Solving Quantitative Problems: Guidelines for Teaching Derived from Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kramers-Pals, H.; Pilot, A.
1988-01-01
Presents four guidelines for teaching quantitative problem-solving based on research results: analyze difficulties of students, develop a system of heuristics, select and map key relations, and design instruction with proper orientation, exercise, and feedback. Discusses the four guidelines and uses flow charts and diagrams to show how the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John
Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2015-12-01
It is well known that introductory physics students often have alternative conceptions that are inconsistent with established physical principles and concepts. Invoking alternative conceptions in the quantitative problem-solving process can derail the entire process. In order to help students solve quantitative problems involving strong alternative conceptions correctly, appropriate scaffolding support can be helpful. The goal of this study is to examine how different scaffolding supports involving analogical problem-solving influence introductory physics students' performance on a target quantitative problem in a situation where many students' solution process is derailed due to alternative conceptions. Three different scaffolding supports were designed and implemented in calculus-based and algebra-based introductory physics courses involving 410 students to evaluate the level of scaffolding needed to help students learn from an analogical problem that is similar in the underlying principles involved but for which the problem-solving process is not derailed by alternative conceptions. We found that for the quantitative problem involving strong alternative conceptions, simply guiding students to work through the solution of the analogical problem first was not enough to help most students discern the similarity between the two problems. However, if additional scaffolding supports that directly helped students examine and repair their knowledge elements involving alternative conceptions were provided, e.g., by guiding students to contemplate related issues and asking them to solve the targeted problem on their own first before learning from the analogical problem provided, students were more likely to discern the underlying similarities between the problems and avoid getting derailed by alternative conceptions when solving the targeted problem. We also found that some scaffolding supports were more effective in the calculus-based course than in the algebra-based course. This finding emphasizes the fact that appropriate scaffolding support which is commensurate with students' prior knowledge and skills must be determined via research in order to be effective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.
2005-01-01
One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed
2011-01-01
This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;â€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed
2011-01-01
This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.
2005-01-01
One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solveâ€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudson, Peter; Matthews, Kelly
2012-01-01
Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) areas in university settings; however this may be the result of attitude rather than aptitude. There is widespread agreement that quantitative problem-solving is essential for graduate competence and preparedness in science and other STEM subjects. The research…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kostic, V. Dj.; Jovanovic, V. P. Stankov; Sekulic, T. M.; Takaci, Dj. B.
2016-01-01
Problem solving in the field of quantitative composition of solutions (QCS), expressed as mass share and molar concentration, is essential for chemistry students. Since successful chemistry education is based on different mathematical contents, it is important to be proficient in both mathematical and chemistry concepts as well as interconnections…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kostic, V. Dj.; Jovanovic, V. P. Stankov; Sekulic, T. M.; Takaci, Dj. B.
2016-01-01
Problem solving in the field of quantitative composition of solutions (QCS), expressed as mass share and molar concentration, is essential for chemistry students. Since successful chemistry education is based on different mathematical contents, it is important to be proficient in both mathematical and chemistry concepts as well as interconnectionsâ€¦
Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Stephen L.
2005-01-01
The cross-proportion method allows both the instructor and the student to easily determine where an error is made during problem solving. The C-P method supports a strong cognitive foundation upon which students can develop other diagnostic methods as they advance in chemistry and scientific careers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barba, Robertta H.
1990-01-01
Problem solving is defined and characteristics of good problem solvers are highlighted. The cognitive processes used in problem solving are discussed. Suggestions for methods which can be used to teach problem solving are provided. Research implications from mathematics education are listed. (CW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, Richard E.
This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research…
Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette thatâ€¦
Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
Improving Educational Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinelli, Kenneth J.; Muth, Rodney
1989-01-01
Any feasible problem-solving theory must become a master plan defining actions leading to desired results. This article presents an integrated, research-based planning model stressing a contingency approach to problem-solving that recognizes constraints such as time, accountability, learning time, uncertainty, conflicts, and complexity. Includes…
Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veal, William
1999-01-01
Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition whereâ€¦
Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veal, William
1999-01-01
Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy
2009-01-01
In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivankina, T. I.; Matthies, S.
2015-05-01
A history of texture analysis (TA) evolution is shown, beginning from the first experimental and theoretical attempts to find and characterize preferred orientations of crystal lattices of grains in real polycrystalline samples. Stages of formation of TA theoretical apparatus, its basic elements, and also application of its capabilities for quantitatively describing anisotropic properties of textured samples are discussed. Attention is also paid to the limitations and difficulties associated with the analysis. The application of the quantitative TA apparatus is demonstrated by example describing elastic properties of textured materials up to multiphase samples containing pores and cracks. A wide scope of TA includes the analysis based on neutron scattering which has been effectively developed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. A practical opportunity to determine the bulk crystallographic textures of single-phase and multiphase materials is offered by the use of modern neutron diffractometers, including the SKAT diffractometer at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor. This is especially important for studying samples of natural rocks. The examples given show how the neutron scattering data for the quantitative TA are used in combination with other physical and petrological methods for solving fundamental problems of geology and geophysics based on the analysis of a structure and properties of the Earth's lithosphere matter. The review includes a detailed list of references of original works concerning the TA elaboration, overview publications and monographs, and also information on the most popular TA-related software.
Universal Design Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding ofâ€¦
Universal Design Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sterling, Mary C.
2004-01-01
Universal design is made up of four elements: accessibility, adaptability, aesthetics, and affordability. This article addresses the concept of universal design problem solving through experiential learning for an interior design studio course in postsecondary education. Students' experiences with clients over age 55 promoted an understanding of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Armoni, Michal; Gal-Ezer, Judith; Tirosh, Dina
2005-01-01
Solving problems by reduction is an important issue in mathematics and science education in general (both in high school and in college or university) and particularly in computer science education. Developing reductive thinking patterns is an important goal in any scientific discipline, yet reduction is not an easy subject to cope with. Still,…
Achievement in Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friebele, David
2010-01-01
This Action Research Project is meant to investigate the effects of incorporating research-based instructional strategies into instruction and their subsequent effect on student achievement in the area of problem-solving. The two specific strategies utilized are the integration of manipulatives and increased social interaction on a regular basis.…
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.
2008-01-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.â€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.
2008-01-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematicâ€¦
Circumference and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blackburn, Katie; White, David
The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aznar, Mercedes Martinez; Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez
2005-01-01
A teaching unit on genetics and human inheritance using problem-solving methodology was undertaken with fourth-level Spanish Secondary Education students (15 year olds). The goal was to study certain aspects of the students' learning process (concepts, procedures and attitude) when using this methodology in the school environment. The change…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsaparlis, Georgios
2005-01-01
This work provides a correlation study of the role of the following cognitive variables on problem solving in elementary physical chemistry: scientific reasoning (level of intellectual development/developmental level), working-memory capacity, functional mental ("M") capacity, and disembedding ability (i.e., degree of perceptual field…
Computer Problem-Solving Coaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Leon; Heller, Kenneth
2005-09-01
Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.
Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAllister, Alan
Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…
Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bader, William A.
1975-01-01
Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)
Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. Theâ€¦
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in theâ€¦
Problem Solving on a Monorail.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barrow, Lloyd H.; And Others
1994-01-01
This activity was created to address a lack of problem-solving activities for elementary children. A "monorail" activity from the Evening Science Program for K-3 Students and Parents program is presented to illustrate the problem-solving format. Designed for performance at stations by groups of two students. (LZ)
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solvingâ€¦
Visualization and Arithmetic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Horwitz, Lucy
One difficulty that mathematically naive subjects encounter in solving arithmetic word problems involves the limitation on short term memory (STM) capacity. It is hypothesized that naive subjects, not having access to formal problem solving strategies, may find visualization useful in reducing strain on STM. Two experiments are reported. Theâ€¦
Learning Impasses in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodgson, J. P. E.
1992-01-01
Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.â€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different fromâ€¦
Irrelevance in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Alon Y.
1992-01-01
The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.
Supporting Problem Solving in PBL
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jonassen, David
2011-01-01
Although the characteristics of PBL (problem focused, student centered, self-directed, etc.) are well known, the components of a problem-based learning environment (PBLE) and the cognitive scaffolds necessary to support learning to solve different kinds of problems with different learners is less clear. This paper identifies the different…
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Customer-centered problem solving.
Samelson, Q B
1999-11-01
If there is no single best way to attract new customers and retain current customers, there is surely an easy way to lose them: fail to solve the problems that arise in nearly every buyer-supplier relationship, or solve them in an unsatisfactory manner. Yet, all too frequently, companies do just that. Either we deny that a problem exists, we exert all our efforts to pin the blame elsewhere, or we "Band-Aid" the problem instead of fixing it, almost guaranteeing that we will face it again and again. PMID:10623136
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
Conceptual problem solving in high school physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Docktor, Jennifer L.; Strand, Natalie E.; Mestre, JosĂ© P.; Ross, Brian H.
2015-12-01
Problem solving is a critical element of learning physics. However, traditional instruction often emphasizes the quantitative aspects of problem solving such as equations and mathematical procedures rather than qualitative analysis for selecting appropriate concepts and principles. This study describes the development and evaluation of an instructional approach called Conceptual Problem Solving (CPS) which guides students to identify principles, justify their use, and plan their solution in writing before solving a problem. The CPS approach was implemented by high school physics teachers at three schools for major theorems and conservation laws in mechanics and CPS-taught classes were compared to control classes taught using traditional problem solving methods. Information about the teachers' implementation of the approach was gathered from classroom observations and interviews, and the effectiveness of the approach was evaluated from a series of written assessments. Results indicated that teachers found CPS easy to integrate into their curricula, students engaged in classroom discussions and produced problem solutions of a higher quality than before, and students scored higher on conceptual and problem solving measures.
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center
2009-09-01
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical aspects of the development of a robot computer problem solving system were investigated. The distinctive characteristics were formulated of the approach taken in relation to various studies of cognition and robotics. Vehicle and eye control systems were structured, and the information to be generated by the visual system is defined.
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1974-01-01
The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.
Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Sabrina Budasi
This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,â€¦
Genetics problem solving and worldview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Theoretical and Philosophical Perspectives to Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sherman, Thomas M.; And Others
1988-01-01
Five articles explore various theoretical aspects of problems and problem solving skills. Highlights include strategies to learn problem solving skills; knowledge structures; metacognition; behavioral processes and cognitive psychology; erotetic logic; creativity as an aspect of computer problem solving; and programing as a problem-solving…
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.
2012-01-01
Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid andâ€¦
Solving reed frequency vibration problems
Gaylord, F.D.
1989-01-01
Reed frequency vibration problems in vertical pump installations can be diagnosed and corrected in the field or avoided in initial design with these guidelines. Some vertical pump installations experience excessive vibration caused by a close match between the operating speed and the reed frequency. In these cases the driver and its support system vibrate as a cantilever beam similar to the reed in a musical instrument, hence the term ''reed frequency''. The driver may be any suitable prime mover, it makes little difference. However, for convenience we are assuming the driver is a large electric motor. Basic spring/mass system properties can be used to define and solve this structure resonance problem commonly called reed frequency vibration. Better yet, the problem can be avoided by properly using information available from motor and pump manufacturers. This article is intended to provide an overall perspective of the problem and suggest means to deal with it.
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Solving the Dark Matter Problem
Baltz, Ted
2009-09-01
Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.
Teaching Problem Solving to College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.
2011-01-01
This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…
A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knutson, Paul Aanond
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…
Parallel architectures for problem solving
Kale, L.V.
1985-01-01
The problem of exploiting a large amount of hardware in parallel is one of the biggest challenges facing computer science today. The problem of designing parallel architectures and execution methods for solving large combinatorially explosive problems is studied here. Such problems typically do not have a regular structure that can be readily exploited for parallel execution. Prolog is chosen as a language to specify computation because it is seen as a language that is conceptually simple as well as amenable to parallel interpretation. A tree representation of Prolog computation called the REDUCE-OR tree is described as an alternative to the AND-OR tree representation. A process model based on this representation is developed; it captures more parallelism than most other proposed models. A class of bus architectures is proposed to implement the process model. A general model of parallel Prolog systems is developed and the proposed architectures examined in its framework. One of the important features of the proposed architectures is that they limit contracting of work to a close neighborhood. Various interconnection networks are analyzed, and a new one called the lattice-mesh is proposed. The lattice-mesh improves on the square grid of buses, while retaining its linear-area property. An extensive simulation framework was built. Results of some of the experiments conducted on the simulation system are given.
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-01-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, weâ€¦
Disciplinary Foundations for Solving Interdisciplinary Scientific Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Dongmei; Shen, Ji
2015-01-01
Problem-solving has been one of the major strands in science education research. But much of the problem-solving research has been conducted on discipline-based contexts; little research has been done on how students, especially individuals, solve interdisciplinary problems. To understand how individuals reason about interdisciplinary problems, we…
Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swartz, Vicki
This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but rather…
Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swartz, Vicki
This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but ratherâ€¦
Robot computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merriam, E. W.; Becker, J. D.
1973-01-01
A robot computer problem solving system which represents a robot exploration vehicle in a simulated Mars environment is described. The model exhibits changes and improvements made on a previously designed robot in a city environment. The Martian environment is modeled in Cartesian coordinates; objects are scattered about a plane; arbitrary restrictions on the robot's vision have been removed; and the robot's path contains arbitrary curves. New environmental features, particularly the visual occlusion of objects by other objects, were added to the model. Two different algorithms were developed for computing occlusion. Movement and vision capabilities of the robot were established in the Mars environment, using LISP/FORTRAN interface for computational efficiency. The graphical display program was redesigned to reflect the change to the Mars-like environment.
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769
Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2008-01-01
A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…
Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2008-01-01
A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction onâ€¦
The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.
Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…
Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian
2007-01-01
This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…
Kindergarten Students Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Nickey Owen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore problem solving with kindergarten students. This line of inquiry is highly significant given that Common Core State Standards emphasize deep, conceptual understanding in mathematics as well as problem solving in kindergarten. However, there is little research on problem solving with kindergarten students.â€¦
Problem-Solving Workshop for Families.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ritchey, Kathleen M.; Jankowski, Jon
1989-01-01
Cites a need for problem-solving approaches and applications in counseling and outlines current problem-solving training programs and counseling interventions. Proposes a psychoeducational problem-solving workshop for total family participation which is based on D'Zurilla and Goldfried's model. Includes didactic presentations, role modeling, group…
The Important Thing about Teaching Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Sally K.
2010-01-01
The author teaches a content course in problem solving for middle school teachers. During the course, teacher candidates have the opportunity to confront their insecurities as they actively engage in solving math problems using a variety of strategies. As the semester progresses, they add new strategies to their problem-solving arsenal and…
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether theâ€¦
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slavkin, Michael
What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
A descriptive study of cooperative problem solving introductory physics labs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knutson, Paul Aanond
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those skills are the foundation for the quantitative aspects of problem solving. (Chi, et al., 1981). The literature also indicates that cooperative problem solving should enhance the students' performance. As a practical matter surveys of departments that require introductory physics classes expect their students to have general qualitative problem solving skills. The students in this study were asked to solve problem(s) before coming to a lab session and then cooperatively assess whether or not their answers were correct by conducting a laboratory activity for which they had to plan the procedure and obtain the necessary results. TA's were expected to provide instruction under a cognitive apprenticeship model. The results showed that the cooperative problem solving laboratories had almost no impact on the students' problem solving skills as measured from the start of a two hour lab session to the end of the lab session...The reason for this may have been that students did not have enough experience in the solving of different kinds of problems in the two domains of Newton's second Law and gravitation to overcome their misconceptions and become competent. Another possibility was that the TA's did not follow the cognitive apprenticeship model as consistently as might have been needed.
Apperception in primed problem solving.
Helfenstein, Sacha; Saariluoma, Pertti
2007-12-01
Mental representation is a central theoretical concept in modern cognitive psychology. However, its investigation has been predominantly based on inapt perceptualist concepts, which presume that information contents in them, i.e., mental contents, solely arise from stimulus. This is in spite of the evidence that much in human thought does not have any sensory equivalence. Consequently, we make a difference between perception and apperception, as e.g., Kant and Wundt did, and argue in favor of a detailed analysis of this mental process that is responsible for the construction of representations. We present here five primed problem solving experiments. The basic idea was to demonstrate that depending on priming information people represent perceptually identical stimuli very differently, i.e., they ascribe different uses and meanings to objects and they integrate them differently to compose distinct solutions. In this vein, we demonstrate that people regularly rely on information, which is not or cannot be perceived in principle. On the ground of our empirical findings, we resurrect the issue on why the difference between perception and apperception is theoretically adequate and introduce some central concepts for the theoretical analysis of apperception such as "seeing as" and functional binding. PMID:17934769
Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.
1993-01-01
Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Inquiry-based problem solving in introductory physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koleci, Carolann
What makes problem solving in physics difficult? How do students solve physics problems, and how does this compare to an expert physicist's strategy? Over the past twenty years, physics education research has revealed several differences between novice and expert problem solving. The work of Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser demonstrates that novices tend to categorize problems based on surface features, while experts categorize according to theory, principles, or concepts1. If there are differences between how problems are categorized, then are there differences between how physics problems are solved? Learning more about the problem solving process, including how students like to learn and what is most effective, requires both qualitative and quantitative analysis. In an effort to learn how novices and experts solve introductory electricity problems, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted, transcribed, and analyzed, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. One-way ANOVA tests were performed in order to learn if there are any significant problem solving differences between: (a) novices and experts, (b) genders, (c) students who like to answer questions in class and those who don't, (d) students who like to ask questions in class and those who don't, (e) students employing an interrogative approach to problem solving and those who don't, and (f) those who like physics and those who dislike it. The results of both the qualitative and quantitative methods reveal that inquiry-based problem solving is prevalent among novices and experts, and frequently leads to the correct physics. These findings serve as impetus for the third dimension of this work: the development of Choose Your Own Adventure Physics(c) (CYOAP), an innovative teaching tool in physics which encourages inquiry-based problem solving. 1Chi, M., P. Feltovich, R. Glaser, "Categorization and Representation of Physics Problems by Experts and Novices", Cognitive Science, 5, 121--152 (1981).
Solving a Deconvolution Problem in Photon Spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alice-Phos Collaboration; Aleksandrov, D.; Alme, J.; Basmanov, V.; Batyunya, B.; Blau, D.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Budilov, V.; Budnikov, D.; Buskenes, J. I.; Cai, X.; Chuman, F.; Deloff, A.; Demanov, V.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrowolski, T.; Faltys, M.; Fehlker, D.; Fil'Chagin, S.; Hiei, A.; Hille, P. T.; Horaguchi, T.; Huang, M.; Il'Kaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Iwasaki, T.; Kazantsev, A.; Karadzhev, K.; Kharlov, Y.; Kucheryaev, Y.; Kurashvili, P.; Kuryakin, A.; Larsen, D. T.; Lindal, S.; Liu, L.; Lovhoiden, G.; Ma, K.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Mao, Y.; Mares, J.; Maruyama, Y.; MĂĽller, H.; Mizoguchi, K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nazarov, G.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nomokonov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Pavlinov, A.; Peresunko, D.; Petrov, V.; Polak, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Potcheptsov, T.; Punin, V.; Qvigstad, H.; Redlich, K.; Roehrich, D.; Sadovsky, S.; Senko, V.; Shigaki, K.; Sibiryak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Skaali, B.; Skjerdal, K.; Shabratova, G.; Soloviev, A.; Stolpovsky, P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhorukov, M.; Torii, H.; Tveter, T.; Ullaland, K.; Wikne, J.; Vikhlyantsev, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vodopyanov, A.; Wan, R.; Wang, Y.; Wilk, G.; Wang, D.; Xu, C.; Yin, Z.; Yanovsky, V.; Yuan, X.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zenin, A.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; ALICE-PHOS Collaboration
2010-08-01
We solve numerically a deconvolution problem to extract the undisturbed spectrum from the measured distribution contaminated by the finite resolution of the measuring device. A problem of this kind emerges when one wants to infer the momentum distribution of the neutral pions by detecting the Ď€0 decay photons using the photon spectrometer of the ALICE LHC experiment at CERN [1]. The underlying integral equation connecting the sought for pion spectrum and the measured gamma spectrum has been discretized and subsequently reduced to a system of linear algebraic equations. The latter system, however, is known to be ill-posed and must be regularized to obtain a stable solution. This task has been accomplished here by means of the Tikhonov regularization scheme combined with the L-curve method. The resulting pion spectrum is in an excellent quantitative agreement with the pion spectrum obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation.
The Problem Life Solves (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shock, E.
2013-12-01
After forming, planets start the long process of dissipating energy into space. Early on, accretionary processes provide sufficient kinetic energy to raise temperatures enough to drive chemical systems rapidly toward equilibrium, maximizing the release of chemical energy. Eventually heat is dissipated, temperatures drop, and outer portions of planets cool enough to slow the rates of chemical reactions. As reaction rates slow to the scale of geologic time, chemical energy becomes trapped in assemblages of planetary materials far from equilibrium. Numerous examples are provided by chondritic meteorites, which show that activation energy barriers allow chemical energy to remain trapped for most of the age of the solar system even if heat dissipation is efficient -- and perhaps as a direct consequence. Activation energies that inhibit favorable reactions can be overcome by catalysis, which permits chemical systems to attain lower energy states. Catalysis in planets serves to continue the release of energy into space begun by heat dissipation. This implies that there is an overall thermodynamic drive for catalysis to appear as planets cool. Reasons why catalysis emerges in some cases and not others may depend on interactions of cooling rates and compositions but the specifics are murky at present. Life is a particularly efficient catalyst, and its emergence on a planet helps solve the problem generated by the catastrophic decrease in reaction rates during cooling. The single example we have of life on Earth got its start catalyzing oxidation-reduction reactions arranged in states far from equilibrium by geologic processes. On the pre-photosynthetic Earth the boldest biosignatures were redox processes occurring at rates that could only be explained by catalysis, and specifically by catalytic processes that have no abiotic mechanism. Biologically enhanced rates of redox reactions persist to the present, and maintain the biogeochemical cycles that permit the photosynthetic primary production that is now Earth's most aggressively profound signature of life. But, phototrophy may be far more rare than the chemotrophy on which it depends, and from which it apparently emerges. Consequently, the search for biosignatures on other planets will become the search for reaction rates that can not be explained by abiotic processes. This means that the search for extraterrestrial life will depend on remote methods of determining rates of oxidation-reduction reactions, and that much needs to be understood about abiotic catalysis of redox processes to avoid false positives.
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
Personality Correlates of Cognitive Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Insua, Ana Maria; Rimoldi, Horacio J. A.
College students were presented with a series of four problems, each presented in four different formats: verbally, in abstract symbols, in negative abstract symbols, and in geometric figures. Problem-solving performance was evaluated in terms of the sequence of questions that a subject asks in order to solve a problem. They were also tested by…
Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil
1993-01-01
The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,â€¦
Common Core: Solve Math Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strom, Erich
2012-01-01
The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762
Do TEFL Articles Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edge, Julian
1985-01-01
Discusses the problem which English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) teacher trainees who are nonnative English speakers have in reading articles about EFL teaching methods. As a solution to this problem, the author produced a worksheet for the students to fill in while reading the articles which followed Hoey'sâ€¦
Simulating Problem Solving and Classroom Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liedtke, Werner; Vance, James
1978-01-01
Some problems and classroom problem-solving settings presented in a mathematics methods course for elementary teachers are described and some results of student's involvement in the program are illustrated. (MN)
Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette
2003-01-01
Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)
Neural Network Solves "Traveling-Salesman" Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thakoor, Anilkumar P.; Moopenn, Alexander W.
1990-01-01
Experimental electronic neural network solves "traveling-salesman" problem. Plans round trip of minimum distance among N cities, visiting every city once and only once (without backtracking). This problem is paradigm of many problems of global optimization (e.g., routing or allocation of resources) occuring in industry, business, and government. Applied to large number of cities (or resources), circuits of this kind expected to solve problem faster and more cheaply.
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longerâ€¦
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,â€¦
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach isâ€¦
Problem Solving Interactions on Electronic Networks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waugh, Michael; And Others
Arguing that electronic networking provides a medium which is qualitatively superior to the traditional classroom for conducting certain types of problem solving exercises, this paper details the Water Problem Solving Project, which was conducted on the InterCultural Learning Network in 1985 and 1986 with students from the United States, Mexico,…
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in "Portal 2"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shute, Valerie J.; Wang, Lubin
2013-01-01
This paper examines possible improvement to problem solving skills as a function of playing the video game "Portal 2." Stealth assessment is used in the game to evaluate students' problem solving abilities--specifically basic and flexible rule application. The stealth assessment measures will be validated against commonly acceptedâ€¦
Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.
Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F
2014-04-01
A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation. PMID:24897914
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problemâ€¦
Teaching and Learning through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ollerton, Mike
2007-01-01
In this article, the author relates some problem solving work with primary schools to Department for Children, Schools, and Families (DfES) support. In four primary schools in the West Midlands, the focus was teaching mathematics through problem solving, based on materials published on the DfES "standards" website. The author noticed the way…
Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutner, Joanne
1987-01-01
Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)
Can Television Enhance Children's Mathematical Problem Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisch, Shalom M.; And Others
1994-01-01
A summative evaluation of "Square One TV," an educational mathematics series produced by the Children's Television Workshop, shows that children who regularly viewed the program showed significant improvement in solving unfamiliar, complex mathematical problems, and viewers showed improvement in their mathematical problem-solving ability…
Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold
2011-01-01
Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…
Student Modeling Based on Problem Solving Times
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pelánek, Radek; Jarušek, Petr
2015-01-01
Student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems is mostly concerned with modeling correctness of students' answers. As interactive problem solving activities become increasingly common in educational systems, it is useful to focus also on timing information associated with problem solving. We argue that the focus on timing is natural for certain…
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cańadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Solving Problems in Genetics II: Conceptual Restructuring
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orcajo, Teresa Ibanez; Aznar, Mercedes Martinez
2005-01-01
This paper presents the results of part of an investigation carried out with fourth-level Spanish secondary education students (15 years old), in which we implemented a teaching unit based on problem-solving methodology as an investigation to teach genetics and human inheritance curricular contents. By solving open problems, the students…
Problem Solving and Technology. ACESIA Monograph 2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lomon, Earle L.; And Others
1977-01-01
The two articles dealing with problem solving and technology in this publication should be useful to those developing the kinds of materials, experiences, and thinking that elementary school industrial arts offers children. The first article accepts problem solving as an educational goal and reports a timely and universally acceptable approach.…
Solving the Tulsa ozone problem
Wagner, K.K.; Wilson, J.D.; Gibeau, E.
1998-12-31
Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R.
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.
1973-01-01
The TENEX computer system, the ARPA network, and computer language design technology was applied to support the complex system programs. By combining the pragmatic and theoretical aspects of robot development, an approach is created which is grounded in realism, but which also has at its disposal the power that comes from looking at complex problems from an abstract analytical point of view.
Assertiveness and problem solving in midwives
Yurtsal, Zeliha Burcu; Ă–zdemir, Levent
2015-01-01
Background: Midwifery profession is required to bring solutions to problems and a midwife is expected to be an assertive person and to develop midwifery care. This study was planned to examine the relationship between assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 201 midwives between July 2008 and February 2009 in the city center of Sivas. The Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS) and Problem Solving Inventory (PSI) were used to determine the level of assertiveness and problem-solving skills of midwives. Statistical methods were used as mean, standard deviation, percentage, Student's T, ANOVA and Tukey HSD, Kruskal Wallis, Fisher Exact, Pearson Correlation and Chi-square tests and P < 0.05. Results: The RAS mean scores and the PSI mean scores showed statistically significant differences in terms of a midwife's considering herself as a member of the health team, expressing herself within the health care team, being able to say â€śnoâ€ť when necessary, cooperating with her colleagues, taking part in problem-solving skills training. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between the RAS and PSI scores. The RAS scores decreased while the problem-solving scores increased (r: -0451, P < 0.01). Conclusions: There were significant statistical differences between assertiveness levels and problem solving skills of midwives, and midwives who were assertive solved their problems better than did others. Assertiveness and problem-solving skills training will contribute to the success of the midwifery profession. Midwives able to solve problems, and display assertive behaviors will contribute to the development of midwifery profession. PMID:26793247
Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)
... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...
Lesion mapping of social problem solving
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
2014-01-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesionâ€“symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-05-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanicsâ€”the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machineâ€”are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.
Solving inversion problems with neural networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Gualtieri, J. A.
1990-01-01
A class of inverse problems in remote sensing can be characterized by Q = F(x), where F is a nonlinear and noninvertible (or hard to invert) operator, and the objective is to infer the unknowns, x, from the observed quantities, Q. Since the number of observations is usually greater than the number of unknowns, these problems are formulated as optimization problems, which can be solved by a variety of techniques. The feasibility of neural networks for solving such problems is presently investigated. As an example, the problem of finding the atmospheric ozone profile from measured ultraviolet radiances is studied.
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflectâ€¦
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Collaborative Problem Solving in Shared Space
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Lin; Mills, Leila A.; Ifenthaler, Dirk
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine collaborative problem solving in a shared virtual space. The main question asked was: How will the performance and processes differ between collaborative problem solvers and independent problem solvers over time? A total of 104 university students (63 female and 41 male) participated in an experimental…
Solving Problems with the Percentage Bar
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Galen, Frans; van Eerde, Dolly
2013-01-01
At the end of primary school all children more of less know what a percentage is, but yet they often struggle with percentage problems. This article describes a study in which students of 13 and 14 years old were given a written test with percentage problems and a week later were interviewed about the way they solved some of these problems. In a…
Problem-Solving Errors of Educational Leaders.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hart, Ann W.; And Others
Problem solving is one of the most important skills that new and developing professionals must learn. The process is complex, involving information scanning, problem identification, and feedback processes requiring synthesis, interim assessments, problem error recognition and rectification, and timely and appropriate conclusions. This study used…
Problem Solving: Can Anybody Do It?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Stuart W.
2008-01-01
This paper examines the definition of a problem and at the process of problem solving. An analysis of a number of first and third year chemistry examination papers from English universities revealed that over ninety per cent of the "problems" fell into the "algorithm" category. Using Bloom's taxonomy and the same examination papers, we found that…
An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen
1997-01-01
Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)
Organizational Structure and Complex Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, Selwyn W.; Baloff, Nicholas
1969-01-01
The problem-solving efficiency of different organization structures is discussed in relation to task requirements and the appropriate organizational behavior, to group adaptation to a task over time, and to various group characteristics. (LN)
Teaching Problem Solving without Modeling through "Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pestel, Beverly C.
1993-01-01
Reviews research relevant to the problem of unsatisfactory student problem-solving abilities and suggests a teaching strategy that addresses the issue. Author explains how she uses teaching aloud problem solving (TAPS) in college chemistry and presents evaluation data. Among the findings are that the TAPS class got fewer problems completely right,…
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E
2012-10-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas
Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.
2012-01-01
Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy Kristine
The purpose of my research was to produce a problem solving evaluation tool for physics. To do this it was necessary to gain a thorough understanding of how students solve problems. Although physics educators highly value problem solving and have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because the evaluation tool removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. It is also unique because I picked a wide range of people and picked a wide range of tasks for evaluation. This is an important design feature that helps make things emerge more clearly. This dissertation includes an extensive literature review of problem solving in physics, math, education and cognitive science as well as descriptions of studies involving student use of interactive computer simulations, the design and validation of a beliefs about physics survey and finally the design of the problem solving evaluation tool. I have successfully developed and validated a problem solving evaluation tool that identifies 44 separate assets (skills) necessary for solving problems. Rigorous validation studies, including work with an independent interviewer, show these assets identified by this content-free evaluation tool are the same assets that students use to solve problems in mechanics and quantum mechanics. Understanding this set of component assets will help teachers and researchers address problem solving within the classroom.
Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angseesing, J. P. A.
1978-01-01
It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)
Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Middleton, Howard
2002-01-01
Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)
GIS Live and Web Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hagevik, R.; Hales, D.; Harrell, J.
2007-01-01
GIS Live is a live, interactive, web problem-solving (WPS) program that partners Geographic Information Systems (GIS) professionals with educators to implement geospatial technologies as curriculum-learning tools. It is a collaborative effort of many government agencies, educational institutions, and professional organizations. Problem-based…
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturing…
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
The Functional Equivalence of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simon, Herbert A.
1975-01-01
This analysis of solutions to the Tower of Hanoi Problem underscores the importance of subject-by-subject analysis of "What is learned" in understanding human behavior in problem-solving situations, and provides a technique for describing subjects' task performance programs in detail. (Author/BJG)
Pulsation damper solves analyzer problem (journal version)
Montgomery, J.W.
1988-01-01
This paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output-signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow caused by the sample pump.
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus studentsâ€¦
PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)
The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
Reinventing the Wheel: Design and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blasetti, Sean M.
2010-01-01
This article describes a design problem that not only takes students through the technological design process, but it also provides them with real-world problem-solving experience as it relates to the manufacturing and engineering fields. It begins with a scenario placing the student as a custom wheel designer for an automotive manufacturingâ€¦
Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.
2008-01-01
Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…
Values in Principals' Thinking when Solving Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazaridou, Angeliki
2007-01-01
The values that school principals use when solving organisational problems were studied. Data were collected by a think aloud procedure, in which the participants verbalised their thoughts while working on a set of five administrative problems. The results show that the principals referred to seven values that had subtle but important sub-texts:â€¦
Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gregory, Anne
2010-01-01
Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were followedâ€¦
Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sukoriyanto; Nusantara, Toto; Subanji; Chandra, Tjang Daniel
2016-01-01
This article was written based on the results of a study evaluating students' errors in problem solving of permutation and combination in terms of problem solving steps according to Polya. Twenty-five students were asked to do four problems related to permutation and combination. The research results showed that the students still did a mistake inâ€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.
2009-01-01
A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,â€¦
College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.
2009-01-01
A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…
Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho
2014-09-01
This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.
AI tools in computer based problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Sleep promotes analogical transfer in problem solving.
Monaghan, Padraic; Sio, Ut Na; Lau, Sum Wai; Woo, Hoi Kei; Linkenauger, Sally A; Ormerod, Thomas C
2015-10-01
Analogical problem solving requires using a known solution from one problem to apply to a related problem. Sleep is known to have profound effects on memory and information restructuring, and so we tested whether sleep promoted such analogical transfer, determining whether improvement was due to subjective memory for problems, subjective recognition of similarity across related problems, or by abstract generalisation of structure. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of source problems. Then, after a 12-h period involving sleep or wake, they attempted target problems structurally related to the source problems but with different surface features. Experiment 2 controlled for time of day effects by testing participants either in the morning or the evening. Sleep improved analogical transfer, but effects were not due to improvements in subjective memory or similarity recognition, but rather effects of structural generalisation across problems. PMID:26113445
Problem solving in a distributed environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rashid, R. F.
1980-01-01
Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.
Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui
1991-01-01
Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.
Extending problem-solving procedures through reflection.
Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M
2014-11-01
A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures. PMID:25063939
Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the pioneering LA solutions to this problem, unequivocally demonstrates that LA can play an important role in solving complex combinatorial and integer optimization problems. PMID:19884057
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aerts, Diederik; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli
2014-08-01
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
Aerts, Diederik; Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano
2014-08-15
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an â€śeasyâ€ť problem and a â€śhardâ€ť problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible â€śways of selectingâ€ť an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible â€śways of selectingâ€ť an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
SVM for Solving Forward Problems of EIT.
Wu, Youxi; Li, Ying; Guo, Lei; Yan, Weili; Shen, Xueqin; Fu, Kun
2005-01-01
Support Vector Machine (SVM) can be seen as a new machine learning way which is based on the idea of VC dimensions and the principle of structural risk minimization rather than empirical risk minimization. SVM can be used for classification and regression. Support Vector Regression (SVR) is a very important branch of Support Vector Machine. Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) have been successfully treated by using SVR in previous works. The forward problems of EIT are the basis of EIT inverse problems. The forward problem's essence is to solve PDEs. The method has been successfully tested on the forward problems of EIT and has yielded accurate results. PMID:17282501
Heuristic Kalman algorithm for solving optimization problems.
Toscano, Rosario; Lyonnet, Patrick
2009-10-01
The main objective of this paper is to present a new optimization approach, which we call heuristic Kalman algorithm (HKA). We propose it as a viable approach for solving continuous nonconvex optimization problems. The principle of the proposed approach is to consider explicitly the optimization problem as a measurement process designed to produce an estimate of the optimum. A specific procedure, based on the Kalman method, was developed to improve the quality of the estimate obtained through the measurement process. The efficiency of HKA is evaluated in detail through several nonconvex test problems, both in the unconstrained and constrained cases. The results are then compared to those obtained via other metaheuristics. These various numerical experiments show that the HKA has very interesting potentialities for solving nonconvex optimization problems, notably concerning the computation time and the success ratio. PMID:19336312
Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose
2009-01-01
Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings areâ€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply processâ€¦
Problem-Solving Models for Computer Literacy: Getting Smarter at Solving Problems. Student Lessons.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moursund, David
This book is intended for use as a student guide. It is about human problem solving and provides information on how the mind works, placing a major emphasis on the role of computers as an aid in problem solving. The book is written with the underlying philosophy of discovery-based learning based on two premises: first, through the appropriate…
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematicalâ€¦
ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borg, Suzanne
2009-01-01
This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, were…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1983-01-01
Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)
Problem-solving for better health.
Smith, B; Barnett, S; Collado, D; Connor, M; DePasquale, J; Gross, L; McDermott, V; Sykes, A
1994-01-01
An outline is given of an approach to the health-for-all goals which involves optimizing resource use, prioritizing people's well-being, achieving excellence and a measurable impact at all levels of care, and solving health problems in a broad developmental context. PMID:8141991
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark
2008-01-01
A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…
Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.
2006-01-01
Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have theâ€¦
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…
Is Problem Solving Dependent on Language?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baldo, J.V.; Dronkers, N.F.; Wilkins, D.; Ludy, C.; Raskin, P.; Kim, J.
2005-01-01
There has been a long-standing debate in the fields of philosophy and cognitive science surrounding the relationship of language to cognition, but the exact nature of this relationship is still unclear (Sokolov, 1968/1972). In the current study, we explored the role of language in one aspect of cognition, namely problem solving, by administering…
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,â€¦
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…
Styles of Problem Solving in Suicidal Individuals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orbach, Israel; And Others
1990-01-01
Compared qualitative aspects of problem solving among suicide attempters (N=13), suicide ideators (N=16), and nonsuicidal psychiatric patients (N=31). Found less versatility, more avoidance, less relevance, more negative affect and less reference to future in solutions of suicidal patients than nonsuicidal patients and more active solutions…
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy theâ€¦
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations ofâ€¦
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an actionâ€¦
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can beâ€¦
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bindâ€¦
Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ng, Kit Ee Dawn
2010-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitiveâ€¦
Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz
2009-01-01
In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…
Appendix M. Research Utilization and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles
The Research Utilization and Problem Solving (RUPS) Model--an instructional system designed to provide the needed competencies for an entire staff to engage in systems analysis and systems synthesis procedures prior to assessing educational needs and developing curriculum to meet the needs identified--is intended to facilitate the development of…
Facilitating problem solving in high school chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabel, Dorothy L.; Sherwood, Robert D.
The major purpose for conducting this study was to determine whether certain instructional strategies were superior to others in teaching high school chemistry students problem solving. The effectiveness of four instructional strategies for teaching problem solving to students of various proportional reasoning ability, verbal and visual preference, and mathematics anxiety were compared in this aptitude by treatment interaction study. The strategies used were the factor-label method, analogies, diagrams, and proportionality. Six hundred and nine high school students in eight schools were randomly assigned to one of four teaching strategies within each classroom. Students used programmed booklets to study the mole concept, the gas laws, stoichiometry, and molarity. Problem-solving ability was measured by a series of immediate posttests, delayed posttests and the ACS-NSTA Examination in High School Chemistry. Results showed that mathematics anxiety is negatively correlated with science achievement and that problem solving is dependent on students' proportional reasoning ability. The factor-label method was found to be the most desirable method and proportionality the least desirable method for teaching the mole concept. However, the proportionality method was best for teaching the gas laws. Several second-order interactions were found to be significant when mathematics anxiety was one of the aptitudes involved.
ADHD and Problem-Solving in Play
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Borg, Suzanne
2009-01-01
This paper reports a small-scale study to determine whether there is a difference in problem-solving abilities, from a play perspective, between individuals who are diagnosed as ADHD and are on medication and those not on medication. Ten children, five of whom where on medication and five not, diagnosed as ADHD predominantly inattentive type, wereâ€¦
Developing Creative Problem Solving in Civil Engineering.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barker, Dennis
1986-01-01
A British polytechnic's civil engineering course emphasizing creative problem solving, begun in the late 1960s, has shown that it is possible to increase students' creative ability in the course of a degree program. Research into the identification of students who will benefit from the approach is continuing. (MSE)
Computer Assisted Problem Solving in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Piele, Donald T.
Arguments for and against the use of computers in mathematics classes have centered on whether students benefit from or are merely hindered by practicing computational skills. This paper claims that the true essence of mathematics lies not in computation, basically a mechanical operation, but in problem-solving. Since no amount of computationalâ€¦
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Fedor, Anna; SzathmĂˇry, EĂ¶rs; Ă–llinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Characterization and Developmental History of Problem Solving Methods in Medicine
Harbort, Robert A.
1980-01-01
The central thesis of this paper is the importance of the framework in which information is structured. It is technically important in the design of systems; it is also important in guaranteeing that systems are usable by clinicians. Progress in medical computing depends on our ability to develop a more quantitative understanding of the role of context in our choice of problem solving techniques. This in turn will help us to design more flexible and responsive computer systems. The paper contains an overview of some models of knowledge and problem solving methods, a characterization of modern diagnostic techniques, and a discussion of skill development in medical practice. Diagnostic techniques are examined in terms of how they are taught, what problem solving methods they use, and how they fit together into an overall theory of interpretation of the medical status of a patient.
A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.
1989-01-01
A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.
Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.
2012-01-01
This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…
Giant Story Problems: Reading Comprehension through Math Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goularte, Renee
Primary students solve "oversized" story problems using drawings, equations, and written responses, helping them understand the links between the language of story problems and the numerical representations of matching equations. The activity also includes oral language and reflective writing, thus bringing together a variety of language…
Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun
Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.
Optimization neural network for solving flow problems.
Perfetti, R
1995-01-01
This paper describes a neural network for solving flow problems, which are of interest in many areas of application as in fuel, hydro, and electric power scheduling. The neural network consist of two layers: a hidden layer and an output layer. The hidden units correspond to the nodes of the flow graph. The output units represent the branch variables. The network has a linear order of complexity, it is easily programmable, and it is suited for analog very large scale integration (VLSI) realization. The functionality of the proposed network is illustrated by a simulation example concerning the maximal flow problem. PMID:18263420
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving.
Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on "transparent" Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on â€śtransparentâ€ť Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
Waste minimization necessary for solving wastewater problems
Melody, M.
1993-07-01
Developing and implementing waste minimization procedures to correct the wastewater treatment problem are not as simple as identifying the problem. People cannot solve today's problems with the same kind of thinking that caused the problems. Nonetheless, industry primarily is using traditional treatment technologies to reduce wastewater. most companies are upgrading their wastewater treatment plants and installing treatment equipment in process areas whenever technically and economically feasible. The solution to ensuring wastewater compliance is recycling, waste minimization and moving toward zero discharge. Treating wastewater to the best possible quality still creates residual waste that must be disposed. In addition, regulatory limits continue to increase. Although some facilities can close and have closed the loop in certain processes, industry is pursuing waste minimization and the goal of zero discharge, given existing technology and economics. This, companies must taken an innovative approach to reducing wastewater volume and toxicity at the source.
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
Mathematical Problem Solving: A Review of the Literature.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Funkhouser, Charles
The major perspectives on problem solving of the twentieth century are reviewed--associationism, Gestalt psychology, and cognitive science. The results of the review on teaching problem solving and the uses of computers to teach problem solving are included. Four major issues related to the teaching of problem solving are discussed: (1)…
Young Children's Analogical Problem Solving: Gaining Insights from Video Displays
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Siegler, Robert S.
2013-01-01
This study examined how toddlers gain insights from source video displays and use the insights to solve analogous problems. Two- to 2.5-year-olds viewed a source video illustrating a problem-solving strategy and then attempted to solve analogous problems. Older but not younger toddlers extracted the problem-solving strategy depicted in the videoâ€¦
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism wereâ€¦
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Solving optimization problems on computational grids.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2001-05-01
Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software infrastructure need to solve these problems on computational grids. This article describes some of the results we have obtained during the first three years of the metaneos project. Our efforts have led to development of the runtime support library MW for implementing algorithms with master-worker control structure on Condor platforms. This work is discussed here, along with work on algorithms and codes for integer linear programming, the quadratic assignment problem, and stochastic linear programmming. Our experiences in the metaneos project have shown that cheap, powerful computational grids can be used to tackle large optimization problems of various types. In an industrial or commercial setting, the results demonstrate that one may not have to buy powerful computational servers to solve many of the large problems arising in areas such as scheduling, portfolio optimization, or logistics; the idle time on employee workstations (or, at worst, an investment in a modest cluster of PCs) may do the job. For the optimization research community, our results motivate further work on parallel, grid-enabled algorithms for solving very large problems of other types. The fact that very large problems can be solved cheaply allows researchers to better understand issues of 'practical' complexity and of the role of heuristics.
Electrical precipitation solves Udang's dehydration problem
Aulenbacher, M.W.
1982-06-01
A tough crude dehydration problem was solved on the Udang a platform offshore Indonesia when Conoco opted to use electric precipitation to remove water from the field's high pour point crude. The platform's 13 wells could produce up to 40,000 bpd of crude, but the system was designed under the assumption that water cuts would increase. Design capacity was set at 50% water, to a maximum of 27,000 bpd of oil and a like amount of water. A dehydration system on a second platform is now handling 60,000 bpd of oil with 5% water.
Can galileons solve the muon problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamm, Henry
2015-09-01
The leptonic bound states positronium and muonium are used to constrain Galileon contributions to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Through the application of a variety of bounds on lepton compositeness, it is shown that either the assumption of equating the charge radius of a particle with its Galileon scale radius is incompatible with experiments, or the scale of Galileons must be M >1.33 GeV , too large to solve the muon problem. The possibility of stronger constraints in the future from true muonium is discussed.
Multitasking-Pascal extensions solve concurrency problems
Mackie, P.H.
1982-09-29
To avoid deadlock (one process waiting for a resource than another process can't release) and indefinite postponement (one process being continually denied a resource request) in a multitasking-system application, it is possible to use a high-level development language with built-in concurrency handlers. Parallel Pascal is one such language; it extends standard Pascal via special task synchronizers: a new data type called signal, new system procedures called wait and send and a Boolean function termed awaited. To understand the language's use the author examines the problems it helps solve.
The Problem of Assessing Problem Solving: Can Comparative Judgement Help?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Inglis, Matthew
2015-01-01
School mathematics examination papers are typically dominated by short, structured items that fail to assess sustained reasoning or problem solving. A contributory factor to this situation is the need for student work to be marked reliably by a large number of markers of varied experience and competence. We report a study that tested an…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heppner, P. Paul; Witty, Thomas E.; Dixon, Wayne A.
2004-01-01
This article reviews and synthesizes more than 120 studies from 20 years (1982-2002) of research that has examined problem-solving appraisal as measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). The goals of the article are fourfold: (a) introduce the construct of problem-solving appraisal and the PSI within the applied problem-solving literature,…
Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.
2004-09-01
This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categoriesâ€¦
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
Basic corrosion control methods solve varied problems
Strong, R.C.; Majestic, V.K. ); Wilhelm, S.M. )
1991-10-07
This paper reports that every fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) corrosion-control problem is different, but several basic principles should be understood and applied as needed. These principles were used effectively to solve corrosion problems in three U.S. refineries. The corrosion-control method chosen for any system will depend on both the chemical nature of the corrosion and the physical characteristics of the system. A good water wash system is the key to any FCC corrosion-control program. Ideally, an effective water wash will at least move vapor-phase corrosive materials into the liquid phase where they are more easily treated. If the water wash does not provide complete protection, polysalfides and filming inhibitors can be added.
Glycoprotein Structural Genomics: Solving the Glycosylation Problem
Chang, Veronica T.; Crispin, Max; Aricescu, A. Radu; Harvey, David J.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Fennelly, Janet A.; Yu, Chao; Boles, Kent S.; Evans, Edward J.; Stuart, David I.; Dwek, Raymond A.; Jones, E. Yvonne; Owens, Raymond J.; Davis, Simon J.
2007-01-01
Summary Glycoproteins present special problems for structural genomic analysis because they often require glycosylation in order to fold correctly, whereas their chemical and conformational heterogeneity generally inhibits crystallization. We show that the “glycosylation problem” can be solved by expressing glycoproteins transiently in mammalian cells in the presence of the N-glycosylation processing inhibitors, kifunensine or swainsonine. This allows the correct folding of the glycoproteins, but leaves them sensitive to enzymes, such as endoglycosidase H, that reduce the N-glycans to single residues, enhancing crystallization. Since the scalability of transient mammalian expression is now comparable to that of bacterial systems, this approach should relieve one of the major bottlenecks in structural genomic analysis. PMID:17355862
Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef
1988-01-01
An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, andâ€¦
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.
1988-01-01
This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.
Neural correlates of mathematical problem solving.
Lin, Chun-Ling; Jung, Melody; Wu, Ying Choon; She, Hsiao-Ching; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
2015-03-01
This study explores electroencephalography (EEG) brain dynamics associated with mathematical problem solving. EEG and solution latencies (SLs) were recorded as 11 neurologically healthy volunteers worked on intellectually challenging math puzzles that involved combining four single-digit numbers through basic arithmetic operators (addition, subtraction, division, multiplication) to create an arithmetic expression equaling 24. Estimates of EEG spectral power were computed in three frequency bands - ? (4-7 Hz), ? (8-13 Hz) and ? (14-30 Hz) - over a widely distributed montage of scalp electrode sites. The magnitude of power estimates was found to change in a linear fashion with SLs - that is, relative to a base of power spectrum, theta power increased with longer SLs, while alpha and beta power tended to decrease. Further, the topographic distribution of spectral fluctuations was characterized by more pronounced asymmetries along the left-right and anterior-posterior axes for solutions that involved a longer search phase. These findings reveal for the first time the topography and dynamics of EEG spectral activities important for sustained solution search during arithmetical problem solving. PMID:25666500
Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems wereâ€¦
Autonomy and Mathematical Problem-Solving: The Early Years
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Jennifer
2004-01-01
Problem solving is seen to lie at the "heart" of mathematics (Cockcroft, 1982). Problem solving is also of great importance to industry that claims many young people leave school and take up jobs without the skills needed to sort out difficulties and problems (Smith Report, 2004). So is problem solving at the heart of mathematics teaching in…
Community Problem Solving Works for Middle Level Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bohnenberger, Jann E.; Terry, Alice W.
2002-01-01
Describes benefits of service learning for middle school students. Describes the Community Problem Solving (CPS) Program, a competitive program in which students use the creative problem- solving process to identify community problems and develop and implement solutions. Differentiates community problem solving from other service learning…
Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems
Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.
2013-01-01
EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lederman, Eric
2009-01-01
In "How to Solve It", accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to…
Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja
2014-01-01
In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.
Children use salience to solve coordination problems.
Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael
2015-05-01
Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique--and thus salient--picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution. PMID:25066201
What Is in the Daily News? Problem-Solving Opportunities!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Silbey, Robyn
1999-01-01
Presents an example of a problem-solving opportunity found in a daily newspaper. Illustrates how the newspaper can supply problem-solving opportunities with connections to language arts, social studies, and science. (ASK)
The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erozkan, Atilgan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining theâ€¦
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe andâ€¦
Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth
1979-01-01
Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
Problem Solving Strategies for Pharmaceutical/Chemical Technology College Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grant, George F.; Alexander, William E.
Teaching problem solving strategies and steps to first year college students enrolled in the pharmaceutical/chemical technology program as a part of their first year chemistry course focused on teaching the students the basic steps in problem solving and encouraging them to plan carefully and focus on the problem solving process rather than to…
The Authentic Performance-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, David; Denton, Rob
A new authentic performance-based approach to assessing problem solving was developed for use in vocational education and other programs in Australia. The process of developing the problem-solving assessment instrument and process included the following phases: (1) exploration of the theoretical conceptions of problem solving; (2) identification…
The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Problem Solving Heuristic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzo, Mercedes
2005-01-01
Problem-solving is one of the main goals in science teaching and is something many students find difficult. This research reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of a problem-solving heuristic. This heuristic intends to help students to understand the steps involved in problem solving (metacognitive tool), and to provide them…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the…
Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle
2012-01-01
The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive taskâ€¦
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,â€¦
A TAPS Interactive Multimedia Package to Solve Engineering Dynamics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sidhu, S. Manjit; Selvanathan, N.
2005-01-01
Purpose: To expose engineering students to using modern technologies, such as multimedia packages, to learn, visualize and solve engineering problems, such as in mechanics dynamics. Design/methodology/approach: A multimedia problem-solving prototype package is developed to help students solve an engineering problem in a step-by-step approach. Aâ€¦
On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schoenfeld, Alan H.
Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduateâ€¦
Internet Computer Coaches for Introductory Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu Ryan, Qing
2013-01-01
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout theâ€¦
Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng
2010-01-01
In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategiesâ€¦
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel
2012-01-01
Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal
2014-01-01
This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…
Solving Word Problems Using Schemas: A Review of the Literature
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powell, Sarah R.
2011-01-01
Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students…
Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
2015-05-01
We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.
The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…
Mathematical Profiles and Problem Solving Abilities of Mathematically Promising Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Budak, Ibrahim
2012-01-01
Mathematically promising students are defined as those who have the potential to become the leaders and problem solvers of the future. The purpose of this research is to reveal what problem solving abilities mathematically promising students show in solving non-routine problems and type of profiles they present in the classroom and during problem…
Routine for computer or calculator solves gas-flow problems
Stannard, J.H.
1985-04-15
A handheld calculator routine for solving various gas-flow problems has been adapted for microcomputer. Adaptable to any popular microcomputer, the routine can solve for pipe size, friction factor, and various pressures.
The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wampler, Wendi N.
Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities, post recitation interviews, and a modified version of the CLASS survey taken at the beginning and end of the semester. I assessed the skills and strategies students used to solve problems, characterized how they framed the activity of problem solving, and then evaluated how these frames shifted through a semester of instruction. Findings indicate that the M&I curriculum helped all the students shift towards a deliberate, more productive problem solving frame. Results also show that beliefs and expectations, as well as knowledge of problem solving skills and strategies must be aligned for students to shift to a productive frame.
Facilitating Students' Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2010-10-01
Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of students' ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on students' common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on students' problem solving abilities.
Social Problem-Solving among Adolescents Treated for Depression
Becker-Weidman, Emily G.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.
2009-01-01
Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire – Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:19775677
Problem-Solving during Shared Reading at Kindergarten
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gosen, Myrte N.; Berenst, Jan; de Glopper, Kees
2015-01-01
This paper reports on a conversation analytic study of problem-solving interactions during shared reading at three kindergartens in the Netherlands. It illustrates how teachers and pupils discuss book characters' problems that arise in the events in the picture books. A close analysis of the data demonstrates that problem-solving interactions doâ€¦
Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University
1997-01-01
Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,â€¦
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…
Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc
2011-01-01
The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspectâ€¦
A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves students' problem solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: (1) find step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept; (2) enable students to solve word problems on their own byâ€¦
Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.
2008-01-01
Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of theâ€¦
Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schacter, John; And Others
This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…
Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.
2008-01-01
Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Schema Induction in Problem Solving: A Multidimensional Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhe; Mo, Lei
2004-01-01
The present research examined the processes of schema formation in problem solving. In 4 experiments, participants experienced a series of tasks analogous to A. S. Luchins' (1942) water jar problems before attempting to solve isomorphic target problems. Juxtaposing illustrative source instances varying in procedural features along multipleâ€¦
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
SzeberĂ©nyi, JĂłzsef
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,â€¦
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberényi, József
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…
Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, A. C.
1980-01-01
Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009
2009-01-01
Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…
The Family as a Small Problem Solving Group
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tallman, Irving
1970-01-01
Analyzes relationship between "open channels of communication" and "centralization of authority", and "cultural" variables in terms of their contributions to optimal problem solving structures and activities. (Author)
Applying Lakatos' Theory to the Theory of Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nunokawa, Kazuhiko
1996-01-01
The relation between Lakatos' theory and issues in mathematics education, especially mathematical problem solving, is investigated by examining Lakatos' methodology of a scientific research program. (AIM)
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306
Solving multiple scattering problems in planetary atmospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, W. M.; Lenoble, J.
1974-01-01
Multiple scattering problems, radiative transfer problems in planetary atmospheres within extended visible portion of the spectrum, are examined. The direct and inverse problems and the extinction coefficient are defined, along with other scattering characteristics. Albedos in semi-infinite and finite atmospheres are considered, as well as surface illumination, energy deposition, and polarization. The Eddington approximation figures prominently in the calculations. Precise numerical methods and analytical solutions are included.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteriaâ€¦
Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise
1999-01-01
When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schrock, Connie S.
2000-01-01
Contends that students must learn to adopt a lateral way of thinking, which generates multiple solutions, to resolve their problems. Offers examples of heuristics (plans of attack) that students can use to better approach their problems, such as: visualizing the situation, exploring ideas, choosing a strategy, finding a solution, and checking to…
Background field removal by solving the Laplacian boundary value problem.
Zhou, Dong; Liu, Tian; Spincemaille, Pascal; Wang, Yi
2014-03-01
The removal of the background magnetic field is a critical step in generating phase images and quantitative susceptibility maps, which have recently been receiving increasing attention. Although it is known that the background field satisfies Laplace's equation, the boundary values of the background field for the region of interest have not been explicitly addressed in the existing methods, and they are not directly available from MRI measurements. In this paper, we assume simple boundary conditions and remove the background field by explicitly solving the boundary value problems of Laplace's or Poisson's equation. The proposed Laplacian boundary value (LBV) method for background field removal retains data near the boundary and is computationally efficient. Tests on a numerical phantom and an experimental phantom showed that LBV was more accurate than two existing methods. PMID:24395595
Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balka, Don S.
1988-01-01
Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)
Creativity and Problem Solving: The Challenge for HRD Professionals.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, Susan C.
1998-01-01
Addresses these questions: Who can solve problems? What is creativity? How can human resource development foster an environment that nourishes creativity? Describes approaches--problem centering, encouraging learning-theory perspective, mentoring, and diversity. (SK)
Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFilippo, Shirley
1975-01-01
Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)
Solving Infeasibility Problems in Computerized Test Assembly.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timminga, Ellen
1998-01-01
Discusses problems of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear-programming models in computerized test assembly. Demonstrates that it is possible to localize the causes of infeasibility, although this is not always easy. (SLD)
Qin, Yulin; Xiang, Jie; Wang, Rifeng; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Kuncheng; Zhong, Ning
2012-12-01
Newell and Simon postulated that the basic steps in human problem-solving involve iteratively applying operators to transform the state of the problem to eventually achieve a goal. To check the neural basis of this framework, the present study focused on the basic processes in human heuristic problem-solving that the participants identified the current problem state and then recalled and applied the corresponding heuristic rules to change the problem state. A new paradigm, solving simplified Sudoku puzzles, was developed for an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in problem solving. Regions of interest (ROIs), including the left prefrontal cortex, the bilateral posterior parietal cortex, the anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral caudate nuclei, the bilateral fusiform, as well as the bilateral frontal eye fields, were found to be involved in the task. To obtain convergent evidence, in addition to traditional statistical analysis, we used the multivariate voxel classification method to check the accuracy of the predictions for the condition of the task from the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response of the ROIs, using a new classifier developed in this study for fMRI data. To reveal the roles that the ROIs play in problem solving, we developed an ACT-R computational model of the information-processing processes in human problem solving, and tried to predict the BOLD response of the ROIs from the task. Advances in human problem-solving research after Newell and Simon are then briefly discussed. PMID:26272761
Fourth Order Algorithms for Solving Diverse Many-Body Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chin, Siu A.; Forbert, Harald A.; Chen, Chia-Rong; Kidwell, Donald W.; Ciftja, Orion
2001-03-01
We show that the method of factorizing an evolution operator of the form e^É›(A+B) to fourth order with purely positive coefficient yields new classes of symplectic algorithms for solving classical dynamical problems, unitary algorithms for solving the time-dependent SchrĂ¶dinger equation, norm preserving algorithms for solving the Langevin equation and large time step convergent Diffusion Monte Carlo algorithms. Results for each class of problems will be presented and disucss
Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave
This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computerâ€¦
Patterns of Problem-Solving in Children's Literacy and Arithmetic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James
2009-01-01
Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years 1 and 2 on theâ€¦
Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.
2012-01-01
A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, studentsâ€¦
Preschool Children's Skills in Solving Mathematical Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Artut, Perihan Dinc
2015-01-01
This study aims to investigate the mathematical word problem-solving skills of preschool children 5-6 ages. To achieve this objective, the data were collected in four preschools (n = 162). A mathematical word problem test was used as data collection tools. In this study, it was found that the children's skills at solving mathematical word problemsâ€¦
Problem Solving, Reasoning, and Analytical Thinking in a Classroom Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robbins, Joanne K.
2011-01-01
Problem solving, reasoning, and analytical thinking are defined and described as teachable repertoires. This paper describes work performed at a school serving special needs children, Morningside Academy, that has resulted in specific procedures developed over the past 15 years. These procedures include modifying "Think Aloud Pair Problem Solving"â€¦
Future Problem Solving: Taking It beyond the Classroom.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hibel, John
1991-01-01
A former participant in the Future Problem Solving Program reminisces about his experience in local and national competitions, describes the program's unique features (its emphasis on creativity and focus on the future), and notes the usefulness of the problem-solving process in his work with the Corporate Audit Staff of General Electric. (JDD)
Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.
2012-01-01
There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…
Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gursen Otacioglu, Sena
2008-01-01
The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.â€¦
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; Saadé, Raafat George
2015-01-01
This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skills…
Teaching Evidence-based Medicine Using Literature for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mottonen, Merja; Tapanainen, Paivi; Nuutinen, Matti; Rantala, Heikki; Vainionpaa, Leena; Uhari, Matti
2001-01-01
Evidence-based medicine--the process of using research findings systematically as the basis for clinical decisions--can be taught using problem-solving teaching methods. Evaluates whether it was possible to motivate students to use the original literature by giving them selected patient problems to solve. (Author/ASK)
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE
This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...
Toward Group Problem Solving Guidelines for 21st Century Teams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ranieri, Kathryn L.
2004-01-01
Effective problem-solving skills are critical in dealing with ambiguous and often complex issues in the present-day leaner and globally diverse organizations. Yet respected, well-established problem-solving models may be misaligned within the current work environment, particularly within a team context. Models learned from a more bureaucratic,…
Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna
2007-01-01
Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessedâ€¦
Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oughton, John M.
1995-01-01
Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…
The Future Problem Solving Experience Ten Years After.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flack, Jerry
1991-01-01
Four young men who had participated in the national competition of the Future Problem Solving (FPS) Program 10 years earlier offer reflections about their FPS experience. Their coach concludes that the program equips young people with the vision and skills needed to anticipate and solve problems and build better tomorrows. (JDD)
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basicâ€¦
Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Susan Preston
1999-01-01
Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…
Students' Use of Technological Features while Solving a Mathematics Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hollylynne Stohl; Hollebrands, Karen F.
2006-01-01
The design of technology tools has the potential to dramatically influence how students interact with tools, and these interactions, in turn, may influence students' mathematical problem solving. To better understand these interactions, we analyzed eighth grade students' problem solving as they used a java applet designed to specifically accompany…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' ageâ€¦
A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vendlinski, Terry
This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who usedâ€¦
Constructing Pedagogical Knowledge of Problem Solving: Preservice Mathematics Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chapman, Olive
2005-01-01
The paper reports a study of the knowledge preservice secondary school mathematics teachers [PSSMT] hold of problem solving and the role of a reflective-inquiry approach in creating self-awareness of, and in enhancing, this knowledge. The approach included solving problems, narratives, flow charts and observations. The finding shows that the…
Ideational Fluency as a Predictor of Original Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Milgram, Roberta M.; Arad, Rivka
1981-01-01
Empirical validity of nonoverlapping scores of original problem solving on a lenient solution-standard predictor was evidenced in college students by high correlations with corresponding scores on stringent solution-standard criterion tasks. Findings support the construct validity of conceptualizations of original problem solving based on…
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…
Problem Solving in Technology Education: A Taoist Perspective.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flowers, Jim
1998-01-01
Offers a new approach to teaching problem solving in technology education that encourages students to apply problem-solving skills to improving the human condition. Suggests that technology teachers incorporate elements of a Taoist approach in teaching by viewing technology as a tool with a goal of living a harmonious life. (JOW)
A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gok, Tolga
2010-01-01
Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
Problem Solving/Decision Making for Social and Academic Success.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.
Based on the premise that systematic instruction in social decision-making and problem-solving skills is a developmental right of all children, this book provides an in-service training program for teaching a set of social decision-making and problem-solving steps that are essential for success in school, in the family, with friends, in the world…
The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which itâ€¦
Fostering Problem-Solving in a Virtual Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Morin, Danielle; Thomas, Jennifer D. E.; SaadĂ©, Raafat George
2015-01-01
This article investigates students' perceptions of the relationship between Problem-Solving and the activities and resources used in a Web-based course on the fundamentals of Information Technology at a university in Montreal, Canada. We assess for the different learning components of the course, the extent of perceived problem-solving skillsâ€¦
Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills of Hyperactive Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almeida, M. Connie
The relationship between interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills and the behavioral adjustment of 30 hyperactive boys (from 5.5 to 12.5 years of age) was examined. Each S was individually administered two problem solving measures to assess alternative thinking and means-end thinking. The childrens' self-concept was also assessed and…
Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen
2008-01-01
The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Administrators Version. Leader's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
This manual is to be used by leaders of RUPS (Research Utilizing Problem Solving) workshops for school or district administrators. The workshop's goal is for administrators to develop problem solving skills by using the RUPS simulation situations in a teamwork setting. Although workshop leaders should be familiar with the RUPS materials and…
A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analysesâ€¦
Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yee, Sean P.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively andâ€¦
Computer-Based Inquiry into Scientific Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berkowitz, Melissa S.; Szabo, Michael
1979-01-01
Problem solving performance of individuals was compared with that of dyads at three levels of mental ability using a computer-based inquiry into the riddle of the frozen Wooly Mammoth. Results indicated significant interactions between grouping and mental ability for certain problem solving internal measures. (RAO)
Facilitating Flexible Problem Solving: A Cognitive Load Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred
2010-01-01
The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architectureâ€¦
Measuring Problem Solving Skills in Plants vs. Zombies 2
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shute, Valerie J.; Moore, Gregory R.; Wang, Lubin
2015-01-01
We are using stealth assessment, embedded in "Plants vs. Zombies 2," to measure middle-school students' problem solving skills. This project started by developing a problem solving competency model based on a thorough review of the literature. Next, we identified relevant in-game indicators that would provide evidence about students'â€¦
Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrett, Denise, Ed.
2000-01-01
This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…
Facilitating Flexible Problem Solving: A Cognitive Load Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred
2010-01-01
The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architecture…
Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…
The Effects of Service Learning on Student Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Fangfang; Yao, Meilin; Wang, Cong; Yan, Wenfan; Zong, Xiaoli
2016-01-01
Previous research indicated that service learning (SL) is an effective pedagogy to improve students' problem-solving ability and increase their classroom engagement. However, studies on SL are rare in China. This study examined the effects of SL on the problem solving of Chinese undergraduate students as well as the mechanism through which it…
Learning from Examples versus Verbal Directions in Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M.; Anderson, John R.
2015-01-01
This event-related fMRI study investigated the differences between learning from examples and learning from verbal directions in mathematical problem solving and how these instruction types affect the activity of relevant brain regions during instruction and solution periods within problem-solving trials. We identified distinct neural signatures…
Relationship between Problem-Solving Style and Mathematical Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tai, Wen-Chun; Lin, Su-Wei
2015-01-01
Currently, mathematics education is focused on ensuring that students can apply the knowledge and skills they learn to everyday life; students are expected to develop their problem-solving abilities to face challenges by adopting various perspectives. When faced with a problem, students may employ different methods or patterns to solve it. If this…
Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Dae S.
2011-01-01
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…
Relationship between Problem-Solving Style and Mathematical Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tai, Wen-Chun; Lin, Su-Wei
2015-01-01
Currently, mathematics education is focused on ensuring that students can apply the knowledge and skills they learn to everyday life; students are expected to develop their problem-solving abilities to face challenges by adopting various perspectives. When faced with a problem, students may employ different methods or patterns to solve it. If thisâ€¦
The Method To Acquire the Strategic Knowledge on Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takaoka, Ryo; Okamoto, Toshio
As a person learns, his problem solving ability improves and one reason for this is the increased acquisition of "macro-rules" which make problem solving more efficient. An intelligent computer assisted learning (ICAI) system is being developed which automatically acquires the useful knowledge from the domain experts; as experts give the learning…
Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maries, Alexandru
2013-01-01
This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important roleâ€¦
The Winning Edge: Tips for Creative Problem-Solving Teams.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Safris, Richard
Intended for coaches of school competitive problem-solving teams, this publication details 70 suggestions for building, motivating, and training problem-solving teams in grades 4 to 8. The tips cover a range of topics related to preparing for competition, the competition itself, and post-competition. The pre-competition suggestions include: (1)â€¦
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
Peer Instruction Enhanced Meaningful Learning: Ability to Solve Novel Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cortright, Ronald N.; Collins, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
2005-01-01
Students must be able to interpret, relate, and incorporate new information with existing knowledge and apply the new information to solve novel problems. Peer instruction is a cooperative learning technique that promotes critical thinking, problem solving, and decision-making skills. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that peer instruction…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez
2012-01-01
A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineeringâ€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez
2012-01-01
A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…
Guides to solving the glass transition problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngai, K. L.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.; Roland, C. M.
2008-06-01
Relaxation in glass-forming substances is necessarily a many-body problem because of intermolecular interactions and constraints. Results from molecular dynamics simulations and experiments are used to reveal the critical elements and general effects originating from many-body relaxation, but not dealt with in conventional theories of the glass transition. Although many-body relaxation is still an unsolved problem in statistical mechanics, these critical elements and general effects will serve as guides to the construction of a satisfactory theory of the glass transition. This effort is aided by concepts drawn from the coupling model, whose predictions have been shown to be consistent with experimental facts.
Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.
2007-01-01
This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produceâ€¦
Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.
2007-01-01
This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…
Problem Solving in Professional Adult Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Commission of Professors of Adult Education.
The papers in the collection reflect areas of concern to adult educators, especially at the university level. The first of the collection's three sections deals with graduate program design and contains three papers: Problems of Graduate Program Design, Wilson B. Thiede, and two reaction papers by John Ohliger and Clive C. Veri. Section 2 onâ€¦
Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Michael
1998-01-01
Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,â€¦
Problem Solving: Learning from Experts and Novices.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufresne, Robert J.
One approach to the study of cognitive processes highlights the distinctions between expert and novice problem solvers. This approach attempts to discover how experts and novices differ in the way they organize, retain and use domain related knowledge. It appears to some that what is learned from expert-novice research can help teachers to teachâ€¦
Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.
Lau, Ying
2014-01-01
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, p<.0001), clinical interaction (ß=.129, p=.047), and interpersonal dysfunction (ß=-.402, p<.0001) were associated with social problem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. PMID:23141038
Solving a Problem With or Without a Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pei
2013-01-01
To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.
Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinuk, Mathew "Sandy"; Ives, Joss
2012-02-01
Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.
Solving Physics Problems--How Do We Do It?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuller, Robert G.
1982-01-01
Discusses three avenues of problem-solving research: misconceiving natural laws, processing information, and constructing solutions. Suggests that the change in emphasis from problem to problem solver and the key role of "physics" problems are unifying aspects of the research. (JN)
Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer
1993-12-01
Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.
Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving
Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; LevnajiÄ‡, Zoran
2015-01-01
Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing. PMID:26552943
Solving steady interface problems using residual velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donaldson, Roger D.; Wetton, Brian R.
2006-12-01
We consider elliptic problems in which the domain is separated into two regions by a steady free boundary, on which mixed Dirichlet-Neumann conditions are specified. Led by the classical Stefan condition applied to change of phase models, we consider numerical methods which evolve interfaces to the desired steady shape by using the residual in one of the boundary conditions as a normal velocity. Using linear perturbation analysis of simple cases, we show exactly which interfacial conditions lead to well-posed problems and which choices of velocities lead to convergent methods. Moreover, some velocities lead to methods having superior numerical properties, an idea related to early work of Garabedian. Analysis of a discrete scheme in which the free boundary is approximated by a cubic spline fit is presented, followed by an example computation.
Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving.
Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; LevnajiÄ‡, Zoran
2015-01-01
Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing. PMID:26552943
Modeling crowdsourcing as collective problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guazzini, Andrea; Vilone, Daniele; Donati, Camillo; Nardi, Annalisa; LevnajiÄ‡, Zoran
2015-11-01
Crowdsourcing is a process of accumulating the ideas, thoughts or information from many independent participants, with aim to find the best solution for a given challenge. Modern information technologies allow for massive number of subjects to be involved in a more or less spontaneous way. Still, the full potentials of crowdsourcing are yet to be reached. We introduce a modeling framework through which we study the effectiveness of crowdsourcing in relation to the level of collectivism in facing the problem. Our findings reveal an intricate relationship between the number of participants and the difficulty of the problem, indicating the optimal size of the crowdsourced group. We discuss our results in the context of modern utilization of crowdsourcing.
Finite element method for solving geodetic boundary value problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
FaĹˇkovĂˇ, Zuzana; ÄŚunderlĂk, RĂłbert; Mikula, Karol
2010-02-01
The goal of this paper is to present the finite element scheme for solving the Earth potential problems in 3D domains above the Earth surface. To that goal we formulate the boundary-value problem (BVP) consisting of the Laplace equation outside the Earth accompanied by the Neumann as well as the Dirichlet boundary conditions (BC). The 3D computational domain consists of the bottom boundary in the form of a spherical approximation or real triangulation of the Earthâ€™s surface on which surface gravity disturbances are given. We introduce additional upper (spherical) and side (planar and conical) boundaries where the Dirichlet BC is given. Solution of such elliptic BVP is understood in a weak sense, it always exists and is unique and can be efficiently found by the finite element method (FEM). We briefly present derivation of FEM for such type of problems including main discretization ideas. This method leads to a solution of the sparse symmetric linear systems which give the Earthâ€™s potential solution in every discrete node of the 3D computational domain. In this point our method differs from other numerical approaches, e.g. boundary element method (BEM) where the potential is sought on a hypersurface only. We apply and test FEM in various situations. First, we compare the FEM solution with the known exact solution in case of homogeneous sphere. Then, we solve the geodetic BVP in continental scale using the DNSC08 data. We compare the results with the EGM2008 geopotential model. Finally, we study the precision of our solution by the GPS/levelling test in Slovakia where we use terrestrial gravimetric measurements as input data. All tests show qualitative and quantitative agreement with the given solutions.
Robot problem solving using an incomplete model
Roach, J.
1983-01-01
A system that can know that it does not know the truth or falsity of a WFF, know-no-know, is described. A representation method and some theoretical issues for such a knowledge base are presented. The implications of planning and executing with such uncertain knowledge are explored in the context of a janitor robot domain. The knowledge representation problem raised here, however, extends across many domains. 3 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCoy, Bradley
2011-04-01
General studies science classes at many universities, such as physical science, earth science, or astronomy, stress memorization and repetition of concepts. This approach leaves students with little appreciation for how science is used to explain phenomena from general principles. We present a novel instructional technique for an earth science class in which the students are instructed in the use of a general problem solving strategy, adapted from well-known quantitative problem solving strategies, in order to train the students in how to apply physical principles. Using the Epistemological Beliefs Assessment for Physical Science, we have found that explicit training in problem solving significantly improves students' epistemology.
Solve valve noise and cavitation problems
Baumann, H.D.
1997-03-01
A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because of the savings from reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. Pressure reducing valves used on gases or high pressure steam valves, such as turbine bypass valves, convert substantial energy into heat and a lower pressure level. Unfortunately, this can only be done by accelerating the gas in one or more orifices and then decelerating it rapidly again through a turbulence mechanism or super-sonic shock cells. This causes a lot of noise and vibration. Valve engineering science has made substantial strides in the past few years, and one is now able to predict cavitation and aerodynamic sound levels before a valve is purchased. Similarly, newer valve sizes incorporate features that reduce noise and cavitation effects. Some other minor problems are resonant plug vibration and flashing. The paper discusses how to predict aerodynamic sound, how close can one estimate the sound level, cavitation, and incorrect installation.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Griesser, Sara Anne
Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olowa, O. W.
2009-01-01
The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yakubova, Gulnoza
2013-01-01
Problem solving is an important employability skill and considered valuable both in educational settings (Agran & Alper, 2000) and the workplace (Ju, Zhang, & Pacha, 2012). However, limited research exists instructing students with autism to engage in problem solving skills (e.g., Bernard-Opitz, Sriram, & Nakhoda-Sapuan, 2001). The…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2013-01-01
This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
University Physics As a Second Language: Mastering Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, Tom
2005-09-01
Get a better grade in Physics Solving physics problems can be challenging at times. But with hard work and the right study tools, you can learn the language of physics and get the grade you want. With Tom Barrett's University Physics as a Second Language(TM): Mastering Problem Solving, you'll be able to better understand fundamental physics concepts, solve a variety of problems, and focus on what you need to know to succeed. Here's how you can get a better grade in physics: Understand the basic concepts University Physics as a Second Language(TM) focuses on selected topics in calculus-based physics to give you a solid foundation. Tom Barrett explains these topics in clear, easy-to-understand language. Break problems down into simple steps University Physics as a Second Language(TM) teaches you to approach problems more efficiently and effectively. You'll learn how to recognize common patterns in physics problems, break problems down into manageable steps, and apply appropriate techniques. The book takes you step-by-step through the solutions to numerous examples. Improve your problem-solving skills University Physics as a Second Language(TM) will help you develop the skills you need to solve a variety of problem types. You'll learn timesaving problem-solving strategies that will help you focus your efforts, as well as how to avoid potential pitfalls.
Swinging into thought: directed movement guides insight in problem solving.
Thomas, Laura E; Lleras, Alejandro
2009-08-01
Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions affected participants' ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier's two-string problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem's solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the solution (stretch group). Although most of the participants were unaware of the relationship between their arm movement exercises and the problem-solving task, the participants who moved their arms in a manner that suggested the problem's solution were more likely to solve the problem than were those who moved their arms in other ways. Consistent with embodied theories of cognition, these findings show that actions influence thought and, furthermore, that we can implicitly guide people toward insight by directing their actions. PMID:19648458
When the solution is part of the problem: problem solving in elderly suicide attempters
Gibbs, Lawrence M.; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Morse, Jennifer; Siegle, Greg J.; Houck, Patricia R.; Szanto, Katalin
2011-01-01
SUMMARY Objectives Depression, loss, and physical illness are associated with suicide in the elderly. However, the nature of individual vulnerability remains poorly understood. Poor problem solving has been suggested as a risk factor for suicide in younger adults. Unresolved problems may create an accumulation of stressors. Thus, those with perceived deficits in problem-solving ability may be predisposed to suicidal behavior. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether elderly suicide attempters perceived their problem solving as deficient. Methods Sixty-four individuals aged 60 and older participated in the study including depressed suicide attempters, depressed non-attempters, and non-depressed controls. The social problem solving inventory-revised: short-version was used to measure participants' perceived social problem solving, assessing both adaptive problem-solving dimensions (positive problem orientation and rational problem solving) and dysfunctional dimensions (negative problem orientation, impulsivity/carelessness, and avoidance). Results Depressed elderly who had attempted suicide perceived their overall problem solving as deficient, compared to non-suicidal depressed and non-depressed elderly. Suicide attempters perceived their problems more negatively and approached them in a more impulsive manner. On rational problem solving and avoidant style sub-scales, suicide attempters did not differ from non-suicidal depressed. However, both depressed groups reported lower rational problem solving and higher avoidance compared to non-depressed controls. Conclusions A perception of life problems as threatening and unsolvable and an impulsive approach to problem solving appear to predispose vulnerable elderly to suicide attempts. PMID:19405045
The Use of Diagrams in Solving Non Routine Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pantziara, Marilena; Gagatsis, Athanasios; Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra
2004-01-01
This paper explores the role of diagrams in a specific problem solving process. Two types of tests were administered to 194, 12 year old students, each of which consisted of six non-routine problems that could be solved with the use of a diagram. In Test A students were asked to respond to the problems in any way they wished whereas in Test B…
A dependency-based modelling mechanism for problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
London, P.
1978-01-01
The paper develops a technique of dependency net modeling which relies on an explicit representation of justifications for beliefs held by the problem solver. Using these justifications, the modeling mechanism is able to determine the relevant lines of inference to pursue during problem solving. Three particular problem-solving difficulties which may be handled by the dependency-based technique are discussed: (1) subgoal violation detection, (2) description binding, and (3) maintaining a consistent world model.
An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong
2014-03-01
Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.
Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems
Jackson, P.G. )
1990-05-01
For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range of changing well conditions, to effective use in shallow to extreme lifting depths, along with the convenient ability to install and retrieve the downhole pump through fluid circulation versus the use of a pulling unit. Hydraulic piston pumps are used in producing from low volumes up to 8,000 bpd. Jet pumps are used to produce up to 80,000 bpd.
Using accumulators to solve hydraulic circuit problems
Mordas, J.B. )
1994-01-01
Accumulators can be useful to the plant engineer. Hydropneumatic or gas-charged version are used effectively in hydraulic circuits for auxiliary power, energy storage, emergency operation, leakage compensation or makeup fluid, and motor soft starts. Accumulators are also applied for shock absorption in pressure and tank lines, pulsation dampening, elimination of pump cavitation, and noise attenuation. The first reaction to a malfunction in a hydraulic circuit is to check the pump and valves. Many times the problem may be flow related, either too much or too little. Jeffrey B. Mordas of Hydac Corp. explains how an accumulator resolves difficulties with fluid circuits and provides auxiliary power, energy storage, shock absorption, pulsation dampening, and noise attenuation.
Ball valves solve turbine drain valve problem
McDaniel, P. )
1992-01-01
Alabama Power's E.C. Gaston generating plant, a 1904-MW facility located 40 miles south of Birmingham, consists of four 250-MW units, one 884-MW unit, and a 20-MW combustion turbine. Over the years the utility has experienced recurring failure of turbine drain valves on Gaston Unit 5. Unit 5 uses a Combustion Engineering supercritical steam generator rated at 6,351,470 lb/hr main steam flow to deliver steam to a General Electric tandem-compound reheat turbine with a rated capacity of 884 MW at 3500 psig and 1000 F. Main steam enters the turbine through four combined stop and control valves mounted independent of the turbine shell. This paper reports that each stop and control valve is equipped with two before-seat drain valves. One of the drain valves is motor-operated to facilitate remote operation: the other is a manual valve. In an effort to improve drain systems and reduce costs, alternatives to the problem-ridden Y-pattern glove valves were investigated. One such alternative was the Mogas severe-service metal-seated ball valve.
How chimpanzees solve collective action problems
Schneider, Anna-Claire; Melis, Alicia P.; Tomasello, Michael
2012-01-01
We presented small groups of chimpanzees with two collective action situations, in which action was necessary for reward but there was a disincentive for individuals to act owing to the possibility of free-riding on the efforts of others. We found that in simpler scenarios (experiment 1) in which group size was small, there was a positive relationship between rank and action with more dominant individuals volunteering to act more often, particularly when the reward was less dispersed. Social tolerance also seemed to mediate action whereby higher tolerance levels within a group resulted in individuals of lower ranks sometimes acting and appropriating more of the reward. In more complex scenarios, when group size was larger and cooperation was necessary (experiment 2), overcoming the problem was more challenging. There was highly significant variability in the action rates of different individuals as well as between dyads, suggesting success was more greatly influenced by the individual personalities and personal relationships present in the group. PMID:23075841
An Alternative Approach to the Ill-Defined Problem of Teaching Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McBride-Chang, Catherine
2001-01-01
Discusses an approach to teaching a college course in Hong Kong on problem solving that includes cognitive and social aspects of problem solving. Focuses on the disadvantages and advantages of teaching problem solving from a broad perspective. An appendix lists topics and assigned readings for the course. (CMK)
Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June
2015-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementary…
Cognitive Backgrounds of Problem Solving: A Comparison of Open-Ended vs. Closed Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir; Maker, C. June
2015-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of elementaryâ€¦
Human problem solving performance in a fault diagnosis task
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouse, W. B.
1978-01-01
It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.
Transformational and derivational strategies in analogical problem solving.
Schelhorn, Sven-Eric; Griego, Jacqueline; Schmid, Ute
2007-03-01
Analogical problem solving is mostly described as transfer of a source solution to a target problem based on the structural correspondences (mapping) between source and target. Derivational analogy (Carbonell, Machine learning: an artificial intelligence approach Los Altos. Morgan Kaufmann, 1986) proposes an alternative view: a target problem is solved by replaying a remembered problem-solving episode. Thus, the experience with the source problem is used to guide the search for the target solution by applying the same solution technique rather than by transferring the complete solution. We report an empirical study using the path finding problems presented in Novick and Hmelo (J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 20:1296-1321, 1994) as material. We show that both transformational and derivational analogy are problem-solving strategies realized by human problem solvers. Which strategy is evoked in a given problem-solving context depends on the constraints guiding object-to-object mapping between source and target problem. Specifically, if constraints facilitating mapping are available, subjects are more likely to employ a transformational strategy, otherwise they are more likely to use a derivational strategy. PMID:17235603
Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems
Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.
1993-06-01
This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start ofâ€¦
How Problem Solving Can Develop an Algebraic Perspective of Mathematics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Windsor, Will
2011-01-01
SProblem solving has a long and successful history in mathematics education and is valued by many teachers as a way to engage and facilitate learning within their classrooms. The potential benefit for using problem solving in the development of algebraic thinking is that "it may broaden and develop students' mathematical thinking beyond the…
Problem-Solving without Awareness: An ERP Investigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.
2010-01-01
When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly towards the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects…
Procedural and Conceptual Changes in Young Children's Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Voutsina, Chronoula
2012-01-01
This study analysed the different types of arithmetic knowledge that young children utilise when solving a multiple-step addition task. The focus of the research was on the procedural and conceptual changes that occur as children develop their overall problem solving approach. Combining qualitative case study with a micro-genetic approach,…
RUPS: Research Utilizing Problem Solving. Classroom Version. Leader's Manual.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jung, Charles; And Others
This training manual is for teachers participating in the Research Utilizing Problem Solving (RUPS) workshops. The workshops last for four and one-half days and are designed to improve the school setting and to increase teamwork skills. The teachers participate in simulation exercises in which they help a fictitious teacher or principal solve a…
Is Word-Problem Solving a Form of Text Comprehension?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Wang, Amber Y.
2015-01-01
This study's hypotheses were that (a) word-problem (WP) solving is a form of text comprehension that involves language comprehension processes, working memory, and reasoning, but (b) WP solving differs from other forms of text comprehension by requiring WP-specific language comprehension as well as general language comprehension. At the start of…
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Different Procedures for Solving Mathematical Word Problems in High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose Domingo; Zuazagoitia, Dani
2014-01-01
The teaching and learning of mathematics cannot be understood without considering the resolution of word problems. These kinds of problems not only connect mathematical concepts with language (and therefore with reality) but also promote the learning related to other scientific areas. In primary school, problems are solved by using basicâ€¦
Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…
Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.â€¦
Arithmetic Word Problem Solving: A Situation Strategy First Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brissiaud, Remi; Sander, Emmanuel
2010-01-01
Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providingâ€¦
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,â€¦
Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails
2011-01-01
Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…
Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lock, Roger
1991-01-01
Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)
Problem Solving: The Link between Social Studies and Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rose, Terry D.; Schuncke, George M.
1997-01-01
Examines the problem-solving processes of social studies and mathematics and discusses their commonalities. Considers how those processes might be taught so that students will see that there is indeed a relationship between those two seemingly discrete disciplines. (RS)
Fostering Mathematical Thinking and Problem Solving: The Teacher's Role
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rigelman, Nicole R.
2007-01-01
This article describes the teacher's role in promoting mathematical thinking and problem solving in the classroom--identifying critical teacher actions and decisions; considering how beliefs influence the teacher's actions and decisions; and suggesting implications for teachers and students.
A Lesson in Critical Reading and Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cassel, D. K.
1995-01-01
Argues that deficiencies in critical reading and thinking skills contribute to errors in problem solving and erroneous conclusions. Describes an activity that is designed to allow students to discover their own errors during an in-class analysis. (DDR)
Assessing Mathematics 4. Problem Solving: The APU Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foxman, Derek; And Others
1984-01-01
Presented are examples of problem-solving items from practical and written mathematics tests. These tests are part of an English survey designed to assess the mathematics achievement of students aged 11 and 15. (JN)
Creativity Into Action: A Creative Problem-Solving Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uraneck, William O.
1974-01-01
Described an MBA program at Babson College, where students participated in a course designed to increase their creative problem-solving abilities, while providing them with realistic experience in several executive operations. (Author/RK)
Problem solving as intelligent retrieval from distributed knowledge sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Zhengxin
1987-01-01
Distributed computing in intelligent systems is investigated from a different perspective. From the viewpoint that problem solving can be viewed as intelligent knowledge retrieval, the use of distributed knowledge sources in intelligent systems is proposed.
Assessing Student's Ability to Solve Textbook Style Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cummings, Karen
2015-04-01
Can We Really Measure Problem Solving Ability? The answer to this question may depend on how we define problem solving ability. But, if we care about students' ability to solve novel textbook style problems, the answer to this question seems to be ``yes.'' In this talk I will discuss a pre-/post- instruction assessment that was recently developed to assess students' ability to solve fairly standard textbook style problems within the domains of Newton's second law, conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. The instrument is designed for large-scale use in typical university classrooms, has already been used in a variety of institutions and appears to be both valid and robust. Data collected with this instrument can help guide curricular improvements and provide important insights relevant to most departments for program review.
Solving nonlinear heat transfer constant area fin problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1968-01-01
Tables and graphs were compiled for solving nonlinear heat transfer constant area fin problems. The differential equation describing one-dimensional steady-state temperature distribution and heat flow under three modes of heat transfer with heat generation was investigated.
The Intermediate Impossible: A Prewriting Activity for Creative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karloff, Kenneth
1985-01-01
Adapts Edward de Bono's "Intermediate Impossible" strategy--for considering ideas that normally would be discarded as stepping-stones to new ideas--for use as a prewriting activity to enhance creative problem solving. (HTH)
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.
Solving MPCC Problem with the Hyperbolic Penalty Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, Joăo
2011-09-01
The main goal of this work is to solve mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC) using nonlinear programming techniques (NLP). An hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve MPCC problems by including the complementarity constraints in the penalty term. This penalty function [1] is twice continuously differentiable and combines features of both exterior and interior penalty methods. A set of AMPL problems from MacMPEC [2] are tested and a comparative study is performed.
Heuristics: Intelligent search strategies for computer problem solving
Pearl, J.
1984-01-01
Heuristics stand for strategies using readily accessible information to control problem-solving processes in man and machine. This book presents an analysis of the nature and the power of typical heuristic methods, primarily those used in artificial intelligence and operations research, to solve problems in areas such as reasoning, design, scheduling, planning, signal interpretation, symbolic computation, and combinatorial optimization. It is intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate students in artificial intelligence and for researchers in engineering, mathematics, and operations research.
Development and Validation of the Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire
Mulvaney, Shelagh A.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Rothman, Russell L.; Russell, William; Pittel, Eric J.; Lybarger, Cindy; Wallston, Kenneth A.
2014-01-01
Objective Problem solving is a critical diabetes self-management skill. Because of a lack of clinically feasible measures, our aim was to develop and validate a self-report self-management problem solving questionnaire for adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods A multidisciplinary team of diabetes experts generated questionnaire items that addressed diabetes self-management problem solving. Iterative feedback from parents and adolescents resulted in 27 items. Adolescents from two studies (N=156) aged 13â€“17 were recruited through a pediatric diabetes clinic and completed measures through an online survey. Glycemic control was measured by HbA1c recorded in the medical record. Results Empirical elimination of items using Principal Components Analyses resulted in a 13-item unidimensional measure, the Diabetes Adolescent Problem Solving Questionnaire (DAPSQ) that explained 57% of the variance. The DAPSQ demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbachâ€™s alpha = 0.92) and was correlated with diabetes self-management (r=0.53, p<.001), self-efficacy (r=0.54, p<.001), and glycemic control (r= â’0.24, p<.01). Conclusion The DAPSQ is a brief instrument for assessment of diabetes self-management problem solving in youth with T1D associated with better self-management behaviors and glycemic control. Practice Implications The DAPSQ is a clinically feasible self-report measure that can provide valuable information regarding level of self-management problem solving and guide patient education. PMID:25063715
Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress
Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.
2013-01-01
High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751
Representation use and strategy choice in physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Cock, Mieke
2012-12-01
In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students’ problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.
Meshless method for solving fixed boundary problem of plasma equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imazawa, Ryota; Kawano, Yasunori; Itami, Kiyoshi
2015-07-01
This study solves the Grad-Shafranov equation with a fixed plasma boundary by utilizing a meshless method for the first time. Previous studies have utilized a finite element method (FEM) to solve an equilibrium inside the fixed separatrix. In order to avoid difficulties of FEM (such as mesh problem, difficulty of coding, expensive calculation cost), this study focuses on the meshless methods, especially RBF-MFS and KANSA's method to solve the fixed boundary problem. The results showed that CPU time of the meshless methods was ten to one hundred times shorter than that of FEM to obtain the same accuracy.
An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems.
Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K; Indiveri, Giacomo
2015-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed. PMID:26642827
An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mostafa, Hesham; Müller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo
2015-12-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed.
An event-based architecture for solving constraint satisfaction problems
Mostafa, Hesham; MĂĽller, Lorenz K.; Indiveri, Giacomo
2015-01-01
Constraint satisfaction problems are ubiquitous in many domains. They are typically solved using conventional digital computing architectures that do not reflect the distributed nature of many of these problems, and are thus ill-suited for solving them. Here we present a parallel analogue/digital hardware architecture specifically designed to solve such problems. We cast constraint satisfaction problems as networks of stereotyped nodes that communicate using digital pulses, or events. Each node contains an oscillator implemented using analogue circuits. The non-repeating phase relations among the oscillators drive the exploration of the solution space. We show that this hardware architecture can yield state-of-the-art performance on random SAT problems under reasonable assumptions on the implementation. We present measurements from a prototype electronic chip to demonstrate that a physical implementation of the proposed architecture is robust to practical non-idealities and to validate the theory proposed. PMID:26642827
A Rationale for and the Development of a Problem Solving Model of Instruction in Science Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pizzini, Edward L.; And Others
1989-01-01
This article discusses problem solving and how science educators can integrate problem solving into their instruction. The Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model was developed based on the findings of problem solving research. (YP)
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primaryâ€¦
Using Clickers to Facilitate Development of Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Levesque, Aime A.
2011-01-01
Classroom response systems, or clickers, have become pedagogical staples of the undergraduate science curriculum at many universities. In this study, the effectiveness of clickers in promoting problem-solving skills in a genetics class was investigated. Students were presented with problems requiring application of concepts covered in lecture and…
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…
Representation Use and Strategy Choice in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
De Cock, Mieke
2012-01-01
In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics students' problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that…
Creative Problem-Solving Exercises and Training in FCS
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marcketti, Sara B.; Karpova, Elena; Barker, Jessica
2009-01-01
Creative problem-solving has been linked to successful adjustment to the demands of daily life. The ability to recognize problems as opportunities can be an essential skill when dealing with uncertainty and adapting to continuous changes, both in personal and professional lives. Family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals should strive to…
Lateral Thinking and Andragogy: Improving Problem Solving in Adulthood.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Helen W.
1985-01-01
Considers strategies to improve problem solving, especially at stages where roadblocks are likely to occur and which may account for problems experienced with andragogy. Following a brief look at the implications of adult developmental theory for andragogy, this article examines "lateral thinking" as one way to increase the effectiveness of…
Two Aspects of Meaningful Problem Solving in Science.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1982-01-01
Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)
Emergence of Abductive Reasoning in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cifarelli, Victor
This paper examines the novel problem solving actions of a pair of college students. The analysis highlights the role of the solvers' inferential processes including abductions, deductions, and inductions as structuring resources that contribute to both their understanding of the problems they face and the emerging novelty that constitutes their…
Effects of Instruction on Verbal Interactions during Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoek, Dirk J.; Seegers, Gerard
2005-01-01
During one school year, data were collected for vocational education students while they worked collaboratively on open-ended mathematics problems. In collaboration with participating teachers, instructional activities were designed with a twofold goal of modelling the process of problem solving and improving collaboration. Instructional…
Modeling Strategy Shifts in a Problem-Solving Task
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simon, Herbert A.; Reed, Stephen K.
1976-01-01
A computer simulation model was fitted to human laboratory data for the Missionaries and Cannibals task to explain the effects upon problem performance of giving a hint and the effect of solving problems a second time after a successful solution has been achieved. (Author/DEP)
A Cognitive Model for Problem Solving in Computer Science
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Parham, Jennifer R.
2009-01-01
According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in…
A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Van Wart, Arthur D.
1974-01-01
The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)
Introduction to the Principles and Procedures of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bakal, Richard
1988-01-01
Outlines major steps in problem-solving process: (1) defining the real objective; (2) defining characteristics of the optimum solution; (3) searching for alternate solutions; (4) comparing the best alternative solutions; and (5) choosing the best solution. Discusses variations in procedure when problem owner and solver are the same or different…
Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen
2008-01-01
A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includesâ€¦
Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei
2011-01-01
It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiring…
The Shuttle Puzzle: A Lesson in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gray, John S.
1998-01-01
Describes use of the little-known Shuttle Puzzle in computer programming to elucidate the process of analyzing a problem and synthesizing observations into an algorithm that can be used to generate a programming solution. The process used to solve the problem reflects one that an expert uses. The method could be adapted for small-group cooperative…
Can Drawing Facilitate Problem-Solving? An Exploratory Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lambert, E. Beverly
2006-01-01
This article presents an exploratory study into the use of diagrammatic representation to aid problem-solving. It consists of a case study of one preschooler (3.9 years) who over a 12-month period was encouraged to use drawing as a way of reasoning about daily problems or issues. For this child, diagrammatic representation was found to facilitate…
Exploring the Role of Conceptual Scaffolding in Solving Synthesis Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville; Lee, Albert; Bao, Lei
2011-01-01
It is well documented that when solving problems experts first search for underlying concepts while students tend to look for equations and previously worked examples. The overwhelming majority of end-of-chapter (EOC) problems in most introductory physics textbooks contain only material and examples discussed in a single chapter, rarely requiringâ€¦
Non-Mathematical Problem Solving in Organic Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cartrette, David P.; Bodner, George M.
2010-01-01
Differences in problem-solving ability among organic chemistry graduate students and faculty were studied within the domain of problems that involved the determination of the structure of a molecule from the molecular formula of the compound and a combination of IR and [to the first power]H NMR spectra. The participants' performance on these tasks…
Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solvingâ€¦
Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.
2012-01-01
Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…
Another Approach to Solving Problems in Rotational Statics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fineman, Morton A.; Burnett, Carl, Jr.
1985-01-01
Presents a technique which aids students in solving static problems involving three or more torques about a given axis. The method is longer and equivalent to the standard method, but students experience success with this new way to treat the more complicated equilibrium problems. (DH)
The Development of Mathematics Problem Solving Ability in Early Adolescence.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kulm, Gerald
1982-01-01
As calculators and computer use increases in mathematics education, more educators are recognizing a shift in emphasis from computation to problem solving. Ways to generate problems that can be used to develop pupil creativity and insight are suggested, and process-oriented instruction is promoted. (MP)
New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Almond, J. C.
1966-01-01
Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.
Adolescent Stealers' and Nonstealers' Social Problem-Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greening, Leilani
1997-01-01
Compared 11 adolescents with a history of stealing to 11 nonstealers. Results reveal that stealers showed a tendency not to consider the passage of time necessary for solving social problems. Furthermore, adolescents with delinquency tendencies showed a cognitive bias for generating ineffective solutions to hypothetical social problems. Treatment…
The effects of cumulative practice on mathematics problem solving.
Mayfield, Kristin H; Chase, Philip N
2002-01-01
This study compared three different methods of teaching five basic algebra rules to college students. All methods used the same procedures to teach the rules and included four 50-question review sessions interspersed among the training of the individual rules. The differences among methods involved the kinds of practice provided during the four review sessions. Participants who received cumulative practice answered 50 questions covering a mix of the rules learned prior to each review session. Participants who received a simple review answered 50 questions on one previously trained rule. Participants who received extra practice answered 50 extra questions on the rule they had just learned. Tests administered after each review included new questions for applying each rule (application items) and problems that required novel combinations of the rules (problem-solving items). On the final test, the cumulative group outscored the other groups on application and problem-solving items. In addition, the cumulative group solved the problem-solving items significantly faster than the other groups. These results suggest that cumulative practice of component skills is an effective method of training problem solving. PMID:12102132
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bal, Ayten Pinar
2014-01-01
This study was designed according to the mixed research method in which quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in order to identify the challenges confronted by classroom teacher candidates in solving mathematical problems and the factors affecting how they choose these representations. The population of this study consisted ofâ€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Dana S.
The new core curriculum at Moravian College, in Pennsylvania, utilizes an interdisciplinary approach, integrating topics of psychology into three of the seven core courses: "Microcosm/Macrocosm"; "Quantitative Problem Solving"; and the seminar "Gender, Ethnicity, and Race." The course "Microcosm/Macrocosm" focuses on major themes in Westernâ€¦
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Xinhua; Flynn, Lindsay J.; Swanson, H. Lee
2013-01-01
This article provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature on word problem solving intervention studies for children with math disabilities (MD). Seven group and eight single-subject design studies met inclusion criteria. Mean effect sizes ("ES"s) for solution accuracy for group design studies were 0.95 (SE = 0.19) for children…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Dana S.
The new core curriculum at Moravian College, in Pennsylvania, utilizes an interdisciplinary approach, integrating topics of psychology into three of the seven core courses: "Microcosm/Macrocosm"; "Quantitative Problem Solving"; and the seminar "Gender, Ethnicity, and Race." The course "Microcosm/Macrocosm" focuses on major themes in Western…
Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali
2007-01-01
There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Friedman, Robert S.; Deek, Fadi P.
2002-01-01
Discusses how the design and implementation of problem-solving tools used in programming instruction are complementary with both the theories of problem-based learning (PBL), including constructivism, and the practices of distributed education environments. Examines how combining PBL, Web-based distributed education, and a problem-solving…
A Problem-Solving Conceptual Framework and Its Implications in Designing Problem-Posing Tasks
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Singer, Florence Mihaela; Voica, Cristian
2013-01-01
The links between the mathematical and cognitive models that interact during problem solving are explored with the purpose of developing a reference framework for designing problem-posing tasks. When the process of solving is a successful one, a solver successively changes his/her cognitive stances related to the problem via transformations that…
Dimensionality of Everyday Problem Solving in Older Adults
Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.
2010-01-01
This study investigated individual differences in older adults' everyday problem-solving performance using 3 instruments. Past research, typically using only single measures, has yielded a multitude of findings regarding age effects in everyday problem solving. The present sample consisted of 111 older adults (44 men, 67 women) who ranged in age from 68 to 94 years. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that, within each of the 3 instruments, subscales representing particular content domains could be reliably identified. There was, however, little relation between the different instruments, and the measures also differed in their relation with chronological age. These results support the view that everyday problem-solving competence is a multidimensional construct, of which previous investigations may only have studied particular dimensions. PMID:7662186
Solving computational geometry problems on mesh-connected computers
Lu, M.
1987-01-01
Parallel algorithms to solve several computational geometric problems on mesh-connected computers (MCC's) and systolic arrays are designed and analyzed. Lu presents parallel MCC algorithms to solve various proximity problems. In addition, MCC algorithms for computing several properties of a set of, possibly intersecting rectangles are presented. Given a set of n iso-oriented rectangles, the describes MCC algorithms for determining the area of the logic OR of these rectangles,the area of pairwise logic AND of the rectangles, the largest number of rectangles that overlap and the minimum separation between any pair of a set of non-overlapping rectangles. For the above tasks, he also describes methods to solve problems of size n on MCC's with processors, where p < n. Finally, he presents systolic algorithms to solve the segment intersection counting problem and to construct the convex hull of a set of planar points, as well as an update algorithm for the fixed-size circle-placement problem. For a problem of size n, the algorithms use a systolic array of n/sup 2/3 x n/sup 2/3 cells and have a time complexity of O(n/sup 2/3).
Nonlinear Coupled Problems Solved by hp-FEM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
K?s, Pavel; Kotlan, Václav; Karban, Pavel; Doležel, Ivo
2011-09-01
A necessity to solve coupled problems arises in various fields of physics and engineering. The main aim of this work is to develop a general framework and software for simple solving of complex coupled problems and to investigate and compare various different approaches towards the solution. Namely we want to quantify benefits of monolithic discretization of the coupled problem (where all fields are discretized together into one matrix for each time level of the transient problem) with respect to the standard approach, where each field is resolved separately using values of the other fields from the previous time level for the non-linear constants, when necessary. As an example of a real device we selected actuator, where magnetic field causes heating of certain parts and it results to its prolongation. It is used for precise positioning of various objects. Implementation is done using hp-FEM method, which is extremely efficient for problems with complex behavior exhibiting singularities or boundary layers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Freeman-Green, Shaqwana M.; O'Brien, Chris; Wood, Charles L.; Hitt, Sara Beth
2015-01-01
This study examined the effects of explicit instruction in the SOLVE Strategy on the mathematical problem solving skills of six Grade 8 students with specific learning disabilities. The SOLVE Strategy is an explicit instruction, mnemonic-based learning strategy designed to help students in solving mathematical word problems. Using a multiple probe…
Robust operative diagnosis as problem solving in a hypothesis space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abbott, Kathy H.
1988-01-01
This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.
Sustained Effects of Solving Conceptually Scaffolded Synthesis Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Lin; Reay, Neville W.; Heckler, Andrew; Bao, Lei
2010-10-01
Students commonly have difficulty with "synthesis problems", which require a combination of typically two concepts that are taught separately in different chapters and/or at significantly different times during a course. One reason for this is that students frequently rely on a formula-based approach, beginning by searching for mathematical equations or worked examples which often do not exist. We employed a guided scaffolding method to induce students to employ a more effective problem-solving approach by first searching for fundamental concepts. This method includes a sequence of two conceptually-based multiple-choice questions that have similar deep structure as the synthesis problem, and an explicit instruction to remind students to make connections between the synthesis problem and these conceptual questions. We report our findings on the sustained effects of repeated training using conceptually-scaffolded synthesis problems. In the last 2 weeks of the 2009 fall quarter, we repeatedly provided 3 groups of students with different training using scaffolded synthesis problems, un-scaffolded synthesis problems, or traditional textbook problems. Four days after the training, all students took a common final examination containing a synthesis problem without scaffolding. Results show that repeated training with scaffolded synthesis problems rendered the highest success in students' correctly identifying and applying fundamental concepts for solving this problem.
Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving
Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.
1988-01-01
Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).
Using the context of physics problem-solving to evaluate the coherence of student knowledge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabella, Mel Stephan
We use the context of problem solving to show that students exhibit a local coherence but not a global coherence in their physics knowledge. When presented with a problem-solving task, students often activate a coherent set of knowledge called a schema to solve the problem. This schema consists of strongly related knowledge and procedures. Although the schemas students develop in the physics course are usually sufficient for success in the class, they are often insufficient for solving complex problems. Complex problems require that students have a deep understanding where they have integrated their qualitative knowledge with their quantitative knowledge and have integrated related physics topics. We show that our students activate schemas consisting of small amounts of knowledge and these schemas are often isolated from other schemas. Physics Education Research (PER) has shown that students in introductory physics lack a deep understanding of physics principles and concepts. Through research-based curricula, conceptual understanding can be improved. In addition PER has shown that students can be taught problem solving skills through a modified curriculum. Despite these improvements, students still have difficulty developing a coherent knowledge of physics. In particular, students often have difficulty connecting related physics concepts. In addition, they view quantitative problems and qualitative questions as distinct types of tasks, possessing different types of knowledge and different sets of rules for responding. We discuss some possible methods that physics instructors and physics education researchers can use to examine coherence in student knowledge. Using these methods, we provide evidence for the local coherence in student physics knowledge by identifying distinct schemas for different physics topics and concepts, as well as distinct schemas for qualitative and quantitative knowledge. After identifying some of these difficulties in student understanding, we look at how students are connecting qualitative knowledge to quantitative knowledge after going through concept-based curriculum. The research identifies benefits as well as shortcomings in the concept-based curriculum and talk about possible modifications that may foster coherence. In addition, we compare performance on quantitative questions between a physics class using the traditional problem-solving recitation and a class using Tutorials in Introductory Physics on quantitative problems.
Building problem solving environments with the arches framework
Debardeleben, Nathan; Sass, Ron; Stanzione, Jr., Daniel; Ligon, Ill, Walter
2009-01-01
The computational problems that scientists face are rapidly escalating in size and scope. Moreover, the computer systems used to solve these problems are becoming significantly more complex than the familiar, well-understood sequential model on their desktops. While it is possible to re-train scientists to use emerging high-performance computing (HPC) models, it is much more effective to provide them with a higher-level programming environment that has been specialized to their particular domain. By fostering interaction between HPC specialists and the domain scientists, problem-solving environments (PSEs) provide a collaborative environment. A PSE environment allows scientists to focus on expressing their computational problem while the PSE and associated tools support mapping that domain-specific problem to a high-performance computing system. This article describes Arches, an object-oriented framework for building domain-specific PSEs. The framework was designed to support a wide range of problem domains and to be extensible to support very different high-performance computing targets. To demonstrate this flexibility, two PSEs have been developed from the Arches framework to solve problem in two different domains and target very different computing platforms. The Coven PSE supports parallel applications that require large-scale parallelism found in cost-effective Beowulf clusters. In contrast, RCADE targets FPGA-based reconfigurable computing and was originally designed to aid NASA Earth scientists studying satellite instrument data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwin, Amanda P.
2016-01-01
This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…
Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin
2013-04-01
Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n â‰¤ 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).
Solving Nonlinear Aeronautical Problems Using the Carleman Linearization Method
GAUDE, BRIAN W.
2001-09-01
Many problems in aeronautics can be described in terms of nonlinear systems of equations. Carleman developed a technique to linearize such equations that could lead to analytical solutions of nonlinear problems. Nonlinear problems are difficult to solve in closed form and therefore the construction of such solutions is usually nontrivial. This research will apply the Carleman linearization technique to three model problems: a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) ballistic trajectory, Blasius' boundary layer, and Van der Pol's equation and evaluate how well the technique can adequately approximate the solutions of these ordinary differential equations.
A framework for automated decision making and problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heer, E.
1980-01-01
Problems can be subdivided into two main categories: well structured problems and ill structured problems. The first require routine repetitive decisions which are generally amenable to programmable decision processes. The second require novel nonprogrammable decision processes. The decision making processes can be subdivided into those representative of those done by humans and those done by machine. Many of such decision processes require a combination of humans d machines. Automated decision making and problem solving technologies are expected to have their greatest potential impact in the space program.
Artificial bee colony algorithm for solving optimal power flow problem.
Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu; Vasant, Pandian
2013-01-01
This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790
Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving Optimal Power Flow Problem
Le Dinh, Luong; Vo Ngoc, Dieu
2013-01-01
This paper proposes an artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm for solving optimal power flow (OPF) problem. The objective of the OPF problem is to minimize total cost of thermal units while satisfying the unit and system constraints such as generator capacity limits, power balance, line flow limits, bus voltages limits, and transformer tap settings limits. The ABC algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the IEEE 30-bus, 57-bus, and 118-bus systems. The numerical results have indicated that the proposed algorithm can find high quality solution for the problem in a fast manner via the result comparisons with other methods in the literature. Therefore, the proposed ABC algorithm can be a favorable method for solving the OPF problem. PMID:24470790
Acquisition and performance of a problem-solving skill.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morgan, B. B., Jr.; Alluisi, E. A.
1971-01-01
The acquisition of skill in the performance of a three-phase code transformation task (3P-COTRAN) was studied with 20 subjects who solved 27 3P-COTRAN problems during each of 8 successive sessions. The purpose of the study was to determine the changes in the 3P-COTRAN factor structure resulting from practice, the distribution of practice-related gains in performance over the nine measures of the five 3P-COTRAN factors, and the effects of transformation complexities on the 3P-COTRAN performance of subjects. A significant performance gain due to practice was observed, with improvements in speed continuing even when accuracy reached asymptotic levels. Transformation complexity showed no effect on early performances but the 3- and 4-element transformations were solved quicker than the 5-element transformation in the problem-solving Phase III of later skilled performances.
Technologies for Literacy: Using Technologies in a Problem Solving Environment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Chwee Beng
2014-01-01
As technologies have become an integral part of our lives, the way we read and understand text has changed drastically. In this paper, we discuss how various technologies support learners' reading and writing skills within the context of meaningful learning. Next, using elaborated cases, we argue that situating learners in problem solving…
Developmental Trends in Children's Aggression and Social Problem-Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Takahashi, Fumito; Koseki, Shunsuke; Shimada, Hironori
2009-01-01
The purposes of this study were to clarify how social problem-solving processes develop and to identify developmentally-sensitive intervention components for children's aggression. Elementary and junior-high school Japanese students (N = 1100) from urban public schools participated in the present investigation. Their alternative thinking skills,â€¦
The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chu, Mingyuan; Kita, Sotaro
2011-01-01
Co-thought gestures are hand movements produced in silent, noncommunicative, problem-solving situations. In the study, we investigated whether and how such gestures enhance performance in spatial visualization tasks such as a mental rotation task and a paper folding task. We found that participants gestured more often when they had difficulties…
Examining the Relationship of Scientific Reasoning with Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fabby, Carol; Koenig, Kathleen
2015-01-01
Recent research suggests students with more formal reasoning patterns are more proficient learners. However, little research has been done to establish a relationship between scientific reasoning and problem solving abilities by novices. In this exploratory study, we compared scientific reasoning abilities of students enrolled in a college levelâ€¦
Reasoning Processes Used by Paramedics to Solve Clinical Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Melissa
2009-01-01
The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to determine the reasoning processes used by paramedics to solve clinical problems. Existing research documents concern over the accuracy of paramedics' clinical decision-making, but no research was found that examines the cognitive processes by which paramedics make either faulty or accurateâ€¦