metallic TPS are presented. Ultrasonic testing approved for orbiter bond integrity testing, is time consuming and problematic. No current non-destructive inspection technique is approved for inspection of ET/SRB TPS or the orbiter RMS honeycomb at Kennedy Space Center. Only visual inspections are routinely performed on orbiter structure. The various successes of these two techniques make them good candidates for the aforementioned applications.

Davis, Christopher K.

1996-11-01

301

Nondestructive thermoelectric evaluation of the grit blasting induced effects in metallic biomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grit blasting is a surface treatment process widely used to enhance mechanical fixation of the implants through increasing their roughness. Test samples of two metallic biomaterial alloys such 316LVM and Ti6Al4V were blasted by projecting Al2O3 and ZrO2 particles which yield a coarse and a fine rough surface. Then, the blasted samples were thermally treated before and after partial stress relaxation and measured by non-destructive thermoelectric techniques (NDTT), the non-contacting and contacting thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements respectively. It has been found that the TEP measurements are associated directly with the subtle material variations such as cold work and compressive residual stresses due to plastic deformation produced by grit blasting. The TEP measurements clearly demonstrate that the non-contact NDTT technique is very sensitive to the reverse transformation of the ?'-martensite (blasted 316LVM) and the expected relaxation of compressive residual stresses with increasing the severity of the thermal treatment (blasted 316LVM and Ti-6Al-4V), while the contact NDTT results are closely related to grain size refinement and work hardening.

Carreon, H.; Ruiz, A.; Barriuso, S.; González-Carrasco, J. L.; Caballero, F. G.; Lieblich, M.

2013-01-01

302

Nondestructive evaluation of bone cement and bone cement/metal interface failure.  

PubMed

To quantify the failure mechanisms related to the loosening of cemented hip joint replacements, novel techniques, capable of monitoring, nondestructively, the initiation and progression of failure during in vitro fatigue tests, were employed. Fatigue testing of model cement and cement-stem test pieces was monitored using acoustic emission (AE) sensors. Once damage was detected, an ultrasonic imaging system was used to obtain an image of the damage site and to measure the stiffness of the affected region. This method of examination provided a detailed insight into the internal crack propagation and delamination patterns. Initial work was conducted on bulk cement specimens subjected to bending and tension. The second stage of the work examined a model stem-cement interface under tensile opening loading conditions. A novel ultrasonic technique was used to measure the bond quality at the cement-metal interface. Progressive delamination was identified over time, and the AE technique was able to identify critical areas of delamination before they could be identified conclusively by ultrasonic imaging. The work has demonstrated the potential of the AE technique as a tool for the preclinical assessment of total hip replacements. PMID:19927335

Browne, M; Jeffers, J R T; Saffari, N

2010-02-01

303

Mixed Waste Focus Area/Characterization Monitoring Sensor Technology Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project End-User Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) in conjunction with the Characterization Monitoring and Sensor Technology (CMST) crosscut program identified the need to objectively evaluate the capability of nondestructive waste assay (NDA) technologies. This was done because of a general lack of NDA technology performance data with respect to a representative cross section of waste form configurations comprising the Department of Energy (DOE) contact-handled alpha contaminated [e.g., transuranic (TRU) waste]. The overall objective of the Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was to establish a known and unbiased NDA data and information base that can be used to support end-user decisions with regards to technology system selection and to support technology development organizations in identifying technology system deficiencies. The primary performance parameters evaluated in the CEP were measurement bias and relative precision. The performance of a given NDA technology is a direct function of the attributes represented by the waste matrix configuration. Such attributes include matrix density, matrix elemental composition, radionuclidic composition, radionuclide mass loading, and the spatial variation of these components. Analyzing the manner in which bias and precision vary as a function of test sample attribute and NDA technology provides a foundation for deriving performance capability and limitation statements and determines which waste matrix attributes, or combinations of attributes, are compatible or incompatible with existing technologies. The CEP achieved the stated end-user objective. The data indicate that the nondestructive waste assay systems evaluated have a definite capability to perform assay of contact-handled TRU waste packaged in 55-gallon drums. There is, however, a performance envelope where this capability exists, an area near the envelope boundaries where it is questionable, and a realm outside the envelope where the technologies do not perform. Therefore, the end user must be aware of this envelope and ensure the appropriate technology is selected. This program provides the end user with waste type specific performance data to assist in the assessment and selection of a given waste NDA technology. Additionally, the CEP afforded the private sector participants the opportunity to evaluate system performance using National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable radioactive significant enhancements to their respective systems and supported all participants in attaining DOE-CAO certification. Ultimately, the DOE end users will benefit from these enhancements.

G. K. Becker; M. E. McIlwain; M. J. Connolly

1998-11-01

304

Destructive and non-destructive density determination: method comparison and evaluation from the Laguna Potrok Aike sedimentary record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density measurements play a central role in the characterization of sediment profiles. When working with long records (>100 m), such as those routinely obtained within the frame of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, several methods can be used, all of them varying in resolution, time-cost efficiency and source of errors within the measurements. This paper compares two relatively new non-destructive densitometric methods, CT-Scanning and the coherent/incoherent ratio from an Itrax XRF core Scanner, to data acquired from a Multi-sensor core logger Gamma Ray Attenuation Porosity Evaluator (MSCL Grape) and discrete measurements of dry bulk density, wet bulk density and water content. Quality assessment of density measurements is performed at low and high resolution along the Laguna Potrok Aike (LPA) composite sequence. Giving its resolution (0.4 mm in our study), its high signal to noise ratio, we conclude that CT-Scan provides a precise, fast and cost-efficient way to determine density variation of long sedimentary record. Although more noisy that the CT-Scan measurements, coherent/incoherent ratio from the XRF core scanner also provides a high-resolution, reliable continuous measure of density variability of the sediment profile. The MSCL Grape density measurements provide actual density data and have the significant advantage to be completely non-destructive since the acquisition is performed on full cores prior to opening. However, the quality MSCL Grape density measurements can potentially be reduced by the presence of voids within the sediment core tubes and the dry and bulk density measurements suffers from sampling challenges and are time-consuming.

PASADO Science Team Fortin, David; Francus, Pierre; Gebhardt, Andrea Catalina; Hahn, Annette; Kliem, Pierre; Lisé-Pronovost, Agathe; Roychowdhury, Rajarshi; Labrie, Jacques; St-Onge, Guillaume

2013-07-01

305

Non-Destructive Evaluation of Rock Bolts Associated With Optical Strain Sensors at the Homestake Gold Mine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber-Bragg Grating (FBG) optical strain sensors have been installed in the former Homestake Gold Mine (Lead, SD) as part of an early science project at the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). FBG sensors are anchored within an alcove at the 4100’ level of the mine using rock bolts and coupled to the rock mass with resin epoxy and cement grout. The quality of the coupling between the rock bolt and the rock mass is essential to assure that true rock mass strains are being recorded. To evaluate the integrity of the installed rock bolt system, guided ultrasonic waves can be used as a non-destructive monitoring system. The propagation of reflected ultrasonic waves capture information about the degree of coupling between the steel rock bolt and resin epoxy/cement grout and between the resin epoxy/cement grout and the surrounding rock mass, and hence the integrity of the installed rock bolt system. In this study, we use the phase velocity obtained from ultrasonic wave propagation to estimate the rock modulus. In our initial testing we generated a broadband elastic wave along the length of a rock bolt anchored in a concrete cylinder while monitoring multiple reflections with a single accelerometer affixed at the exposed end of the rock bolt. The captured waveforms include several reflections that were then analyzed to obtain frequency response, coherence, phase velocity, and damping between multiple reflections. As the wavelength increases, the response captures first elastic properties of the steel and then the combined elastic properties of the rock bolt/rock mass system. Challenges associated with implementing this non-destructive testing technique in rock masses include the generation of wide bandwidth signals having enough strength to produce multiple reflections with high enough signal-to-noise ratios to capture properties of multi-scale systems.

Kogle, M. M.; Fratta, D.; Wang, H. F.; Geox^Tm

2010-12-01

306

Guidelines to Evaluate Human Observational Studies for Quantitative Risk Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Careful evaluation of the quality of human observational studies (HOS) is required to assess the suitability of HOS for quantitative risk assessment (QRA). In particular, the quality of quantitative exposure assessment is a crucial aspect of HOS to be considered for QRA. Objective We aimed to develop guidelines for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and to apply these guidelines to case–control and cohort studies on the relation between exposure to benzene and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Methods We developed a three-tiered framework specific for the evaluation of HOS for QRA and used it to evaluate HOS on the relation between exposure to benzene and AML. Results The developed framework consists of 20 evaluation criteria. A specific focus of the framework was on the quality of exposure assessment applied in HOS. Seven HOS on the relation of benzene and AML were eligible for evaluation. Of these studies, five were suitable for QRA and were ranked based on the quality of the study design, conduct, and reporting on the study. Conclusion The developed guidelines facilitate a structured evaluation that is transparent in its application and harmonizes the evaluation of HOS for QRA. With the application of the guidelines, it was possible to identify studies suitable for QRA of benzene and AML and rank these studies based on their quality. Application of the guidelines in QRA will be a valuable addition to the assessment of the weight of evidence of HOS for QRA. PMID:19079723

Vlaanderen, Jelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Heederik, Dick; Kromhout, Hans

2008-01-01

307

Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years), Cs-137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days), and Sr-90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Totsuka, Yumi; Murata, Jiro

2014-03-01

308

Simultaneous sum-frequency and vibro-acoustography imaging for nondestructive evaluation and testing applications  

SciTech Connect

High-resolution ultrasound imaging systems for inspection of defects and flaws in materials are of great demand in many industries. Among these systems, Vibro-acoustography (VA) has shown excellent capabilities as a noncontact method for nondestructive high-resolution imaging applications. This method consists of mixing two confocal ultrasound beams, slightly shifted in frequency, to produce a dynamic (oscillatory) radiation force in the region of their intersection. This force vibrates the object placed at the focus of the confocal transducer. As a result of the applied force, an acoustic emission field at the difference frequency of the primary incident ultrasound beams is produced. In addition to the difference frequency acoustic emission signal, there exists another signal at the sum frequency, formed in the intersection region of the two primary beams. The goal of this study is to investigate the formation of high-resolution images using the sum frequency of ultrasound waves in VA while concurrently forming the conventional difference-frequency VA image, thereby increasing the amount of information acquired during a single scan. A theoretical model describing the sum-frequency wave propagation, including beam forming and image formation in the confocal configuration, is developed and verified experimentally. Moreover, sample experiments are performed on a flawed fiber-reinforced ceramic composite plate. Images at both the difference and sum frequencies are compared and discussed. Results show that the sum-frequency image produces a high-resolution C scan of the plate by which the flaws and structural details of the plate can be detected.

Mitri, F. G.; Silva, G. T.; Greenleaf, J. F.; Fatemi, M. [Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Instituto Nacional de Matematica Pura e Aplicada-IMPA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 22460-320 (Brazil); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Ultrasound Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2007-12-01

309

Quantitative non-destructive testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work undertaken during this period included two primary efforts. The first is a continuation of theoretical development from the previous year of models and data analyses for NDE using the Optical Thermal Infra-Red Measurement System (OPTITHIRMS) system, which involves heat injection with a laser and observation of the resulting thermal pattern with an infrared imaging system. The second is an investigation into the use of the thermoelastic effect as an effective tool for NDE. As in the past, the effort is aimed towards NDE techniques applicable to composite materials in structural applications. The theoretical development described produced several models of temperature patterns over several geometries and material types. Agreement between model data and temperature observations was obtained. A model study with one of these models investigated some fundamental difficulties with the proposed method (the primitive equation method) for obtaining diffusivity values in plates of thickness and supplied guidelines for avoiding these difficulties. A wide range of computing speeds was found among the various models, with a one-dimensional model based on Laplace's integral solution being both very fast and very accurate.

Welch, C. S.

1985-01-01

310

Reference Specimen for Nondestructive Evaluation: Characterization of the Oxide Layer of a Cold Shot in Inconel 600  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of a cold shot in an aircraft turbine blade can lead to the catastrophic failure of the blade and ultimately to the failure of the power plant. Currently, no nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method exists to detect this kind of defect. This deficiency is primarily due to the fact that the only known cold shot defects in existence are those found in failed blades. Therefore, in order to develop effective NDE methods, reference specimens are needed which mimic the embedded oxide layer that is a primary distinguishing feature of a cold shot. Here, we present a procedure to synthetically reproduce the features of a real cold shot in Inconel 600 and the precise characterization of this oxide layer as a reference specimen suitable for NDE evaluation. As a first step to develop a suitable NDE technique, high-frequency ultrasound simulations are considered. A theoretical 1-D model is developed in order to quantify the multiple reflection-transmission trajectory of the acoustic wave in the reference specimen. This paper also presents an experimental determination of the density and the Young's modulus of the Inconel 600 oxide, which are required as inputs to calculate the acoustic impedance used in the theoretical model.

Saletes, I.; Filleter, T.; Goldbaum, D.; Chromik, R. R.; Sinclair, A. N.

2015-02-01

311

Waterless Coupling of Ultrasound from Planar Contact Transducers to Curved and Irregular Surfaces during Non-destructive Ultrasonic Evaluations  

SciTech Connect

The Applied Physics group at the Pacific The Applied Physics group at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, WA has evaluated a method for waterless/liquidless coupling of ultrasonic energy from planar ultrasonic contact transducers to irregular test surfaces for ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation applications. Dry couplant material placed between a planar transducer face and a curved or uneven steel or plastic surface allows for effective sound energy coupling and preserves the integrity of the planar transducer sound field by serving as an acoustic impedance matching layer, providing good surface area contact between geometrically dissimilar surfaces and conforming to rough and unsmooth surfaces. Sound fields radiating from planar ultrasonic contact transducers coupled to curved and uneven surfaces using the dry coupling method were scanned and mapped using a Pinducer receiver connected to a raster scanner. Transducer sound field coverage at several ultrasonic frequencies and several distances from the transducer contact locations were found to be in good agreement with theoretical beam divergence and sound field coverage predictions for planar transducers coupled to simple, planar surfaces. This method is valuable for applications that do not allow for the use of traditional liquid-based ultrasonic couplants due to the sensitivity of the test materials to liquids and for applications that might otherwise require curved transducers or custom coupling wedges. The selection of dry coupling material is reported along with the results of theoretical sound field predictions, the laboratory testing apparatus and the empirical sound field data.

Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Wells, Mondell D.

2012-04-30

312

Evaluation of DNA microarray results with quantitative gene expression platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the performance characteristics of three quantitative gene expression technologies and correlated their expression measurements to those of five commercial microarray platforms, based on the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) data set. The limit of detection, assay range, precision, accuracy and fold-change correlations were assessed for 997 TaqMan Gene Expression Assays, 205 Standardized RT (Sta)RT-PCR assays and 244 QuantiGene

Roger D Canales; Yuling Luo; James C Willey; Bradley Austermiller; Catalin C Barbacioru; Cecilie Boysen; Kathryn Hunkapiller; Roderick V Jensen; Charles R Knight; Kathleen Y Lee; Yunqing Ma; Botoul Maqsodi; Adam Papallo; Elizabeth Herness Peters; Karen Poulter; Patricia L Ruppel; Raymond R Samaha; Leming Shi; Wen Yang; Lu Zhang; Federico M Goodsaid

2006-01-01

313

Innovative non-destructive evaluation methods on HTR fuel at AREVA NP: towards a 100% non invasive control strategy  

SciTech Connect

High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel consists in millimetric multilayered particles called TRISO, embedded, depending on the reactor design, in a pebble or cylinder-shaped graphite matrix called compact. Particles are typically composed of a 500 {mu}m fissile material kernel, a 95 {mu}m porous carbon layer called buffer, a 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer, a 35 {mu}m silicon carbide layer and another 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer. In order to ensure fuel qualification, as well as reactor safety, particles and compacts need to satisfy specifications concerning their physical characteristics and their integrity. In particular, geometrical parameters such as particle diameter and sphericity as well as layers thickness, but also layers density and the absence of structural defects such as cracks or de-cohesions need to be detected and characterized. In the past, a huge R and D work was carried out to build a TRISO particle characterization quality control plan, mainly based on particle sampling as well as destructive characterization methods. However, since then, development of industrial non-destructive evaluation techniques and devices contributed to envisage not only a non invasive control of HTR fuel, but also a 100% production control strategy. Since 2004, AREVA NP is engaged in a R and D program aiming at the development of innovative industrial nondestructive evaluation methods for HTR fuel. After investigating a number of potential techniques, some of them were selected based on their performances and/or their industrial potential. In particular, development has been carried out on high resolution X-Ray imaging allowing accurate layer thickness, layer density and structural defects characterization, X-Ray tomography offering the possibility to characterize fuel element homogeneity and determine the number of in-contact particles contained in a fuel element, infrared thermal imaging (ITI) allowing cracks detection, eddy currents (EC) enabling particle diameter measurements as well as crack detection and vision enabling real time automatic crack detection. These techniques were selected either for the richness of their information (X-Ray, tomography), or because of their high throughput rate (ITI, EC). For all these techniques, besides the development of a HTR fuel dedicated control method, equipment and probes were specifically designed, tested and optimized to obtain, in particular for ITI and EC, throughput rates that are compatible with a 100% production control strategy. (authors)

Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Hermosilla Lara, S.; Piriou, M.; Bargain, R. [AREVA NP, Non-destructive Evaluation Technical Center, Services Sector, BP 13, 71380 St Marcel (France); Guillermier, P. [AREVA NP, Fuel Sector, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France)

2007-07-01

314

Highlights of NASA's Role in Developing State-of-the-Art Nondestructive Evaluation for Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the 1970's, when the promise of composites was being pursued for aeronautics applications, NASA has had programs that addressed the development of NDE methods for composites. These efforts included both microscopic and macroscopic NDE. At the microscopic level, NDE investigations interrogated composites at the submicron to micron level to understand a composite's microstructure. A novel microfocus CT system was developed as well as the science underlying applications of acoustic microscopy to a composite's component material properties. On the macroscopic scale NDE techniques were developed that advanced the capabilities to be faster and more quantitative. Techniques such as stiffness imaging, ultrasonic arrays, laser based ultrasound, advanced acoustic emission, thermography, and novel health monitoring systems were researched. Underlying these methods has been a strong modeling capability that has aided in method development.

2001-01-01

315

Non-destructive evaluation of degradation in EB-PVD thermal barrier coatings by infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

At room temperature and atmospheric conditions infrared reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed for the detection of the phase transformation and residual stress within thermal barrier coatings (TBC). The TBC's samples initially consisted of the porous ceramic topcoat deposited by electron beam plasma vapor deposition, a bond coat and a superalloy substrate. Reflectance spectroscopy scans were performed from 7497 cm{sup -1} to 68 cm{sup -1} to analysis the fingerprint region as well as the chemical bonding region. These regions should indicate if a detectable change within the TBC response is a result of thermal degradation of the microstructure and the changes in yttrium dispersion throughout the yttrium stabilized zirconium. The thermal degradation was induced by thermal cycling the samples to 1100 Degree-Sign C and then cooling them in an atmospheric environment. X-ray diffraction was also used to detect the phase composition within the TBC samples and see if either would clearly identify failure prior to actual spallation. The eventual measurability and quantify-ability of the phase changes within the TBC's may be used as an effective non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique that would allow personnel in the field to know when servicing of the turbine blade was necessary.

Flattum, Richard Y.; Cooney, Adam T. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, NonDestructive Evaluation Branch, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

2013-01-25

316

Development of nondestructive evaluation techniques for high-temperature ceramic heat exchanger components. Ninth quarterly report, October-December 1979  

SciTech Connect

Progress in developing and evaluating nondestructive methods for testing ceramic components for high-temperature heat exchangers is reported. The sensitivity of the ultrasonic bore-side probe was demonstrated for detection of 125-..mu..m-deep circumferential EDM notches on ID and OD surfaces of sintered and siliconized tubes. The signal to noise ratios for the ultrasonic echoes are better than 10 to 1, beyond the initial expectations for detection of small reflectors. This results from focussing of the beam in the tube wall. Preliminary data were presented on microprocessor-controlled operation of the ultrasonic probe. Some problems involving the computer interfacing have to be resolved, but detection and recording of an EDM notch located was demonstrated. The acoustic microscope was modified to handle 30-MHz sound waves. This was done to improve the penetration ability of the sound in SiC tube walls. The modification results in less acoustic noise. The ability to detect a notch only 75 ..mu..m in width was demonstrated.

Not Available

1980-01-01

317

Design and preliminary results from a high temperature superconducting SQUID milliscope used for non-destructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

The authors present the design and preliminary results from a SQUID milliscope. The device was designed for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) as part of the Enhanced Surveillance Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory and uses a high temperature superconducting (HTS) SQUID sensor to map magnetic fields induced in the sample. Eddy currents are induced in the conducting sample by a wire coil designed to produce minimal magnetic field at the SQUID when no sample is present. The features of interest are characterized by anomalies in the induced magnetic field. The goal of the instrument is sensitivity to small features generally buried under several intervening layers ({approximately}1--10 mm) of conducting and/or non-conducting materials and robustness of design (i.e., the ability to operate in a noisy, unshielded environment). The device has primarily focused on specific NDE problems such as the ability to detect buried seams in conducting materials and quantify the width of these seams. The authors present the design of the instrument, and some data to demonstrate its capabilities.

Espy, M.A.; Atencio, L.; Flynn, E.R.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Matlashov, A.

1998-12-31

318

Roadmap for Nondestructive Evaluation of Reactor Pressure Vessel Research and Development by the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a five year effort which works to develop the fundamental scientific basis to understand, predict, and measure changes in materials and systems, structure, and components as they age in environments associated with continued long-term operations of existing commercial nuclear power reactors. This year, the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) Pathway of this program has placed emphasis on emerging Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods which support these objectives. DOE funded Research and Development (R&D) on emerging NDE techniques to support commercial nuclear reactor sustainability is expected to begin next year. This summer, the MAaD Pathway invited subject matter experts to participate in a series of workshops which developed the basis for the research plan of these DOE R&D NDE activities. This document presents the results of one of these workshops which are the DOE LWRS NDE R&D Roadmap for Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). These workshops made a substantial effort to coordinate the DOE NDE R&D with that already underway or planned by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) through their representation at these workshops.

Smith, Cyrus M [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Clayton, Dwight A [ORNL; Matlack, Katie [Georgia Institute of Technology; Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Light, Glenn [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio

2012-09-01

319

Method Developed for the High-Temperature Nondestructive Evaluation of Fiber-Reinforced Silicon Carbide Ceramic Matrix Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ceramic matrix composites have emerged as candidate materials to allow higher operating temperatures (1000 to 1400 C) in gas turbine engines. A need, therefore, exists to develop nondestructive methods to evaluate material integrity at the material operating temperature by monitoring thermal and mechanical fatigue. These methods would also have potential as quality inspection tools. The goal of this investigation at the NASA Lewis Research Center is to survey and correlate the temperature-dependent damping and stiffness of advanced ceramic composite materials with imposed thermal and stress histories that simulate in-service turbine engine conditions. A typical sample size of 100 by 4 by 2 cubic millimeters, along with the specified stiffness and density, placed the fundamental vibration frequencies between 100 and 2000 Hz. A modified Forster apparatus seemed most applicable to simultaneously measure both damping and stiffness. Testing in vacuum reduced the effects of air on the measurements. In this method, a single composite sample is vibrated at its fundamental tone; then suddenly, the mechanical excitation is removed so that the sample's motion freely decays with time. Typical results are illlustrated in this paper.

Goldsby, Jon C.

1998-01-01

320

A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis for comparison. Specimens were then inspected using acoustography, a large field ultrasonic inspection technique that is analogous to real-time X-ray imaging. Acoustography utilizes a unique, wide area two-dimensional (2-D) detector, called an acousto-optic (AO) sensor, to directly convert ultrasound into visual images; much like an image intensifier in real-time radiography. Finally, a newly developed guided wave scanning system was utilized to inspect the same set of samples. This system uses two transducers in a pitch catch configuration to examine the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Results are presented for all of the methods demonstrating each technique's detection capabilities and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Pergantis, Charles G.; Sandhu, Jaswinder S.

2004-07-01

321

950 keV, 3.95 MeV and 6 MeV X-band linacs for nondestructive evaluation and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing compact X-band linac X-ray sources for nondestructive evaluation and medicine. First, we develop a portable X-ray system by a 950keV 9.4GHz X-band linac to realize on-site inspection. We use a low power (250kW) magnetron as an RF source for compactness of the whole system. Since the RF power source is quite small and the stored energy in

Mitsuru Uesaka; Takuya Natsui; Kiwoo Lee; Katsuhiro Dobashi; Tomohiko Yamamoto; Takeshi Fujiwara; Haito Zhu; Kazuyuki Demachi; Eiji Tanabe; Masashi Yamamoto; Naoki Nakamura; Joichi Kusano; Toshiyasu Higo; Shigeki Fukuda; Mitsuhiro Yoshida; Shuji Matsumoto

2011-01-01

322

Compact 950 keV X-band (9.4GHz) Linac X-ray Source for On-site Nondestructive Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are developing a compact X-ray nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system using 9.4 GHz X-band linac with 250 kW magnetron. A conventional 1 MeV X-band machines use a large 1 MW magnetron system. We have chosen the 250 kW magnetron so that the RF heat loss is remarkably reduced. This design yields compactness and portable. This system consists of the X-band

Tomohiko Yamamoto; Takuya Natsui; Noritaka Yusa; Katsuhiro Dobashi; Mitsuru Uesaka; Toshiyasu Higo; Shigeki Fukuda; Mitsuo Akemoto; Mitsuhiro Yoshida; Toshikazu Takatomi; Noboru Kudoh; Eiji Tanabe; Naoki Nakamura; Seiki Morita; Masahi Yamamoto

2007-01-01

323

Non-destructive evaluation techniques, high temperature ceramic component parts for gas turbines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report concerns studies conducted on various tests undertaken on material without destroying the material. Tests included: microradiographic techniques, vibration analysis, high-frequency ultrasonic tests with the addition of evaluation of defects and structure through analysis of ultrasonic scattering data, microwave tests and analysis of sound emission.

Reiter, H.; Hirsekorn, S.; Lottermoser, J.; Goebbels, K.

1984-01-01

324

Non-destructive and rapid evaluation of chemical vapor deposition graphene by dark field optical microscopy  

E-print Network

a route to the synthesis of very large area graphene.1­5 Large-area graphene is typically graphene growth and for assessing the quality of graphene samples of large lateral size, and thus alsoNon-destructive and rapid evaluation of chemical vapor deposition graphene by dark field optical

325

NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF IN VITRO-STORED PLANTS: A COMPARISON OF VISUAL AND IMAGE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In vitro plants in slow-growth storage require routine evaluation for assessment of viability and timing of repropagation. Determination of plantlet health by visual assessment is subjective and varies by genus due to variations in growth pattern and plant structure. Developing a standardized syste...

326

Electronic nose as a non-destructive tool to evaluate the optimal harvest date of apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic nose (E-nose) has been evaluated for use as a tool to predict the optimal harvest date of apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). The volatiles of ‘Jonagold’ and ‘Braeburn’ apples were assessed during the preclimacteric stage for two consecutive harvest years by means of an E-nose. A principal component data analysis indicated the presence of both a year and cultivar

Stijn Saevels; Jeroen Lammertyn; Amalia Z Berna; Els A Veraverbeke; Corrado Di Natale

2003-01-01

327

Evaluation of a nondestructive diagnostic test for Kudoa thyrsites in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postharvest myoliquefaction (soft flesh) associated with Kudoa thyrsites infections is a concern to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) industry in the Pacific Northwest. Infection with this parasite is not macroscopically visible in salmon, and thus infected fish are not readily detectable on the processing line. Identification of infected fish relies on either histological or whole-mount evaluation of muscle tissue. A

Sophie St-Hilaire; Carl Ribble; David J. Whitaker; Michael L. Kent

1997-01-01

328

Relationship between non-destructive OCT evaluation of resins composites and bond strength in a cavity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objectives: Formation of microgaps under the composite restorations due to polymerization stress and other causes compromise the adhesion to the dental substrate and restoration durability. However, the relationship between cavity adaptation and bond strength is not clear. In this paper, we introduce a new testing method to assess cavity adaptation by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and microtensile bond strength (MTBS) in the same class-I cavity. Methods: Round class-I cavities 3 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm in depth were prepared on 10 human premolars. After application of Tokuyama Bond Force adhesive, the cavities were filled by one of the two techniques; incremental technique using Estelite Sigma Quick universal composite or flowable lining using Palfique Estelite LV with bulk filling using the universal composite. Ten serial B-scan images were obtained throughout each cavity by SS-OCT. Significant peaks in the signal intensity were detected at the bonded interface of the cavity floor and to compare the different filling techniques. The specimens were later cut into beams (0.7x0.7 mm) and tested to measure MTBS at the cavity floor. Results: Flowable lining followed by bulk filling was inferior in terms of cavity adaptation and MTBS compared to the incremental technique (p<0.05, t-test). The adaptation (gap free cavity floor) and MTBS followed similar trends in both groups. Conclusion: Quantitative assessment of dental restorations by OCT can provide additional information on the performance and effectiveness of dental composites and restoration techniques. This study was supported by Global Center of Excellence, Tokyo Medical and Dental University and King Abdulaziz University.

Bakhsh, T. A.; Sadr, A.; Shimada, Y.; Khunkar, S.; Tagami, J.; Sumi, Y.

2012-01-01

329

Nondestructive testing using borehole and surface seismic techniques to evaluate rock mass damage zones  

SciTech Connect

A suite of seismic tests was performed at the U12g tunnel at the Nevada Test Site. The methods include borehole (crosshole and downhole) and surface (Rayleigh wave and refraction) tests. Results indicate that the different methods should be considered complimentary, and that seismic methods can sensitively evaluate magnitudes and variations of in situ rock mass stiffness. In particular, near-surface low velocity (damage) zones are delineated quite well with Rayleigh wave and downhole methods.

Nelson, P.P.; Stokoe, K.H. II [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1991-12-31

330

Image correlation nondestructive evaluation of impact damage in a glass fiber composite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented in viewgraph format, digital image correlation, damage in fibrous composites, and damaged coupons (cross-ply scotchply GI-Ep laminate) are outlined. It was concluded that the image correlation accuracy was 0.03 percent; strains can be processed through Tsai-Hill failure criteria to qualify the damage; the statistical data base must be generated to evaluate certainty of the damage estimate; size effects need consideration; and better numerical techniques are needed.

Russell, Samuel S.

1990-01-01

331

Monitoring of Reinforced Concrete Corrosion and Deterioration by Periodic Multi-Sensor Non-Destructive Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper showcases a collaborative benchmark project evaluating NDE methods for deterioration monitoring of laboratory bridge decks. The focus of this effort is to design and build concrete test specimens, artificially induce and monitor corrosion, periodically perform multi-sensor NDE inspections, followed by 3D imaging and destructive validations. NDE methods used include ultrasonic echo array, ground penetrating radar (GPR), active infrared thermography with induction heating, and time-resolved thermography with induction heating.

Arndt, R. W.; Cui, J.; Huston, D. R.

2011-06-01

332

Nondestructive evaluation of loose assemblies using multi-frequency eddy currents and artificial neural networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the problem of the evaluation of metallic assemblies in an aeronautical context, by means of a non-invasive method. The problems lies in the estimation of the distance separating two aluminum plates representative of a loose assembly (up to 300 µm), the top plate being possibly of unknown thickness ranging from 1 to 8 mm. To do so, the eddy current (EC) method is chosen, because it allows non-contact evaluation of conducting media to be carried out, which is sensitive to electrical conductivity changes in the part under evaluation, and hence to the presence of an air gap between parts. The problem falls into the category of evaluation of a multilayered conductive structure starting from EC data, which is an ill-posed problem. In order to bypass these difficulties, as well as to deal with the uncertainties that may be introduced by the experimental set-up, a ‘non-model’ approach is implemented by means of an artificial neural network (ANN). The latter is elaborated in a statistical learning approach starting from the experimental EC data provided by a ferrite cored coil EC probe used to investigate an assembly mockup of adjustable configuration. Moreover, in order to build a learning database allowing a robust and accurate ANN to be elaborated, as well as to deal with assemblies of unknown thicknesses, we consider EC data obtained at different frequencies chosen in an adjusted frequency bandwidth, experimentally determined so as to optimize the sensitivity toward the presence of an air gap between parts. The implementation of the proposed approach for distances between parts ranging from 60 to 300 µm provided estimated root mean square errors ranging from 7 ?m up to 50 µm for the estimation of the distance between parts, and ranging from 20 µm up to 1.4 mm for the estimation of the top plates, ranging from 1 to 8 mm, respectively.

Vourc'h, Eric; Joubert, Pierre-Yves; Le Gac, Guillaume; larzabal, Pascal

2013-12-01

333

A Computational Framework for Quantitative Evaluation of Movement during Rehabilitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a novel generalized computational framework for quantitative kinematic evaluation of movement in a rehabilitation clinic setting. The framework integrates clinical knowledge and computational data-driven analysis together in a systematic manner. The framework provides three key benefits to rehabilitation: (a) the resulting continuous normalized measure allows the clinician to monitor movement quality on a fine scale and easily compare impairments across participants, (b) the framework reveals the effect of individual movement components on the composite movement performance helping the clinician decide the training foci, and (c) the evaluation runs in real-time, which allows the clinician to constantly track a patient's progress and make appropriate adaptations to the therapy protocol. The creation of such an evaluation is difficult because of the sparse amount of recorded clinical observations, the high dimensionality of movement and high variations in subject's performance. We address these issues by modeling the evaluation function as linear combination of multiple normalized kinematic attributes y = ?wi?i(xi) and estimating the attribute normalization function ?i(?) by integrating distributions of idealized movement and deviated movement. The weights wi are derived from a therapist's pair-wise comparison using a modified RankSVM algorithm. We have applied this framework to evaluate upper limb movement for stroke survivors with excellent results—the evaluation results are highly correlated to the therapist's observations.

Chen, Yinpeng; Duff, Margaret; Lehrer, Nicole; Sundaram, Hari; He, Jiping; Wolf, Steven L.; Rikakis, Thanassis

2011-06-01

334

Geometrical optimization of sensors for eddy currents nondestructive testing and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Design of Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) sensors is possible by solving Maxwell`s relations with FEM or BIM. But the large number of geometrical and electrical parameters of sensor and tested material implies many results that don`t give necessarily a well adapted sensor. The authors have used a genetic algorithm for automatic optimization. After having tested this algorithm with analytical solution of Maxwell`s relations for cladding thickness measurement, the method has been implemented in finite element package.

Thollon, F.; Burais, N. [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully (France). Dept. Electrotechnique] [Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully (France). Dept. Electrotechnique

1995-05-01

335

Portable microwave instrument for non-destructive evaluation of structural characteristics  

DOEpatents

A portable microwave instrument for evaluating characteristics of a structural member includes a source of microwave energy, a transmitter coupled to the source of microwave energy for transmitting a microwave signal at the structural member, and a receiver positioned on the same side of the structural member as the transmitter and being disposed to receive a microwave signal reflected by the structural member. A phase angle difference is determined between the transmitted microwave signal and the received microwave signal using a signal splitter and a balanced mixer. The difference in phase angle varies in accordance with differences in size, shape and locations of constituent materials within the structural member. 6 figures.

Bible, D.W.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sohns, C.W.; Maddox, S.R.

1995-01-24

336

Simulation evaluation of quantitative myocardial perfusion assessment from cardiac CT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrast enhancement on cardiac CT provides valuable information about myocardial perfusion and methods have been proposed to assess perfusion with static and dynamic acquisitions. There is a lack of knowledge and consensus on the appropriate approach to ensure 1) sufficient diagnostic accuracy for clinical decisions and 2) low radiation doses for patient safety. This work developed a thorough dynamic CT simulation and several accepted blood flow estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of perfusion assessment across a range of acquisition and estimation scenarios. Cardiac CT acquisitions were simulated for a range of flow states (Flow = 0.5, 1, 2, 3 ml/g/min, cardiac output = 3,5,8 L/min). CT acquisitions were simulated with a validated CT simulator incorporating polyenergetic data acquisition and realistic x-ray flux levels for dynamic acquisitions with a range of scenarios including 1, 2, 3 sec sampling for 30 sec with 25, 70, 140 mAs. Images were generated using conventional image reconstruction with additional image-based beam hardening correction to account for iodine content. Time attenuation curves were extracted for multiple regions around the myocardium and used to estimate flow. In total, 2,700 independent realizations of dynamic sequences were generated and multiple MBF estimation methods were applied to each of these. Evaluation of quantitative kinetic modeling yielded blood flow estimates with an root mean square error (RMSE) of ~0.6 ml/g/min averaged across multiple scenarios. Semi-quantitative modeling and qualitative static imaging resulted in significantly more error (RMSE = ~1.2 and ~1.2 ml/min/g respectively). For quantitative methods, dose reduction through reduced temporal sampling or reduced tube current had comparable impact on the MBF estimate fidelity. On average, half dose acquisitions increased the RMSE of estimates by only 18% suggesting that substantial dose reductions can be employed in the context of quantitative myocardial blood flow estimation. In conclusion, quantitative model-based dynamic cardiac CT perfusion assessment is capable of accurately estimating MBF across a range of cardiac outputs and tissue perfusion states, outperforms comparable static perfusion estimates, and is relatively robust to noise and temporal subsampling.

Bindschadler, Michael; Modgil, Dimple; Branch, Kelley R.; La Riviere, Patrick J.; Alessio, Adam M.

2014-03-01

337

A comparison between ultrasonic array beamforming and super resolution imaging algorithms for non-destructive evaluation.  

PubMed

In this paper the total focusing method, the so called gold standard in classical beamforming, is compared with the widely used time-reversal MUSIC super resolution technique in terms of its ability to resolve closely spaced scatterers in a solid. The algorithms are tested with simulated and experimental array data, each containing different noise levels. The performance of the algorithms is evaluated in terms of lateral resolution and sensitivity to noise. It is shown that for the weak noise situation (SNR>20 dB), time-reversal MUSIC provides significantly enhanced lateral resolution when compared to the total focusing method, breaking the diffraction limit. However, for higher noise levels, the total focusing method is shown to be robust, whilst the performance of time-reversal MUSIC is degraded. The influence of multiple scattering on the imaging algorithms is also investigated and shown to be small. PMID:24457032

Fan, Chengguang; Caleap, Mihai; Pan, Mengchun; Drinkwater, Bruce W

2014-09-01

338

Analysis of Microstructure Using Thermoelectric Diagnostics for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of Thermoelectric power (TEP) were used to evaluate microstructural analysis in HSLA steel weldments and retained austenite volume fraction for TRIP steel. First, the measurements of TEP for weld microstructure across weldment have shown good correlation with hardness profile. The different TEP values indicated that changes in weld microstructure can be correlated with TEP values measured. Second, it was demonstrated that retained austenite volume fraction were well correlated to TEP measurements for transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steels. The results suggest that TEP measurements can be correlated to retained austenite volume fraction for TRIP steels, which do not have same chemical composition and thermal heat treatment processes. The retained austenite volume fraction also was measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. With the introduction of these advanced TEP coefficient measurement techniques, the welding and steel industry will be using analytical tools similar to those instruments applied in the semiconductor industry.

Park, Y.D.; Kaydanov, V.I.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO, 80401 (United States)

2005-04-09

339

Comparison between beamforming and super resolution imaging algorithms for non-destructive evaluation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the performance of total focusing method is compared with the widely used time-reversal MUSIC super resolution technique. The algorithms are tested with simulated and experimental ultrasonic array data, each containing different noise levels. The simulated time domain signals allow the effects of array geometry, frequency, scatterer location, scatterer size, scatterer separation and random noise to be carefully controlled. The performance of the imaging algorithms is evaluated in terms of resolution and sensitivity to random noise. It is shown that for the low noise situation, time-reversal MUSIC provides enhanced lateral resolution when compared to the total focusing method. However, for higher noise levels, the total focusing method shows robustness, whilst the performance of time-reversal MUSIC is significantly degraded.

Fan, Chengguang [College of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, PR China and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen's Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Drinkwater, Bruce W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen's Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18

340

Study on the performance evaluation of quantitative precipitation estimation and quantitative precipitation forecast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall estimation and short-term (several hours) quantitative prediction of precipitation based on meteorological radar data is one of the intensely studied topics. The Korea Peninsula has the horizontally narrow land area and complex topography with many of mountains, and so it has the characteristics that the rainfall system changes in many cases. Quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) and quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) are the crucial information for severe weather or water management. We have been conducted the performance evaluation of QPE/QPF of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), which is the first step for optimizing QPE/QPF system in South Korea. The real-time adjusted RAR (Radar-AWS-Rainrate) system gives better agreement with the observed rain-rate than that of the fixed Z-R relation, and the additional bias correction of RAR yields the slightly better results. A correlation coefficient of R2 = 0.84 is obtained between the daily accumulated observed and RAR estimated rainfall. The RAR will be available for the hydrological applications such as the water budget. The VSRF (Very Short Range Forecast) shows better performance than the MAPLE (McGill Algorithm for Precipitation Nowcasting by Lagrangian) within 40 minutes, but the MAPLE better than the VSRF after 40 minutes. In case of hourly forecast, MAPLE shows better performance than the VSRF. QPE and QPF are thought to be meaningful for the nowcasting (1~2 hours) except the model forecast. The long-term forecast longer than 3 hours by meteorological model is especially meaningful for such as water management.

Yang, H.; Chang, K.; Suk, M.; cha, J.; Choi, Y.

2011-12-01

341

Nondestructive analysis and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This final report summarizes the achievements of project #4 of the NASA/UCF Cooperative Agreement from January 1990 to December 1992. The objectives of this project are to review NASA's NDE program at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and recommend means for enhancing the present testing capabilities through the use of improved or new technologies. During the period of the project, extensive development of a reliable nondestructive, non-contact vibration technique to determine and quantify the bond condition of the thermal protection system (TPS) tiles of the Space Shuttle Orbiter was undertaken. Experimental modal analysis (EMA) is used as a non-destructive technique for the evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) tile bond integrity. Finite element (FE) models for tile systems were developed and were used to generate their vibration characteristics (i.e. natural frequencies and mode shapes). Various TPS tile assembly configurations as well as different bond conditions were analyzed. Results of finite element analyses demonstrated a drop in natural frequencies and a change in mode shapes which correlate with both size and location of disbond. Results of experimental testing of tile panels correlated with FE results and demonstrated the feasibility of EMA as a viable technique for tile bond verification. Finally, testing performed on the Space Shuttle Columbia using a laser doppler velocimeter demonstrated the application of EMA, when combined with FE modeling, as a non-contact, non-destructive bond evaluation technique.

Moslehy, Faissal A.

1993-01-01

342

Autonomous corrosion detection in gas pipelines: a hybrid-fuzzy classifier approach using ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation protocols.  

PubMed

In this paper, a customized classifier is presented for the industry-practiced nondestructive evaluation (NDE) protocols using a hybrid-fuzzy inference system (FIS) to classify the corrosion and distinguish it from the geometric defects or normal/healthy state of the steel pipes used in the gas/petroleum industry. The presented system is hybrid in the sense that it utilizes both soft computing through fuzzy set theory, as well as conventional parametric modeling through H(infinity) optimization methods. Due to significant uncertainty in the power spectral density of the noise in ultrasonic NDE procedures, the use of optimal H(2) estimators for defect characterization is not so accurate. A more appropriate criterion is the H(infinity) norm of the estimation error spectrum which is based on minimization of the magnitude of this spectrum and hence produces more robust estimates. A hybrid feature set is developed in this work that corresponds to a) geometric features extracted directly from the raw ultrasonic A-scan data (which are the ultrasonic echo pulses in 1-Dtraveling inside the metal perpendicular to its 2 surfaces) and b) mapped features from the impulse response of the estimated model of the defect waveform under study. An experimental strategy is first outlined, through which the necessary data are collected as A-scans. Then, using the H(infinity) estimation approach, a parametric transfer function is obtained for each pulse. In this respect, each A-scan is treated as output from a defining function when a pure/healthy metal's A-scan is used as its input. Three defining states are considered in the paper; healthy, corroded, and defective, where the defective class represents metal with artificial or other defects. The necessary features are then calculated and are then supplied to the fuzzy inference system as input to be used in the classification. The resulting system has shown excellent corrosion classification with very low misclassification and false alarm rates. PMID:20040402

Qidwai, Uvais A

2009-12-01

343

3D Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Spot Welds Using an Enhanced Total Focusing Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spot welds are used to join sheets of metals in the automotive industry. When spot weld quality is evaluated using conventional ultrasonic manual pulse-echo method, the reliability of the inspection is affected by selection of the probe diameter and the positioning of the probe in the weld center. The application of a 2D matrix array is a potential solution to the aforementioned problems. The objective of this work was to develop a signal processing algorithm to reconstruct the 3D spot weld volume showing the size of the nugget and the defects in it. In order to achieve this, the conventional total focusing method was enhanced by taking into account the directivities of the single elements of the array and the divergence of the ultrasonic beam due to the propagation distance. Enhancements enabled a reduction in the background noise and uniform sensitivity at different depths to be obtained. The proposed algorithm was verified using a finite element model of ultrasonic wave propagation simulating three common spot weld conditions: a good weld, an undersized weld, and a weld containing a pore. The investigations have demonstrated that proposed method enables the determination of the size of the nugget and detection of discontinuities.

Jasiuniene, Elena; Samaitis, Vykintas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sanderson, Ruth

2015-02-01

344

Signal extraction using ensemble empirical mode decomposition and sparsity in pipeline magnetic flux leakage nondestructive evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commonly used and cost effective corrosion inspection tools for the evaluation of pipelines utilize the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technique. The MFL signal is usually contaminated by various noise sources. In this paper, we propose that the pipeline flaw MFL signal is extracted using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the sparsity. At first, we introduce the EEMD method. The EEMD defines the true intrinsic mode function (IMF) components as the mean of an ensemble of trials, each consisting of the signal plus a white noise of finite amplitude. Moreover, sparsity selection restriction was defined. Then, The MFL signal is decomposed into several IMFs used for signal reconstruction. Some modes are selected to reconstruct a new signal considering their sparsity. Finally, the comparison is made with the empirical mode decomposition. At the same time, the comparison of the selection restriction between the sparsity and the energy is described. The results show that the EEMD and the sparsity is an efficient technology with the pipeline flaw extraction.

Chen, Liang; Li, Xing; Li, Xun-bo; Huang, Zuo-ying

2009-02-01

345

Signal extraction using ensemble empirical mode decomposition and sparsity in pipeline magnetic flux leakage nondestructive evaluation.  

PubMed

The commonly used and cost effective corrosion inspection tools for the evaluation of pipelines utilize the magnetic flux leakage (MFL) technique. The MFL signal is usually contaminated by various noise sources. In this paper, we propose that the pipeline flaw MFL signal is extracted using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and the sparsity. At first, we introduce the EEMD method. The EEMD defines the true intrinsic mode function (IMF) components as the mean of an ensemble of trials, each consisting of the signal plus a white noise of finite amplitude. Moreover, sparsity selection restriction was defined. Then, The MFL signal is decomposed into several IMFs used for signal reconstruction. Some modes are selected to reconstruct a new signal considering their sparsity. Finally, the comparison is made with the empirical mode decomposition. At the same time, the comparison of the selection restriction between the sparsity and the energy is described. The results show that the EEMD and the sparsity is an efficient technology with the pipeline flaw extraction. PMID:19256676

Chen, Liang; Li, Xing; Li, Xun-bo; Huang, Zuo-ying

2009-02-01

346

Nondestructive evaluation of residual stress in short-fiber reinforced plastics by x-ray diffraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X-ray diffraction method is used to measure the residual stress in injection-molded plates of short-fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) made of crystalline thermoplastics, polyphenylene sulphide (PPS), reinforced by carbon fibers with 30 mass%. Based on the orientation of carbon fibers, injection molded plates can be modeled as three-layered lamella where the core layer is sandwiched by skin layers. The stress in the matrix in the skin layer was measured using Cr-K? radiation with the sin2? method. Since the X-ray penetration depth is shallow, the state of stresses measured by X-rays in FRP can be assumed to be plane stress. The X-ray measurement of stress in carbon fibers was not possible because of high texture. A new method was proposed to evaluate the macrostress in SFRP from the measurement of the matrix stress. According to micromechanics analysis of SFRP, the matrix stresses in the fiber direction, ?1m, and perpendicular to the fiber direction, ?2m, and shear stress ?12m can be expressed as the functions of the applied (macro-) stresses, ?1A, ?2A , ?12A as follows: ?1m = ?11?1A +?12?2A, ?2m = ?21?1A + ?22?2A, ?12m = ?66?12A, where ?11 ,?12, ?21, ?22, ?66 are stress-partitioning coefficients. Using skin-layer strips cut parallel, perpendicular and 45° to the molding direction, the stress in the matrix was measured under the uniaxial applied stress and the stress-partitioning coefficients of the above equations were determined. Once these relations are established, the macrostress in SFRP can be determined from the measurements of the matrix stresses by X-rays.

Tanaka, Keisuke; Tokoro, Syouhei; Akiniwa, Yoshiaki; Egami, Noboru

2014-06-01

347

Prototype ultrasonic instrument for quantitative testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ultrasonic instrument has been developed for use in quantitative nondestructive evaluation of material defects such as cracks, voids, inclusions, and unbonds. Instrument is provided with standard pulse source and transducer for each frequency range selected and includes integral aids that allow calibration to prescribed standards.

Lynworth, L. C.; Dubois, J. L.; Kranz, P. R.

1973-01-01

348

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled 'Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.' Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

349

Structural Anomalies Detected in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Combined Nondestructive Evaluation and Finite Element Analysis (NDE and FEA)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Most reverse engineering approaches involve imaging or digitizing an object and then creating a computerized reconstruction that can be integrated, in three dimensions, into a particular design environment. The rapid prototyping technique builds high-quality physical prototypes directly from computer-aided design files. This fundamental technique for interpreting and interacting with large data sets is being used here via Velocity2 (an integrated image-processing software, ref. 1) using computed tomography (CT) data to produce a prototype three-dimensional test specimen model for analyses. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center proposes to use these capabilities to conduct a combined nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and finite element analysis (FEA) to screen pretest and posttest structural anomalies in structural components. A tensile specimen made of silicon nitrite (Si3N4) ceramic matrix composite was considered to evaluate structural durability and deformity. Ceramic matrix composites are being sought as candidate materials to replace nickel-base superalloys for turbine engine applications. They have the unique characteristics of being able to withstand higher operating temperatures and harsh combustion environments. In addition, their low densities relative to metals help reduce component mass (ref. 2). Detailed three-dimensional volume rendering of the tensile test specimen was successfully carried out with Velocity2 (ref. 1) using two-dimensional images that were generated via computed tomography. Subsequent, three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed, and the results obtained were compared with those predicted by NDE-based calculations and experimental tests. It was shown that Velocity2 software can be used to render a three-dimensional object from a series of CT scan images with a minimum level of complexity. The analytical results (ref. 3) show that the high-stress regions correlated well with the damage sites identified by the CT scans and the experimental data. Furthermore, modeling of the voids collected via NDE offered an analytical advantage that resulted in more accurate assessments of the material s structural strength. The top figure shows a CT scan image of the specimen test section illustrating various hidden structural entities in the material and an optical image of the test specimen considered in this study. The bottom figure represents the stress response predicted from the finite element analyses (ref .3 ) for a selected CT slice where it clearly illustrates the correspondence of the high stress risers due to voids in the material with those predicted by the NDE. This study is continuing, and efforts are concentrated on improving the modeling capabilities to imitate the structural anomalies as detected.

Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Baaklini, George Y.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.

2003-01-01

350

A quantitative evaluation of the public response to climate engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase, with CO2 passing 400 parts per million in May 2013. To avoid severe climate change and the attendant economic and social dislocation, existing energy efficiency and emissions control initiatives may need support from some form of climate engineering. As climate engineering will be controversial, there is a pressing need to inform the public and understand their concerns before policy decisions are taken. So far, engagement has been exploratory, small-scale or technique-specific. We depart from past research to draw on the associative methods used by corporations to evaluate brands. A systematic, quantitative and comparative approach for evaluating public reaction to climate engineering is developed. Its application reveals that the overall public evaluation of climate engineering is negative. Where there are positive associations they favour carbon dioxide removal (CDR) over solar radiation management (SRM) techniques. Therefore, as SRM techniques become more widely known they are more likely to elicit negative reactions. Two climate engineering techniques, enhanced weathering and cloud brightening, have indistinct concept images and so are less likely to draw public attention than other CDR or SRM techniques.

Wright, Malcolm J.; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Feetham, Pamela M.

2014-02-01

351

Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation  

SciTech Connect

A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

Waters, M.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A. [Environmental Health Research and Testing, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1990-12-31

352

Evaluation of a Virucidal Quantitative Carrier Test for Surface Disinfectants  

PubMed Central

Surface disinfectants are part of broader preventive strategies preventing the transmission of bacteria, fungi and viruses in medical institutions. To evaluate their virucidal efficacy, these products must be tested with appropriate model viruses with different physico-chemical properties under conditions representing practical application in hospitals. The aim of this study was to evaluate a quantitative carrier assay. Furthermore, different putative model viruses like adenovirus type 5 (AdV-5) and different animal parvoviruses were evaluated with respect to their tenacity and practicability in laboratory handling. To evaluate the robustness of the method, some of the viruses were tested in parallel in different laboratories in a multi-center study. Different biocides, which are common active ingredients of surface disinfectants, were used in the test. After drying on stainless steel discs as the carrier, model viruses were exposed to different concentrations of three alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA) or glutaraldehyde (GDA), with a fixed exposure time of 5 minutes. Residual virus was determined after treatment by endpoint titration. All parvoviruses exhibited a similar stability with respect to GDA, while AdV-5 was more susceptible. For PAA, the porcine parvovirus was more sensitive than the other parvoviruses, and again, AdV-5 presented a higher susceptibility than the parvoviruses. All parvoviruses were resistant to alcohols, while AdV-5 was only stable when treated with 2-propanol. The analysis of the results of the multi-center study showed a high reproducibility of this test system. In conclusion, two viruses with different physico-chemical properties can be recommended as appropriate model viruses for the evaluation of the virucidal efficacy of surface disinfectants: AdV-5, which has a high clinical impact, and murine parvovirus (MVM) with the highest practicability among the parvoviruses tested. PMID:24475079

Rabenau, Holger F.; Steinmann, Jochen; Rapp, Ingrid; Schwebke, Ingeborg; Eggers, Maren

2014-01-01

353

A New Approach for the Quantitative Evaluation of Storm Disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has put forward the concept of storm magnitude and disaster intensity and designed a kind of new method by quantitative calculation. Storm magnitude is the quantitative index that describes the scale of a storm, and disaster intensity of storm is the quantitative index to describe the loss caused by a storm flood. Both indices have many theoretical and

Lihua Feng

2009-01-01

354

Non-destructive flavour evaluation of red onion (Allium cepa L.) ecotypes: an electronic-nose-based approach.  

PubMed

This work reports preliminary results on the potential of a metal oxide sensor (MOS)-based electronic nose, as a non-destructive method to discriminate three "Tropea Red Onion" PGI ecotypes (TrT, TrMC and TrA) from each other and the common red onion (RO), which is usually used to counterfeit. The signals from the sensor array were processed using a canonical discriminant function analysis (DFA) pattern recognition technique. The DFA on onion samples showed a clear separation among the four onion groups with an overall correct classification rate (CR) of 97.5%. Onion flavour is closely linked to pungency and thus to the pyruvic acid content. The e-nose analysis results are in good agreement with pyruvic acid analysis. This work demonstrated that artificial olfactory systems have potential for use as an innovative, rapid and specific non-destructive technique, and may provide a method to protect food products against counterfeiting. PMID:23790864

Russo, Mariateresa; di Sanzo, Rosa; Cefaly, Vittoria; Carabetta, Sonia; Serra, Demetrio; Fuda, Salvatore

2013-11-15

355

Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan image in acoustically homogeneous and layered anisotropic materials using three dimensional ray tracing method.  

PubMed

Quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic C-scan images in homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials is of general importance for understanding the influence of anisotropy on wave fields during ultrasonic non-destructive testing and evaluation of these materials. In this contribution, a three dimensional ray tracing method is presented for evaluating ultrasonic C-scan images quantitatively in general homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic materials. The directivity of the ultrasonic ray source in general homogeneous columnar grained anisotropic austenitic steel material (including layback orientation) is obtained in three dimensions based on Lamb's reciprocity theorem. As a prerequisite for ray tracing model, the problem of ultrasonic ray energy reflection and transmission coefficients at an interface between (a) isotropic base material and anisotropic austenitic weld material (including layback orientation), (b) two adjacent anisotropic weld metals and (c) anisotropic weld metal and isotropic base material is solved in three dimensions. The influence of columnar grain orientation and layback orientation on ultrasonic C-scan image is quantitatively analyzed in the context of ultrasonic testing of homogeneous and layered austenitic steel materials. The presented quantitative results provide valuable information during ultrasonic characterization of homogeneous and layered anisotropic austenitic steel materials. PMID:24008174

Kolkoori, Sanjeevareddy; Hoehne, Christian; Prager, Jens; Rethmeier, Michael; Kreutzbruck, Marc

2014-02-01

356

Feasibility study of the IE-SASW method for nondestructive evaluation of containment building structures in nuclear power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IE-SASW method, a combination of impact-echo (IE) acoustics with spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW), is proposed as a newly developed nondestructive testing method in concrete structures. This feasibility study examines the IE technique and uses elastic P-wave velocity data as measured from the SASW method on concrete members in nuclear power plant containment structures. It was shown that

D. S. Kim; H. W. Kim; W. S. Seo; K. C. Choi; S. K. Woo

2002-01-01

357

Development of an automated gamma-imaging system for nondestructive testing of welded pipes and its performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a continuation of our radiographic testing (RT) R&D, we have developed an automated gamma-imaging system to be suitable for nondestructive testing of welded pipes. The system consists of an imaging detector having a CdTe\\/CMOS-based pixel array (AJAT, SCAN1000), a collimated 75Se gamma source (MDS, GammaMat SE) having about 78.7 Ci activities, a gear track mounted around test pipes for

H. S. Cho; S. Y. Lee; S. I. Choi; J. E. Oh; H. M. Cho; S. J. Lee; Y. O. Park; B. S. Lee; S. Kim; H. K. Kim

2008-01-01

358

NON-DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR THE EVALUATION OF OVERLAY AND THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS ON GAS TURBINE COMPONENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no satisfactory method for the non-destructive examination (NDE) of coatings on gas turbine parts and determination of coating thickness, for example, has to be carried out by sectioning of the component and subsequent metallographic analysis. This method, which is both time-consuming and expensive, has nevertheless been used extensively for aero-engine parts to monitor coating quality and to

Michael Cybulsky

1998-01-01

359

Improvement of the non-destructive evaluation of plasma facing components by data combination of infrared thermal images  

Microsoft Academic Search

To increase the reliability of non-destructive examinations of plasma facing components (PFC), we present steps in order to make data combination in this study. The industrial issue is the inspection of manufacturing quality of these components which must support a very high-heat flux in Tokamaks. The experimental study was conducted on trial components for the Wendelstein 7X stellarator using two

Joseph Moysan; Alain Durocher; Cécile Gueudré; Gilles Corneloup

2007-01-01

360

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of solvent systems for countercurrent separation.  

PubMed

Rational solvent system selection for countercurrent chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography technology (collectively known as countercurrent separation) studies continues to be a scientific challenge as the fundamental questions of comparing polarity range and selectivity within a solvent system family and between putative orthogonal solvent systems remain unanswered. The current emphasis on metabolomic investigations and analysis of complex mixtures necessitates the use of successive orthogonal countercurrent separation (CS) steps as part of complex fractionation protocols. Addressing the broad range of metabolite polarities demands development of new CS solvent systems with appropriate composition, polarity (?), selectivity (?), and suitability. In this study, a mixture of twenty commercially available natural products, called the GUESSmix, was utilized to evaluate both solvent system polarity and selectively characteristics. Comparisons of GUESSmix analyte partition coefficient (K) values give rise to a measure of solvent system polarity range called the GUESSmix polarity index (GUPI). Solvatochromic dye and electrical permittivity measurements were also evaluated in quantitatively assessing solvent system polarity. The relative selectivity of solvent systems were evaluated with the GUESSmix by calculating the pairwise resolution (?ip), the number of analytes found in the sweet spot (Nsw), and the pairwise resolution of those sweet spot analytes (?sw). The combination of these parameters allowed for both intra- and inter-family comparison of solvent system selectivity. Finally, 2-dimensional reciprocal shifted symmetry plots (ReSS(2)) were created to visually compare both the polarities and selectivities of solvent system pairs. This study helps to pave the way to the development of new solvent systems that are amenable to successive orthogonal CS protocols employed in metabolomic studies. PMID:25542704

Friesen, J Brent; Ahmed, Sana; Pauli, Guido F

2015-01-16

361

Nondestructive quantitative mapping of impurities and point defects in thin films: Ga and V{sub Zn} in ZnO:Ga  

SciTech Connect

Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on quartz and other lattice-mismatched substrates can routinely attain resistivities of 2?×?10{sup ?4} ?·cm and thus compete with Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) in large-area transparent-electrode applications. Nondestructive, high-resolution (1-mm) maps of thickness d, concentration n, and mobility ? on such films can be obtained automatically from commercial spectroscopic ellipsometers. From n and ?, degenerate-electron scattering theory yields donor N{sub D} and acceptor N{sub A} concentrations at each point. Finally, N{sub D} and N{sub A} can be identified as [Ga] and [V{sub Zn}], respectively, demonstrating high-density mapping of impurities and point defects in a semiconductor thin film.

Look, David C., E-mail: david.look@wright.edu [Semiconductor Research Center, Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, Ohio 45435 (United States); Wyle, 2601 Mission Point Blvd., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Leedy, Kevin D.; Agresta, Donald L. [Air Force Research Laboratory Sensors Directorate, 2241 Avionics Circle, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

2014-06-16

362

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications  

E-print Network

Visualizing Industrial CT Volume Data for Nondestructive Testing Applications Runzhen Huang Kwan, interac- tive visualization, nondestructive testing and evaluation, sci- entific visualization, surface of a mechanical toy (512Ã?512Ã?2048 voxels). diagnosis and surgical planning, but also in nondestructive testing

Ma, Kwan-Liu

363

Evaluation of methods for the quantitation of cysteines in proteins.  

PubMed

Several methods for the quantitation of cysteines in proteins have been evaluated and compared. Titration of protein sulfhydryl groups with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) (DTNB) under carefully controlled conditions has extended the detection limits of this method with high accuracy and reproducibility. Results are reported for a variety of enzymes containing a range of total cysteines with different degrees of solvent accessibility and reactivity. A papain amplification assay has also been examined, in which reactivation of the disulfide-blocked active site cysteine of papain can be achieved by a coupled reaction with protein sulfhydryl groups. Detection of sulfhydryls by this amplification assay can be extended, by increasing the enzyme assay times, to achieve over a 40-fold increase in sensitivity over the improved DTNB titration method. Alternatively, titration of enzyme cysteinyl residues with either bromobimane or a maleimide derivative of naphthopyranones has the advantage that a fluorescent product results upon modification of the sulfhydryl group. Reaction of bromobimane with several different enzymes results in nonspecific background fluorescence that limits the detection range of this method unless the products are separated. In contrast, low background fluorescence and high quantum yields with maleimide naphthopyranoses has allowed detection of protein cysteinyl residues with very high sensitivities. PMID:9866701

Wright, S K; Viola, R E

1998-12-01

364

Quantitative evaluation of phase processing approaches in susceptibility weighted imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) takes advantage of the local variation in susceptibility between different tissues to enable highly detailed visualization of the cerebral venous system and sensitive detection of intracranial hemorrhages. Thus, it has been increasingly used in magnetic resonance imaging studies of traumatic brain injury as well as other intracranial pathologies. In SWI, magnitude information is combined with phase information to enhance the susceptibility induced image contrast. Because of global susceptibility variations across the image, the rate of phase accumulation varies widely across the image resulting in phase wrapping artifacts that interfere with the local assessment of phase variation. Homodyne filtering is a common approach to eliminate this global phase variation. However, filter size requires careful selection in order to preserve image contrast and avoid errors resulting from residual phase wraps. An alternative approach is to apply phase unwrapping prior to high pass filtering. A suitable phase unwrapping algorithm guarantees no residual phase wraps but additional computational steps are required. In this work, we quantitatively evaluate these two phase processing approaches on both simulated and real data using different filters and cutoff frequencies. Our analysis leads to an improved understanding of the relationship between phase wraps, susceptibility effects, and acquisition parameters. Although homodyne filtering approaches are faster and more straightforward, phase unwrapping approaches perform more accurately in a wider variety of acquisition scenarios.

Li, Ningzhi; Wang, Wen-Tung; Sati, Pascal; Pham, Dzung L.; Butman, John A.

2012-03-01

365

In situ nondestructive sediment characterization and resuspendability evaluation of concentrated aqueous paliperidone palmitate suspensions in prefilled syringes by low-field one-dimensional pulsed-field gradient NMR profilometry.  

PubMed

This work aims to demonstrate the usefulness of a low-field one-dimensional pulsed-field gradient NMR (1D pfg NMR) profilometry technique to enable in situ nondestructive sediment characterization and resuspendability quantification of concentrated prefilled injectable suspensions. Aqueous paliperidone palmitate suspensions were used as model samples and low-intensity centrifugation was evaluated as a long-term gravity simulation approach. The low-field 1D pfg NMR technique allowed a detection zone of 2.5 cm in height for water content measurement of syringe samples using a Teflon syringe holder. Thus, the sediment compactness could be deduced from its water content. Quantitative evaluation of resuspendability was realized by front tracking of the NMR profile signals, which yielded the exponential sediment volume decay constant as a resuspendability quantification parameter. The study shows that both active ingredient particle size distribution and storage temperature had significant effects on the sedimentation rate and the resuspendability of the suspensions. The centrifugation method proved to be useful as a long-term gravity simulation and screening method, although the results should be interpreted with caution due to its higher acceleration and compression force imposed on the active ingredient particles. PMID:22452705

Zhu, Wuxin; Vermeir, Lien; Govoreanu, Ruxandra; Verbruggen, Katrien; Ariën, Tina; Verliefde, Arne; Van der Meeren, Paul

2012-01-01

366

A first evaluation of the usefulness of feathers of nestling predatory birds for non-destructive biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants.  

PubMed

In previous studies, feathers of adult predatory birds have been evaluated as valid non-destructive biomonitor matrices for persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In this study, we assessed for the first time the usefulness of nestling raptor feathers for non-destructive biomonitoring of POPs. For this purpose, we collected body feathers and blood of nestlings from three avian top predators from northern Norway: northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We were able to detect a broad spectrum of legacy POPs in the nestling feathers of all three species (? PCBs: 6.78-140ng g(-1); DDE: 3.15-145ng g(-1); ? PBDEs: 0.538-7.56ng g(-1)). However, these concentrations were lower compared to other studies on raptor species, probably due to the aspect of monitoring of nestlings instead of adults. Besides their analytical suitability, nestling feathers also appear to be biologically informative: concentrations of most POPs in nestling feathers showed strong and significant correlations with blood plasma concentrations in all species (p<0.050; 0.775non-destructive biomonitoring strategy for POPs in their ecosystems. PMID:21256594

Eulaers, Igor; Covaci, Adrian; Herzke, Dorte; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Moum, Truls; Schnug, Lisbeth; Hanssen, Sveinn Are; Johnsen, Trond Vidar; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Jaspers, Veerle L B

2011-04-01

367

Quantitative ultrasonic evaluation of mechanical properties of engineering materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current progress in the application of ultrasonic techniques to nondestructive measurement of mechanical strength properties of engineering materials is reviewed. Even where conventional NDE techniques have shown that a part is free of overt defects, advanced NDE techniques should be available to confirm the material properties assumed in the part's design. There are many instances where metallic, composite, or ceramic parts may be free of critical defects while still being susceptible to failure under design loads due to inadequate or degraded mechanical strength. This must be considered in any failure prevention scheme that relies on fracture analysis. This review will discuss the availability of ultrasonic methods that can be applied to actual parts to assess their potential susceptibility to failure under design conditions.

Vary, A.

1978-01-01

368

Non-contact, non-destructive, quantitative probing of interfacial trap sites for charge carrier transport at semiconductor-insulator boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The density of traps at semiconductor-insulator interfaces was successfully estimated using microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy with model thin-film organic field-effect transistors. The non-contact, non-destructive analysis technique is referred to as field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC) at interfaces. Kinetic traces of FI-TRMC transients clearly distinguished the mobile charge carriers at the interfaces from the immobile charges trapped at defects, allowing both the mobility of charge carriers and the number density of trap sites to be determined at the semiconductor-insulator interfaces. The number density of defects at the interface between evaporated pentacene on a poly(methylmethacrylate) insulating layer was determined to be 1012 cm-2, and the hole mobility was up to 6.5 cm2 V-1 s-1 after filling the defects with trapped carriers. The FI-TRMC at interfaces technique has the potential to provide rapid screening for the assessment of interfacial electronic states in a variety of semiconductor devices.

Choi, Wookjin; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori; Yokoyama, Masaaki; Seki, Shu

2014-07-01

369

An Optimized Triple Modality Reporter for Quantitative In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Therapy Evaluation  

E-print Network

An Optimized Triple Modality Reporter for Quantitative In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Therapy Evaluation, and positron emission tomography. Two human cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 breast cancer and HT-1080 Modality Reporter for Quantitative In Vivo Tumor Imaging and Therapy Evaluation. PLoS ONE 9(5): e97415. doi

Tsien, Roger Y.

370

Quantitative comparison between crowd models for evacuation planning and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crowd simulation is rapidly becoming a standard tool for evacuation planning and evaluation. However, the many crowd models in the literature are structurally different, and few have been rigorously calibrated against real-world egress data, especially in emergency situations. In this paper we describe a procedure to quantitatively compare different crowd models or between models and real-world data. We simulated three models: (1) the lattice gas model, (2) the social force model, and (3) the RVO2 model, and obtained the distributions of six observables: (1) evacuation time, (2) zoned evacuation time, (3) passage density, (4) total distance traveled, (5) inconvenience, and (6) flow rate. We then used the DISTATIS procedure to compute the compromise matrix of statistical distances between the three models. Projecting the three models onto the first two principal components of the compromise matrix, we find the lattice gas and RVO2 models are similar in terms of the evacuation time, passage density, and flow rates, whereas the social force and RVO2 models are similar in terms of the total distance traveled. Most importantly, we find that the zoned evacuation times of the three models to be very different from each other. Thus we propose to use this variable, if it can be measured, as the key test between different models, and also between models and the real world. Finally, we compared the model flow rates against the flow rate of an emergency evacuation during the May 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and found the social force model agrees best with this real data.

Viswanathan, Vaisagh; Lee, Chong Eu; Lees, Michael Harold; Cheong, Siew Ann; Sloot, Peter M. A.

2014-02-01

371

Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect

The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

Oka, M. [Department of Computer and Control Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 1666 Maki, Oita, 870-0152 (Japan); Yakushiji, T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Oita National College of Technology, 1666 Maki, Oita, 870-0152 (Japan); Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M. [Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu, Oita, 870-1192 (Japan)

2006-03-06

372

Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

2006-03-01

373

Development of Nondestructive Measuring Technique of Environmental Radioactive Strontium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fukushima first nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the Japanese big earthquake in 2011. The main radioactivity concerned after the accident are I-131 (half-life 8.0 days), Cs-134 (2.1 years) and 137 (30 years), Sr-89 (51 days) and 90 (29 years). We are aiming to establish a new detection technique which enables us to realize quantitative evaluation of the strontium radioactivity by means of nondestructive measurement without chemical separation processing, which is concerned to be included inside foods, environmental water and soil around us, in order to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to the radiation.

Saiba, Shuntaro; Okamiya, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Saki; Tanuma, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Tatsuru; Murata, Jiro

374

Nondestructive Damage Detection in General Beams  

E-print Network

is also vital for a nation’s economy. Substantial sums of money may be saved upon detecting structural deterioration in a timely manner. Nondestructive damage evaluation (NDE) offers effective and economically feasible solutions to perform such tasks...

Dincal, Selcuk

2010-12-08

375

Quantitative Evaluation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Ultrasound Tissue Characterization.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaluation of therapeutic methods directed toward interrupting and/or delaying atherogenesis is impeded by the lack of a reliable, non-invasive means for monitoring progression or regression of disease. The ability to characterize the predominant component of plaque may be very valuable in the study of this disease's natural history. The earlier the lesion, the more likely is lipid to be the predominant component. Progression of plaque is usually by way of overgrowth of fibrous tissues around the fatty pool. Calcification is usually a feature of the older or complicated lesion. To explore the feasibility of using ultrasound to characterize plaque we have conducted measurements of the acoustical properties of various atherosclerotic lesions found in freshly excised samples of human abdominal aorta. Our objective has been to determine whether or not the acoustical properties of plaque correlate with the type and/or chemical composition of plaque and, if so, to define a measurement scheme which could be done in-vivo and non-invasively. Our current data base consists of individual tissue samples from some 200 different aortas. Since each aorta yields between 10 to 30 tissue samples for study, we have data on some 4,468 different lesions or samples. Measurements of the acoustical properties of plaque were found to correlate well with the chemical composition of plaque. In short, measurements of impedance and attenuation seem sufficient to classify plaque as to type and to composition. Based on the in-vitro studies, the parameter of attenuation was selected as a means of classifying the plaque. For these measurements, an intravascular ultrasound scanner was modified according to our specifications. Signal processing algorithms were developed which would analyze the complex ultrasound waveforms and estimate tissue properties such as attenuation. Various methods were tried to estimate the attenuation from the pulse-echo backscattered signal. Best results were obtained by comparing averaged power spectra in small time windows at different depths for a series of A-lines. Comparisons between consequent averaged spectra at different depths provided the magnitude and frequency dependence of attenuation. Non-invasive characterization of the physical state of the tissue with quantitative ultrasound holds great promise for the extension of the diagnostic power of conventional B-mode imaging.

Yigiter, Ersin

376

Quantitative evaluation of stiffness of commercial suture materials.  

PubMed

The bending stiffness of 22 commercial suture materials of varying size, chemical structure and physical form was quantitatively evaluated using a stiffness tester (Taber V-5, model 150B, Teledyne). The commercial sutures were Chromic catgut; Dexon (polyglycolic acid); Vicryl (polyglactin 910); PDS (polydioxanone); Maxon (polyglycolide-trimethylene carbonate); Silk (coated with silicone); Mersilene (polyester fiber); Tycron (polyester fiber); Ethibond (polyethylene terephthalate coated with polybutylene); Nurolon (nylon 66); Surgilon (nylon 66 coated with silicone); Ethilon (coated nylon 66), Prolene (polypropylene); Dermalene (polyethylene), and Gore-tex (polytetraflouroethylene). These are both natural and synthetic, absorbable and nonabsorbable and monofilament and multifilament sutures. All of these sutures were size 2-0, but Prolene sutures with sizes ranging from 1-0 to 9-0 were also tested to determine the effect of suture size on stiffness. The bending stiffness data obtained showed that a wide range of bending stiffness was observed among the 22 commercial sutures. The most flexible 2-0 suture was Gore-tex, followed by Dexon, Silk, Surgilon, Vicryl (uncoated), Tycron, Nurolon, Mersilene, Ethibond, Maxon, PDS, Ethilon, Prolene, Chromic catgut, coated Vicryl, and lastly, Dermalene. The large porous volume inherent in Gore-tex monofilament suture was the reason for its lowest flexural stiffness. Sutures with a braided structure were generally more flexible than those of a monofilament structure, irrespective of the chemical constituents. Coated sutures had significantly higher stiffness than the corresponding uncoated ones. This is particularly true when polymers rather than wax were used as the coating material. This increase in stiffness is attributable to the loss of mobility under bending force in the fibers and yarns that make up the sutures. An increase in the size of the suture significantly increased the stiffness, and the magnitude of increase depended on the chemical constituent of the suture. The flexural stiffness of sutures was also found to depend on the duration of bending in the test for stiffness. In general, monofilament sutures exhibited the largest time-dependent stiffness. This was most pronounced with the Gore-tex suture. Most braided sutures also showed less time-dependence in stiffness. Nylon sutures did not exhibit this time-dependent phenomenon regardless of physical form. PMID:2919353

Chu, C C; Kizil, Z

1989-03-01

377

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), NDE instrumentation development, universities, commercial NDE services and cable manufacturers, and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The motivation for the R&D roadmap comes from the need to address the aging management of in-containment cables at nuclear power plants (NPPs).

Simmons, Kevin L.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Brenchley, David L.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hashemian, Hash; Konnik, Robert; Ray, Sheila

2012-09-14

378

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program – Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Executive Summary [partial] The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters. The workshop was attended by 30 experts in materials, electrical engineering, and NDE instrumentation development from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), universities, commercial NDE service vendors and cable manufacturers, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).

Simmons, K.L.; Ramuhali, P.; Brenchley, D.L.; Coble, J.B.; Hashemian, H.M.; Konnick, R.; Ray, S.

2012-09-01

379

Progress in evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination reliability for inservice inspection of Light Water Reactors (LWRs) and characterize fabrication flaws in reactor pressure vessels  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a review of the work conducted under two programs. One (NDE Reliability Program) is a multi-year program addressing the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for the inservice inspection (ISI) of light water reactor components. This program examines the reliability of current NDE, the effectiveness of evolving technologies, and provides assessments and recommendations to ensure that the NDE is applied at the right time, in the right place with sufficient effectiveness that defects of importance to structural integrity will be reliably detected and accurately characterized. The second program (Characterizing Fabrication Flaws in Reactor Pressure Vessels) is assembling a data base to quantify the distribution of fabrication flaws that exist in US nuclear reactor pressure vessels with respect to density, size, type, and location. These programs will be discussed as two separate sections in this report. 4 refs., 7 figs.

Doctor, S.R.; Bowey, R.E.; Good, M.S.; Friley, J.R.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Taylor, T.T.; Heasler, P.G.; Andersen, E.S.; Diaz, A.A.; Greenwood, M.S.; Hockey, R.L.; Schuster, G.J.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

1991-10-01

380

Extensions and evaluations of a general quantitative theory of forest structure and dynamics  

E-print Network

of a quantitative theory for the structure and dynamics of forests under demographic and resource steady state and extend the theory to show how the critical assumption of resource and demographic steady state leadsExtensions and evaluations of a general quantitative theory of forest structure and dynamics Brian

Saleska, Scott

381

Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in Lolium perenne  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR provides an important tool for analyzing gene expression if proper internal standards are used. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate reference genes for use in real-time quantitative RT-PCR in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) during plant developmen...

382

A grasp force and position sensor for the quantitative evaluation of neuroprosthetic hand grasp systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An instrumented grasp sensor has been developed for use in quantitative evaluation of neuroprosthetic hand grasps. This hand-held device monitors both grasp force and grasp opening with the subject utilizing either palmar or lateral prehension, and can be used to quantify the grasping of variable-sized or compliant objects. The grasp sensor provides a quantitative tool to analyze a subject's hand

William D. Memberg; Patrick E. Crago

1995-01-01

383

Quantitative evaluation of guinea-pig anaphylaxis in vivo  

PubMed Central

Two methods for recording bronchoconstrictor responses to antigen injected into sensitized guinea-pigs have been used to show that the dose/response relationship is a normal pharmacological one characterized by a sigmoid curve. Studies of desensitization indicate that the progressive decrease in sensitivity to repeated administrations of the same dose of antigen follows an exponential pattern. It is suggested that this approach might form a basis for reliable quantitative investigations of anaphylactic phenomena. PMID:14110744

Hicks, R.; Leach, G. D. H.

1963-01-01

384

Quantitative autoradiographic microimaging in the development and evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

Autoradiographic (ARG) microimaging is the method for depicting biodistribution of radiocompounds with highest spatial resolution. ARG is applicable to gamma, positron and negatron emitting radiotracers. Dual or multiple-isotope studies can be performed using half-lives and energies for discrimination of isotopes. Quantitation can be performed by digital videodensitometry and by newer filmless technologies. ARG`s obtained at different time intervals provide the time dimension for determination of kinetics.

Som, P. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Oster, Z.H. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

1994-04-01

385

Exploratory nondestructive evaluation (NDE) research for advanced materials and processes: Volume 3 -- Interactive multimedia computer based training (IMCBT) for nondestructive evaluation/inspection (NDE/I) personnel. Final report, 1 July 1995--30 April 1998  

SciTech Connect

Interactive Multimedia Computer Based Training (IMCBT) for Nondestructive Inspection (NDE/I) Personnel: Computer Based Training (CBT) is a highly effective method for industrial training that has been growing in popularity. Text, graphics, sound, movies and animation enhance the learning activity. Interactive Multimedia CBT (IMCBT) allows students to learn in an environment where the training material is presented on a computer workstation and uses student interaction and feedback in the learning process. This technology has been used in the aerospace industry for aircraft maintenance and flight training and is growing in many operation training areas. The cost of development of IMCBT material is significantly more expensive than traditional training material, but an hour of IMCBT material can contain more information than an hour of traditional training material since information is transferred faster and with higher retention. Because IMCBT delivers training at lower cost, the overall benefit of IMCBT has been found to be in the range of 40% to 60% cost savings. The application of IMCBT for NDE/I training did show an overwhelmingly positive acceptance of the incorporation of IMCBT for NDE/I personnel within existing training structures. A CD-ROM package called INSPECT (Interactive Student Paced Eddy Current Training) has demonstrate various advanced aspects of potential IMCBT lessons. The INSPECT CD demonstration was reviewed by Air Force and industry professionals, as well as a group of high school students to gauge novice response. The prototype was found to be appealing and to have significant potential as a useful teaching tool. A large majority of the professional reviewers stated they would like to have complete CBT modules like INSPECT for some aspect of their NDE/I training.

Bossi; Knutson, B.; Nerenberg, R.; Deobald, L.; Nelson, J.

1998-07-01

386

A quantitative evaluation of various iterative deconvolution algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various iterative deconvolution algorithms are evaluated that are commonly used to restore degraded chromatographic or spectroscopic peak data. The evaluation criteria include RMS errors, relative errors in peak areas, peak area variances, and rate of convergence. The iterative algorithms to be evaluated include Van Cittert's method, Van Cittert's method with constraint operators, relaxation based methods, and Gold's ratio method. The

P. B. Crilly

1991-01-01

387

Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells  

E-print Network

Quantitative evaluation of optical coherence tomography signal enhancement with gold nanoshells not been achieved. The current study involves nanoshells with a single gold layer. By varying the, HFZ-130 Rockville, Maryland 20852 Abstract. Nanoshell-enhanced optical coherence tomography OCT

Barton, Jennifer K.

388

Quantitative performance-based evaluation of a procedure for flexible design concept generation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an experimental methodology for objective and quantitative design procedure evaluation based on anticipated lifecycle performance of design concepts, and a procedure for flexible design concept generation. ...

Cardin, Michel-Alexandre, 1979-

2011-01-01

389

Online versus Paper Evaluations: Differences in Both Quantitative and Qualitative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study sought to determine if differences exist in the quantitative and qualitative data collected with paper and online versions of a medical school clerkship evaluation form. Data from six-and-a-half years of clerkship evaluations were used, some collected before and some after the conversion from a paper to an online evaluation system. The…

Burton, William B.; Civitano, Adele; Steiner-Grossman, Penny

2012-01-01

390

Quantitative versus Qualitative Evaluation: A Tool to Decide Which to Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation is often avoided in human performance technology (HPT), but it is an essential and frequently catalytic activity that adds significant value to projects. Knowing how to approach an evaluation and whether to use qualitative, quantitative, or both methods makes evaluation much easier. In this article, we provide tools to help determine…

Dobrovolny, Jackie L.; Fuentes, Stephanie Christine G.

2008-01-01

391

A quantitative and objective evaluation approach for optimal selection of design concept in conceptual design stage  

E-print Network

(Head of Department) December 2002 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT A Quantitative and Objective Evaluation Approach for Optimal Selection of Design Concept in Conceptual Design Stage. (December 2002) Sanjay Tiwari, B. E. , Shri G. S...A QUANTITATIVE AND OBJECTIVE EVALUATION APPROACH FOR OPTIMAL SELECTION OF DESIGN CONCEPT IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STAGE A Thesis by SANJAY TIWARI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Tiwari, Sanjay

2002-01-01

392

Quantitative analytical method to evaluate the metabolism of vitamin D.  

PubMed

A method for quantitative analysis of vitamin D (both D2 and D3) and its main metabolites - monohydroxylated vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3) and dihydroxylated metabolites (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) in human serum is here reported. The method is based on direct analysis of serum by an automated platform involving on-line coupling of a solid-phase extraction workstation to a liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer. Detection of the seven analytes was carried out by the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, and quantitative analysis was supported on the use of stable isotopic labeled internal standards (SIL-ISs). The detection limits were between 0.3-75pg/mL for the target compounds, while precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was below 13.0% for between-day variability. The method was externally validated according to the vitamin D External Quality Assurance Scheme (DEQAS) through the analysis of ten serum samples provided by this organism. The analytical features of the method support its applicability in nutritional and clinical studies targeted at elucidating the role of vitamin D metabolism. PMID:25575651

Mena-Bravo, A; Ferreiro-Vera, C; Priego-Capote, F; Maestro, M A; Mouriño, A; Quesada-Gómez, J M; Luque de Castro, M D

2015-03-10

393

A New Simple Interferometer for Obtaining Quantitatively Evaluable Flow Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method described in the present report makes it possible to obtain interferometer records with the aid of any one of the available Schlieren optics by the addition of very simple expedients, which fundamentally need not to be inferior to those obtained by other methods, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, for example. The method is based on the fundamental concept of the phase-contrast process developed by Zernike, but which in principle has been enlarged to such an extent that it practically represents an independent interference method for general applications. Moreover, the method offers the possibility, in case of necessity, of superposing any apparent wedge field on the density field to be gauged. The theory is explained on a purely physical basis and illustrated and proved by experimental data. A number of typical cases are cited and some quantitative results reported.

Erdmann, S F

1953-01-01

394

A new fiber-optic non-contact compact laser-ultrasound scanner for fast non-destructive testing and evaluation of aircraft composites  

PubMed Central

Laser ultrasonic (LU) inspection represents an attractive, non-contact method to evaluate composite materials. Current non-contact systems, however, have relatively low sensitivity compared to contact piezoelectric detection. They are also difficult to adjust, very expensive, and strongly influenced by environmental noise. Here, we demonstrate that most of these drawbacks can be eliminated by combining a new generation of compact, inexpensive fiber lasers with new developments in fiber telecommunication optics and an optimally designed balanced probe scheme. In particular, a new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is presented as part of an all-optical LU pump-probe system for non-destructive testing and evaluation of aircraft composites. The performance of the LU system is demonstrated on a composite sample with known defects. Wide-band ultrasound probe signals are generated directly at the sample surface with a pulsed fiber laser delivering nanosecond laser pulses at a repetition rate up to 76?kHz rate with a pulse energy of 0.6 mJ. A balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is employed to detect pressure signals at the same point on the composite surface. A- and B-scans obtained with the Sagnac interferometer are compared to those made with a contact wide-band polyvinylidene fluoride transducer. PMID:24737921

Pelivanov, Ivan; Buma, Takashi; Xia, Jinjun; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

2014-01-01

395

A new fiber-optic non-contact compact laser-ultrasound scanner for fast non-destructive testing and evaluation of aircraft composites.  

PubMed

Laser ultrasonic (LU) inspection represents an attractive, non-contact method to evaluate composite materials. Current non-contact systems, however, have relatively low sensitivity compared to contact piezoelectric detection. They are also difficult to adjust, very expensive, and strongly influenced by environmental noise. Here, we demonstrate that most of these drawbacks can be eliminated by combining a new generation of compact, inexpensive fiber lasers with new developments in fiber telecommunication optics and an optimally designed balanced probe scheme. In particular, a new type of a balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is presented as part of an all-optical LU pump-probe system for non-destructive testing and evaluation of aircraft composites. The performance of the LU system is demonstrated on a composite sample with known defects. Wide-band ultrasound probe signals are generated directly at the sample surface with a pulsed fiber laser delivering nanosecond laser pulses at a repetition rate up to 76?kHz rate with a pulse energy of 0.6 mJ. A balanced fiber-optic Sagnac interferometer is employed to detect pressure signals at the same point on the composite surface. A- and B-scans obtained with the Sagnac interferometer are compared to those made with a contact wide-band polyvinylidene fluoride transducer. PMID:24737921

Pelivanov, Ivan; Buma, Takashi; Xia, Jinjun; Wei, Chen-Wei; O'Donnell, Matthew

2014-03-21

396

A lighting metric for quantitative evaluation of accent lighting systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accent lighting is critical for artwork and sculpture lighting in museums, and subject lighting for stage, Film and television. The research problem of designing effective lighting in such settings has been revived recently with the rise of light-emitting-diode-based solid state lighting. In this work, we propose an easy-to-apply quantitative measure of the scene's visual quality as perceived by human viewers. We consider a well-accent-lit scene as one which maximizes the information about the scene (in an information-theoretic sense) available to the user. We propose a metric based on the entropy of the distribution of colors, which are extracted from an image of the scene from the viewer's perspective. We demonstrate that optimizing the metric as a function of illumination configuration (i.e., position, orientation, and spectral composition) results in natural, pleasing accent lighting. We use a photorealistic simulation tool to validate the functionality of our proposed approach, showing its successful application to two- and three-dimensional scenes.

Acholo, Cyril O.; Connor, Kenneth A.; Radke, Richard J.

2014-09-01

397

Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Darpa Communicator Spoken Dialogue Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the application of the PARADISE evaluation framework to the corpus of 662 human-computer dialogues collected in the June 2000 Darpa Communicator data collection. We describe results based on the standard logfile metrics as well as results based on additional qualitative metrics derived using the DATE dialogue act tagging scheme. We show that performance models derived via using

Marilyn A. Walker; Rebecca J. Passonneau; Julie E. Boland

2001-01-01

398

Nuclear medicine and imaging research (instrumentation and quantitative methods of evaluation). Progress report, January 15, 1992--January 14, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This document is the annual progress report for project entitled ``Instrumentation and Quantitative Methods of Evaluation.`` Progress is reported in separate sections individually abstracted and indexed for the database. Subject areas reported include theoretical studies of imaging systems and methods, hardware developments, quantitative methods of evaluation, and knowledge transfer: education in quantitative nuclear medicine imaging.

Beck, R.N.; Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.

1992-07-01

399

Evaluating software engineering methods and tools, part 11: analysing quantitative case studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first of three articles describing how to undertake a quantitative case study based on work done as part of the DESMET project [1], [2]. In the context of methods and tool evaluations, case studies are a means of evaluating methods and tools as part of the normal software development activities undertaken by an organisation. The main

Barbara Ann Kitchenham; Lesley M. Pickard

1998-01-01

400

Evaluating software engineering methods and tools: part 9: quantitative case study methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first of three articles describing how to undertake a quantitative case study based on work done as part of the DESMET project [1], [2]. In the context of methods and tool evaluations, case studies are a means of evaluating methods and tools as part of the normal software development activities undertaken by an organisation. The main

Barbara Ann Kitchenham; Lesley M. Pickard

1998-01-01

401

Stability of Quantitative Evaluation Method of Liver Fibrosis Using Amplitude Distribution Model of Fibrotic Liver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the clinical diagnosis of liver fibrosis using ultrasound B-mode images, there are some differences between individual doctors' diagnosis results. Hence, the realization of a quantitative diagnosis method using ultrasonic echo signals is strongly required. The probability density function (PDF) of the echo signal envelope is an important factor for ultrasound tissue characterization (TC). To realize the quantitative diagnosis of the stage of liver fibrosis, we proposed an amplitude distribution model using two Rayleigh distributions. We have been studying the possibility of the quantitative estimation of liver fibrosis by using this model. In this paper, we present the evaluation results of liver fibrosis for clinical data using the amplitude distribution model. Then, we present the stability of the quantitative estimation method of liver fibrosis using the amplitude distribution model by a simulation, and compare the results using the simulation and clinical data. Stability evaluation has enabled the estimation of the progress of liver fibrosis considering statistical dispersion.

Igarashi, Yu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Hachiya, Hiroyuki

2011-07-01

402

Skin moisturization by hydrogenated polyisobutene--quantitative and visual evaluation.  

PubMed

Hydrogenated polyisobutene (HP) is used in topically applied cosmetic/personal care formulations as an emollient that leaves a pleasing skin feel when applied, and rubbed in after application. This effect, although distinguishable to the user, is difficult to define and quantify. Recognizing that some of the physical properties of HP such as film formation and wear resistance may contribute, in certain mechanisms, to skin moisturization, we designed a short-term pilot study to follow changes in skin moisturization. HP's incorporation into an o/w emulsion at 8% yielded increased viscosity and reduced emulsion droplet size as compared to the emollient ester CCT (capric/caprylic triglyceride) or a control formulation. Quantitative data indicate that application of the o/w emulsion formulation containing either HP or CCT significantly elevated skin moisture content and thus reduced transepidermal water loss (TEWL) by a maximal approximately 33% against the control formulation within 3 h and maintained this up to 6 h. Visual observation of skin treated with the HP-containing formulation showed fine texture and clear contrast as compared to the control or the CCT formulation, confirming this effect. As a result of increased hydration, skin conductivity, as measured in terms of corneometer values, was also elevated significantly by about tenfold as early as 20 min after HP or CCT application and was maintained throughout the test period. Throughout the test period the HP formulation was 5-10% more effective than the CCT formulation both in reduction of TEWL as well as in increased skin conductivity. Thus, compared to the emollient ester (CCT), HP showed a unique capability for long-lasting effect in retaining moisture and improving skin texture. PMID:19296892

Dayan, Nava; Sivalenka, Rajarajeswari; Chase, John

2009-01-01

403

Quantitative vertebral compression fracture evaluation using a height compass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vertebral compression fractures can be caused by even minor trauma in patients with pathological conditions such as osteoporosis, varying greatly in vertebral body location and compression geometry. The location and morphology of the compression injury can guide decision making for treatment modality (vertebroplasty versus surgical fixation), and can be important for pre-surgical planning. We propose a height compass to evaluate the axial plane spatial distribution of compression injury (anterior, posterior, lateral, and central), and distinguish it from physiologic height variations of normal vertebrae. The method includes four steps: spine segmentation and partition, endplate detection, height compass computation and compression fracture evaluation. A height compass is computed for each vertebra, where the vertebral body is partitioned in the axial plane into 17 cells oriented about concentric rings. In the compass structure, a crown-like geometry is produced by three concentric rings which are divided into 8 equal length arcs by rays which are subtended by 8 common central angles. The radius of each ring increases multiplicatively, with resultant structure of a central node and two concentric surrounding bands of cells, each divided into octants. The height value for each octant is calculated and plotted against octants in neighboring vertebrae. The height compass shows intuitive display of the height distribution and can be used to easily identify the fracture regions. Our technique was evaluated on 8 thoraco-abdominal CT scans of patients with reported compression fractures and showed statistically significant differences in height value at the sites of the fractures.

Yao, Jianhua; Burns, Joseph E.; Wiese, Tatjana; Summers, Ronald M.

2012-03-01

404

Applying Quantitative Approaches to the Formative Evaluation of Antismoking Campaign Messages  

PubMed Central

This article shares an in-depth summary of a formative evaluation that used quantitative data to inform the development and selection of promotional ads for the antismoking communication component of a social marketing campaign. A foundational survey provided cross-sectional data to identify beliefs about quitting smoking that campaign messages should target, as well as beliefs to avoid. Pretesting draft ads against quantitative indicators of message effectiveness further facilitated the selection and rejection of final campaign ads. Finally, we consider lessons learned from the process of balancing quantitative methods and judgment to make formative decisions about more and less promising persuasive messages for campaigns. PMID:24817829

Parvanta, Sarah; Gibson, Laura; Forquer, Heather; Shapiro-Luft, Dina; Dean, Lorraine; Freres, Derek; Lerman, Caryn; Mallya, Giridhar; Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy; Cappella, Joseph; Hornik, Robert

2014-01-01

405

Invited Chapter in Automation, Miniature Robotics and Sensors for Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation, Y. Bar-Cohen Editor, April 99  

E-print Network

Invited Chapter in Automation, Miniature Robotics and Sensors for Non-Destructive Testing, AND ELECTRORHEOLOGICAL FLUIDS Constantinos Mavroidis, Charles Pfeiffer and Michael Mosley Robotics and Mechatronics ..................................................................................................... 2 5.1.2.1 Hydraulic Actuators

Mavroidis, Constantinos

406

High-speed terahertz reflection three-dimensional imaging for nondestructive  

E-print Network

.4290) Nondestructive testing. References and links 1. W. Withayachumnankul, G. M. Png, X. Yin, S. Atakaramians, IHigh-speed terahertz reflection three- dimensional imaging for nondestructive evaluation Kyong Hwan of the imaging system to nondestructive evaluation, a THz reflection 3D image of an artificially made sample

407

A quantitative evaluation of two methods for preserving hair samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hair samples are an increasingly important DNA source for wildlife studies, yet optimal storage methods and DNA degradation rates have not been rigorously evaluated. We tested amplification success rates over a one-year storage period for DNA extracted from brown bear (Ursus arctos) hair samples preserved using silica desiccation and -20 ??C freezing. For three nuclear DNA microsatellites, success rates decreased significantly after a six-month time point, regardless of storage method. For a 1000 bp mitochondrial fragment, a similar decrease occurred after a two-week time point. Minimizing delays between collection and DNA extraction will maximize success rates for hair-based noninvasive genetic sampling projects.

Roon, D.A.; Waits, L.P.; Kendall, K.C.

2003-01-01

408

Computerized quantitative evaluation of mammographic accreditation phantom images  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The objective was to develop and investigate an automated scoring scheme of the American College of Radiology (ACR) mammographic accreditation phantom (RMI 156, Middleton, WI) images. Methods: The developed method consisted of background subtraction, determination of region of interest, classification of fiber and mass objects by Mahalanobis distance, detection of specks by template matching, and rule-based scoring. Fifty-one phantom images were collected from 51 facilities for this study (one facility provided one image). A medical physicist and two radiologic technologists also scored the images. The human and computerized scores were compared. Results: In terms of meeting the ACR's criteria, the accuracies of the developed method for computerized evaluation of fiber, mass, and speck were 90%, 80%, and 98%, respectively. Contingency table analysis revealed significant association between observer and computer scores for microcalcifications (p<5%) but not for masses and fibers. Conclusions: The developed method may achieve a stable assessment of visibility for test objects in mammographic accreditation phantom image in whether the phantom image meets the ACR's criteria in the evaluation test, although there is room left for improvement in the approach for fiber and mass objects.

Lee, Yongbum; Tsai, Du-Yih; Shinohara, Norimitsu [Department of Radiological Technology, School of Health Sciences, Niigata University, 2-746 Asahimachidori, Chuouku, Niigata 951-8518 (Japan); Department of Radiological Technology, Gifu Univesity of Medical Science, 1-795 Hiraga-aza-nagamine, Seki, Gifu 501-3892 (Japan)

2010-12-15

409

Quantitative Evaluation of the Reticuloendothelial System Function with Dynamic MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the reticuloendothelial system (RES) function by real-time imaging blood clearance as well as hepatic uptake of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (SPIO) using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with two-compartment pharmacokinetic modeling. Materials and Methods Kinetics of blood clearance and hepatic accumulation were recorded in young adult male 01b74 athymic nude mice by dynamic T2* weighted MRI after the injection of different doses of SPIO nanoparticles (0.5, 3 or 10 mg Fe/kg). Association parameter, Kin, dissociation parameter, Kout, and elimination constant, Ke, derived from dynamic data with two-compartment model, were used to describe active binding to Kupffer cells and extrahepatic clearance. The clodrosome and liposome were utilized to deplete macrophages and block the RES function to evaluate the capability of the kinetic parameters for investigation of macrophage function and density. Results The two-compartment model provided a good description for all data and showed a low sum squared residual for all mice (0.27±0.03). A lower Kin, a lower Kout and a lower Ke were found after clodrosome treatment, whereas a lower Kin, a higher Kout and a lower Ke were observed after liposome treatment in comparison to saline treatment (P<0.005). Conclusion Dynamic SPIO-enhanced MR imaging with two-compartment modeling can provide information on RES function on both a cell number and receptor function level. PMID:25090653

Liu, Ting; Choi, Hoon; Zhou, Rong; Chen, I-Wei

2014-01-01

410

Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

1984-05-01

411

Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, VoL 13, No. 3, 1994 Leaky Guided Wave Propagation Along Imperfectly Bonded  

E-print Network

interface. In certain ceramic matrix composites, the effective interfacial stiffness be- tween the fiber for characterizing the fiber-matrix interface. This principle can be applied to real composites containing small problems in nonde- structive evaluation of composite materials is the in- spection of the fiber-matrix

Nagy, Peter B.

412

Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

413

Quantitative evaluation of manual kinetic perimetry using computer simulation.  

PubMed

Manual kinetic perimetry is a common technique for detection and evaluation of visual field loss in glaucoma and other ophthalmic diseases. Previous investigations have examined the accuracy and reproducibility of kinetic perimetry, but have disagreed as to the source of variability in the test results.(1,2) In these studies, patient response characteristics could not be specified. The present study examined the effects of controlled patient factors on performance of manual kinetic perimetry. Three technicians each conducted thirty-six kinetic perimetry examinations on normal and abnormal visual fields with varying degrees of response errors and sensitivity fluctuations, using the KRAKEN computer simulation program.(3) Performance measures included elapsed time, number of plotted isopter and scotoma boundaries, time per boundary, mean error over the entire field, and mean local error within sectors. In addition, perimetrists judged the cooperation and reliability of the simulated patient on a five-point scale. Measures of accuracy yielded significant differences in location within the visual field: central vs peripheral and superior vs inferior. Measures of efficiency yielded significant effects of patient cooperation, normal vs abnormal visual fields, and technician's level of experience. Patient cooperation, as judged, agreed with simulated reliability. This approach appears to have promise as a training procedure for manual kinetic perimetry. PMID:20563024

Shapiro, L R; Johnson, C A

1990-04-01

414

From Dsm to 3d Building Models: a Quantitative Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper reviews the state-of-the-art in 3D city models and building block generation, with a description of the most common solutions and approaches. Then the digital reconstruction and comparison of LoD1 and LoD2 building models obtained with commercial packages and using different input data are presented. As input data, a DSM at 1m resolution derived from a GeoEye-1 stereo-pair, a DSM from an aerial block at 50 cm GSD and a LiDAR-based DSM at 1 m resolution are used. The geometric buildings produced with each dataset are evaluated with respect to some ground-truth measurements but also compared between them. Problems such as the quality of the input DSM, the accuracy of the necessary vector datasets containing the building footprints, the flexibility of the approaches and the potentialities of each dataset will be discussed. As reconstruction of the building models is largely influenced by the quality of the building footprints, which may be out-of-date or slightly shifted with respect to the employed DSMs/DTMs, an in-house method is being developed to derive them starting from the produced DSMs.

Macay Moreia, J. M.; Nex, F.; Agugiaro, G.; Remondino, F.; Lim, N. J.

2013-05-01

415

The aged male rat as a model for human osteoporosis: Evaluation by nondestructive measurements and biomechanical testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Effects of androgen deficiency and androgen replacement on bone density, as measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single photon absorptiometry (SPA), cortical ratio (cortical thickness\\/outside bone diameter x 100), and biomechanical properties were evaluated in 14-month-old (1 month after orchiectomy (orch) or sham-operation) and in 17-month-old (4 months after orch or sham) male rats. Whole femoral bone mineral

Dirk Vanderschueren; Erik Van Herck; Peter Schot; Elisa Rush; Thomas Einhorn; Piet Geusens; Roger Bouillon

1993-01-01

416

Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of solid objects Tadeusz Stepinski  

E-print Network

Ultrasonic nondestructive inspection of solid objects Tadeusz Stepinski Signals and Systems, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, ts@signal.uu.se Abstract. Ultrasonic testing (UT) has been used for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of materials for more than half a cen- tury. A number of NDE techniques have been

417

Sensitivity and Calibration of Non-Destructive Evaluation Method That Uses Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Fringe Patterns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper answers some performance and calibration questions about a non-destructive-evaluation (NDE) procedure that uses artificial neural networks to detect structural damage or other changes from sub-sampled characteristic patterns. The method shows increasing sensitivity as the number of sub-samples increases from 108 to 6912. The sensitivity of this robust NDE method is not affected by noisy excitations of the first vibration mode. A calibration procedure is proposed and demonstrated where the output of a trained net can be correlated with the outputs of the point sensors used for vibration testing. The calibration procedure is based on controlled changes of fastener torques. A heterodyne interferometer is used as a displacement sensor for a demonstration of the challenges to be handled in using standard point sensors for calibration.

Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

418

Non-destructive prediction of thiobarbituricacid reactive substances (TBARS) value for freshness evaluation of chicken meat using hyperspectral imaging.  

PubMed

This study examined the potential of hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for rapid prediction of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content in chicken meat during refrigerated storage. Using the spectral data and the reference values of TBARS, a partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established and yielded acceptable results with regression coefficients in prediction (Rp) of 0.944 and root mean squared errors estimated by prediction (RMSEP) of 0.081. To simplify the calibration model, ten optimal wavelengths were selected by successive projections algorithm (SPA). Then, a new SPA-PLSR model based on the selected wavelengths was built and showed good results with Rp of 0.801 and RMSEP of 0.157. Finally, an image algorithm was developed to achieve image visualization of TBARS values in some representative samples. The encouraging results of this study demonstrated that HSI is suitable for determination of TBARS values for freshness evaluation in chicken meat. PMID:25722152

Xiong, Zhenjie; Sun, Da-Wen; Pu, Hongbin; Xie, Anguo; Han, Zhong; Luo, Man

2015-07-15

419

Nondestructive evaluation of the fatigue damage accumulation process around a notch using a digital image measurement system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fatigue damage accumulation process around a notch is studied using a noncontact digital image measurement system. This system incorporates a contrast correlation method to evaluate the level of plastic damage at each point of the studied area of the specimen from two images acquired before and after the introduction of fatigue deformation. A compact tension specimen of 304 stainless steel with a notch radius of 1 mm is analyzed during the first 1000 cycles of the crack growth stage. During this period, the externally given work not only impels the crack growth and its local plastic zone but also generates plastic damage around the notch. The obtained results are used to explain the behavior of cracks emanating from notches.

Díaz, F. V.; Armas, A. F.; Kaufmann, G. H.; Galizzi, G. E.

2004-03-01

420

Mechanical Model Analysis for Quantitative Evaluation of Liver Fibrosis Based on Ultrasound Tissue Elasticity Imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precise evaluation of the stage of chronic hepatitis C with respect to fibrosis has become an important issue to prevent the occurrence of cirrhosis and to initiate appropriate therapeutic intervention such as viral eradication using interferon. Ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, i.e., elastography can visualize tissue hardness/softness, and its clinical usefulness has been studied to detect and evaluate tumors. We have recently reported that the texture of elasticity image changes as fibrosis progresses. To evaluate fibrosis progression quantitatively on the basis of ultrasound tissue elasticity imaging, we introduced a mechanical model of fibrosis progression and simulated the process by which hepatic fibrosis affects elasticity images and compared the results with those clinical data analysis. As a result, it was confirmed that even in diffuse diseases like chronic hepatitis, the patterns of elasticity images are related to fibrous structural changes caused by hepatic disease and can be used to derive features for quantitative evaluation of fibrosis stage.

Shiina, Tsuyoshi; Maki, Tomonori; Yamakawa, Makoto; Mitake, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fujimoto, Kenji

2012-07-01

421

X-ray tomography as a non-destructive tool for evaluating the preservation of primary isotope signatures and mineralogy of Mesozoic fossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable isotope compositions of carbonate and phosphate components in fossil teeth and bone are widely used to infer information on paleoclimate and the physiology of extinct organisms. Recently the potential for measuring the body temperatures of extinct vertebrates from analyses of 13C-18O bond ordering in fossil teeth has been demonstrated (Eagle et al. 2010). The interpretation of these isotopic signatures relies on an assessment of the resistance of fossil bioapatite to alteration, as diffusion within, and partial recrystallization, or replacement of the original bioapatite will lead to measured compositions that represent mixtures between primary and secondary phases and/or otherwise inaccurate apparent temperatures. X-ray computed tomography (CT) allows 3-D density maps of teeth to be made at micron-scale resolution. Such density maps have the potential to record textural evidence for alteration, recrystallization, or replacement of enamel. Because it is non-destructive, CT can be used prior to stable isotope analysis to identify potentially problematic samples without consuming or damaging scientifically significant specimens. As a test, we have applied CT to tooth fragments containing both dentin and enamel from Late Jurassic sauropods and a Late Cretaceous theropod that yielded a range of clumped isotope temperatures from anomalously high ˜60oC to physiologically plausible ?40oC. This range of temperatures suggests partial, high-temperature modification of some specimens, but possible preservation of primary signals in others. Three-dimensional CT volumes generated using General Electric Phoenix|x-ray CT instruments were compared with visible light and back-scattered electron images of the same samples. The tube-detector combination used for the CT study consisted of a 180 kV nanofocus transmission tube coupled with a 127 micron pixel pitch detector ( ˜3-12? m voxel edges), allowing us to clearly map out alteration zones in high contrast, while reducing edge effects and beam hardening artifacts. CT images of these teeth show a range of replacement textures. One tooth -- thought to be the least altered -- shows only localized positive density anomalies near fractures, while a second -- thought to be highly altered -- contains high-density replacement mineralization. A third tooth -- one suspected of possible partial alteration -- shows a network of rectilinear density anomalies in the enamel similar to 2-D transmitted light and back-scattered electron images. This may represent recrystallization or replacement of the primary bioapatite. Unlike 2-D imaging techniques, 3-D volumes can be used to quickly and easily make quantitative measurements of the volumes of altered and unaltered materials: For example, in the enamel of sample 3, we observe a ratio of high density to low density material of ˜ 3:2.

Santillan, J. D.; Boyce, J. W.; Eagle, R.; Martin, T.; Tuetken, T.; Eiler, J.

2010-12-01

422

Rapid qualitative and quantitative evaluation of deer antler ( Cervus elaphus) using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been applied for both the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the velvet deer antler. The most important parameters of determining the quality of velvet antler are the habitat (the country of origin) and ash content. Conventionally, the habitat is determined by examining the appearance of samples (by human eye), which lacks objectivity. Ash content is measured

Chang-Hee Cho; Young-Ah Woo; Hyo-Jin Kim; Young-Ja Chung; Sung-Yeup Chang; Hoeil Chung

2001-01-01

423

A Quantitative Evaluation of 3D Soft Tissue Prediction in Maxillofacial Surgery Planning  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Evaluation of 3D Soft Tissue Prediction in Maxillofacial Surgery Planning S. Zachow1 a preoperative assessment of functional as well as æsthetic rehabilitation. On this account we try to establish preoperative CT data. The resulting tissue deformations have been computed with a finite element approximation

Andrzejak, Artur

424

Quantitative evaluation of Compressed Sensing in MRI: Application to 7T time-of-flight angiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compressed Sensing is a recently developed technique that enables the reconstruction of sparsely sampled MR data, thus enabling much faster image acquisitions than using conventional approaches which are limited by the Nyquist criterion. Even though this method has been shown to provide visually acceptable results in a number of applications, no quantitative evaluation of the quality of the image data

Julien Milles; Maarten J. Versluis; Andrew G. Webb; J. H. C. Reiber

2010-01-01

425

Complementarity as a Program Evaluation Strategy: A Focus on Qualitative and Quantitative Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Use of complementarity as a deliberate and necessary program evaluation strategy is discussed. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are viewed as complementary and can be integrated into a single study. The synergy that results from using complementary methods in a single study seems to enhance understanding and interpretation. A review of the…

Lafleur, Clay

426

Quantitative evaluation of ion signal detection in analytically important Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments performed in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer are evaluated to produce quantitatively reliable mass spectra in which the ion population in the trapped-ion cell is proportional to the image current. Generation of signal intensity profiles as a function of excitation voltage is described for analyzing ion cloud evolution in response to the effect of system

Riegner

1993-01-01

427

Network survivability performance evaluation:: a quantitative approach with applications in wireless ad-hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network survivability reflects the ability of a network to continue to function during and after failures. Our purpose in this paper is to propose a quantitative approach to evaluate network survivability. We perceive the network survivability as a composite measure consisting of both network failure duration and failure impact on the network. A wireless ad-hoc network is analyzed as an

Dongyan Chen; Sachin Garg; Kishor S. Trivedi

2002-01-01

428

Quantitative Study of the Value of Research Libraries: A Foundation for the Evaluation of Digital Libraries  

E-print Network

Quantitative Study of the Value of Research Libraries: A Foundation for the Evaluation of Digital Libraries Paul B. Kantor and Tefko Saracevic LIS and Rutgers Distributed Laboratory for Digital Libraries School of Communication, Information and Library Studies Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ {kantor

429

A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery  

E-print Network

A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery 2013 Accepted 31 July 2013 Available online 27 August 2013 Keywords: Microbial electrolysis cell Wastewater treatment Energy consumption Coulombic efficiency a b s t r a c t Microbial electrolysis cells

430

2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (CLEO) Quantitative Evaluation of Nanoshells as a Contrast Agent  

E-print Network

is typically gold. Nanoshells possess optical and chemical properties that are highly favorable for biomedical-UV to the mid-infrared. It is possible to engineer gold nanoshells which primarily scatter light for biomedicalCFA1 2005 Conference on Lasers & Electro-Optics (CLEO) Quantitative Evaluation of Nanoshells

Barton, Jennifer K.

431

A Quantitative Evaluation of C-Based Synthesis on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design  

E-print Network

A Quantitative Evaluation of C-Based Synthesis on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design Omar proposed to tackle the complexity of heterogeneous embedded systems. The heterogeneity comes of heterogeneous embedded systems and point out the impact of behavioral synthesis on partitioning. I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of heart sound reduction from lung sound recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recursive least squares (RLS) adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) and wavelet transform (WT) ANC have been applied and compared for heart sound (HS) reduction from lung sounds (LS) recordings. Novel processes for quantitative and qualitative evaluation of any method for HS reduction from LS have also been proposed.

January Gnitecki; Irina Hossain; Hans Pasterkamp; Zahra Moussavi

2005-01-01

433

An Elephant in the Room: Bias in Evaluating a Required Quantitative Methods Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate Political Science programs often require students to take a quantitative research methods course. Such courses are typically among the most poorly rated. This can be due, in part, to the way in which courses are evaluated. Students are generally asked to provide an overall rating, which, in turn, is widely used by students, faculty,…

Fletcher, Joseph F.; Painter-Main, Michael A.

2014-01-01

434

Quantitative evaluation of general corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel in subcritical and  

E-print Network

Quantitative evaluation of general corrosion of Type 304 stainless steel in subcritical the corrosion rate of Type 304 stainless steel (SS) in subcritical and supercritical environments. The EN to the low corrosion rate of Type 304 SS and 150°C. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

Benning, Liane G.

435

Qualitative\\/Quantitative Synergies in a Random-Assignment Program Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the productive synergy that resulted from a mixed qualitative\\/quantitative approach to evaluating program impacts of New Hope, an anti-poverty program developed and implemented in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the mid-1990s. An overarching conclusion is that the combination of the two methodologies can indeed enrich evaluation efforts. The assessment of New Hope was enhanced by decisions to randomly sample

Christina M. Gibson; Greg J. Duncan

2000-01-01

436

Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging.  

PubMed

In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400-700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB), which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400-700 nm) yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600-700 nm) yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting. PMID:24763251

Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Kangjin; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Jongguk; Kang, Sukwon

2014-01-01

437

Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

2012-09-01

438

Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging  

PubMed Central

In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB), which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm) yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm) yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting. PMID:24763251

Mo, Changyeun; Kim, Giyoung; Lee, Kangjin; Kim, Moon S.; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Lim, Jongguk; Kang, Sukwon

2014-01-01

439

Distortion analysis of magnetic excitation—a novel approach for the non-destructive microstructural evaluation of ferromagnetic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of a different ferromagnetic material, between the poles of a U-shaped iron-cored electromagnetic (EM) yoke, has been observed to introduce a distortion in the alternating excitation voltage (VE) across the coil around the EM yoke. The influence of four different microstructural conditions of a ferromagnetic 18CrNiMo5 gear steel on the distortion behaviour of the magnetic excitation voltage has been investigated. The time derivative of the excitation voltage (dVE/dt) plotted as a function of total applied voltage (VT) has been found to show a unique shape for each sample with different microstructural conditions. The systematic changes in the height and position of the peak and the trough on the voltage-time derivative profile reflect the difference in the magnetization process for each microstructural condition. This study reveals the good potential of this s