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1

Phenotypic variation and natural selection at catsup, a pleiotropic quantitative trait gene in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Quantitative traits are shaped by networks of pleiotropic genes . To understand the mechanisms that maintain genetic variation for quantitative traits in natural populations and to predict responses to artificial and natural selection, we must evaluate pleiotropic effects of underlying quantitative trait genes and define functional allelic variation at the level of quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs). Catecholamines up (Catsup), which encodes a negative regulator of tyrosine hydroxylase , the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter dopamine, is a pleiotropic quantitative trait gene in Drosophila melanogaster. We used association mapping to determine whether the same or different QTNs at Catsup are associated with naturally occurring variation in multiple quantitative traits. We sequenced 169 Catsup alleles from a single population and detected 33 polymorphisms with little linkage disequilibrium (LD). Different molecular polymorphisms in Catsup are independently associated with variation in longevity, locomotor behavior, and sensory bristle number. Most of these polymorphisms are potentially functional variants in protein coding regions, have large effects, and are not common. Thus, Catsup is a pleiotropic quantitative trait gene, but individual QTNs do not have pleiotropic effects. Molecular population genetic analyses of Catsup sequences are consistent with balancing selection maintaining multiple functional polymorphisms. PMID:16682353

Carbone, Mary Anna; Jordan, Katherine W; Lyman, Richard F; Harbison, Susan T; Leips, Jeff; Morgan, Theodore J; DeLuca, Maria; Awadalla, Philip; Mackay, Trudy F C

2006-05-01

2

Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in "Brassica rapa" Fast Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question "What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev)," we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory…

Batzli, Janet M.; Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dosa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

2014-01-01

3

Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants  

PubMed Central

Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ?50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dosa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

2014-01-01

4

Phenotypic variation and quantitative trait locus identification for osmotic potential in an interspecific hybrid inbred F2 poplar pedigree grown in contrasting environments  

SciTech Connect

Elucidation of the mechanisms of dehydration tolerance in popular (Populus sp.) trees will permit development of biochemical and molecular indicators to indentify dehydration-tolerant genotypes during genetic selection. The objectives of the study were to characterize the degree of phenotypic variation in osmotic potential (a determinant of dehydration tolerance), determine the relationship between osmotic potential at full turgor and relative growth rate, and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for osmotic potential in an advanced-generation, interpsecific popular pedigree established in contrasting environments.

Tschaplinski, Timothy J [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Sewell, Mitchell [ORNL; Gebre, G [ORNL; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Pendley, Carrie D [ORNL

2006-01-01

5

Interpreting phenotypic variation in plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article by Coleman, McConnaughay, and Ackerly discusses how phenotypic variation (variation in observable traits) in plants is influenced by environment, genetics, and developmental stage. The authors stress that understanding the interplay of these factors is important for investigations that involve plant comparisons.

6

The Quantitative Genetics of Phenotypic Robustness  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic robustness, or canalization, has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically. However, it remains unknown to what extent robustness varies between individuals, and whether factors buffering environmental variation also buffer genetic variation. Here we introduce a quantitative genetic approach to these issues, and apply this approach to data from three species. In mice, we find suggestive evidence that for hundreds of gene expression traits, robustness is polymorphic and can be genetically mapped to discrete genomic loci. Moreover, we find that the polymorphisms buffering genetic variation are distinct from those buffering environmental variation. In fact, these two classes have quite distinct mechanistic bases: environmental buffers of gene expression are predominantly sex-specific and trans-acting, whereas genetic buffers are not sex-specific and often cis-acting. Data from studies of morphological and life-history traits in plants and yeast support the distinction between polymorphisms buffering genetic and environmental variation, and further suggest that loci buffering different types of environmental variation do overlap with one another. These preliminary results suggest that naturally occurring polymorphisms affecting phenotypic robustness could be abundant, and that these polymorphisms may generally buffer either genetic or environmental variation, but not both. PMID:20072615

Fraser, Hunter B.; Schadt, Eric E.

2010-01-01

7

Quantitative trait loci for thermotolerance phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

For insects, temperature is a major environmental variable that can influence an individual's behavioral activities and fitness. Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that has had great success in adapting to and colonizing diverse thermal niches. This adaptation and colonization has resulted in complex patterns of genetic variation in thermotolerance phenotypes in nature. Although extensive work has been conducted documenting patterns of genetic variation, substantially less is known about the genomic regions or genes that underlie this ecologically and evolutionarily important genetic variation. To begin to understand and identify the genes controlling thermotolerance phenotypes, we have used a mapping population of recombinant inbred (RI) lines to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect variation in both heat- and cold-stress resistance. The mapping population was derived from a cross between two lines of D. melanogaster (Oregon-R and 2b) that were not selected for thermotolerance phenotypes, but exhibit significant genetic divergence for both phenotypes. Using a design in which each RI line was backcrossed to both parental lines, we mapped seven QTL affecting thermotolerance on the second and third chromosomes. Three of the QTL influence cold-stress resistance and four affect heat-stress resistance. Most of the QTL were trait or sex specific, suggesting that overlapping but generally unique genetic architectures underlie resistance to low- and high-temperature extremes. Each QTL explained between 5 and 14% of the genetic variance among lines, and degrees of dominance ranged from completely additive to partial dominance. Potential thermotolerance candidate loci contained within our QTL regions are identified and discussed. PMID:16404413

Morgan, T J; Mackay, T F C

2006-03-01

8

Quantitative Analysis of Interindividual Variation of Glutathione S-Transferase Expression in Human Pancreas and the Ambiguity of Correlating Genotype with Phenotype1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of the alpha, mu, and pi classes by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry in 43 samples of normal hu- man pancreas demonstrated a wide variation in expression of subunits P1, A1, A2, A4, M1, M2, and M3 and the presence of a novel form designated GST \\

Brian F. Coles; Kristin E. Anderson; Daniel R. Doerge; Mona I. Churchwell; Nicholas P. Lang; Fred F. Kadlubar

9

Phenotypic variation of lionfish supraocular tentacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous observation suggested that a novel phenotype of lionfish supraocular tentacle is evolving rapidly in the Red Sea\\u000a and Indian Ocean. We confirm the existence of this phenotype in high prevalence in invasive populations of lionfish in the\\u000a Western North Atlantic. Observations of individual lionfish from the Atlantic populations indicate that supraocular tentacles\\u000a are more prevalent on juvenile and

James A. Morris Jr; D. Wilson Freshwater

2008-01-01

10

Quantitative trait loci for thermotolerance phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

For insects, temperature is a major environmental variable that can influence an individual's behavioral activities and fitness. Drosophila melanogaster is a cosmopolitan species that has had great success in adapting to and colonizing diverse thermal niches. This adaptation and colonization has resulted in complex patterns of genetic variation in thermotolerance phenotypes in nature. Although extensive work has been conducted documenting

T J Morgan; T F C Mackay

2006-01-01

11

Quantifying the impact of development on phenotypic variation and evolution.  

PubMed

A primary goal of evolutionary biology is to identify the factors that shape phenotypic evolution. According to the theory of natural selection, phenotypic evolution occurs through the differential survival and reproduction of individuals whose traits are selectively advantageous relative to other individuals in the population. This implies that evolution by natural selection is contingent upon the distribution and magnitude of phenotypic variation among individuals, which are in turn the products of developmental processes. Development therefore has the potential to affect the trajectory and rate of phenotypic evolution. Recent research in diverse systems (e.g., mammalian teeth, cichlid skulls, butterfly wings, and marsupial limbs) supports the hypothesis that development biases phenotypic variation and evolution, but suggests that these biases might be system-specific. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 322B: 643-653, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25393554

Sears, Karen E

2014-12-01

12

Quantitative trait loci for thermotolerance phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster  

E-print Network

, we have used a mapping population of recombinant inbred (RI) lines to map quantitative trait loci in which each RI line was backcrossed to both parental lines, we mapped seven QTL affecting thermotoler (QTL) that affect variation in both heat- and cold-stress resistance. The mapping population

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

13

Hormones, life-history, and phenotypic variation: Opportunities in evolutionary avian endocrinology  

E-print Network

Review Hormones, life-history, and phenotypic variation: Opportunities in evolutionary avian 2011 Keywords: Phenotypic variation Breeding Clutch size Hormonal pleiotropy Hormonal conflict a b. We have only a rudimentary understanding of the physiological and hormonal basis of phenotypic

14

Epigenetic variation creates potential for evolution of plant phenotypic plasticity.  

PubMed

Heritable variation in plant phenotypes, and thus potential for evolutionary change, can in principle not only be caused by variation in DNA sequence, but also by underlying epigenetic variation. However, the potential scope of such phenotypic effects and their evolutionary significance are largely unexplored. Here, we conducted a glasshouse experiment in which we tested the response of a large number of epigenetic recombinant inbred lines (epiRILs) of Arabidopsis thaliana--lines that are nearly isogenic but highly variable at the level of DNA methylation--to drought and increased nutrient conditions. We found significant heritable variation among epiRILs both in the means of several ecologically important plant traits and in their plasticities to drought and nutrients. Significant selection gradients, that is, fitness correlations, of several mean traits and plasticities suggest that selection could act on this epigenetically based phenotypic variation. Our study provides evidence that variation in DNA methylation can cause substantial heritable variation of ecologically important plant traits, including root allocation, drought tolerance and nutrient plasticity, and that rapid evolution based on epigenetic variation alone should thus be possible. PMID:23121242

Zhang, Yuan-Ye; Fischer, Markus; Colot, Vincent; Bossdorf, Oliver

2013-01-01

15

Adaptive basis of geographic variation: genetic, phenotypic and environmental  

E-print Network

Adaptive basis of geographic variation: genetic, phenotypic and environmental differences among a novel habitat. A classical example of adaptation is the pale colour of beach mice, relative at other genetic loci. Together, these results suggest that natural selection for camouflage--via changes

Hoekstra, Hopi E.

16

The genetics of phenotypic plasticity. X. Variation versus uncertainty  

PubMed Central

Despite the apparent advantages of adaptive plasticity, it is not common. We examined the effects of variation and uncertainty on selection for plasticity using an individual-based computer simulation model. In the model, the environment consisted of a linear gradient of 50 demes with dispersal occurring either before or after selection. Individuals consisted of multiple loci whose phenotypic expression either are affected (plastic) or are not affected (nonplastic) by the environment. Typically, evolution occurred first as genetic differentiation, which was then replaced by the evolution of adaptive plasticity, opposite to the evolutionary trend that is often assumed. Increasing dispersal rates selected for plasticity, if selection occurred before dispersal. If selection occurred after dispersal, the highest plasticity was at intermediate dispersal rates. Temporal variation in the environment occurring after development, but before selection, favored the evolution of plasticity. With dispersal before selection, such temporal variation resulted in hyperplasticity, with a reaction norm much steeper than the optimum. This effect was enhanced with negative temporal autocorrelation and can be interpreted as representing a form of bet hedging. As the number of nonplastic loci increased, plasticity was disfavored due to an increase in the uncertainty of the genomic environment. This effect was reversed with temporal variation. Thus, variation and uncertainty affect whether or not plasticity is favored with different sources of variation—arising from the amount and timing of dispersal, from temporal variation, and even from the genetic architecture underlying the phenotype—having contrasting, interacting, and at times unexpected effects. PMID:22837824

Scheiner, Samuel M; Holt, Robert D

2012-01-01

17

Molecular Biomarkers for Quantitative and Discrete COPD Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory lung disorder with complex pathological features and largely unknown etiology. The identification of biomarkers for this disease could aid the development of methods to facilitate earlier diagnosis, the classification of disease subtypes, and provide a means to define therapeutic response. To identify gene expression biomarkers, we completed expression profiling of RNA derived from the lung tissue of 56 subjects with varying degrees of airflow obstruction using the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 array. We applied multiple, independent analytical methods to define biomarkers for either discrete or quantitative disease phenotypes. Analysis of differential expression between cases (n = 15) and controls (n = 18) identified a set of 65 discrete biomarkers. Correlation of gene expression with quantitative measures of airflow obstruction (FEV1%predicted or FEV1/FVC) identified a set of 220 biomarkers. Biomarker genes were enriched in functions related to DNA binding and regulation of transcription. We used this group of biomarkers to predict disease in an unrelated data set, generated from patients with severe emphysema, with 97% accuracy. Our data contribute to the understanding of gene expression changes occurring in the lung tissue of patients with obstructive lung disease and provide additional insight into potential mechanisms involved in the disease process. Furthermore, we present the first gene expression biomarker for COPD validated in an independent data set. PMID:18849563

Bhattacharya, Soumyaroop; Srisuma, Sorachai; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Bueno, Raphael; Silverman, Edwin K.; Reilly, John J.; Mariani, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

18

Phenotypic Variation in the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax citrulli  

PubMed Central

Acidovorax citrulli causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits, a disease that threatens the cucurbit industry worldwide. Despite the economic importance of BFB, little is known about pathogenicity and fitness strategies of the bacterium. We have observed the phenomenon of phenotypic variation in A. citrulli. Here we report the characterization of phenotypic variants (PVs) of two strains, M6 and 7a1, isolated from melon and watermelon, respectively. Phenotypic variation was observed following growth in rich medium, as well as upon isolation of bacteria from inoculated plants or exposure to several stresses, including heat, salt and acidic conditions. When grown on nutrient agar, all PV colonies possessed a translucent appearance, in contrast to parental strain colonies that were opaque. After 72 h, PV colonies were bigger than parental colonies, and had a fuzzy appearance relative to parental strain colonies that are relatively smooth. A. citrulli colonies are generally surrounded by haloes detectable by the naked eye. These haloes are formed by type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility that occurs at the edge of the colony. No twitching haloes could be detected around colonies of both M6 and 7a1 PVs, and microscopy observations confirmed that indeed the PVs did not perform twitching motility. In agreement with these results, transmission electron microscopy revealed that M6 and 7a1 PVs do not produce T4P under tested conditions. PVs also differed from their parental strain in swimming motility and biofilm formation, and interestingly, all assessed variants were less virulent than their corresponding parental strains in seed transmission assays. Slight alterations could be detected in some DNA fingerprinting profiles of 7a1 variants relative to the parental strain, while no differences at all could be seen among M6 variants and parental strain, suggesting that, at least in the latter, phenotypic variation is mediated by slight genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. PMID:24023830

Shrestha, Ram Kumar; Rosenberg, Tally; Makarovsky, Daria; Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Zelinger, Einat; Kopelowitz, June; Sikorski, Johannes; Burdman, Saul

2013-01-01

19

Phenotypic variation in the plant pathogenic bacterium Acidovorax citrulli.  

PubMed

Acidovorax citrulli causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits, a disease that threatens the cucurbit industry worldwide. Despite the economic importance of BFB, little is known about pathogenicity and fitness strategies of the bacterium. We have observed the phenomenon of phenotypic variation in A. citrulli. Here we report the characterization of phenotypic variants (PVs) of two strains, M6 and 7a1, isolated from melon and watermelon, respectively. Phenotypic variation was observed following growth in rich medium, as well as upon isolation of bacteria from inoculated plants or exposure to several stresses, including heat, salt and acidic conditions. When grown on nutrient agar, all PV colonies possessed a translucent appearance, in contrast to parental strain colonies that were opaque. After 72 h, PV colonies were bigger than parental colonies, and had a fuzzy appearance relative to parental strain colonies that are relatively smooth. A. citrulli colonies are generally surrounded by haloes detectable by the naked eye. These haloes are formed by type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility that occurs at the edge of the colony. No twitching haloes could be detected around colonies of both M6 and 7a1 PVs, and microscopy observations confirmed that indeed the PVs did not perform twitching motility. In agreement with these results, transmission electron microscopy revealed that M6 and 7a1 PVs do not produce T4P under tested conditions. PVs also differed from their parental strain in swimming motility and biofilm formation, and interestingly, all assessed variants were less virulent than their corresponding parental strains in seed transmission assays. Slight alterations could be detected in some DNA fingerprinting profiles of 7a1 variants relative to the parental strain, while no differences at all could be seen among M6 variants and parental strain, suggesting that, at least in the latter, phenotypic variation is mediated by slight genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. PMID:24023830

Shrestha, Ram Kumar; Rosenberg, Tally; Makarovsky, Daria; Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Zelinger, Einat; Kopelowitz, June; Sikorski, Johannes; Burdman, Saul

2013-01-01

20

Understanding and using quantitative genetic variation  

PubMed Central

Quantitative genetics, or the genetics of complex traits, is the study of those characters which are not affected by the action of just a few major genes. Its basis is in statistical models and methodology, albeit based on many strong assumptions. While these are formally unrealistic, methods work. Analyses using dense molecular markers are greatly increasing information about the architecture of these traits, but while some genes of large effect are found, even many dozens of genes do not explain all the variation. Hence, new methods of prediction of merit in breeding programmes are again based on essentially numerical methods, but incorporating genomic information. Long-term selection responses are revealed in laboratory selection experiments, and prospects for continued genetic improvement are high. There is extensive genetic variation in natural populations, but better estimates of covariances among multiple traits and their relation to fitness are needed. Methods based on summary statistics and predictions rather than at the individual gene level seem likely to prevail for some time yet. PMID:20008387

Hill, William G.

2010-01-01

21

The Evolution of Human Genetic and Phenotypic Variation in Africa  

PubMed Central

Africa is the birthplace of modern humans, and is the source of the geographic expansion of ancestral populations into other regions of the world. Indigenous Africans are characterized by high levels of genetic diversity within and between populations. The pattern of genetic variation in these populations has been shaped by demographic events occurring over the last 200,000 years. The dramatic variation in climate, diet, and exposure to infectious disease across the continent has also resulted in novel genetic and phenotypic adaptations in extant Africans. This review summarizes some recent advances in our understanding of the demographic history and selective pressures that have influenced levels and patterns of diversity in African populations. PMID:20178763

Campbell, Michael C.

2010-01-01

22

Pregnancy-induced metabolic phenotype variations in maternal plasma.  

PubMed

Metabolic variations occur during normal pregnancy to provide the growing fetus with a supply of nutrients required for its development and to ensure the health of the woman during gestation. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was employed to study the metabolic phenotype variations in the maternal plasma that are induced by pregnancy in each of its three trimesters. Nontargeted metabolomics analysis showed that pregnancy significantly altered the profile of metabolites in maternal plasma. The levels of six metabolites were found to change significantly throughout pregnancy, with related metabolic pathway variations observed in biopterin metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, amino acid derivatives, and fatty acid oxidation. In particular, there was a pronounced elevation of dihydrobiopterin (BH?), a compound produced in the synthesis of dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, in the second trimester, whereas it was markedly decreased in the third trimester. The turnover of BH? and tryptophan catabolites indicated that the fluctuations of neurotransmitters throughout pregnancy might reveal the metabolic adaption in the maternal body for the growth of the fetus. Furthermore, 11 lipid classes and 41 carnitine species were also determined and this showed variations in the presence of long-chain acylcarnitines and lysophospholipids in later pregnancy, suggesting changes of acylcarnitines and lysophospholipids to meet the energy demands in pregnant women. To our knowledge, this work is the first report of dynamic metabolic signatures and proposed related metabolic pathways in the maternal plasma for normal pregnancies and provided the basis for time-dependent metabolic trajectory against which disease-related disorders may be contrasted. PMID:24450375

Luan, Hemi; Meng, Nan; Liu, Ping; Feng, Qiang; Lin, Shuhai; Fu, Jin; Davidson, Robert; Chen, Xiaomin; Rao, Weiqiao; Chen, Fang; Jiang, Hui; Xu, Xun; Cai, Zongwei; Wang, Jun

2014-03-01

23

Intraspecific phenotypic variation among alewife populations drives parallel phenotypic shifts in bluegill.  

PubMed

Evolutionary diversification within consumer species may generate selection on local ecological communities, affecting prey community structure. However, the extent to which this niche construction can propagate across food webs and shape trait variation in competing species is unknown. Here, we tested whether niche construction by different life-history variants of the planktivorous fish alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) can drive phenotypic divergence and resource use in the competing species bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). Using a combination of common garden experiments and a comparative field study, we found that bluegill from landlocked alewife lakes grew relatively better when fed small than large zooplankton, had gill rakers better adapted for feeding on small-bodied prey and selected smaller zooplankton compared with bluegill from lakes with anadromous or no alewife. Observed shifts in bluegill foraging traits in lakes with landlocked alewife parallel those in alewife, suggesting interspecific competition leading to parallel phenotypic changes rather than to divergence (which is commonly predicted). Our findings suggest that species may be locally adapted to prey communities structured by different life-history variants of a competing dominant species. PMID:24920478

Huss, Magnus; Howeth, Jennifer G; Osterman, Julia I; Post, David M

2014-07-22

24

Quantitative X-ray microradiography for high-throughput phenotyping of osteoarthritis in mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Objective To investigate and validate digital X-ray microradiography as a novel, high-throughput and cost-effective screening approach to identify abnormal joint phenotypes in mice. Method Digital X-ray microradiography was used to quantify the subchondral bone mineral content (BMC) in the medial tibial plateau. Accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined in 22 samples from C57BL/6(B6Brd;B6Dnk;B6N-Tyrc-Brd) wild-type mice. The method was then validated in wild-type mice that had undergone surgical destabilisation of medial meniscus (DMM) and in a genetically modified mouse strain with an established increase in trabecular bone mass. Results The measurement of subchondral BMC by digital X-ray microradiography had a coefficient of variation of 3.6%. Digital X-ray microradiography was able to demonstrate significantly increased subchondral BMC in the medial tibial plateau of male mice 4 and 8 weeks after DMM surgery and in female mice 8 weeks after surgery. Furthermore, digital X-ray microradiography also detected the increase in subchondral BMC in a genetically modified mouse strain with high trabecular bone mass. Conclusion Quantitation of subchondral BMC by digital X-ray microradiography is a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective method to identify abnormal joint phenotypes in mice of both genders at several ages. PMID:24792211

Waung, J.A.; Maynard, S.A.; Gopal, S.; Gogakos, A.; Logan, J.G.; Williams, G.R.; Bassett, J.H.D.

2014-01-01

25

Quantitative phenotypic and pathway profiling guides rational drug combination strategies  

PubMed Central

Advances in target-based drug discovery strategies have enabled drug discovery groups in academia and industry to become very effective at generating molecules that are potent and selective against single targets. However, it has become apparent from disappointing results in recent clinical trials that a major challenge to the development of successful targeted therapies for treating complex multifactorial diseases is overcoming heterogeneity in target mechanism among patients and inherent or acquired drug resistance. Consequently, reductionist target directed drug-discovery approaches are not appropriately tailored toward identifying and optimizing multi-targeted therapeutics or rational drug combinations for complex disease. In this article, we describe the application of emerging high-content phenotypic profiling and analysis tools to support robust evaluation of drug combination performance following dose-ratio matrix screening. We further describe how the incorporation of high-throughput reverse phase protein microarrays with phenotypic screening can provide rational drug combination hypotheses but also confirm the mechanism-of-action of novel drug combinations, to facilitate future preclinical and clinical development strategies. PMID:24904421

Dawson, John C.; Carragher, Neil O.

2014-01-01

26

Quantitative Variation, Selection and Inheritance with Fast Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how Fast Plants can be used to help students understand how, through genetic selection associated with phenotypic variation, traits are passed on to future generations. This resource includes information about how to analyze variation in a population and selectively breed to change the frequency of a particular trait in future generations. Advanced Placement teachers who are teaching AP Inquiry Investigation #1, Artificial Selection, will find this article relevant to that inquiry.

Program, The W.

27

Phenotypic variation of erythrocyte linker histone H1.c in a pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.) population  

PubMed Central

Our goal was to characterize a phenotypic variation of the pheasant erythrocyte linker histone subtype H1.c. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis three histone H1.c phenotypes were identified. The differently migrating allelic variants H1.c1 and H1.c2 formed either two homozygous phenotypes, c1 and c2, or a single heterozygous phenotype, c1c2. In the pheasant population screened, birds with phenotype c2 were the most common (frequency 0.761) while individuals with phenotype c1 were rare (frequency 0.043). PMID:21637419

2010-01-01

28

Phenotypic variation of erythrocyte linker histone H1.c in a pheasant (Phasianus colchicus L.) population.  

PubMed

Our goal was to characterize a phenotypic variation of the pheasant erythrocyte linker histone subtype H1.c. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis three histone H1.c phenotypes were identified. The differently migrating allelic variants H1.c1 and H1.c2 formed either two homozygous phenotypes, c1 and c2, or a single heterozygous phenotype, c1c2. In the pheasant population screened, birds with phenotype c2 were the most common (frequency 0.761) while individuals with phenotype c1 were rare (frequency 0.043). PMID:21637419

Kowalski, Andrzej; Pa Yga, Jan; Górnicka-Michalska, Ewa; Bernacki, Zenon; Adamski, Marek

2010-07-01

29

Small- and Large-Effect Quantitative Trait Locus Interactions Underlie Variation in Yeast Sporulation Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) with small effects on phenotypic variation can be difficult to detect and analyze. Because of this a large fraction of the genetic architecture of many complex traits is not well understood. Here we use sporulation efficiency in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model complex trait to identify and study small-effect QTL. In crosses where the large-effect quantitative trait nucleotides (QTN) have been genetically fixed we identify small-effect QTL that explain approximately half of the remaining variation not explained by the major effects. We find that small-effect QTL are often physically linked to large-effect QTL and that there are extensive genetic interactions between small- and large-effect QTL. A more complete understanding of quantitative traits will require a better understanding of the numbers, effect sizes, and genetic interactions of small-effect QTL. PMID:22942125

Lorenz, Kim; Cohen, Barak A.

2012-01-01

30

Evaluation of quantitative variation in gene expression.  

PubMed Central

We investigate the behaviour of the gene-expression rate as a statistical variable using autoradiographic data for 39 transcripts from a heterogeneous set of 80 breast-tissue cultures. Despite standardization, the data distributions of all transcripts showed intervals of normality and intervals of systematic departure from normality which most frequently resulted in a significant skewness and/or kurtosis. Non-normal shapes are attributed to modulation of gene expression. This statistical particularity creates difficulties in the evaluation of differences among specimens. Using classical parametric and non-parametric procedures for normal and non-normal variation, respectively, we demonstrate that large differences in optical density are neither necessary nor sufficient for associating expression rates with biological factors. The transcripts coding for the metalloprotease stromelysin-3 (ST3) and for the receptor to insulin-like growth factors (IGFR) are used as examples and their variation is presented in detail. ST3 expression appeared to be specifically associated with mammary stroma fibroblasts derived from post-radiation fibrosis lesions. IGFR was expressed at higher rates in mammary gland and skin fibroblasts than in mammary epithelial cells and was subject to frequent and strong modulation. PMID:8139921

Spanakis, E; Brouty-Boye, D

1994-01-01

31

Adrenocortical responses in zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata): Individual variation, repeatability, and relationship to phenotypic quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although individual variation is a key requirement for natural selection, little is known about the magnitude and patterns of individual variation in endocrine systems or the functional significance of that variation. Here we describe (1) the extent and repeatability of inter-individual variation in adrenocortical responses and (2) its relationship to sex-specific phenotypic quality, such as song duration and frequency and

Haruka Wada; Katrina G. Salvante; Christine Stables; Emily Wagner; Tony D. Williams; Creagh W. Breuner

2008-01-01

32

Bacteriophage and Phenotypic Variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A current question in biofilm research is whether biofilm-specific genetic processes can lead to differenti- ation in physiology and function among biofilm cells. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, phenotypic variants which exhibit a small-colony phenotype on agar media and a markedly accelerated pattern of biofilm development compared to that of the parental strain are often isolated from biofilms. We grew P. aeruginosa

Jeremy S. Webb; Mathew Lau; Staffan Kjelleberg

2004-01-01

33

A Simple Regression-Based Method to Map Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Function-Valued Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Most statistical methods for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping focus on a single phenotype. However, multiple phenotypes are commonly measured, and recent technological advances have greatly simplified the automated acquisition of numerous phenotypes, including function-valued phenotypes, such as growth measured over time. While methods exist for QTL mapping with function-valued phenotypes, they are generally computationally intensive and focus on single-QTL models. We propose two simple, fast methods that maintain high power and precision and are amenable to extensions with multiple-QTL models using a penalized likelihood approach. After identifying multiple QTL by these approaches, we can view the function-valued QTL effects to provide a deeper understanding of the underlying processes. Our methods have been implemented as a package for R, funqtl. PMID:24931408

Kwak, Il-Youp; Moore, Candace R.; Spalding, Edgar P.; Broman, Karl W.

2014-01-01

34

Presenilin Mutations: Variations in the Behavioral Phenotype with an Emphasis on the Frontotemporal Dementia Phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vast majority of families with presenilin (PSEN) mutations have the clinical phenotype of Alzheimer's disease. However, there are reports of patients who carry PSEN mutations and have Alzheimer's disease with a variety of other clinical phenotypes including spastic paraplegia, seizures, myoclonus, parkinsonism, epilepsy and amyloid angiopathy. Remarkably, three of the studied families have frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The mutations associated

Neill R Graff-Radford

35

Cerebral asymmetry: a quantitative, multifactorial, and plastic brain phenotype.  

PubMed

The longitudinal fissure separates the human brain into two hemispheres that remain connected through the corpus callosum. The left and the right halves of the brain resemble each other, and almost every structure present in one side has an equivalent structure in the other. Despite this exceptional correspondence, the two hemispheres also display important anatomical differences and there is marked lateralization of certain cognitive and motor functions such as language and handedness. However, the mechanisms that underlie the establishment of these hemispheric specializations, as well as their physiological and behavioral implications, remain largely unknown. Thanks to recent advances in neuroimaging, a series of studies documenting variation in symmetry and asymmetry as a function of age, gender, brain region, and pathological state, have been published in the past decade. Here, we review evidence of normal and atypical cerebral asymmetry, and the factors that influence it at the macrostructural level. Given the prominent role that cerebral asymmetry plays in the organization of the brain, and its possible implication in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric conditions, further research in this area is anticipated. PMID:22856374

Rentería, Miguel E

2012-06-01

36

From Genotype to Phenotype: Systems Biology Meets Natural Variation  

PubMed Central

The promise that came with genome sequencing was that we would soon know what genes do, particularly genes involved in human diseases and those of importance to agriculture. We now have the full genomic sequence of human, chimpanzee, mouse, chicken, dog, worm, fly, rice, and cress, as well as those for a wide variety of other species, and yet we still have a lot of trouble figuring out what genes do. Mapping genes to their function is called the “genotype-to-phenotype problem,” where phenotype is whatever is changed in the organism when a gene’s function is altered. PMID:18436781

Benfey, Philip N.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

2009-01-01

37

Phenotypic and genetic variation in emergence and development time of a trimorphic damselfly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although colour polymorphisms in adult organisms of many taxa are often adaptive in the context of sexual selection or predation, genetic correlations between colour and other phenotypic traits expressed early in ontogeny could also play an important role in polymorphic systems. We studied phenotypic and genetic variation in development time among female colour morphs in the polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans

J. K. ABBOTT; E. I. SVENSSON

2005-01-01

38

Identification of Genomic Regions Associated with Phenotypic Variation between Dog Breeds using  

E-print Network

Identification of Genomic Regions Associated with Phenotypic Variation between Dog Breeds using Abstract The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Type 2 Gaucher disease: phenotypic variation and genotypic heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Gaucher disease (GD), the most common lysosomal storage disease, results from a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. GD has been classified into 3 types, of which type 2 (the acute neuronopathic form) is most severe, presenting pre- or perinatally, or in the first few months of life. Traditionally, type 2 GD was considered to have the most uniform clinical phenotype when compared to other GD subtypes. However, case studies over time have demonstrated that type 2 GD, like types 1 and 3, manifests with a spectrum of phenotypes. This review includes case reports that illustrate the broad range of clinical presentations encountered in type 2 GD, as well as a discussion of associated manifestations, pathological findings, diagnostic techniques, and a review of current therapies. While type 2 GD is generally associated with severe mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene, there is also significant genotypic heterogeneity observed. PMID:20880730

Gupta, N; Oppenheim, IM; Kauvar, EF; Tayebi, N; Sidransky, E

2010-01-01

40

Simultaneous Phenotyping and Quantitation of ?-1-Antitrypsin by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background ?-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency results from a genetic disorder at two common loci. Diagnosis requires quantitation of A1AT and subsequent identification of the specific variant. The current algorithm of laboratory testing for the diagnosis of A1AT deficiency uses a combination of quantitation (nephelometry), genotyping and/or phenotyping. We developed a novel multiple reaction monitoring LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of A1AT and the identification of the two most common deficiency alleles present in 95% of the patients with A1AT deficiency. Method Serum samples (n=40) were digested with trypsin and appropriate 13C/15N-labeled standard peptides added. LC-MS/MS analysis was performed with a 0.5×150 mm C18 column and H2O:acetonitrile:n-propanol (A:98/1/1/0.2 and B:10/80/10/0.2; 12 ?L/min) mobile phase in positive ion mode on a TSQ Quantum triple quadrupole MS system. The A1AT concentration was obtained by comparison to a calibration curve and the phenotype by the presence or absence of variant peptides. Results were compared to the current phenotyping assay by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and the immunonephelometry quantitative assay. Results For the A1AT allele detection, in 39 of 40 samples, the LC-MS/MS results were identical to those obtained by IEF gel electrophoresis. The single discrepant result was rerun by IEF at a lower dilution and the results were in concordance. The A1AT quantitation by LC-MS/MS also compared favorably with nephelometry. Conclusion This LC-MS/MS method correlates well with current phenotyping and nephelometric assays. It is a promising method with the potential to improve the laboratory diagnosis of genetic A1AT deficiency. PMID:21636698

Chen, Yuhong; Snyder, Melissa R.; Zhu, Yi; Tostrud, Linda J.; Benson, Linda M.; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Bergen, H. Robert

2012-01-01

41

Decoupled phenotypic variation between floral and vegetative traits: distinguishing between developmental and environmental correlations  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In species with specialized pollination, floral traits are expected to be relatively invariant and decoupled from the phenotypic variation affecting vegetative traits. However, inferring the degree of decoupling between morphological characters from patterns of phenotypic correlations is difficult because phenotypic correlations result from the superimposition of several sources of covariance. In this study it is hypothesized that, in some cases, negative environmental correlations generated by non-congruent reaction norms across traits overshadow positive developmental correlations and generate a decoupling of the phenotypic variation between vegetative and floral traits. Methods To test this hypothesis, Campanula rotundifolia were grown from two distinct populations under two temperature treatments, and patterns of correlation were analysed between leaf size and flower size within and among treatments. Key Results Flower size was less sensitive to temperature variation than leaf size. Furthermore, flower size and leaf size showed temperature-induced reaction norms in opposite directions. Flower size decreased with an increasing temperature, while leaf size increased. Consequently, among treatments, correlations between leaf size and flower size were negative or absent, while, within treatments, these correlations were positive or absent in the cold and warm environments, respectively. Conclusions These results confirm that the decoupling of the phenotypic variation between vegetative and floral traits can be dependent on the environment. They also underline the importance of distinguishing sources of phenotypic covariance when testing hypotheses about phenotypic integration. PMID:23471008

Pelabon, Christophe; Osler, Nora C.; Diekmann, Martin; Graae, Bente J.

2013-01-01

42

Nucleotide sequence variation of GLABRA1 contributing to phenotypic variation of leaf hairiness in Brassicaceae vegetables.  

PubMed

GLABRA1 (GL1) belongs to the group of R2R3-MYB transcription factors and is known to be essential for trichome initiation in Arabidopsis. In our previous study, we identified a GL1 ortholog in Brassica rapa as a candidate for the gene controlling leaf hairiness by QTL analysis and suggested that a 5-bp deletion (B-allele) and a 2-bp deletion (D-allele) in the exon 3 of BrGL1 and a non-synonymous SNP (C-allele) in the second nucleotide of exon 3 possibly cause leaf hairlessness. In this study, we transformed a B. rapa line having the B-allele with the A-allele (wild type) or the C-allele of BrGL1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter. The transgenic plants with the A-allele showed dense coverage of seedling tissues including stems, young leaves and hypocotyls with trichomes, whereas the phenotypes of those with the C-allele were unchanged. In order to obtain more information about allelic variation of GL1 in different plant lineages and its correlation with leaf hairiness, two GL1 homologs, i.e., RsGL1a and RsGL1b, in Raphanus sativus were analyzed. Allelic variation of RsGL1a between a hairless line and a hairy line was completely associated with hairiness in their BC1F1 population. Comparison of the full-length of RsGL1a in the hairless and hairy lines showed great variation of nucleotides in the 3' end, which might be essential for its function and expression. PMID:23370467

Li, Feng; Zou, Zhongwei; Yong, Hui-Yee; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

2013-05-01

43

Conflicting selection from an antagonist and a mutualist enhances phenotypic variation in a plant.  

PubMed

The raw material for evolution is variation. Consequently, identifying the factors that generate, maintain, and erode phenotypic and genetic variation in ecologically important traits within and among populations is important. Although persistent directional or stabilizing selection can deplete variation, spatial variation in conflicting directional selection can enhance variation. Here, we present evidence that phenotypic variation in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) cone structure is enhanced by conflicting selection pressures exerted by its mutualistic seed disperser (Clark's nutcracker Nucifraga columbiana) and an antagonistic seed predator (pine squirrel Tamiasciurus spp.). Phenotypic variation in cone structure was bimodal and about two times greater where both agents of selection co-occurred than where one (the seed predator) was absent. Within the region where both agents of selection co-occurred, bimodality in cone structure was pronounced where there appears to be a mosaic of habitats with some persistent habitats supporting only the seed disperser. These results indicate that conflicting selection stemming from spatial variation in community diversity can enhance phenotypic variation in ecologically important traits. PMID:19817846

Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2010-04-01

44

Quantitative trait loci affecting response to crowding stress in an F(2) generation of rainbow trout produced through phenotypic selection.  

PubMed

Selective breeding programs for salmonids typically aim to improve traits associated with growth and disease resistance. It has been established that stressors common to production environments can adversely affect these and other traits which are important to producers and consumers. Previously, we employed phenotypic selection to create families that exhibit high or low plasma cortisol concentrations in response to crowding stress. Subsequent crosses of high × low phenotypes founded a multigenerational breeding scheme with the aim of dissecting the genetic basis for variation underlying stress response through the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Multiple methods of QTL analyses differing in their assumptions of homozygosity of the causal alleles in the grandparental generation yielded similar results in the F1 generation, and the analysis of two stress response phenotype measurement indexes were highly correlated. In the current study, we conducted a genome scan with microsatellites to detect QTL in the F2 generation of two families created through phenotypic selection and having larger numbers of offspring than families screened in the previous generation. Seven suggestive and three significant QTL were detected, seven of which were not previously detected in the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture germplasm, bringing the total number of chromosomes containing significant and suggestive stress response QTL to 4 and 15, respectively. One significant QTL which peaks at 7 cM on chromosome Omy12 spans 12 cM and explains 25 % of the phenotypic variance in family 2008052 particularly warrants further investigation. Five QTL with significant parent-of-origin effects were detected in family 2008052, including two QTL on Omy12. The 95 % confidence intervals for the remaining QTL we detected were broad, requiring validation and fine mapping with other genotyping approaches and mapping strategies. These results will facilitate identification of potential casual alleles that can be employed in strategies aimed at better understanding the genetic and physiological basis of stress responses to crowding in rainbow trout aquaculture production. PMID:23709047

Rexroad, Caird E; Vallejo, Roger L; Liu, Sixin; Palti, Yniv; Weber, Gregory M

2013-10-01

45

The relationship between isozyme phenotype and morphological variation in Cucurbita  

E-print Network

phenotypes. 10 2 Models describing the genetics of the six enzyme systems. 3a PCA plot showing distribution of phenrank values. OTUs 272 Variables = 14. 20 3b Contour PCA plot showing distribution of high, low, and intermediate phenrank values. OTUs 272... Variables 6. 27 6b PCA plot. Factor 3 vs. Factor l. OTUs = 98 Variables 6, 28 6c Contour PCA plot. Variables 6 ~ Factor 2 vs. Factor l. OTUs = 98 29 6d Contour PCA plot. Variables = 6 ~ Factor 3 vs. Factor l. OTUs 98 30 List ot Figures (Continued...

Kirkpatrick, Kurt James

2012-06-07

46

Reference and interpretive ranges for ?(1)-antitrypsin quantitation by phenotype in adult and pediatric populations.  

PubMed

Laboratory evaluation of ?(1)-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency involves measurement of circulating A1AT protein (quantitation) and characterization of A1AT genetic polymorphisms (phenotyping or genotyping). This study compared adult and pediatric A1AT reference ranges in patients with nondeficiency alleles and examined A1AT concentrations in multiple other phenotypes. A1AT phenotype and quantitation were retrospectively collected on adult (n = 21,444) and pediatric (n = 2,469) samples that were submitted for laboratory evaluation of A1AT deficiency. The 95% reference ranges for normal adult and pediatric populations with the M/M phenotype were determined to be 100 to 273 mg/dL (18.4-50.2 ?mol/L) and 93 to 251 mg/dL (17.1-46.2 ?mol/L), respectively (P < .0001). Decreased concentrations of A1AT correlated with heterozygosity and homozygosity for the S and Z alleles in both the adult and pediatric groups. Other rare alleles, such as I, were also associated with decreased concentrations of A1AT, particularly in the context of a Z allele, and may warrant monitoring for symptoms of deficiency. PMID:22912357

Donato, Leslie J; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smith, Carin; Katzmann, Jerry A; Snyder, Melissa R

2012-09-01

47

Tissue Culture-Induced Heritable Genomic Variation in Rice, and Their Phenotypic Implications  

PubMed Central

Background Somaclonal variation generally occurs in plants regenerated from tissue culture. However, fundamental issues regarding molecular characteristics, mutation rates and mutation spectra of plant somatic variation as well as their phenotypic relevance have been addressed only recently. Moreover, these studies have reported highly discrepant results in different plant species and even in the same plant genotype. Methodology/principal findings We investigated heritable genomic variation induced by tissue culture in rice by whole genome re-sequencing of an extensively selfed somaclonal line (TC-reg-2008) and its wild type (WT) donor (cv. Hitomebore). We computed the overall mutation rate, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small scale insertions/deletions (Indels) and mobilization of transposable elements (TEs). We assessed chromosomal distribution of the various types of genomic variations, tested correlations between SNPs and Indels, and examined concomitancy between TE activity and its cytosine methylation states. We also performed gene ontology (GO) analysis of genes containing nonsynonymous mutations and large-effect mutations, and assayed effects of the genomic variations on phenotypes under both normal growing condition and several abiotic stresses. We found that heritable somaclonal genomic variation occurred extensively in rice. The genomic variations distributed non-randomly across each of the 12 rice chromosomes, and affected a large number of functional genes. The phenotypic penetrance of the genomic variations was condition-dependent. Conclusions/significance Tissue culture is a potent means to generate heritable genetic variations in rice, which bear distinct difference at least in space (chromosomal distribution) from those occurred under natural settings. Our findings have provided new information regarding the mutation rate and spectrum as well as chromosomal distribution pattern of somaclonal variation in rice. Our data also suggest that rice possesses a strong capacity to canalize genetic variations under normal growing conditions to maintain phenotypic robustness, which however can be released by certain abiotic stresses to generate variable phenotypes. PMID:24804838

Gao, Yang; Liu, Ying; Wu, Ying; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Zhibin; Lin, Xiuyun; Dong, Yuzhu; Ou, Xiufang; Xu, Chunming; Liu, Bao

2014-01-01

48

The effects of stabilizing and directional selection on phenotypic and genotypic variation in a population of RNA enzymes.  

PubMed

The distribution of variation in a quantitative trait and its underlying distribution of genotypic diversity can both be shaped by stabilizing and directional selection. Understanding either distribution is important, because it determines a population's response to natural selection. Unfortunately, existing theory makes conflicting predictions about how selection shapes these distributions, and very little pertinent experimental evidence exists. Here we study a simple genetic system, an evolving RNA enzyme (ribozyme) in which a combination of high throughput genotyping and measurement of a biochemical phenotype allow us to address this question. We show that directional selection, compared to stabilizing selection, increases the genotypic diversity of an evolving ribozyme population. In contrast, it leaves the variance in the phenotypic trait unchanged. PMID:24309994

Hayden, Eric J; Bratulic, Sinisa; Koenig, Iwo; Ferrada, Evandro; Wagner, Andreas

2014-02-01

49

Rapid Plant Invasion in Distinct Climates Involves Different Sources of Phenotypic Variation  

PubMed Central

When exotic species spread over novel environments, their phenotype will depend on a combination of different processes, including phenotypic plasticity (PP), local adaptation (LA), environmental maternal effects (EME) and genetic drift (GD). Few attempts have been made to simultaneously address the importance of those processes in plant invasion. The present study uses the well-documented invasion history of Senecio inaequidens (Asteraceae) in southern France, where it was introduced at a single wool-processing site. It gradually invaded the Mediterranean coast and the Pyrenean Mountains, which have noticeably different climates. We used seeds from Pyrenean and Mediterranean populations, as well as populations from the first introduction area, to explore the phenotypic variation related to climatic variation. A reciprocal sowing experiment was performed with gardens under Mediterranean and Pyrenean climates. We analyzed climatic phenotypic variation in germination, growth, reproduction, leaf physiology and survival. Genetic structure in the studied invasion area was characterized using AFLP. We found consistent genetic differentiation in growth traits but no home-site advantage, so weak support for LA to climate. In contrast, genetic differentiation showed a relationship with colonization history. PP in response to climate was observed for most traits, and it played an important role in leaf trait variation. EME mediated by seed mass influenced all but leaf traits in a Pyrenean climate. Heavier, earlier-germinating seeds produced larger individuals that produced more flower heads throughout the growing season. However, in the Mediterranean garden, seed mass only influenced the germination rate. The results show that phenotypic variation in response to climate depends on various ecological and evolutionary processes associated with geographical zone and life history traits. Seeing the relative importance of EME and GD, we argue that a “local adaptation vs. phenotypic plasticity” approach is therefore not sufficient to fully understand what shapes phenotypic variation and genetic architecture of invasive populations. PMID:23383251

Monty, Arnaud; Bizoux, Jean-Philippe; Escarre, Jose; Mahy, Gregory

2013-01-01

50

Impact of Temporal Variation on Design and Analysis of Mouse Knockout Phenotyping Studies  

PubMed Central

A significant challenge facing high-throughput phenotyping of in-vivo knockout mice is ensuring phenotype calls are robust and reliable. Central to this problem is selecting an appropriate statistical analysis that models both the experimental design (the workflow and the way control mice are selected for comparison with knockout animals) and the sources of variation. Recently we proposed a mixed model suitable for small batch-oriented studies, where controls are not phenotyped concurrently with mutants. Here we evaluate this method both for its sensitivity to detect phenotypic effects and to control false positives, across a range of workflows used at mouse phenotyping centers. We found the sensitivity and control of false positives depend on the workflow. We show that the phenotypes in control mice fluctuate unexpectedly between batches and this can cause the false positive rate of phenotype calls to be inflated when only a small number of batches are tested, when the effect of knockout becomes confounded with temporal fluctuations in control mice. This effect was observed in both behavioural and physiological assays. Based on this analysis, we recommend two approaches (workflow and accompanying control strategy) and associated analyses, which would be robust, for use in high-throughput phenotyping pipelines. Our results show the importance in modelling all sources of variability in high-throughput phenotyping studies. PMID:25343444

Karp, Natasha A.; Speak, Anneliese O.; White, Jacqueline K.; Adams, David J.; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Herault, Yann; Mott, Richard F.

2014-01-01

51

Quantitative genetic models for describing simultaneous and recursive relationships between phenotypes.  

PubMed Central

Multivariate models are of great importance in theoretical and applied quantitative genetics. We extend quantitative genetic theory to accommodate situations in which there is linear feedback or recursiveness between the phenotypes involved in a multivariate system, assuming an infinitesimal, additive, model of inheritance. It is shown that structural parameters defining a simultaneous or recursive system have a bearing on the interpretation of quantitative genetic parameter estimates (e.g., heritability, offspring-parent regression, genetic correlation) when such features are ignored. Matrix representations are given for treating a plethora of feedback-recursive situations. The likelihood function is derived, assuming multivariate normality, and results from econometric theory for parameter identification are adapted to a quantitative genetic setting. A Bayesian treatment with a Markov chain Monte Carlo implementation is suggested for inference and developed. When the system is fully recursive, all conditional posterior distributions are in closed form, so Gibbs sampling is straightforward. If there is feedback, a Metropolis step may be embedded for sampling the structural parameters, since their conditional distributions are unknown. Extensions of the model to discrete random variables and to nonlinear relationships between phenotypes are discussed. PMID:15280252

Gianola, Daniel; Sorensen, Daniel

2004-01-01

52

Phenotypic variation for adhesive tenacity in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicone fouling-release coatings represent a non-toxic alternative to biocide-containing ship hull paints. These coatings allow fouling organisms to attach to the hull surface, but prevent firm adhesion. Adhesive tenacity to fouling-release materials varies both among and within species. We quantified broad-sense genetic and environmental sources of intraspecific variation in tenacity to two silicone substrata, for the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. For

Eric R. Holm; Christopher J. Kavanagh; Beatriz Orihuela; Daniel Rittschof

2009-01-01

53

Genotypic variation among different phenotypes within aphid clones.  

PubMed Central

Most aphid species Hemiptera: Aphididae are parthenogenetic between periods of sexual reproduction. They are also highly polyphenic, with different adult morphs occurring in the life cycle, piz. winged, wingless, asexual and sexual. It is assumed that aphids born in a parthenogenetic clonal lineage are genetically identical regardless of the final adult form with the exception of sexual forms). Using the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) we have found that different asexual adult phenotypes winged and wingless of some clones of two cereal aphid species (the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) and the bird-cherry aphid. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) may be distinguished by the presence or absence of one or more RAPD-PCR bands. In three of nine clones examined, such differences were found, and Southern blotting and hybridization of the discriminating bands confirmed these to be of aphid origin, rather than due to endosymbiotic bacteria or contaminating fungi. The main 248 and 296 bp bands, in the two species respectively, were sequenced and found to be A/T rich. The smaller band showed 57% homology with white striated muscle over a stretch of 90 bp. Genomic DNA treated with dimethyl sulphoxide to remove secondary structures still showed differences in RAPD-PCR profiles between winged and wingless morphs within the unusual clones. This discovery may be widespread and therefore it is important to understand the phenomenon in relation to clonal organisms. PMID:9178543

Lushai, G; Loxdale, H D; Brookes, C P; von Mende, N; Harrington, R; Hardie, J

1997-01-01

54

Quantitative phenotyping of X-disease resistance in chokecherry using real-time PCR.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time SYBR Green PCR (qPCR) assay has been developed to detect and quantify X-disease phytoplasmas in chokecherry. An X-disease phytoplasma-specific and high sensitivity primer pair was designed based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of X-disease phytoplasmas. This primer pair was specific to the 16SrIII group (X-disease) phytoplasmas. The qPCR method can quantify phytoplasmas from a DNA mix (a mix of both chokecherry and X-disease phytoplasma DNA) at as low as 0.001 ng, 10-fold lower than conventional PCR using the same primer pair. A significant correlation between the copy number of phytoplasmas and visual phenotypic rating scores of X-disease resistance in chokecherry plants was observed. Disease resistant chokecherries had a significantly lower titer of X-disease phytoplasmas than susceptible plants. This suggests that the qPCR assay provides a more objective tool to phenotype phytoplasma disease severity, particularly for early evaluation of host resistance; therefore, this method will facilitate quantitative phenotyping of disease resistance and has great potential in enhancing plant breeding. PMID:24389037

Huang, Danqiong; Walla, James A; Dai, Wenhao

2014-03-01

55

Phenotypic variation of transitional forager-farmers in the Sonoran Desert.  

PubMed

This study examines phenotypic variation and biological distances estimated using morphological traits from three Early Agricultural period (EAP) (2100 BC-AD 50) site-complexes in the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona and northern Sonora. The hypothesis tested is that EAP forager-farmers were phenotypically homogenous as suggested by patterns in material culture and works to refine inferences regarding gene flow and biological affinity during subsistence transitions. Seven measurements from 62 EAP male and female crania were collected and used to calculate phenotypic variances, biological distances, and FST values with RMET 5.0 software. Analyses were applied to both pooled site-complex samples and to males and females separately. Results show differential variation between site-complex population samples, multiple significant biological distances, and significant FST values for the EAP regional sample that indicate widespread phenotypic heterogeneity rather than homogeneity. Significantly lower than expected variance in the Cienega Creek male sample is inferred to suggest a small closely related population present during the Cienega phase. Greater than expected male variation is attributed to higher frequencies of gene flow in the La Playa and Santa Cruz River site-complex samples. These EAP males are inferred to be more mobile across the Sonoran Desert landscape and representative of multiple biological affinities compared with females. This study provides evidence supporting the canalization of phenotypic variation when associated with human populations becoming increasingly sedentary due to transitioning subsistence practices. Am J Phys Anthropol 155:579-590, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25229162

Byrd, Rachael M

2014-12-01

56

Phenotypic plasticity facilitates mutational variance, genetic variance, and evolvability along the major axis of environmental variation.  

PubMed

Phenotypically plastic genotypes express different phenotypes in different environments, often in adaptive ways. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity creates developmental systems that are more flexible along the trait dimensions that are more plastic, and as a result, we hypothesize that such traits will express greater mutational variance, genetic variance, and evolvability. We develop an explicit gene network model with three components: some genes can receive environmental cues about the adult selective environment, some genes that interact repeatedly to determine each others' final state, and other factors that translate these final expression states into the phenotype. We show that the evolution of phenotypic plasticity is an important determinant of mutational patterns, genetic variance, and evolutionary potential of a population. Phenotypic plasticity tends to lead to populations with greater mutational variance, greater standing genetic variance, and, when the optimal phenotypes of two traits vary in concert, greater mutational and genetic correlations. However, plastic populations do not tend to respond much more rapidly to selection than do populations evolved in a static environment. We find that the quantitative genetic descriptions of traits created by explicit developmental network models are evolutionarily labile, with genetic correlations that change rapidly with shifts in the selection regime. PMID:22946810

Draghi, Jeremy A; Whitlock, Michael C

2012-09-01

57

Body Mass Index as a Phenotypic Expression of Adiposity: Quantitative Contribution of Muscularity in a Population-Based Sample  

PubMed Central

Objective Although widely applied as a phenotypic expression of adiposity in population and gene-search studies, body mass index (BMI) is also acknowledged to reflect muscularity even though relevant studies directly measuring skeletal muscle (SM) mass are lacking. The current study aimed to fill this important gap by applying advanced imaging methods to test the hypothesis that, after controlling first for adiposity, SM mass is also a significant determinant of BMI in a population-based sample. Design Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scans were completed in CARDIA Study subjects aged 33-45 years. Physical activity (PA) levels, alcohol intake, and adequacy of food intake were assessed by standardized questionnaires. Subjects 58 African-American (AA) and 78 Caucasian (C) men; 63 AA and 64 C women. Measurements Whole-body AT and SM volumes. Results AT was significantly predicted by not only BMI, but PA and alcohol intake with total model R2s of 0.68 (p<0.0001) for men and 0.89 (p<0.0001) for women. Men had more SM than AT at all levels of BMI while SM predominated in women at lower BMIs (C <26 kg/m2; AA <28 kg/m2). Both AT and SM contributed a similar proportion of between-subject variation in BMI in men. In contrast, AT contributed ~30% more than SM to the variation in BMI in women. Developed allometric models indicated SM associations with AT, PA, and race after adjusting for height. There was little association of age, lifestyle factors, or race with BMI after controlling for both AT and SM. Conclusion Variation in muscularity provides a mechanistic basis for the previously observed non-specificity of BMI as a phenotypic expression of adiposity. These quantitative observations have important implications when choosing adiposity measures in population and gene-search studies. PMID:19773739

Heymsfield, Steven B.; Scherzer, Rebecca; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Lewis, Cora E.; Grunfeld, Carl

2010-01-01

58

Localised intraspecific variation in the swimming phenotype of a coral reef fish across different wave exposures.  

PubMed

Wave-driven water flow is a major force structuring marine communities. Species distributions are partly determined by the ability to cope with variation in water flow, such as differences in the assemblage of fish species found in a given water flow environment being linked to swimming ability (based on fin shape and mode of locomotion). It remains unclear, however, whether similar assembly rules apply within a species. Here we show phenotypic variation among sites in traits functionally linked to swimming ability in the damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus. These sites differ in wave energy and the observed patterns of phenotypic differences within A. polyacanthus closely mirrored those seen at the interspecific level. Fish from high-exposure sites had more tapered fins and higher maximum metabolic rates than conspecifics from sheltered sites. This translates to a 36% larger aerobic scope and 33% faster critical swimming speed for fish from exposed sites. Our results suggest that functional relationships among swimming phenotypes and water flow not only structure species assemblages, but can also shape patterns of phenotypic divergence within species. Close links between locomotor phenotype and local water flow conditions appear to be important for species distributions as well as phenotypic divergence across environmental gradients. PMID:24132502

Binning, Sandra A; Roche, Dominique G; Fulton, Christopher J

2014-03-01

59

Integrating environmental variation, predation pressure, phenotypic plasticity and locomotor performance.  

PubMed

The Wujiang River, a tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, has many dams along its length. These dams alter the river's natural habitat and produce various flow regimes and degrees of predator stress. To test whether the swimming performance and external body shape of pale chub (Zacco platypus) have changed as a result of alterations in the flow regime and predator conditions, we measured the steady (U(crit)) and unsteady (fast-start) swimming performances and morphological characteristics of fish collected from different sites along the Wujiang River. We also calculated the maximum respiratory capacity and cost of transport (COT). We demonstrated significant differences in swimming performance and morphological traits among the sampling sites. Steady swimming performance was positively correlated with water velocity and negatively correlated with the abundance of predators, whereas unsteady swimming performance was negatively correlated with water velocity. The body shape was significantly correlated with both swimming performance and ecological parameters. These findings suggested that selection pressure on swimming performance results in a higher U(crit) and a more streamlined body shape in fast-flow and (or) in habitats with low predator stress and subsequently results in a lower COT. These characteristics were accompanied by a poorer fast-start performance than that of the fish from the slow-flow and (or) high-predator habitats. The divergence in U(crit) may also be due in part to variation in respiratory capacity. PMID:23463244

Fu, Shi-Jian; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Yan, Guan-Jie; Fu, Cheng; Pang, Xu

2013-10-01

60

Using extreme phenotype sampling to identify the rare causal variants of quantitative traits in association studies.  

PubMed

Variants identified in recent genome-wide association studies based on the common-disease common-variant hypothesis are far from fully explaining the hereditability of complex traits. Rare variants may, in part, explain some of the missing hereditability. Here, we explored the advantage of the extreme phenotype sampling in rare-variant analysis and refined this design framework for future large-scale association studies on quantitative traits. We first proposed a power calculation approach for a likelihood-based analysis method. We then used this approach to demonstrate the potential advantages of extreme phenotype sampling for rare variants. Next, we discussed how this design can influence future sequencing-based association studies from a cost-efficiency (with the phenotyping cost included) perspective. Moreover, we discussed the potential of a two-stage design with the extreme sample as the first stage and the remaining nonextreme subjects as the second stage. We demonstrated that this two-stage design is a cost-efficient alternative to the one-stage cross-sectional design or traditional two-stage design. We then discussed the analysis strategies for this extreme two-stage design and proposed a corresponding design optimization procedure. To address many practical concerns, for example measurement error or phenotypic heterogeneity at the very extremes, we examined an approach in which individuals with very extreme phenotypes are discarded. We demonstrated that even with a substantial proportion of these extreme individuals discarded, an extreme-based sampling can still be more efficient. Finally, we expanded the current analysis and design framework to accommodate the CMC approach where multiple rare-variants in the same gene region are analyzed jointly. PMID:21922541

Li, Dalin; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Gauderman, William J; Murcray, Cassandra Elizabeth; Conti, David

2011-12-01

61

Selection on quantitative colour variation in Centaurea cyanus: the role of the pollinator's visual system.  

PubMed

Even though the importance of selection for trait evolution is well established, we still lack a functional understanding of the mechanisms underlying phenotypic selection. Because animals necessarily use their sensory system to perceive phenotypic traits, the model of sensory bias assumes that sensory systems are the main determinant of signal evolution. Yet, it has remained poorly known how sensory systems contribute to shaping the fitness surface of selected individuals. In a greenhouse experiment, we quantified the strength and direction of selection on floral coloration in a population of cornflowers exposed to bumblebees as unique pollinators during 4 days. We detected significant selection on the chromatic and achromatic (brightness) components of floral coloration. We then studied whether these patterns of selection are explicable by accounting for the visual system of the pollinators. Using data on bumblebee colour vision, we first showed that bumblebees should discriminate among quantitative colour variants. The observed selection was then compared to the selection predicted by psychophysical models of bumblebee colour vision. The achromatic but not the chromatic channel of the bumblebee's visual system could explain the observed pattern of selection. These results highlight that (i) pollinators can select quantitative variation in floral coloration and could thus account for a gradual evolution of flower coloration, and (ii) stimulation of the visual system represents, at least partly, a functional mechanism potentially explaining pollinators' selection on floral colour variants. PMID:24070120

Renoult, J P; Thomann, M; Schaefer, H M; Cheptou, P-O

2013-11-01

62

Genetic interactions between [PSI ] and nonstop mRNA decay affect phenotypic variation  

E-print Network

Genetic interactions between [PSI ] and nonstop mRNA decay affect phenotypic variation Marenda A October 12, 2004) Yeast strains can reversibly interconvert between [PSI ] and [psi ] states. The [PSI ] state is caused by a prion form of the translation termination factor eRF3. The [PSI ] state causes read

van Hoof, Ambro

63

Phenotypic variation in the mating preferences of female field crickets, Gryllus integer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic variation in the mating preferences of female field crickets was examined. Males of this species produce a trilled calling song which varies in the number of pulses per trill, the inter-trill interval and the proportion of missing pulses within a trill. As a population, females preferred male calling songs with more pulses per trill and shorter inter-trill intervals in

ANNE-MARIE MURRAY; WILLIAM H. CADE

1995-01-01

64

Genomic Plasticity Enables Phenotypic Variation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000  

E-print Network

Genomic Plasticity Enables Phenotypic Variation of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 Zhongmeng of a genomic anomaly in the region of 4.7 to 4.9 Mb of the Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 genome pathogenic growth in host tomato plants. These types of chromosomal structures are predicted to be unstable

Myers, Chris

65

Phenotypic variation in smooth softshell turtles ( Apalone mutica ) from eggs incubated in constant versus fluctuating temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperatures experienced during embryonic development elicit well-documented phenotypic variation in embryonic and neonatal animals. Most research, however, has only considered the effects of constant temperatures, even though developmental temperatures in natural settings fluctuate considerably on a daily and seasonal basis. A laboratory study of 15 clutches of smooth softshell turtles (Apalone mutica) was conducted to explicitly examine the influence of

Grant M. Ashmore; Fredric J. Janzen

2003-01-01

66

A formal perturbation equation between genotype and phenotype determines the Evolutionary Action of protein-coding variations on fitness  

PubMed Central

The relationship between genotype mutations and phenotype variations determines health in the short term and evolution over the long term, and it hinges on the action of mutations on fitness. A fundamental difficulty in determining this action, however, is that it depends on the unique context of each mutation, which is complex and often cryptic. As a result, the effect of most genome variations on molecular function and overall fitness remains unknown and stands apart from population genetics theories linking fitness effect to polymorphism frequency. Here, we hypothesize that evolution is a continuous and differentiable physical process coupling genotype to phenotype. This leads to a formal equation for the action of coding mutations on fitness that can be interpreted as a product of the evolutionary importance of the mutated site with the difference in amino acid similarity. Approximations for these terms are readily computable from phylogenetic sequence analysis, and we show mutational, clinical, and population genetic evidence that this action equation predicts the effect of point mutations in vivo and in vitro in diverse proteins, correlates disease-causing gene mutations with morbidity, and determines the frequency of human coding polymorphisms, respectively. Thus, elementary calculus and phylogenetics can be integrated into a perturbation analysis of the evolutionary relationship between genotype and phenotype that quantitatively links point mutations to function and fitness and that opens a new analytic framework for equations of biology. In practice, this work explicitly bridges molecular evolution with population genetics with applications from protein redesign to the clinical assessment of human genetic variations. PMID:25217195

Katsonis, Panagiotis

2014-01-01

67

Stressful environments induce novel phenotypic variation: hierarchical reaction norms for sperm performance of a pervasive invader  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and important. However, the scale of such variation including the relative variability present in reaction norms among different hierarchies of biological organization (e.g., individuals, populations, and closely related species) is unknown. Complicating interpretation is a trade-off in environmental scale. As plasticity can only be inferred over the range of environments tested, experiments focusing on fine tuned responses to normal or benign conditions may miss cryptic phenotypic variation expressed under novel or stressful environments. Here, we sought to discern the presence and shape of plasticity in the performance of brown trout sperm as a function of optimal to extremely stressful river pH, and demarcate if the reaction norm varies among genotypes. Our overarching goal was to determine if deteriorating environmental quality increases expressed variation among individuals. A more applied aim was to ascertain whether maintaining sperm performance over a wide pH range could help explain how brown trout are able to invade diverse river systems when transplanted outside of their native range. Individuals differed in their reaction norms of phenotypic expression of an important trait in response to environmental change. Cryptic variation was revealed under stressful conditions, evidenced through increasing among-individual variability. Importantly, data on population averages masked this variability in plasticity. In addition, canalized reaction norms in sperm swimming velocities of many individuals over a very large range in water chemistry may help explain why brown trout are able to colonize a wide variety of habitats. PMID:23145341

Purchase, Craig F; Moreau, Darek T R

2012-01-01

68

Phenotypic variation of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolated from a patient with native valve endocarditis.  

PubMed Central

Two colonial variants of Staphylococcus epidermidis were isolated from the valvular tissue of a patient with native valve endocarditis. In addition to differing in colonial morphology, the two variants differed in hemolysis on blood-containing media, in adherence capacity, and in the expression of certain enzymes. Under suitable conditions, both variants were themselves capable of phenotypic variation, although they differed in the rate at which variants were generated. The variants yielded identical profiles on restriction endonuclease analysis of plasmid DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of whole-cell DNA. This report suggests a possible role for phenotypic variation in coagulase-negative staphylococcal virulence. Congo red agar would be an excellent medium for studying the contribution of variation to the virulence of these organisms. Images PMID:1401003

Deighton, M; Pearson, S; Capstick, J; Spelman, D; Borland, R

1992-01-01

69

Region and site conditions affect phenotypic trait variation in five forest herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms to express different phenotypes under different environmental conditions. It may buffer individuals both against short-term environmental fluctuations and long-term effects of global change. A plastic behaviour in response to changes in the environment may be especially important in species with low migration rates and colonization capacities, such as in many forest plants in present-day fragmented landscapes. We compared the phenotypic trait variation (used as a proxy for the amount of phenotypic plasticity) of five forest herbs (Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Impatiens noli-tangere, Sanicula europaea and Stachys sylvatica) between two regions in Germany that differ in their overall environmental conditions (Bremen in the northwest, Freiburg in the southwest; 5 species × 2 regions × 8-15 populations × 25-50 individuals). In addition, we measured light intensity and important soil parameters (soil pH, moisture, K, P and N) in all populations. We found consistent differences in trait variability between the two regions in several species. In Brachypodium and Stachys both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in Freiburg. Similarly, reproductive traits of Impatiens and Sanicula appeared to be more variable in Freiburg, while in both species at least one of the vegetative traits was more variable in Bremen. Mean local environmental conditions also affected trait variation; in most of the species both vegetative and reproductive traits were more variable in sites with higher nutrient contents and higher light availability. Across all traits and both regions, seed or fruit production was most variable. In summary, at least some of the studied forest herbs appear to respond strongly to large-scale environmental differences, showing a higher trait variability in the more southern region. Given the assumption that phenotypic trait variation is positively associated with phenotypic plasticity, we conclude that these populations may more easily respond to changes in the environment.

Lemke, Isgard Holle; Kolb, Annette; Diekmann, Martin Reemt

2012-02-01

70

Intraspecific phenotypic variation in a fish predator affects multitrophic lake metacommunity structure  

PubMed Central

Contemporary insights from evolutionary ecology suggest that population divergence in ecologically important traits within predators can generate diversifying ecological selection on local community structure. Many studies acknowledging these effects of intraspecific variation assume that local populations are situated in communities that are unconnected to similar communities within a shared region. Recent work from metacommunity ecology suggests that species dispersal among communities can also influence species diversity and composition but can depend upon the relative importance of the local environment. Here, we study the relative effects of intraspecific phenotypic variation in a fish predator and spatial processes related to plankton species dispersal on multitrophic lake plankton metacommunity structure. Intraspecific diversification in foraging traits and residence time of the planktivorous fish alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) among coastal lakes yields lake metacommunities supporting three lake types which differ in the phenotype and incidence of alewife: lakes with anadromous, landlocked, or no alewives. In coastal lakes, plankton community composition was attributed to dispersal versus local environmental predictors, including intraspecific variation in alewives. Local and beta diversity of zooplankton and phytoplankton was additionally measured in response to intraspecific variation in alewives. Zooplankton communities were structured by species sorting, with a strong influence of intraspecific variation in A. pseudoharengus. Intraspecific variation altered zooplankton species richness and beta diversity, where lake communities with landlocked alewives exhibited intermediate richness between lakes with anadromous alewives and without alewives, and greater community similarity. Phytoplankton diversity, in contrast, was highest in lakes with landlocked alewives. The results indicate that plankton dispersal in the region supplied a migrant pool that was strongly structured by intraspecific variation in alewives. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that intraspecific phenotypic variation in a predator can maintain contrasting patterns of multitrophic diversity in metacommunities. PMID:24455134

Howeth, Jennifer G; Weis, Jerome J; Brodersen, Jakob; Hatton, Elizabeth C; Post, David M

2013-01-01

71

A quantitative study of cerebrovascular variation in inbred mice.  

PubMed Central

The arteries of the base of the mouse brain were examined after perfusion with India ink. A qualitative difference exists between inbred mice of three strains (C57BL/6J, 129/J and BALB/cCF) on the one hand, and genetically defined heterogeneous mice on the other; the latter consistently show anomalies similar to those previously described in genetically undefined rodents, whereas inbred mice do not. A quantitative morphometric analysis of the Circle of Willis of inbred mice was undertaken. The results of this analysis are consistent with the notion that the differences in shape between the circles of Willis of different strains of inbred mice are due to additive genetic variation between these strains. PMID:2074233

Ward, R; Collins, R L; Tanguay, G; Miceli, D

1990-01-01

72

MSH1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides a Source of Phenotypic Diversity in Sorghum bicolor  

PubMed Central

MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) encodes a plant-specific protein that functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts. We showed previously that disruption or suppression of the MSH1 gene results in a process of developmental reprogramming that is heritable and non-genetic in subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, this developmental reprogramming process is accompanied by striking changes in gene expression of organellar and stress response genes. This developmentally reprogrammed state, when used in crossing, results in a range of variation for plant growth potential. Here we investigate the implications of MSH1 modulation in a crop species. We found that MSH1-mediated phenotypic variation in Sorghum bicolor is heritable and potentially valuable for crop breeding. We observed phenotypic variation for grain yield, plant height, flowering time, panicle architecture, and above-ground biomass. Focusing on grain yield and plant height, we found some lines that appeared to respond to selection. Based on amenability of this system to implementation in a range of crops, and the scope of phenotypic variation that is derived, our results suggest that MSH1 suppression provides a novel approach for breeding in crops. PMID:25347794

Wang, Guomei; Nino-Liu, David O.; Kundariya, Hardik; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Dweikat, Ismail; Mackenzie, Sally A.

2014-01-01

73

Divergence in a master variator generates distinct phenotypes and transcriptional responses.  

PubMed

Genetic basis of phenotypic differences in individuals is an important area in biology and personalized medicine. Analysis of divergent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains grown under different conditions revealed extensive variation in response to both drugs (e.g., 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide [4NQO]) and different carbon sources. Differences in 4NQO resistance were due to amino acid variation in the transcription factor Yrr1. Yrr1(YJM789) conferred 4NQO resistance but caused slower growth on glycerol, and vice versa with Yrr1(S96), indicating that alleles of Yrr1 confer distinct phenotypes. The binding targets of Yrr1 alleles from diverse yeast strains varied considerably among different strains grown under the same conditions as well as for the same strain under different conditions, indicating that distinct molecular programs are conferred by the different Yrr1 alleles. Our results demonstrate that genetic variations in one important control gene (YRR1), lead to distinct regulatory programs and phenotypes in individuals. We term these polymorphic control genes "master variators." PMID:24532717

Gallagher, Jennifer E G; Zheng, Wei; Rong, Xiaoqing; Miranda, Noraliz; Lin, Zhixiang; Dunn, Barbara; Zhao, Hongyu; Snyder, Michael P

2014-02-15

74

Divergence in a master variator generates distinct phenotypes and transcriptional responses  

PubMed Central

Genetic basis of phenotypic differences in individuals is an important area in biology and personalized medicine. Analysis of divergent Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains grown under different conditions revealed extensive variation in response to both drugs (e.g., 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide [4NQO]) and different carbon sources. Differences in 4NQO resistance were due to amino acid variation in the transcription factor Yrr1. Yrr1YJM789 conferred 4NQO resistance but caused slower growth on glycerol, and vice versa with Yrr1S96, indicating that alleles of Yrr1 confer distinct phenotypes. The binding targets of Yrr1 alleles from diverse yeast strains varied considerably among different strains grown under the same conditions as well as for the same strain under different conditions, indicating that distinct molecular programs are conferred by the different Yrr1 alleles. Our results demonstrate that genetic variations in one important control gene (YRR1), lead to distinct regulatory programs and phenotypes in individuals. We term these polymorphic control genes “master variators.” PMID:24532717

Gallagher, Jennifer E.G.; Zheng, Wei; Rong, Xiaoqing; Miranda, Noraliz; Lin, Zhixiang; Dunn, Barbara; Zhao, Hongyu; Snyder, Michael P.

2014-01-01

75

Genetic variation in flowering time induces phenological assortative mating: quantitative genetic methods applied to Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been argued from first principles that plants mate assortatively by flowering time. However, there have been very few studies of phenological assortative mating, perhaps because current methods to infer paternal phenotype are difficult to apply to natural populations. Two methods are presented to estimate the phenotypic correlation between mates—the quantitative genetic metric for assortative mating—for phenological traits. The

ARTHUR E. WEIS; TANYA M. KOSSLER

2004-01-01

76

Cone and Seed Trait Variation in Whitebark Pine (Pinus Albicaulis; Pinaceae) and the Potential for Phenotypic Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic variation among, individuals is necessary for natural selection to operate and is therefore essential for adaptive evolution. However, extensive variation within individuals can mask variation among individuals and weaken the potential for selection. Here we quantify variation among within individuals in female cone and seed traits of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). In many plants the production of numerous reproductive

R. Garcia; A. M. Siepielski; Craig Benkman

2009-01-01

77

Genotypic and phenotypic variation in transmission traits of a complex life cycle parasite  

PubMed Central

Characterizing genetic variation in parasite transmission traits and its contribution to parasite vigor is essential for understanding the evolution of parasite life-history traits. We measured genetic variation in output, activity, survival, and infection success of clonal transmission stages (cercaria larvae) of a complex life cycle parasite (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum). We further tested if variation in host nutritional stage had an effect on these traits by keeping hosts on limited or ad libitum diet. The traits we measured were highly variable among parasite genotypes indicating significant genetic variation in these life-history traits. Traits were also phenotypically variable, for example, there was significant variation in the measured traits over time within each genotype. However, host nutritional stage had no effect on the parasite traits suggesting that a short-term reduction in host resources was not limiting the cercarial output or performance. Overall, these results suggest significant interclonal and phenotypic variation in parasite transmission traits that are not affected by host nutritional status. PMID:23919156

Louhi, Katja-Riikka; Karvonen, Anssi; Rellstab, Christian; Jokela, Jukka

2013-01-01

78

Quantitative comparison of mapping methods between Human and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology  

E-print Network

definitions of concepts in phenotype ontologies using the Phenotypic Attribute and Trait Ontology (PATO) [8] and the Entity-Quality (EQ) syntax [9]. The EQ representation allows for the phenotypic defini- tions to be integrated across species following...

Oellrich, Anika; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Hoehndorf, Robert; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

2012-09-21

79

Phenotypic Variation and Fitness in a Metapopulation of Tubeworms (Ridgeia piscesae Jones) at Hydrothermal Vents  

PubMed Central

We examine the nature of variation in a hot vent tubeworm, Ridgeia piscesae, to determine how phenotypes are maintained and how reproductive potential is dictated by habitat. This foundation species at northeast Pacific hydrothermal sites occupies a wide habitat range in a highly heterogeneous environment. Where fluids supply high levels of dissolved sulphide for symbionts, the worm grows rapidly in a “short-fat” phenotype characterized by lush gill plumes; when plumes are healthy, sperm package capture is higher. This form can mature within months and has a high fecundity with continuous gamete output and a lifespan of about three years in unstable conditions. Other phenotypes occupy low fluid flux habitats that are more stable and individuals grow very slowly; however, they have low reproductive readiness that is hampered further by small, predator cropped branchiae, thus reducing fertilization and metabolite uptake. Although only the largest worms were measured, only 17% of low flux worms were reproductively competent compared to 91% of high flux worms. A model of reproductive readiness illustrates that tube diameter is a good predictor of reproductive output and that few low flux worms reached critical reproductive size. We postulate that most of the propagules for the vent fields originate from the larger tubeworms that live in small, unstable habitat patches. The large expanses of worms in more stable low flux habitat sustain a small, but long-term, reproductive output. Phenotypic variation is an adaptation that fosters both morphological and physiological responses to differences in chemical milieu and predator pressure. This foundation species forms a metapopulation with variable growth characteristics in a heterogeneous environment where a strategy of phenotypic variation bestows an advantage over specialization. PMID:25337895

Tunnicliffe, Verena; St. Germain, Candice; Hilario, Ana

2014-01-01

80

Quantitative phenotyping of leaf margins in three dimensions, demonstrated on KNOTTED and TCP trangenics in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

The geometry of leaf margins is an important shape characteristic that distinguishes among different leaf phenotypes. Current definitions of leaf shape are qualitative and do not allow quantification of differences in shape between phenotypes. This is especially true for leaves with some non-trivial three-dimensional (3D) configurations. Here we present a novel geometrical method novel geometrical methods to define, measure, and quantify waviness and lobiness of leaves. The method is based on obtaining the curve of the leaf rim from a 3D surface measurement and decomposing its local curvature vector into the normal and geodesic components. We suggest that leaf waviness is associated with oscillating normal curvature along the margins, while lobiness is associated with oscillating geodesic curvature. We provide a way to integrate these local measures into global waviness and lobiness quantities. Using these novel definitions, we analysed the changes in leaf shape of two Arabidopsis genotypes, either as a function of gene mis-expression induction level or as a function of time. These definitions and experimental methods open the way for a more quantitative study of the shape of leaves and other growing slender organs. PMID:24706720

Sharon, Eran

2014-01-01

81

Digital Holographic Microscopy: A Quantitative Label-Free Microscopy Technique for Phenotypic Screening  

PubMed Central

Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) is a label-free imaging technique allowing visualization of transparent cells with classical imaging cell culture plates. The quantitative DHM phase contrast image provided is related both to the intracellular refractive index and to cell thickness. DHM is able to distinguish cellular morphological changes on two representative cell lines (HeLa and H9c2) when treated with doxorubicin and chloroquine, two cytotoxic compounds yielding distinct phenotypes. We analyzed parameters linked to cell morphology and to the intracellular content in endpoint measurements and further investigated them with timelapse recording. The results obtained by DHM were compared with other optical label-free microscopy techniques, namely Phase Contrast, Differential Interference Contrast and Transport of Intensity Equation (reconstructed from three bright-field images). For comparative purposes, images were acquired in a common 96-well plate format on the different motorized microscopes. In contrast to the other microscopies assayed, images generated with DHM can be easily quantified using a simple automatized on-the-fly analysis method for discriminating the different phenotypes generated in each cell line. The DHM technology is suitable for the development of robust and unbiased image-based assays.

Rappaz, Benjamin; Breton, Billy; Shaffer, Etienne; Turcatti, Gerardo

2014-01-01

82

Ploidy-Regulated Variation in Biofilm-Related Phenotypes in Natural Isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The ability of yeast to form biofilms contributes to better survival under stressful conditions. We see the impact of yeast biofilms and “flocs” (clumps) in human health and industry, where forming clumps enables yeast to act as a natural filter in brewing and forming biofilms enables yeast to remain virulent in cases of fungal infection. Despite the importance of biofilms in yeast natural isolates, the majority of our knowledge about yeast biofilm genetics comes from work with a few tractable laboratory strains. A new collection of sequenced natural isolates from the Saccharomyces Genome Resequencing Project enabled us to examine the breadth of biofilm-related phenotypes in geographically, ecologically, and genetically diverse strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We present a panel of 31 haploid and 24 diploid strains for which we have characterized six biofilm-related phenotypes: complex colony morphology, complex mat formation, flocculation, agar invasion, polystyrene adhesion, and psuedohyphal growth. Our results show that there is extensive phenotypic variation between and within strains, and that these six phenotypes are primarily uncorrelated or weakly correlated, with the notable exception of complex colony and complex mat formation. We also show that the phenotypic strength of these strains varies significantly depending on ploidy, and the diploid strains demonstrate both decreased and increased phenotypic strength with respect to their haploid counterparts. This is a more complex view of the impact of ploidy on biofilm-related phenotypes than previous work with laboratory strains has suggested, demonstrating the importance and enormous potential of working with natural isolates of yeast. PMID:25060625

Hope, Elyse A.; Dunham, Maitreya J.

2014-01-01

83

Phenotypic variation in xenobiotic metabolism and adverse environmental response: focus on sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proper bodily response to environmental toxicants presumably requires proper function of the xenobiotic (foreign chemical) detoxification pathways. Links between phenotypic variations in xenobiotic metabolism and adverse environmental response have long been sought. Metabolism of the drug S-carboxymethyl-l-cysteine (SCMC) is polymorphous in the population, having a bimodal distribution of metabolites, 2.5% of the general population are thought to be nonmetabolizers. The

Stephen A. McFadden

1996-01-01

84

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis : 3. Phenotypic variation of fruits andkernels in a Nigerian village  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis, a fruit tree grown in agroforestry systems in West and Central Africa, offers considerable scope for enhancing the nutritional\\u000a and economic security of subsistence farmers in the region. Assessments of phenotypic variation in ten fruit, nut and kernel\\u000a traits were made on twenty-four ripe fruits from 100 Irvingia gabonensis trees in Ugwuaji village in southeast Nigeria,

P. O. Anegbeh; C. Usoro; V. Ukafor; Z. Tchoundjeu; R. R. B. Leakey; K. Schreckenberg

2003-01-01

85

Phenotypic variation of baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) fruit traits in Mali  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed the phenotypic variation of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruits from Mali to define the domestication potential of this species. 269 trees, selected from 10 provenances distributed\\u000a along a rainfall gradient, were characterized. Five fruits were sampled from each tree. Total individual fruit weight was\\u000a partitioned into shell, pulp, and seed weight. Ratios were calculated between pulp + seed and total

S. De Smedt; K. Alaerts; A. M. Kouyaté; P. Van Damme; G. Potters; R. Samson

2011-01-01

86

A pleiotropic nonadditive model of variation in quantitative traits  

SciTech Connect

A model of mutation-selection-drift balance incorporating pleiotropic and dominance effects of new mutations on quantitative traits and fitness is investigated and used to predict the amount and nature of genetic variation maintained in segregating populations. The model is based on recent information on the joint distribution of mutant effects on bristle traits and fitness in Drosophila melanogaster from experiments on the accumulation of spontaneous and P element-induced mutations. Mutants of large effect tend to be partially recessive while those with smaller effect are on average additive, but apparently with very variable gene action. The model is parameterized with two different sets of information derived from P element insertion and spontaneous mutation data, though the latter are not fully known. They differ in the number of mutations per generation which is assumed to affect the trait. Predictions of the variance maintained for bristle number assuming parameters derived from effects of P element insertions fit reasonably well with experimental observations. The equilibrium genetic variance is nearly independent of the degree of dominance of new mutations. Heritabilities of between 0.4 and 0.6 are predicted with population sizes from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6}, and most of the variance for the metric trait in segregating populations is due to a small proportion of mutations with neutral or nearly neutral effects on fitness and intermediate effects on the trait. Much of the genetic variance is contributed by recessive or partially recessive mutants, but only a small proportion of the genetic variance is dominance variance. If a model is assumed in which all mutation events have an effect on the quantitative trait, the majority of the genetic variance is contributed by deleterious mutations with tiny effects on the trait. If such a model is assumed for variability, the heritability is about 0.1, independent of the population size. 83 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

Caballero, A.; Keightley, P.D. [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

1994-11-01

87

Genetic and phenotypic variation across a hybrid zone between ecologically divergent tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus).  

PubMed

A hybrid zone along an environmental gradient should contain a clinal pattern of genetic and phenotypic variation. This occurs because divergent selection in the two parental habitats is typically strong enough to overcome the homogenizing effects of gene flow across the environmental transition. We studied hybridization between two parapatric tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus spp.) across a forest gradient over which the two species vary in coloration, cranial morphology and body size. We sampled 397 individuals at 29 locations across a 600-km transect to seek genetic evidence for hybridization; upon confirming hybridization, we examined levels of genetic admixture in relation to maintenance of phenotypic divergence despite potentially homogenizing gene flow. Applying population assignment analyses to microsatellite data, we found that Tamiasciurus douglasii and T. hudsonicus form two distinct genetic clusters but also hybridize, mostly within transitional forest habitat. Overall, based on this nuclear analysis, 48% of the specimens were characterized as T. douglasii, 9% as hybrids and 43% as T. hudsonicus. Hybrids appeared to be reproductively viable, as evidenced by the presence of later-generation hybrid genotypes. Observed clines in ecologically important phenotypic traits-fur coloration and cranial morphology-were sharper than the cline of putatively neutral mtDNA, which suggests that divergent selection may maintain phenotypic distinctiveness. The relatively recent divergence of these two species (probably late Pleistocene), apparent lack of prezygotic isolating mechanisms and geographic coincidence of cline centres for both genetic and phenotypic variation suggest that environmental factors play a large role in maintaining the distinctiveness of these two species across the hybrid zone. PMID:21771139

Chavez, Andreas S; Saltzberg, Carl J; Kenagy, G J

2011-08-01

88

Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets  

PubMed Central

Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Results Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P?variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species. PMID:25276350

2014-01-01

89

Genotyping in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome revealed unexpected phenotypic variation.  

PubMed

To define the range of phenotypic expression in Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS; Franceschetti-Klein syndrome), we performed mutation analysis in the TCOF1 gene in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of TCS and evaluated the clinical data, including a scoring system. A total of 27 coding exons of TCOF1 and adjacent splice junctions were analysed by direct sequencing. In 36 patients with a clinically unequivocal diagnosis of TCS, we detected 28 pathogenic mutations, including 25 novel alterations. No mutation was identified in the remaining eight patients with unequivocal diagnosis of TCS and 10 further patients, in whom the referring diagnosis of TCS was clinically doubtful. There is no overt genotype-phenotype correlation except that conductive deafness is significantly less frequent in patients with mutations in the 3' part of the open reading frame. Inter- and intrafamilial variation is wide. Some mutation carriers, parents of typically affected patients, are so mildly affected that the diagnosis might be overlooked clinically. This suggests that modifying factors are important for phenotypic expression. Based on these findings, minimal diagnostic criteria were defined: downward slanting palpebral fissures and hypoplasia of the zygomatic arch. The difficulties in genetic counselling, especially diagnosis of family members with a mild phenotype, are described. PMID:15340364

Teber, Ozge Altug; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Fischer, Sven; Böhringer, Stefan; Albrecht, Beate; Albert, Angelika; Arslan-Kirchner, Mine; Haan, Eric; Hagedorn-Greiwe, Monika; Hammans, Christof; Henn, Wolfram; Hinkel, Georg Klaus; König, Rainer; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Kunze, Jürgen; Neumann, Luitgard M; Prott, Eva-Christina; Rauch, Anita; Rott, Hans-Dieter; Seidel, Heide; Spranger, Stephanie; Sprengel, Martin; Zoll, Barbara; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Wieczorek, Dagmar

2004-11-01

90

Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion, and infection biology.  

PubMed

There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines. PMID:24367109

Forsman, Anders

2014-01-01

91

Effects of genotypic and phenotypic variation on establishment are important for conservation, invasion, and infection biology  

PubMed Central

There is abundant evidence that the probability of successful establishment in novel environments increases with number of individuals in founder groups and with number of repeated introductions. Theory posits that the genotypic and phenotypic variation among individuals should also be important, but few studies have examined whether founder diversity influences establishment independent of propagule pressure, nor whether the effect is model or context dependent. I summarize the results of 18 experimental studies and report on a metaanalysis that provides strong evidence that higher levels of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in founder groups increase establishment success in plants and animals. The effect of diversity is stronger in experiments carried out under natural conditions in the wild than under seminatural or standardized laboratory conditions. The realization that genetic and phenotypic variation is key to successful establishment may improve the outcome of reintroduction and translocation programs used to vitalize or restore declining and extinct populations. Founder diversity may also improve the ability of invasive species to establish and subsequently spread in environments outside of their native community, and enhance the ability of pathogens and parasites to colonize and invade the environment constituted by their hosts. It is argued that exchange of ideas, methodological approaches, and insights of the role of diversity for establishment in different contexts may further our knowledge, vitalize future research, and improve management plans in different disciplines. PMID:24367109

Forsman, Anders

2014-01-01

92

Different mechanisms underlie phenotypic plasticity and interspecific variation for a reproductive character in drosophilids (Insecta: Diptera).  

PubMed

The insect ovary is a modular structure, the functional unit of which is the ovariole. Ovariole number is positively correlated with potential reproductive output. Among drosophilids (Insecta: Diptera), ovariole number shows both phenotypic plasticity and substantial interspecific and interpopulational variation. Here we examine the mechanistic connection between phenotypic plasticity and genetically fixed variation in ovariole number within the melanogaster species group. When a laboratory population of Drosophila melanogaster was reared under reduced food conditions, differences in ovariole number were entirely due to alterations in cell differentiation during the wandering stage at the very end of larval development. Cell growth and cell death were not affected. When these same flies were reared under a variety of temperatures, ovariole number differences arose during the latter half of the third (final) larval instar. Cell differentiation was affected, although cell number was not, and ovariole number differences were established before metamorphosis. In contrast, genetically fixed, interspecific and interpopulational variability in ovariole number was caused by alterations in the dynamics of cell differentiation and by cell number differences. Furthermore, the stages affected were different in different species and populations in the melanogaster species group, ranging from the first (D. sechellia) through the middle of the third (D. simulans and D. mauritiana) larval stage. Therefore, the mechanistic bases for plasticity-based variability are largely distinct from the mechanistic bases for interspecific and interpopulational variability. Our results suggest that phenotypic plasticity indicates evolutionary flexibility in underlying ontogenetic processes. PMID:11108591

Hodin, J; Riddiford, L M

2000-10-01

93

Quantitative DNA methylation analysis improves epigenotype-phenotype correlations in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome  

PubMed Central

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare disorder characterized by overgrowth and predisposition to embryonal tumors. BWS is caused by various epigenetic and/or genetic alterations that dysregulate the imprinted genes on chromosome region 11p15.5. Molecular analysis is required to reinforce the clinical diagnosis of BWS and to identify BWS patients with cancer susceptibility. This is particularly crucial prenatally because most signs of BWS cannot be recognized in utero. We established a reliable molecular assay by pyrosequencing to quantitatively evaluate the methylation profiles of ICR1 and ICR2. We explored epigenotype-phenotype correlations in 19 patients that fulfilled the clinical diagnostic criteria for BWS, 22 patients with suspected BWS, and three fetuses with omphalocele. Abnormal methylation was observed in one prenatal case and 19 postnatal cases, including seven suspected BWS. Seven cases showed ICR1 hypermethylation, five cases showed ICR2 hypomethylation, and eight cases showed abnormal methylation of ICR1 and ICR2 indicating paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). More cases of ICR1 alterations and UPD were found than expected. This is likely due to the sensitivity of this approach, which can detect slight deviations in methylation from normal levels. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.001) between the percentage of ICR1 methylation and BWS features: severe hypermethylation (range: 75–86%) was associated with macroglossia, macrosomia, and visceromegaly, whereas mild hypermethylation (range: 55–59%) was associated with umbilical hernia and diastasis recti. Evaluation of ICR1 and ICR2 methylation by pyrosequencing in BWS can improve epigenotype-phenotype correlations, detection of methylation alterations in suspected cases, and identification of UPD. PMID:23917791

Calvello, Mariarosaria; Tabano, Silvia; Colapietro, Patrizia; Maitz, Silvia; Pansa, Alessandra; Augello, Claudia; Lalatta, Faustina; Gentilin, Barbara; Spreafico, Filippo; Calzari, Luciano; Perotti, Daniela; Larizza, Lidia; Russo, Silvia; Selicorni, Angelo; Sirchia, Silvia M; Miozzo, Monica

2013-01-01

94

Quantitative DNA methylation analysis improves epigenotype-phenotype correlations in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.  

PubMed

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a rare disorder characterized by overgrowth and predisposition to embryonal tumors. BWS is caused by various epigenetic and/or genetic alterations that dysregulate the imprinted genes on chromosome region 11p15.5. Molecular analysis is required to reinforce the clinical diagnosis of BWS and to identify BWS patients with cancer susceptibility. This is particularly crucial prenatally because most signs of BWS cannot be recognized in utero. We established a reliable molecular assay by pyrosequencing to quantitatively evaluate the methylation profiles of ICR1 and ICR2. We explored epigenotype-phenotype correlations in 19 patients that fulfilled the clinical diagnostic criteria for BWS, 22 patients with suspected BWS, and three fetuses with omphalocele. Abnormal methylation was observed in one prenatal case and 19 postnatal cases, including seven suspected BWS. Seven cases showed ICR1 hypermethylation, five cases showed ICR2 hypomethylation, and eight cases showed abnormal methylation of ICR1 and ICR2 indicating paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). More cases of ICR1 alterations and UPD were found than expected. This is likely due to the sensitivity of this approach, which can detect slight deviations in methylation from normal levels. There was a significant correlation (p<0.001) between the percentage of ICR1 methylation and BWS features: severe hypermethylation (range: 75-86%) was associated with macroglossia, macrosomia, and visceromegaly, whereas mild hypermethylation (range: 55-59%) was associated with umbilical hernia and diastasis recti. Evaluation of ICR1 and ICR2 methylation by pyrosequencing in BWS can improve epigenotype-phenotype correlations, detection of methylation alterations in suspected cases, and identification of UPD. PMID:23917791

Calvello, Mariarosaria; Tabano, Silvia; Colapietro, Patrizia; Maitz, Silvia; Pansa, Alessandra; Augello, Claudia; Lalatta, Faustina; Gentilin, Barbara; Spreafico, Filippo; Calzari, Luciano; Perotti, Daniela; Larizza, Lidia; Russo, Silvia; Selicorni, Angelo; Sirchia, Silvia M; Miozzo, Monica

2013-10-01

95

Regression diagnostics for the class A regressive model with quantitative phenotypes.  

PubMed

Regression diagnostic methods are developed and investigated under the Class A regressive model proposed by Bonney [(1984) Am J Med Genet 18:731-749]. We call a family whose phenotypic distribution does not conform to the same genetic model as the majority of the families an etiotic family. The exact case-deletion approach for identifying etiotic families, based on examining the changes in each model parameter estimate by excluding one family at a time, is very time-consuming. We proposed three alternative diagnostic methods: the empirical influence function (EIF), the one-step approximation, and the approximated one-step approach. These methods can be computed efficiently and were incorporated into the existing software package S.A.G.E. A thorough Monte-Carlo investigation of the performance of the diagnostic methods was conducted and generally supports the EIF approach as the recommended alternative. The phenotypic variance is the parameter whose associated regression diagnostic most frequently and correctly identified etiotic families in the models that were examined. An analysis of body mass index data from 402 individuals in 122 Muscatine, Iowa families is used to illustrate the methods. A Class A regressive model with a recessive major locus and equal mother-offspring and father-offspring correlations provided the best-fitting model. The proposed regression diagnostics identified up to 7.4% of the 122 families as etiotic. As a result of this investigation, case-deletion diagnostic assessment is now a practical component in the analysis of quantitative family data. PMID:10446465

Wang, H M; Jones, M P; Burns, T L

1999-01-01

96

Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping.  

PubMed

The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease. PMID:22022279

Vaysse, Amaury; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Derrien, Thomas; Axelsson, Erik; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Fall, Tove; Seppälä, Eija H; Hansen, Mark S T; Lawley, Cindy T; Karlsson, Elinor K; Bannasch, Danika; Vilà, Carles; Lohi, Hannes; Galibert, Francis; Fredholm, Merete; Häggström, Jens; Hedhammar, Ake; André, Catherine; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hitte, Christophe; Webster, Matthew T

2011-10-01

97

Identification of Genomic Regions Associated with Phenotypic Variation between Dog Breeds using Selection Mapping  

PubMed Central

The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease. PMID:22022279

Derrien, Thomas; Axelsson, Erik; Rosengren Pielberg, Gerli; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Fall, Tove; Seppala, Eija H.; Hansen, Mark S. T.; Lawley, Cindy T.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Bannasch, Danika; Vila, Carles; Lohi, Hannes; Galibert, Francis; Fredholm, Merete; Haggstrom, Jens; Hedhammar, Ake; Andre, Catherine; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Hitte, Christophe; Webster, Matthew T.

2011-01-01

98

Quantitative and evolutionary biology of alternative splicing: how changing the mix of alternative transcripts affects phenotypic plasticity and reaction norms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing (AS) of pre-messenger RNA is a common phenomenon that creates different transcripts from a single gene, and these alternative transcripts affect phenotypes. The majority of AS research has examined tissue and developmental specificity of expression of particular AS transcripts, how this specificity affects cell function, and how aberrant AS is related to disease. Few studies have examined quantitative

J H Marden

2008-01-01

99

Phenotypic variation of the Mexican duck (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) in Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A collection of 98 breeding Mexican Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos diazi) was made in Mexico from six areas between the United States border with Chihuahua and Lake Chapala, Jalisco, in order to study geographic variation. Plumage indices showed a relatively smooth clinal change from north to south; northern populations were most influenced by the Northern Mallard (A. platyrhynchos) phenotype. Measurements of total, wing, and culmen lengths and bill width were usually significantly larger in males at any one site, but showed no regular geographic trends. Hybridization between platyrhynchos and diazi phenotypes may or may not be increasing in the middle Rio Grande and Rio Conchos valleys; available data are insufficient to decide. A spring 1978 aerial census yielded an estimate of 55,500 diazi -like birds in Mexico. Populations of diazi appear to be as large as the available habitat allows; management should be directed towards increasing and stabilizing the nesting habitat; and the stability of the zone of intergradation should be investigated.

Scott, N.J., Jr.; Reynolds, R.P.

1984-01-01

100

Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes  

SciTech Connect

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

Carneiro, Ana [Vanderbilt University; Airey, David [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Thompson, Brent [Vanderbilt University; Zhu, C [Vanderbilt University; Rinchik, Eugene M [ORNL; Lu, Lu [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Erikson, Keith [University of North Carolina; Blakely, Randy [Vanderbilt University

2009-01-01

101

Geographical and environmental gradients shape phenotypic trait variation and genetic structure in Populus trichocarpa.  

PubMed

• Populus trichocarpa is widespread across western North America spanning extensive variation in photoperiod, growing season and climate. We investigated trait variation in P. trichocarpa using over 2000 trees from a common garden at Vancouver, Canada, representing replicate plantings of 461 genotypes originating from 136 provenance localities. • We measured 40 traits encompassing phenological events, biomass accumulation, growth rates, and leaf, isotope and gas exchange-based ecophysiology traits. With replicated plantings and 29,354 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 3518 genes, we estimated both broad-sense trait heritability (H(2)) and overall population genetic structure from principal component analysis. • Populus trichocarpa had high phenotypic variation and moderate/high H(2) for many traits. H(2) ranged from 0.3 to 0.9 in phenology, 0.3 to 0.8 in biomass and 0.1 to 0.8 in ecophysiology traits. Most traits correlated strongly with latitude, maximum daylength and temperature of tree origin, but not necessarily with elevation, precipitation or heat : moisture indices. Trait H(2) values reflected trait correlation strength with geoclimate variables. The population genetic structure had one significant principal component (PC1) which correlated with daylength and showed enrichment for genes relating to circadian rhythm and photoperiod. • Robust relationships between traits, population structure and geoclimate in P. trichocarpa reflect patterns which suggest that range-wide geographical and environment gradients have shaped its genotypic and phenotypic variability. PMID:24491114

McKown, Athena D; Guy, Robert D; Klápšt?, Jaroslav; Geraldes, Armando; Friedmann, Michael; Cronk, Quentin C B; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Mansfield, Shawn D; Douglas, Carl J

2014-03-01

102

Multivariate analysis of allozymic and quantitative trait variation in Alnus rubra  

E-print Network

Multivariate analysis of allozymic and quantitative trait variation in Alnus rubra: geographic (Alnus rubra Bong.). Principal components analysis showed that variation in quantitative traits can ont étudié la différenciation géographique parmi 65 provenances d'aulne rouge (Alnus rubra Bong.) de

Hamann, Andreas

103

Spatially structured genetic variation in a broadcast spawning bivalve: quantitative vs. molecular traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the origin, maintenance and significance of phenotypic variation is one of the central issues in evolutionary biology. An ongoing discussion focuses on the relative roles of isolation and selection as being at the heart of genetically based spatial variation. We address this issue in a representative of a taxon group in which isolation is unlikely: a marine broadcast spawning

P. C. L UTTIKHUIZEN; J. D RENT; W. V AN DELDEN; T. PIERSMA

104

Quantitative Genomics of 30 Complex Phenotypes in Wagyu x Angus F1 Progeny  

PubMed Central

In the present study, a total of 91 genes involved in various pathways were investigated for their associations with six carcass traits and twenty-four fatty acid composition phenotypes in a Wagyu×Angus reference population, including 43 Wagyu bulls and their potential 791 F1 progeny. Of the 182 SNPs evaluated, 102 SNPs that were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with minor allele frequencies (MAF>0.15) were selected for parentage assignment and association studies with these quantitative traits. The parentage assignment revealed that 40 of 43 Wagyu sires produced over 96.71% of the calves in the population. Linkage disequilibrium analysis identified 75 of 102 SNPs derived from 54 genes as tagged SNPs. After Bonferroni correction, single-marker analysis revealed a total of 113 significant associations between 44 genes and 29 phenotypes (adjusted P<0.05). Multiple-marker analysis confirmed single-gene associations for 10 traits, but revealed two-gene networks for 9 traits and three-gene networks for 8 traits. Particularly, we observed that TNF (tumor necrosis factor) gene is significantly associated with both beef marbling score (P=0.0016) and palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0043), RCAN1 (regulator of calcineurin 1) with rib-eye area (P=0.0103), ASB3 (ankyrin repeat and SOCS box-containing 3) with backfat (P=0.0392), ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette A1) with both palmitic acid (C16:0) (P=0.0025) and oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0114), SLC27A1(solute carrier family 27 A1) with oleic acid (C18:1n9) (P=0.0155), CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone) with both linolenic acid (OMEGA-3) (P=0.0200) and OMEGA 6:3 RATIO (P=0.0054), SLC27A2 (solute carrier family 27 A2) with both linoleic acid (OMEGA-6) (P=0.0121) and FAT (P=0.0333), GNG3 (guanine nucleotide binding protein gamma 3 with desaturase 9 (P=0.0115), and EFEMP1 (EGF containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1), PLTP (phospholipid transfer protein) and DSEL (dermatan sulfate epimerase-like) with conjugated linoleic acid (P=0.0042-0.0044), respectively, in the Wagyu x Angus F1 population. In addition, we observed an interesting phenomenon that crossbreeding of different breeds might change gene actions to dominant and overdominant modes, thus explaining the origin of heterosis. The present study confirmed that these important families or pathway-based genes are useful targets for improving meat quality traits and healthful beef products in cattle. PMID:22745575

Zhang, Lifan; Michal, Jennifer J.; O'Fallon, James V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Gaskins, Charles T.; Reeves, Jerry J.; Busboom, Jan R.; Zhou, Xiang; Ding, Bo; Dodson, Michael V.; Jiang, Zhihua

2012-01-01

105

Databases of genomic variation and phenotypes: existing resources and future needs.  

PubMed

Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has become an important tool for identifying medically significant variants in both research and the clinic. Accurate variation and genotype-phenotype databases are critical in our ability to make sense of the vast amount of information that MPS generates. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of the art of variation and genotype-phenotype databases, how they can be used, and opportunities to improve these resources. Our working assumption is that the objective of the clinical genomicist is to identify highly penetrant variants that could explain existing disease or predict disease risk for individual patients or research participants. We have detailed how current databases contribute to this goal providing frequency data, literature reviews and predictions of causation for individual variants. For variant annotation, databases vary greatly in their ease of use, the use of standard mutation nomenclature, the comprehensiveness of the variant cataloging and the degree of expert opinion. Ultimately, we need a dynamic and comprehensive reference database of medically important variants that is easily cross referenced to exome and genome sequence data and allows for an accumulation of expert opinion. PMID:23962721

Johnston, Jennifer J; Biesecker, Leslie G

2013-10-15

106

Causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection along an altitudinal gradient.  

PubMed

Understanding the causes of variation in biotic interaction strength and phenotypic selection remains one of the outstanding goals of evolutionary ecology. Here we examine the variation in strength of interactions between two seed predators, common crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and European red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris), and mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) at and below tree limit in the Pyrenees, and how this translates into phenotypic selection. Seed predation by crossbills increased whereas seed predation by squirrels decreased with increasing elevation and as the canopy became more open. Overall, seed predation by crossbills averaged about twice that by squirrels, and the intensity of selection exerted by crossbills averaged between 2.6 and 7.5 times greater than by squirrels. The higher levels of seed predation by crossbills than squirrels were related to the relatively open nature of most of the forests, and the higher intensity of selection exerted by crossbills resulted from their higher levels of seed predation. However, most of the differences in selection intensity between crossbills and squirrels were the result of habitat features having a greater effect on the foraging behavior of squirrels than of crossbills, causing selection to be much lower for squirrels than for crossbills. PMID:24593660

Mezquida, Eduardo T; Benkman, Craig W

2014-06-01

107

Human genetic variation within neural crest enhancers: molecular and phenotypic implications  

PubMed Central

Developmental gene expression programmes are coordinated by the specialized distal cis-regulatory elements called enhancers, which integrate lineage- and signalling-dependent inputs to guide morphogenesis. In previous work, we characterized the genome-wide repertoire of active enhancers in human neural crest cells (hNCC), an embryonic cell population with critical roles in craniofacial development. We showed that in hNCC, co-occupancy of a master regulator TFAP2A with nuclear receptors NR2F1 and NR2F2 correlates with the presence of permissive enhancer chromatin states. Here, we take advantage of pre-existing human genetic variation to further explore potential cooperation between TFAP2A and NR2F1/F2. We demonstrate that isolated single nucleotide polymorphisms affecting NR2F1/F2-binding sites within hNCC enhancers can alter TFAP2A occupancy and overall chromatin features at the same enhancer allele. We propose that a similar strategy can be used to elucidate other cooperative relationships between transcription factors involved in developmental transitions. Using the neural crest and its major contribution to human craniofacial phenotypes as a paradigm, we discuss how genetic variation might modulate the molecular properties and activity of enhancers, and ultimately impact human phenotypic diversity. PMID:23650634

Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro; Prescott, Sara L.; Wysocka, Joanna

2013-01-01

108

Phenotypic variation in seedlings of a “keystone” tree species ( Quercus douglasii ): the interactive effects of acorn source and competitive environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is a deciduous tree species endemic to California that currently exhibits poor seedling survival to sapling age classes. We used common garden techniques to examine how genetic variation at regional and local scales affected phenotypic expression in traits affecting oak seedling growth and survival. Between-population variation was examined for seedlings grown from acorns collected from a

K. J. Rice; D. R. Gordon; J. L. Hardison; J. M. Welker

1993-01-01

109

Molecular genetics of growth and development in Populus (Salicaceae). V. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting leaf variation  

SciTech Connect

The genetic variation of leaf morphology and development was studied in the 2-yr-old replicated plantation of an interspecific hybrid pedigree of Populus trichocarpa T. & G. and P. deltoides Marsh. via both molecular and quantitative genetic methods. Leaf traits chosen showed pronounced differences between the original parents, including leaf size, shape, orientation, color, structure, petiole size, and petiole cross section. In the F{sub 2} generation, leaf traits were all significantly different among genotypes, but with significant effects due to genotype X crown-position interaction. Variation in leaf pigmentation, petiole length, and petiole length proportion appeared to be under the control of few quantitative trait loci (QTLs). More QTLs were associated with single leaf area, leaf shape, lamina angle, abaxial color, and petiole flatness, and in these traits the number of QTLs varied among crown positions. In general the estimates of QTL numbers from Wright`s biometric method were close to those derived from molecular markers. For those traits with few underlying QTLs, a single marker interval could explain from 30-60% of the observed phenotypic variance. For multigenic traits, certain markers contributed more substantially to the observed variation than others. Genetic cluster analysis showed developmentally related traits to be more strongly associated with each other than with unrelated traits. This finding was also supported by the QTL mapping. For example, the same chromosomal segment of linkage group L seemed to account for 20% of the phenotypic variation of all dimension-related traits, leaf size, petiole length, and midrib angle. In both traits, the P. deltoides alleles had positive effects and were dominant to the P. trichocarpa alleles. Similar relationships were also found for lamina angle, abaxial greenness, and petiole flatness. 72 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Wu, R.; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr.; Stettler, R.F. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

1997-02-01

110

3D phenotyping and quantitative trait locus mapping identify core regions of the rice genome controlling root architecture  

PubMed Central

Identification of genes that control root system architecture in crop plants requires innovations that enable high-throughput and accurate measurements of root system architecture through time. We demonstrate the ability of a semiautomated 3D in vivo imaging and digital phenotyping pipeline to interrogate the quantitative genetic basis of root system growth in a rice biparental mapping population, Bala × Azucena. We phenotyped >1,400 3D root models and >57,000 2D images for a suite of 25 traits that quantified the distribution, shape, extent of exploration, and the intrinsic size of root networks at days 12, 14, and 16 of growth in a gellan gum medium. From these data we identified 89 quantitative trait loci, some of which correspond to those found previously in soil-grown plants, and provide evidence for genetic tradeoffs in root growth allocations, such as between the extent and thoroughness of exploration. We also developed a multivariate method for generating and mapping central root architecture phenotypes and used it to identify five major quantitative trait loci (r2 = 24–37%), two of which were not identified by our univariate analysis. Our imaging and analytical platform provides a means to identify genes with high potential for improving root traits and agronomic qualities of crops. PMID:23580618

Topp, Christopher N.; Iyer-Pascuzzi, Anjali S.; Anderson, Jill T.; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Zurek, Paul R.; Symonova, Olga; Zheng, Ying; Bucksch, Alexander; Mileyko, Yuriy; Galkovskyi, Taras; Moore, Brad T.; Harer, John; Edelsbrunner, Herbert; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas; Weitz, Joshua S.; Benfey, Philip N.

2013-01-01

111

Genotypic and phenotypic variation as stress adaptations in temperate tree species: a review of several case studies.  

PubMed

Species that occupy large geographic ranges or a variety of habitats within a limited area deal with contrasting environmental conditions by genotypic and phenotypic variation. My students and I have studied these forms of ecophysiological variation in temperate tree species in eastern North America by means of a series of field and greenhouse experiments, including controlled studies with Cercis canadensis L., Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Acer rubrum L., Prunus serotina Ehrh. and Quercus rubra L., in relation to drought stress. These studies have included measurements of gas exchange, tissue water relations and leaf morphology, and have identified genotypic variation at the biome and individual community levels. Xeric genotypes generally had higher net photosynthesis and leaf conductance and lower osmotic and water potentials at incipient wilting than mesic genotypes during drought. Xeric genotypes also produced leaves with greater thickness, leaf mass per area and stomatal density and smaller area than the mesic genotypes, suggesting general coordination among leaf morphology, gas exchange and tissue water relations. Leaf phenotypic plasticity to different light environments occurred in virtually every study species, which represented a wide array of ecological tolerances. In a study of interactions of genotypes with environment, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited osmotic adjustment during drought and shade plants had smaller reductions in photosynthesis with decreasing leaf water potential. In that study, sun, but not shade, plants had significant genotypic differences in leaf structure, but with certain variables phenotypic variation exceeded genotype variation. Thus, genotypic variation was not expressed in all phenotypes, and phenotypes responded differentially to stress. Overall, these studies indicate the importance of genotypic and phenotypic variation as stress adaptations in temperate tree species among both distant and nearby sites of contrasting environmental conditions. PMID:14967652

Abrams, Marc D.

1994-01-01

112

Phenotypic flexibility in passerine birds: Seasonal variation in fuel storage, mobilization and transport.  

PubMed

Winter acclimatization in small birds living in cold climates produces a winter phenotype characterized by upregulation of metabolic rates to meet enhanced thermoregulatory demands. We measured several key aspects of fuel storage, mobilization and transport in summer and winter to determine whether black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus), white-breasted nuthatches (Sitta carolinensis), and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) seasonally modulate these attributes to meet enhanced winter thermoregulatory demands. In addition, we exposed birds to thermoneutral (control) and severe cold exposure treatments to determine whether acute cold exposure influenced fuel storage, mobilization or transport. Carcass lipid mass and pectoralis intramuscular lipid did not vary significantly between seasons or temperature treatments for any of the study species. Muscle glycogen varied significantly seasonally only for chickadee supracoracoideus and leg muscles, and did not vary among warm or cold treatments for any species. Pectoralis fatty acid binding protein (FABPc) was significantly elevated in winter for chickadees and nuthatches, but not for sparrows. Plasma metabolites showed little consistent variation in response to season or acute cold exposure. Thus, fuel storage and mobilization do not appear to be major targets of adjustment associated with seasonal metabolic flexibility in these species, but modulation of intracellular lipid transport by FABPc may be an important contributor to seasonal phenotypes in some species of small birds. PMID:24704472

Liknes, Eric T; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Swanson, David L

2014-08-01

113

Mutation spectrum and phenotypic variation in nine patients with SOX2 abnormalities.  

PubMed

Multiple mutations in SOX2 have been identified in patients with ocular anomalies and/or pituitary dysfunction. Here, we identified SOX2 abnormalities in nine patients. The molecular defects included one missense, one nonsense and four frameshift mutations, and three submicroscopic deletions involving SOX2. Three of the six mutations and all deletions were hitherto unreported. The breakpoints determined in one deletion were located within Alu repeats and accompanied by an overlap of 11?bp. Three of the six mutations encoded SOX2 proteins that lacked in vitro transactivation activity for the HESX1 promoter, whereas the remaining three generated proteins with ?15-?20% of transactivation activity. All cases manifested ocular anomalies of various severities, together with several complications including arachnoid cyst and hamartoma. There was no apparent correlation between the residual activity and clinical severity. The results indicate that molecular defects in SOX2 are highly variable and include Alu repeat-mediated genomic rearrangements. Our data provide further evidence for wide phenotypic variation of SOX2 abnormalities and the lack of genotype-phenotype correlation in patients carrying SOX2 lesions. PMID:24804704

Suzuki, Junichi; Azuma, Noriyuki; Dateki, Sumito; Soneda, Shun; Muroya, Koji; Yamamoto, Yukiyo; Saito, Reiko; Sano, Shinichiro; Nagai, Toshiro; Wada, Hiroshi; Endo, Akira; Urakami, Tatsuhiko; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

2014-06-01

114

Mathematical Learning Disabilities in Special Populations: Phenotypic Variation and Cross-Disorder Comparisons  

PubMed Central

What is mathematical learning disability (MLD)? The reviews in this special issue adopt different approaches to defining the construct of MLD. Collectively, they demonstrate the current status of efforts to establish a consensus definition and the challenges faced in this endeavor. In this commentary, we reflect upon the proposed pathways to mathematical learning difficulties and disabilities presented across the reviews. Specifically we consider how each of the reviews contributes to identifying the MLD phenotype by specifying the range of assets and deficits in mathematics, identifying sources of individual variation, and characterizing the natural progression of MLD over the life course. We show how principled comparisons across disorders address issues about the cognitive and behavioral co-morbidities of MLD, and whether commonalities in brain dysmorphology are associated with common mathematics performance profiles. We project the status of MLD research ten years hence with respect to theoretical gains, advances in methodology, and principled intervention studies. PMID:19213019

Dennis, Maureen; Berch, Daniel B.; Mazzocco, Michele M.M.

2011-01-01

115

Using Whole-Genome Sequence Data to Predict Quantitative Trait Phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicting organismal phenotypes from genotype data is important for plant and animal breeding, medicine, and evolutionary biology. Genomic-based phenotype prediction has been applied for single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms, but not using complete genome sequences. Here, we report genomic prediction for starvation stress resistance and startle response in Drosophila melanogaster, using ?2.5 million SNPs determined by sequencing the Drosophila Genetic

Ulrike Ober; Julien F. Ayroles; Eric A. Stone; Stephen Richards; Dianhui Zhu; Richard A. Gibbs; Christian Stricker; Daniel Gianola; Martin Schlather; Trudy F. C. Mackay; Henner Simianer

2012-01-01

116

Cone and seed trait variation in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis; Pinaceae) and the potential for phenotypic selection.  

PubMed

Phenotypic variation among individuals is necessary for natural selection to operate and is therefore essential for adaptive evolution. However, extensive variation within individuals can mask variation among individuals and weaken the potential for selection. Here we quantify variation among and within individuals in female cone and seed traits of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis). In many plants, the production of numerous reproductive structures creates the potential for considerable variation within a plant, but these same traits should also undergo strong selection because of their direct link to plant fitness. We found about twice as much variation among individuals (overall mean = 65.3 ± 4.5% SE) than within individuals (overall mean = 34.7 ± 4.5%). One only needs to sample three to five cones per tree to accurately assess variation among trees in most cone and seed traits. The ease at which trees can be assessed helps account for the strong and consistent patterns of phenotypic selection exerted by seed predators and dispersers of whitebark pine and many other conifers. In contrast, the few traits where variation within trees equaled or exceeded that among trees underwent weak if any phenotypic selection. PMID:21628255

Garcia, Roberto; Siepielski, Adam M; Benkman, Craig W

2009-05-01

117

A Quantitative Investigation of Stakeholder Variation in Training Program Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted to investigate variation in stakeholder perceptions of training results and evaluation within the context of a high-technology product development firm (the case organization). A scannable questionnaire survey booklet was developed and scanned data were exported and analyzed. Based on an achieved sample of 280 (70% response…

Michalski, Greg V.

118

Molecular and quantitative trait variation within and among populations of the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus.  

PubMed

While molecular and quantitative trait variation may be theoretically correlated, empirical studies using both approaches frequently reveal discordant patterns, and these discrepancies can contribute to our understanding of evolutionary processes. Here, we assessed genetic variation in six populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. Molecular variation was estimated using five polymorphic microsatellite loci, and quantitative variation was measured using 22-life history and morphometric characters. Within populations, no correlation was found between the levels of molecular variation (heterozygosity) and quantitative variation (heritability). Between populations, quantitative subdivision (Q(ST)) was correlated with molecular subdivision when measured as F(ST) but not when measured as R(ST). Unlike most taxa studied to date, the overall level of molecular subdivision exceeded the level of quantitative subdivision (F(ST) = 0.80, R(ST) = 0.89, Q(ST) = 0.30). Factors that could contribute to this pattern include stabilizing or fluctuating selection on quantitative traits or accelerated rates of molecular evolution. PMID:14628915

Edmands, Suzanne; Harrison, J Scott

2003-10-01

119

Quantitative multi-parametric evaluation of centrosome declustering drugs: centrosome amplification, mitotic phenotype, cell cycle and death  

PubMed Central

Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain amplified centrosomes and rely on centrosome clustering mechanisms to form a pseudobipolar spindle that circumvents potentially fatal spindle multipolarity (MP). Centrosome clustering also promotes low-grade chromosome missegregation, which can drive malignant transformation and tumor progression. Putative ‘centrosome declustering drugs' represent a cancer cell-specific class of chemotherapeutics that produces a common phenotype of centrosome declustering and spindle MP. However, differences between individual agents in terms of efficacy and phenotypic nuances remain unexplored. Herein, we have developed a conceptual framework for the quantitative evaluation of centrosome declustering drugs by investigating their impact on centrosomes, clustering, spindle polarity, cell cycle arrest, and death in various cancer cell lines at multiple drug concentrations over time. Surprisingly, all centrosome declustering drugs evaluated in our study were also centrosome-amplifying drugs to varying extents. Notably, all declustering drugs induced spindle MP, and the peak extent of MP positively correlated with the induction of hypodiploid DNA-containing cells. Our data suggest acentriolar spindle pole amplification as a hitherto undescribed activity of some declustering drugs, resulting in spindle MP in cells that may not have amplified centrosomes. In general, declustering drugs were more toxic to cancer cell lines than non-transformed ones, with some exceptions. Through a comprehensive description and quantitative analysis of numerous phenotypes induced by declustering drugs, we propose a novel framework for the assessment of putative centrosome declustering drugs and describe cellular characteristics that may enhance susceptibility to them. PMID:24787016

Ogden, A; Cheng, A; Rida, P C G; Pannu, V; Osan, R; Clewley, R; Aneja, R

2014-01-01

120

Quantitative multi-parametric evaluation of centrosome declustering drugs: centrosome amplification, mitotic phenotype, cell cycle and death.  

PubMed

Unlike normal cells, cancer cells contain amplified centrosomes and rely on centrosome clustering mechanisms to form a pseudobipolar spindle that circumvents potentially fatal spindle multipolarity (MP). Centrosome clustering also promotes low-grade chromosome missegregation, which can drive malignant transformation and tumor progression. Putative 'centrosome declustering drugs' represent a cancer cell-specific class of chemotherapeutics that produces a common phenotype of centrosome declustering and spindle MP. However, differences between individual agents in terms of efficacy and phenotypic nuances remain unexplored. Herein, we have developed a conceptual framework for the quantitative evaluation of centrosome declustering drugs by investigating their impact on centrosomes, clustering, spindle polarity, cell cycle arrest, and death in various cancer cell lines at multiple drug concentrations over time. Surprisingly, all centrosome declustering drugs evaluated in our study were also centrosome-amplifying drugs to varying extents. Notably, all declustering drugs induced spindle MP, and the peak extent of MP positively correlated with the induction of hypodiploid DNA-containing cells. Our data suggest acentriolar spindle pole amplification as a hitherto undescribed activity of some declustering drugs, resulting in spindle MP in cells that may not have amplified centrosomes. In general, declustering drugs were more toxic to cancer cell lines than non-transformed ones, with some exceptions. Through a comprehensive description and quantitative analysis of numerous phenotypes induced by declustering drugs, we propose a novel framework for the assessment of putative centrosome declustering drugs and describe cellular characteristics that may enhance susceptibility to them. PMID:24787016

Ogden, A; Cheng, A; Rida, P C G; Pannu, V; Osan, R; Clewley, R; Aneja, R

2014-01-01

121

Monitoring of Technical Variation in Quantitative High-Throughput Datasets  

PubMed Central

High-dimensional datasets can be confounded by variation from technical sources, such as batches. Undetected batch effects can have severe consequences for the validity of a study’s conclusion(s). We evaluate high-throughput RNAseq and miRNAseq as well as DNA methylation and gene expression microarray datasets, mainly from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, in respect to technical and biological annotations. We observe technical bias in these datasets and discuss corrective interventions. We then suggest a general procedure to control study design, detect technical bias using linear regression of principal components, correct for batch effects, and re-evaluate principal components. This procedure is implemented in the R package swamp, and as graphical user interface software. In conclusion, high-throughput platforms that generate continuous measurements are sensitive to various forms of technical bias. For such data, monitoring of technical variation is an important analysis step. PMID:24092958

Lauss, Martin; Visne, Ilhami; Kriegner, Albert; Ringner, Markus; Jonsson, Goran; Hoglund, Mattias

2013-01-01

122

Temporal patterns of genetic and phenotypic variation in the epidemiologically important drone fly, Eristalis tenax.  

PubMed

Eristalis tenax L. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is commonly known as the drone fly (adult) or rat-tailed maggot (immature). Both adults and immature stages are identified as potential mechanical vectors of mycobacterial pathogens, and early-stage maggots cause accidental myiasis. We compared four samples from Mount Fruška Gora, Serbia, with the aim of obtaining insights into the temporal variations and sexual dimorphism in the species. This integrative approach was based on allozyme loci, morphometric wing parameters (shape and size) and abdominal colour patterns. Consistent sexual dimorphism was observed, indicating that male specimens had lighter abdomens and smaller and narrower wings than females. The distribution of genetic diversity at polymorphic loci indicated genetic divergence among collection dates. Landmark-based geometric morphometrics revealed, contrary to the lack of divergence in wing size, significant wing shape variation throughout the year. In addition, temporal changes in the frequencies of the abdominal patterns observed are likely to relate to the biology of the species and ecological factors in the locality. Hence, the present study expands our knowledge of the genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of E. tenax. The quantification of such variability represents a step towards the evaluation of the adaptive potential of this species of medical and epidemiological importance. PMID:21414022

Francuski, Lj; Mati?, I; Ludoški, J; Milankov, V

2011-06-01

123

Molecular and Phenotypic Variation of the White Locus Region in Drosophila Melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Restriction site and insertion/deletion polymorphism in a 45-kb region of the white locus on the X chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster was investigated for 64 X chromosome lines with six 6-cutter and ten 4-cutter restriction enzymes. A total of 109 polymorphisms were detected (54 restriction sites and 55 insertions/deletions). Estimated heterozygosity per nucleotide for this region (0.004-0.008) was similar to those of the Adh and 87A heat-shock locus regions located on the autosomes in D. melanogaster. This is contrary to a simple prediction based on the theory of mutation selection-balance of partially recessive deleterious mutants which predicts less variation on X chromosomes. Large linkage disequilibria between pairs of polymorphisms (including insertions and deletions) within the transcriptional unit (especially the 3' end of the 1st intron) were observed. As expected from population genetics theory, linkage disequilibria between these polymorphisms were greater for those pairs that are physically closer on the restriction map. Linkage equilibrium was typically observed when the pairs of sites were separated by 2 kb or more. Although significant between-line variation in eye pigment was observed (P < 0.05), there is little evidence for strong associations between this phenotype and the polymorphisms at the DNA level. PMID:2906026

Miyashita, N.; Langley, C. H.

1988-01-01

124

A non-parametric test to detect quantitative trait loci where the phenotypic distribution differs by genotypes  

PubMed Central

Searching for genetic variants involved in gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in large scale data raises multiple methodological issues. Many existing methods have focused on the problem of dimensionality, trying to explore the largest number of combinations between risk factors while considering simple interaction models. Despite evidence demonstrating the efficacy of these methods in simulated data, their application in real data has been unsuccessful so far. The classical test of a linear marginal genetic effect has been widely used for agnostic genome-wide association studies, with the underlying idea that most variants involved in interactions might display marginal effect on the phenotypic mean. While this approach may allow for the identification of genetic variants involved in interactions in many scenarios, the linear marginal effects of some causal alleles on the phenotypic mean might not be always detectable at genome-wide significance level. We introduce in this study a general association test for quantitative trait loci that compare the distributions of phenotypic values by genotypic classes as opposed to most standard tests that compare phenotypic means by genotypic classes. Using simulation we show that in presence of an interaction, this approach can be more powerful than the standard test of the linear marginal exposures. We demonstrate the potential utility of our method on real data by analyzing mammographic density genome-wide data from the Nurses’ Health Study. PMID:23512279

Aschard, Hugues; Zaitlen, Noah; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter

2014-01-01

125

J Allergy Clin Immunol. Author manuscript Interrelationships of quantitative asthma-related phenotypes in the  

E-print Network

J Allergy Clin Immunol. Author manuscript Page /1 9 Interrelationships of quantitative asthma the interrelationships of quantitative asthma-related traits. Objective To study the interrelationships of allergy). Results Allergy parameters were significantly higher in asthmatic cases than in controls for children

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

126

Floral integration, phenotypic covariance structure and pollinator variation in bumblebee-pollinated Helleborus foetidus  

Microsoft Academic Search

By analysing patterns of phenotypic integration and multivariate covariance structure of five metric floral traits in nine Iberian populations of bumblebee- pollinated Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae), this paper attempts to test the general hypothesis that pollinators enhance floral integration and selectively modify phenotypic correlations between functionally linked floral traits. The five floral traits examined exhibited significant phenotypic integration at all populations,

C. M. Herrera; X. CERDA ´; M. B. Garcia; J. Guitian; M. Medrano; P. J. Rey; A. M. Sanchez-Lafuente

2002-01-01

127

Comparison of quantitative and molecular genetic variation of native vs. invasive populations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L., Lythraceae).  

PubMed

Study of adaptive evolutionary changes in populations of invasive species can be advanced through the joint application of quantitative and population genetic methods. Using purple loosestrife as a model system, we investigated the relative roles of natural selection, genetic drift and gene flow in the invasive process by contrasting phenotypical and neutral genetic differentiation among native European and invasive North American populations (Q(ST) - F(ST) analysis). Our results indicate that invasive and native populations harbour comparable levels of amplified fragment length polymorphism variation, a pattern consistent with multiple independent introductions from a diverse European gene pool. However, it was observed that the genetic variation reduced during subsequent invasion, perhaps by founder effects and genetic drift. Comparison of genetically based quantitative trait differentiation (Q(ST)) with its expectation under neutrality (F(ST)) revealed no evidence of disruptive selection (Q(ST) > F(ST)) or stabilizing selection (Q(ST) < F(ST)). One exception was found for only one trait (the number of stems) showing significant sign of stabilizing selection across all populations. This suggests that there are difficulties in distinguishing the effects of nonadaptive population processes and natural selection. Multiple introductions of purple loosestrife may have created a genetic mixture from diverse source populations and increased population genetic diversity, but its link to the adaptive differentiation of invasive North American populations needs further research. PMID:19548895

Chun, Young Jin; Nason, John D; Moloney, Kirk A

2009-07-01

128

Genomic Analysis of Natural Selection and Phenotypic Variation in High-Altitude Mongolians  

PubMed Central

Deedu (DU) Mongolians, who migrated from the Mongolian steppes to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau approximately 500 years ago, are challenged by environmental conditions similar to native Tibetan highlanders. Identification of adaptive genetic factors in this population could provide insight into coordinated physiological responses to this environment. Here we examine genomic and phenotypic variation in this unique population and present the first complete analysis of a Mongolian whole-genome sequence. High-density SNP array data demonstrate that DU Mongolians share genetic ancestry with other Mongolian as well as Tibetan populations, specifically in genomic regions related with adaptation to high altitude. Several selection candidate genes identified in DU Mongolians are shared with other Asian groups (e.g., EDAR), neighboring Tibetan populations (including high-altitude candidates EPAS1, PKLR, and CYP2E1), as well as genes previously hypothesized to be associated with metabolic adaptation (e.g., PPARG). Hemoglobin concentration, a trait associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans, is at an intermediate level in DU Mongolians compared to Tibetans and Han Chinese at comparable altitude. Whole-genome sequence from a DU Mongolian (Tianjiao1) shows that about 2% of the genomic variants, including more than 300 protein-coding changes, are specific to this individual. Our analyses of DU Mongolians and the first Mongolian genome provide valuable insight into genetic adaptation to extreme environments. PMID:23874230

Watkins, W. Scott; Witherspoon, David J.; Wu, Wilfred; Qin, Ga; Huff, Chad D.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Ge, Ri-Li

2013-01-01

129

Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.  

PubMed

Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine. PMID:23289569

Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

2013-01-01

130

Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms for Gene Expression and Phenotypic Variation in Plant Polyploids  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy, or whole-genome duplication (WGD), is an important genomic feature for all eukaryotes, especially many plants and some animals. The common occurrence of polyploidy suggests an evolutionary advantage of having multiple sets of genetic material for adaptive evolution. However, increased gene and genome dosages in autopolyploids (duplications of a single genome) and allopolyploids (combinations of two or more divergent genomes) often cause genome instabilities, chromosome imbalances, regulatory incompatibilities, and reproductive failures. Therefore, new allopolyploids must establish a compatible relationship between alien cytoplasm and nuclei and between two divergent genomes, leading to rapid changes in genome structure, gene expression, and developmental traits such as fertility, inbreeding, apomixis, flowering time, and hybrid vigor. Although the underlying mechanisms for these changes are poorly understood, some themes are emerging. There is compelling evidence that changes in DNA sequence, cis- and trans-acting effects, chromatin modifications, RNA-mediated pathways, and regulatory networks modulate differential expression of homoeologous genes and phenotypic variation that may facilitate adaptive evolution in polyploid plants and domestication in crops. PMID:17280525

Chen, Z. Jeffrey

2007-01-01

131

Phenotypic manifestations of copy number variation in chromosome 16p13.11  

PubMed Central

The widespread clinical utilization of array comparative genome hybridization, has led to the unraveling of many new copy number variations (CNVs). Although some of these CNVs are clearly pathogenic, the phenotypic consequences of others, such as those in 16p13.11 remain unclear. Whereas deletions of 16p13.11 have been associated with multiple congenital anomalies, the relevance of duplications of the region is still being debated. We report detailed clinical and molecular characterization of 10 patients with duplication and 4 patients with deletion of 16p13.11. We found that patients with duplication of the region have varied clinical features including behavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, congenital heart defects and skeletal manifestations, such as hypermobility, craniosynostosis and polydactyly. These features were incompletely penetrant. Patients with deletion of the region presented with microcephaly, developmental delay and behavioral abnormalities as previously described. The CNVs were of varying sizes and were likely mediated by non-allelic homologous recombination between low copy repeats. Our findings expand the repertoire of clinical features observed in patients with CNV in 16p13.11 and strengthen the hypothesis that this is a dosage sensitive region with clinical relevance. PMID:21150890

Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Bader, Patricia; Lalani, Seema R; Scott, Daryl A; Scaglia, Fernando; Plon, Sharon E; Tsai, Chun-Hui; Reimschisel, Tyler; Roeder, Elizabeth; Malphrus, Amy D; Eng, Patricia A; Hixson, Patricia M; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai

2011-01-01

132

Acroscyphodysplasia as a phenotypic variation of pseudohypoparathyroidism and acrodysostosis type 2.  

PubMed

Acroscyphodysplasia (OMIM250215) is a distinctive form of metaphyseal dysplasia characterized by the distal femoral and proximal tibial epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped, large metaphyses known as metaphyseal scypho ("scypho" = cup) deformity. It is also associated with severe growth retardation and brachydactyly. The underlying molecular mechanism of acroscyphodysplasia has not yet been elucidated, although scypho-deformity of the knee has been reported in three patients with acrodysostosis due to a mutation in the PDE4D gene. We report on the clinical, radiological, and molecular findings of five female patients with acroscyphodysplasia; two were diagnosed as pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) or Albright hereditary osteodystropy, and the other three as acrodysostosis. They all had radiological findings consistent with severe metaphyseal scypho-deformity and brachydactyly. Heterozygous mutations were identified in the PHP patients consisting of one novel (p.Q19X) and one recurrent (p.R231C) mutation of the GNAS gene, as well as, in the acrodysostosis patients consisting of two novel mutations (p.T224I and p.I333T) of the PDE4D gene. We conclude that metaphyseal acroscyphodysplasia is a phenotypic variation of PHP or acrodysostosis caused by either a GNAS or PDE4D mutation, respectively. PMID:25044890

Mitsui, Toshikatsu; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Hall, Christine M; Offiah, Amaka; Johnson, Diana; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Toh, Teck-Hock; Soneda, Shun; Keino, Dai; Matsubayashi, Shohei; Ishii, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Gen; Hasegawa, Tomonobu

2014-10-01

133

Autozygome Sequencing Expands the Horizon of Human Knockout Research and Provides Novel Insights into Human Phenotypic Variation  

PubMed Central

The use of autozygosity as a mapping tool in the search for autosomal recessive disease genes is well established. We hypothesized that autozygosity not only unmasks the recessiveness of disease causing variants, but can also reveal natural knockouts of genes with less obvious phenotypic consequences. To test this hypothesis, we exome sequenced 77 well phenotyped individuals born to first cousin parents in search of genes that are biallelically inactivated. Using a very conservative estimate, we show that each of these individuals carries biallelic inactivation of 22.8 genes on average. For many of the 169 genes that appear to be biallelically inactivated, available data support involvement in modulating metabolism, immunity, perception, external appearance and other phenotypic aspects, and appear therefore to contribute to human phenotypic variation. Other genes with biallelic inactivation may contribute in yet unknown mechanisms or may be on their way to conversion into pseudogenes due to true recent dispensability. We conclude that sequencing the autozygome is an efficient way to map the contribution of genes to human phenotypic variation that goes beyond the classical definition of disease. PMID:24367280

Anazi, Shamsa; Alshamekh, Shomoukh; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

2013-01-01

134

Hypermutation in pathogenic bacteria: frequent phase variation in meningococci is a phenotypic trait of a specialized mutator biotype.  

PubMed

Expression of serogroup B meningococcal capsular polysaccharide undergoes frequent phase variation involving reversible frameshift mutations within a homopolymeric repeat in the siaD gene. A high rate of phase variation is the consequence of a biochemical defect in methyl-directed mismatch repair. The mutator phenotype is associated to the absence of DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) activity in all pathogenic isolates and in 50% of commensal strains. Analysis of the meningococcal dam gene region revealed that in all Dam- strains a gene encoding a putative restriction endonuclease (drg) that cleaves only the methylated DNA sequence 5'-GmeATC-3' replaced the dam gene. Insertional inactivation of the dam and/or drg genes indicated that high rates of phase variation and hypermutator phenotype are caused by absence of a functional dam gene. PMID:10230396

Bucci, C; Lavitola, A; Salvatore, P; Del Giudice, L; Massardo, D R; Bruni, C B; Alifano, P

1999-04-01

135

The Ability of Aneurinibacillus migulanus (Bacillus brevis) To Produce the Antibiotic Gramicidin S Is Correlated with Phenotype Variation?  

PubMed Central

Phenotype instability of bacterial strains can cause significant problems in biotechnological applications, since industrially useful properties may be lost. Here we report such degenerative dissociation for Aneurinibacillus migulanus (formerly known as Bacillus brevis) an established producer of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS). Phenotypic variations within and between various strains maintained in different culture collections are demonstrated. The type strain, ATCC 9999, consists of six colony morphology variants, R, RC, RP, RT, SC, and SP, which were isolated and characterized as pure cultures. Correlations between colony morphology, growth, GS production, spore formation, and resistance to their own antimicrobial peptide were established in this study. We found the original R form to be the best producer, followed by RC, RP, and RT, while SC and SP yielded no GS at all. Currently available ATCC 9999T contains only 2% of the original R producer and is dominated by the newly described phenotypes RC and RP. No original R form is detected in the nominally equivalent strain DSM 2895T (=ATCC 9999T), which grows only as SC and SP phenotypes and has thus completely lost its value as a peptide producer. Two other strains from the same collection, DSM 5668 and DSM 5759, contain the unproductive SC variant and the GS-producing RC form, respectively. We describe the growth and maintenance conditions that stabilize certain colony phenotypes and reduce the degree of degenerative dissociation, thus providing a recommendation for how to revert the nonproducing smooth phenotypes to the valuable GS-producing rough ones. PMID:17720841

Berditsch, Marina; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S.

2007-01-01

136

The ability of Aneurinibacillus migulanus (Bacillus brevis) to produce the antibiotic gramicidin S is correlated with phenotype variation.  

PubMed

Phenotype instability of bacterial strains can cause significant problems in biotechnological applications, since industrially useful properties may be lost. Here we report such degenerative dissociation for Aneurinibacillus migulanus (formerly known as Bacillus brevis) an established producer of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS). Phenotypic variations within and between various strains maintained in different culture collections are demonstrated. The type strain, ATCC 9999, consists of six colony morphology variants, R, RC, RP, RT, SC, and SP, which were isolated and characterized as pure cultures. Correlations between colony morphology, growth, GS production, spore formation, and resistance to their own antimicrobial peptide were established in this study. We found the original R form to be the best producer, followed by RC, RP, and RT, while SC and SP yielded no GS at all. Currently available ATCC 9999(T) contains only 2% of the original R producer and is dominated by the newly described phenotypes RC and RP. No original R form is detected in the nominally equivalent strain DSM 2895(T) (=ATCC 9999(T)), which grows only as SC and SP phenotypes and has thus completely lost its value as a peptide producer. Two other strains from the same collection, DSM 5668 and DSM 5759, contain the unproductive SC variant and the GS-producing RC form, respectively. We describe the growth and maintenance conditions that stabilize certain colony phenotypes and reduce the degree of degenerative dissociation, thus providing a recommendation for how to revert the nonproducing smooth phenotypes to the valuable GS-producing rough ones. PMID:17720841

Berditsch, Marina; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S

2007-10-01

137

Heritability and Phenotypic Variation of Canine Hip Dysplasia Radiographic Traits in a Cohort of Australian German Shepherd Dogs  

PubMed Central

Canine Hip Dysplasia (CHD) is a common, painful and debilitating orthopaedic disorder of dogs with a partly genetic, multifactorial aetiology. Worldwide, potential breeding dogs are evaluated for CHD using radiographically based screening schemes such as the nine ordinally-scored British Veterinary Association Hip Traits (BVAHTs). The effectiveness of selective breeding based on screening results requires that a significant proportion of the phenotypic variation is caused by the presence of favourable alleles segregating in the population. This proportion, heritability, was measured in a cohort of 13,124 Australian German Shepherd Dogs born between 1976 and 2005, displaying phenotypic variation for BVAHTs, using ordinal, linear and binary mixed models fitted by a Restricted Maximum Likelihood method. Heritability estimates for the nine BVAHTs ranged from 0.14–0.24 (ordinal models), 0.14–0.25 (linear models) and 0.12–0.40 (binary models). Heritability for the summed BVAHT phenotype was 0.30±0.02. The presence of heritable variation demonstrates that selection based on BVAHTs has the potential to improve BVAHT scores in the population. Assuming a genetic correlation between BVAHT scores and CHD-related pain and dysfunction, the welfare of Australian German Shepherds can be improved by continuing to consider BVAHT scores in the selection of breeding dogs, but that as heritability values are only moderate in magnitude the accuracy, and effectiveness, of selection could be improved by the use of Estimated Breeding Values in preference to solely phenotype based selection of breeding animals. PMID:22761846

Wilson, Bethany J.; Nicholas, Frank W.; James, John W.; Wade, Claire M.; Tammen, Imke; Raadsma, Herman W.; Castle, Kao; Thomson, Peter C.

2012-01-01

138

Speciation, Phenotypic Variation and Plasticity: What Can Endocrine Disruptors Tell Us?  

PubMed Central

Phenotype variability, phenotypic plasticity, and the inheritance of phenotypic traits constitute the fundamental ground of processes such as individuation, individual and species adaptation and ultimately speciation. Even though traditional evolutionary thinking relies on genetic mutations as the main source of intra- and interspecies phenotypic variability, recent studies suggest that the epigenetic modulation of gene transcription and translation, epigenetic memory, and epigenetic inheritance are by far the most frequent reliable sources of transgenerational variability among viable individuals within and across organismal species. Therefore, individuation and speciation should be considered as nonmutational epigenetic phenomena. PMID:23762055

Ayala-Garcia, Braulio; Lopez-Santibanez Guevara, Marta; Marcos-Camacho, Lluvia I.; Fuentes-Farias, Alma L.; Melendez-Herrera, Esperanza; Gutierrez-Ospina, Gabriel

2013-01-01

139

Behavioural phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioural phenotypes are specific psychological characteristics with a known genetic aetiology. Like their somatic counterparts, the identification of behavioural phenotypes is potentially of clinical value. Various genetic mechanisms are associated with characteristic cognitive and behavioural profiles. These include: normal functional variations (polymorphisms); genetic mutations (with associated loss of function); structural anomalies and chromosomal deletions. Most descriptions of behavioural phenotypes concern

Kate Lawrence

2005-01-01

140

Phenotypic variation in xenobiotic metabolism and adverse environmental response: focus on sulfur-dependent detoxification pathways.  

PubMed

Proper bodily response to environmental toxicants presumably requires proper function of the xenobiotic (foreign chemical) detoxification pathways. Links between phenotypic variations in xenobiotic metabolism and adverse environmental response have long been sought. Metabolism of the drug S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine (SCMC) is polymorphous in the population, having a bimodal distribution of metabolites, 2.5% of the general population are thought to be nonmetabolizers. The researchers developing this data feel this implies a polymorphism in sulfoxidation of the amino acid cysteine to sulfate. While this interpretation is somewhat controversial, these metabolic differences reflected may have significant effects. Additionally, a significant number of individuals with environmental intolerance or chronic disease have impaired sulfation of phenolic xenobiotics. This impairment is demonstrated with the probe drug acetaminophen and is presumably due to starvation of the sulfotransferases for sulfate substrate. Reduced metabolism of SCMC has been found with increased frequency in individuals with several degenerative neurological and immunological conditions and drug intolerances, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, motor neuron disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and delayed food sensitivity. Impaired sulfation has been found in many of these conditions, and preliminary data suggests that it may be important in multiple chemical sensitivities and diet responsive autism. In addition, impaired sulfation may be relevant to intolerance of phenol, tyramine, and phenylic food constituents, and it may be a factor in the success of the Feingold diet. These studies indicate the need for the development of genetic and functional tests of xenobiotic metabolism as tools for further research in epidemiology and risk assessment. PMID:8711748

McFadden, S A

1996-07-17

141

Plasticity in extended phenotypes: orb web architectural responses to variations in prey parameters.  

PubMed

A spider orb web is an extended phenotype; it modifies and interacts with the environment, influencing spider physiology. Orb webs are plastic, responding to variations in prey parameters. Studies attempting to understand how nutrients influence spider orb-web plasticity have been hampered by the inability to decouple prey nutrients from other, highly correlated, prey factors and the intrinsic link between prey protein and prey energy concentration. I analyzed the nutrient concentrations of cockroaches, and adult and juvenile crickets to devise experiments that controlled prey protein concentration while varying prey size, ingested mass, energy concentration and feeding frequency of the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi. I found that A. keyserlingi alters overall architecture according to feeding frequency. Decoration length was inversely related to ingested prey mass and/or energy density in one experiment but directly related to ingested prey mass in another. These contradictory results suggest that factors not examined in this study have a confounding influence on decoration plasticity. As decorations attract prey as well as predators decreasing decoration investment may, in some instances, be attributable to benefits no longer outweighing the risks. Web area was altered according to feeding frequency, and mesh size altered according to feeding frequency and prey length. The number of radii in orb webs was unaffected by prey parameters. A finite amount of silk can be invested in the orb web, so spiders trade-off smaller mesh size with larger web capture area, explaining why feeding frequency influenced both web area and mesh size. Mesh size is additionally responsive to prey size via sensory cues, with spiders constructing webs suitable for catching the most common or most profitable prey. PMID:20802123

Blamires, Sean J

2010-09-15

142

Variation in Phenotype, Parasite Load and Male Competitive Ability across a Cryptic Hybrid Zone  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular genetic studies are revealing an increasing number of cryptic lineages or species, which are highly genetically divergent but apparently cannot be distinguished morphologically. This observation gives rise to three important questions: 1) have these cryptic lineages diverged in phenotypic traits that may not be obvious to humans; 2) when cryptic lineages come into secondary contact, what are the evolutionary consequences: stable co-existence, replacement, admixture or differentiation and 3) what processes influence the evolutionary dynamics of these secondary contact zones? Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions, we first tested whether males of the Iberian lizard Lacerta schreiberi from two highly genetically divergent, yet morphologically cryptic lineages on either side of an east-west secondary contact could be differentiated based on detailed analysis of morphology, coloration and parasite load. Next, we tested whether these differences could be driven by pre-copulatory intra-sexual selection (male-male competition). Compared to eastern males, western males had fewer parasites, were in better body condition and were more intensely coloured. Although subtle environmental variation across the hybrid zone could explain the differences in parasite load and body condition, these were uncorrelated with colour expression, suggesting that the differences in coloration reflect heritable divergence. The lineages did not differ in their aggressive behaviour or competitive ability. However, body size, which predicted male aggressiveness, was positively correlated with the colour traits that differed between genetic backgrounds. Conclusions/Significance Our study confirms that these cryptic lineages differ in several aspects that are likely to influence fitness. Although there were no clear differences in male competitive ability, our results suggest a potential indirect role for intra-sexual selection. Specifically, if lizards use the colour traits that differ between genetic backgrounds to assess the size of potential rivals or mates, the resulting fitness differential favouring western males could result in net male-mediated gene flow from west to east across the current hybrid zone. PMID:19479073

Stuart-Fox, Devi; Godinho, Raquel; Gouy de Bellocq, Joelle; Irwin, Nancy R.; Brito, Jose Carlos; Moussalli, Adnan; Siroky, Pavel; Hugall, Andrew F.; Baird, Stuart J. E.

2009-01-01

143

The effect of hypoxia on facial shape variation and disease phenotypes in chicken embryos  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Craniofacial anomalies can arise from both genetic and environmental factors, including prenatal hypoxia. Recent clinical evidence correlates hypoxia to craniofacial malformations. However, the mechanisms by which hypoxia mediates these defects are not yet understood. We examined the cellular mechanisms underlying malformations induced by hypoxia using a chicken (Gallus gallus) embryo model. Eggs were incubated in either hypoxic (7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 or 19% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) conditions. Embryos were photographed for morphological analysis at days 3–6. For analysis of skeletal development, 13-day embryos were cleared and stained with alcian blue and alizarin red for cartilage and bone, respectively. Quantitative analysis of facial shape variation was performed on images of embryos via geometric morphometrics. Early-stage embryos (day 2) were analyzed for apoptosis via whole-mount and section TUNEL staining and immunostaining for cleaved caspase-3, whereas later-stage embryos (days 4–6) were sectioned in paraffin for analysis of cell proliferation (BrdU), apoptosis (TUNEL) and metabolic stress (phospho-AMPK). Results demonstrate that survival is reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Hypoxic embryos displayed a spectrum of craniofacial anomalies, from mild asymmetry and eye defects to more severe frontonasal and cephalic anomalies. Skull bone development was delayed in hypoxic embryos, with some skeletal defects observed. Morphometric analysis showed facial shape variation relative to centroid size and age in hypoxic groups. Hypoxia disrupted cell proliferation and, in early-stage embryos, caused apoptosis of neural crest progenitor cells. Hypoxic embryos also displayed an increased metabolic stress response. These results indicate that hypoxia during early embryonic craniofacial development might induce cellular oxidative stress, leading to apoptosis of the neural crest progenitor cells that are crucial to normal craniofacial morphogenesis. PMID:23592613

Smith, Francis; Hu, Diane; Young, Nathan M.; Lainoff, Alexis J.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Maltepe, Emin; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Marcucio, Ralph S.

2013-01-01

144

Implications of copy number variation in people with chromosomal abnormalities: potential for greater variation in copy number state may contribute to variability of phenotype  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copy number variation is common in the human genome with many regions, overlapping thousands of genes, now known to be deleted\\u000a or amplified. Aneuploidies and other forms of chromosomal imbalance have a wide range of adverse phenotypes and are a common\\u000a cause of birth defects resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. “Normal” copy number variants (CNVs) embedded within\\u000a the regions

Adam J. de SmithAnne; Anne L. Trewick; Alexandra I. F. Blakemore

2010-01-01

145

Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using dinoflagellate cyst process length  

E-print Network

Quantitative estimation of Holocene surface salinity variation in the Black Sea using Keywords: Paleosalinity Lingulodinium machaerophorum rDNA analysis Caspian Sea Sea of Azov Black Sea Marmara Sea a b s t r a c t Reconstruction of salinity in the Holocene Black Sea has been an ongoing

Pedersen, Tom

146

Quantitative variation within and between populations of the wild barley, Hordeum murinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in quantitative characters was studied in several wild populations and families of the weedy barley, Hordeum murinum. The hereditary, non-herediatary and interactive components of the variance were assessed for up to 13 metrical characters. Broad-sense heritabilities were calculated as were the relative contributions of populations, families and individuals to the overall variance. Correlation between characters was also considered. Significant

Barbara E Giles; K J R Edwards

1983-01-01

147

Quantifying Phenotypic Variation in Isogenic Caenorhabditis elegans Expressing Phsp-16.2::gfp by Clustering 2D Expression Patterns  

PubMed Central

Isogenic populations of animals still show a surprisingly large amount of phenotypic variation between individuals. Using a GFP reporter that has been shown to predict longevity and resistance to stress in isogenic populations of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we examined residual variation in expression of this GFP reporter. We found that when we separated the populations into brightest 3% and dimmest 3% we also saw variation in relative expression patterns that distinguished the bright and dim worms. Using a novel image processing method which is capable of directly analyzing worm images, we found that bright worms (after normalization to remove variation between bright and dim worms) had expression patterns that correlated with other bright worms but that dim worms fell into two distinct expression patterns. We have analysed a small set of worms with confocal microscopy to validate these findings, and found that the activity loci in these clusters are caused by extremely bright intestine cells. We also found that the vast majority of the fluorescent signal for all worms came from intestinal cells as well, which may indicate that the activity of intestinal cells is responsible for the observed patterns. Phenotypic variation in C. elegans is still not well understood but our proposed novel method to analyze complex expression patterns offers a way to enable a better understanding. PMID:20657830

Seewald, Alexander K.; Cypser, James; Mendenhall, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas

2010-01-01

148

Identification of Genomic Regions Associated with Phenotypic Variation between Dog Breeds using Selection Mapping  

E-print Network

The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test ...

Vaysse, Amaury

149

A Quantitative Framework for Flower Phenotyping in Cultivated Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)  

PubMed Central

Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value. PMID:24349209

Chacon, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaelle; Perez-Perez, Jose Manuel

2013-01-01

150

Maintenance of phenotypic variation: repeatability, heritability and size-dependent processes in a wild brook trout population  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic variation in body size can result from within-cohort variation in birth dates, among-individual growth variation and size-selective processes. We explore the relative effects of these processes on the maintenance of wide observed body size variation in stream-dwelling brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Based on the analyses of multiple recaptures of individual fish, it appears that size distributions are largely determined by the maintenance of early size variation. We found no evidence for size-dependent compensatory growth (which would reduce size variation) and found no indication that size-dependent survival substantially influenced body size distributions. Depensatory growth (faster growth by larger individuals) reinforced early size variation, but was relatively strong only during the first sampling interval (age-0, fall). Maternal decisions on the timing and location of spawning could have a major influence on early, and as our results suggest, later (>age-0) size distributions. If this is the case, our estimates of heritability of body size (body length = 0.25) will be dominated by processes that generate and maintain early size differences. As a result, evolutionary responses to environmental change that are mediated by body size may be largely expressed via changes in the timing and location of reproduction.

Letcher, Benjamin H; Coombs, Jason A; Nislow, Keith H

2011-01-01

151

The effect of temperature and wing morphology on quantitative genetic variation in the cricket Gryllus firmus, with an appendix  

E-print Network

The effect of temperature and wing morphology on quantitative genetic variation in the cricket focuses on two factors that may induce G matrix variation within a population of field crickets on the quantitative genetic variances and covariances of five size-related traits in the sand cricket, Gryllus firmus

Debat, Vincent

152

Quantitative measurement of phase variation amplitude of ultrasonic diffraction grating based on diffraction spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method based on diffraction spectral analysis is proposed for the quantitative measurement of the phase variation amplitude of an ultrasonic diffraction grating. For a traveling wave, the phase variation amplitude of the grating depends on the intensity of the zeroth- and first-order diffraction waves. By contrast, for a standing wave, this amplitude depends on the intensity of the zeroth-, first-, and second-order diffraction waves. The proposed method is verified experimentally. The measured phase variation amplitude ranges from 0 to 2?, with a relative error of approximately 5%. A nearly linear relation exists between the phase variation amplitude and driving voltage. Our proposed method can also be applied to ordinary sinusoidal phase grating.

Pan, Meiyan; Zeng, Yingzhi; Huang, Zuohua

2014-09-01

153

Phenotypic variation in nurse traits and community feedbacks define an alpine community.  

PubMed

Much is known about facilitation, but virtually nothing about the underlying genetic and evolutionary consequences of this important interaction. We assessed the potential of phenotypic differences in facilitative effects of a foundation species to determine the composition of an Alpine community in Arizona. Two phenotypes of Geum rossii occur along a gradient of disturbance, with 'tight' competitive cushions in stable conditions and 'loose' facilitative cushions in disturbed conditions. A common-garden study suggested that field-based traits may have a genetic basis. Field experiments showed that the reproductive fitness of G. rossii cushions decreased with increasing facilitation. Finally, using a dual-lattice model we showed that including the cost and benefit of facilitation may contribute to the co-occurrence of genotypes with contrasting facilitative effects. Our results indicate that changes in community composition due to phenotypic differences in facilitative effects of a foundation species may in turn affect selective pressures on the foundation species. PMID:21366815

Michalet, Richard; Xiao, Sa; Touzard, Blaise; Smith, David S; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Callaway, Ragan M; Whitham, Thomas G

2011-05-01

154

Phenotypic Variation across Chromosomal Hybrid Zones of the Common Shrew (Sorex araneus) Indicates Reduced Gene Flow  

PubMed Central

Sorex araneus, the Common shrew, is a species with more than 70 karyotypic races, many of which form parapatric hybrid zones, making it a model for studying chromosomal speciation. Hybrids between races have reduced fitness, but microsatellite markers have demonstrated considerable gene flow between them, calling into question whether the chromosomal barriers actually do contribute to genetic divergence. We studied phenotypic clines across two hybrid zones with especially complex heterozygotes. Hybrids between the Novosibirsk and Tomsk races produce chains of nine and three chromosomes at meiosis, and hybrids between the Moscow and Seliger races produce chains of eleven. Our goal was to determine whether phenotypes show evidence of reduced gene flow at hybrid zones. We used maximum likelihood to fit tanh cline models to geometric shape data and found that phenotypic clines in skulls and mandibles across these zones had similar centers and widths as chromosomal clines. The amount of phenotypic differentiation across the zones is greater than expected if it were dissipating due to unrestricted gene flow given the amount of time since contact, but it is less than expected to have accumulated from drift during allopatric separation in glacial refugia. Only if heritability is very low, Ne very high, and the time spent in allopatry very short, will the differences we observe be large enough to match the expectation of drift. Our results therefore suggest that phenotypic differentiation has been lost through gene flow since post-glacial secondary contact, but not as quickly as would be expected if there was free gene flow across the hybrid zones. The chromosomal tension zones are confirmed to be partial barriers that prevent differentiated races from becoming phenotypically homogenous. PMID:23874420

Polly, P. David; Polyakov, Andrei V.; Ilyashenko, Vadim B.; Onischenko, Sergei S.; White, Thomas A.; Shchipanov, Nikolay A.; Bulatova, Nina S.; Pavlova, Svetlana V.; Borodin, Pavel M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

2013-01-01

155

Variation in human brains may facilitate evolutionary change toward a limited range of phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Individual variation is the foundation for evolutionary change, but little is known about the nature of normal variation between brains. Phylogenetic variation across mammalian brains is characterized by high inter-correlations in brain region volumes, distinct allometric scaling for each brain region and the relative independence in olfactory and limbic structures volumes from the rest of the brain. Previous work examining brain variation in individuals of some domesticated species showed that these three features of phylogenetic variation were mirrored in individual variation. We extend this analysis to the human brain and 10 of its subdivisions (e.g., isocortex, hippocampus) by using magnetic resonance imaging scans of 90 human brains ranging between 16 to 25 years of age. Human brain variation resembles both the individual variation seen in other species, and variation observed across mammalian species. That is, the relative differences in the slopes of each brain region compared to medulla size within humans and between mammals are concordant, and limbic structures scale with relative independence from other brain regions. This non-random pattern of variation suggests that developmental programs channel the variation available for selection. PMID:23363667

Charvet, Christine J.; Darlington, Richard B.; Finlay, Barbara L.

2013-01-01

156

Pharmacogenetics of antidepressants and antipsychotics: the contribution of allelic variations to the phenotype of drug response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic factors contribute to the phenotype of drug response. We systematically analyzed all available pharmacogenetic data from Medline databases (1970–2003) on the impact that genetic polymorphisms have on positive and adverse reactions to antidepressants and antipsychotics. Additionally, dose adjustments that would compensate for genetically caused differences in blood concentrations were calculated. To study pharmacokinetic effects, data for 36 antidepressants were

J Kirchheiner; K Nickchen; M Bauer; M-L Wong; J Licinio; I Roots; J Brockmöller

2004-01-01

157

Identification of Genomic Regions Associated with Phenotypic Variation between Dog Breeds using Selection Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first

Amaury Vaysse; Abhirami Ratnakumar; Thomas Derrien; Erik Axelsson; Gerli Rosengren Pielberg; Snaevar Sigurdsson; Tove Fall; Eija H. Seppälä; Mark S. T. Hansen; Cindy T. Lawley; Elinor K. Karlsson; Danika Bannasch; Carles Vilà; Hannes Lohi; Francis Galibert; Merete Fredholm; Jens Häggström; Åke Hedhammar; Catherine André; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Christophe Hitte; Matthew T. Webster; H. Fieten; P. A. J. Leegwater

2011-01-01

158

Genotyping in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of Treacher Collins syndrome revealed unexpected phenotypic variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To define the range of phenotypic expression in Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS; Franceschetti–Klein syndrome), we performed mutation analysis in the TCOF1 gene in 46 patients with tentative diagnosis of TCS and evaluated the clinical data, including a scoring system. A total of 27 coding exons of TCOF1 and adjacent splice junctions were analysed by direct sequencing. In 36 patients with

Özge Altug Teber; Gabriele Gillessen-Kaesbach; Sven Fischer; Stefan Böhringer; Beate Albrecht; Angelika Albert; Mine Arslan-Kirchner; Eric Haan; Monika Hagedorn-Greiwe; Christof Hammans; Wolfram Henn; Georg Klaus Hinkel; Rainer König; Erdmute Kunstmann; Jürgen Kunze; Luitgard M Neumann; Eva-Christina Prott; Anita Rauch; Hans-Dieter Rott; Heide Seidel; Stephanie Spranger; Martin Sprengel; Barbara Zoll; Dietmar R Lohmann; Dagmar Wieczorek

2004-01-01

159

Quantitative variation in ecological and hormonal variables correlates with spatial organization of pronghorn ( Antilocapra americana ) males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whereas variation in pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) spatial organization is well documented, underlying ecological or physiological explanations are not well understood. This\\u000a study quantitatively describes spacing systems of pronghorn males and correlates of their spatial organization. I collected\\u000a behavioral data from two populations in South Dakota (Wind Cave) and Montana (Bar Diamond) to determine if males differed\\u000a in space use, response

C. R. Maher

2000-01-01

160

Transcriptional analysis of a Photorhabdus sp. variant reveals transcriptional control of phenotypic variation and multifactorial pathogenicity in insects.  

PubMed

Photorhabdus luminescens lives in a mutualistic association with entomopathogenic nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Variants of Photorhabdus frequently arise irreversibly and are studied because they have altered phenotypic traits that are potentially important for the host interaction. VAR* is a colonial and phenotypic variant displaying delayed pathogenicity when directly injected into the insect, Spodoptera littoralis. In this study, we evaluated the role of transcriptomic modulation in determining the phenotypic variation and delayed pathogenicity of VAR* with respect to the corresponding wild-type form, TT01?. A P. luminescens microarray identified 148 genes as differentially transcribed between VAR* and TT01?. The net regulator status of VAR* was found to be significantly modified. We also observed in VAR* a decrease in the transcription of genes supporting certain phenotypic traits, such as pigmentation, crystalline inclusion, antibiosis, and protease and lipase activities. Three genes encoding insecticidal toxins (pit and pirB) or putative insecticidal toxins (xnp2) were less transcribed in VAR* than in the TT01?. The overexpression of these genes was not sufficient to restore the virulence of VAR* to the levels of ??01?, which suggests that the lower virulence of VAR* does not result from impaired toxemia in insects. Three loci involved in oxidative stress responses (sodA, katE, and the hca operon) were found to be downregulated in VAR*. This is consistent with the greater sensitivity of VAR* to H(2)O(2) and may account for the impaired bacteremia in the hemolymph of S. littoralis larvae observed with VAR*. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that some phenotypic traits of VAR* are regulated transcriptionally and highlight the multifactorial nature of pathogenicity in insects. PMID:21131515

Lanois, A; Pages, S; Bourot, S; Canoy, A-S; Givaudan, A; Gaudriault, S

2011-02-01

161

Transcriptional Analysis of a Photorhabdus sp. Variant Reveals Transcriptional Control of Phenotypic Variation and Multifactorial Pathogenicity in Insects?  

PubMed Central

Photorhabdus luminescens lives in a mutualistic association with entomopathogenic nematodes and is pathogenic for insects. Variants of Photorhabdus frequently arise irreversibly and are studied because they have altered phenotypic traits that are potentially important for the host interaction. VAR* is a colonial and phenotypic variant displaying delayed pathogenicity when directly injected into the insect, Spodoptera littoralis. In this study, we evaluated the role of transcriptomic modulation in determining the phenotypic variation and delayed pathogenicity of VAR* with respect to the corresponding wild-type form, TT01?. A P. luminescens microarray identified 148 genes as differentially transcribed between VAR* and TT01?. The net regulator status of VAR* was found to be significantly modified. We also observed in VAR* a decrease in the transcription of genes supporting certain phenotypic traits, such as pigmentation, crystalline inclusion, antibiosis, and protease and lipase activities. Three genes encoding insecticidal toxins (pit and pirB) or putative insecticidal toxins (xnp2) were less transcribed in VAR* than in the TT01?. The overexpression of these genes was not sufficient to restore the virulence of VAR* to the levels of ??01?, which suggests that the lower virulence of VAR* does not result from impaired toxemia in insects. Three loci involved in oxidative stress responses (sodA, katE, and the hca operon) were found to be downregulated in VAR*. This is consistent with the greater sensitivity of VAR* to H2O2 and may account for the impaired bacteremia in the hemolymph of S. littoralis larvae observed with VAR*. In conclusion, we demonstrate here that some phenotypic traits of VAR* are regulated transcriptionally and highlight the multifactorial nature of pathogenicity in insects. PMID:21131515

Lanois, A.; Pages, S.; Bourot, S.; Canoy, A.-S.; Givaudan, A.; Gaudriault, S.

2011-01-01

162

Fleece variation in alpaca (Vicugna pacos): a two-locus model for the Suri/Huacaya phenotype  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic improvement of fibre-producing animal species has often induced transition from double coated to single coated fleece, accompanied by dramatic changes in skin follicles and hair composition, likely implying variation at multiple loci. Huacaya, the more common fleece phenotype in alpaca (Vicugna pacos), is characterized by a thick dense coat growing perpendicularly from the body, whereas the alternative rare and more prized single-coated Suri phenotype is distinguished by long silky fibre that grows parallel to the body and hangs in separate, distinctive pencil locks. A single-locus genetic model has been proposed for the Suri-Huacaya phenotype, where Huacaya is recessive. Results Two reciprocal experimental test-crosses (Suri × Huacaya) were carried out, involving a total of 17 unrelated males and 149 unrelated females. An additional dataset of 587 offspring of Suri × Suri crosses was analyzed. Segregation ratios, population genotype frequencies, and/or recombination fraction under different genetic models were estimated by maximum likelihood. The single locus model for the Suri/Huacaya phenotype was rejected. In addition, we present two unexpected observations: 1) a large proportion (about 3/4) of the Suri animals are segregating (with at least one Huacaya offspring), even in breeding conditions where the Huacaya trait would have been almost eliminated; 2) a model with two different values of the segregation ratio fit the data significantly better than a model with a single parameter. Conclusions The data support a genetic model in which two linked loci must simultaneously be homozygous for recessive alleles in order to produce the Huacaya phenotype. The estimated recombination rate between these loci was 0.099 (95% C.L. = 0.029-0.204). Our genetic analysis may be useful for other species whose breeding system produces mainly half-sib families. PMID:20646304

2010-01-01

163

Environmental effects on molecular and phenotypic variation in populations of Eruca sativa across a steep climatic gradient  

PubMed Central

Abstract In Israel Eruca sativa has a geographically narrow distribution across a steep climatic gradient that ranges from mesic Mediterranean to hot desert environments. These conditions offer an opportunity to study the influence of the environment on intraspecific genetic variation. For this, we combined an analysis of neutral genetic markers with a phenotypic evaluation in common-garden experiments, and environmental characterization of populations that included climatic and edaphic parameters, as well as geographic distribution. A Bayesian clustering of individuals from nine representative populations based on amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) divided the populations into a southern and a northern geographic cluster, with one admixed population at the geographic border between them. Linear mixed models, with cluster added as a grouping factor, revealed no clear effects of environment or geography on genetic distances, but this may be due to a strong association of geography and environment with genetic clusters. However, environmental factors accounted for part of the phenotypic variation observed in the common-garden experiments. In addition, candidate loci for selection were identified by association with environmental parameters and by two outlier methods. One locus, identified by all three methods, also showed an association with trichome density and herbivore damage, in net-house and field experiments, respectively. Accordingly, we propose that because trichomes are directly linked to defense against both herbivores and excess radiation, they could potentially be related to adaptive variation in these populations. These results demonstrate the value of combining environmental and phenotypic data with a detailed genetic survey when studying adaptation in plant populations. This article describes the use of several types of data to estimate the influence of the environment on intraspecific genetic variation in populations originating from a steep climatic gradient. In addition to molecular marker data, we made use of phenotypic evaluation from common garden experiments, and a broad GIS based environmental data with edaphic information gathered in the field. This study, among others, lead to the identification of an outlier locus with an association to trichome formation and herbivore defense, and its ecological adaptive value is discussed. PMID:24567822

Westberg, Erik; Ohali, Shachar; Shevelevich, Anatoly; Fine, Pinchas; Barazani, Oz

2013-01-01

164

Physiological variation and phenotypic plasticity: a response to 'Plasticity in arthropod cryotypes' by Hawes and Bale.  

PubMed

In a recent publication, Hawes and Bale provide an extended discussion of phenotypic plasticity in the context of low temperature responses of animals. They argue that phenotypic plasticity may be partitioned phylogenetically at several levels and go on to explore these levels, and cold hardiness strategies that they term cryotypes, which in their view constitute cryotypic plasticity. Here we argue that this attempt to partition plasticity is misleading, that the term 'genotypic plasticity' is potentially highly confusing and a misnomer for physiological variance, and that the term 'superplasticity' should not be used. We also show that a definition of strategies as cryotypes is not useful and that the hypothesis about the relationship between evolutionary derivation and extent of plasticity in freeze-avoiding vs freeze-tolerant species is not supported by current evidence. PMID:18931308

Chown, S L; Sørensen, J G; Sinclair, B J

2008-11-01

165

Functional coding variation in recombinant inbred mouse lines reveals multiple serotonin transporter-associated phenotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology and treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here, we use naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify multiple phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL\\/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined

Ana M. D. Carneiro; David C. Airey; Brent Thompson; Chong-Bin Zhu; L Lu; E J Chesler; K M Erikson; R. D. Blakely

2009-01-01

166

Histological variations in juvenile polyp phenotype correlate with genetic defect underlying juvenile polyposis  

PubMed Central

Background Juvenile polyps are distinct hamartomatous malformations of the gastrointestinal tract that may occur in the heritable juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) or sporadically. Histologically, juvenile polyps are characterised by a marked increase of the stromal cell compartment but, an epithelial phenotype has also been reported. JPS has an increased risk of colorectal cancer but sporadic juvenile polyps do not. In 50–60% of JPS patients a germline mutation of the TGF-?/BMP pathway genes SMAD4 or BMPR1A is found. This study compares the histological phenotype of juvenile polyps with a SMAD4 or BMPR1A germline mutation and sporadic juvenile polyps. Methods H&E slides of 65 JPS polyps and 25 sporadic juvenile polyps were reviewed for histological features and dysplasia. Systematic random crypt and stroma counts were obtained by count stereology and a crypt-stroma ratio was determined. All polyps were subsequently categorised as type A (crypt-stroma ratio <1.00) or type B (crypt-stroma ratio ?1.00), the latter referring to the epithelial phenotype. Cell cycle activity was assessed using immunohistochemistry of the proliferation marker Ki67, and mutation analysis was conducted for KRAS and APC to determine the involvement of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Results Juvenile polyps with a SMAD4 germline mutation were predominantly type B, whereas, type A was more common among juvenile polyps with a BMPR1A germline mutation, but this distinction could not be ascribed to differences in cell cycle activity. Dysplasia was equally common in JPS polyps with either a SMAD4 or BMPR1A germline mutation, where the involvement of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence does not seem to play a distinct role. Conclusion juvenile polyps in the setting of JPS exhibit distinct phenotypes correlating with the underlying genetic defect. PMID:21412070

van Hattem, W. Arnout; Langeveld, Danielle; de Leng, Wendy W. J.; Morsink, Folkert H.; van Diest, Paul J.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.; Giardiello, Francis M.; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Brosens, Lodewijk A. A.

2011-01-01

167

Relationship of phenotypic variation in sorghum to nutritive value of crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in dry matter digestibility of crop residues contribute to greater productivity of livestock consuming dual-purpose sorghums (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Delayed leaf senescence (stay-green), brown-midrib (bmr), leaf disease resistance, and high yield are among sorghum phenotypic traits that could enhance nutritive value of crop residues. The objective was to evaluate nutritive value and hydrocyanic acid potential (HCN-p) of leaf

D. M. Vietor; G. A. Rhodes; W. L. Rooney

2010-01-01

168

Continuous Variation Rather than Specialization in the Egg Phenotypes of Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) Parasitizing Two Sympatric Reed Warbler Species  

PubMed Central

The evolution of brood parasitism has long attracted considerable attention among behavioural ecologists, especially in the common cuckoo system. Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are obligatory brood parasites, laying eggs in nests of passerines and specializing on specific host species. Specialized races of cuckoos are genetically distinct. Often in a given area, cuckoos encounter multiple hosts showing substantial variation in egg morphology. Exploiting different hosts should lead to egg-phenotype specialization in cuckoos to match egg phenotypes of the hosts. Here we test this assumption using a wild population of two sympatrically occurring host species: the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and reed warbler (A. scirpaceus). Using colour spectrophotometry, egg shell dynamometry and egg size measurements, we studied egg morphologies of cuckoos parasitizing these two hosts. In spite of observing clear differences between host egg phenotypes, we found no clear differences in cuckoo egg morphologies. Interestingly, although chromatically cuckoo eggs were more similar to reed warbler eggs, after taking into account achromatic differences, cuckoo eggs seemed to be equally similar to both host species. We hypothesize that such pattern may represent an initial stage of an averaging strategy of cuckoos, that – instead of specializing for specific hosts or exploiting only one host – adapt to multiple hosts. PMID:25180796

Drobniak, Szymon M.; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Sudyka, Joanna; Cichon, Mariusz

2014-01-01

169

Continuous variation rather than specialization in the egg phenotypes of cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) parasitizing two sympatric reed warbler species.  

PubMed

The evolution of brood parasitism has long attracted considerable attention among behavioural ecologists, especially in the common cuckoo system. Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are obligatory brood parasites, laying eggs in nests of passerines and specializing on specific host species. Specialized races of cuckoos are genetically distinct. Often in a given area, cuckoos encounter multiple hosts showing substantial variation in egg morphology. Exploiting different hosts should lead to egg-phenotype specialization in cuckoos to match egg phenotypes of the hosts. Here we test this assumption using a wild population of two sympatrically occurring host species: the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and reed warbler (A. scirpaceus). Using colour spectrophotometry, egg shell dynamometry and egg size measurements, we studied egg morphologies of cuckoos parasitizing these two hosts. In spite of observing clear differences between host egg phenotypes, we found no clear differences in cuckoo egg morphologies. Interestingly, although chromatically cuckoo eggs were more similar to reed warbler eggs, after taking into account achromatic differences, cuckoo eggs seemed to be equally similar to both host species. We hypothesize that such pattern may represent an initial stage of an averaging strategy of cuckoos, that--instead of specializing for specific hosts or exploiting only one host--adapt to multiple hosts. PMID:25180796

Drobniak, Szymon M; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Sudyka, Joanna; Cicho?, Mariusz

2014-01-01

170

Heritable variation and genetic correlation of quantitative traits within and between ecotypes of Avena barbata.  

PubMed

We examined heritable variation for quantitative traits within and between naturally occurring mesic and xeric ecotypes of the slender wild oat (Avena barbata), and in 188 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between the ecotypes. We measured a suite of seedling and adult traits in the greenhouse, as well as performance-related traits in field sites native to the two ecotypes. Although the ecotypes were genetically diverged for most traits, few traits showed significant heritable variation within either ecotype. In contrast, considerable heritable variation was released in the recombinant progeny of the cross, and transgressive segregation was apparent in all traits. Heritabilities were substantially greater in the greenhouse than in the field, and this was associated with an increase in environmental variance in the field, rather than a decrease in genetic variance. Strong genetic correlations were evident among the recombinants, such that 22 measured traits could be well represented by only seven underlying factors, which accounted for 80% of the total variation. The primary axis of variation in the greenhouse described a trade-off between vegetative and reproductive allocation, mediated by the date of first flowering, and fitness was strongly correlated with this trade-off. Other factors in the greenhouse described variation in size and in seedling traits. Lack of correlation among these factors represents the release of multivariate trait variation through recombination. In the field, a separate axis of variation in overall performance was found for each year/site combination. Performance was significantly correlated across field environments, but not significantly correlated between greenhouse and field. PMID:18373589

Gardner, K M; Latta, R G

2008-05-01

171

Contrasting the distribution of phenotypic and molecular variation in the freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni  

PubMed Central

Population differentiation was investigated by confronting phenotypic and molecular variation in the highly selfing freshwater snail Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni. We sampled seven natural populations separated by a few kilometers, and characterized by different habitat regimes (permanent/temporary) and openness (open/closed). A genetic analysis based on five microsatellite markers confirms that B. pfeifferi is a selfer (s?0.9) and exhibits limited variation within populations. Most pairwise FST were significant indicating marked population structure, though no isolation by distance was detected. Families from the seven populations were monitored under laboratory conditions over two generations (G1 and G2), allowing to record several life-history traits, including growth, fecundity and survival, over 25 weeks. Marked differences were detected among populations for traits expressed early in the life cycle (up to sexual maturity). Age and size at first reproduction had high heritability values, but such a trend was not found for early reproductive traits. In most populations, G1 snails matured later and at a larger size than G2 individuals. Individuals from permanent habitats matured at a smaller size and were more fecund than those from temporary habitats. The mean phenotypic differentiation over all populations (QST) was lower than the mean genetic differentiation (FST), suggesting stabilizing selection. However, no difference was detected between QST and FST for both habitat regime and habitat openness. PMID:23321708

Tian-Bi, Y-NT; Jarne, P; Konan, J-NK; Utzinger, J; N'Goran, E K

2013-01-01

172

Susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum in a key infectious host: landscape variation in host genotype, host phenotype, and environmental factors.  

PubMed

Sudden oak death is an emerging forest disease caused by the invasive pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Genetic and environmental factors affecting susceptibility to P. ramorum in the key inoculum-producing host tree Umbellularia californica (bay laurel) were examined across a heterogeneous landscape in California, USA. Laboratory susceptibility trials were conducted on detached leaves and assessed field disease levels for 97 host trees from 12 225-m(2) plots. Genotype and phenotype characteristics were assessed for each tree. Effects of plot-level environmental conditions (understory microclimate, amount of solar radiation and topographic moisture potential) on disease expression were also evaluated. Susceptibility varied significantly among U. californica trees, with a fivefold difference in leaf lesion size. Lesion size was positively related to leaf area, but not to other phenotypic traits or to field disease level. Genetic diversity was structured at three spatial scales, but primarily among individuals within plots. Lesion size was significantly related to amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, but local environment explained most variation in field disease level. Thus, substantial genetic variation in susceptibility to P. ramorum occurs in its principal foliar host U. californica, but local environment mediates expression of susceptibility in nature. PMID:18069961

Anacker, Brian L; Rank, Nathan E; Hüberli, Daniel; Garbelotto, Matteo; Gordon, Sarah; Harnik, Tami; Whitkus, Richard; Meentemeyer, Ross

2008-01-01

173

SNP array mapping of 20p deletions: Genotypes, Phenotypes and Copy Number Variation  

PubMed Central

The use of array technology to define chromosome deletions and duplications is bringing us closer to establishing a genotype/phenotype map of genomic copy number alterations. We studied 21 patients and 5 relatives with deletions of the short arm of chromosome 20 using the Illumina HumanHap550 SNP array to 1) more accurately determine the deletion sizes, 2) identify and compare breakpoints, 3) establish genotype/phenotype correlations and 4) investigate the use of the HumanHap550 platform for analysis of chromosome deletions. Deletions ranged from 95kb to 14.62Mb, and all of the breakpoints were unique. Eleven patients had deletions between 95kb and 4Mb and these individuals had normal development, with no anomalies outside of those associated with Alagille syndrome. The proximal and distal boundaries of these eleven deletions constitute a 5.4MB region, and we propose that haploinsufficiency for only 1 of the 12 genes in this region causes phenotypic abnormalities. This defines the JAG1 associated critical region, in which deletions do not confer findings other than those associated with Alagille syndrome. The other 10 patients had deletions between 3.28Mb and 14.62Mb, which extended outside the critical region, and notably, all of these patients, had developmental delay. This group had other findings such as autism, scoliosis and bifid uvula. We identified 47 additional polymorphic genome-wide copy number variants (>20 SNPs), with 0–5 variants called per patient. Deletions of the short arm of chromosome 20 are associated with relatively mild and limited clinical anomalies. The use of SNP arrays provides accurate high-resolution definition of genomic abnormalities. PMID:19058200

Kamath, Binita M.; Thiel, Brian D.; Gai, Xiaowu; Conlin, Laura K.; Munoz, Pedro S.; Glessner, Joseph; Clark, Dinah; Warthen, Daniel M.; Shaikh, Tamim H.; Mihci, Ercan; Piccoli, David A.; Grant, Struan F.A.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Krantz, Ian D.; Spinner, Nancy B.

2008-01-01

174

Extreme phenotypic variation in Cetraria aculeata (lichenized Ascomycota): adaptation or incidental modification?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Phenotypic variability is a successful strategy in lichens for colonizing different habitats. Vagrancy has been reported as a specific adaptation for lichens living in steppe habitats around the world. Among the facultatively vagrant species, the cosmopolitan Cetraria aculeata apparently forms extremely modified vagrant thalli in steppe habitats of Central Spain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these changes are phenotypic plasticity (a single genotype producing different phenotypes), by characterizing the anatomical and ultrastructural changes observed in vagrant morphs, and measuring differences in ecophysiological performance. Methods Specimens of vagrant and attached populations of C. aculeata were collected on the steppes of Central Spain. The fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and the large sub-unit of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA (mtLSUm), and the algal ITS and actin were studied within a population genetics framework. Semi-thin and ultrathin sections were analysed by means of optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were used to compare the physiological performance of both morphs. Key Results and Conclusions Vagrant and attached morphs share multilocus haplotypes which may indicate that they belong to the same species in spite of their completely different anatomy. However, differentiation tests suggested that vagrant specimens do not represent a random sub-set of the surrounding population. The morphological differences were related to anatomical and ultrastructural differences. Large intercalary growth rates of thalli after the loss of the basal–apical thallus polarity may be the cause of the increased growth shown by vagrant specimens. The anatomical and morphological changes lead to greater duration of ecophysiological activity in vagrant specimens. Although the anatomical and physiological changes could be chance effects, the genetic differentiation between vagrant and attached sub-populations and the higher biomass of the former show fitness effects and adaptation to dry environmental conditions in steppe habitats. PMID:22451601

Perez-Ortega, Sergio; Fernandez-Mendoza, Fernando; Raggio, Jose; Vivas, Mercedes; Ascaso, Carmen; Sancho, Leopoldo G.; Printzen, Christian; de los Rios, Asuncion

2012-01-01

175

Metabolite profiling and quantitative genetics of natural variation for flavonoids in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the range and the genetic bases of naturally occurring variation for flavonoids. Using Arabidopsis thaliana seed as a model, the flavonoid content of 41 accessions and two recombinant inbred line (RIL) sets derived from divergent accessions (Cvi-0×Col-0 and Bay-0×Shahdara) were analysed. These accessions and RILs showed mainly quantitative rather than qualitative changes. To dissect the genetic architecture underlying these differences, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed on the two segregating populations. Twenty-two flavonoid QTLs were detected that accounted for 11–64% of the observed trait variations, only one QTL being common to both RIL sets. Sixteen of these QTLs were confirmed and coarsely mapped using heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs). Three genes, namely TRANSPARENT TESTA (TT)7, TT15, and MYB12, were proposed to underlie their variations since the corresponding mutants and QTLs displayed similar specific flavonoid changes. Interestingly, most loci did not co-localize with any gene known to be involved in flavonoid metabolism. This latter result shows that novel functions have yet to be characterized and paves the way for their isolation. PMID:22442426

Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Dubos, Christian; Beck, Gilles; Marquis, Catherine; Bidzinski, Przemyslaw; Loudet, Olivier; Lepiniec, Loic

2012-01-01

176

Natural genetic variation in transcriptome reflects network structure inferred with major effect mutations: insulin/TOR and associated phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background A molecular process based genotype-to-phenotype map will ultimately enable us to predict how genetic variation among individuals results in phenotypic alterations. Building such a map is, however, far from straightforward. It requires understanding how molecular variation re-shapes developmental and metabolic networks, and how the functional state of these networks modifies phenotypes in genotype specific way. We focus on the latter problem by describing genetic variation in transcript levels of genes in the InR/TOR pathway among 72 Drosophila melanogaster genotypes. Results We observe tight co-variance in transcript levels of genes not known to influence each other through direct transcriptional control. We summarize transcriptome variation with factor analyses, and observe strong co-variance of gene expression within the dFOXO-branch and within the TOR-branch of the pathway. Finally, we investigate whether major axes of transcriptome variation shape phenotypes expected to be influenced through the InR/TOR pathway. We find limited evidence that transcript levels of individual upstream genes in the InR/TOR pathway predict fly phenotypes in expected ways. However, there is no evidence that these effects are mediated through the major axes of downstream transcriptome variation. Conclusion In summary, our results question the assertion of the 'sparse' nature of genetic networks, while validating and extending candidate gene approaches in the analyses of complex traits. PMID:19317915

Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Brisson, Jennifer A; Pickering, Andrew; Wayne, Marta L; Harshman, Lawrence G; McIntyre, Lauren M

2009-01-01

177

Phenotypic Variation Among Seven Members of One Family with Deficiency of Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase  

PubMed Central

We describe a family of seven boys affected by Lesch-Nyhan disease with various phenotypes. Further investigations revealed a mutation c.203T>C in the gene encoding HGprt of all members, with substitution of leucine to proline at residue 68 (p.Leu68Pro). Thus patients from this family display a wide variety of symptoms although sharing the same mutation. Mutant HGprt enzyme was prepared by site-directed mutagenesis and the kinetics of the enzyme revealed that the catalytic activity of the mutant was reduced, in association with marked reductions in the affinity towards phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). Its Km for PRPP was increased 215-fold with hypoxanthine as substrate and 40-fold with guanine as substrate with associated reduced catalytic potential. Molecular modeling confirmed that the most prominent defect was the dramatically reduced affinity towards PRPP. Our studies suggest that the p.Leu68Pro mutation has a strong impact on PRPP binding and on stability of the active conformation. This suggests that factors other than HGprt activity per se may influence the phenotype of Lesch-Nyhan patients. PMID:24075303

Ceballos-Picot, Irene; Auge, Franck; Fu, Rong; Olivier-Bandini, Anne; Cahu, Julie; Chabrol, Brigitte; Aral, Bernard; de Martinville, Berengere; Lecain, Jean-Paul; Jinnah, H. A.

2013-01-01

178

Strategy for minimizing between-study variation of large-scale phenotypic experiments using multivariate analysis.  

PubMed

We have developed a multistep strategy that integrates data from several large-scale experiments that suffer from systematic between-experiment variation. This strategy removes such variation that would otherwise mask differences of interest. It was applied to the evaluation of wood chemical analysis of 736 hybrid aspen trees: wild-type controls and transgenic trees potentially involved in wood formation. The trees were grown in four different greenhouse experiments imposing significant variation between experiments. Pyrolysis coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was used as a high throughput-screening platform for fingerprinting of wood chemotype. Our proposed strategy includes quality control, outlier detection, gene specific classification, and consensus analysis. The orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) method was used to generate the consensus chemotype profiles for each transgenic line. These were thereafter compiled to generate a global dataset. Multivariate analysis and cluster analysis techniques revealed a drastic reduction in between-experiment variation that enabled a global analysis of all transgenic lines from the four independent experiments. Information from in-depth analysis of specific transgenic lines and independent peak identification validated our proposed strategy. PMID:22978754

Pinto, Rui C; Gerber, Lorenz; Eliasson, Mattias; Sundberg, Björn; Trygg, Johan

2012-10-16

179

Allometric influence on phenotypic variation in the Song Sparrow ( Melospiza melodia )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) populations found along the Pacific Coast of North America, from Baja California to the islands off the coast of Alaska, exhibit extensive morphological variation. With a multivariate analysis of size and shape, I describe a portion of this pattern and examine how it could be maintained despite gene flow among the populations. Because shape differences fall

JULIA I. SMITH

1998-01-01

180

SNP signatures of selection on standing genetic variation and their association with adaptive phenotypes along  

E-print Network

SNP signatures of selection on standing genetic variation and their association with adaptive. Using a data set of over 100 SNP markers, genome scans were performed to investigate the effect more intensively in dwarf whitefish. SNP associations in backcross hybrid progeny identified 16 genes

Bernatchez, Louis

181

Coat Color Variation in Rock Pocket Mice (Chaetodipus intermedius): From Genotype to Phenotype  

E-print Network

crinitus), the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus), Botta and between species. Examples of intraspecific color variation in rodents include the canyon mouse (Peromyscus (Sumner, 1921; Dice and Blossom, 1937), studies in Peromyscus have clearly demonstrated that owls

Hoekstra, Hopi E.

182

Genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in a trophically polymorphic population of pumpkinseed sunfish ( Lepomis gibbosus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Adaptive variation can exist at a variety of scales in biological systems, including among species, among local populations of a single species and among individuals within a single population. Trophic or resource polymorphisms in fishes are a good example of the lowest level of this hierarchy. In lakes without bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) can be

Beren W. Robinson; David Sloan Wilson

1996-01-01

183

Age-related variation in quantitative ultrasound at the tibia and prevalence of osteoporosis in native Chinese women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the variations in age-related speed of sound (SOS) at the tibia and prevalence of osteoporosis in native Chinese women, and establishment of a reference database by quantitative ultrasound. SOS at the right midtibia was measured using a quantitative ultrasound device (SoundScan 2000, Myriad Ultrasound Systems, Israel) in 1596 healthy Chinese women ranging from 12 years to 96

X-P Wu; E-Y LIAO; X-H LUO; R-C DAI; H ZHANG; J PENG

2003-01-01

184

[Quantitive variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in F1 generation of Dendrobium officinale].  

PubMed

Using phenol-sulfuric acid method and hot-dip method of alcohol-soluble extracts, the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in 11 F1 generations of Dendrobium officinale were determined. The results showed that the polysaccharides contents in samples collected in May and February were 32.89%-43.07% and 25.77%-35.25%, respectively, while the extracts contents were 2.81%-4.85% and 7.90%-17.40%, respectively. They were significantly different among families. The content of polysaccharides in offspring could be significantly improved by hybridization between parents with low and high polysaccharides contents, and the hybrid vigor was obvious. Cross breeding was an effective way for breeding new varieties with higher polysaccharides contents. Harvest time would significantly affect the contents of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts. The contents of polysaccharides in families collected in May were higher than those of polysaccharides in families collected in February, but the extracts content had the opposite variation. The extents of quantitative variation of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts were different among families, and each family had its own rules. It would be significant in giving full play to their role as the excellent varieties and increasing effectiveness by studying on the quantitative accumulation regularity of polysaccharides and alcohol-soluble extracts in superior families (varieties) of D. officinale to determine the best harvesting time. PMID:24494555

Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jing-Jing; Wu, Ling-Shang; Si, Jin-Ping; Guo, Ying-Ying; Yu, Jie; Wang, Lin-Hua

2013-11-01

185

Domestication of Irvingia gabonensis : 1. Phenotypic variation in fruits and kernels in two populations from Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty four fruits from each of 52 Irvingia gabonensis trees from two villages (Nko'ovos II and Elig Nkouma) of the humid lowland forest zone of Cameroon (West Africa) were assessed to determine the extent of variation in ten fruit, nut (endocarp), and kernel (cotyledon) characteristics. Highly significant differences were found in fruit length (Range = 46.2 to 77.3 mm), fruit

A. R. Atangana; Z. Tchoundjeu; J. M. Fondoun; E. Asaah; M. Ndoumbe; R. R. B. Leakey

2001-01-01

186

LIFE-HISTORY VARIATION IN THE SAGEBRUSH LIZARD: PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY OR LOCAL ADAPTATION?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a laboratory common-environment study to determine the genetic and environmental sources of variation in growth rates of the sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus graciosus). Hatchling lizards were reared from gravid females collected from three study populations along an elevational gradient in southern Utah, USA. Hatchlings were fed ad libidum and were maintained on a 14:10 light:dark cycle, with temperatures at

Michael W. Sears

2003-01-01

187

Identification of reproductively isolated lineages of Amur grayling (Thymallus grubii Dybowski 1869): concordance between phenotypic and genetic variation.  

PubMed

We analysed variation at maternally (mitochondrial DNA control region sequences) and bi-parentally (10 microsatellites) inherited genetic markers, as well as across 12 meristic characters in 7 populations of Amur grayling, Thymallus grubii, from eastern Siberia. All three data sets were concordant in supporting the existence of three diagnosable, reciprocally monophyletic, and most probably reproductively isolated, lineages of grayling within the Amur drainage. There was a significant correlation between genetic and phenotypic divergence, both within and among lineages. Two phenotypically distinct forms (with and without an orange spot on the posterior portion of the dorsal fin), found in sympatry in the lower Amur, most likely result from secondary contact, as they demonstrate 4.6% sequence divergence at the mitochondrial DNA control region. This divergence, together with the existence of at least one nearby population of orange spot grayling outside the Amur drainage (0.8% divergence) underscore the palaeo-hydrological complexity of the system, which presumably promoted genetic divergence in a shifting allopatric framework throughout the Pleistocene. Grayling from the upper Amur, corresponding to the type locality for the species, formed a sister group (1.4-1.6% divergent) to the orange spot lineage perhaps diverging in the early Pleistocene (1.4-1.6 Ma). PMID:12919473

Froufe, E; Knizhin, I; Koskinen, M T; Primmer, C R; Weiss, S

2003-09-01

188

Phenotypic and genotypic variation in Giardia lamblia isolates during chronic infection.  

PubMed Central

Two Giardia isolates were axenised in vitro after recovery by duodenal aspiration from a man with hypo-gamma globulinaemia and chronic giardiasis, before and after three unsuccessful courses of metronidazole. In vitro drug sensitivity assays showed that the pretreatment isolate was sensitive to metronidazole with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and dose that inhibited growth by 50% (ED50) values of 0.1 and 0.03 mumol/l, respectively. The post-treatment isolate was 20-fold more resistant (MIC and ED50 4.3 and 0.58 mumol/l, respectively). Differences between these isolates were also found in the surface protein profiles after radioiodination, metabolic labelling patterns with 35S-methionine, malic enzyme isoenzyme patterns, and by DNA fingerprinting with a M-13 bacteriophage probe. The phenotypic and genotypic differences between the pretreatment and post-treatment isolates suggest that we have isolated two different strains from the same patient and that treatment with metronidazole resulted in selection of the more resistant strain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8307449

Butcher, P D; Cevallos, A M; Carnaby, S; Alstead, E M; Swarbrick, E T; Farthing, M J

1994-01-01

189

Phenotypic flexibility in migrating bats: seasonal variation in body composition, organ sizes and fatty acid profiles.  

PubMed

Many species of bats migrate long distances, but the physiological challenges of migration are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that migration is physiologically demanding for bats by examining migration-related phenotypic flexibility. Both bats and birds are endothermic, flying vertebrates; therefore, we predicted that migration would result in similar physiological trade-offs. We compared hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) during spring migration and summer non-migratory periods, comparing our results with previous observations of birds. Migrating bats had reduced digestive organs, enlarged exercise organs, and fat stores had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). These results are consistent with previous studies of migrating birds; however, we also found sex differences not typically associated with bird migration. Migrating female hoary bats increased the relative size of fat stores by reducing lean body components, while males maintained the same relative amount of fat in both seasons. The ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA in flight muscle membrane increased in migrating males and decreased in migrating females, consistent with males using torpor more frequently than females during spring migration. Enlarged exercise organs, reduced digestive organs and changes in adipose tissue composition reflect the elevated energetic demands of migration. Sex-specific patterns of fat storage and muscle membrane composition likely reflect challenges faced by females that migrate while pregnant. Our results provide some of the first insights into the physiological demands of bat migration and highlight key differences between bats and birds. PMID:23408801

McGuire, Liam P; Fenton, M Brock; Guglielmo, Christopher G

2013-03-01

190

DNA hypermethylation and X chromosome inactivation are major determinants of phenotypic variation in women heterozygous for G6PD mutations.  

PubMed

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked incompletely dominant enzyme deficiency that results from G6PD gene mutations. Women heterozygous for G6PD mutations exhibit variation in the loss of enzyme activity but the cause of this phenotypic variation is unclear. We determined DNA methylation and X-inactivation patterns in 71 G6PD-deficient female heterozygotes and 68 G6PD non-deficient controls with the same missense mutations (G6PD Canton c.1376G>T or Kaiping c.1388G>A) to correlate determinants with variable phenotypes. Specific CpG methylations within the G6PD promoter were significantly higher in G6PD-deficient heterozygotes than in controls. Preferential X-inactivation of the G6PD wild-type allele was determined in heterozygotes. The incidence of preferential X-inactivation was 86.2% in the deficient heterozygote group and 31.7% in the non-deficient heterozygote group. A significant negative correlation was observed between X-inactivation ratios of the wild-type allele and G6PD/6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) ratios in heterozygous G6PD Canton (r=-0.657, p<0.001) or Kaiping (r=-0.668, p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that heterozygotes with hypermethylation of specific CpG sites in the G6PD promoter and preferential X-inactivation of the wild-type allele were at risk of enzyme deficiency. PMID:24958328

Wang, Jin; Xiao, Qi-Zhi; Chen, You-Ming; Yi, Sheng; Liu, Dun; Liu, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Mei; Wei, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Yu-Qiu; Zhong, Xing-Ming; Zhao, Cun-You; Xiong, Fu; Wei, Xiang-Cai; Xu, Xiang-Min

2014-12-01

191

Biogeographic discordance of molecular phylogenetic and phenotypic variation in a continental archipelago radiation of land snails  

PubMed Central

Background In island archipelagos, where islands have experienced repeated periods of fragmentation and connection through cyclic changes in sea level, complex among-island distributions might reflect historical distributional changes or local evolution. We test the relative importance of these mechanisms in an endemic radiation of Rhagada land snails in the Dampier Archipelago, a continental archipelago off the coast of Western Australia, where ten morphospecies have complex, overlapping distributions. Results We obtained partial mtDNA sequence (COI) for 1015 snails collected from 213 locations across 30 Islands, and used Bayesian phylogenetic analysis and Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) to determine whether geography or the morphological taxonomy best explains the pattern of molecular evolution. Rather than forming distinct monophyletic groups, as would be expected if they had single, independent origins, all of the widely distributed morphospecies were polyphyletic, distributed among several well-supported clades, each of which included several morphospecies. Each mitochondrial clade had a clear, cohesive geographic distribution, together forming a series of parapatric replacements separated by narrow contact zones. AMOVA revealed further incongruence between mtDNA diversity and morphological variation within clades, as the taxonomic hypothesis always explained a low or non-significant proportion of the molecular variation. In contrast, the pattern of mtDNA evolution closely reflected contemporary and historical marine barriers. Conclusions Despite opportunities for distributional changes during periods when the islands were connected, there is no evidence that dispersal has contributed to the geographic variation of shell form at the broad scale. Based on an estimate of dispersal made previously for Rhagada, we conclude that the periods of connection have been too short in duration to allow for extensive overland dispersal or deep mitochondrial introgression. The result is a sharp and resilient phylogeographic pattern. The distribution of morphotypes among clades and distant islands is explained most simply by their parallel evolution. PMID:24393567

2014-01-01

192

Quantitative prediction of the effect of genetic variation using hidden Markov models  

PubMed Central

Background With the development of sequencing technologies, more and more sequence variants are available for investigation. Different classes of variants in the human genome have been identified, including single nucleotide substitutions, insertion and deletion, and large structural variations such as duplications and deletions. Insertion and deletion (indel) variants comprise a major proportion of human genetic variation. However, little is known about their effects on humans. The absence of understanding is largely due to the lack of both biological data and computational resources. Results This paper presents a new indel functional prediction method HMMvar based on HMM profiles, which capture the conservation information in sequences. The results demonstrate that a scoring strategy based on HMM profiles can achieve good performance in identifying deleterious or neutral variants for different data sets, and can predict the protein functional effects of both single and multiple mutations. Conclusions This paper proposed a quantitative prediction method, HMMvar, to predict the effect of genetic variation using hidden Markov models. The HMM based pipeline program implementing the method HMMvar is freely available at https://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/zhanglab/hmm. PMID:24405700

2014-01-01

193

Phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in fatty acid composition and sensory parameters in European bovine breeds  

PubMed Central

Background Consuming moderate amounts of lean red meat as part of a balanced diet valuably contributes to intakes of essential nutrients. In this study, we merged phenotypic and genotypic information to characterize the variation in lipid profile and sensory parameters and to represent the diversity among 15 cattle populations. Correlations between fat content, organoleptic characteristics and lipid profiles were also investigated. Methods A sample of 436 largely unrelated purebred bulls belonging to 15 breeds and reared under comparable management conditions was analyzed. Phenotypic data -including fatness score, fat percentage, individual fatty acids (FA) profiles and sensory panel tests- and genotypic information from 11 polymorphisms was used. Results The correlation coefficients between muscle total lipid measurements and absolute vs. relative amounts of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were in opposite directions. Increasing carcass fat leads to an increasing amount of FAs in triglycerides, but at the same time the relative amount of PUFAs is decreasing, which is in concordance with the negative correlation obtained here between the percentage of PUFA and fat measurements, as well as the weaker correlation between total phospholipids and total lipid muscle content compared with neutral lipids. Concerning organoleptic characteristics, a negative correlation between flavour scores and the percentage of total PUFA, particularly to n-6 fraction, was found. The correlation between juiciness and texture is higher than with flavour scores. The distribution of SNPs plotted by principal components analysis (PCA) mainly reflects their known trait associations, although influenced by their specific breed allele frequencies. Conclusions The results presented here help to understand the phenotypic and genotypic background underlying variations in FA composition and sensory parameters between breeds. The wide range of traits and breeds studied, along with the genotypic information on polymorphisms previously associated with different lipid traits, provide a broad characterization of beef meat, which allows giving a better response to the variety of consumers’ preferences. Also, the development and implementation of low-density SNP panels with predictive value for economically important traits, such as those summarized here, may be used to improve production efficiency and meat quality in the beef industry. PMID:24735897

2014-01-01

194

Effect of trinucleotide repeat length and parental sex on phenotypic variation in spinocerebellar ataxia I  

SciTech Connect

Trinucleotide repeat expansion has been found in 64 subjects from 19 families: 57 patients with SCA1 and 7 subjects predicted, by haplotype analysis, to carry the mutation. Comparison with a large set of normal chromosomes shows two distinct distributions, with a much wider variation among expanded chromosomes. The sex of transmitting parent plays a major role in the size distribution of expanded alleles, those with >54 repeats being transmitted by affected fathers exclusively. The data suggest that alleles with >54 repeats have a reduced chance of survival; these appear to be replaced in each generation by further expansion of alleles in the low- to medium-expanded repeat range, preferentially in male transmission. Detailed clinical follow-up of a subset of patients demonstrates significant relationships between increasing repeat number on expanded chromosomes and earlier age at onset, faster progression of the disease, and earlier age at death.

Jodice, C.; Malaspina, P.; Persichetti, F.; Novelletto, A.; Terrenato, L. (Universita Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy)); Spadaro, M.; Morocutti, C. (Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)); Giunti, P. (Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy) Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)); Harding, A.E. (Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)); Frontali, M. (Istituto di Medicina Sperimentale, Rome (Italy))

1994-06-01

195

Allelic variation in normal human FBN1 expression in a family with Marfan syndrome: a potential modifier of phenotype?  

PubMed

FBN1 mutations cause Marfan syndrome (MFS), an autosomal dominant disorder of connective tissue. One of the unexplained features of MFS is the pathogenic mechanism that leads to marked inter- and intra-familial clinical variability, despite complete disease penetrance. An FBN1 deletion patient [46,XXdel(15)(q15q22.1)] was identified whose fibrillin-1 protein and mRNA levels were significantly higher than expected for a single FBN1 allele. This suggested that allelic variation in normal FBN1 expression might occur in MFS families, and have potential clinical implications particularly for those with premature termination codon (PTC) mutations who usually display low levels of expression from the mutant allele due to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). RNA analyses identified a variable reduction in total FBN1 transcript (78+/-2.2 to 27.3+/-2.3%) in three related individuals carrying PTC-causing mutation 932insT, compared with unaffected control individuals. Both pulse chase analysis of fibrillin-1 biosynthesis and RNase protection analyses demonstrated that these differences were due to variation in the expression of the normal FBN1 allele and not NMD of mutant RNA. We suggest that differences in normal FBN1 expression could contribute to the clinical variability seen in this family with MFS, and should be considered as a potential modifier of phenotype in other cases of MFS. PMID:12915484

Hutchinson, Sarah; Furger, Andre; Halliday, Dorothy; Judge, Daniel P; Jefferson, Andrew; Dietz, Harry C; Firth, Helen; Handford, Penny A

2003-09-15

196

Quantitative NMR Metabolite Profiling of Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Discriminates between Biofilm and Planktonic Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Wound bioburden in the form of colonizing biofilms is a major contributor to nonhealing wounds. Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, facultative anaerobe commonly found in chronic wounds; however, much remains unknown about the basic physiology of this opportunistic pathogen, especially with regard to the biofilm phenotype. Transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of S. aureus biofilms have suggested that S. aureus biofilms exhibit an altered metabolic state relative to the planktonic phenotype. Herein, comparisons of extracellular and intracellular metabolite profiles detected by 1H NMR were conducted for methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) S. aureus strains grown as biofilm and planktonic cultures. Principal component analysis distinguished the biofilm phenotype from the planktonic phenotype, and factor loadings analysis identified metabolites that contributed to the statistical separation of the biofilm from the planktonic phenotype, suggesting that key features distinguishing biofilm from planktonic growth include selective amino acid uptake, lipid catabolism, butanediol fermentation, and a shift in metabolism from energy production to assembly of cell-wall components and matrix deposition. These metabolite profiles provide a basis for the development of metabolite biomarkers that distinguish between biofilm and planktonic phenotypes in S. aureus and have the potential for improved diagnostic and therapeutic use in chronic wounds. PMID:24809402

Ammons, Mary Cloud B.; Tripet, Brian P.; Carlson, Ross P.; Kirker, Kelly R.; Gross, Michael A.; Stanisich, Jessica J.; Copie, Valerie

2014-01-01

197

A Geographically Diverse Collection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe Isolates Shows Limited Phenotypic Variation but Extensive Karyotypic Diversity  

PubMed Central

The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has been widely used to study eukaryotic cell biology, but almost all of this work has used derivatives of a single strain. We have studied 81 independent natural isolates and 3 designated laboratory strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Schizosaccharomyces pombe varies significantly in size but shows only limited variation in proliferation in different environments compared with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleotide diversity, ?, at a near neutral site, the central core of the centromere of chromosome II is approximately 0.7%. Approximately 20% of the isolates showed karyotypic rearrangements as detected by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and filter hybridization analysis. One translocation, found in 6 different isolates, including the type strain, has a geographically widespread distribution and a unique haplotype and may be a marker of an incipient speciation event. All of the other translocations are unique. Exploitation of this karyotypic diversity may cast new light on both the biology of telomeres and centromeres and on isolating mechanisms in single-celled eukaryotes. PMID:22384373

Brown, William R. A.; Liti, Gianni; Rosa, Carlos; James, Steve; Roberts, Ian; Robert, Vincent; Jolly, Neil; Tang, Wen; Baumann, Peter; Green, Carter; Schlegel, Kristina; Young, Jonathan; Hirchaud, Fabienne; Leek, Spencer; Thomas, Geraint; Blomberg, Anders; Warringer, Jonas

2011-01-01

198

Variation in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Genes is Associated with Multiple Substance Dependence Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

There is shared genetic risk for dependence on multiple substances, and the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15 harbors multiple polymorphisms that associate to this risk. Here, we report the results of an association study with 21 SNPs genotyped across the CHRNA5, CHRNA3, and CHRNB4 loci on chromosome 15q25.1. The sample consists of a discovery set (N=1858) of European-American and African-American (AA) families, ascertained on the basis of a sibling pair with cocaine and/or opioid dependence, and a case–control replication sample (N=3388) collected for association studies of alcohol, cocaine, and opioid dependence. We tested the SNPs for association with lifetime cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol dependence. We replicated several previous findings, including associations between rs16969968 and nicotine dependence (P=0.002) and cocaine dependence (P=0.02), with opposite risk alleles for each substance. We observed these associations in AAs, which is a novel finding. The strongest association signal in either sample was between rs684513 in CHRNA5 and cocaine dependence (OR=1.43, P=0.0004) in the AA replication set. We also observed two SNPs associated with alcohol dependence, that is, rs615470 in CHRNA5 (OR=0.77, P=0.0006) and rs578776 (OR=0.78, P=0.001). The associations between CD and rs684513, AD and rs615470, and AD and rs578776 remained significant after a permutation-based correction for multiple testing. These data reinforce the importance of variation in the chromosome 15 nicotinic receptor subunit gene cluster for risk of dependence on multiple substances, although the direction of the effects may vary across substances. PMID:20485328

Sherva, Richard; Kranzler, Henry R; Yu, Yi; Logue, Mark W; Poling, James; Arias, Albert J; Anton, Raymond F; Oslin, David; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel

2010-01-01

199

Quantitative Estimation of Temperature Variations in Plantar Angiosomes: A Study Case for Diabetic Foot  

PubMed Central

Thermography is a useful tool since it provides information that may help in the diagnostic of several diseases in a noninvasive and fast way. Particularly, thermography has been applied in the study of the diabetic foot. However, most of these studies report only qualitative information making it difficult to measure significant parameters such as temperature variations. These variations are important in the analysis of the diabetic foot since they could bring knowledge, for instance, regarding ulceration risks. The early detection of ulceration risks is considered an important research topic in the medicine field, as its objective is to avoid major complications that might lead to a limb amputation. The absence of symptoms in the early phase of the ulceration is conceived as the main disadvantage to provide an opportune diagnostic in subjects with neuropathy. Since the relation between temperature and ulceration risks is well established in the literature, a methodology that obtains quantitative temperature differences in the plantar area of the diabetic foot to detect ulceration risks is proposed in this work. Such methodology is based on the angiosome concept and image processing. PMID:24688595

Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Morales-Hernandez, L. A.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J. J.; Avina-Cervantes, J. G.; Ramirez-Cortes, J. M.; Morales-Caporal, R.

2014-01-01

200

Quantitative assessment of the importance of phenotypic plasticity in adaptation to climate change in wild bird populations.  

PubMed

Predictions about the fate of species or populations under climate change scenarios typically neglect adaptive evolution and phenotypic plasticity, the two major mechanisms by which organisms can adapt to changing local conditions. As a consequence, we have little understanding of the scope for organisms to track changing environments by in situ adaptation. Here, we use a detailed individual-specific long-term population study of great tits (Parus major) breeding in Wytham Woods, Oxford, UK to parameterise a mechanistic model and thus directly estimate the rate of environmental change to which in situ adaptation is possible. Using the effect of changes in early spring temperature on temporal synchrony between birds and a critical food resource, we focus in particular on the contribution of phenotypic plasticity to population persistence. Despite using conservative estimates for evolutionary and reproductive potential, our results suggest little risk of population extinction under projected local temperature change; however, this conclusion relies heavily on the extent to which phenotypic plasticity tracks the changing environment. Extrapolating the model to a broad range of life histories in birds suggests that the importance of phenotypic plasticity for adjustment to projected rates of temperature change increases with slower life histories, owing to lower evolutionary potential. Understanding the determinants and constraints on phenotypic plasticity in natural populations is thus crucial for characterising the risks that rapidly changing environments pose for the persistence of such populations. PMID:23874152

Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C

2013-07-01

201

Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.  

PubMed

Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. PMID:20545886

Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

2010-11-01

202

The Effect of an Experimental Bottleneck upon Quantitative Genetic Variation in the Housefly  

PubMed Central

Effects of a population bottleneck (founder-flush cycle) upon quantitative genetic variation of morphometric traits were examined in replicated experimental lines of the housefly founded with one, four or 16 pairs of flies. Heritability and additive genetic variances for eight morphometric traits generally increased as a result of the bottleneck, but the pattern of increase among bottleneck sizes differed among traits. Principal axes of the additive genetic correlation matrix for the control line yielded two suites of traits, one associated with general body size and another set largely independent of body size. In the former set containing five of the traits, additive genetic variance was greatest in the bottleneck size of four pairs, whereas in the latter set of two traits the largest additive genetic variance occurred in the smallest bottleneck size of one pair. One trait exhibited changes in additive genetic variance intermediate between these two major responses. These results were inconsistent with models of additive effects of alleles within loci or of additive effects among loci. An observed decline in viability measures and body size in the bottleneck lines also indicated that there was nonadditivity of allelic effects for these traits. Several possible nonadditive models were explored that increased additive genetic variance as a result of a bottleneck. These included a model with complete dominance, a model with overdominance and a model incorporating multiplicative epistasis. PMID:17246359

Bryant, Edwin H.; McCommas, Steven A.; Combs, Lisa M.

1986-01-01

203

An unbiased method for the quantitation of disease phenotypes using a custom-built macro plugin for the program ImageJ.  

PubMed

Accurate evaluation of disease phenotypes is considered a key step to study plant-microbe interactions, as the rate of host colonization by the pathogenic microbe directly reflects whether the defense response of the plant is compromised. Although several techniques were developed to quantitate the amount of infection, only a few of them are inherently suitable for large disease screens. Here, I describe an unbiased method to quantitate disease phenotypes which manifest themselves by visible symptoms contrasting with the remaining unaffected parts of the host tissue. The method utilizes a macro plugin written for the image processing program "ImageJ" to calculate two values which determine the disease index for a specific treatment. In case the disease symptoms are not clear, a transgenic pathogenic fungus expressing the GUS gene is suitable for high-throughput disease screens, since staining for GUS activity facilitates an easy detection of the blue-stained pathogen. I illustrate the versatility of this method by analyzing a data set from a functional silencing screening experiment in resistant tomato that was inoculated with a GUS-expressing strain of the fungus Cladosporium fulvum. The method calculates a disease index for each silenced plant and thereby provides a basis for the unbiased identification of candidate host genes required for full resistance to this fungus. PMID:22183684

Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed

2012-01-01

204

A Quantitative Comparison of Human HT-1080 Fibrosarcoma Cells and Primary Human Dermal Fibroblasts Identifies a 3D Migration Mechanism with Properties Unique to the Transformed Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe an engineering approach to quantitatively compare migration, morphologies, and adhesion for tumorigenic human fibrosarcoma cells (HT-1080s) and primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) with the aim of identifying distinguishing properties of the transformed phenotype. Relative adhesiveness was quantified using self-assembled monolayer (SAM) arrays and proteolytic 3-dimensional (3D) migration was investigated using matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-degradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels (“synthetic extracellular matrix” or “synthetic ECM”). In synthetic ECM, hDFs were characterized by vinculin-containing features on the tips of protrusions, multipolar morphologies, and organized actomyosin filaments. In contrast, HT-1080s were characterized by diffuse vinculin expression, pronounced ?1-integrin on the tips of protrusions, a cortically-organized F-actin cytoskeleton, and quantitatively more rounded morphologies, decreased adhesiveness, and increased directional motility compared to hDFs. Further, HT-1080s were characterized by contractility-dependent motility, pronounced blebbing, and cortical contraction waves or constriction rings, while quantified 3D motility was similar in matrices with a wide range of biochemical and biophysical properties (including collagen) despite substantial morphological changes. While HT-1080s were distinct from hDFs for each of the 2D and 3D properties investigated, several features were similar to WM239a melanoma cells, including rounded, proteolytic migration modes, cortical F-actin organization, and prominent uropod-like structures enriched with ?1-integrin, F-actin, and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM/CD146/MUC18). Importantly, many of the features observed for HT-1080s were analogous to cellular changes induced by transformation, including cell rounding, a disorganized F-actin cytoskeleton, altered organization of focal adhesion proteins, and a weakly adherent phenotype. Based on our results, we propose that HT-1080s migrate in synthetic ECM with functional properties that are a direct consequence of their transformed phenotype. PMID:24349113

Schwartz, Michael P.; Rogers, Robert E.; Singh, Samir P.; Lee, Justin Y.; Loveland, Samuel G.; Koepsel, Justin T.; Witze, Eric S.; Montanez-Sauri, Sara I.; Sung, Kyung E.; Tokuda, Emi Y.; Sharma, Yasha; Everhart, Lydia M.; Nguyen, Eric H.; Zaman, Muhammad H.; Beebe, David J.; Ahn, Natalie G.; Murphy, William L.; Anseth, Kristi S.

2013-01-01

205

Phenotypic consequences of genetic variation in a gynogenetic complex of Phoxinus eos-neogaeus clonal fish (Pisces: Cyprinidae) inhabiting a heterogeneous environment.  

PubMed

We examined the genetic composition, habitat use, and morphological variation of a Phoxinus eos-neogaeus unisexual hybrid complex and its sexually reproducing progenitor species inhabiting beaver-modified drainages of Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. In addition to the single diploid P. eos-neogaeus gynogenetic clone, triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic biotypes were present at our study sites. Both P. eos and P. neogaeus, and all three hybrid biotypes were ubiquitous throughout one intensively surveyed drainage, but abundances and relative frequencies of the parental species and hybrids varied considerably within and among successional environments. Data from a large number of additional sites indicated that the proportion of polyploid hybrids within an environment was negatively related to hybrid relative frequency, implying that the genomic constitution of hybrids is an important determinant of clonal fitness among successional environments. Statistical comparisons of variation along size-free multivariate body shape axes indicated that despite its genetic uniformity, the P. eos-neogaeus clone is no less variable than its sexual progenitors, suggesting that a single genotype may actually respond to environmental variation with as much phenotypic variation as a genetically variable sexual population. The incorporation and expression of a third genome in triploid and diploid-triploid mosaic biotypes derived from the gynogenetic clone significantly expanded phenotypic variation of the clone. This additional variation results in greater similarities in habitat use and morphological overlap with the parental species, primarily P. eos, the predominant sperm donor for gynogenetic hybrid females in this complex. Polyploid augmentation of a diploid gynogenetic clone appears to be typical in the P. eos-neogaeus complex, and the additional genetic and phenotypic variation that it generates has potentially significant ecological and evolutionary consequences for the success and persistence of a single genotype in highly variable environments. PMID:15266975

Doeringsfeld, Matthew R; Schlosser, Isaac J; Elder, John F; Evenson, Donald P

2004-06-01

206

Combining high-throughput phenotyping and genome-wide association studies to reveal natural genetic variation in rice.  

PubMed

Even as the study of plant genomics rapidly develops through the use of high-throughput sequencing techniques, traditional plant phenotyping lags far behind. Here we develop a high-throughput rice phenotyping facility (HRPF) to monitor 13 traditional agronomic traits and 2 newly defined traits during the rice growth period. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the 15 traits, we identify 141 associated loci, 25 of which contain known genes such as the Green Revolution semi-dwarf gene, SD1. Based on a performance evaluation of the HRPF and GWAS results, we demonstrate that high-throughput phenotyping has the potential to replace traditional phenotyping techniques and can provide valuable gene identification information. The combination of the multifunctional phenotyping tools HRPF and GWAS provides deep insights into the genetic architecture of important traits. PMID:25295980

Yang, Wanneng; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Chenglong; Duan, Lingfeng; Chen, Guoxing; Jiang, Ni; Fang, Wei; Feng, Hui; Xie, Weibo; Lian, Xingming; Wang, Gongwei; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Qifa; Liu, Qian; Xiong, Lizhong

2014-01-01

207

Combining high-throughput phenotyping and genome-wide association studies to reveal natural genetic variation in rice  

PubMed Central

Even as the study of plant genomics rapidly develops through the use of high-throughput sequencing techniques, traditional plant phenotyping lags far behind. Here we develop a high-throughput rice phenotyping facility (HRPF) to monitor 13 traditional agronomic traits and 2 newly defined traits during the rice growth period. Using genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of the 15 traits, we identify 141 associated loci, 25 of which contain known genes such as the Green Revolution semi-dwarf gene, SD1. Based on a performance evaluation of the HRPF and GWAS results, we demonstrate that high-throughput phenotyping has the potential to replace traditional phenotyping techniques and can provide valuable gene identification information. The combination of the multifunctional phenotyping tools HRPF and GWAS provides deep insights into the genetic architecture of important traits. PMID:25295980

Yang, Wanneng; Guo, Zilong; Huang, Chenglong; Duan, Lingfeng; Chen, Guoxing; Jiang, Ni; Fang, Wei; Feng, Hui; Xie, Weibo; Lian, Xingming; Wang, Gongwei; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Qifa; Liu, Qian; Xiong, Lizhong

2014-01-01

208

Quantitative phenotyping-based in vivo chemical screening in a zebrafish model of leukemia stem cell xenotransplantation.  

PubMed

Zebrafish-based chemical screening has recently emerged as a rapid and efficient method to identify important compounds that modulate specific biological processes and to test the therapeutic efficacy in disease models, including cancer. In leukemia, the ablation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is necessary to permanently eradicate the leukemia cell population. However, because of the very small number of LSCs in leukemia cell populations, their use in xenotransplantation studies (in vivo) and the difficulties in functionally and pathophysiologically replicating clinical conditions in cell culture experiments (in vitro), the progress of drug discovery for LSC inhibitors has been painfully slow. In this study, we developed a novel phenotype-based in vivo screening method using LSCs xenotransplanted into zebrafish. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive (ALDH+) cells were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells tagged with a fluorescent protein (Kusabira-orange) and then implanted in young zebrafish at 48 hours post-fertilization. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, the animals were treated with one of eight different therapeutic agents (imatinib, dasatinib, parthenolide, TDZD-8, arsenic trioxide, niclosamide, salinomycin, and thioridazine). Cancer cell proliferation, and cell migration were determined by high-content imaging. Of the eight compounds that were tested, all except imatinib and dasatinib selectively inhibited ALDH+ cell proliferation in zebrafish. In addition, these anti-LSC agents suppressed tumor cell migration in LSC-xenotransplants. Our approach offers a simple, rapid, and reliable in vivo screening system that facilitates the phenotype-driven discovery of drugs effective in suppressing LSCs. PMID:24454867

Zhang, Beibei; Shimada, Yasuhito; Kuroyanagi, Junya; Umemoto, Noriko; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

2014-01-01

209

Quantitative Phenotyping-Based In Vivo Chemical Screening in a Zebrafish Model of Leukemia Stem Cell Xenotransplantation  

PubMed Central

Zebrafish-based chemical screening has recently emerged as a rapid and efficient method to identify important compounds that modulate specific biological processes and to test the therapeutic efficacy in disease models, including cancer. In leukemia, the ablation of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is necessary to permanently eradicate the leukemia cell population. However, because of the very small number of LSCs in leukemia cell populations, their use in xenotransplantation studies (in vivo) and the difficulties in functionally and pathophysiologically replicating clinical conditions in cell culture experiments (in vitro), the progress of drug discovery for LSC inhibitors has been painfully slow. In this study, we developed a novel phenotype-based in vivo screening method using LSCs xenotransplanted into zebrafish. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive (ALDH+) cells were purified from chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells tagged with a fluorescent protein (Kusabira-orange) and then implanted in young zebrafish at 48 hours post-fertilization. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, the animals were treated with one of eight different therapeutic agents (imatinib, dasatinib, parthenolide, TDZD-8, arsenic trioxide, niclosamide, salinomycin, and thioridazine). Cancer cell proliferation, and cell migration were determined by high-content imaging. Of the eight compounds that were tested, all except imatinib and dasatinib selectively inhibited ALDH+ cell proliferation in zebrafish. In addition, these anti-LSC agents suppressed tumor cell migration in LSC-xenotransplants. Our approach offers a simple, rapid, and reliable in vivo screening system that facilitates the phenotype-driven discovery of drugs effective in suppressing LSCs. PMID:24454867

Zhang, Beibei; Shimada, Yasuhito; Kuroyanagi, Junya; Umemoto, Noriko; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

2014-01-01

210

Partial androgen insensitivity with phenotypic variation caused by androgen receptor mutations that disrupt activation function 2 and the NH 2- and carboxyl-terminal interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial androgen insensitivity with sex phenotype variation in two unrelated families was associated with missense mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene that disrupted the AR NH2-terminal\\/carboxy terminal interaction. Each mutation caused a single amino acid change within the region of the ligand-binding domain that forms activation function 2 (AF2). In one family, the mutation I737T was in alpha helix

Charmian A. Quigley; Jiann-an Tan; Bin He; Zhong-xun Zhou; Farida Mebarki; Yves Morel; Maguelone G. Forest; Pierre Chatelain; E. Martin Ritzén; Frank S. French; Elizabeth M. Wilson

2004-01-01

211

High Genetic and Epigenetic Stability in Coffea arabica Plants Derived from Embryogenic Suspensions and Secondary Embryogenesis as Revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the Phenotypic Variation Rate  

PubMed Central

Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200 000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0–0.003% and 0.07–0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1–3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic embryogenesis. The main change in most of the rare phenotypic variants was aneuploidy, indicating that mitotic aberrations play a major role in somaclonal variation in coffee. PMID:23418563

Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frederic; Bertrand, Benoit; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Herve

2013-01-01

212

High genetic and epigenetic stability in Coffea arabica plants derived from embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis as revealed by AFLP, MSAP and the phenotypic variation rate.  

PubMed

Embryogenic suspensions that involve extensive cell division are risky in respect to genome and epigenome instability. Elevated frequencies of somaclonal variation in embryogenic suspension-derived plants were reported in many species, including coffee. This problem could be overcome by using culture conditions that allow moderate cell proliferation. In view of true-to-type large-scale propagation of C. arabica hybrids, suspension protocols based on low 2,4-D concentrations and short proliferation periods were developed. As mechanisms leading to somaclonal variation are often complex, the phenotypic, genetic and epigenetic changes were jointly assessed so as to accurately evaluate the conformity of suspension-derived plants. The effects of embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis, used as proliferation systems, on the genetic conformity of somatic embryogenesis-derived plants (emblings) were assessed in two hybrids. When applied over a 6 month period, both systems ensured very low somaclonal variation rates, as observed through massive phenotypic observations in field plots (0.74% from 200,000 plant). Molecular AFLP and MSAP analyses performed on 145 three year-old emblings showed that polymorphism between mother plants and emblings was extremely low, i.e. ranges of 0-0.003% and 0.07-0.18% respectively, with no significant difference between the proliferation systems for the two hybrids. No embling was found to cumulate more than three methylation polymorphisms. No relation was established between the variant phenotype (27 variants studied) and a particular MSAP pattern. Chromosome counting showed that 7 of the 11 variant emblings analyzed were characterized by the loss of 1-3 chromosomes. This work showed that both embryogenic suspensions and secondary embryogenesis are reliable for true-to-type propagation of elite material. Molecular analyses revealed that genetic and epigenetic alterations are particularly limited during coffee somatic embryogenesis. The main change in most of the rare phenotypic variants was aneuploidy, indicating that mitotic aberrations play a major role in somaclonal variation in coffee. PMID:23418563

Bobadilla Landey, Roberto; Cenci, Alberto; Georget, Frédéric; Bertrand, Benoît; Camayo, Gloria; Dechamp, Eveline; Herrera, Juan Carlos; Santoni, Sylvain; Lashermes, Philippe; Simpson, June; Etienne, Hervé

2013-01-01

213

Linking the spatial scale of environmental variation and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity: selection favors adaptive plasticity in fine-grained environments.  

PubMed

Adaptive phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation enable plant lineages to maximize their fitness in response to environmental heterogeneity. The spatial scale of environmental variation relative to the average dispersal distance of a species determines whether selection will favor plasticity, local adaptation, or an intermediate strategy. Habitats where the spatial scale of environmental variation is less than the dispersal distance of a species are fine grained and should favor the expression of adaptive plasticity, while coarse-grained habitats, where environmental variation occurs on spatial scales greater than dispersal, should favor adaptive genetic differentiation. However, there is relatively little information available characterizing the link between the spatial scale of environmental variation and patterns of selection on plasticity measured in the field. I examined patterns of spatial environmental variation within a serpentine mosaic grassland and selection on an annual plant (Erodium cicutarium) within that landscape. Results indicate that serpentine soil patches are a significantly finer-grained habitat than non-serpentine patches. Additionally, selection generally favored increased plasticity on serpentine soils and diminished plasticity on non-serpentine soils. This is the first empirical example of differential selection for phenotypic plasticity in the field as a result of strong differences in the grain of environmental heterogeneity within habitats. PMID:21670579

Baythavong, Brooke S

2011-07-01

214

A pyramid breeding of eight grain-yield related quantitative trait loci based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

1000-Grain weight and spikelet number per panicle are two important components for rice grain yield. In our previous study, eight quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring spikelet number per panicle and 1000-grain weight were mapped through sequencing-based genotyping of 150 rice recombinant inbred lines (RILs). In this study, we validated the effects of four QTLs from Nipponbare using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), and pyramided eight grain yield related QTLs. The new lines containing the eight QTLs with positive effects showed increased panicle and spikelet size as compared with the parent variety 93-11. We further proposed a novel pyramid breeding scheme based on marker-assistant and phenotype selection (MAPS). This scheme allowed pyramiding of as many as 24 QTLs at a single hybridization without massive cross work. This study provided insights into the molecular basis of rice grain yield for direct wealth for high-yielding rice breeding. PMID:22835980

Zong, Guo; Wang, Ahong; Wang, Lu; Liang, Guohua; Gu, Minghong; Sang, Tao; Han, Bin

2012-07-20

215

A single nucleotide polymorphism tags variation in the arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 phenotype in populations of European background  

PubMed Central

Objective The arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) slow acetylation phenotype is an established risk factor for urinary bladder cancer. We previously reported on this risk association using NAT2 phenotypic categories inferred from NAT2 haplotypes based on 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a study in Spain. In a subsequent genome-wide scan, we have identified a single common tag SNP (rs1495741) located in the 3? end of NAT2 that is also associated with bladder cancer risk. The aim of this report is to evaluate the agreement between the common tag SNP and the 7-SNP NAT2 inferred phenotype. Methods The agreement between the 7-SNP NAT2 inferred phenotype and the tag SNP, rs1495741, was initially assessed in 2,174 subjects from the Spanish Bladder Cancer Study (SBCS), and confirmed in a subset of subjects from the Main and Vermont component the New England Bladder Cancer Study (NEBCS). We also investigated the association of rs1495741 genotypes with NAT2 catalytic activity in cryopreserved hepatocytes from 154 individuals of European background. Results We observed very strong agreement between rs1495741 and the 7-SNP inferred NAT2 phenotype: sensitivity and specificity for the NAT2 slow phenotype was 99% and 95%, respectively. Our findings were replicated in an independent population from the United States. Estimates for the association between NAT2 slow phenotype and bladder cancer risk in the SBCS and its interaction with cigarette smoking were comparable for the 7-SNP inferred NAT2 phenotype and rs1495741. In addition, rs1495741 genotypes were strongly related to NAT2 activity measured in hepatocytes (P<0.0001). Conclusion A novel NAT2 tag SNP (rs1495741) predicts with high accuracy the 7- SNP inferred NAT2 phenotype, and thus can be used as a sole marker in pharmacogenetic or epidemiological studies of populations of European background. These findings illustrate the utility of tag SNPs, often employed in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), to identify novel phenotypic markers. Further studies are required to determine the functional implications of this novel SNP and the structure and evolution of the haplotype on which it resides. PMID:20739907

García-Closas, Montserrat; Hein, David W.; Silverman, Debra; Malats, Núria; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin; Doll, Mark A; Figueroa, Jonine D; Baris, Dalsu; Schwenn, Molly; Kogevinas, Manolis; Johnson, Alison; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Moore, Lee E.; Moeller, Timothy; Real, Francisco X.; Chanock, Stephen; Rothman, Nathaniel

2010-01-01

216

Simulating the yield impacts of organ-level quantitative trait loci associated with drought response in maize: a "gene-to-phenotype" modeling approach.  

PubMed

Under drought, substantial genotype-environment (G x E) interactions impede breeding progress for yield. Identifying genetic controls associated with yield response is confounded by poor genetic correlations across testing environments. Part of this problem is related to our inability to account for the interplay of genetic controls, physiological traits, and environmental conditions throughout the crop cycle. We propose a modeling approach to bridge this "gene-to-phenotype" gap. For maize under drought, we simulated the impact of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling two key processes (leaf and silk elongation) that influence crop growth, water use, and grain yield. Substantial G x E interaction for yield was simulated for hypothetical recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across different seasonal patterns of drought. QTL that accelerated leaf elongation caused an increase in crop leaf area and yield in well-watered or preflowering water deficit conditions, but a reduction in yield under terminal stresses (as such "leafy" genotypes prematurely exhausted the water supply). The QTL impact on yield was substantially enhanced by including pleiotropic effects of these QTL on silk elongation and on consequent grain set. The simulations obtained illustrated the difficulty of interpreting the genetic control of yield for genotypes influenced only by the additive effects of QTL associated with leaf and silk growth. The results highlight the potential of integrative simulation modeling for gene-to-phenotype prediction and for exploiting G x E interactions for complex traits such as drought tolerance. PMID:19786622

Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Tardieu, François; McLean, Greg; Welcker, Claude; Hammer, Graeme L

2009-12-01

217

Variation of quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) leaves during the growth season.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore variation peculiarities of qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in leaf samples of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) plants growing in natural habitats of Lithuania during their growth season using the HPLC method. In rowan leaf samples, collected during different phenological stages, qualitative and quantitative estimation of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin, astragalin, ( - )-epicatechin, procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2 was performed. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative composition of phenolic compounds in ethanol extracts of leaf samples of S. aucuparia growing in natural habitats of Lithuania revealed a close relationship between the content of phenolic compounds in S. aucuparia raw plant material and different growth stages. PMID:24697599

Gaivelyte, Kristina; Jakstas, Valdas; Razukas, Almantas; Janulis, Valdimaras

2014-01-01

218

SNP signatures of selection on standing genetic variation and their association with adaptive phenotypes along gradients of ecological speciation in lake whitefish species pairs (Coregonus spp.).  

PubMed

As populations adapt to novel environments, divergent selection will promote heterogeneous genomic differentiation via reductions in gene flow for loci underlying adaptive traits. Using a data set of over 100 SNP markers, genome scans were performed to investigate the effect of natural selection maintaining differentiation in five lakes harbouring sympatric pairs of normal and dwarf lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). A variable proportion of SNPs (between 0% and 12%) was identified as outliers, which corroborated the predicted intensity of competitive interactions unique to each lake. Moreover, strong reduction in heterozygosity was typically observed for outlier loci in dwarf but not in normal whitefish, indicating that directional selection has been acting on standing genetic variation more intensively in dwarf whitefish. SNP associations in backcross hybrid progeny identified 16 genes exhibiting genotype-phenotype associations for four adaptive traits (growth, swimming activity, gill rakers and condition factor). However, neither simple relationship between elevated levels of genetic differentiation with adaptive phenotype nor conspicuous genetic signatures for parallelism at outlier loci were detected, which underscores the importance of independent evolution among lakes. The integration of phenotypic, transcriptomic and functional genomic information identified two candidate genes (sodium potassium ATPase and triosephosphate isomerase) involved in the recent ecological divergence of lake whitefish. Finally, the identification of several markers under divergent selection suggests that many genes, in an environment-specific manner, are recruited by selection and ultimately contributed to the repeated ecological speciation of a dwarf phenotype. PMID:21143332

Renaut, Sébastien; Nolte, Arne W; Rogers, Sean M; Derome, Nicolas; Bernatchez, Louis

2011-02-01

219

Genetic Markers and Quantitative Genetic Variation in Medicago Truncatula (Leguminosae): A Comparative Analysis of Population Structure  

PubMed Central

Two populations of the selfing annual Medicago truncatula Gaertn. (Leguminoseae), each subdivided into three subpopulations, were studied for both metric traits (quantitative characters) and genetic markers (random amplified polymorphic DNA and one morphological, single-locus marker). Hierarchical analyses of variance components show that (1) populations are more differentiated for quantitative characters than for marker loci, (2) the contribution of both within and among subpopulations components of variance to overall genetic variance of these characters is reduced as compared to markers, and (3) at the population level, within population structure is slightly but not significantly larger for markers than for quantitative traits. Under the hypothesis that most markers are neutral, such comparisons may be used to make hypotheses about the strength and heterogeneity of natural selection in the face of genetic drift and gene flow. We thus suggest that in these populations, quantitative characters are under strong divergent selection among populations, and that gene flow is restricted among populations and subpopulations. PMID:8844165

Bonnin, I.; Prosperi, J. M.; Olivieri, I.

1996-01-01

220

Temporal Variations of Skin Pigmentation in C57Bl\\/6 Mice Affect Optical Bioluminescence Quantitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Depilation-induced skin pigmentation in C57Bl\\/6 mice is a known occurrence, and presents a unique problem for quantitative\\u000a optical imaging of small animals, especially for bioluminescence. The work reported here quantitatively investigated the optical\\u000a attenuation of bioluminescent light due to melanin pigmentation in the skin of transgenic C57Bl\\/6 mice, modified such that\\u000a luciferase expression is under the transcription control of a

Allison Curtis; Katherine Calabro; Jean-Rene Galarneau; Irving J. Bigio; Thomas Krucker

221

Variations of ganglioside biosynthetic pathways in the phenotype conversion from myofibroblasts to lipocytes in murine hepatic stellate cell line  

Microsoft Academic Search

GRX cell line represents hepatic stellate cell and can be transformed from an actively proliferation myofibroblast phenotype\\u000a into a quiescent fat-storing lipocyte phenotype. Both express the same gangliosides (GM3, GM2, GM1 and GD1a), which are resolved\\u000a as doublets on HPTLC. Upper\\/lower band ratio is increased in lipocyte-like cells and the upper band is composed by ceramides\\u000a with long-chain fatty acids.

Aline B. de Aguirres; Paola A. Mello; Claudia M. B. Andrade; Ana Carolina Breier; Rogério Margis; Regina M. Guaragna; Radovan Borojevic; Fátima C. R. Guma; Vera M. T. Trindade

2007-01-01

222

Quantitative descriptors of variation in the fruits and seeds of Irvingia gabonensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods were developed to quantify variation in the fruit, nut and kernel traits using the fruits from four trees of Irvingia gabonensis, an indigenous fruit tree of west and central Africa. The measurement of 18 characteristics of 16–32 fruits per tree identified significant variation in fruit, nut and kernel size and weight, and flesh depth. Differences were also identified in

R. R. B. Leakey; J.-M. Fondoun; A. Atangana; Z. Tchoundjeu

2000-01-01

223

Copy Number Variations Burden on miRNA Genes Reveals Layers of Complexities Involved in the Regulation of Pathways and Phenotypic Expression  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs are involved in post-transcriptional down-regulation of gene expression. Variations in miRNA genes can severely affect downstream-regulated genes and their pathways. However, population-specific burden of CNVs on miRNA genes and the complexities created towards the phenotype is not known. From a total of 44109 CNVs investigated from 1715 individuals across 12 populations using high-throughput arrays, 4007 miRNA-CNVs (?9%) consisting 6542 (?5%) miRNA genes with a total of 333 (?5%) singleton miRNA genes were identified. We found miRNA-CNVs across the genomes of individuals showing multiple hits in many targets, co-regulated under the same pathway. This study proposes four mechanisms unraveling the many complexities in miRNA genes, targets and co-regulated miRNA genes towards establishment of phenotypic diversity. PMID:24587348

Veerappa, Avinash M.; Nachappa, Somanna Ajjamada; Prashali, Nelchi; Yadav, Sangeetha Nuggehalli; Srikanta, Manjula Arsikere; Manjegowda, Dinesh S.; Seshachalam, Keshava B.; Ramachandra, Nallur B.

2014-01-01

224

Linkage Analysis of Extremely Discordant and Concordant Sibling Pairs Identifies Quantitative-Trait Loci That Influence Variation in the Human Personality Trait Neuroticism  

PubMed Central

Several theoretical studies have suggested that large samples of randomly ascertained siblings can be used to ascertain phenotypically extreme individuals and thereby increase power to detect genetic linkage in complex traits. Here, we report a genetic linkage scan using extremely discordant and concordant sibling pairs, selected from 34,580 sibling pairs in the southwest of England who completed a personality questionnaire. We performed a genomewide scan for quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) that influence variation in the personality trait of neuroticism, or emotional stability, and we established genomewide empirical significance thresholds by simulation. The maximum pointwise P values, expressed as the negative logarithm (base 10), were found on 1q (3.95), 4q (3.84), 7p (3.90), 12q (4.74), and 13q (3.81). These five loci met or exceeded the 5% genomewide significance threshold of 3.8 (negative logarithm of the P value). QTLs on chromosomes 1, 12, and 13 are likely to be female specific. One locus, on chromosome 1, is syntenic with that reported from QTL mapping of rodent emotionality, an animal model of neuroticism, suggesting that some animal and human QTLs influencing emotional stability may be homologous. PMID:12612864

Fullerton, Jan; Cubin, Matthew; Tiwari, Hemant; Wang, Chenxi; Bomhra, Amarjit; Davidson, Stuart; Miller, Sue; Fairburn, Christopher; Goodwin, Guy; Neale, Michael C.; Fiddy, Simon; Mott, Richard; Allison, David B.; Flint, Jonathan

2003-01-01

225

Introgression study reveals two quantitative trait loci involved in interspecific variation in memory retention among Nasonia wasp species.  

PubMed

Genes involved in the process of memory formation have been studied intensively in model organisms; however, little is known about the mechanisms that are responsible for natural variation in memory dynamics. There is substantial variation in memory retention among closely related species in the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia. After a single olfactory conditioning trial, N. vitripennis consolidates long-term memory that lasts at least 6 days. Memory of the closely related species N. giraulti is present at 24?h but is lost within 2 days after a single trial. The genetic basis of this interspecific difference in memory retention was studied in a backcrossing experiment in which the phenotype of N. giraulti was selected for in the background of N. vitripennis for up to five generations. A genotyping microarray revealed five regions that were retained in wasps with decreased memory retention. Independent introgressions of individual candidate regions were created using linked molecular markers and tested for memory retention. One region on chromosome 1 (spanning ?5.8?cM) and another on chromosome 5 (spanning ?25.6?cM) resulted in decreased memory after 72?h, without affecting 24-h-memory retention. This phenotype was observed in both heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and a dopamine receptor, both with a known function in memory formation, are within these genomic regions and are candidates for the regulation of memory retention. Concluding, this study demonstrates a powerful approach to study variation in memory retention and provides a basis for future research on its genetic basis. PMID:25052416

Hoedjes, K M; Smid, H M; Vet, L E M; Werren, J H

2014-12-01

226

Opposite risk patterns for autism and schizophrenia are associated with normal variation in birth size: phenotypic support for hypothesized diametric gene-dosage effects.  

PubMed

Opposite phenotypic and behavioural traits associated with copy number variation and disruptions to imprinted genes with parent-of-origin effects have led to the hypothesis that autism and schizophrenia share molecular risk factors and pathogenic mechanisms, but a direct phenotypic comparison of how their risks covary has not been attempted. Here, we use health registry data collected on Denmark's roughly 5 million residents between 1978 and 2009 to detect opposing risks of autism and schizophrenia depending on normal variation (mean ± 1 s.d.) in adjusted birth size, which we use as a proxy for diametric gene-dosage variation in utero. Above-average-sized babies (weight, 3691-4090 g; length, 52.8-54.3 cm) had significantly higher risk for autism spectrum (AS) and significantly lower risk for schizophrenia spectrum (SS) disorders. By contrast, below-average-sized babies (2891-3290 g; 49.7-51.2 cm) had significantly lower risk for AS and significantly higher risk for SS disorders. This is the first study directly comparing autism and schizophrenia risks in the same population, and provides the first large-scale empirical support for the hypothesis that diametric gene-dosage effects contribute to these disorders. Only the kinship theory of genomic imprinting predicts the opposing risk patterns that we discovered, suggesting that molecular research on mental disease risk would benefit from considering evolutionary theory. PMID:25232142

Byars, Sean G; Stearns, Stephen C; Boomsma, Jacobus J

2014-11-01

227

Co-existence of other copy number variations with 22q11.2 deletion or duplication: a modifier for variable phenotypes of the syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Background The phenotype in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion or duplication can be extremely variable, and the causes of such as variations are not well known. Results We observed additional copy number variations (CNVs) in 2 of 15 cases with a 22q11.2 deletion or duplication. Both cases were newborn babies referred for severe congenital heart defects. The first case had a deletion with a size of approximately 1.56 Mb involving multiple genes including STS in the Xp22.31 region along with a 22q11.2 deletion. The second case had a duplication of 605 kb in the 15q13.3 region encompassing CHRNA7 and a deletion of 209 kb involving the RBFOX1 gene in the 16p13.2 region, in addition to 22q11.2 duplication. Discussion Our observations have shown that additional CNVs are not rare (2/15, 13%) in patients with a 22q11.2 deletion or duplication. We speculate that these CNVs may contribute to phenotype variations of 22q11.2 microdeletion/duplication syndromes as genomic modifiers. PMID:22487416

2012-01-01

228

Seasonal variation in pectoralis muscle and heart myostatin and tolloid-like proteinases in small birds: a regulatory role for seasonal phenotypic flexibility?  

PubMed

Seasonally variable environments produce seasonal phenotypes in small birds such that winter birds have higher thermogenic capacities and pectoralis and heart masses. One potential regulator of these seasonal phenotypes is myostatin, a muscle growth inhibitor, which may be downregulated under conditions promoting increased energy demand. We examined summer-to-winter variation in skeletal muscle and heart masses and used qPCR and Western blots to measure levels of myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators TLL-1 and TLL-2 for two small temperate-zone resident birds, American goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Winter pectoralis and heart masses were significantly greater than in summer for American goldfinches. Neither myostatin expression nor protein levels differed significantly between seasons for goldfinch pectoralis. However, myostatin levels in goldfinch heart were significantly greater in summer than in winter, although heart myostatin expression was seasonally stable. In addition, expression of both metalloproteinase activators was greater in summer than in winter goldfinches for both pectoralis and heart, significantly so except for heart TLL-2 (P = 0.083). Black-capped chickadees showed no significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses. Seasonal patterns of pectoralis and heart expression and/or protein levels for myostatin and its metalloproteinase activators in chickadees showed no consistent seasonal trends, which may help explain the absence of significant seasonal variation in muscle or heart masses for chickadees in this study. These data are partially consistent with a regulatory role for myostatin, and especially myostatin processing capacity, in mediating seasonal metabolic phenotypes of small birds. PMID:24395519

Swanson, David L; King, Marisa O; Harmon, Erin

2014-02-01

229

Quantitative genetic analysis of morphological variation in an antarctic diatom grown at two light intensities. [Thalassiosira tumida  

SciTech Connect

Ten clonal isolates of Thalassiosira tumida (Janisch) Hasle were grown in duplicate semi-continuous batch cultures at 116 and 11.6 E x m S x s ; acclimated cells were harvested during exponential growth and cleaned for examination by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Number of strutted processes surrounding the central annulus (SP) and average number of satellite pores per process (AVSAT) were counted using SEM on 20 valves from each culture grown in high light, for a total of 400 valves examined; number of marginal labiate processes (LP) and overall diameter (DIAM) were measured using LM on 20 valves form each culture grown in both high and low light for a total of 800 valves examined. Univariate analysis of variance showed that bottle effects resulting from microenvironmental differences between replicates were a small but significant source of variation in DIAM, LP, and SP but not AVSAT. Significant differences among clones were observed for all characters. Decreased irradiance resulted in a significant decrease in valve diameter but no significant effect on LP; no light x clone interaction was observed. Analysis of the size-corrected data showed that the proportion of total phenotypic variance in SP; LP, and AVSAT caused by genetic differences among clones was 0.14, 0.14, and 0.30, respectively. This indicates that the majority of total phenotypic variance was due to environmental or developmental causes, but that sufficient genetic variability exists to support rapid phenotypic evolution in SP, LP, and AVSAT under continued directional section. Finally, the results of the genetic analysis revealed a high (0.82) genetic correlation between SP and LP.

Wood, A.M.; Lande, R.; Fryxell, G.A.

1987-03-01

230

Individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions about individual variation in “quality” and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. Such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. We used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks

Peter Blums; James D Nichols; James E. Hines; Mark S. Lindberg; Aivars Mednis

2005-01-01

231

Interactive Effects of Geography and Host Plant Species on Genetic and Phenotypic Variation of Cotton Fleahopper Populations  

E-print Network

different morphologies. Similarly, morphological variation in insect populations may result from their association with host plant species which are different morphologically, anatomically, and biochemically. For example, in the goldenrod aphid, Uroleucon... different morphologies. Similarly, morphological variation in insect populations may result from their association with host plant species which are different morphologically, anatomically, and biochemically. For example, in the goldenrod aphid, Uroleucon...

Barman, Apurba

2012-02-14

232

Quantitative mapping of pore fraction variations in silicon nitride using an ultrasonic contact scan technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic scan procedure using the pulse-echo contact configuration was employed to obtain maps of pore fraction variations in sintered silicon nitride samples in terms of ultrasonic material properties. Ultrasonic velocity, attenuation coefficient, and reflection coefficient images were obtained simultaneously over a broad band of frequencies (e.g., 30 to 110 MHz) by using spectroscopic analysis. Liquid and membrane (dry) coupling techniques and longitudinal and shear-wave energies were used. The major results include the following: Ultrasonic velocity (longitudinal and shear wave) images revealed and correlated with the extent of average through-thickness pore fraction variations in the silicon nitride disks. Attenuation coefficient images revealed pore fraction nonuniformity due to the scattering that occurred at boundaries between regions of high and low pore fraction. Velocity and attenuation coefficient images were each nearly identical for machined and polished disks, making the method readily applicable to machined materials. Velocity images were similar for wet and membrane coupling. Maps of apparent Poisson's ratio constructed from longitudinal and shear-wave velocities quantified Poisson's ratio variations across a silicon nitride disk. Thermal wave images of a disk indicated transient thermal behavior variations that correlated with observed variations in pore fraction and velocity and attenuation coefficients.

Roth, Don J.; Kiser, James D.; Swickard, Suzanne M.; Szatmary, Steven A.; Kerwin, David P.

1993-01-01

233

Correlation between Anolis lizard dewlap phenotype and environmental variation indicates adaptive divergence of a signal important to sexual selection and species recognition.  

PubMed

Although the importance of signals involved in species recognition and sexual selection to speciation is widely recognized, the processes that underlie signal divergence are still a matter of debate. Several possible processes have been hypothesized, including genetic drift, arbitrary sexual selection, and adaptation to local signaling environments. We use comparative analyses to investigate whether the remarkable geographic variation of dewlap phenotype in a Hispaniolan trunk Anolis lizard (A. distichus) is a result of adaptive signal divergence to heterogeneous environments. We recover a repeated pattern of divergence in A. distichus dewlap color, pattern, and size with environmental variation across Hispaniola. These results are aligned with ecological models of signal divergence and provide strong evidence for dewlap adaptation to local signaling environments. We also find that A. distichus dewlaps vary with the environment in a different manner to other previously studied anoles, thus expanding upon previous predictions on the direction dewlaps will diverge in perceptual color space in response to the environment. PMID:23356628

Ng, Julienne; Landeen, Emily L; Logsdon, Ryane M; Glor, Richard E

2013-02-01

234

Quantitative variation as a tool for detecting human-induced impacts on genetic diversity  

E-print Network

in biodiversity caused by different human-induced activities. We simulated a metapopulation setting under a number). The effects on diversity of these scenarios were assessed for neutral variation estimated from molecular; Genetic variance; Population genetic differentiation; Pollution; Bottlenecks; Mutation 1. Introduction

Rolán-Alvarez, Emilio

235

Qualitative and quantitative variations of membrane lipid species in Acholeplasma laidlawii A.  

PubMed

In Acholeplasma laidlawii A, strain EF 22, the relative amounts of the membrane polar lipids vary as a consequence of different fatty acid supplements to the growth medium. The number of lipid species also varies; a new apolar monoglucolipid containing four fatty acid residues was present only when saturated fatty acids dominated in the growth medium. A new phosphoglucolipid, probably with a glycerophosphoryl-monoglucosyldiglyceride structure, was also found. The most pronounced variations occurred between the two dominating glucolipids, monoglucosyldiglyceride and diglucosyldiglyceride; the former being found in larger amounts when a saturated or a trans-unsaturated fatty acid was present in the medium. The amount of diglucosyldiglyceride decreased accordingly. A qualitative relationship between fatty acid properties and membrane lipid variations was established over a wide fatty acid concentration range. Incorporation of supplied fatty acids reached higher levels than normally found in other acholeplasmas. The ratio between membrane protein and lipids exhibited significant and coherent variations during growth and was to some extent influenced by the fatty acids in the medium. These changes indicate variations in lipid-protein organization in the membranes during growth. PMID:870042

Wieslander, A; Rilfors, L

1977-04-18

236

Epigenome dynamics: a quantitative genetics perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classically, quantitative geneticists have envisioned DNA sequence variants as the only source of heritable phenotypes. This view should be revised in light of accumulating evidence for widespread epigenetic variation in natural and experimental populations. Here we argue that it is timely to consider novel experimental strategies and analysis models to capture the potentially dynamic interplay between chromatin and DNA sequence

Vincent Colot; Ritsert C. Jansen; Frank Johannes

2008-01-01

237

Foliar ?(13)C response patterns along a moisture gradient arising from genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in grassland species of Inner Mongolia.  

PubMed

Plants depend upon both genetic differences and phenotypic plasticity to cope with environmental variation over different timescales. The spatial variation in foliar ?(13)C levels along a moisture gradient represents an overlay of genetic and plastic responses. We hypothesized that such a spatial variation would be more obvious than the variation arising purely from a plastic response to moisture change. Leymus chinensis and Stipa spp. were sampled from Inner Mongolia along a dry-wet transect, and some of these species were transplanted to an area with a moisture gradient. For Stipa spp., the slope of foliar ?(13)C and mean annual precipitation along the transect was significantly steeper than that of foliar ?(13)C and mean annual precipitation after the watering treatment. For L. chinensis, there was a general decreasing trend in foliar ?(13)C under the different (increasing) watering levels; however, its populations showed an irregular relationship between foliar ?(13)C and moisture origin. Therefore, support for our hypothesis was obtained from Stipa spp., but not from L. chinensis. PMID:23467429

Liu, Yanjie; Niu, Haishan; Xu, Xingliang

2013-02-01

238

Foliar ?13C response patterns along a moisture gradient arising from genetic variation and phenotypic plasticity in grassland species of Inner Mongolia  

PubMed Central

Plants depend upon both genetic differences and phenotypic plasticity to cope with environmental variation over different timescales. The spatial variation in foliar ?13C levels along a moisture gradient represents an overlay of genetic and plastic responses. We hypothesized that such a spatial variation would be more obvious than the variation arising purely from a plastic response to moisture change. Leymus chinensis and Stipa spp. were sampled from Inner Mongolia along a dry-wet transect, and some of these species were transplanted to an area with a moisture gradient. For Stipa spp., the slope of foliar ?13C and mean annual precipitation along the transect was significantly steeper than that of foliar ?13C and mean annual precipitation after the watering treatment. For L. chinensis, there was a general decreasing trend in foliar ?13C under the different (increasing) watering levels; however, its populations showed an irregular relationship between foliar ?13C and moisture origin. Therefore, support for our hypothesis was obtained from Stipa spp., but not from L. chinensis. PMID:23467429

Liu, Yanjie; Niu, Haishan; Xu, Xingliang

2013-01-01

239

Opposite variations in fumarate and malate dominate metabolic phenotypes of Arabidopsis salicylate mutants with abnormal biomass under chilling.  

PubMed

In chilling conditions (5°C), salicylic acid (SA)-deficient mutants (sid2, eds5 and NahG) of Arabidopsis thaliana produced more biomass than wild type (Col-0), whereas the SA overproducer cpr1 was extremely stunted. The hypothesis that these phenotypes were reflected in metabolism was explored using 600?MHz (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of unfractionated polar shoot extracts. Biomass-related metabolic phenotypes were identified as multivariate data models of these NMR 'fingerprints'. These included principal components that correlated with biomass. Also, partial least squares-regression models were found to predict the relative size of plants in previously unseen experiments in different light intensities, or relative size of one genotype from the others. The dominant signal in these models was fumarate, which was high in SA-deficient mutants, intermediate in Col-0 and low in cpr1 at 5°C. Among signals negatively correlated with biomass, malate was prominent. Abundance of transcripts of the FUM2 cytosolic fumarase (At5g50950) showed strong positive correlation with fumarate levels and with biomass, whereas no significant differences were found for the FUM1 mitochondrial fumarase (At2g47510). It was confirmed that the morphological effects of SA under chilling find expression in the metabolome, with a role of fumarate highlighted. PMID:24735077

Scott, Ian M; Ward, Jane L; Miller, Sonia J; Beale, Michael H

2014-12-01

240

Quantitative Genetic Variation of Enzyme Activities in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic component of variation of enzyme activity in natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated by using two sets of chromosome substitution lines. The constitution of a line of each type is: i1\\/i1; +2\\/+2; i3\\/i3 and i1\\/i1; i2\\/i2; +3\\/+3, where i refers to a chromosome from a highly inbred line and + refers to a chromosome from a natural

C. C. Laurie-Ahlberg; G. Maroni; G. C. Bewley; J. C. Lucchesi; B. S. Weir

1980-01-01

241

Rapid and Inexpensive Screening of Genomic Copy Number Variations Using a Novel Quantitative Fluorescent PCR Method  

PubMed Central

Detection of human microdeletion and microduplication syndromes poses significant burden on public healthcare systems in developing countries. With genome-wide diagnostic assays frequently inaccessible, targeted low-cost PCR-based approaches are preferred. However, their reproducibility depends on equally efficient amplification using a number of target and control primers. To address this, the recently described technique called Microdeletion/Microduplication Quantitative Fluorescent PCR (MQF-PCR) was shown to reliably detect four human syndromes by quantifying DNA amplification in an internally controlled PCR reaction. Here, we confirm its utility in the detection of eight human microdeletion syndromes, including the more common WAGR, Smith-Magenis, and Potocki-Lupski syndromes with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. We present selection, design, and performance evaluation of detection primers using variety of approaches. We conclude that MQF-PCR is an easily adaptable method for detection of human pathological chromosomal aberrations. PMID:24288428

Han, Joan C.; Elsea, Sarah H.; Pena, Heloisa B.; Pena, Sergio Danilo Junho

2013-01-01

242

GATA6 reporter gene reveals myocardial phenotypic heterogeneity that is related to variations in gap junction coupling  

PubMed Central

This study examined transgenic mice whose expression of a ?-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter is driven by a GATA6 gene enhancer. Previous investigations established that transcription of the transgene was associated with precardiac mesoderm and primary heart tube myocardium, which decreased progressively, so that its expression was no longer observed within ventricular myocardium by midgestation. Expression of this reporter in the adult was investigated for insights into myocyte homeostasis and cardiovascular biology. Morphometric analysis determined that <1% of myocytes, often found in small clusters, express this GATA6-associated reporter in the adult heart. LacZ expression was also found in the ascending aorta. Myocardial expression of the transgene was not associated with a proliferative phenotype or new myocyte formation, as lacZ-positive myocytes neither labeled with cell division markers nor following 5-bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experimentation. Despite exhibiting normal adherens junctions, these myocytes appeared to exhibit decreased connexin 43 gap junctions. Treatment with the gap junctional blocker heptanol both in vivo and in culture elevated myocardial ?-galactosidase activity, suggesting that deficient gap junctional communication underlies expression of the transgenic reporter. LacZ expression within the myocardium was also enhanced in response to cryoinjury and isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. These results reveal a previously uncharacterized phenotypic heterogeneity in the myocardium and suggest that decreased gap junctional coupling leads to induction of a signaling pathway that utilizes a unique GATA6 enhancer. Upregulation of lacZ reporter gene expression following cardiac injury indicates this transgenic mouse may serve as a model for examining the transition of the heart from healthy to pathological states. PMID:21908788

Remond, Mathieu C.; Iaffaldano, Grazia; O'Quinn, Michael P.; Mezentseva, Nadejda V.; Garcia, Victor; Harris, Brett S.; Gourdie, Robert G.; Eisenberg, Carol A.

2011-01-01

243

Rainfall can explain adaptive phenotypic variation with high gene flow in the New Holland Honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae)  

PubMed Central

Identifying environmentally driven changes in traits that serve an ecological function is essential for predicting evolutionary outcomes of climate change. We examined population genetic structure, sex-specific dispersal patterns, and morphology in relation to rainfall patterns across an island and three peninsulas in South Australia. The study system was the New Holland Honeyeater (Phylidonyris novaehollandiae), a nectarivorous passerine that is a key pollinator species. We predicted that rainfall-related mechanisms would be driving local adaptation of morphological traits, such that in areas of lower rainfall, where nectar is less available, more insectivorous traits – shorter, deeper bills, longer tarsi, and longer wings – would be favored. The study populations differed in phenotype across the Eyre, Yorke, and Fleurieu Peninsulas and Kangaroo Island despite high gene flow (single continuous population) and sex-biased dispersal (males were philopatric and females dispersed). We tested the role of rainfall in shaping the observed phenotypic differences, and found strong support for our predicted relationships: birds in areas of higher rainfall had higher condition indices, as well as longer bill-head length, deeper bills, and shorter tarsi. Bill depth in males in high-rainfall sites showed signals of stabilizing selection, suggesting local adaptation. In addition to these local indications of selection, a global pattern of directional selection toward larger size for bill-head length, bill-nostril length, and wing length was also observed. We suggest this pattern may reflect an adaptive response to the relatively dry conditions that South Australia has experienced over the last decade. We conclude that rainfall has shaped aspects of phenology in P. novaehollandiae, both locally, with different patterns of stabilizing and directional selection, and globally, with evidence of adaptive divergence at a landscape scale. PMID:23145327

Myers, Steven A; Donnellan, Stephen; Kleindorfer, Sonia

2012-01-01

244

Burkholderia cenocepacia Phenotypic Clonal Variation during a 3.5-Year Colonization in the Lungs of a Cystic Fibrosis Patient ?  

PubMed Central

Chronic lung infection is the major cause of morbidity and premature mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Bacteria of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are the most threatening pathogens in CF, and a better understanding of how these bacteria adapt to the CF airway environment and resist the host defense mechanisms and therapeutically administered antibiotics is crucial. To provide clues to the adaptive strategies adopted by Burkholderia cenocepacia during long-term colonization, we carried out a phenotypic assessment of 11 clonal variants obtained at the major Portuguese CF Center in Lisbon from sputa of the same CF patient during 3.5 years of colonization of the lungs, until the patient's death with cepacia syndrome. Phenotypic characterization included susceptibility assays against different classes of antimicrobials and characterization of cell motility, cell hydrophobicity and zeta potential, colony and cell morphology, fatty acid composition, growth under iron limitation/load conditions, exopolysaccharide production, and size of the biofilms formed. The results suggest the occurrence of clonal expansion during long-term colonization. For a number of the characteristics tested, no isolation time-dependent consistent alteration pattern could be identified. However, the values for antimicrobial susceptibility and swarming motility for the first B. cenocepacia isolate, thought to have initiated the infection, were consistently above those for the clonal variants obtained during the course of infection, and the opposite was found for the zeta potential. The adaptive strategy for long-term colonization, described here for the first time, involved the alteration of membrane fatty acid composition, in particular a reduction of the degree of fatty acid saturation, in the B. cenocepacia variants retrieved, along with the deterioration of pulmonary function and severe oxygen limitation. PMID:21536796

Coutinho, Carla P.; de Carvalho, Carla C. C. R.; Madeira, Andreia; Pinto-de-Oliveira, Ana; Sa-Correia, Isabel

2011-01-01

245

Conflicting selection from fire and seed predation drives fine-scaled phenotypic variation in a widespread North American conifer.  

PubMed

Recent work has demonstrated that evolutionary processes shape ecological dynamics on relatively short timescales (eco-evolutionary dynamics), but demonstrating these effects at large spatial scales in natural landscapes has proven difficult. We used empirical studies and modeling to investigate how selective pressures from fire and predispersal seed predation affect the evolution of serotiny, an ecologically important trait. Serotiny is a highly heritable key reproductive trait in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta subsp. latifolia), a conifer that dominates millions of hectares in western North America. In these forests, the frequency of serotiny determines postfire seedling density with corresponding community- and ecosystem-level effects. We found that serotinous individuals have a selective advantage at high fire frequencies and low predation pressure; however, very high seed predation shifted the selective advantage to nonserotinous individuals even at high fire frequencies. Simulation modeling suggests that spatial variation in the frequency of serotiny results from heterogeneity in these two selective agents. These results, combined with previous findings showing a negative association between the density of seed predators and the frequency of serotiny at both landscape and continental scales, demonstrate that contemporary patterns in serotiny reflect an evolutionary response to conflicting selection pressures from fire and seed predation. Thus, we show that variation in the frequency of a heritable polygenic trait depends on spatial variation in two dominant selective agents, and, importantly, the effects of the local trait variation propagate with profound consequences to the structure and function of communities and ecosystems across a large landscape. PMID:24979772

Talluto, Matthew V; Benkman, Craig W

2014-07-01

246

Quantitative Analysis of Competition in Posttranscriptional Regulation Reveals a Novel Signature in Target Expression Variation  

PubMed Central

When small RNAs are loaded onto Argonaute proteins they can form the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which mediate RNA interference (RNAi). RISC-formation is dependent on a shared pool of Argonaute proteins and RISC-loading factors, and is susceptible to competition among small RNAs. We present a mathematical model that aims to understand how small RNA competition for RISC-formation affects target gene repression. We discuss that small RNA activity is limited by RISC-formation, RISC-degradation, and the availability of Argonautes. We show that different competition conditions for RISC-loading result in different signatures of RNAi determined also by the amount of RISC-recycling taking place. In particular, we find that the small RNAs, although less efficient at RISC-formation, can perform in the low RISC-recycling range as well as their more effective counterparts. Additionally, we predict that under conditions of low RISC-loading efficiency and high RISC-recycling, the variation in target levels increases linearly with the target transcription rate. Furthermore, we show that RISC-recycling determines the effect that Argonaute scarcity conditions have on target expression variation. Our observations, taken together, offer a framework of predictions that can be used to infer from data the particular characteristics of underlying RNAi activity. PMID:23442974

Klironomos, Filippos D.; Berg, Johannes

2013-01-01

247

An experimental method for evaluating the contribution of deleterious mutations to quantitative trait variation  

E-print Network

single diallelic locus are C ad fl2pq(pfiq)d[a?d(qfip)] and V hd fl4pq(qfip)#d#. The ratios of C ad and V hd to V a are given as a function of the frequency of a partially recessive allele in Fig. 1. If the additive variation in a trait is due primarily... trait ariation 265 5 3 4 2 1 0 ?1 0?01 10?1 Frequency of partially recessive allele Ratio of v ariance components C ad /V a V hd /V a Fig. 1. The ratio of C ad or V hd to the additive genetic variance given the frequency of a partially recessive allele...

Kelly, John K.

1999-06-01

248

Major gene analysis of quantitative variation in blood clotting factor X levels.  

PubMed Central

Blood clotting factor ten (X) levels measured in 149 people in six pedigrees were found to fit a mixture of normal distributions. No environmental effect could be identified to account for the wide separation in the means of these distributions. Pedigree analysis reveals that the data are compatible with an autosomal, one locus, two allele genetic model affecting factor X activity. Goodness of fit tests suggest that the allele for low levels of factor X is dominant, though on the basis of likelihood tests, mean heterozygote levels are different from mean homozygote levels. A similar bimodal distribution for factor X levels observed previously in a separate sample of 207 young men, indicated that the proposed dominant allele has an estimated population gene frequency of .53. The earlier estimate is remarkably similar to that obtained with the currently ascertained pedigrees. The postulated major gene accounts for more than half of the variation in factor X levels. PMID:453203

Siervogel, R M; Elston, R C; Lester, R H; Graham, J B

1979-01-01

249

Induction of phenotypic variation by activation of genes harbouring a maize Spm element in their promoter regions using a TnpA-VP16 fusion protein.  

PubMed

For many crops, a narrowing genetic base is becoming an increasingly significant problem for improvements made through breeding. Commonly used breeding procedures systematically reduce genetic diversity within elite gene pools. Here we describe a new technique for activation of genes in lines carrying Spm or dSpm transposon insertions. Activation of genes in Arabidopsis harbouring Spm or dSpm insertions in their promoters can be induced by over-expression of the TnpA-VP16 fusion protein, which binds Spm ends and activates local transcription. As a result, a variety of phenotypes are recovered from multiple-copy Spm lines in Arabidopsis. Application of this technique to a number of Spm insertion collections in Arabidopsis provides a valuable approach for new insights into plant gene functions. It also provides a proof-of-principle demonstration that the method could be used to generate new variation in elite lines of maize. PMID:18069940

Sorokin, Alexander P; Walsh, Sean; Baumann, Kim; Nichols, John; Bevan, Michael; Jones, Jonathan D G; Martin, Cathie; Clarke, Jonathan H

2008-02-01

250

Phenotypic plasticity in Passiflora suberosa L.(Passifloraceae): induction and reversion of two morphs by variation in light intensity.  

PubMed

Leaf morphology may vary considerably even within a branch of Passiflora suberosa plants. Leaves are of a typical green type in shaded areas, but in open fields turn into violet, and apparently have greater thickness and trichome density. The proximate causes and the adaptive meaning, if any, for the existence of the violet morph are still unknown. By cultivating P. suberosa clones under two light regimes (total and partial exposure to sunlight), we consecutively induced (first year) and then reversed (second year) the appearance of the violet morph. We evaluated the corresponding changes in morpho-anatomic and chemical leaf characteristics. Plants that were grown under partial sunlight had a greater size and did not alter their green color, but those grown under total sunlight changed into violet, were smaller in size and their leaves were tougher, thicker, and had a greater number of trichomes. The violet morph had increased anthocyanins and phenolic derivatives. It also showed cellular hypertrophy, a greater number of cell layers in the mesophyll, and a lignified pericycle. Since these morphs are interchangeable by changing light conditions, we inferred that they are not determined by genotypic diversity, but are mainly a result of a physiological response to light stress, and thus part of P. suberosa phenotypic plasticity. PMID:17119833

Barp, E A; Soares, G L G; Gosmann, G; Machado, A M; Vecchi, C; Moreira, G R P

2006-08-01

251

Decomposing variation in population growth into contributions from environment and phenotypes in an age-structured population  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the relative importance of ecological drivers responsible for natural population fluctuations in size is challenging. Longitudinal studies where most individuals are monitored from birth to death and where environmental conditions are known provide a valuable resource to characterize complex ecological interactions. We used a recently developed approach to decompose the observed fluctuation in population growth of the red deer population on the Isle of Rum into contributions from climate, density and their interaction and to quantify their relative importance. We also quantified the contribution of individual covariates, including phenotypic and life-history traits, to population growth. Fluctuations in composition in age and sex classes ((st)age structure) of the population contributed substantially to the population dynamics. Density, climate, birth weight and reproductive status contributed less and approximately equally to the population growth. Our results support the contention that fluctuations in the population's (st)age structure have important consequences for population dynamics and underline the importance of including information on population composition to understand the effect of human-driven changes on population performance of long-lived species. PMID:21715404

Pelletier, Fanie; Moyes, Kelly; Clutton-Brock, Tim H.; Coulson, Tim

2012-01-01

252

Simple absolute quantification method correcting for quantitative PCR efficiency variations for microbial community samples.  

PubMed

Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique in microbial community analysis, allowing the quantification of the number of target genes in a community sample. Currently, the standard-curve (SC) method of absolute quantification is widely employed for these kinds of analysis. However, the SC method assumes that the amplification efficiency (E) is the same for both the standard and the sample target template. We analyzed 19 bacterial strains and nine environmental samples in qPCR assays, targeting the nifH and 16S rRNA genes. The E values of the qPCRs differed significantly, depending on the template. This has major implications for the quantification. If the sample and standard differ in their E values, quantification errors of up to orders of magnitude are possible. To address this problem, we propose and test the one-point calibration (OPC) method for absolute quantification. The OPC method corrects for differences in E and was derived from the ??C(T) method with correction for E, which is commonly used for relative quantification in gene expression studies. The SC and OPC methods were compared by quantifying artificial template mixtures from Geobacter sulfurreducens (DSM 12127) and Nostoc commune (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa [CCAP] 1453/33), which differ in their E values. While the SC method deviated from the expected nifH gene copy number by 3- to 5-fold, the OPC method quantified the template mixtures with high accuracy. Moreover, analyzing environmental samples, we show that even small differences in E between the standard and the sample can cause significant differences between the copy numbers calculated by the SC and the OPC methods. PMID:22492459

Brankatschk, Robert; Bodenhausen, Natacha; Zeyer, Josef; Bürgmann, Helmut

2012-06-01

253

Genome-Wide Linkage Scan for Quantitative Trait Loci Underlying Normal Variation in Heel Bone Ultrasound Measures  

PubMed Central

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) traits are correlated with bone mineral density (BMD), but predict risk for future fracture independent of BMD. Only a few studies, however, have sought to identify specific genes influencing calcaneal QUS measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing normal variation in QUS traits. QUS measures were collected from a total of 719 individuals (336 males and 383 females) from the Fels Longitudinal Study who have been genotyped and have at least one set of QUS measurements. Participants ranged in age from 18.0 to 96.6 years and were distributed across 110 nuclear and extended families. Using the Sahara ® bone sonometer, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (QUI) were collected from the right heel. Variance components based linkage analysis was performed on the three traits using 400 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers spaced approximately 10 cM apart across the autosomes to identify QTL influencing the QUS traits. Age, sex, and other significant covariates were simultaneously adjusted. Heritability estimates (h2) for the QUS traits ranged from 0.42 to 0.57. Significant evidence for a QTL influencing BUA was found on chromosome 11p15 near marker D11S902 (LOD = 3.11). Our results provide additional evidence for a QTL on chromosome 11p that harbors a potential candidate gene(s) related to BUA and bone metabolism. PMID:22237995

Lee, M.; Choh, A.C.; Williams, K.D.; Schroeder, V.; Dyer, T.D.; Blangero, J.; Cole, S.A.; Chumlea, WM.C.; Duren, D.L.; Sherwood, R.J.; Siervogel, R.M.; Towne, B.; Czerwinski, S.A.

2012-01-01

254

A comparison of isozyme and quantitative genetic variation in Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia by F{sub ST}  

SciTech Connect

We employed F-statistics to analyze quantitative and isozyme variation among five populations of Pinus contorta ssp. latifolia, a wind-pollinated outcrossing conifer with wide and continuous distribution in west North America. Estimates of population differentiation (F{sub ST}) for six quantitative traits were compared with the overall estimate of the differentiation (F*{sub ST}) from 19 isozymes that tested neutral to examine whether similar evolutionary processes were involved in morphological and isozyme differentiation. While the F{sub ST} estimates for specific gravity, stem diameter, stem height and branch length were significantly greater than the F*{sub ST} estimate, as judged from the 95% confidence intervals by bootstrapping, the F{sub ST} estimates for branch angle and branch diameter were indistinguishable from the F*{sub ST} estimate. Differentiation in stem height and stem diameter might reflect the inherent adaptation of the populations for rapid growth to escape suppression by neighboring plants during establishment and to regional differences in photoperiod, precipitation and temperature. In contrast, divergences in wood specific gravity and branch length might be correlated responses to population differentiation in stem growth. Possible bias in the estimation of F{sub ST} due to Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (F{sub IS} {ne} 0), linkage disequilibrium, maternal effects and nonadditive genetic effects was discussed with special reference to P. contorta ssp. latifolia. 48 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, F.C. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Yanchuk, A.D. [British Columbia Ministry of Forests (Canada)

1996-03-01

255

Genome-wide linkage scan for quantitative trait loci underlying normal variation in heel bone ultrasound measures.  

PubMed

Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) traits are correlated with bone mineral density (BMD), but predict risk for future fracture independent of BMD. Only a few studies, however, have sought to identify specific genes influencing calcaneal QUS measures. The aim of this study was to conduct a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing normal variation in QUS traits. QUS measures were collected from a total of 719 individuals (336 males and 383 females) from the Fels Longitudinal Study who have been genotyped and have at least one set of QUS measurements. Participants ranged in age from 18.0 to 96.6 years and were distributed across 110 nuclear and extended families. Using the Sahara ® bone sonometer, broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), speed of sound (SOS) and stiffness index (QUI) were collected from the right heel. Variance components based linkage analysis was performed on the three traits using 400 polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers spaced approximately 10 cM apart across the autosomes to identify QTL influencing the QUS traits. Age, sex, and other significant covariates were simultaneously adjusted. Heritability estimates (h²) for the QUS traits ranged from 0.42 to 0.57. Significant evidence for a QTL influencing BUA was found on chromosome 11p15 near marker D11S902 (LOD = 3.11). Our results provide additional evidence for a QTL on chromosome 11p that harbors a potential candidate gene(s) related to BUA and bone metabolism. PMID:22237995

Lee, M; Choh, A C; Williams, K D; Schroeder, V; Dyer, T D; Blangero, J; Cole, S A; Chumlea, Wm C; Duren, D L; Sherwood, R J; Siervogel, R M; Towne, B; Czerwinski, S A

2012-01-01

256

Variations in the Hemagglutinin of the 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Virus: Potential for Strains with Altered Virulence Phenotype?  

PubMed Central

A novel, swine-origin influenza H1N1 virus (H1N1pdm) caused the first pandemic of the 21st century. This pandemic, although efficient in transmission, is mild in virulence. This atypical mild pandemic season has raised concerns regarding the potential of this virus to acquire additional virulence markers either through further adaptation or possibly by immune pressure in the human host. Using the mouse model we generated, within a single round of infection with A/California/04/09/H1N1 (Ca/04), a virus lethal in mice—herein referred to as mouse-adapted Ca/04 (ma-Ca/04). Five amino acid substitutions were found in the genome of ma-Ca/04: 3 in HA (D131E, S186P and A198E), 1 in PA (E298K) and 1 in NP (D101G). Reverse genetics analyses of these mutations indicate that all five mutations from ma-Ca/04 contributed to the lethal phenotype; however, the D131E and S186P mutations—which are also found in the 1918 and seasonal H1N1 viruses—in HA alone were sufficient to confer virulence of Ca/04 in mice. HI assays against H1N1pdm demonstrate that the D131E and S186P mutations caused minor antigenic changes and, likely, affected receptor binding. The rapid selection of ma-Ca/04 in mice suggests that a virus containing this constellation of amino acids might have already been present in Ca/04, likely as minor quasispecies. PMID:20976194

Ye, Jianqiang; Sorrell, Erin M.; Cai, Yibin; Shao, Hongxia; Xu, Kemin; Pena, Lindomar; Hickman, Danielle; Song, Haichen; Angel, Matthew; Medina, Rafael A.; Manicassamy, Balaji; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Perez, Daniel R.

2010-01-01

257

Cranial ontogeny in Stegoceras validum (Dinosauria: Pachycephalosauria): a quantitative model of pachycephalosaur dome growth and variation.  

PubMed

Historically, studies of pachycephalosaurs have recognized plesiomorphically flat-headed taxa and apomorphically domed taxa. More recently, it has been suggested that the expression of the frontoparietal dome is ontogenetic and derived from a flat-headed juvenile morphology. However, strong evidence to support this hypothesis has been lacking. Here we test this hypothesis in a large, stratigraphically constrained sample of specimens assigned to Stegoceras validum, the best known pachycephalosaur, using multiple independent lines of evidence including conserved morphology of ornamentation, landmark-based allometric analyses of frontoparietal shape, and cranial bone histology. New specimens show that the diagnostic ornamentation of the parietosquamosal bar is conserved throughout the size range of the sample, which links flat-headed specimens to domed S. validum. High-resolution CT scans of three frontoparietals reveal that vascularity decreases with size and document a pattern that is consistent with previously proposed histological changes during growth. Furthermore, aspects of dome shape and size are strongly correlated and indicative of ontogenetic growth. These results are complementary and strongly support the hypothesis that the sample represents a growth series of a single taxon. Cranial dome growth is positively allometric, proceeds from a flat-headed to a domed state, and confirms the synonymy of Ornatotholus browni as a juvenile Stegoceras. This dataset serves as the first detailed model of growth and variation in a pachycephalosaur. Flat-headed juveniles possess three characters (externally open cranial sutures, tuberculate dorsal surface texture, and open supratemporal fenestrae) that are reduced or eliminated during ontogeny. These characters also occur in putative flat-headed taxa, suggesting that they may also represent juveniles of domed taxa. However, open cranial sutures and supratemporal fenestrae are plesiomorphic within Ornithischia, and thus should be expected in the adult stage of a primitive pachycephalosaur. Additional lines of evidence will be needed to resolve the taxonomic validity of flat-headed pachycephalosaur taxa. PMID:21738608

Schott, Ryan K; Evans, David C; Goodwin, Mark B; Horner, John R; Brown, Caleb Marshall; Longrich, Nicholas R

2011-01-01

258

Are we Genomic Mosaics? Variations of the Genome of Somatic Cells can Contribute to Diversify our Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Theoretical and experimental evidences support the hypothesis that the genomes and the epigenomes may be different in the somatic cells of complex organisms. In the genome, the differences range from single base substitutions to chromosome number; in the epigenome, they entail multiple postsynthetic modifications of the chromatin. Somatic genome variations (SGV) may accumulate during development in response both to genetic programs, which may differ from tissue to tissue, and to environmental stimuli, which are often undetected and generally irreproducible. SGV may jeopardize physiological cellular functions, but also create novel coding and regulatory sequences, to be exposed to intraorganismal Darwinian selection. Genomes acknowledged as comparatively poor in genes, such as humans’, could thus increase their pristine informational endowment. A better understanding of SGV will contribute to basic issues such as the “nature vs nurture” dualism and the inheritance of acquired characters. On the applied side, they may explain the low yield of cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer, provide clues to some of the problems associated with transdifferentiation, and interfere with individual DNA analysis. SGV may be unique in the different cells types and in the different developmental stages, and thus explain the several hundred gaps persisting in the human genomes “completed” so far. They may compound the variations associated to our epigenomes and make of each of us an “(epi)genomic” mosaic. An ensuing paradigm is the possibility that a single genome (the ephemeral one assembled at fertilization) has the capacity to generate several different brains in response to different environments. PMID:21358981

Astolfi, P.A.; Salamini, F.; Sgaramella, V.

2010-01-01

259

Are we Genomic Mosaics? Variations of the Genome of Somatic Cells can Contribute to Diversify our Phenotypes.  

PubMed

Theoretical and experimental evidences support the hypothesis that the genomes and the epigenomes may be different in the somatic cells of complex organisms. In the genome, the differences range from single base substitutions to chromosome number; in the epigenome, they entail multiple postsynthetic modifications of the chromatin. Somatic genome variations (SGV) may accumulate during development in response both to genetic programs, which may differ from tissue to tissue, and to environmental stimuli, which are often undetected and generally irreproducible. SGV may jeopardize physiological cellular functions, but also create novel coding and regulatory sequences, to be exposed to intraorganismal Darwinian selection. Genomes acknowledged as comparatively poor in genes, such as humans', could thus increase their pristine informational endowment. A better understanding of SGV will contribute to basic issues such as the "nature vs nurture" dualism and the inheritance of acquired characters. On the applied side, they may explain the low yield of cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer, provide clues to some of the problems associated with transdifferentiation, and interfere with individual DNA analysis. SGV may be unique in the different cells types and in the different developmental stages, and thus explain the several hundred gaps persisting in the human genomes "completed" so far. They may compound the variations associated to our epigenomes and make of each of us an "(epi)genomic" mosaic. An ensuing paradigm is the possibility that a single genome (the ephemeral one assembled at fertilization) has the capacity to generate several different brains in response to different environments. PMID:21358981

Astolfi, P A; Salamini, F; Sgaramella, V

2010-09-01

260

Quantitative Monitoring for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Using Double-Difference Waveform Inversion with Spatially-Variant Total-Variation Regularization  

SciTech Connect

Double-difference waveform inversion is a promising tool for quantitative monitoring for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The method uses time-lapse seismic data to jointly inverts for reservoir changes. Due to the ill-posedness of waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain reservoir changes accurately and efficiently, particularly when using timelapse seismic reflection data. To improve reconstruction, we develop a spatially-variant total-variation regularization scheme into double-difference waveform inversion to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness. The new regularization scheme employs different regularization parameters in different regions of the model to obtain an optimal regularization in each area. We compare the results obtained using a spatially-variant parameter with those obtained using a constant regularization parameter. Utilizing a spatially-variant regularization scheme, the target monitoring regions are well reconstructed and the image noise is significantly reduced outside the monitoring regions. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the spatially-variant total-variation regularization scheme provides the flexibility to regularize local regions based on the a priori spatial information without increasing computational costs and the computer memory requirement.

Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhang, Zhigang [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-01

261

Effects of Bos taurus autosome 9-located quantitative trait loci haplotypes on the disease phenotypes of dairy cows with experimentally induced Escherichia coli mastitis.  

PubMed

Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting mastitis incidence and mastitis-related traits such as somatic cell score exist in dairy cows. Previously, QTL haplotypes associated with susceptibility to Escherichia coli mastitis in Nordic Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows were identified on Bos taurus autosome 9. In the present study, we induced experimental E. coli mastitis in Danish HF cows to investigate the effect of 2 E. coli mastitis-associated QTL haplotypes on the cows' disease phenotypes and recovery in early lactation. Thirty-two cows were divided in 2 groups bearing haplotypes with either low (HL) or high (HH) susceptibility to E. coli. In addition, biopsies (liver and udder) were collected from half of the cows (n=16), resulting in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with haplotype being one factor (HL vs. HH) and biopsy being the other factor (biopsies vs. no biopsies). Each cow was inoculated with a low E. coli dose (20 to 40 cfu) in one front quarter at time 0 h. Liver biopsies were collected at -144, 12, 24, and 192 h; udder biopsies were collected at 24h and 192 h post-E. coli inoculation. The clinical parameters: feed intake, milk yield, body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, rumen motility; and the paraclinical parameters: bacterial counts, somatic cell count (SCC), and milk amyloid A levels in milk; and white blood cell count, polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocyte (PMNL) count, and serum amyloid A levels in blood were recorded at different time points post-E. coli inoculation. Escherichia coli inoculation changed the clinical and paraclinical parameters in all cows except one that was not infected. Clinically, the HH group tended to have higher body temperature and heart rate than the HL group did. Paraclinically, the HL group had faster PMNL recruitment and SCC recovery than the HH group did. However, we also found interactions between the effects of haplotype and biopsy for body temperature, heart rate, and PMNL. In conclusion, when challenged with E. coli mastitis, HF cows with the specific Bos taurus autosome 9-located QTL haplotypes were associated with differences in leukocyte kinetics, with low-susceptibility cows having faster blood PMNL recruitment and SCC recovery and a tendency for a milder clinical response than the high-susceptibility cows did. PMID:23357017

Khatun, M; Sørensen, P; Jørgensen, H B H; Sahana, G; Sørensen, L P; Lund, M S; Ingvartsen, K L; Buitenhuis, A J; Vilkki, J; Bjerring, M; Thomasen, J R; Røntved, C M

2013-03-01

262

Individual quality, survival variation and patterns of phenotypic selection on body condition and timing of nesting in birds.  

PubMed

Questions about individual variation in "quality" and fitness are of great interest to evolutionary and population ecologists. Such variation can be investigated using either a random effects approach or an approach that relies on identifying observable traits that are themselves correlated with fitness components. We used the latter approach with data from 1,925 individual females of three species of ducks (tufted duck, Aythya fuligula; common pochard, Aythya ferina; northern shoveler, Anas clypeata) sampled on their breeding grounds at Engure Marsh, Latvia, for over 15 years. Based on associations with reproductive output, we selected two traits, one morphological (relative body condition) and one behavioral (relative time of nesting), that can be used to characterize individual females over their lifetimes. We then asked whether these traits were related to annual survival probabilities of nesting females. We hypothesized quadratic, rather than monotonic, relationships based loosely on ideas about the likely action of stabilizing selection on these two traits. Parameters of these relationships were estimated directly using ultrastructural models embedded within capture-recapture-band-recovery models. Results provided evidence that both traits were related to survival in the hypothesized manner. For all three species, females that tended to nest earlier than the norm exhibited the highest survival rates, but very early nesters experienced reduced survival and late nesters showed even lower survival. For shovelers, females in average body condition showed the highest survival, with lower survival rates exhibited by both heavy and light birds. For common pochard and tufted duck, the highest survival rates were associated with birds of slightly above-average condition, with somewhat lower survival for very heavy birds and much lower survival for birds in relatively poor condition. Based on results from this study and previous work on reproduction, we conclude that nest initiation date and body condition covary with both reproductive and survival components of fitness. These associations lead to a positive covariance of these two fitness components within individuals and to the conclusion that these two traits are indeed correlates of individual quality. PMID:15657762

Blums, Peter; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Lindberg, Mark S; Mednis, Aivars

2005-04-01

263

Genotypic and Phenotypic Variation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Signatures of Secondary Infection and Mutator Activity in Certain Cystic Fibrosis Patients with Chronic Lung Infections ? †  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis lung is limited by genetic variation, which depends on rates of horizontal gene transfer and mutation supply. Because each may increase following secondary infection or mutator emergence, we sought to ascertain the incidence of secondary infection and genetic variability in populations containing or lacking mutators. Forty-nine strains collected over 3 years from 16 patients were phenotyped for antibiotic resistance and mutator status and were genotyped by repetitive-sequence PCR (rep-PCR), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Though phenotypic and genetic polymorphisms were widespread and clustered more strongly within than between longitudinal series, their distribution revealed instances of secondary infection. Sequence data, however, indicated that interlineage recombination predated initial strain isolation. Mutator series were more likely to be multiply antibiotic resistant, but not necessarily more variable in their nucleotide sequences, than nonmutators. One mutator and one nonmutator series were sequenced at mismatch repair loci and analyzed for gene content using DNA microarrays. Both were wild type with respect to mutL, but mutators carried an 8-bp mutS deletion causing a frameshift mutation. Both series lacked 126 genes encoding pilins, siderophores, and virulence factors whose inactivation has been linked to adaptation during chronic infection. Mutators exhibited loss of severalfold more genes having functions related to mobile elements, motility, and attachment. A 105-kb, 86-gene deletion was observed in one nonmutator that resulted in loss of virulence factors related to pyoverdine synthesis and elements of the multidrug efflux regulon. Diminished DNA repair activity may facilitate but not be absolutely required for rapid evolutionary change. PMID:21930755

Warren, Ashley E.; Boulianne-Larsen, Carla M.; Chandler, Christine B.; Chiotti, Kami; Kroll, Evgueny; Miller, Scott R.; Taddei, Francois; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Ferroni, Agnes; McInnerney, Kathleen; Franklin, Michael J.; Rosenzweig, Frank

2011-01-01

264

Quantifying genetic variations and phenotypic plasticity of leaf phenology and growth for two temperate Fagaceae species (sessile oak and european beech)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Under current climate change, research on inherent adaptive capacities of organisms is crucial to assess future evolutionary changes of natural populations. Genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity constitute adaptative capacities that could allow populations to respond to new environmental conditions. The aim of the present study was (i) to determine whether there are genetic variations among populations from altitudinal gradients using a lowland common garden experiment and (ii) to assess the magnitude of phenotypic plasticity using a reciprocal transplant experiment (5 elevations from 100 to 1600 m asl.) for leaf phenology (flushing and senescence) and growth of two fagaceae species (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus petraea). We found significant differences in phenology among provenances for most species, and evidenced that these among-population differences in phenology were related to annual temperature of the provenance sites for both species. It's noteworthy that, along the same climatic gradient, the species exhibited opposite genetic clines: beech populations from high elevation flushed earlier than those of low elevation, whereas we observed an opposite trend for oak. Finally, we highlighted that both phenology timing and growth rate were highly consistent year to year. The results demonstrated that in spite of the proximity of the populations in their natural area, altitude led to genetic differentiations in their phenology and growth. Moreover, a high phenological plasticity was found for both species. We evidenced that reaction norms of flushing timing to temperature followed linear clinal trends for both species with an average shift of 5.7 days per degree increase. Timing of leaf senescence exhibited hyperbolic trends for beech and no or slight trends for oak. Furthermore, within species, there was no difference in magnitude of phenological plasticity among populations neither for flushing, nor for senescence. Consequently, for both species, the growing season length increased to reach maximum values for annual temperature ranging from 10°C to 13°C according to the population. These adaptive capacities (genetic differentiations and high magnitude of plasticity) could allow populations to respond immediately to temperature variations in term of leaf phenology and then to cope with current climate change. Finally, we also highlight that current populations tend to occupy suboptimal environments, i.e, populations inhabit climates colder that their optimum.

Delzon, Sylvain; Vitasse, Yann; Alberto, Florian; Bresson, Caroline; Kremer, Antoine

2010-05-01

265

Quantitative Phenotyping as an Efficient Means to Estimate C-Cell Number in a Knock-in Mouse Model of MEN2B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades we have witnessed the generation of hundreds, if not thousands, of lines of genetically altered mice, large numbers of which are being produced in order to model human disease. Given that their creation is still rather technically demanding and labour intensive, the time taken analysing the resultant phenotypes should be such that the maximal amount

Aaron Cranston; Louise Howard; C. Vyvyan Howard

2004-01-01

266

Quantitative trait loci in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) reveal complex genetic architecture underlying variation in sex, yield and cone chemistry  

PubMed Central

Background Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) is cultivated for its cones, the secondary metabolites of which contribute bitterness, flavour and aroma to beer. Molecular breeding methods, such as marker assisted selection (MAS), have great potential for improving the efficiency of hop breeding. The success of MAS is reliant on the identification of reliable marker-trait associations. This study used quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis to identify marker-trait associations for hop, focusing on traits related to expediting plant sex identification, increasing yield capacity and improving bittering, flavour and aroma chemistry. Results QTL analysis was performed on two new linkage maps incorporating transferable Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. Sixty-three QTL were identified, influencing 36 of the 50 traits examined. A putative sex-linked marker was validated in a different pedigree, confirming the potential of this marker as a screening tool in hop breeding programs. An ontogenetically stable QTL was identified for the yield trait dry cone weight; and a QTL was identified for essential oil content, which verified the genetic basis for variation in secondary metabolite accumulation in hop cones. A total of 60 QTL were identified for 33 secondary metabolite traits. Of these, 51 were pleiotropic/linked, affecting a substantial number of secondary metabolites; nine were specific to individual secondary metabolites. Conclusions Pleiotropy and linkage, found for the first time to influence multiple hop secondary metabolites, have important implications for molecular selection methods. The selection of particular secondary metabolite profiles using pleiotropic/linked QTL will be challenging because of the difficulty of selecting for specific traits without adversely changing others. QTL specific to individual secondary metabolites, however, offer unequalled value to selection programs. In addition to their potential for selection, the QTL identified in this study advance our understanding of the genetic control of traits of current economic and breeding significance in hop and demonstrate the complex genetic architecture underlying variation in these traits. The linkage information obtained in this study, based on transferable markers, can be used to facilitate the validation of QTL, crucial to the success of MAS. PMID:23718194

2013-01-01

267

A hyperactive quantitative trait locus allele of Arabidopsis BRX contributes to natural variation in root growth vigor  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci analysis of natural Arabidopsis thaliana accessions is increasingly exploited for gene isolation. However, to date this has mostly revealed deleterious mutations. Among them, a loss-of-function allele identified the root growth regulator BREVIS RADIX (BRX). Here we present evidence that BRX and the paralogous BRX-LIKE (BRXL) genes are under selective constraint in monocotyledons as well as dicotyledons. Unexpectedly, however, whereas none of the Arabidopsis orthologs except AtBRXL1 could complement brx null mutants when expressed constitutively, nearly all monocotyledon BRXLs tested could. Thus, BRXL proteins seem to be more diversified in dicotyledons than in monocotyledons. This functional diversification was correlated with accelerated rates of sequence divergence in the N-terminal regions. Population genetic analyses of 30 haplotypes are suggestive of an adaptive role of AtBRX and AtBRXL1. In two accessions, Lc-0 and Lov-5, seven amino acids are deleted in the variable region between the highly conserved C-terminal, so-called BRX domains. Genotyping of 42 additional accessions also found this deletion in Kz-1, Pu2-7, and Ws-0. In segregating recombinant inbred lines, the Lc-0 allele (AtBRXLc-0) conferred significantly enhanced root growth. Moreover, when constitutively expressed in the same regulatory context, AtBRXLc-0 complemented brx mutants more efficiently than an allele without deletion. The same was observed for AtBRXL1, which compared with AtBRX carries a 13 amino acid deletion that encompasses the deletion found in AtBRXLc-0. Thus, the AtBRXLc-0 allele seems to contribute to natural variation in root growth vigor and provides a rare example of an experimentally confirmed, hyperactive allelic variant. PMID:20404146

Beuchat, Julien; Ragni, Laura; Shindo, Chikako; Kohn, Michael H.; Hardtke, Christian S.

2010-01-01

268

Genetic and phenotypic traits of streptomycetes used to characterize antibiotic activities of  

E-print Network

Genetic and phenotypic traits of streptomycetes used to characterize antibiotic activities of field-collected microbes Anita L. Davelos, Kun Xiao, Jennifer M. Flor, and Linda L. Kinkel Abstract: Although antibiotic of antibiotic-producing microbial populations in soil. Indeed, quantitative information on the variation

Minnesota, University of

269

Phenotypic switching in bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial genetic networks that would implement a more general theoretical model of phenotypic switching. We will use a new cloning strategy in order to systematically assemble a large number of genetic features, such as site-specific recombination components from the R64 plasmid, which invert several coexisting DNA segments. The inversion of these segments would lead to discrete phenotypic transitions inside a living cell. These artificial phenotypic switches can be controlled precisely in experiments and may serve as a benchmark for their natural counterparts.

Merrin, Jack

270

Phenotypic Differences between Pediatric and Adult Asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of asthma phenotyping is to understand disease mecha- nisms or optimize management. Phenotypes show age-related variation. The phenotypes of wheezing in the first year of life are little studied; many remit in the second year of life, and the children who remit do not have later-onset wheeze, as far as is known. Preschool wheeze is optimally phenotyped by

Andrew Bush; Andrew Menzies-Gow

2009-01-01

271

SpA, ClfA, and FnbA Genetic Variations Lead to Staphaurex Test-Negative Phenotypes in Bovine Mastitis Staphylococcus aureus Isolates?  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus encodes many proteins that act as virulence factors, leading to a variety of diseases, including mastitis in cows. Among these virulence factors, SpA, ClfA, ClfB, FnbA, and FnbB are important for the ability of S. aureus to adhere to and invade host cells as well as to evade host immune responses. The interaction between these S. aureus surface proteins and human immunoglobulin G and fibrinogen that are coupled to latex particles is utilized to induce latex agglutination reactions, which are used widely in diagnostic kits for confirmation of presumptive S. aureus isolates. In this study, the Staphaurex latex agglutination test was performed on a collection of confirmed bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates. Notably, 54% (43/79 isolates) of these isolates exhibited latex agglutination-negative phenotypes (Staphaurex-negative result). To gain insights into the reasons for the high frequency of Staphaurex-negative bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates, the spa, clfA, clfB, fnbA, and fnbB genes were examined. Specific genetic changes in spa, clfA, and fnbA, as well as a loss of fnbB, which may impair SpA, ClfA, FnbA, and FnbB functions in latex agglutination reactions, were detected in Staphaurex-negative S. aureus isolates. The genetic changes included a premature stop codon in the spa gene, leading to a truncated SpA protein that is unable to participate in S. aureus cell-mediated agglutination of latex particles. In addition, clfA and fnbA genetic polymorphisms were detected that were linked to ClfA and FnbA amino acid changes that may significantly reduce fibrinogen-binding activity. The genetic variations in these S. aureus isolates might also have implications for their bovine mastitis virulence capacity. PMID:21147952

Stutz, Katrin; Stephan, Roger; Tasara, Taurai

2011-01-01

272

A recombination hotspot delimits a wild-species quantitative trait locus for tomato sugar content to 484 bp within an invertase gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nature, genetic variation usually takes the form of a continuous phenotypic range rather than discrete classes. The genetic variation underlying quantitative traits results from the segregation of numerous interacting quantitative trait loci (QTLs), whose expression is modified by the environment. To uncover the molecular basis of this variation, we characterized a QTL (Brix9-2-5) derived from the green-fruited tomato species

Eyal Fridman; Tzili Pleban; Dani Zamir

2000-01-01

273

Molecular and phenotypic characterization of near isogenic lines at QTL for quantitative resistance to Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).  

PubMed

The most common and effective way to control phoma stem canker (blackleg) caused by Leptosphaeria maculans in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is by breeding resistant cultivars. Specific resistance genes have been identified in B. napus and related species but in some B. napus cultivars resistance is polygenic [mediated by quantitative trait loci (QTL)], postulated to be race non-specific and durable. The genetic basis of quantitative resistance in the French winter oilseed rape 'Darmor', which was derived from 'Jet Neuf', was previously examined in two genetic backgrounds. Stable QTL involved in blackleg resistance across year and genetic backgrounds were identified. In this study, near isogenic lines (NILs) were produced in the susceptible background 'Yudal' for four of these QTL using marker-assisted selection. Various strategies were used to develop new molecular markers, which were mapped in these QTL regions. These were used to characterize the length and homozygosity of the 'Darmor-bzh' introgressed segment in the NILs. Individuals from each NIL were evaluated in blackleg disease field trials and assessed for their level of stem canker in comparison to the recurrent line 'Yudal'. The effect of QTL LmA2 was clearly validated and to a lesser extent, QTL LmA9 also showed an effect on the disease level. This work provides valuable material that can be used to study the mode of action of genetic factors involved in L. maculans quantitative resistance. PMID:18696043

Delourme, R; Piel, N; Horvais, R; Pouilly, N; Domin, C; Vallée, P; Falentin, C; Manzanares-Dauleux, M J; Renard, M

2008-11-01

274

Explaining Quantitative Variation in the Rate of Optional Infinitive Errors across Languages: A Comparison of MOSAIC and the Variational Learning Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, we use corpus analysis and computational modelling techniques to compare two recent accounts of the OI stage: Legate & Yang's (2007) Variational Learning Model and Freudenthal, Pine & Gobet's (2006) Model of Syntax Acquisition in Children. We first assess the extent to which each of these accounts can explain the level of OI errors…

Freudenthal, Daniel: Pine, Julian; Gobet, Fernando

2010-01-01

275

Rapid evolution of quantitative traits: theoretical perspectives  

PubMed Central

An increasing number of studies demonstrate phenotypic and genetic changes in natural populations that are subject to climate change, and there is hope that some of these changes will contribute to avoiding species extinctions (‘evolutionary rescue’). Here, we review theoretical models of rapid evolution in quantitative traits that can shed light on the potential for adaptation to a changing climate. Our focus is on quantitative-genetic models with selection for a moving phenotypic optimum. We point out that there is no one-to-one relationship between the rate of adaptation and population survival, because the former depends on relative fitness and the latter on absolute fitness. Nevertheless, previous estimates that sustainable rates of genetically based change usually do not exceed 0.1 haldanes (i.e., phenotypic standard deviations per generation) are probably correct. Survival can be greatly facilitated by phenotypic plasticity, and heritable variation in plasticity can further speed up genetic evolution. Multivariate selection and genetic correlations are frequently assumed to constrain adaptation, but this is not necessarily the case and depends on the geometric relationship between the fitness landscape and the structure of genetic variation. Similar conclusions hold for adaptation to shifting spatial gradients. Recent models of adaptation in multispecies communities indicate that the potential for rapid evolution is strongly influenced by interspecific competition. PMID:24454555

Kopp, Michael; Matuszewski, Sebastian

2014-01-01

276

Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 125 (2004) 179189 Quantitative trait loci affecting natural variation in Drosophila longevity  

E-print Network

, we used quantitative complementation tests to determine whether genes that regulate longevity also candidate regions and genes tested, Df(2L)c17, Df(3L)Ly, Df(3L)AC1 and Df(3R)e-BS2 showed significant to complement in females. Several genes that regulate life span (e.g., Superoxide dismutase, Catalase, and rosy

Mackay, Trudy F.C.

277

Understanding Variation in Treatment Effects in Education Impact Evaluations: An Overview of Quantitative Methods. NCEE 2014-4017  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the complex research literature on quantitative methods for assessing how impacts of educational interventions on instructional practices and student learning differ across students, educators, and schools. It also provides technical guidance about the use and interpretation of these methods. The research topics addressed…

Schochet, Peter Z.; Puma, Mike; Deke, John

2014-01-01

278

Detection and quantitation of single nucleotide polymorphisms, DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches  

DOEpatents

DNA mutation binding proteins alone and as chimeric proteins with nucleases are used with solid supports to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms. The solid supports may be flow cytometry beads, DNA chips, glass slides or DNA dips sticks. DNA molecules are coupled to solid supports to form DNA-support complexes. Labeled DNA is used with unlabeled DNA mutation binding proteins such at TthMutS to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by binding which gives an increase in signal. Unlabeled DNA is utilized with labeled chimeras to detect DNA sequence variations, DNA mutations and single nucleotide length polymorphisms by nuclease activity of the chimera which gives a decrease in signal.

McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2002-01-01

279

Genome-Wide Association Analysis with Gray Matter Volume as a Quantitative Phenotype in First-Episode Treatment-Na?ve Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Reduced Gray matter (GM) volume is a core feature of schizophrenia. Mapping genes that is associated with the heritable disease-related phenotypes may be conducive to elucidate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study aims to identify the common genetic variants that underlie the deficits of GM volume in schizophrenia. High-resolution T1 images and whole genome genotyping data were obtained from 74 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 51 healthy controls in the Mental Health Centre of the West China Hospital, Sichuan University. All participants were scanned using a 3T MR imaging system and were genotyped using the HumanHap660 Bead Array. Reduced GM volumes in three brain areas including left hOC3v in the collateral sulcus of visual cortex (hOC3vL), left cerebellar vermis lobule 10 (vermisL10) and right cerebellar vermis lobule 10 (vermisR10) were found in patients with schizophrenia. There was a group by genotype interaction when genotypes from genome-wide scan were subsequently considered in the case-control analyses. SNPs from three genes or chromosomal regions (TBXAS1, PIK3C2G and HS3ST5) were identified to predict the changes of GM volume in hOC3vL, vermisL10 and vermisR10. These results also highlighted the usefulness of endophenotype in exploring the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia although further independent replication studies are needed in the future. PMID:24086445

Deng, Wei; Wu, Junyao; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingcheng; Jiang, Lijun; McAlonan, Grainne; Chua, Siew E.; Sham, Pak C.; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

2013-01-01

280

Genome-wide association analysis with gray matter volume as a quantitative phenotype in first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Reduced Gray matter (GM) volume is a core feature of schizophrenia. Mapping genes that is associated with the heritable disease-related phenotypes may be conducive to elucidate the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. This study aims to identify the common genetic variants that underlie the deficits of GM volume in schizophrenia. High-resolution T1 images and whole genome genotyping data were obtained from 74 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 51 healthy controls in the Mental Health Centre of the West China Hospital, Sichuan University. All participants were scanned using a 3T MR imaging system and were genotyped using the HumanHap660 Bead Array. Reduced GM volumes in three brain areas including left hOC3v in the collateral sulcus of visual cortex (hOC3vL), left cerebellar vermis lobule 10 (vermisL10) and right cerebellar vermis lobule 10 (vermisR10) were found in patients with schizophrenia. There was a group by genotype interaction when genotypes from genome-wide scan were subsequently considered in the case-control analyses. SNPs from three genes or chromosomal regions (TBXAS1, PIK3C2G and HS3ST5) were identified to predict the changes of GM volume in hOC3vL, vermisL10 and vermisR10. These results also highlighted the usefulness of endophenotype in exploring the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia although further independent replication studies are needed in the future. PMID:24086445

Wang, Qiang; Xiang, Bo; Deng, Wei; Wu, Junyao; Li, Mingli; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Yingcheng; Jiang, Lijun; McAlonan, Grainne; Chua, Siew E; Sham, Pak C; Hu, Xun; Li, Tao

2013-01-01

281

Quantitative variation among Kenyan populations of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. for gum production, seed and growth traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. is an African leguminous multipurpose tree species belonging to subfamily Mimosoideae and subgenus Aculeiferum, highly valued for gum arabic production. This study estimated the genetic diversity within and among Kenyan populations\\u000a of the species in the Bulla Sambul, Kutulo, Wamba and Meisori populations based on 12 quantitative traits, which included;\\u000a tree height, diameter at breast height

Chemulanga Josiah Chiveu; Otto George Dangasuk; Michael Eliazar Omunyin; Francis Nyamu Wachira

2009-01-01

282

AstR-AstS, a new two-component signal transduction system, mediates swarming, adaptation to stationary phase and phenotypic variation in Photorhabdus luminescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photorhabdus luminescens is an insect-pathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiosis with specific entomopathogenic nematodes. In this bacterium, a symbiosis-'deficient' phenotypic variant (known as the secondary variant or form II) arises at a low frequency during prolonged incubation. A knock-out mutant was generated of the regulator of a newly identified two-component regulatory system, designated AstR-AstS. Interestingly, this mutation altered the timing

Sylviane Derzelle; Saravuth Ngo; Evelyne Turlin; Eric Duchaud; Abdelkader Namane; Frank Kunst; Antoine Danchin; Philippe Bertin; Jean-Francois Charles

2004-01-01

283

Shift in phenotypic variation coupled with rapid loss of genetic diversity in captive populations of Eristalis tenax (Diptera: Syrphidae): consequences for rearing and potential commercial use.  

PubMed

Because of its importance as a pollinator and its potential economic usefulness for the biodegradation of organic animal waste, the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the drone fly, Eristalis tenax L. (Diptera: Syrphidae), was studied in both wild and captive populations from southeastern Europe. Wild specimens from a natural protected habitat (with low human impact), field crop habitat (semisynanthropic condition), and intensive pig farming habitat (synanthropic condition) were compared with a laboratory colony reared on artificial media An integrative approach was applied based on allozyme loci, cytochrome c oxidase I mitochondrial DNA, wing traits (size and shape), and abdominal color patterns. Our results indicate that the fourth and eighth generations of the laboratory colony show a severe lack of genetic diversity compared with natural populations. Reduced genetic diversity in subsequent generations (F4 and F8) of the laboratory colony was found to be linked with phenotypic divergence. Loss of genetic variability associated with phenotypic differentiation in laboratory samples suggests a founder effect, followed by stochastic genetic processes and inbreeding. Hence, our results have implications for captive bred Eristalis flies, which have been used in crop pollination and biodegradation of organic waste under synanthropic conditions. PMID:24772566

Francuski, Ljubinka; Djurakic, Marko; Ludoski, Jasmina; Hurtado, Pilar; Pérez-Bañón, Celeste; Ståhls, Gunilla; Rojo, Santos; Milankov, Vesna

2014-04-01

284

The effect of auto-vaccination therapy on the phenotypic variation of one clonal type of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cows with mastitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of auto-vaccine therapy on selected properties of Staphylococcus aureus strains, isolated from milk of cows with subclinical mastitis. The experiment was based on auto-vaccines which were prepared from S. aureus strains isolated from 16 cows. S. aureus strains isolated from cows on the 7th, 21st and 35th day following auto-vaccination, were analyzed phenotypically and genotypically. The isolated strains represented 17 biotypes all belonging to one clonal type. Increases of new biotypes of S. aureus were detected on the 35th day of therapy. Among 48 re-isolated strains, 18.75% (9/48) revealed single and 12.50% (6/48) multiple phenotypical changes. The present study demonstrated that during auto-vaccine therapy, S. aureus strains can change phenotypically, pointing out the necessity for using precise diagnostic methods, that would make possible a better assessment of the used therapy. PMID:21963420

Nawrotek, Pawe?; Czernomysy-Furowicz, Danuta; Borkowski, Jacek; Fija?kowski, Karol; Pobucewicz, Anna

2012-03-23

285

Bending amplitude - a new quantitative assay of C. elegans locomotion: identification of phenotypes for mutants in genes encoding muscle focal adhesion components.  

PubMed

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses striated muscle in its body wall for locomotion. The myofilament lattice is organized such that all the thin filament attachment structures (dense bodies, analogous to Z-disks) and thick filament organizing centers (M-lines) are attached to the muscle cell membrane. Thus, the force of muscle contraction is transmitted through these structures and allows locomotion of the worm. Dense bodies and M-lines are compositionally similar to focal adhesions and costameres, and are based on integrin and associated proteins. Null mutants for many of the newly discovered dense body and M-line proteins do not have obvious locomotion defects when observed casually, or when assayed by counting the number of times a worm moves back and forth in liquid. We hypothesized that many of these proteins, located as they are in muscle focal adhesions, function in force transmission, but we had not used an appropriate or sufficiently sensitive assay to reveal this function. Recently, we have developed a new quantitative assay of C. elegans locomotion that measures the maximum bending amplitude of an adult worm as it moves backwards. The assay had been used to reveal locomotion defects for null mutants of genes encoding ATN-1 (?-actinin) and PKN-1 (protein kinase N). Here, we describe the details of this method, and apply it to 21 loss of function mutants in 17 additional genes, most of which encode components of muscle attachment structures. As compared to wild type, mutants in 11 genes were found to have less ability to bend, and mutants in one gene were found to have greater ability to bend. Loss of function mutants for eight proteins had been reported to have normal locomotion (ZYX-1 (zyxin), ALP-1 (Enigma), DIM-1, SCPL-1), or locomotion that was not previously investigated (FRG-1 (FRG1), KIN-32 (focal adhesion kinase), LIM-8), or had only slightly decreased locomotion (PFN-3 (profilin)). PMID:22126736

Nahabedian, John F; Qadota, Hiroshi; Stirman, Jeffrey N; Lu, Hang; Benian, Guy M

2012-01-01

286

Epistasis and Quantitative Traits: Using Model Organisms to Study Gene-Gene Interactions  

PubMed Central

Summary The role of epistasis in the genetic architecture of quantitative traits is controversial, despite the biological plausibility that non-linear molecular interactions underpin the genotype-phenotype map. This controversy arises because most genetic variation for quantitative traits is additive. However, additive variance is consistent with pervasive epistatic gene action. Here, I discuss experimental designs to detect the contribution of epistasis to quantitative trait phenotypes in model organisms. These studies indicate that epistatic gene action is common, and that additivity can be an emergent property of underlying genetic interaction networks. Epistasis causes hidden quantitative genetic variation in natural populations and could be responsible for the small additive effects, missing heritability and lack of replication typically observed for human complex traits. PMID:24296533

Mackay, Trudy F. C.

2014-01-01

287

High-dimensional and large-scale phenotyping of yeast mutants  

PubMed Central

One of the most powerful techniques for attributing functions to genes in uni- and multicellular organisms is comprehensive analysis of mutant traits. In this study, systematic and quantitative analyses of mutant traits are achieved in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by investigating morphological phenotypes. Analysis of fluorescent microscopic images of triple-stained cells makes it possible to treat morphological variations as quantitative traits. Deletion of nearly half of the yeast genes not essential for growth affects these morphological traits. Similar morphological phenotypes are caused by deletions of functionally related genes, enabling a functional assignment of a locus to a specific cellular pathway. The high-dimensional phenotypic analysis of defined yeast mutant strains provides another step toward attributing gene function to all of the genes in the yeast genome. PMID:16365294

Ohya, Yoshikazu; Sese, Jun; Yukawa, Masashi; Sano, Fumi; Nakatani, Yoichiro; Saito, Taro L.; Saka, Ayaka; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Ishihara, Satoru; Oka, Satomi; Suzuki, Genjiro; Watanabe, Machika; Hirata, Aiko; Ohtani, Miwaka; Sawai, Hiroshi; Fraysse, Nicolas; Latgé, Jean-Paul; François, Jean M.; Aebi, Markus; Tanaka, Seiji; Muramatsu, Sachiko; Araki, Hiroyuki; Sonoike, Kintake; Nogami, Satoru; Morishita, Shinichi

2005-01-01

288

Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches  

DOEpatents

Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L. (Pleasanton, CA)

2002-01-01

289

Simple Quantitative PCR Approach to Reveal Naturally Occurring and Mutation-Induced Repetitive Sequence Variation on the Drosophila Y Chromosome  

PubMed Central

Heterochromatin is a significant component of the human genome and the genomes of most model organisms. Although heterochromatin is thought to be largely non-coding, it is clear that it plays an important role in chromosome structure and gene regulation. Despite a growing awareness of its functional significance, the repetitive sequences underlying some heterochromatin remain relatively uncharacterized. We have developed a real-time quantitative PCR-based method for quantifying simple repetitive satellite sequences and have used this technique to characterize the heterochromatic Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. In this report, we validate the approach, identify previously unknown satellite sequence copy number polymorphisms in Y chromosomes from different geographic sources, and show that a defect in heterochromatin formation can induce similar copy number polymorphisms in a laboratory strain. These findings provide a simple method to investigate the dynamic nature of repetitive sequences and characterize conditions which might give rise to long-lasting alterations in DNA sequence. PMID:25285439

Aldrich, John C.; Maggert, Keith A.

2014-01-01

290

Phenotypic variation in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia: a comparison of Chinese patients with the same or similar mutations in the LDL receptor gene in China or Canada.  

PubMed

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in the LDL receptor (LDLR) gene and is usually associated with hypercholesterolemia, lipid deposition in tissues, and premature coronary artery disease (CAD). However, individuals with heterozygous FH in China exhibit a milder phenotype despite having deleterious mutations in the LDLR gene (X.-M. Sun et al, Arterioscler Thromb. 1994;14:85-94). Nineteen Chinese FH heterozygotes living in Canada were screened for the 11 mutations that had been described in FH patients living in China. One Chinese Canadian carried one of these mutations (Trp462Stop), 2 carried a previously unreported single-base substitution (Cysl63Arg), and 1 carried a mutation observed in French-Canadian patients (Glu207Lys). Twelve additional carriers of these mutations were identified in the families of the index patients. Significantly higher LDL cholesterol concentrations were observed in FH heterozygotes with defined mutations living in Canada (mean+/-SD, 7.46+/-1.29, n=16) than in those living in China (4.35+/-1.09, n=18; P<.0001). Six of the 16 FH heterozygotes residingin Canada had evidence of tendon xanthomata and 4 had a history of premature CAD, whereas none of those in China had tendon xanthomata or CAD. Complete segregation between hypercholesterolemia and inheritance of a mutant allele was observed in 3 Canadian Chinese FH families. Thus, Chinese FH heterozygotes living in Canada exhibit a phenotype similar to that of other FH patients in Western societies. The difference between patients living in Canada and those living in China could be ascribed to differences in dietary fat consumption, showing that environmental factors such as diet play a significant role in modulating the phenotype of heterozygous FH. PMID:9484998

Pimstone, S N; Sun, X M; du Souich, C; Frohlich, J J; Hayden, M R; Soutar, A K

1998-02-01

291

Phylogenetic Classification at Generic Level in the Absence of Distinct Phylogenetic Patterns of Phenotypical Variation: A Case Study in Graphidaceae (Ascomycota)  

PubMed Central

Molecular phylogenies often reveal that taxa circumscribed by phenotypical characters are not monophyletic. While re-examination of phenotypical characters often identifies the presence of characters characterizing clades, there is a growing number of studies that fail to identify diagnostic characters, especially in organismal groups lacking complex morphologies. Taxonomists then can either merge the groups or split taxa into smaller entities. Due to the nature of binomial nomenclature, this decision is of special importance at the generic level. Here we propose a new approach to choose among classification alternatives using a combination of morphology-based phylogenetic binning and a multiresponse permutation procedure to test for morphological differences among clades. We illustrate the use of this method in the tribe Thelotremateae focusing on the genus Chapsa, a group of lichenized fungi in which our phylogenetic estimate is in conflict with traditional classification and the morphological and chemical characters do not show a clear phylogenetic pattern. We generated 75 new DNA sequences of mitochondrial SSU rDNA, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding RPB2. This data set was used to infer phylogenetic estimates using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The genus Chapsa was found to be polyphyletic, forming four well-supported clades, three of which clustering into one unsupported clade, and the other, supported clade forming two supported subclades. While these clades cannot be readily separated morphologically, the combined binning/multiresponse permutation procedure showed that accepting the four clades as different genera each reflects the phenotypical pattern significantly better than accepting two genera (or five genera if splitting the first clade). Another species within the Thelotremateae, Thelotrema petractoides, a unique taxon with carbonized excipulum resembling Schizotrema, was shown to fall outside Thelotrema. Consequently, the new genera Astrochapsa, Crutarndina, Pseudochapsa, and Pseudotopeliopsis are described here and 39 new combinations are proposed. PMID:23251515

Parnmen, Sittiporn; Lucking, Robert; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten

2012-01-01

292

Precision phenotyping of biomass accumulation in triticale reveals temporal genetic patterns of regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To extend agricultural productivity by knowledge-based breeding and tailor varieties adapted to specific environmental conditions, it is imperative to improve our ability to assess the dynamic changes of the phenome of crops under field conditions. To this end, we have developed a precision phenotyping platform that combines various sensors for a non-invasive, high-throughput and high-dimensional phenotyping of small grain cereals. This platform yielded high prediction accuracies and heritabilities for biomass of triticale. Genetic variation for biomass accumulation was dissected with 647 doubled haploid lines derived from four families. Employing a genome-wide association mapping approach, two major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for biomass were identified and the genetic architecture of biomass accumulation was found to be characterized by dynamic temporal patterns. Our findings highlight the potential of precision phenotyping to assess the dynamic genetics of complex traits, especially those not amenable to traditional phenotyping.

Busemeyer, Lucas; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Möller, Kim; Melchinger, Albrecht E.; Alheit, Katharina V.; Maurer, Hans Peter; Hahn, Volker; Weissmann, Elmar A.; Reif, Jochen C.; Würschum, Tobias

2013-08-01

293

The Optokinetic Reflex as a Tool for Quantitative Analyses of Nervous System Function in Mice: Application to Genetic and Drug-Induced Variation  

PubMed Central

The optokinetic reflex (OKR), which serves to stabilize a moving image on the retina, is a behavioral response that has many favorable attributes as a test of CNS function. The OKR requires no training, assesses the function of diverse CNS circuits, can be induced repeatedly with minimal fatigue or adaptation, and produces an electronic record that is readily and objectively quantifiable. We describe a new type of OKR test apparatus in which computer-controlled visual stimuli and streamlined data analysis facilitate a relatively high throughput behavioral assay. We used this apparatus, in conjunction with infrared imaging, to quantify basic OKR stimulus-response characteristics for C57BL/6J and 129/SvEv mouse strains and for genetically engineered lines lacking one or more photoreceptor systems or with an alteration in cone spectral sensitivity. A second generation (F2) cross shows that the characteristic difference in OKR frequency between C57BL/6J and 129/SvEv is inherited as a polygenic trait. Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity and high temporal resolution of the OKR for quantitative analysis of CNS drug action. These experiments show that the mouse OKR is well suited for neurologic testing in the context of drug discovery and large-scale phenotyping programs. PMID:18446207

Cahill, Hugh; Nathans, Jeremy

2008-01-01

294

The optokinetic reflex as a tool for quantitative analyses of nervous system function in mice: application to genetic and drug-induced variation.  

PubMed

The optokinetic reflex (OKR), which serves to stabilize a moving image on the retina, is a behavioral response that has many favorable attributes as a test of CNS function. The OKR requires no training, assesses the function of diverse CNS circuits, can be induced repeatedly with minimal fatigue or adaptation, and produces an electronic record that is readily and objectively quantifiable. We describe a new type of OKR test apparatus in which computer-controlled visual stimuli and streamlined data analysis facilitate a relatively high throughput behavioral assay. We used this apparatus, in conjunction with infrared imaging, to quantify basic OKR stimulus-response characteristics for C57BL/6J and 129/SvEv mouse strains and for genetically engineered lines lacking one or more photoreceptor systems or with an alteration in cone spectral sensitivity. A second generation (F2) cross shows that the characteristic difference in OKR frequency between C57BL/6J and 129/SvEv is inherited as a polygenic trait. Finally, we demonstrate the sensitivity and high temporal resolution of the OKR for quantitative analysis of CNS drug action. These experiments show that the mouse OKR is well suited for neurologic testing in the context of drug discovery and large-scale phenotyping programs. PMID:18446207

Cahill, Hugh; Nathans, Jeremy

2008-01-01

295

Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits.  

PubMed Central

The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 alpha level with <300 observations. PMID:9042929

Allison, D B

1997-01-01

296

No Genetic Diversity at Molecular Markers and Strong Phenotypic Plasticity in Populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, an Endangered Plant Species in France  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Although conservation biology has long focused on population dynamics and genetics, phenotypic plasticity is likely to play a significant role in population viability. Here, an investigation is made into the relative contribution of genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity to the phenotypic variation in natural populations of Ranunculus nodiflorus, a rare annual plant inhabiting temporary puddles in the Fontainebleau forest (Paris region, France) and exhibiting metapopulation dynamics. Methods The genetic diversity and phenotypic plasticity of quantitative traits (morphological and fitness components) were measured in five populations, using a combination of field measurements, common garden experiments and genotyping at microsatellite loci. Key Results It is shown that populations exhibit almost undetectable genetic diversity at molecular markers, and that the variation in quantitative traits observed among populations is due to a high level of phenotypic plasticity. Despite the lack of genetic diversity, the natural population of R. nodiflorus exhibits large population sizes and does not appear threatened by extinction; this may be attributable to large phenotypic plasticity, enabling the production of numerous seeds under a wide range of environmental conditions. Conclusions Efficient conservation of the populations can only be based on habitat management, to favour the maintenance of microenvironmental variation and the resulting strong phenotypic plasticity. In contrast, classical actions aiming to improve genetic diversity are useless in the present case. PMID:17468109

Noel, Florence; Machon, Nathalie; Porcher, Emmanuelle

2007-01-01

297

Capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for analyzing qualitative and quantitative variations in therapeutic albumin.  

PubMed

The present study describes a reproducible and quantitative capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method, which leads to the separation of nine forms (native, oxidized and glycated) of human serum albumin (HSA). In an attempt to identify the different species separated by this CZE method, the capillary electrophoresis was coupled to mass spectrometry using a sheath liquid interface, an optimized capillary coating and a suitable CE running buffer. CE-MS analyses confirmed the heterogeneity of albumin preparation and revealed new truncated and modified forms such as Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs). Assignment of the CZE peaks was carried out using specific antibodies, carboxypeptidase A or sample reduction before or during the CE separation. Thus, five HSA forms were unambiguously identified. Using this CZE method several albumin batches produced by slightly different fractionation ways could be discriminated. Furthermore, analyses of HSA preparations marketed by five pharmaceutical industries revealed that two therapeutic albumins, including that marketed by LFB, contained the highest proportion of native form and lower levels of oxidized forms. PMID:24120174

Marie, Anne-Lise; Przybylski, Cédric; Gonnet, Florence; Daniel, Régis; Urbain, Rémi; Chevreux, Guillaume; Jorieux, Sylvie; Taverna, Myriam

2013-10-24

298

On the capability of Swarm for surface mass variation monitoring: Quantitative assessment based on orbit information from CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last decade, temporal variations of the gravity field from GRACE observations have become one of the most ubiquitous and valuable sources of information for geophysical and environmental studies. In the context of global climate change, mass balance of the Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets gained particular attention. Because GRACE has outlived its predicted lifetime by several years already, it is very likely that a gap between GRACE and its successor GRACE follow-on (supposed to be launched in 2017, at the earliest) occurs. The Swarm mission - launched on November 22, 2013 - is the most promising candidate to bridge this potential gap, i.e., to directly acquire large-scale mass variation information on the Earth's surface in case of a gap between the present GRACE and the upcoming GRACE follow-on projects. Although the magnetometry mission Swarm has not been designed for gravity field purposes, its three satellites have the characteristics for such an endeavor: (i) low, near-circular and near-polar orbits, (ii) precise positioning with high-quality GNSS receivers, (iii) on-board accelerometers to measure the influence of non-gravitational forces. Hence, from an orbit analysis point of view the Swarm satellites are comparable to the CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE spacecraft. Indeed and as data analysis from CHAMP has been shown, the detection of annual signals and trends from orbit analysis is possible for long-wavelength features of the gravity field, although the accuracy associated with the inter-satellite GRACE measurements cannot be reached. We assess the capability of the (non-dedicated) mission Swarm for mass variation detection in a real-case environment (opposed to simulation studies). For this purpose, we "approximate" the Swarm scenario by the GRACE+CHAMP and GRACE+GOCE constellations. In a first step, kinematic orbits of the individual satellites are derived from GNSS observations. From these orbits, we compute monthly combined GRACE+CHAMP and GRACE+GOCE time-variable gravity fields; sophisticated techniques based on Kalman filtering are applied to reduce noise in the time series. Finally, we infer mass variation in selected areas from to gravity signal. These results are compared to the findings obtained from mass variation detection exploiting CSR-RL05 gravity fields; due to their superior quality (which is due to the fact that they are derived from inter-satellite GRACE measurements), the CSR-RL05 solutions serve as benchmark. Our quantitative assessment shows the potential and limitations of what can be expected from Swarm with regard to surface mass variation monitoring.

Baur, Oliver; Weigelt, Matthias; Zehentner, Norbert; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Jäggi, Adrian

2014-05-01

299

Exploiting Gene Expression Variation to Capture Gene-Environment Interactions for Disease  

PubMed Central

Gene-environment interactions have long been recognized as a fundamental concept in evolutionary, quantitative, and medical genetics. In the genomics era, study of how environment and genome interact to shape gene expression variation is relevant to understanding the genetic architecture of complex phenotypes. While genetic analysis of gene expression variation focused on main effects, little is known about the extent of interaction effects implicating regulatory variants and their consequences on transcriptional variation. Here we survey the current state of the concept of transcriptional gene-environment interactions and discuss its utility for mapping disease phenotypes in light of the insights gained from genome-wide association studies of gene expression. PMID:23755064

Idaghdour, Youssef; Awadalla, Philip

2013-01-01

300

Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of European Teleconnections on Interannual Variation of East Asian Winter Temperature and Monsoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2014-01-01

301

Genetic variations in regulatory pathways of fatty acid and glucose metabolism are associated with obesity phenotypes: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:As nuclear receptors and transcription factors have an important regulatory function in adipocyte differentiation and fat storage, genetic variation in these key regulators and downstream pathways may be involved in the onset of obesity.Objective:To explore associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes from regulatory pathways that control fatty acid and glucose metabolism, and repeated measurements of body mass

S W van den Berg; M. E. T. Dolle; S. Imholz; D L van der A; R van ‘t Slot; C. Wijmenga; W. M. M. Verschuren; C. Strien; C. L. E. Siezen; B. Hoebee; E. J. M. Feskens; J. M. A. Boer; SW van den Berg

2009-01-01

302

Spatial and temporal variation in the kdr allele L1014S in Anopheles gambiae s.s. and phenotypic variability in susceptibility to insecticides in Western Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Malaria vector control in Africa depends upon effective insecticides in bed nets and indoor residual sprays. This study investigated the extent of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l., Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis in western Kenya where ownership of insecticide-treated bed nets has risen steadily from the late 1990s to 2010. Temporal and spatial variation in the frequency

Derrick K Mathias; Eric Ochomo; Francis Atieli; Maurice Ombok; M Nabie Bayoh; George Olang; Damaris Muhia; Luna Kamau; John M Vulule; Mary J Hamel; William A Hawley; Edward D Walker; John E Gimnig

2011-01-01

303

Domestication potential of Marula (Sclerocarya birrea subsp caffra) in South Africa and Namibia: 2. Phenotypic variation in nut and kernel traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a wider study characterizing tree-to-tree variation in fruit traits as a pre-requisite for cultivar development,\\u000a fruits were collected from each of 63 marula (Sclerocarya birrea) trees in Bushbuckridge, South Africa and from 55 trees from\\u000a the North Central Region of Namibia. The nuts were removed from the fruit flesh, and the kernels extracted, counted and weighed\\u000a individually

Roger Leakey; Kris Pate; Cyril Lombard

2005-01-01

304

Genetics of food intake and eating behavior phenotypes in humans.  

PubMed

This review summarizes the research advances of the past decade regarding the role of human genetic differences in energy and nutrient intake as well as in eating behavior phenotypes and selected eating disorders. The evidence for familial aggregation and heritability based on twin and nuclear family study designs is summarized. Genome-wide linkage scans and quantitative trait loci identified to date are discussed. DNA sequence variants in candidate genes are reviewed. Single genes associated with classical eating disorders are also incorporated. Epigenetic events will need to be incorporated in future studies designed to investigate the effects of DNA variants on dietary phenotypes. Understanding the relative contribution of global genetic variation and of DNA sequence variants in specific genes is important in the effort to influence dietary habits in a healthier direction. PMID:16848714

Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

2006-01-01

305

Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitatively Measured Skin, Hair, and Eye Pigmentation in Four European Populations  

PubMed Central

Pigmentation of the skin, hair, and eyes varies both within and between human populations. Identifying the genes and alleles underlying this variation has been the goal of many candidate gene and several genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Most GWAS for pigmentary traits to date have been based on subjective phenotypes using categorical scales. But skin, hair, and eye pigmentation vary continuously. Here, we seek to characterize quantitative variation in these traits objectively and accurately and to determine their genetic basis. Objective and quantitative measures of skin, hair, and eye color were made using reflectance or digital spectroscopy in Europeans from Ireland, Poland, Italy, and Portugal. A GWAS was conducted for the three quantitative pigmentation phenotypes in 176 women across 313,763 SNP loci, and replication of the most significant associations was attempted in a sample of 294 European men and women from the same countries. We find that the pigmentation phenotypes are highly stratified along axes of European genetic differentiation. The country of sampling explains approximately 35% of the variation in skin pigmentation, 31% of the variation in hair pigmentation, and 40% of the variation in eye pigmentation. All three quantitative phenotypes are correlated with each other. In our two-stage association study, we reproduce the association of rs1667394 at the OCA2/HERC2 locus with eye color but we do not identify new genetic determinants of skin and hair pigmentation supporting the lack of major genes affecting skin and hair color variation within Europe and suggesting that not only careful phenotyping but also larger cohorts are required to understand the genetic architecture of these complex quantitative traits. Interestingly, we also see that in each of these four populations, men are more lightly pigmented in the unexposed skin of the inner arm than women, a fact that is underappreciated and may vary across the world. PMID:23118974

Candille, Sophie I.; Absher, Devin M.; Beleza, Sandra; Bauchet, Marc; McEvoy, Brian; Garrison, Nanibaa' A.; Li, Jun Z.; Myers, Richard M.; Barsh, Gregory S.; Tang, Hua; Shriver, Mark D.

2012-01-01

306

A Quantitative-Trait Genome-Wide Association Study of Alcoholism Risk in the Community: Findings and  

E-print Network

A Quantitative-Trait Genome-Wide Association Study of Alcoholism Risk in the Community: Findings contributions to variation in alcoholism and heaviness of drinking (50% to 60% heritability) with high) for phenotypes related to alcohol use and dependence. Methods: Diagnostic interview and blood/buccal samples were

Nyholt, Dale R.

307

Steroid responsiveness and wheezing phenotypes.  

PubMed

Oral corticosteroids are the cornerstone of management of acute moderate or severe asthma whilst preventive inhaled corticosteroids are the mainstay of the preventive management of children with asthma. Yet, variation in the magnitude of response to corticosteroids has been observed. There is increasing evidence that preschool-aged children with viral-induced asthma may display a certain degree of corticosteroid resistance, requiring higher doses of corticosteroids to overcome it. The identification of determinants of responsiveness is complicated by design issues, including heterogeneous populations of children with asthma and bronchiolitis or of children with viral-induced and multi-trigger asthma phenotypes in published trials. Potential key determinants of responsiveness may include age, trigger, phenotype, tobacco smoke exposure and genotype. The mechanistic pathway for corticoresistance may originate from a gene-environment interaction, leading to non-eosinophilic airway inflammation. The clinician should carefully confirm the diagnosis of asthma and ascertain the phenotype to select appropriate phenotype-specific therapy. PMID:21722845

Ducharme, Francine M; Krajinovic, Maja

2011-09-01

308

Phenotypic plasticity of gas exchange pattern and water loss in Scarabaeus spretus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): deconstructing the basis for metabolic rate variation.  

PubMed

Investigation of gas exchange patterns and modulation of metabolism provide insight into metabolic control systems and evolution in diverse terrestrial environments. Variation in metabolic rate in response to environmental conditions has been explained largely in the context of two contrasting hypotheses, namely metabolic depression in response to stressful or resource-(e.g. water) limited conditions, or elevation of metabolism at low temperatures to sustain life in extreme conditions. To deconstruct the basis for metabolic rate changes in response to temperature variation, here we undertake a full factorial study investigating the longer- and short-term effects of temperature exposure on gas exchange patterns. We examined responses of traits of gas exchange [standard metabolic rate (SMR); discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) cycle frequency; cuticular, respiratory and total water loss rate (WLR)] to elucidate the magnitude and form of plastic responses in the dung beetle, Scarabaeus spretus. Results showed that short- and longer-term temperature variation generally have significant effects on SMR and WLR. Overall, acclimation to increased temperature led to a decline in SMR (from 0.071+/-0.004 ml CO(2) h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 0.039+/-0.004 ml CO(2) h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 20 degrees C) modulated by reduced DGE frequency (15 degrees C acclimation: 0.554+/-0.027 mHz, 20 degrees C acclimation: 0.257+/-0.030 mHz, 25 degrees C acclimation: 0.208+/-0.027 mHz recorded at 20 degrees C), reduced cuticular WLRs (from 1.058+/-0.537 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 0.900+/-0.400 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 20 degrees C) and reduced total WLR (from 4.2+/-0.5 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 3.1+/-0.5 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 25 degrees C). Respiratory WLR was reduced from 2.25+/-0.40 mg h(-1) in 15 degrees C-acclimated beetles to 1.60+/-0.40 mg h(-1) in 25 degrees C-acclimated beetles measured at 25 degrees C, suggesting conservation of water during DGE bursts. Overall, this suggests water conservation is a priority for S. spretus exposed to longer-term temperature variation, rather than elevation of SMR in response to low temperature acclimation, as might be expected from a beetle living in a relatively warm, low rainfall summer region. These results are significant for understanding the evolution of gas exchange patterns and trade-offs between metabolic rate and water balance in insects and other terrestrial arthropods. PMID:20709922

Terblanche, John S; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Chown, Steven L

2010-09-01

309

Allelic variants of the amylose extender mutation of maize demonstrate phenotypic variation in starch structure resulting from modified protein-protein interactions.  

PubMed

Amylose extender (ae(-)) starches characteristically have modified starch granule morphology resulting from amylopectin with reduced branch frequency and longer glucan chains in clusters, caused by the loss of activity of the major starch branching enzyme (SBE), which in maize endosperm is SBEIIb. A recent study with ae(-) maize lacking the SBEIIb protein (termed ae1.1 herein) showed that novel protein-protein interactions between enzymes of starch biosynthesis in the amyloplast could explain the starch phenotype of the ae1.1 mutant. The present study examined an allelic variant of the ae(-) mutation, ae1.2, which expresses a catalytically inactive form of SBEIIb. The catalytically inactive SBEIIb in ae1.2 lacks a 28 amino acid peptide (Val272-Pro299) and is unable to bind to amylopectin. Analysis of starch from ae1.2 revealed altered granule morphology and physicochemical characteristics distinct from those of the ae1.1 mutant as well as the wild-type, including altered apparent amylose content and gelatinization properties. Starch from ae1.2 had fewer intermediate length glucan chains (degree of polymerization 16-20) than ae1.1. Biochemical analysis of ae1.2 showed that there were differences in the organization and assembly of protein complexes of starch biosynthetic enzymes in comparison with ae1.1 (and wild-type) amyloplasts, which were also reflected in the composition of starch granule-bound proteins. The formation of stromal protein complexes in the wild-type and ae1.2 was strongly enhanced by ATP, and broken by phosphatase treatment, indicating a role for protein phosphorylation in their assembly. Labelling experiments with [?-(32)P]ATP showed that the inactive form of SBEIIb in ae1.2 was phosphorylated, both in the monomeric form and in association with starch synthase isoforms. Although the inactive SBEIIb was unable to bind starch directly, it was strongly associated with the starch granule, reinforcing the conclusion that its presence in the granules is a result of physical association with other enzymes of starch synthesis. In addition, an Mn(2+)-based affinity ligand, specific for phosphoproteins, was used to show that the granule-bound forms of SBEIIb in the wild-type and ae1.2 were phosphorylated, as was the granule-bound form of SBEI found in ae1.2 starch. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the complement of heteromeric complexes of proteins involved in amylopectin synthesis contributes to the fine structure and architecture of the starch granule. PMID:22121198

Liu, Fushan; Ahmed, Zaheer; Lee, Elizabeth A; Donner, Elizabeth; Liu, Qiang; Ahmed, Regina; Morell, Matthew K; Emes, Michael J; Tetlow, Ian J

2012-02-01

310

Levels of genetic polymorphism: marker loci versus quantitative traits.  

PubMed Central

Species are the units used to measure ecological diversity and alleles are the units of genetic diversity. Genetic variation within and among species has been documented most extensively using allozyme electrophoresis. This reveals wide differences in genetic variability within, and genetic distances among, species, demonstrating that species are not equivalent units of diversity. The extent to which the pattern observed for allozymes can be used to infer patterns of genetic variation in quantitative traits depends on the forces generating and maintaining variability. Allozyme variation is probably not strictly neutral but, nevertheless, heterozygosity is expected to be influenced by population size and genetic distance will be affected by time since divergence. The same is true for quantitative traits influenced by many genes and under weak stabilizing selection. However, the limited data available suggest that allozyme variability is a poor predictor of genetic variation in quantitative traits within populations. It is a better predictor of general phenotypic divergence and of postzygotic isolation between populations or species, but is only weakly correlated with prezygotic isolation. Studies of grasshopper and planthopper mating signal variation and assortative mating illustrate how these characters evolve independently of general genetic and morphological variation. The role of such traits in prezygotic isolation, and hence speciation, means that they will contribute significantly to the diversity of levels of genetic variation within and among species. PMID:9533123

Butlin, R K; Tregenza, T

1998-01-01

311

Genetic Epidemiology 18:331–340 (2000) ApoE Polymorphism Accounts for Only Part of the Genetic Variation in Quantitative ApoE Levels  

E-print Network

ApoE levels and chromosome 19 ApoE polymorphisms were measured in a sample of 156 Dutch families. Each pedigree consisted of parents aged 35–65 years and their twin offspring aged 14–21 years. A significant effect of the chromosome 19 apoE locus on quantitative plasma levels of apolipoprotein E was observed. The ApoE polymorphism explained 16 % of the variance in ApoE levels. Tests of association of ApoE levels with the apoC1 locus, which is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the ApoE locus, also showed a significant effect, although the variance explained by ApoC1 was only 1%. Examination of the covariance between twins classified according to allele sharing indicates that the association is not due to population stratification, but to a genuine effect of the ApoE locus on levels. However, the ApoE locus accounts for only one-fourth of the genetic variation

M. C. Neale; P. De Knijff; L. M. Havekes; D. I. Boomsma

1999-01-01

312

Quantitative variation and biosynthesis of hindgut volatiles associated with the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, at different attack phases.  

PubMed

The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is a destructive invasive forest pest in China. For such tree-killing species, how to initiate a volatile-mediated mass attack is of great importance during the course of establishment. To understand the hindgut volatile production mechanism underlying mass attack initiated by RTB, coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and 13C-labelled precursors were applied to explore the quantitative variation and biosynthesis of volatiles associated with RTB at different attack phases. Five previously described volatiles, trans-verbenol, myrtenol, cis-verbenol, myrtenal and verbenone, were identified and quantified from extracts of female and male hindguts, with the first two compounds as the major components and the latter three as minor constituents. In newly emerged females and males, only minute amounts of these compounds were detected. The quantity of volatiles from female adults significantly increased after they fed on bolts. Male adults also yielded larger quantities of volatiles after they joined females in galleries, which suggested that RTB males could accelerate the mass colonization on host trees. We also confirmed that RTB produced the five volatiles through oxidizing the major host monoterpene, alpha-pinene, but not synthesized de novo since products were labeled without 13C. The implication of this study in understanding the successful invasion of RTB is discussed. PMID:19671207

Shi, Z-H; Sun, J-H

2010-06-01

313

Local selection modifies phenotypic divergence among Rana temporaria populations in the presence of gene flow.  

PubMed

In ectotherms, variation in life history traits among populations is common and suggests local adaptation. However, geographic variation itself is not a proof for local adaptation, as genetic drift and gene flow may also shape patterns of quantitative variation. We studied local and regional variation in means and phenotypic plasticity of larval life history traits in the common frog Rana temporaria using six populations from central Sweden, breeding in either open-canopy or partially closed-canopy ponds. To separate local adaptation from genetic drift, we compared differentiation in quantitative genetic traits (Q(ST)) obtained from a common garden experiment with differentiation in presumably neutral microsatellite markers (F(ST)). We found that R. temporaria populations differ in means and plasticities of life history traits in different temperatures at local, and in F(ST) at regional scale. Comparisons of differentiation in quantitative traits and in molecular markers suggested that natural selection was responsible for the divergence in growth and development rates as well as in temperature-induced plasticity, indicating local adaptation. However, at low temperature, the role of genetic drift could not be separated from selection. Phenotypes were correlated with forest canopy closure, but not with geographical or genetic distance. These results indicate that local adaptation can evolve in the presence of ongoing gene flow among the populations, and that natural selection is strong in this system. PMID:20089126

Richter-Boix, Alex; Teplitsky, Céline; Rogell, Björn; Laurila, Anssi

2010-02-01

314

Gene Transposition Causing Natural Variation for Growth in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

A major challenge in biology is to identify molecular polymorphisms responsible for variation in complex traits of evolutionary and agricultural interest. Using the advantages of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model species, we sought to identify new genes and genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation for shoot growth using quantitative genetic strategies. More quantitative trait loci (QTL) still need be resolved to draw a general picture as to how and where in the pathways adaptation is shaping natural variation and the type of molecular variation involved. Phenotypic variation for shoot growth in the Bur-0 × Col-0 recombinant inbred line set was decomposed into several QTLs. Nearly-isogenic lines generated from the residual heterozygosity segregating among lines revealed an even more complex picture, with major variation controlled by opposite linked loci and masked by the segregation bias due to the defective phenotype of SG3 (Shoot Growth-3), as well as epistasis with SG3i (SG3-interactor). Using principally a fine-mapping strategy, we have identified the underlying gene causing phenotypic variation at SG3: At4g30720 codes for a new chloroplast-located protein essential to ensure a correct electron flow through the photosynthetic chain and, hence, photosynthesis efficiency and normal growth. The SG3/SG3i interaction is the result of a structural polymorphism originating from the duplication of the gene followed by divergent paralogue's loss between parental accessions. Species-wide, our results illustrate the very dynamic rate of duplication/transposition, even over short periods of time, resulting in several divergent—but still functional—combinations of alleles fixed in different backgrounds. In predominantly selfing species like Arabidopsis, this variation remains hidden in wild populations but is potentially revealed when divergent individuals outcross. This work highlights the need for improved tools and algorithms to resolve structural variation polymorphisms using high-throughput sequencing, because it remains challenging to distinguish allelic from paralogous variation at this scale. PMID:20485571

Vlad, Daniela; Rappaport, Fabrice; Simon, Matthieu; Loudet, Olivier

2010-01-01

315

Quantitative genetics of pigmentation development in 2 populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis.  

PubMed

The evolutionary importance of ontogenetic change has been noted since Darwin. However, most analyses of phenotypic evolution focus on single landmark ages. Here, we present an inheritance study that quantifies genetic variation in pigmentation across early-age (i.e., birth to 180 days) development in 2 populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis. The populations are phenotypically distinct and geographically isolated (Manitoba, CA and Northern California, USA). There were highly significant differences between populations for the developmental trajectory of mean pigmentation, with the Manitoba population exhibiting a mean pigmentation level that increased across ontogeny, whereas the California population exhibited mean pigmentation that was invariant across ontogeny. Subsequent quantitative genetic analyses revealed heritable variation at all ages in Manitoba but low levels of phenotypic and genetic variation in California at all ages. A quantitative genetic decomposition of the longitudinal genetic variance-covariance matrix for the age-specific pigmentation phenotypes in the Manitoba population revealed 2 primary orthogonal axes that explained most ( approximately 100%) of the pigmentation variation across ontogeny. The primary axis, explaining 93% of the genetic variation, is an axis of genetic variation whose principal value loadings change from positive to negative across development, suggesting that the most rapid evolutionary response to selection on pigmentation variation will occur in the direction characterized by a tradeoff in early-age versus late-age pigmentation phenotypes. Pigmentation is known to be ecologically important and subject to rapid evolution under selection. Our study shows that significant differences exist between these 2 populations for their capacity to respond to selection on pigmentation which is not only influenced by the population of origin but also by the developmental process. We suggest that developmental timing may be a potential explanatory mechanism for the difference between the populations. PMID:20453034

Westphal, Michael F; Morgan, Theodore J

2010-01-01

316

Optofluidic detection for cellular phenotyping.  

PubMed

Quantitative analysis of the output of processes and molecular interactions within a single cell is highly critical to the advancement of accurate disease screening and personalized medicine. Optical detection is one of the most broadly adapted measurement methods in biological and clinical assays and serves cellular phenotyping. Recently, microfluidics has obtained increasing attention due to several advantages, such as small sample and reagent volumes, very high throughput, and accurate flow control in the spatial and temporal domains. Optofluidics, which is the attempt to integrate optics with microfluidics, shows great promise to enable on-chip phenotypic measurements with high precision, sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. This paper reviews the most recent developments of optofluidic technologies for cellular phenotyping optical detection. PMID:22854915

Tung, Yi-Chung; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Bo-Ram; Patra, Bishnubrata; Pan, Chi-Chun; Qiu, Teng; Chu, Paul K; Zhang, Wenjun; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

2012-10-01

317

Optofluidic Detection for Cellular Phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis of the output of processes and molecular interactions within a single cell is highly critical to the advancement of accurate disease screening and personalized medicine. Optical detection is one of the most broadly adapted measurement methods in biological and clinical assays and serves cellular phenotyping. Recently, microfluidics has obtained increasing attention due to several advantages, such as small sample and reagent volumes, very high throughput, and accurate flow control in the spatial and temporal domains. Optofluidics, which is the attempt to integrate optics with microfluidic, shows great promise to enable on-chip phenotypic measurements with high precision, sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity. This paper reviews the most recent developments of optofluidic technologies for cellular phenotyping optical detection. PMID:22854915

Tung, Yi-Chung; Huang, Nien-Tsu; Oh, Bo-Ram; Patra, Bishnubrata; Pan, Chi-Chun; Qiu, Teng; Paul, K. Chu; Zhang, Wenjun; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

2012-01-01

318

Adaptive evolution of molecular phenotypes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular phenotypes link genomic information with organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Quantitative traits are complex phenotypes that depend on multiple genomic loci. In this paper, we study the adaptive evolution of a quantitative trait under time-dependent selection, which arises from environmental changes or through fitness interactions with other co-evolving phenotypes. We analyze a model of trait evolution under mutations and genetic drift in a single-peak fitness seascape. The fitness peak performs a constrained random walk in the trait amplitude, which determines the time-dependent trait optimum in a given population. We derive analytical expressions for the distribution of the time-dependent trait divergence between populations and of the trait diversity within populations. Based on this solution, we develop a method to infer adaptive evolution of quantitative traits. Specifically, we show that the ratio of the average trait divergence and the diversity is a universal function of evolutionary time, which predicts the stabilizing strength and the driving rate of the fitness seascape. From an information-theoretic point of view, this function measures the macro-evolutionary entropy in a population ensemble, which determines the predictability of the evolutionary process. Our solution also quantifies two key characteristics of adapting populations: the cumulative fitness flux, which measures the total amount of adaptation, and the adaptive load, which is the fitness cost due to a population's lag behind the fitness peak.

Held, Torsten; Nourmohammad, Armita; Lässig, Michael

2014-09-01

319

A simple genetic architecture underlies morphological variation in dogs.  

PubMed

Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915 dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental, and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small number of quantitative trait loci (< or = 3) explain the majority of phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture of key traits in this important species. PMID:20711490

Boyko, Adam R; Quignon, Pascale; Li, Lin; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Zhao, Keyan; Brisbin, Abra; Parker, Heidi G; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cargill, Michele; Auton, Adam; Reynolds, Andy; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Castelhano, Marta; Mosher, Dana S; Sutter, Nathan B; Johnson, Gary S; Novembre, John; Hubisz, Melissa J; Siepel, Adam; Wayne, Robert K; Bustamante, Carlos D; Ostrander, Elaine A

2010-01-01

320

A Simple Genetic Architecture Underlies Morphological Variation in Dogs  

PubMed Central

Domestic dogs exhibit tremendous phenotypic diversity, including a greater variation in body size than any other terrestrial mammal. Here, we generate a high density map of canine genetic variation by genotyping 915 dogs from 80 domestic dog breeds, 83 wild canids, and 10 outbred African shelter dogs across 60,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Coupling this genomic resource with external measurements from breed standards and individuals as well as skeletal measurements from museum specimens, we identify 51 regions of the dog genome associated with phenotypic variation among breeds in 57 traits. The complex traits include average breed body size and external body dimensions and cranial, dental, and long bone shape and size with and without allometric scaling. In contrast to the results from association mapping of quantitative traits in humans and domesticated plants, we find that across dog breeds, a small number of quantitative trait loci (?3) explain the majority of phenotypic variation for most of the traits we studied. In addition, many genomic regions show signatures of recent selection, with most of the highly differentiated regions being associated with breed-defining traits such as body size, coat characteristics, and ear floppiness. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of mapping multiple traits in the domestic dog using a database of genotyped individuals and highlight the important role human-directed selection has played in altering the genetic architecture of key traits in this important species. PMID:20711490

Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J.; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Zhao, Keyan; Brisbin, Abra; Parker, Heidi G.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Cargill, Michele; Auton, Adam; Reynolds, Andy; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Castelhano, Marta; Mosher, Dana S.; Sutter, Nathan B.; Johnson, Gary S.; Novembre, John; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Siepel, Adam; Wayne, Robert K.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

2010-01-01

321

Quantitative trait loci affecting starvation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

The ability to withstand periods of scarce food resources is an important fitness trait. Starvation resistance is a quantitative trait controlled by multiple interacting genes and exhibits considerable genetic variation in natural populations. This genetic variation could be maintained in the face of strong selection due to a trade-off in resource allocation between reproductive activity and individual survival. Knowledge of the genes affecting starvation tolerance and the subset of genes that affect variation in starvation resistance in natural populations would enable us to evaluate this hypothesis from a quantitative genetic perspective. We screened 933 co-isogenic P-element insertion lines to identify candidate genes affecting starvation tolerance. A total of 383 P-element insertions induced highly significant and often sex-specific mutational variance in starvation resistance. We also used deficiency complementation mapping followed by complementation to mutations to identify 12 genes contributing to variation in starvation resistance between two wild-type strains. The genes we identified are involved in oogenesis, metabolism, and feeding behaviors, indicating a possible link to reproduction and survival. However, we also found genes with cell fate specification and cell proliferation phenotypes, which implies that resource allocation during development and at the cellular level may also influence the phenotypic response to starvation. PMID:15126400

Harbison, Susan T; Yamamoto, Akihiko H; Fanara, Juan J; Norga, Koenraad K; Mackay, Trudy F C

2004-01-01

322

Quantitative Imaging in Cancer Evolution and Ecology  

PubMed Central

Cancer therapy, even when highly targeted, typically fails because of the remarkable capacity of malignant cells to evolve effective adaptations. These evolutionary dynamics are both a cause and a consequence of cancer system heterogeneity at many scales, ranging from genetic properties of individual cells to large-scale imaging features. Tumors of the same organ and cell type can have remarkably diverse appearances in different patients. Furthermore, even within a single tumor, marked variations in imaging features, such as necrosis or contrast enhancement, are common. Similar spatial variations recently have been reported in genetic profiles. Radiologic heterogeneity within tumors is usually governed by variations in blood flow, whereas genetic heterogeneity is typically ascribed to random mutations. However, evolution within tumors, as in all living systems, is subject to Darwinian principles; thus, it is governed by predictable and reproducible interactions between environmental selection forces and cell phenotype (not genotype). This link between regional variations in environmental properties and cellular adaptive strategies may permit clinical imaging to be used to assess and monitor intratumoral evolution in individual patients. This approach is enabled by new methods that extract, report, and analyze quantitative, reproducible, and mineable clinical imaging data. However, most current quantitative metrics lack spatialness, expressing quantitative radiologic features as a single value for a region of interest encompassing the whole tumor. In contrast, spatially explicit image analysis recognizes that tumors are heterogeneous but not well mixed and defines regionally distinct habitats, some of which appear to harbor tumor populations that are more aggressive and less treatable than others. By identifying regional variations in key environmental selection forces and evidence of cellular adaptation, clinical imaging can enable us to define intratumoral Darwinian dynamics before and during therapy. Advances in image analysis will place clinical imaging in an increasingly central role in the development of evolution-based patient-specific cancer therapy. © RSNA, 2013 PMID:24062559

Grove, Olya; Gillies, Robert J.

2013-01-01

323

Power matters in closing the phenotyping gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of our understanding of physiology and metabolism is derived from investigating mouse mutants and transgenic mice, and open-access platforms for standardized mouse phenotyping such as the German Mouse Clinic (GMC) are currently viewed as one powerful tool for identifying novel gene-function relationships. Phenotyping or phenotypic screening involves the comparison of wild-type control mice with their mutant or transgenic littermates. In our study, we explored the extent to which standardized phenotyping will succeed in detecting biologically relevant phenotypic differences in mice generated and provided by different collaborators. We analyzed quantitative metabolic data (body mass, energy intake, and energy metabolized) collected at the GMC under the current workflow, and used them for statistical power considerations. Our results demonstrate that there is substantial variability in these parameters among lines of wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice from different sources. Given this variable background noise in mice that serve as controls, subtle phenotypes in mutant or transgenic littermates may be overlooked. Furthermore, a phenotype observed in one cohort of a mutant line may not be reproducible (to the same extent) in mice coming from a different environment or supplier. In the light of these constraints, we encourage researchers to incorporate information on intrastrain variability into future study planning, or to perform advanced hierarchical analyses. Both will ultimately improve the detectability of novel phenotypes by phenotypic screening.

Meyer, Carola W.; Elvert, Ralf; Scherag, André; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; Schäfer, Helmut; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Heldmaier, Gerhard; Klingenspor, Martin

2007-05-01

324

Evolution of molecular phenotypes under stabilizing selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular phenotypes are important links between genomic information and organismic functions, fitness, and evolution. Complex phenotypes, which are also called quantitative traits, often depend on multiple genomic loci. Their evolution builds on genome evolution in a complicated way, which involves selection, genetic drift, mutations and recombination. Here we develop a coarse-grained evolutionary statistics for phenotypes, which decouples from details of the underlying genotypes. We derive approximate evolution equations for the distribution of phenotype values within and across populations. This dynamics covers evolutionary processes at high and low recombination rates, that is, it applies to sexual and asexual populations. In a fitness landscape with a single optimal phenotype value, the phenotypic diversity within populations and the divergence between populations reach evolutionary equilibria, which describe stabilizing selection. We compute the equilibrium distributions of both quantities analytically and we show that the ratio of mean divergence and diversity depends on the strength of selection in a universal way: it is largely independent of the phenotype’s genomic encoding and of the recombination rate. This establishes a new method for the inference of selection on molecular phenotypes beyond the genome level. We discuss the implications of our findings for the predictability of evolutionary processes.

Nourmohammad, Armita; Schiffels, Stephan; Lässig, Michael

2013-01-01

325

Quantitative Epigenetics Through Epigenomic Perturbation of Isogenic Lines  

PubMed Central

Interindividual differences in chromatin states at a locus (epialleles) can result in gene expression changes that are sometimes transmitted across generations. In this way, they can contribute to heritable phenotypic variation in natural and experimental populations independent of DNA sequence. Recent molecular evidence shows that epialleles often display high levels of transgenerational instability. This property gives rise to a dynamic dimension in phenotypic inheritance. To be able to incorporate these non-Mendelian features into quantitative genetic models, it is necessary to study the induction and the transgenerational behavior of epialleles in controlled settings. Here we outline a general experimental approach for achieving this using crosses of epigenomically perturbed isogenic lines in mammalian and plant species. We develop a theoretical description of such crosses and model the relationship between epiallelic instability, recombination, parent-of-origin effects, as well as transgressive segregation and their joint impact on phenotypic variation across generations. In the limiting case of fully stable epialleles our approach reduces to the classical theory of experimental line crosses and thus illustrates a fundamental continuity between genetic and epigenetic inheritance. We consider data from a panel of Arabidopsis epigenetic recombinant inbred lines and explore estimates of the number of quantitative trait loci for plant height that resulted from a manipulation of DNA methylation levels in one of the two isogenic founder strains. PMID:21385727

Johannes, Frank; Colome-Tatche, Maria

2011-01-01

326

Functional Genomics Complements Quantitative Genetics in Identifying Disease-Gene Associations  

PubMed Central

An ultimate goal of genetic research is to understand the connection between genotype and phenotype in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The quantitative genetics field has developed a suite of statistical methods to associate genetic loci with diseases and phenotypes, including quantitative trait loci (QTL) linkage mapping and genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, each of these approaches have technical and biological shortcomings. For example, the amount of heritable variation explained by GWAS is often surprisingly small and the resolution of many QTL linkage mapping studies is poor. The predictive power and interpretation of QTL and GWAS results are consequently limited. In this study, we propose a complementary approach to quantitative genetics by interrogating the vast amount of high-throughput genomic data in model organisms to functionally associate genes with phenotypes and diseases. Our algorithm combines the genome-wide functional relationship network for the laboratory mouse and a state-of-the-art machine learning method. We demonstrate the superior accuracy of this algorithm through predicting genes associated with each of 1157 diverse phenotype ontology terms. Comparison between our prediction results and a meta-analysis of quantitative genetic studies reveals both overlapping candidates and distinct, accurate predictions uniquely identified by our approach. Focusing on bone mineral density (BMD), a phenotype related to osteoporotic fracture, we experimentally validated two of our novel predictions (not observed in any previous GWAS/QTL studies) and found significant bone density defects for both Timp2 and Abcg8 deficient mice. Our results suggest that the integration of functional genomics data into networks, which itself is informative of protein function and interactions, can successfully be utilized as a complementary approach to quantitative genetics to predict disease risks. All supplementary material is available at http://cbfg.jax.org/phenotype. PMID:21085640

Guan, Yuanfang; Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl L.; Kell, Braden; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Hibbs, Matthew A.

2010-01-01

327

Phenotypic, maximum genetic, and special environmental variability in prehistoric human populations.  

PubMed

The phenotypic variance (V(P)) may be divided into the genetic variance (V(G)), the general environmental variance (V(Eg)), and the special environmental variance (V(Es)). The latter is estimated through repeatability calculation (b). This value is considered the upper limit of heritability and represents maximum genetic variance proportion (V(Gm) = V(G) + V(Eg)) in relation to V(P) (b = (V(G) + V(Eg))/V(P)). This process allows an improved determination of biological relationships among groups from estimators maximizing the genetic information of quantitative characters. Two hundred and thirty-seven individuals inhabiting the northern coast of Chile for 4,000 years were taken as a sample. Measurement was made of six metric characters at both sides of the cranium. Special environmental values (es) were obtained by regression. The difference between these values and the phenotypic values (p) consists in the genetic values plus the general environmental values (g + eg). A mean b value of 0.83 indicated that V(Es) represents 17% of V(P). The results showed: 1) high stability of the maximum genetic variance in time and space, 2) high correlation between the biological relationships model, the phenotypic model, and the maximum genetic model, and 3) random distribution of the nongenetic variation, as expected from the quantitative genetics theory. These results support the use of phenotypic data for the interpretation of the evolution history of prehistoric populations. PMID:16941604

Varela, Héctor Hugo; Cocilovo, José Alberto

2007-01-01

328

The Genetic Basis of Natural Variation in Oenological Traits in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main microorganism responsible for wine alcoholic fermentation. The oenological phenotypes resulting from fermentation, such as the production of acetic acid, glycerol, and residual sugar concentration are regulated by multiple genes and vary quantitatively between different strain backgrounds. With the aim of identifying the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that regulate oenological phenotypes, we performed linkage analysis using three crosses between highly diverged S. cerevisiae strains. Segregants from each cross were used as starter cultures for 20-day fermentations, in synthetic wine must, to simulate actual winemaking conditions. Linkage analysis on phenotypes of primary industrial importance resulted in the mapping of 18 QTLs. We tested 18 candidate genes, by reciprocal hemizygosity, for their contribution to the observed phenotypic variation, and validated five genes and the chromosome II right subtelomeric region. We observed that genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, sugar transport, nitrogen metabolism, and the uncharacterized ORF YJR030W explained most of the phenotypic variation in oenological traits. Furthermore, we experimentally validated an exceptionally strong epistatic interaction resulting in high level of succinic acid between the Sake FLX1 allele and the Wine/European MDH2 allele. Overall, our work demonstrates the complex genetic basis underlying wine traits, including natural allelic variation, antagonistic linked QTLs and complex epistatic interactions between alleles from strains with different evolutionary histories. PMID:23185390

Salinas, Francisco; Cubillos, Francisco A.; Soto, Daniela; Garcia, Veronica; Bergstrom, Anders; Warringer, Jonas; Ganga, M. Angelica; Louis, Edward J.

2012-01-01

329

A collective mechanism for phase variation in biofilms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding how microbes gather into biofilm communities and maintain diversity remains one of the central questions of microbiology, requiring an understanding of microbes as communal rather then individual organisms. Phase variation plays an integral role in the formation of diverse phenotypes within biofilms. We propose a collective mechanism for phase variation based on gene transfer agents, and apply the theory to predict the population structure and growth dynamics of a biofilm. Our results describe quantitatively recent experiments, with the only adjustable parameter being the rate of intercellular horizontal gene transfer. Our approach derives from a more general picture for the emergence of cooperation between microbes.

Chia, Nicholas; Woese, Carl; Goldenfeld, Nigel

2009-03-01

330

Phenotypic and Evolutionary Consequences of Social Behaviours: Interactions among Individuals Affect Direct Genetic Effects  

PubMed Central

Traditional quantitative genetics assumes that an individual's phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. For many animals, part of the environment is social and provided by parents and other interacting partners. When expression of genes in social partners affects trait expression in a focal individual, indirect genetic effects occur. In this study, we explore the effects of indirect genetic effects on the magnitude and range of phenotypic values in a focal individual in a multi-member model analyzing three possible classes of interactions between individuals. We show that social interactions may not only cause indirect genetic effects but can also modify direct genetic effects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both direct and indirect genetic effects substantially alter the range of phenotypic values, particularly when a focal trait can influence its own expression via interactions with traits in other individuals. We derive a function predicting the relative importance of direct versus indirect genetic effects. Our model reveals that both direct and indirect genetic effects can depend to a large extent on both group size and interaction strength, altering group mean phenotype and variance. This may lead to scenarios where between group variation is much higher than within group variation despite similar underlying genetic properties, potentially affecting the level of selection. Our analysis highlights key properties of indirect genetic effects with important consequences for trait evolution, the level of selection and potentially speciation. PMID:23226195

Trubenova, Barbora; Hager, Reinmar

2012-01-01

331

Convergent evolution of phenotypic integration and its alignment with morphological diversification in Caribbean Anolis ecomorphs.  

PubMed

The adaptive landscape and the G-matrix are keys concepts for understanding how quantitative characters evolve during adaptive radiation. In particular, whether the adaptive landscape can drive convergence of phenotypic integration (i.e., the pattern of phenotypic variation and covariation summarized in the P-matrix) is not well studied. We estimated and compared P for 19 morphological traits in eight species of Caribbean Anolis lizards, finding that similarity in P among species was not correlated with phylogenetic distance. However, greater similarity in P among ecologically similar Anolis species (i.e., the trunk-ground ecomorph) suggests the role of convergent natural selection. Despite this convergence and relatively deep phylogenetic divergence, a large portion of eigenstructure of P is retained among our eight focal species. We also analyzed P as an approximation of G to test for correspondence with the pattern of phenotypic divergence in 21 Caribbean Anolis species. These patterns of covariation were coincident, suggesting that either genetic constraint has influenced the pattern of among-species divergence or, alternatively, that the adaptive landscape has influenced both G and the pattern of phenotypic divergence among species. We provide evidence for convergent evolution of phenotypic integration for one class of Anolis ecomorph, revealing yet another important dimension of evolutionary convergence in this group. PMID:22133229

Kolbe, Jason J; Revell, Liam J; Szekely, Brian; Brodie, Edmund D; Losos, Jonathan B

2011-12-01

332

Untargeted Metabolic Quantitative Trait Loci Analyses Reveal a Relationship between Primary Metabolism and Potato Tuber Quality1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in -omics technologies such as transcriptomics, metabolomics, and proteomics along with genotypic profiling have permitted dissection of the genetics of complex traits represented by molecular phenotypes in nonmodel species. To identify the genetic factors underlying variation in primary metabolism in potato (Solanum tuberosum), we have profiled primary metabolite content in a diploid potato mapping population, derived from crosses between S. tuberosum and wild relatives, using gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry. In total, 139 polar metabolites were detected, of which we identified metabolite quantitative trait loci for approximately 72% of the detected compounds. In order to obtain an insight into the relationships between metabolic traits and classical phenotypic traits, we also analyzed statistical associations between them. The combined analysis of genetic information through quantitative trait locus coincidence and the application of statistical learning methods provide information on putative indicators associated with the alterations in metabolic networks that affect complex phenotypic traits. PMID:22223596

Carreno-Quintero, Natalia; Acharjee, Animesh; Maliepaard, Chris; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Mumm, Roland; Bouwmeester, Harro; Visser, Richard G.F.; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.

2012-01-01

333

Molecular Genetics of the Psychosis Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Objective Relative to recent successes in elucidating the genetic mechanisms associated with complex diseases including macular degeneration, Type II diabetes, heart disease and cancer, molecular genetic approaches to psychiatric illness have met with more limited success. While factors such as small allelic effects, allelic heterogeneity and variation in population sub-structure have received considerable attention in attempt to explain the paucity of significant results in psychiatric genetics, significantly less focus has been directed towards phenotypic factors. Method Data derived from molecular genetic studies of the psychosis phenotype in patients with a range of psychiatric illnesses are reviewed. Results Available data suggest that genes do not respect the boundaries of the current diagnostic system but may confer risk for symptom-based phenotypic variation that traverses those boundaries. Conclusions Molecular genetic studies offer convincing evidence for a relation between genetic variation and symptom-based phenotypic variation within psychiatric illness. These data may provide novel insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other related disorders. The exploration of relationships between genetic variation and symptom variation that traverses traditional diagnostic boundaries may ultimately lead to more refined classification systems that more closely reflect the genetic etiology of psychiatric illness. PMID:22762300

DeRosse, Pamela; Malhotra, Anil K.; Lencz, Todd

2014-01-01

334

Morphometrics and the role of the phenotype in studies of the evolution of developmental mechanisms.  

PubMed

Developmental mechanisms are usually assumed to evolve by natural selection of the morphological traits they produce. Therefore, information on phenotypic traits is an important component of comparative studies of development. Morphometrics permits the rigorous quantitative analysis of variation in organismal size and shape, and is increasingly being used in developmental contexts. The new methods of morphometrics combine a geometric concept of shape with the procedures of multivariate statistics, and constitute a powerful and flexible set of tools for analyzing morphological variation. This paper briefly reviews these methods and provides examples of their application in studies of genetic variation and developmental modularity. The results of morphometric analyses can be readily interpreted in relation to the geometry and anatomical structure of the parts under study. Genetic studies of shape in the mouse mandible found two recurrent patterns in environmental and genetic variation from different origins, suggesting that the development system 'channels' the phenotypic expression of variation in similar ways. Moreover, by analyzing the correlations of left-right asymmetries of morphometric traits, it is possible to delimit the spatial extent of developmental modules. These methods complement the experimental approaches of developmental biology and genetics, and can be expected to be especially fruitful in combination with them. PMID:11992717

Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2002-04-01

335

The pleiotropic structure of the genotype-phenotype map: the evolvability of complex organisms.  

PubMed

It was first noticed 100 years ago that mutations tend to affect more than one phenotypic characteristic, a phenomenon that was called 'pleiotropy'. Because pleiotropy was found so frequently, the notion arose that pleiotropy is 'universal'. However, quantitative estimates of pleiotropy have not been available until recently. These estimates show that pleiotropy is highly restricted and are more in line with the notion of variational modularity than with universal pleiotropy. This finding has major implications for the evolvability of complex organisms and the mapping of disease-causing mutations. PMID:21331091

Wagner, Günter P; Zhang, Jianzhi

2011-03-01

336

Factors That Contribute to Assay Variation in Quantitative Analysis of Sex Steroid Hormones Using Liquid and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The list of physiological events in which sex steroids play a role continues to increase. To decipher the roles that sex steroids play in any condition requires high quality cohorts of samples and assays that provide highly accurate quantitative measures. Liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS and GC-MS) have…

Xu, Xia; Veenstra, Timothy D.

2012-01-01

337

Use of naturally-occurring enzyme variation to detect and map genes controlling quantitative traits in an interspecific backcross of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

A backcross between the inbred parents, Lycopersicon esculentum (LA 490, recurrent parent) and Solanum pennellii (LA 716) constitutes ideal material for an investigation of linkage between enzyme marker genes and loci determining quantitative traits (QTL): the chromosomes of the parents are the same in number and are homosequential; the parents differ for well-defined alleles at 12 enzymatic loci, which represent

Steven D Tanksley; Herculano Medina-Filho; Charles M Rick

1982-01-01

338

Endothelial cell phenotypic behaviors cluster into dynamic state transition programs modulated by angiogenic and angiostatic cytokines.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis requires coordinated dynamic regulation of multiple phenotypic behaviors of endothelial cells in response to environmental cues. Multi-scale computational models of angiogenesis can be useful for analyzing effects of cell behaviors on the tissue level outcome, but these models require more intensive experimental studies dedicated to determining the required quantitative "rules" for cell-level phenotypic responses across a landscape of pro- and anti-angiogenic stimuli in order to ascertain how changes in these single cell responses lead to emerging multi-cellular behavior such as sprout formation. Here we employ single-cell microscopy to ascertain phenotypic behaviors of more than 800 human microvascular endothelial cells under various combinational angiogenic (VEGF) and angiostatic (PF4) cytokine treatments, analyzing their dynamic behavioral transitions among sessile, migratory, proliferative, and apoptotic states. We find that an endothelial cell population clusters into an identifiable set of a few distinct phenotypic state transition patterns (clusters) that is consistent across all cytokine conditions. Varying the cytokine conditions, such as VEGF and PF4 combinations here, modulates the proportion of the population following a particular pattern (referred to as phenotypic cluster weights) without altering the transition dynamics within the patterns. We then map the phenotypic cluster weights to quantified population level sprout densities using a multi-variate regression approach, and identify linear combinations of the phenotypic cluster weights that associate with greater or lesser sprout density across the various treatment conditions. VEGF-dominant cytokine combinations yielding high sprout densities are characterized by high proliferative and low apoptotic cluster weights, whereas PF4-dominant conditions yielding low sprout densities are characterized by low proliferative and high apoptotic cluster weights. Migratory cluster weights show only mild association with sprout density outcomes under the VEGF/PF4 conditions and the sprout formation characteristics explored here. PMID:23303249

Rimchala, Tharathorn; Kamm, Roger D; Lauffenburger, Douglas A

2013-03-01

339

Endothelial cell phenotypic behaviors cluster into dynamic state transition programs modulated by angiogenic and angiostatic cytokines  

PubMed Central

Angiogenesis requires coordinated dynamic regulation of multiple phenotypic behaviors of endothelial cells in response to environmental cues. Multi-scale computational models of angiogenesis can be useful for analyzing effects of cell behaviors on the tissue level outcome, but these models require more intensive experimental studies dedicated to determining the required quantitative “rules” for cell-level phenotypic responses across a landscape of pro- and anti-angiogenic stimuli in order to ascertain how changes in these single cell responses lead to emerging multi-cellular behavior such as sprout formation. Here we employ single-cell microscopy to ascertain phenotypic behaviors of more than 800 human microvascular endothelial cells under various combinational angiogenic (VEGF) and angiostatic (PF4) cytokine treatments, analyzing their dynamic behavioral transitions among sessile, migratory, proliferative, and apoptotic states. We find that an endothelial cell population clusters into an identifiable set of a few distinct phenotypic state transition patterns (clusters) that is consistent across all cytokine conditions. Varying the cytokine conditions, such as VEGF and PF4 combinations here, modulates the proportion of the population following a particular pattern (referred to as phenotypic cluster weights) without altering the transition dynamics within the patterns. We then map the phenotypic cluster weights to quantified population level sprout densities using a multi-variate regression approach, and identify linear combinations of the phenotypic cluster weights that associate with greater or lesser sprout density across the various treatment conditions. VEGF-dominant cytokine combinations yielding high sprout densities are characterized by high proliferative and low apoptotic cluster weights, whereas PF4-dominant conditions yielding low sprout densities are characterized by low proliferative and high apoptotic cluster weights. Migratory cluster weights show only mild association with sprout density outcomes under the VEGF/PF4 conditions and the sprout formation characteristics explored here. PMID:23303249

Rimchala, Tharathorn; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

2013-01-01

340

Phenotypic Plasticity in Drosophila Pigmentation Caused by Temperature Sensitivity of a Chromatin Regulator Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a genotype to produce contrasting phenotypes in different environments. Although many examples have been described, the responsible mechanisms are poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear how phenotypic plasticity is related to buffering, the maintenance of a constant phenotype against genetic or environmental variation. We investigate here the genetic basis of a particularly

Jean-Michel Gibert; Frédérique Peronnet; Christian Schlötterer

2007-01-01

341

A common, non-optimal phenotypic endpoint in experimental adaptations of bacteriophage lysis time  

E-print Network

Background: Optimality models of evolution, which ignore genetic details and focus on natural selection, are widely used but sometimes criticized as oversimplifications. Their utility for quantitatively predicting phenotypic ...

Heineman, Richard H.

342

HairyÂs Inheritance: Investigating Variation, Selection, and Evolution with Wisconsin Fast Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this investigation, learners will gather their own evidence to explain how environmental pressures (selection for hairiness) and inheritance can effect phenotypic variation over time. As learners observe two or more generations of Wisconsin Fast Plants, learners observe carefully and track quantitatively the average number of hairs on the first true leaf margin of Rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants). As the generations of plants grow, students will make observations that will serve as evidence to support or refute their explanations about the observed patterns in the inheritance of the hairy trait.-This pdf file contains considerable background information about Brassicas and the relationship among phenotype, genotype, and environment.

Lauffer, Daniel W.

343

Quantitative Analysis of the Magnitude and Time Delay of Cyclic Variation of Myocardial Backscatter from Asymptomatic Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Subjects  

PubMed Central

Early detection of diabetic patients at high risk for developing diabetic cardiomyopathy may permit effective intervention. The goal of this work is to determine whether measurements of the magnitude and time delay of cyclic variation of myocardial backscatter, individually and in combination, can be used to discriminate between subgroups of individuals including normal controls and asymptomatic type 2 diabetes subjects. Two-dimensional parasternal long-axis echocardiographic images of 104 type 2 diabetic patients and 44 normal volunteers were acquired. Cyclic variation data were produced by measuring the mean myocardial backscatter level within a region-of-interest in the posterior wall, and characterized in terms of the magnitude and normalized time delay. The cyclic variation parameters were analyzed using Bayes classification and a nonparametric estimate of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve to illustrate the relative effectiveness of using one or two features to segregate subgroups of individuals. The subjects were grouped based on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and the ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C). Analyses comparing the cyclic variation measurements of subjects in the highest and lowest quartiles of HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and TG/HDL-C showed substantial differences in the mean magnitude and normalized time delay of cyclic variation. Results show that analyses of the cyclic variation of backscatter in young asymptomatic type 2 diabetics may be an early indicator for the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:19616360

Gibson, Allyson A.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Peterson, Linda R.; Bilhorn, Kyle R.; Robert, Karla M.; Haider, Troy A.; Farmer, Marsha S.; Holland, Mark R.; Miller, James G.

2009-01-01

344

Statistical models for trisomic phenotypes.  

PubMed Central

Certain genetic disorders are rare in the general population but more common in individuals with specific trisomies, which suggests that the genes involved in the etiology of these disorders may be located on the trisomic chromosome. As with all aneuploid syndromes, however, a considerable degree of variation exists within each phenotype so that any given trait is present only among a subset of the trisomic population. We have previously presented a simple gene-dosage model to explain this phenotypic variation and developed a strategy to map genes for such traits. The mapping strategy does not depend on the simple model but works in theory under any model that predicts that affected individuals have an increased likelihood of disomic homozygosity at the trait locus. This paper explores the robustness of our mapping method by investigating what kinds of models give an expected increase in disomic homozygosity. We describe a number of basic statistical models for trisomic phenotypes. Some of these are logical extensions of standard models for disomic phenotypes, and some are more specific to trisomy. Where possible, we discuss genetic mechanisms applicable to each model. We investigate which models and which parameter values give an expected increase in disomic homozygosity in individuals with the trait. Finally, we determine the sample sizes required to identify the increased disomic homozygosity under each model. Most of the models we explore yield detectable increases in disomic homozygosity for some reasonable range of parameter values, usually corresponding to smaller trait frequencies. It therefore appears that our mapping method should be effective for a wide variety of moderately infrequent traits, even though the exact mode of inheritance is unlikely to be known. PMID:8554057

Lamb, N. E.; Feingold, E.; Sherman, S. L.

1996-01-01

345

Integrating Quantitative Knowledge into a Qualitative Gene Regulatory Network  

PubMed Central

Despite recent improvements in molecular techniques, biological knowledge remains incomplete. Any theorizing about living systems is therefore necessarily based on the use of heterogeneous and partial information. Much current research has focused successfully on the qualitative behaviors of macromolecular networks. Nonetheless, it is not capable of taking into account available quantitative information such as time-series protein concentration variations. The present work proposes a probabilistic modeling framework that integrates both kinds of information. Average case analysis methods are used in combination with Markov chains to link qualitative information about transcriptional regulations to quantitative information about protein concentrations. The approach is illustrated by modeling the carbon starvation response in Escherichia coli. It accurately predicts the quantitative time-series evolution of several protein concentrations using only knowledge of discrete gene interactions and a small number of quantitative observations on a single protein concentration. From this, the modeling technique also derives a ranking of interactions with respect to their importance during the experiment considered. Such a classification is confirmed by the literature. Therefore, our method is principally novel in that it allows (i) a hybrid model that integrates both qualitative discrete model and quantities to be built, even using a small amount of quantitative information, (ii) new quantitative predictions to be derived, (iii) the robustness and relevance of interactions with respect to phenotypic criteria to be precisely quantified, and (iv) the key features of the model to be extracted that can be used as a guidance to design future experiments. PMID:21935350

Bourdon, Jeremie; Eveillard, Damien; Siegel, Anne

2011-01-01

346

Les effets de la quantit et de la qualit des protines du rgime sur la croissance, la composition corporelle et la variation  

E-print Network

to 70 p. 100) and qualities (egg yolk, casein, wheat gluten) of protein. Variations in liver enzyme with the protein fevel in rats fed with casein, and to a lesser extent when they were fed with wheat gluten/day/body weight !!5, respecti- vely, for egg yolk, casein and wheat gluten. This equilibrium represented

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

347

Mapping quantitative trait loci controlling seed dormancy and heading date in rice, Oryza sativa L., using backcross inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling seed dormancy, 98 BC1F5 lines (backcross inbred lines) derived from a backcross of Nipponbare (japonica)\\/Kasalath (indica)\\/\\/Nipponbare were analyzed genetically. We used 245 RFLP markers to construct a framework linkage map. Five putative QTLs\\u000a affecting seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 3, 5, 7 (two regions) and 8, respectively. Phenotypic variations explained\\u000a by each

S. Y. Lin; T. Sasaki; M. Yano

1998-01-01

348

Global patterns of cis variation in human cells revealed by high-density allelic expression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cis-acting variants altering gene expression are a source of phenotypic differences. The cis-acting components of expression variation can be identified through the mapping of differences in allelic expression (AE), which is the measure of relative expression between two allelic transcripts. We generated a map of AE associated SNPs using quantitative measurements of AE on Illumina Human1M BeadChips. In 53 lymphoblastoid

Bing Ge; Dmitry K Pokholok; Tony Kwan; Elin Grundberg; Lisanne Morcos; Dominique J Verlaan; Jennie Le; Vonda Koka; Kevin C L Lam; Vincent Gagné; Joana Dias; Rose Hoberman; Alexandre Montpetit; Marie-Michele Joly; Edward J Harvey; Daniel Sinnett; Patrick Beaulieu; Robert Hamon; Alexandru Graziani; Ken Dewar; Eef Harmsen; Jacek Majewski; Harald H H Göring; Anna K Naumova; Mathieu Blanchette; Kevin L Gunderson; Tomi Pastinen

2009-01-01

349

Genome-wide nested association mapping of quantitative resistance to northern leaf blight in maize  

PubMed Central

Quantitative resistance to plant pathogens, controlled by multiple loci of small effect, is important for food production, food security, and food safety but is poorly understood. To gain insights into the genetic architecture of quantitative resistance in maize, we evaluated a 5,000-inbred-line nested association mapping population for resistance to northern leaf blight, a maize disease of global economic importance. Twenty-nine quantitative trait loci were identified, and most had multiple alleles. The large variation in resistance phenotypes could be attributed to the accumulation of numerous loci of small additive effects. Genome-wide nested association mapping, using 1.6 million SNPs, identified multiple candidate genes related to plant defense, including receptor-like kinase genes similar to those involved in basal defense. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that quantitative disease resistance in plants is conditioned by a range of mechanisms and could have considerable mechanistic overlap with basal resistance. PMID:21482771

Poland, Jesse A.; Bradbury, Peter J.; Buckler, Edward S.; Nelson, Rebecca J.

2011-01-01

350

Dtermination quantitative des divers composants protiques du suc pancratique de porc. Etude du stress post opratoire, des variations nychtmrales et de l'adaptation  

E-print Network

molécu- laire : 88-92 K, 76 K, 69 K, 56 K, 54 K (Amylase), 52 K (Lipase), 48 K, 43 K, 40 K, 37 K, 35 K pathologique (stress, hypersécrétion, arrêt de la sécré- tion).). Dans l'état stabilisé l'amylase est le quantité que l'amylase est difficile- ment quantifiable après électrophorèse vu la proximité de l'amylase

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

IL10 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated With Asthma Phenotypes in Children  

PubMed Central

IL10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that has been found to have lower production in macrophages and mononuclear cells from asthmatics. Since reduced IL10 levels may influence the severity of asthma phenotypes, we examined IL10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with asthma severity and allergy phenotypes as quantitative traits. Utilizing DNA samples from 518 Caucasian asthmatic children from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) and their parents, we genotyped six IL10 SNPs: 3 in the promoter, 2 in introns, and one in the 3? UTR. Using family-based association tests, each SNP was tested for association with asthma and allergy phenotypes individually. Population-based association analysis was performed with each SNP locus, the promoter haplotypes and the 6-loci haplotypes. The 3? UTR SNP was significantly associated with FEV1 as a percent of predicted (FEV1PP) (P=0.0002) in both the family and population analyses. The promoter haplotype GCC was positively associated with IgE levels and FEV1PP (P=0.007 and 0.012, respectively). The promoter haplotype ATA was negatively associated with lnPC20 and FEV1PP (P=0.008 and 0.043, respectively). Polymorphisms in IL10 are associated with asthma phenotypes in this cohort. Further studies of variation in the IL10 gene may help elucidate the mechanism of asthma development in children. PMID:14748015

Lyon, Helen; Lange, Christoph; Lake, Stephen; Silverman, Edwin K.; Randolph, Adrienne G.; Kwiatkowski, David; Raby, Benjamin A.; Lazarus, Ross; Weiland, Katy M.; Laird, Nan; Weiss, Scott T.

2013-01-01

352

Spatiotemporal variation of leaf epidermal cell growth: a quantitative analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and triple cyclinD3 mutant plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The epidermis of an expanding dicot leaf is a mosaic of cells differing in identity, size and differentiation stage. Here hypotheses are tested that in such a cell mosaic growth is heterogeneous and changes with time, and that this heterogeneity is not dependent on the cell cycle regulation per se. Methods Shape, size and growth of individual cells were followed with the aid of sequential replicas in expanding leaves of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana and triple cyclinD3 mutant plants, and combined with ploidy estimation using epi-fluorescence microscopy. Key Results Relative growth rates in area of individual epidermal cells or small cell groups differ several fold from those of adjacent cells, and change in time. This spatial and temporal variation is not related to the size of either the cell or the nucleus. Shape changes and growth within an individual cell are also heterogeneous: anticlinal wall waviness appears at different times in different wall portions; portions of the cell periphery in contact with different neighbours grow with different rates. This variation is not related to cell growth anisotropy. The heterogeneity is typical for both the wild type and cycD3. Conclusions Growth of leaf epidermis exhibits spatiotemporal variability. PMID:22307569

Elsner, Joanna; Michalski, Marek; Kwiatkowska, Dorota

2012-01-01

353

Phenotypic flexibility and the evolution of organismal design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolutionary biologists often use phenotypic differences between species and between individuals to gain an understanding of organismal design. The focus of much recent attention has been on developmental plasticity – the environmentally induced variability during development within a single genotype. The phenotypic variation expressed by single reproductively mature organisms throughout their life, traditionally the subject of many physiological studies, has

Theunis Piersma; Jan Drent

2003-01-01

354

The evolutionary consequences of ecological interactions mediated through phenotypic plasticity.  

PubMed

Phenotypic plasticity describes the capacity of a genotype to exhibit a range of phenotypes in response to variation in the environment. Environmental variation encompasses both abiotic and biotic components of the environment, including interactions among organisms. The strength and outcome of many ecological interactions, ranging from antagonism to mutualism, are mediated through the phenotypically plastic responses of one or more players in the interaction. Herein, three broadly defined, non-mutually exclusive, evolutionary consequences of ecological interactions mediated through phenotypic plasticity are discussed. (1) The predictable plastic response of one partner can favor behaviors, physiological responses, and life history traits of an interacting partner that manipulate, circumvent, or ameliorate the response of that partner. (2) Phenotypic plasticity can generate substantial spatial and temporal variation within and among populations. Such phenotypic variation can depend on the density and identity of interacting players in an ecological community, and can ultimately affect the evolutionary outcome of ecological interactions. (3) Phenotypic plasticity affects the strength and direction of natural selection. Ecological interactions mediated through phenotypic plasticity are ubiquitous in nature, and the potential evolutionary consequences of these interactions illustrate the complexity inherent in understanding evolution in a community context. PMID:16731814

Fordyce, James A

2006-06-01

355

Wine Expertise Predicts Taste Phenotype  

PubMed Central

Taste phenotypes have long been studied in relation to alcohol intake, dependence, and family history, with contradictory findings. However, on balance – with appropriate caveats about populations tested, outcomes measured and psychophysical methods used – an association between variation in taste responsiveness and some alcohol behaviors is supported. Recent work suggests super-tasting (operationalized via propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness) not only associates with heightened response but also with more acute discrimination between stimuli. Here, we explore relationships between food and beverage adventurousness and taste phenotype. A convenience sample of wine drinkers (n=330) were recruited in Ontario and phenotyped for PROP bitterness via filter paper disk. They also filled out a short questionnaire regarding willingness to try new foods, alcoholic beverages and wines as well as level of wine involvement, which was used to classify them as a wine expert (n=110) or wine consumer (n=220). In univariate logisitic models, food adventurousness predicted trying new wines and beverages but not expertise. Likewise, wine expertise predicted willingness to try new wines and beverages but not foods. In separate multivariate logistic models, willingness to try new wines and beverages was predicted by expertise and food adventurousness but not PROP. However, mean PROP bitterness was higher among wine experts than wine consumers, and the conditional distribution functions differed between experts and consumers. In contrast, PROP means and distributions did not differ with food adventurousness. These data suggest individuals may self-select for specific professions based on sensory ability (i.e., an active gene-environment correlation) but phenotype does not explain willingness to try new stimuli. PMID:22888174

Hayes, John E; Pickering, Gary J

2011-01-01

356

Phenotypic expression in mucopolysaccharidosis VII.  

PubMed Central

beta-glucuronidase deficiency is an extremely rare disorder which is known to have a considerable phenotypic variation. A survey of the clinical findings in 19 previously reported patients with mucopolysaccharidosis VII is presented together with the results of clinical and biochemical studies in two further patients. Because a similar clinical picture is present in a heterozygotic sister it is doubted whether all signs and symptoms can be attributed to the beta-glucuronidase deficiency. The probability of a concomitant disorder is discussed. Diagnosis was made both by demonstration of the deficiency in plasma and leucocytes, and by means of hair root analysis. The phenotypic variation and the fact that increased levels of glycosaminoglycans were not found in the urine of the two patients lead to the suggestion that in certain cases a correct diagnosis may be missed if the beta-glucuronidase activity in plasma and leucocytes is not determined and only routine urine investigation is performed as a screening for a mucopolysaccharidosis. Hair root analysis may be a useful method to measure the beta-glucuronidase activity. Images PMID:3112309

Bernsen, P L; Wevers, R A; Gabreels, F J; Lamers, K J; Sonnen, A E; Stekhoven, J H

1987-01-01

357

Polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 gene are associated with obesity phenotypes among 405 Caucasian nuclear families  

PubMed Central

The plasma level of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 (TNFR2) is associated with obesity phenotypes. However, the genetic polymorphisms for such an association have rarely been explored and are generally unknown. In this study, by employing a large sample of 1,873 subjects from 405 Caucasian nuclear families, we explored the association of 12 SNPs of the TNFR2 gene and obesity-related phenotypes, including body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and percentage fat mass (PFM). The within-family quantitative transmission disequilibrium test, which is robust to sample stratification, was implemented to evaluate the association of TNFR2 gene with obesity phenotypes. Evidence of association was obtained at SNP9 (rs5746059) with fat mass (P = 0.0002), BMI (P = 0.002), and PFM (P = 0.0006). The contribution of this polymorphism to the variation of fat mass and PFM was 6.24 and 7.82%, respectively. Individuals carrying allele A at the SNP9 site had a 4.6% higher fat mass and a 2.5% increased PFM compared to noncarriers. The results remained significant even after correction for multiple testing. Evidence of association between the TNFR2 gene and obesity phenotypes are also found in 700 independent Chinese Han and 1,000 random Caucasians samples. The results suggest that the TNFR2 gene polymorphisms contribute to the variation of obesity phenotypes. PMID:18685868

Zhao, Lan-Juan; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

2014-01-01

358

Phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary potential in somatic cells of Armillaria gallica.  

PubMed

Somatic cells of Armillaria gallica fruit bodies have been shown to possess different genotypes for molecular-marker and mating-type loci. Here we report experiments on six quantitative traits and demonstrate that somatic cells of fruit bodies possess almost as much genetic variation for growth rate and phenotypic plasticity as do spores, the products of meiosis. Genetically distinct somatic cells therefore have the potential to grow at different rates relative to one another during primordial fruit body formation. This may confer an advantage on all cell lines within a fruit body, not just those that happen to grow better under a particular set of conditions. To our knowledge, genetic variation for fitness-related traits that make up a single genetic individual has not been reported before. PMID:12825512

Peabody, Diane Cope; Peabody, Robert B; Tyrrell, Maura Geens; Towle, Matthew J; Johnson, Elizabeth M

2003-04-01

359

High-throughput hyperdimensional vertebrate phenotyping  

PubMed Central

Most gene mutations and biologically active molecules cause complex responses in animals that cannot be predicted by cell culture models. Yet animal studies remain too slow and their analyses are often limited to only a few readouts. Here we demonstrate high-throughput optical projection tomography with micrometer resolution and hyperdimensional screening of entire vertebrates in tens of seconds using a simple fluidic system. Hundreds of independent morphological features and complex phenotypes are automatically captured in three dimensions with unprecedented speed and detail in semi-transparent zebrafish larvae. By clustering quantitative phenotypic signatures, we can detect and classify even subtle alterations in many biological processes simultaneously. We term our approach hyperdimensional in vivo phenotyping (HIP). To illustrate the power of HIP, we have analyzed the effects of several classes of teratogens on cartilage formation using 200 independent morphological measurements and identified similarities and differences that correlate well with their known mechanisms of actions in mammals. PMID:23403568

Pardo-Martin, Carlos; Allalou, Amin; Medina, Jaime; Eimon, Peter M.; Wahlby, Carolina; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

2013-01-01

360

A new method to infer causal phenotype networks using QTL and phenotypic information.  

PubMed

In the context of genetics and breeding research on multiple phenotypic traits, reconstructing the directional or causal structure between phenotypic traits is a prerequisite for quantifying the effects of genetic interventions on the traits. Current approaches mainly exploit the genetic effects at quantitative trait loci (QTLs) to learn about causal relationships among phenotypic traits. A requirement for using these approaches is that at least one unique QTL has been identified for each trait studied. However, in practice, especially for molecular phenotypes such as metabolites, this prerequisite is often not met due to limited sample sizes, high noise levels and small QTL effects. Here, we present a novel heuristic search algorithm called the QTL+phenotype supervised orientation (QPSO) algorithm to infer causal directions for edges in undirected phenotype networks. The two main advantages of this algorithm are: first, it does not require QTLs for each and every trait; second, it takes into account associated phenotypic interactions in addition to detected QTLs when orienting undirected edges between traits. We evaluate and compare the performance of QPSO with another state-of-the-art approach, the QTL-directed dependency graph (QDG) algorithm. Simulation results show that our method has broader applicability and leads to more accurate overall orientations. We also illustrate our method with a real-life example involving 24 metabolites and a few major QTLs measured on an association panel of 93 tomato cultivars. Matlab source code implementing the proposed algorithm is freely available upon request. PMID:25144184

Wang, Huange; van Eeuwijk, Fred A

2014-01-01

361

Parallel Evolution and Inheritance of Quantitative Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parallel phenotypic evolution, the independent evolution of the same trait in closely related lineages, is interesting because it tells us about the contribution of natural selection to phenotypic evolution. Haldane and others have proposed that parallel evolution also results from a second process, the similarly biased production of genetic variation in close relatives, an idea that has received few tests.

Dolph Schluter; Maria Nemethy

2004-01-01

362

Small variation of glucosinolate composition in Japanese cultivars of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) requires simple quantitative analysis for breeding of glucosinolate component  

PubMed Central

To reveal varietally differing glucosinolate (GSL) contents in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivated in Japan, the total and individual GSLs of 28 cultivars were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. In these cultivars, GSL types including three aliphatic GSLs (glucoraphenin, glucoerucin, and 4-methylthio-3-butenyl GSL (4MTB-GSL)) and three indolyl GSLs (4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, glucobrassicin, and 4-methoxy-glucobrassicin) were detected. No cultivar-specific type of GSL was identified. The dominant GSL was 4MTB-GSL, but its contents differed remarkably: 8.6 ?mol/g in ‘Koushin’ to 135.7 ?mol/g in ‘Karami 199’. Over about 90% of all GSLs in Japanese radish type are 4MTB-GSL, a higher percentage than in Chinese or European garden radish cultivars. A simple, rapid method for estimating total GSL contents in crude extracts was established because of the small variation of glucosinolate composition in Japanese cultivars. The total GSL content can be estimated using an equation for prediction with absorbance at 425 nm in a mixture of GSL crude extract and palladium (II) chloride solution: Total GSL (?mol/g) = 305.47 × A425 ? 29.66. Its coefficient of determination (R2) and standard error of prediction (SEP) are 0.968 and 8.052. This method enables total GSL content estimation from more than 200 samples per person per day. PMID:23136515

Ishida, Masahiko; Nagata, Masayasu; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Hatakeyama, Katunori; Nishio, Takeshi

2012-01-01

363

Neutral mutation as the source of genetic variation in life history traits.  

PubMed

The mechanism underlying the maintenance of adaptive genetic variation is a long-standing question in evolutionary genetics. There are two concepts (mutation-selection balance and balancing selection) which are based on the phenotypic differences between alleles. Mutation - selection balance and balancing selection cannot properly explain the process of gene substitution, i.e. the molecular evolution of quantitative trait loci affecting fitness. I assume that such loci have non-essential functions (small effects on fitness), and that they have the potential to evolve into new functions and acquire new adaptations. Here I show that a high amount of neutral polymorphism at these loci can exist in real populations. Consistent with this, I propose a hypothesis for the maintenance of genetic variation in life history traits which can be efficient for the fixation of alleles with very small selective advantage. The hypothesis is based on neutral polymorphism at quantitative trait loci and both neutral and adaptive gene substitutions. The model of neutral - adaptive conversion (NAC) assumes that neutral alleles are not neutral indefinitely, and that in specific and very rare situations phenotypic (relative fitness) differences between them can appear. In this paper I focus on NAC due to phenotypic plasticity of neutral alleles. The important evolutionary consequence of NAC could be the increased adaptive potential of a population. Loci responsible for adaptation should be fast evolving genes with minimally discernible phenotypic effects, and the recent discovery of genes with such characteristics implicates them as suitable candidates for loci involved in adaptation. PMID:16181523

Brci?-Kosti?, Krunoslav

2005-08-01

364

Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species.  

PubMed

When individuals of two species interact, they can adjust their phenotypes in response to their respective partner, be they antagonists or mutualists. The reciprocal phenotypic change between individuals of interacting species can reflect an evolutionary response to spatial and temporal variation in species interactions and ecologically result in the structuring of food chains. The evolution of adaptive phenotypic plasticity has led to the success of organisms in novel habitats, and potentially contributes to genetic differentiation and speciation. Taken together, phenotypic responses in species interactions represent modifications that can lead to reciprocal change in ecological time, altered community patterns, and expanded evolutionary potential of species. PMID:11598291

Agrawal, A A

2001-10-12

365

Precision and error of three-dimensional phenotypic measures acquired from 3dMD photogrammetric images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic basis for complex phenotypes is currently of great interest for both clinical inves- tigators and basic scientists. In order to acquire a thorough understanding of the translation from genotype to phenotype, highly precise measures of phenotypic variation are required. New tech- nologies, such as 3D photogrammetry are being implemented in phenotypic studies due to their ability to collect

Kristina Aldridge; Simeon A. Boyadjiev; George T. Capone; Valerie B. DeLeon; Joan T. Richtsmeier

2005-01-01

366

Mixed phenotype murine leukemias.  

PubMed

Cell lines were derived from eight individual leukemias induced by X-rays in NFS mice. First typed as null cells (surface immunoglobulin negative, Thy-1 negative), they turned out to have a mixed phenotype with myeloid cytochemical markers, pre-B surface antigens and molecular markers of pro-B lymphocytes. They represent murine models for mixed phenotype (pro-pre-B-myeloid) leukemias. PMID:8350626

Defresne, M P; Borremans, B; Verhofstede, C; Peled, A; Thiry, A; Greimers, R; Robberecht, P; Nabarra, B; Verschaeve, L; Hooghe, R

1993-08-01

367

Quantitative film radiography  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

1991-02-26

368

The integrated phenotype.  

PubMed

Proper functioning of complex phenotypes requires that multiple traits work together. Examination of relationships among traits within and between complex characters and how they interact to function as a whole organism is critical to advancing our understanding of evolutionary developmental plasticity. Phenotypic integration refers to the relationships among multiple characters of a complex phenotype, and their relationships with other functional units (modules) in an organism. In this review, I summarize a brief history of the concept of phenotypic integration in plant and animal biology. Following an introduction of concepts, including modularity, I use an empirical case-study approach to highlight recent advance in clarifying the developmental and genomic basis of integration. I end by highlighting some novel approaches to genomic and epigenetic perturbations that offer promise in further addressing the role of phenotypic integration in evolutionary diversification. In the age of the phenotype, studies that examine the genomic and developmental changes in relationships of traits across environments will shape the next chapter in our quest for understanding the evolution of complex characters. PMID:22593559

Murren, Courtney J

2012-07-01

369

Macrophage phenotypes in atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Initiation and progression of atherosclerosis depend on local inflammation and accumulation of lipids in the vascular wall. Although many cells are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis, macrophages are fundamental contributors. For nearly a decade, the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophages has been studied. In atherosclerotic lesions, macrophages are submitted to a large variety of micro-environmental signals, such as oxidized lipids and cytokines, which influence the phenotypic polarization and activation of macrophages resulting in a dynamic plasticity. The macrophage phenotype spectrum is characterized, at the extremes, by the classical M1 macrophages induced by T-helper 1 (Th-1) cytokines and by the alternative M2 macrophages induced by Th-2 cytokines. M2 macrophages can be further classified into M2a, M2b, M2c, and M2d subtypes. More recently, additional plaque-specific macrophage phenotypes have been identified, termed as Mox, Mhem, and M4. Understanding the mechanisms and functional consequences of the phenotypic heterogeneity of macrophages will contribute to determine their potential role in lesion development and plaque stability. Furthermore, research on macrophage plasticity could lead to novel therapeutic approaches to counteract cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. The present review summarizes our current knowledge on macrophage subsets in atherosclerotic plaques and mechanism behind the modulation of the macrophage phenotype. PMID:25319333

Colin, Sophie; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Staels, Bart

2014-11-01

370

Quantitative Genetics in the Genomics Era  

PubMed Central

The genetic analysis of quantitative or complex traits has been based mainly on statistical quantities such as genetic variances and heritability. These analyses continue to be developed, for example in studies of natural populations. Genomic methods are having an impact on progress and prospects. Actual relationships of individuals can be estimated enabling novel quantitative analyses. Increasing precision of linkage mapping is feasible with dense marker panels and designed stocks allowing multiple generations of recombination, and large SNP panels enable the use of genome wide association analysis utilising historical recombination. Whilst such analyses are identifying many loci for disease genes and traits such as height, typically each individually contributes a small amount of the variation. Only by fitting all SNPs without regard to significance can a high proportion be accounted for, so a classical polygenic model with near infinitesimally small effects remains a useful one. Theory indicates that a high proportion of variants will have low minor allele frequency, making detection difficult. Genomic selection, based on simultaneously fitting very dense markers and incorporating these with phenotypic data in breeding value prediction is revolutionising breeding programmes in agriculture and has a major potential role in human disease prediction. PMID:23115521

Hill, William G.

2012-01-01

371

The Quantitative Nature of Autistic Social Impairment  

PubMed Central

Autism, like intellectual disability, represents the severe end of a continuous distribution of developmental impairments that occur in nature, that are highly inherited, and that are orthogonally related to other parameters of development. A paradigm shift in understanding the core social abnormality of autism as a quantitative trait rather than as a categorically-defined condition has key implications for diagnostic classification, the measurement of change over time, the search for underlying genetic and neurobiologic mechanisms, and public health efforts to identify and support affected children. Here a recent body of research in genetics and epidemiology is presented to examine a dimensional reconceptualization of autistic social impairment—as manifested in clinical autistic syndromes, the broader autism phenotype, and normal variation in the general population. It illustrates how traditional categorical approaches to diagnosis may lead to misclassification of subjects (especially girls and mildly affected boys in multiple-incidence autism families), which can be particularly damaging to biological studies, and proposes continued efforts to derive a standardized quantitative system by which to characterize this family of conditions. PMID:21289537

Constantino, John N.

2011-01-01

372

The role of migration in the evolution of phenotypic switching.  

PubMed

Stochastic switching is an example of phenotypic bet hedging, where an individual can switch between different phenotypic states in a fluctuating environment. Although the evolution of stochastic switching has been studied when the environment varies temporally, there has been little theoretical work on the evolution of phenotypic switching under both spatially and temporally fluctuating selection pressures. Here, we explore the interaction of temporal and spatial change in determining the evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic switching. We find that spatial variation in selection is important; when selection pressures are similar across space, migration can decrease the rate of switching, but when selection pressures differ spatially, increasing migration between demes can facilitate the evolution of higher rates of switching. These results may help explain the diverse array of non-genetic contributions to phenotypic variability and phenotypic inheritance observed in both wild and experimental populations. PMID:25232136

Carja, Oana; Furrow, Robert E; Feldman, Marcus W

2014-11-01

373

Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops atrox venoms from Colombia and the Amazon regions of Brazil, Perú and Ecuador suggest the occurrence of geographic variation of venom phenotype by a trend towards paedomorphism.  

PubMed

The venom proteomes of Bothrops atrox from Colombia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Perú were characterized using venomic and antivenomic strategies. Our results evidence the existence of two geographically differentiated venom phenotypes. The venom from Colombia comprises at least 26 different proteins belonging to 9 different groups of toxins. PI-metalloproteinases and K49-PLA(2) molecules represent the most abundant toxins. On the other hand, the venoms from Brazilian, Ecuadorian, and Peruvian B. atrox contain predominantly PIII-metalloproteinases. These toxin profiles correlate with the venom phenotypes of adult and juvenile B. asper from Costa Rica, respectively, suggesting that paedomorphism represented a selective trend during the trans-Amazonian southward expansion of B. atrox through the Andean Corridor. The high degree of crossreactivity of a Costa Rican polyvalent (Bothrops