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1

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is the thought processes involved in solving a problem. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

K-12 Outreach,

2

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page of videos is designed to showcase classrooms in which the NCTM Process Standards are evident. Scroll to video #48, Problem Solving, and select the "VoD" box to view this half-hour video. It includes 13 classroom excerpts from lessons that illustrate students investigating and learning mathematics through problem solving. Teachers share their approaches and observations.

Boston, Wgbh

1997-01-01

3

Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.

Office of Educational Partnerships,

4

Learning to relate qualitative and quantitative problem representations in a model-based setting for collaborative problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an experimental study, we investigated how 10th graders acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. The study was made up of 2 main phases. In the 1st phase, students were taught either qualitative or quantitative aspects of classical mechanics by means of 2 different instructional units. In both units, concept maps were used for the presentation of information. In the 2nd phase, dyads were formed with students who worked on different instructional units and thus possessed systematically different knowledge. The 2 students collaboratively worked on problems that were beyond the competence of each of them and demanded the coordinated useof knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects. Before and after the instruction as well as after the collaborative problem solving, students had to work on multicomponent tests. In addition, during the collaborative problem solving, protocols were taken of the students' mutual exchange of information An analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative as well as quantitative knowledge can successfully be taught by means of concept maps. Students who initially were taught qualitative aspects of physics gained significantly more from the information provided by their quantitatively instructed partners during the collaborative problem solving than the other way around. An analysis of individual problem-solving attempts uncovered that students learned to construct increasingly more complete qualitative and quantitative problem representations. An explorative protocol analysis of the students' dialogues further indicated that the students gradually shifted their focus from quantitative to qualitative problem representations during collaborative problem solving.

Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

2005-11-22

5

Quantitative Reasoning and Contemporary Problem Solving: Mass Bay Community College Numbers Count Workshop  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This workshop is for Massachusetts Bay Community College faculty interested in quantitative reasoning and its application in contemporary problem solving. Funded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Numbers Count Project provides data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We will focus on global health issues surrounding cancer and emphasize the use of medical data, visualization, modeling, and error control. In the age of Big Data, students must grapple with mathematical models, tools, and quantitative reasoning as they prepare for the workplace. As science and technology advance, the rapid acquisition of data frames an evolving intersection between mathematics and science. The use of data in our courses must be accompanied by opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning and familiarity with mathematical models.

Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota-Rochester;Health Sciences)

2010-05-06

6

Methods Used by Pre-Service Nigeria Certificate in Education Teachers in Solving Quantitative Problems in Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…

Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed

2011-01-01

7

Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…

Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

2005-01-01

8

Problem Solving Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.

2014-01-01

9

Cross-Proportions: A Conceptual Method for Developing Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses attention on the cross-proportion (C-P) method of mathematical problem solving, which was once widely used in chemical calculations. We propose that this method regain currency as an alternative to the dimensional analysis (DA) method, particularly in lower-level chemistry courses. In recent years, the DA method has emerged as the only problem solving mechanism offered to high-school and general chemistry students in contemporary textbooks, replacing more conceptual methods, C-P included. The C-P method emphasizes basic scientific principles through application during the process of solving numerical problems, which in turn promotes student understanding of these principles by constantly reinforcing basic concepts. We believe that appropriate teaching of chemistry needs to model its conceptual character as well as address students' different learning styles. Examples of C-P applications to molar mass and stoichiometry are given.

Cook, Elzbieta; Cook, Robert L.

2005-08-01

10

Creating Problem Solving Natives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ânâ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-03-04

11

Mathematics Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a studentâs mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.

Taplin, Margaret

2011-01-01

12

Techniques of Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

Krantz, Steven G.

13

Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills Within Food Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve them and secondly, to have a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions in food. Until 3 years ago the learning situation for this module was inefficient for both teachers and students. For this learning situation a staff/student ratio of 1/25 was experienced to be insufficient: the level of student frustration was high and many students could not finish the tasks within the scheduled time. To make this situation more efficient for both students and teachers and to lower the level of frustration, digital learning material was designed. The main characteristic of this learning material is that it provides just-in-time information, such as feedback, hints and links to background information. The material was evaluated in three case studies in a normal educational setting ( n = 22, n = 31, n = 33). The results show that now frustration of students is low, the time in classes is efficiently used, and the staff/student ratio of 1/25 is indeed sufficient. A staff student ratio of around 1/40 is now regarded as realistic.

Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

2005-12-01

14

Teaching through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…

Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.

2012-01-01

15

Interactive insight problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight problem solving was investigated with the matchstick algebra problems developed by Knoblich, Ohlsson, Haider, and Rhenius (1999). These problems are false equations expressed with Roman numerals that can be made true bymoving one matchstick. In a first group participants examined a static two-dimensional representation of the false algebraic expression and told the experimenter which matchstick should be moved. In

Anna Weller; Gaëlle Villejoubert; Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau

2011-01-01

16

Problem Solving by Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

2009-01-01

17

Leadership Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Contract Administrator Credit Manager Customer Service Manager Distribution Manager Entrepreneur Facilities Leadership Problem Solving Organizational Behavior Project Management Teambuilding Multi POSSIBLE EMPLOYERS Advertising Account Executive Benefits Administrator Manager/Loan Officer Consultant

Jiang, Huiqiang

18

Problem Solving - Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...

Kajigga

2009-09-23

19

Problem Solving Seminar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online course includes elements from an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. The material will help students develop their mathematical and problem solving skills. A few topics that are covered include probability, generating mathematical functions and polynomials. Course materials include student assignments and solutions. MIT presents OpenCourseWare as free educational material online. No registration or enrollment is required to use the materials.

Kedlaya, Kiran Sridhara, 1974-; Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-; Stanley, Richard

2010-12-22

20

Solving a problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational piece, part of a series about the future of energy, introduces students to a three-stage process for problem solving. The three stages are identify the problem, test the solutions, and evaluate the results. A student tip sheet explains each stage and enables students to work through the processes in a step-by-step manner while seeing how the information is tied together. A graphic organizer provides students with an opportunity to evaluate the problem-solving solutions they have developed. A brief outline of the problem-solving process gives students a handy summary to use while investigating problems. The downloadable activity sheets are in pdf files. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

21

Problem Solving in Electricity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…

Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias

22

Problem-Solving Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.

1992-01-01

23

Circumference and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…

Blackburn, Katie; White, David

24

Problem Solving with Patents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-01-01

25

Solving Common Mathematical Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

Luz, Paul L.

2005-01-01

26

Solving Energy Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.

Office Of Educational Partnerships

27

[Problem Solving Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…

Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

28

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2006-12-06

29

Problem Solving and Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, presents a framework for thinking about knowledge and its organization that can account for known expert-novice differences in knowledge storage and problem solving behavior. The author argues that interpreting any relationship between the ability to answer qualitative and quantitative questions requires a model of cognition, and that PER should seek to develop assessments that monitor component aspects of developing expertise.

Gerace, William J.

2010-04-30

30

Problem Solving through Aviation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.

Bryant, Joyce

31

Problem Solving with Patents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected. The activities described here promote scientific literacy by helping students appreciate science as a human endeavor and making connections between science, technology, and society.

Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.

2008-03-01

32

Clinical Problem Solving  

PubMed Central

This review demonstrates the unique advantages of sonography in the oncologic setting. Although computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography–computed tomography are primary imaging modalities for evaluation of the oncologic patient, sonography is useful for evaluation of various conditions and clinical scenarios associated with cancer. The following article will illustrate the utility of sonography at a tertiary cancer center for diagnosis and problem solving. PMID:24371094

Cooley, Christine; Nishino, Mizuki; Jagannathan, Jyothi; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Di Salvo, Donald; Krajewski, Katherine M.

2014-01-01

33

Classroom Activities for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts directed to emphasizing problem solving and using the immediate environment to create problem situations are described. Teachers are urged to incorporate problem-solving activities in their instruction. (MP)

Schmalz, Rosemary

1981-01-01

34

Computer Problem-Solving Coaches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers might be able to play an important role in physics instruction by coaching students to develop good problem-solving skills. Building on previous research on student problem solving and on designing computer programs to teach cognitive skills, we are developing a prototype computer coach to provide students with guided practice in solving problems. In addition to helping students become better problem solvers, such programs can be useful in studying how students learn to solve problems and how and if problem-solving skills can be transferred from a computer to a pencil-and-paper environment.

Hsu, Leonardo; Heller, Kenneth

2009-11-30

35

Principles for Teaching Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 14-page monograph addresses the need to teach problem solving and other higher order thinking skills. After summarizing research and positions of various organizations, it defines several models and describes cognitive and attitudinal components of problem solving and the types of knowledge that are required. The authors provide a list of principles for teaching problem solving and include a list of references.

Kirkley, Rob F.

2003-01-01

36

Problem solving and behavior modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selectively reviewed problem-solving theory and research for possible applications in behavior modification. Problem solving was defined as a behavioral process which (a) makes available a variety of response alternatives for dealing with a problematic situation, and (b) increases the probability of selecting the most effective response from among these alternatives. 5 stages of problem solving were identified: (a) general orientation

Thomas J. DZurilla; Marvin R. Goldfried

1971-01-01

37

Petrographic Problem Solving Assignments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Petrographic problem-solving (PPS) assignments consist of a series of two-week mini-projects used within the context of an undergraduate petrology course. The central idea behind PPS assignments is for students to use thin sections as a geologic data source for conducting authentic scientific investigations. For each assignment, students are provided a thin section and corresponding hand sample. Drawing from their initial observations and foundation knowledge, students identify a scientific question, propose a working hypothesis to explain it, test the hypothesis using observations and data collected from the sample, and defend their results in oral presentations and written reports. They use digital cameras interfaced with microscopes to acquire photomicrographs and various software applications to collect and analyze data. For each assignment, students prepare a two-page paper and give a brief presentation to the class (5-10 minutes in duration with 3-5 minutes for discussion). During the presentation sessions, which each require a two-hour class period, class members are encouraged to question their student colleagues. Students are introduced to PPS assignments as part of the take-home final in the prerequisite Microscopy course. Three PPS assignments are in turn engaged in the subsequent Petrology course during the 10-week term. A summative take-home PPS exercise is completed as part of the final exam. In Petrology, PPS assignments augment more traditional laboratory exercises and are specifically aligned with course content, as follows (refer to student handout sheets in supplemental materials section). Using a set of rocks representing distinct lithologies, students are guided to think about what geologic conditions and/or environment the sample formed in. Using a set of plutonic and volcanic rocks from a description and classification exercise, students define their own geologic problem. Using a set of metamorphic rocks, students are instructed to interpret the genetic conditions based on textures and/or mineralogy. Using several different andesite samples, students are directed to consider the origin of the sample in context of a case-study activity conducted during the term. This PPS assignment is completed as part of the final exam and requires a summative two-page paper. In the context of a broad-based undergraduate Earth Science degree program, PPS assignments engage students in the study of Earth materials, actively involve them in the scientific process, and emphasize creative problem solving rather than factual recall.

Templeton, Jeffrey

38

A Method for Solving Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving and decision making are considered to be keys to successful management. A normative method for problem solving is presented, suggesting that the analysis of the problem be structured along a five-step procedure: problem identification, analysis, decision alternatives, decision making, and decision implementation. Follow-up…

Knoop, Robert

1987-01-01

39

Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-01-01

40

Solving Trade Discount Word Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.

Coonce, Carol; Nunenkamp, David

2008-01-01

41

Problem Solving Framework Read the problem carefully.  

E-print Network

Problem Solving Framework Read the problem carefully. Draw a useful picture (sketch) that shows how identified in Step 1. 1. Understand the Problem 2. Analyze the Problem 3. Construct a Solution Apply constraint equations) to eliminate the unwanted unknowns? Use math (algebra/calculus) to solve for target

Minnesota, University of

42

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving among high school students on Scholastic Assessment Test-Mathematics problems and among college students on Graduate Record Examination-Quantitative items. Results suggested that strategy flexibility was a source of gender differences in mathematics ability as assessed by…

Gallagher, Ann M.; DeLisi, Richard; Holst, Patricia C; McGillicuddy-DeLisi, Ann V.; Morely, Mary; Cahala, Cara

2000-01-01

43

Quantitative Analysis vs. Field Estimations: Helping Student to "Make Calls" and Practice Consistent Reporting Techniques when Solving Geological Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An important part of making a field estimate is being able to give reasonable maximum and minimum values. In order to do this, students need to learn to be consistent in choosing variables when making these calculations. In this exercise the students determine flow velocities of an exhumed fluvial channel in the Jurassic Morrison Formation. They are divided into groups and given only the task without any instruction as to how to go about doing it. The students must collaborate to decide which variables are needed to determine flow velocities. They also must come up with a plan of how to collect the data from the channel and what their data represents. The students then calculate a range of values representing the minimum and maximum flow velocities. In one aspect of the exercise the students are delighted to discover that they are able to make relatively precise quantitative calculations (based on grain size, bedforms, and water depths). However, in another aspect they are challenged with the dilemma of having to make estimations based on very non-quantitative field problems (e.g. channel width). The groups are then asked to report and defend their calculations. The importance of being consistent in choosing variables used to calculate the discharge is discussed (e.g. max., min., etc.). Group dynamics and leadership roles also become obvious during the exercise. The students are given a limited time limit to make their observations and calculations so if the group does not effectively work together it will be difficult to complete their task. For example, while part of the group estimate grain size and flow conditions the other members of the team gather channel width data. The group also selects one team leader to report their findings and works together to defend their calculations.

Thomas Henry Morris

44

Research on Problem Solving: Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article provides a very detailed and comprehensive review of the extensive literature in education and cognitive science on the use of physics problems as a context for examining cognitive processes and approaches to problem solving.

Maloney, David

2006-06-19

45

Problem solving, scaffolding and learning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Helping students to construct understanding of physics concepts and develop good problem solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examines studentsâ problem solving abilities and explores strategies to scaffold studentsâ learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving between isomorphic problems, we evaluate introductory physics studentsâ abilities to learn from provided solved problems and to transfer their learning to quiz problems involving the same physics principles but different surface features. Findings suggest that providing solved problems after students have attempted to solve quiz problems without help is a good way to scaffold studentsâ analogical problem solving. Categorization of problems based upon similarity of solution provides another angle to evaluate and scaffold studentsâ ability to reflect on problems' deep features. A study on categorization of quantum mechanics problems reveals that faculty overall perform better than students. However, unlike categorization of introductory mechanics problems, in which categories created by faculty are uniform and based on fundamental principles, quantum mechanics categorization is more diverse and based on concepts and procedures. In addition, we also explore possible strategies to help instructors improve their teaching of problem solving and to assess student difficulties more efficiently. Investigating how teaching assistants (TAs) design problem solutions, we find much room for improvement as TAs donât necessarily notice all solution components recommended in the research literature. Another study involving comparison between different assessment tools reveals that carefully designed multiple-choice questions can reflect the relative performance on the free-response problems while maintaining the benefit of ease of grading, especially if the multiple-choice question choices are weighted to reflect the different levels of understanding that students display.

Lin, Shih-Yin

2012-04-21

46

Learning Impasses in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problem Solving systems customarily use backtracking to deal with obstacles that they encounter in the course of trying to solve a problem. This paper outlines an approach in which the possible obstacles are investigated prior to the search for a solution. This provides a solution strategy that avoids backtracking.

Hodgson, J. P. E.

1992-01-01

47

The Future Problem Solving Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…

Crabbe, Anne B.

1989-01-01

48

Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…

Ernst, Jeremy V.

2009-01-01

49

Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)

Tolman, Richard R.

1982-01-01

50

Math problem solving model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers will find the information and tools in this module a useful introduction to teaching with open-ended problems. Information about related professional development opportunities is also available at the site.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL)

2002-01-01

51

Algebra Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A non-traditional Algebra text (high school and early college levels) placed on the Web by the Science Education Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Browse it on the Web or download a PDF version. Chapter headings include: The Pascal Triangle; The Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Factorials; Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions; Mathematical Induction; The Binomial Theorem; Combinations and Permutations; Polynomial Equations; Determinants; and Inequalities. Problems (and answers to the odd-numbered problems) are provided for each section.

Hillman, Alexanderson

52

Problem Solve Your School  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students apply what they have learned about the engineering design process to a real-life problem that affects them and/or their school. They chose a problem as a group, and then follow the engineering design process to come up with and test their design solution. This activity teaches students how to use the engineering design process while improving something in the school environment that matters to them. By performing each step of the design process, students can experience what it is like to be an engineer.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

53

Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews several student-tested computer software programs for math instruction: Gameco's "Word Problem Square-Off"; "MathKeys" by MECC and Houghton-Mifflin; Davidson and Associates'"The Cruncher"; and Sunburst Communications'"Exploring Mathematics with Technology: Number and Operation Sense." (HTH)

Allen, Denise

1995-01-01

54

Real Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of problem-oriented mathematics materials for a wide variety of students. Materials include teaching guides, student materials, case studies in mathematical modeling, and project activities. Examples of these materials (including a sports-related activity for students who have not had success in mathematics) are provided.…

Mathematics in School, 1984

1984-01-01

55

Solving Playground Network Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use cooperation and logical thinking to find solutions to network problems on the playground. Learners act both as computer routers, figuring out with each other how to effectively get data to the place it's being sent, and as the actual data, because the learners travel various edges of a network to get to their destination or "home" point. Learners use geometry skills to determine the most efficient routes in the network.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

56

Irrelevance in Problem Solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.

Levy, Alon Y.

1992-01-01

57

Gender and Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gender and mathematical problem-solving among high ability students depends on the attributes of the problem solving questions. This was evident in the present study of 12-year-olds. The children were from predominately White families. Eighty-three males and 76 females were tested in both the fall and the spring on the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales and on the Canadian

Jim Duffy; Georg Gunther; Lloyd Walters

1997-01-01

58

Promote Problem-Solving Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourteen fifth-grade students gather at the front of the classroom as their summer school instructor introduces Jonathan Bostic as the mathematics teacher for the week. Before examining any math problems, Bostic sits at eye level with the students and informs them that they will solve problems over the next four days by working individually as…

Bostic, Jonathan; Jacobbe, Tim

2010-01-01

59

Sex Differences in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine experiments were performed to verify and extend studies on sex differences in problem solving conducted in the 1950s by Sweeney, Carey, Milton, Nakamura, and Berry. A 20-item problem set was administered to over 1,000 college students. Results indicated a male advantage, averaging 35 percent, virtually identical with 1950s results. (Author/BS)

Johnson, Edward S.

1984-01-01

60

Robot, computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.

Becker, J. D.

1972-01-01

61

Assessing Problem Solving with "Diana"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This research paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, discusses an experiment in which expert and novice participants completed a task either completing a mechanics problem (novices) or evaluating the answer to the problem (experts). The results indicated that instructors were more likely to make specific criticisms if the students spoke in generalities. Additional evidence indicates that novice problem solving knowledge consists of both conscious and tacit pieces.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-08-03

62

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills to Nuclear Engineering Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill for nuclear engineering graduates entering the workforce. Training in qualitative and quantitative aspects of problem solving allows students to conceptualise and execute solutions to complex problems. Solutions to problems in high consequence fields of study such as nuclear engineering require rapid and…

Waller, E.; Kaye, M. H.

2012-01-01

63

Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem

Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

2007-01-01

64

Robot computer problem solving system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conceptual, experimental, and practical phases of developing a robot computer problem solving system are outlined. Robot intelligence, conversion of the programming language SAIL to run under the THNEX monitor, and the use of the network to run several cooperating jobs at different sites are discussed.

Becker, J. D.; Merriam, E. W.

1974-01-01

65

Teaching Problem-Solving Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-­making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.

2013-01-01

66

Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…

Martin, Sabrina Budasi

67

Looking Back in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Often after students solve a problem they believe they have accomplished their mission and stop further exploration. The purpose of this article is to discuss ways to encourage students to "look back" so as to maximise their learning opportunities. According to Polya, by "looking back" at a completed solution, by reconsidering and re-examining the…

Cai, Jinfa; Brook, Michael

2006-01-01

68

Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)  

E-print Network

the summer. The chemical mechanisms associated with ozone production are so complex that emission reductions of ozone precursors may not necessarily decrease the ozone production rate, depending on the area wherePSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN

Nizkorodov, Sergey

69

Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains  

E-print Network

Outline Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Solving and Cloud Computing Computational Emancipation of Problem Domains Natural Language of the Domain Domain Dedicated Virtual Machine Optimizing DDVM Problem Solving and Cloud Computing Computational

Rus, Teodor

70

Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…

Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.

2010-01-01

71

Calculator solves pipe flow problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single,

1980-01-01

72

Problem Solving: Bubble Gum Contest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development video clip presents students engaged in The Common Core Practice Standard #1âMake sense of problems and persevere in solving them. The learners gather data for a bubble gum contest, as part of a larger activity involving recording data and writing up results. Students understand the problem and persevere with the task as they independently go to other classrooms to conduct their survey. Additional resources include a video transcript, teaching tips, and a link to a professional development reflection activity based upon the video.

Boston, Wghb

2013-01-01

73

Calculator solves pipe flow problems  

SciTech Connect

For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single, full-range friction-factor equation with three sets of coefficients to suit the conditions of the problem.

Verma, C.P.

1980-07-28

74

Teaching Problem Solving to College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…

Malouff, John M.

2011-01-01

75

Phenomenographic Study of Students' Problem Solving Approaches in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes ongoing research investigating student approaches to quantitative and qualitative problem solving in physics. This empirical study was conducted using a phenomenographic approach to analyze data from individual semistructured problem solving interviews with 22 introductory college physics students. The main result of the study…

Walsh, Laura N.; Howard, Robert G.; Bowe, Brian

2007-01-01

76

Problem Solving in the Natural Sciences and Early Adolescent Girls' Gender Roles and Self-Esteem a Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis from AN Ecological Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.

Slavkin, Michael

77

A Problem-Solving Alternative to Using Key Words  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the pitfalls of using key words to support students when problem solving, and provides an alternative way (quantitative analysis) to support students' sense-making. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)

Clement, Lisa L.; Bernhard, Jamal Z.

2005-01-01

78

Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.

Pauls, Michelle

2013-04-02

79

King Oedipus and the Problem Solving Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of the problem solving process reveals at least three options: (1) finding the cause, (2) solving the problem, and (3) anticipating potential problems. These methods may be illustrated by examining "Oedipus Tyrannus," a play in which a king attempts to deal with a problem that appears to be beyond his ability to solve, and applying…

Borchardt, Donald A.

80

Strategies of Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Artificial Intelligence is concerned with problem solving in which groups solve tasks. In this paper we describe stra­ tegies of cooperation that groups require to solve shared tasks effectively. We discuss such strategies in the context of a specific group problem solving application: collision avoidance in air traffic control. Experimental findings with four distinct air-traffic control systems, each implementing

Stephanie J. Cammarata; David Mcarthur; Randall Steeb

1983-01-01

81

Statistical Education Through Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."

2005-11-07

82

Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…

Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

2008-01-01

83

Instructors' Ideas about Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has developed an interview tool to investigate physics faculty views about the learning and teaching of problem solving. In the part of the interview dealing with grading, faculty members were asked to evaluate a set of five student solutions and explain their reasons for the grades that they assigned. Preliminary analysis on two of the five student solutions was done on six physics faculty members from a large research university. The results indicate that faculty members hold conflicting beliefs when grading between valuing reasoning in student solutions and wanting to give students the benefit of the doubt. This paper illustrates the hypothesis that physics faculty hold conflicting values when grading, and describes how the research university faculty resolved their conflicts.

2010-04-09

84

Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250....  

E-print Network

Mathematics As Problem Solving Math250.... Instructor: Dr. M. Shiyyab, mathematics Dept. (637, or 1999. Course Objective: 1. To improve your mathematical problem solving ability, including reasoning. 2: Will include individual and group problem solving; reading from the text and other sources ( to be handed out

85

LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…

Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris

2011-01-01

86

Collis-Romberg Mathematical Problem Solving Profiles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving has become a focus of mathematics programs in Australia in recent years, necessitating the assessment of students' problem-solving abilities. This manual provides a problem-solving assessment and teaching resource package containing four elements: (1) profiles assessment items; (2) profiles diagnostic forms for recording individual…

Collis, K. F.; Romberg, T. A.

87

Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…

van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

2013-01-01

88

Strategies for Problem Solving. Revised Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides a comprehensive approach to problem solving; it is written in narrative style with numerous examples. The guide is organized in eight sections that cover the following topics: (1) problem-solving overview (with suggested readings and recommendations for schools); (2) a five-step model for solving problems; (3) strategies for…

Karmos, Joseph S.; Karmos, Ann H.

89

Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)

Ouellette, Hugh

1979-01-01

90

Community-powered problem solving.  

PubMed

Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769

Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas

2013-04-01

91

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving was investigated. In Studies 1 and 2, high school juniors and seniors solved Scholastic Assessment Test–Mathematics (SAT-M) problems classified as conventional or unconventional. Algorithmic solution strategies were students' default choice for both types of problems across conditions that manipulated item format and solution time. Use of intuitive strategies on unconventional problems was evident only

Ann M. Gallagher; Richard De Lisi; Patricia C. Holst; Ann V. McGillicuddy-De Lisi; Mary Morely; Cara Cahalan

2000-01-01

92

Session Four: Communication II, Problem-Solving,  

E-print Network

COMMUNICATION II, PROBLEM-SOLVING, & GIVING DIRECTIONS MATERIALS NEEDED: Parent Handbooks Learner Outcomes/Skills members to use communication skills to say what they want and determine what the problem is. Problem83 Session Four: Communication II, Problem-Solving, and Giving Directions #12;84 SESSION FOUR

93

Super 7: Daily Exercises in Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is a year-long program of daily exercises in problem solving for 2nd and 3rd grade students that presents 144 lessons, each with seven problems. The problems cover number sense, computation, measurements, geometry, problem solving, and patterns. The material is presented in a sequential fashion with concepts repeated and expanded, and…

Hamilton, Octavia

94

Assessment of Student Problem Solving Processes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving is a complex process important both in itself and as a tool for learning physics. Currently there is no standard way to measure problem solving that is independent of physics topic, pedagogy, and problem characteristics. At Minnesota we have been developing a rubric to evaluate studentsâ written solutions to physics problems that is easy to use and reasonably valid and reliable. The rubric identifies five general problem-solving processes and defines the criteria to attain a score in each: useful description, physics approach, specific application of physics, math procedures, and logical progression. An important test of the instrument is to check whether these categories as represented in studentsâ written solutions correspond to processes students engage in during problem solving. Eight problem-solving interviews were conducted with students enrolled in an introductory university physics course to compare what students write down during problem solving with what they say they were thinking about as determined by their interview statements.

Docktor, Jennifer; Heller, Kenneth

2010-01-19

95

Analog Processor To Solve Optimization Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed analog processor solves "traveling-salesman" problem, considered paradigm of global-optimization problems involving routing or allocation of resources. Includes electronic neural network and auxiliary circuitry based partly on concepts described in "Neural-Network Processor Would Allocate Resources" (NPO-17781) and "Neural Network Solves 'Traveling-Salesman' Problem" (NPO-17807). Processor based on highly parallel computing solves problem in significantly less time.

Duong, Tuan A.; Eberhardt, Silvio P.; Thakoor, Anil P.

1993-01-01

96

Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.

Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil

1993-01-01

97

Task Variables in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A framework for research in problem solving is provided by categorizing and defining variables describing problem tasks. A model is presented in an article by Kulm for the classification of task variables into broad categories. The model attempts to draw realtionships between these categories of task variables and the stages of problem solving…

Goldin, Gerald A., Ed.; McClintock, C. Edwin, Ed.

98

Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…

Szeberenyi, Jozsef

2013-01-01

99

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in students' problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches [1] in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-01-01

100

Authentic assessment of students' problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in studentsâ problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.

Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2013-08-05

101

Cultivating Problem Solving Skills via a New Problem Categorization Scheme  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When one looks at STEM disciplines as a whole, the need for effective problem solving skills is a commonality. However, studies indicate that the bulk of students who graduate from problem-solving intensive programs display little increase in their problem solving abilities. Also, there is little evidence for transfer of general skills from one subject area to another. Furthermore, the types of problems typically encountered in introductory STEM courses do not often cultivate the skills students will need when solving âreal-worldâ problems. Initial efforts to develop and implement an interdisciplinary problem categorization matrix as a tool for instructional design are described. The matrix, which is independent of content, shows promise as a means for promoting useful problem-solving discussion among faculty, designing problem-solving intensive courses, and instructing students in developing real-world problem solving skills.

Harper, Kathleen A.; Freuler, Richard; Demel, John

2007-11-25

102

Common Core: Solve Math Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…

Strom, Erich

2012-01-01

103

Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)

Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette

2003-01-01

104

Characteristics of problem solving success in physics   

E-print Network

Skills in problem solving, including finding and applying the appropriate knowledge to a problem, are important learning outcomes from the completion of a Physics degree at University. This thesis investigates the ...

Wallace, Marsali Beth

2014-06-28

105

Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…

Thornton, Stephanie

106

Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…

Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim

2012-01-01

107

Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…

Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon

2014-01-01

108

Problem Solving Under Time-Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A model of how automated and controlled processing can be mixed in computer simulations of problem solving is proposed. It is based on previous work by Hunt and Lansman (1983), who developed a model of problem solving that could reproduce the data obtained with several attention and performance paradigms, extending production-system notation to…

Richardson, Michael; Hunt, Earl

109

Dialectical and devil's advocate problem-solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years an increasing amount of interest has been generated in the application of dialectical methodology to strategic and operational problem-solving. This paper first examines the existing research evidence and then introduces the Dialectical Problem-Solving Technology (DPST) based on the Dialectical Materialism Inquiry System. The results of an empirical investigation into the effectiveness and impact of High Structure (DPST),

Michael N. Chanin; Harris J. Shapiro

1984-01-01

110

Presenting a Model of Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two questions are dealt with: (1) Can those strategies or behaviors which enable experts to solve problems well be characterized, and (2) Can students be trained to use such strategies? A problem-solving course for college students is described and the model on which the course is based is outlined in an attempt to answer these questions. The…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

111

Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…

Brown, Wayne

2007-01-01

112

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 1: Group Versus Individual Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes an experiment that was conducted to investigate the effects of cooperative group learning on the problem solving performance of college students in a large introductory physics course. An explicit problem solving strategy was taught in the course, and students practiced using the strategy to solve problems in mixed-ability cooperative groups. A technique was developed to evaluate students' problem solving performance and determine the difficulty of context-rich problems. It was found that better problem solutions emerged through collaboration than were achieved by individuals working alone. The instructional approach improved the problem solving performance of students at all ability levels.

Heller, Patricia; Keith, Ronald; Anderson, Scott

2006-06-19

113

Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

114

Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more effective teaching methods for physics courses because such programs can be the basis for computer-assisted instruction, or CAI. This type of instruction combined with the program could answer questions about solving various physics problems and could also have the ability to analyze where the student went wrong in his or her solution(s). It is for reasons such as these that it is important to enhance the amount of research going into physics problem solving strategies. (Contains 12 references.)

Brekke, Stewart

2006-12-06

115

Application of Theorem Proving to Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows how an extension of the resolution proof procedure can be used to con­ struct problem solutions. The extended proof procedure can solve problems involving state transformations. The paper explores several alternate problem representations and provides a discussion of solutions to sample problems including the \\

C. Cordell Green

1969-01-01

116

Computer Simulation & Problem Solving in Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is an essential skill in the study of genetics. Genetics problems have traditionally come from laboratory activities and textbook situations. Recently computer-based problems have been available to complement these standard sources. This report focusses on the use of computer-based problems in the study of genetics. Discriptions…

Kinnear, Judith F.

117

Synthesizing Huber's Problem Solving and Kolb's Learning Cycle: A Balanced Approach to Technical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…

Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.

2009-01-01

118

The Cyclic Nature of Problem Solving: An Emergent Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the problem-solving behaviors of 12 mathematicians as they completed four mathematical tasks. The emergent problem-solving framework draws on the large body of research, as grounded by and modified in response to our close observations of these mathematicians. The resulting "Multidimensional Problem-Solving Framework" has four…

Carlson, Marilyn P.; Bloom, Irene

2005-01-01

119

Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning and Problem-Solving)  

MedlinePLUS

... SOMEONE WITH EMOTIONAL & BEHAVIORAL NEEDS Cognitive Problems (Disorientation, Perception, Attention, Learning & Problem-Solving) Cognition is the process ... What Are Some Other Cognitive Problems? What Is Perception? Remember What Is Attention or Concentration? More Resources ...

120

Solving the Tulsa ozone problem  

SciTech Connect

Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.

Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1998-12-31

121

Solving a Spacecraft Design Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have probably all been amazed at the ingenuity of spacecraft engineers when we see some of the solutions they invent for such problems as landing a roving vehicle on Mars-as engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory did for NASA's Mars Pathfinder project-without using retro-rockets or even putting a spacecraft in orbit first.

Fisher, D. K.

1998-01-01

122

Resource Activation Patterns In Expert Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes the analysis of video recordings of physics experts solving novel problems involving solar cells, which involved such advanced physics topics as complex circuits and semiconductors. By performing a fine grained analysis using a resource based model of cognition, we determined what resources experts use while reasoning in the current context and how they used them. By analyzing critical events in the problem solving process, we searched for meaningful patterns of resource activation to help gain insight into expert problem solving processes.

Jones, Darrick C.; Malysheva, Marina; Richards, Aj; PlaninĺĄic, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia

2014-01-31

123

Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem solving could be improved by means of HPS. Three typical problems in introductory courses of mechanics—the inclined plane, the simple pendulum and the Atwood machine—are taken as the object of the present study. The solving strategies of these problems in the eighteenth and nineteenth century constitute the historical component of the study. Its philosophical component stems from the foundations of mechanics research literature. The use of HPS leads us to see those problems in a different way. These different ways can be tested, for which experiments are proposed. The traditional solving strategies for the incline and pendulum problems are adequate for some situations but not in general. The recourse to apparent weights in the Atwood machine problem leads us to a new insight and a solving strategy for composed Atwood machines. Educational implications also concern the development of logical thinking by means of the variety of lines of thought provided by HPS.

Coelho, Ricardo Lopes

2013-05-01

124

A Dialectic Approach to Problem-Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the dynamics of problem-solving in a framework which captures two key features of that activity. The first feature is that problem-solving is a social game where a number of problem-solvers interact, rely on other agents to tackle parts of a problem, and regularly communicate the outcomes of their investigations. The second feature is that problem-solving requires a careful control over the set of hypotheses that might be needed at various stages of the investigation for the problem to be solved; more particularly, that any incorrect hypothesis be eventually refuted in the face of some evidence: all agents can expect such evidence to be brought to their knowledge whenever it holds. Our presentation uses a very general form of logic programs, viewed as sets of rules that can be activated and fire, depending on what a problem-solver is willing to explore, what a problem-solver is willing to hypothesize, and what a problem-solver knows about the problem to be solved in the form of data or background knowledge.

Martin, Eric; Sallantin, Jean

125

Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…

Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi

2011-01-01

126

Cooperative problem solving in a social carnivore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous field researchers have described cooperative hunting in social carnivores, but experimental evidence of cooperative problem solving typically derives from laboratory studies of nonhuman primates. We present the first experimental evidence of cooperation in a social carnivore, the spotted hyaena, Crocuta crocuta. Eight captive hyaenas, paired in 13 combinations, coordinated their behaviour temporally and spatially to solve cooperation tasks that

Christine M. Drea; Allisa N. Carter

2009-01-01

127

A CHILDHOOD ATTITUDE INVENTORY FOR PROBLEM SOLVING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS PAPER DESCRIBES A 60-ITEM GROUP ADMINISTERED PAPER-PENCIL ATTITUDE INVENTORY COMPRISED OF TWO SCALES, ONE ASSESSING THE CHILD'S BELIEFS ABOUT THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS (SCALE I) AND THE OTHER ASSESSING THE CHILD'S SELF-CONFIDENCE IN UNDERTAKING PROBELM-SOLVING ACTIVITIES (SCALE II). DATA FROM 325 FIFTH-GRADE AND SIXTH-GRADE…

COVINGTON, MARTIN V.

128

Frameworks for Cooperation in Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two forms of cooperation in distributed problem solving are considered: task-sharing and result-sharing. In the former, nodes assist each other by sharing the computational load for the execution of subtasks of the overall problem. In the latter, nodes assist each other by sharing partial results which are based on somewhat different perspectives on the overall problem. Different perspectives arise because

REID G. SM; Randall Davis

1981-01-01

129

Solving Probability Problems Using Monte Carlo Simulation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is a strategy that allows students to experiment with probability without applying formulas to solve problems. Students are able to intuitively develop concepts of probability before formal definitions and properties. Sample problems are included along with BASIC programs for some of the problems. (KR)

Rudolph, William B.; Tvrdik, Debra

1991-01-01

130

THE ART AND SCIENCE OF PARTICIPATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING  

E-print Network

and thinking, the artistic attitude and the scientific attitude are two very different worlds, they are like-life problem solving in complex situations demands both rational (scientific) and intuitive (artistic) thinking together qualitative and creative issues from Art and Architecture with quantitative and scientific

131

Pollution, pH, and Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides real life assignments that can be used to help students apply chemistry laboratory techniques to solve environmental hazardous waste problems. Numerous diagrams are provided to aid in describing the experiments performed. (ZWH)

Tugel, Joyce B.

1994-01-01

132

SITUATED REPRESENTATION: SOLVING THE HANDCODING PROBLEM  

E-print Network

SITUATED REPRESENTATION: SOLVING THE HANDCODING PROBLEM WITH EMERGENT STRUCTURED REPRESENTATION representation. This is a result of limiting assumptions about the nature of representation: what makes a representation about something else. These limiting assumptions are reflected in methodological approaches

133

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.  

PubMed

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

2012-10-01

134

Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas  

PubMed Central

Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals. PMID:22874748

Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E.

2012-01-01

135

PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...

136

Solving Word Problems Using Story Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will learn how to use their knowledge of beginning, middle, and end to solve word problems that include result unknown, change unknown, and start unknown. They will learn how to use a modified story map to write an equation to represent the problem.

2012-10-16

137

Solving simultaneous stabilization BMI problems with PENNON  

E-print Network

Solving simultaneous stabilization BMI problems with PENNON Didier Henrion Michal Kocvara Michael with respect to bilinear matrix inequalities (BMI). We will present numerical results of the method for a class be formulated as a BMI problem in the parameters of the controller, whose order can be fixed from the outset

Henrion, Didier

138

Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The activities in this series may be used as stand-alone exercises but are designed to support Math Forum's Problems of the Week and to help students develop, formalize, and reflect on their problem-solving strategies. Membership subscription is required.

139

Using Programmable Calculators to Solve Electrostatics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a simple routine which allows first-year physics students to use programmable calculators to solve otherwise complex electrostatic problems. These problems involve finding electrostatic potential and electric field on the axis of a uniformly charged ring. Modest programing skills are required of students. (DH)

Yerian, Stephen C.; Denker, Dennis A.

1985-01-01

140

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 #12;Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad, Fagaras, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 #12;Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie

Srinivasan, Padmini

141

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search  

E-print Network

Artificial Intelligence Problem Solving and Search Readings: Chapter 3 of Russell & Norvig. Artificial Intelligence ­ p.1/89 Example: Romania Problem: On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad. Flight, Bucharest Artificial Intelligence ­ p.2/89 Example: Romania Giurgiu Urziceni Hirsova Eforie Neamt Oradea

Srinivasan, Padmini

142

How Effective Principals Think while Solving Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem-solving processes and strategies of ten school principals with reputations for high effectiveness were studied. Verbal protocols were gathered through unstructured interviews while principals were working on a set of five cases. Analysis of the data was guided, but not constrained, by a set of processes and strategies for problem…

Lazaridou, Angeliki

2006-01-01

143

Connecting Concepts to Problem-solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, offers a new way to approach homework problems in electrostatics through the use of âÂÂbridging exercisesâ as part of studentsâ homework. These exercises encourage students to solve problems by starting with developed physics concepts and models.

Kanim, Stephen

2010-06-18

144

Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…

Contreras, José N.

2014-01-01

145

Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)

Angseesing, J. P. A.

1978-01-01

146

Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.

Dieterly, D. L.

1980-01-01

147

The Development of Students' Problem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas M.

2007-01-01

148

Why students still can't solve physics problems after solving over 2000 problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the belief that solving a large number of physics problems helps students better learn physics. We investigated the number of problems solved, student confidence in solving these problems, academic achievement, and the level of conceptual understanding of 49 science high school students enrolled in upper-level physics classes from Spring 2010 to Summer 2011. The participants solved an average of 2200 physics problems before entering high school. Despite having solved so many problems, no statistically significant correlation was found between the number of problems solved and academic achievement on either a mid-term or physics competition examination. In addition, no significant correlation was found between the number of physics problems solved and performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Lastly, four students were selected from the 49 participants with varying levels of experience and FCI scores for a case study. We determined that their problem solving and learning strategies was more influential in their success than the number of problems they had solved.

Byun, Taejin; Lee, Gyoungho

2014-09-01

149

Enhancing chemistry problem-solving achievement using problem categorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhancement of chemistry students' skill in problem solving through problem categorization is the focus of this study. Twenty-four students in a freshman chemistry course for health professionals are taught how to solve problems using the explicit method of problem solving (EMPS) (Bunce & Heikkinen, 1986). The EMPS is an organized approach to problem analysis which includes encoding the information given in a problem (Given, Asked For), relating this to what is already in long-term memory (Recall), and planning a solution (Overall Plan) before a mathematical solution is attempted. In addition to the EMPS training, treatment students receive three 40-minute sessions following achievement tests in which they are taught how to categorize problems. Control students use this time to review the EMPS solutions of test questions. Although problem categorization is involved in one section of the EMPS (Recall), treatment students who received specific training in problem categorization demonstrate significantly higher achievement on combination problems (those problems requiring the use of more than one chemical topic for their solution) at (p = 0.01) than their counterparts. Significantly higher achievement for treatment students is also measured on an unannounced test (p = 0.02). Analysis of interview transcripts of both treatment and control students illustrates a Rolodex approach to problem solving employed by all students in this study. The Rolodex approach involves organizing equations used to solve problems on mental index cards and flipping through them, matching units given when a new problem is to be solved. A second phenomenon observed during student interviews is the absence of a link in the conceptual understanding of the chemical concepts involved in a problem and the problem-solving skills employed to correctly solve problems. This study shows that explicit training in categorization skills and the EMPS can lead to higher achievement in complex problem-solving situations (combination problems and unannounced test). However, such achievement may be limited by the lack of linkages between students' conceptual understanding and improved problem-solving skill.

Bunce, Diane M.; Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, John V.

150

AI tools in computer based problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.

Beane, Arthur J.

1988-01-01

151

Problem solving with genetic algorithms and Splicer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Genetic algorithms are highly parallel, adaptive search procedures (i.e., problem-solving methods) loosely based on the processes of population genetics and Darwinian survival of the fittest. Genetic algorithms have proven useful in domains where other optimization techniques perform poorly. The main purpose of the paper is to discuss a NASA-sponsored software development project to develop a general-purpose tool for using genetic algorithms. The tool, called Splicer, can be used to solve a wide variety of optimization problems and is currently available from NASA and COSMIC. This discussion is preceded by an introduction to basic genetic algorithm concepts and a discussion of genetic algorithm applications.

Bayer, Steven E.; Wang, Lui

1991-01-01

152

Using PLATO to Teach Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report describes the results of three studies which investigated the use of PLATO to teach problem solving. Subjects were 244 children from kindergarten through third grade. The first study explored the extent to which kindergartners and second graders used the knowledge about which answers were right and which were wrong to develop the correct strategy to solve a novel picture problem. The next study looked at the procedures used by kindergartners and second graders while they were in the process of trying to get the answer. The third study considered three conditions of teaching first and third graders the necessary problem solving skills: experience only, feedback consisting of a visual record of the student's work on the first five problems, and interactive instructional feedback on how to solve each problem that the child had done wrong. Abstracts, methods, results, and discussions are given for each of the studies. Results of this research led to a post hoc study which is described. Seven figures show sample displays and nine references are also given.

Steinberg, Esther R.

2006-12-07

153

Measures of Problem-Solving Performance and of Problem-Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some easily graded measures of problem-solving processes are introduced, and the impact of a month-long intensive problem-solving course on a selected group of college freshmen and sophomores is demonstrated. The measures are thought to have shown themselves to be both reliable and informative. (MP)

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

1982-01-01

154

Assessing Affect after Mathematical Problem Solving Tasks: Validating the Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…

Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.

2013-01-01

155

Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand's Paradox  

E-print Network

Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a 'universal average'. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.

Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi

2014-06-27

156

Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…

Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose

2009-01-01

157

Can quantum computing solve classically unsolvable problems?  

E-print Network

T. D. Kieu has claimed that a quantum computing procedure can solve a classically unsolvable problem. Recent work of W. D. Smith has shown that Kieu's central mathematical claim cannot be sustained. Here, a more general critique is given of Kieu's proposal and some suggestions are made regarding the Church-Turing thesis.

Andrew Hodges

2005-12-29

158

Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems  

E-print Network

Ant Algorithms Solve Difficult Optimization Problems Marco Dorigo IRIDIA Universit´e Libre de Bruxelles 50 Avenue F. Roosevelt B-1050 Brussels, Belgium mdorigo@ulb.ac.be Abstract. The ant algorithms research field builds on the idea that the study of the behavior of ant colonies or other social insects

Libre de Bruxelles, UniversitĂŠ

159

Teaching, Learning and Assessing Statistical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we report the results from a major UK government-funded project, started in 2005, to review statistics and handling data within the school mathematics curriculum for students up to age 16. As a result of a survey of teachers we developed new teaching materials that explicitly use a problem-solving approach for the teaching and…

Marriott, John; Davies, Neville; Gibson, Liz

2009-01-01

160

Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of…

Wisehart, Gary; Mandell, Mark

2008-01-01

161

Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.

Gary Wisehart

2008-03-01

162

Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!

Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College;)

2003-02-01

163

Problem-Solving Research with Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether analogy or means-ends strategies (heuristics) would be used to solve geometric puzzle-like problems, which were generated by a microcomputer. The subjects in the two-group experiment were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Potsdam College (New York). One group of subjects learned…

Licht, Norman

164

Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

Li, Daoquan

2012-01-01

165

Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving  

E-print Network

The Tucson Teachers' Circle Mathematical Problem Solving In Community with Middle School and High School Math Teachers Sponsored by: Teachers' Circle Facilitators are: Virginia Bohme vbohme@math.arizona.edu Ji Li jili@math.arizona.edu Visit our website: http://ime.math

Zakharov, Vladimir

166

Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…

McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

167

Developing students' physics problem-solving skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper describes a protocol designed to help students taking their first undergraduate physics course in acquiring the basic skills of physics problem-solving. The educational effectiveness of this protocol for mature students in distance education has been extensively evaluated, and it is now being used as the basis for an interactive multimedia learning package.

Bolton, John; Ross, Shelagh

2005-11-03

168

How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…

Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

2013-01-01

169

A MEMORY-BASED PROBLEM SOLVING SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Architectural design activity requires some of the highest cognitive abilities of human beings, including creativity, synthesis and problem solving. Ambiguity, uncertainty and parallel scenarios are central to the early phases of the design process. Large amounts of information are manipulated in a short time at early conceptual design. This dynamic phase involves a dynamic search process for good concept solutions

H. M. G. Bártolo; P. J. S. Bártolo

170

Partial Metacognitive Blindness in Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the impact of group dynamics on metacognitive behaviours of students (aged 13-14) during group collaborative problem solving attempts involving a design-based real-world applications project. It was discovered that group dynamics mediated the impact of metacognitive judgments related red flag situations and metacognitive…

Ng, Kit Ee Dawn

2010-01-01

171

Introduction to Ocean Acoustics: Guided Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about sound propagation in the ocean through instructor-guided problem solving. The activity promotes a conceptual understanding of the physical and chemical factors that influence ocean acoustics, with applications to how whales communicate over long distances. The activity serves as a way to introduce the topic of ocean sound.

Boucher, Joceline

172

Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)

Stewart, James

1983-01-01

173

Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…

Crul, Liselore

2014-01-01

174

Nanomedicine: Problem Solving to Treat Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many traditional classroom science and technology activities often ask students to complete prepackaged labs that ensure that everyone arrives at the same "scientifically accurate" solution or theory, which ignores the important problem-solving and creative aspects of scientific research and technological design. Students rarely have the…

Hemling, Melissa A.; Sammel, Lauren M.; Zenner, Greta; Payne, Amy C.; Crone, Wendy C.

2006-01-01

175

Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…

Polland, Mark J.

176

Creative Problem Solving: A Comparison of Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored the relationship between creative problem solving and group decision making techniques as measured by the outcome variables identified in earlier studies. Subjects, 46 undergraduate students enrolled in communication courses at 2 midwestern universities, were divided into 3 groups, a Nominal Group Technique (NGT), Unstructured…

Danielson, Mary Ann; Mitchell, Nancy

177

Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS) -- Identifying student's problem solving skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem solving is central to any physics curriculum and physics educators have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving; however, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because CAPS removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. CAPS has been developed and validated at Colorado and measures a person's competence in 44 separate skills that are used when solving a wide range of in-depth problems including classical mechanics and quantum mechanics problems. Understanding the specific processes that impact how a person solves a problem identifies which components are specific to physics and those that transfer across discipline, and provides insight for improved methods for teaching. 1. Supported in part by funding from National Science Foundation

Adams, Wendy; Wieman, Carl

2009-05-01

178

Discovering the structure of mathematical problem solving.  

PubMed

The goal of this research is to discover the stages of mathematical problem solving, the factors that influence the duration of these stages, and how these stages are related to the learning of a new mathematical competence. Using a combination of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and hidden Markov models (HMM), we found that participants went through 5 major phases in solving a class of problems: A Define Phase where they identified the problem to be solved, an Encode Phase where they encoded the needed information, a Compute Phase where they performed the necessary arithmetic calculations, a Transform Phase where they performed any mathematical transformations, and a Respond Phase where they entered an answer. The Define Phase is characterized by activity in visual attention and default network regions, the Encode Phase by activity in visual regions, the Compute Phase by activity in regions active in mathematical tasks, the Transform Phase by activity in mathematical and response regions, and the Respond phase by activity in motor regions. The duration of the Compute and Transform Phases were the only ones that varied with condition. Two features distinguished the mastery trials on which participants came to understand a new problem type. First, the duration of late phases of the problem solution increased. Second, there was increased activation in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and angular gyrus (AG), regions associated with metacognition. This indicates the importance of reflection to successful learning. PMID:24746954

Anderson, John R; Lee, Hee Seung; Fincham, Jon M

2014-08-15

179

Identifying viable "need-solution pairs": Problem solving without problem formulation  

E-print Network

Problem-solving research, and formal problem-solving practice as well, begins with the assumption that a problem has been identified or formulated for solving. The problem-solving process then involves a search for a ...

von Hippel, Eric A.

2013-11-27

180

Models of Competence in Solving Physics Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We describe a set of two computer-implemented models that solve physics problems in ways characteristic of more and less competent human solvers. The main features accounting for different competences are differences in strategy for selecting physics principles, and differences in the degree of automation in the process of applying a single principle. The models provide a good account of the order in which principles are applied by human solvers working problems in kinematics and dynamics. They also are sufficiently flexible to allow easy extension to several related domains of physics problems.

Larkin, Jill H.; Mcdermott, John; Simon, Dorothea P.; Simon, Herbert A.

2012-05-15

181

A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.

Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.

1989-01-01

182

Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…

Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.

2012-01-01

183

Spreadsheet modelling for solving combinatorial problems: The vendor selection problem  

E-print Network

Spreadsheets have grown up and became very powerful and easy to use tools in applying analytical techniques for solving business problems. Operations managers, production managers, planners and schedulers can work with them in developing solid and practical Do-It-Yourself Decision Support Systems. Small and Medium size organizations, can apply OR methodologies without the presence of specialized software and trained personnel, which in many cases cannot afford anyway. This paper examines an efficient approach in solving combinatorial programming problems with the use of spreadsheets. A practical application, which demonstrates the approach, concerns the development of a spreadsheet-based DSS for the Multi Item Procurement Problem with Fixed Vendor Cost. The DSS has been build using exclusively standard spreadsheet feature and can solve real problems of substantial size. The benefits and limitations of the approach are also discussed.

Ipsilandis, Pandelis G

2008-01-01

184

Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.

Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana

2009-01-24

185

Episodes and Executive Decisions in Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research described here seeks to characterize the "managerial" aspects of expert and novice problem-solving behavior, and to describe the impact of managerial or "executive" actions on success or failure in problem solving. A framework for analyzing protocols of problem-solving sessions based on "episodes" of problem-solving behavior and…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

186

Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…

Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.

2014-01-01

187

An Open Framework for Cooperative Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid, knowledge-based systems comprise a number of heterogeneous agents, which make use of different knowledge representation languages. The VITAL-KR is a software architecture providing the basic sub-structure for integrating a number of software and human agents which cooperate during problem solving. In this paper we give an overview of the architecture of the VITAL-KR and show how it supports the

Mauro Gaspari; Enrico Motta; Arthur Stutt

1995-01-01

188

Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.

Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir

2006-01-01

189

Resource Letter RPS-1: Research in problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on research in problem solving, especially in physics. The references were compiled with two audiences in mind: physicists who are (or might become) engaged in research on problem solving, and physics instructors who are interested in using research results to improve their students' learning of problem solving. In addition to general references, journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: cognitive aspects of problem solving, expert-novice problem-solver characteristics, problem solving in mathematics, alternative problem types, curricular interventions, and the use of computers in problem solving.

Hsu, Leonardo; Brewe, Eric; Foster, Thomas M.; Harper, Kathleen A.

2010-03-11

190

Solving the membrane protein folding problem.  

PubMed

One of the great challenges for molecular biologists is to learn how a protein sequence defines its three-dimensional structure. For many years, the problem was even more difficult for membrane proteins because so little was known about what they looked like. The situation has improved markedly in recent years, and we now know over 90 unique structures. Our enhanced view of the structure universe, combined with an increasingly quantitative understanding of fold determination, engenders optimism that a solution to the folding problem for membrane proteins can be achieved. PMID:16319877

Bowie, James U

2005-12-01

191

Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.

Spicer, Judy

2005-03-01

192

Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies

Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith

1983-01-01

193

Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…

Diamond, Lindsay Lile

2012-01-01

194

Solving optimization problems on computational grids.  

SciTech Connect

Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software infrastructure need to solve these problems on computational grids. This article describes some of the results we have obtained during the first three years of the metaneos project. Our efforts have led to development of the runtime support library MW for implementing algorithms with master-worker control structure on Condor platforms. This work is discussed here, along with work on algorithms and codes for integer linear programming, the quadratic assignment problem, and stochastic linear programmming. Our experiences in the metaneos project have shown that cheap, powerful computational grids can be used to tackle large optimization problems of various types. In an industrial or commercial setting, the results demonstrate that one may not have to buy powerful computational servers to solve many of the large problems arising in areas such as scheduling, portfolio optimization, or logistics; the idle time on employee workstations (or, at worst, an investment in a modest cluster of PCs) may do the job. For the optimization research community, our results motivate further work on parallel, grid-enabled algorithms for solving very large problems of other types. The fact that very large problems can be solved cheaply allows researchers to better understand issues of 'practical' complexity and of the role of heuristics.

Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

2001-05-01

195

Behavioral Correlates of Self-Appraised Problem-Solving Ability: Problem-Solving Skills and Health-Compromising Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the revised social problem-solving model, problem solving skills should be associated with cognitive and behavioral attempts to solve or prevent personal problems. We reasoned that the Approach-Avoidance scale on the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI; Heppner, 1988) measures problem-solving skills as defined in the model, and predicted that scores on this factor would be predictive of health-compromising behaviors among 96

Frankling J. Godshall; Timothy R. Elliott

1997-01-01

196

The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

Erozkan, Atilgan

2013-01-01

197

Individual differences in solving arithmetic word problems  

PubMed Central

Background With the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T, we investigated the neural correlates of visualization and verbalization during arithmetic word problem solving. In the domain of arithmetic, visualization might mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results while calculating, and verbalization might mean that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated during calculation. If the brain areas involved in number processing are domain-specific as assumed, that is, that the left angular gyrus (AG) shows an affinity to the verbal domain, and that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) shows an affinity to the visual domain, the activation of these areas should show a dependency on an individual’s cognitive style. Methods 36 healthy young adults participated in the fMRI study. The participants habitual use of visualization and verbalization during solving arithmetic word problems was assessed with a short self-report assessment. During the fMRI measurement, arithmetic word problems that had to be solved by the participants were presented in an event-related design. Results We found that visualizers showed greater brain activation in brain areas involved in visual processing, and that verbalizers showed greater brain activation within the left angular gyrus. Conclusions Our results indicate that cognitive styles or preferences play an important role in understanding brain activation. Our results confirm, that strong visualizers use mental imagery more strongly than weak visualizers during calculation. Moreover, our results suggest that the left AG shows a specific affinity to the verbal domain and subserves number processing in a modality-specific way. PMID:23883107

2013-01-01

198

New Approaches for Solving the Diagnosis Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, the number of Earth orbiters and deep-space probes has grown dramatically and is expected to continue to do so in the future as miniaturization technologies drive spacecraft to become more numerous and more complex. This rate of growth has brought a new focus on autonomous and self-preserving systems that depend on fault diagnosis. Although diagnosis is needed for any autonomous system, current approaches are almost uniformly ad hoc, inefficient, and incomplete. Systematic methods of general diagnosis exist in literature, but they all suffer from two major drawbacks that severely limit their practical applications. First, they tend to be large and complex and hence difficult to apply. Second and more importantly, in order to find the minimal diagnosis set, i.e., the minimal set of faulty components, they rely on algorithms with exponential computational cost and hence are highly impractical for application to many systems of interest. In this article, we propose a two-fold approach to overcoming these two limitations and to developing a new and powerful diagnosis engine. First, we propose a novel and compact reconstruction of the general diagnosis engine (GDE) as one of the most fundamental approaches to model-based diagnosis. We then present a novel algorithmic approach for calculation of the minimal diagnosis set. Using a powerful yet simple representation of the calculation of the minimal diagnosis set, we map the problem onto two well-known problems -- that is, the Boolean satisfiability and 0/1 integer programming problems. The mapping onto the Boolean satisfiability problem enables the use of very efficient algorithms with a superpolynomial rather than an exponential complexity for the problem. The mapping onto the 0/1 integer programming problem enables the use of a variety of algorithms that can efficiently solve the problem for up to several thousand components. These new algorithms are a significant improvement over the existing ones, enabling efficient diagnosis of large, complex systems. In addition, the latter mapping allows one, for the first time, to determine the bound on the solution, i.e., the minimum number of faulty components, before solving the problem. This is a powerful insight that can be exploited to develop yet more efficient algorithms for the problem.

Fijany, A.; Vatan, F.; Barrett, A.; Mackey, R.

2002-01-01

199

Solving large sparse eigenvalue problems on supercomputers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An important problem in scientific computing consists in finding a few eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a very large and sparse matrix. The most popular methods to solve these problems are based on projection techniques on appropriate subspaces. The main attraction of these methods is that they only require the use of the matrix in the form of matrix by vector multiplications. The implementations on supercomputers of two such methods for symmetric matrices, namely Lanczos' method and Davidson's method are compared. Since one of the most important operations in these two methods is the multiplication of vectors by the sparse matrix, methods of performing this operation efficiently are discussed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each method are compared and implementation aspects are discussed. Numerical experiments on a one processor CRAY 2 and CRAY X-MP are reported. Possible parallel implementations are also discussed.

Philippe, Bernard; Saad, Youcef

1988-01-01

200

Curriculum Units in Mathematics and Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute (YNHTI) is an educational partnership between Yale University and the New Haven Public Schools designed to strengthen teaching and learning in local schools. Produced by teachers participating in Institute seminars since 1978, the 100+ volumes containing the teaching units offer many ideas and procedures for teaching English, history, social studies, the languages, the arts, mathematics, and science in elementary, middle, and high schools. From the YNHTI home page, search for units or guides; a full list appears in the Directory of Volumes page. Mathematics curriculum units range from Integrating Mathematical Concepts in the Study of the Atmosphere to A Chronological History of Pi with Developmental Activities in Problem Solving to Practicing Precision: Lessons from Mathematical Language and Writing. Statistics curriculum units range from Paper Airplanes to Scaling the Natural World Using Dimensional Analysis. Each unit includes a guide (synopsis and recommendations), introduction, some lesson plans or sample problems, and bibliographies.

2007-03-10

201

Physics Graduate Studentsâ Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly inluence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew J.

2010-01-18

202

Teaching Problem Solving and Mathematics By Computer: An Interim Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interim report from the National Science Foundation describes the FUNCTIONS program--an ongoing effort to teach problem solving and mathematics by computer. Two problems are discussed: How can math content be taught in a manner which also develops problem solving skills? Also, how does a curriculum organized to develop problem solving skills…

Roman, Richard Allan

203

Problem Solving Activities Made to N-Joy. Monograph #1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document addresses the need to provide problem-solving materials for teachers of mathematics in the upper elementary grades. The activities are designed to: help teachers emphasize problem-solving techniques, develop positive attitudes toward mathematics and problem solving, provide problems that could be used whenever free time exists,…

Association of Mathematics Teachers of New Jersey, Vineland.

204

Functional reasoning in diagnostic problem solving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work is one facet of an integrated approach to diagnostic problem solving for aircraft and space systems currently under development. The authors are applying a method of modeling and reasoning about deep knowledge based on a functional viewpoint. The approach recognizes a level of device understanding which is intermediate between a compiled level of typical Expert Systems, and a deep level at which large-scale device behavior is derived from known properties of device structure and component behavior. At this intermediate functional level, a device is modeled in three steps. First, a component decomposition of the device is defined. Second, the functionality of each device/subdevice is abstractly identified. Third, the state sequences which implement each function are specified. Given a functional representation and a set of initial conditions, the functional reasoner acts as a consequence finder. The output of the consequence finder can be utilized in diagnostic problem solving. The paper also discussed ways in which this functional approach may find application in the aerospace field.

Sticklen, Jon; Bond, W. E.; Stclair, D. C.

1988-01-01

205

Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.

Billionniere, Elodie V.

206

Using qualitative problem-solving strategies to highlight the role of conceptual knowledge in solving problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We report on the use of qualitative problem-solving strategies in teaching an introductory, calculus-based physics course as a means of highlighting the role played by conceptual knowledge in solving problems. We found that presenting strategies during lectures and in homework solutions provides an excellent opportunity to model for students the type of concept-based, qualitative reasoning that is valued in our profession, and that student-generated strategies serve a diagnostic function by providing instructors with insights on students' conceptual understanding and reasoning. Finally, we found strategies to be effective pedagogical tools for helping students both to identify principles that could be applied to solve specific problems, as well as to recall the major principles covered in the course months after it was over.

Leonard, William J.; Dufresne, Robert J.; Mestre, Jose P.

2005-10-26

207

Connecting Concepts About Current to Quantitative Circuit Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper, presented at the 2001 Physics Education Research Conference, describes portions of an ongoing investigation into the relationship between conceptual knowledge and problem-solving ability in physics. To what degree do students apply conceptual knowledge to the solution of traditional examination and end-of-chapter physics problems? Are there instructional strategies that can facilitate this application? Finally, does an increased emphasis on developing conceptual understanding of the material underlying these problems have any impact on subsequent coursework? The researcher found that the addition of an explicit link between concepts and traditional problems can serve both to reinforce concepts and to improve student quantitative problem-solving performance.

Kanim, Stephen

2010-06-28

208

Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld’s problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the opportunity to solve six physics problems. Ninety-nine students from a secondary school in Shanghai participated in the study. Students who learnt to solve problems in collaboration and students who learnt to solve problems individually with hints improved their problem-solving skills compared with those who learnt to solve the problems individually without hints. However, it was hard to discern an extra effect for students working collaboratively with hints—although we observed these students working in a more structured way than those in the other groups. We discuss ways to further investigate effective collaborative processes for solving physics problems.

Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

2006-11-01

209

"Quantum machine" to solve quantum "measurement problem"?  

E-print Network

Recently a study of the first superposed mechanical quantum object ("machine") visible to the naked eye was published. However, as we show, it turns out that if the object would actually be observed, i.e. would interact with an optical photon, the quantum behavior should vanish. This, the actual observation, has long been suspected in many interpretations of quantum mechanics to be what makes the transition quantum $\\rightarrow$ classical, but so far it has not been available for direct experimental study in a mechanical system. We show how any interaction, even a purely quantum one, of sufficient strength can constitute a physical "measurement" - essentially the emergence of an effectively classical object - active observation thus being a sufficient but not necessary criterion. So it seems we have in this case of the "quantum machine" a unique possibility to study, and possibly solve, the long-standing "measurement problem" of quantum mechanics.

Johan Hansson

2014-01-23

210

Use of EPR to Solve Biochemical Problems  

PubMed Central

EPR spectroscopy is a very powerful biophysical tool that can provide valuable structural and dynamic information on a wide variety of biological systems. The intent of this review is to provide a general overview for biochemists and biological researchers on the most commonly used EPR methods and how these techniques can be used to answer important biological questions. The topics discussed could easily fill one or more textbooks; thus, we present a brief background on several important biological EPR techniques and an overview of several interesting studies that have successfully used EPR to solve pertinent biological problems. The review consists of the following sections: an introduction to EPR techniques, spin labeling methods, and studies of naturally occurring organic radicals and EPR active transition metal systems which are presented as a series of case studies in which EPR spectroscopy has been used to greatly further our understanding of several important biological systems. PMID:23961941

Sahu, Indra D.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Lorigan, Gary A.

2013-01-01

211

Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…

Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen

212

Perceived Problem Solving, Stress, and Health among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the relationships among perceived problem solving, stress, and physical health. Methods: The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ), Personal Problem solving Inventory (PSI), and a stress-related physical health symptoms checklist were used to measure perceived stress, problem solving, and health among undergraduate college…

Largo-Wight, Erin; Peterson, P. Michael; Chen, W. William

2005-01-01

213

Personal Problem-Solving Activities of Black University Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined personal problem solving activities of Black undergraduates (N=84) using three measures: Problem Solving Inventory; Level of Problem Solving Skills Estimate Form; and Ways of Coping Scale. Results indicated no racial (Black versus White) or geographic (urban versus rural) differences in responses. (BL)

Reeder, Bonita Lynne; Heppner, P. Paul

1985-01-01

214

The Design Process for "PLATO[R] Math Problem Solving."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

PLATO Learning, Inc., a developer of computer-based instruction, recently released "Math Problem Solving." This product was designed to teach strategies for solving math problems, and consists of 19 problem-solving activities, ranging from basic math to algebra. Each activity includes tools to help find a solution and rule-based coaching to…

Mulcahy, Robert

2001-01-01

215

Conflict Management: A Premarital Training Program in Mutual Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the effectiveness of a structured educational program to train premarital couples in communication and mutual problem-solving skills. Couples (N=26) participated in a problem-solving training program, while similar couples (N=28) participated in a relationship discussion group. The problem-solving group showed a greater increase in…

Ridley, Carl A.; And Others

1981-01-01

216

Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…

Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng

2010-01-01

217

On the Analysis of Two-Person Problem Solving Protocols.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Methodological issues in the use of protocol analysis for research into human problem solving processes are examined through a case study in which two students were videotaped as they worked together to solve mathematical problems "out loud." The students' chosen strategic or executive behavior in examining and solving a problem was studied,…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

218

Structure and Problem Solving in ISL R. Baker Kearfott  

E-print Network

Structure and Problem Solving in ISL R. Baker Kearfott Department of Mathematics University.pdf #12;(Structure and Problem Solving in ISL) R. B. Kearfott, Dagstuhl, 10 Jan., 2006 Context ­ Harwell ­ LAPACK (for linear systems only) ­ IMSL, etc. 1 #12;(Structure and Problem Solving in ISL) R. B

Kearfott, R. Baker

219

Capturing Problem-Solving Processes Using Critical Rationalism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The examination of problem-solving processes continues to be a current research topic in education. Knowing how to solve problems is not only a key aspect of learning mathematics but is also at the heart of cognitive theories, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and computers sciences. Problem solving is a multistep, higher-order cognitive task…

Chitpin, Stephanie; Simon, Marielle

2012-01-01

220

Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…

Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha

2010-01-01

221

The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…

Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel

2012-01-01

222

Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…

Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.

2010-01-01

223

Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

2012-01-01

224

Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…

Hung, Woei

2013-01-01

225

Thinking Creatively at Work: Organization Influences on Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how peoples' creative problem-solving efforts are influenced by organizational characteristics. Examines the situations which call for creative problem solving at work and describes the kinds of processes people must apply to solve these problems. Reviews organizational variables that help or hinder these processes. (Author/CR)

Mumford, Michael D.; And Others

1997-01-01

226

Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…

Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

227

The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Problem Solving Heuristic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving is one of the main goals in science teaching and is something many students find difficult. This research reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of a problem-solving heuristic. This heuristic intends to help students to understand the steps involved in problem solving (metacognitive tool), and to provide them…

Lorenzo, Mercedes

2005-01-01

228

Interpersonal and Emotional Problem Solving among Narcotic Drug Abusers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured problem-solving abilities of narcotics abusers using the modified means-ends problem-solving procedure. Good subjects had more total relevent means (RMs) for solving problems, used more introspective and emotional RMs, and were better at RM recognition, but did not have more sufficient narratives than poor subjects. (Author/BEF)

Appel, Philip W.; Kaestner, Elisabeth

1979-01-01

229

Using Analogy to Solve a Three-Step Physics Problem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In a companion paper, we discuss studentsâ ability to take advantage of what they learn from a solved problem and transfer their learning to solve a quiz problem that has different surface features but the same underlying physics principles. Here, we discuss studentsâ ability to perform analogical reasoning between another pair of problems. Both the problems can be solved using the same physics principles. However, the solved problem provided was a two- step problem (which can be solved by decomposing it into two sub-problems) while the quiz problem was a three-step problem. We find that it is challenging for students to extend what they learned from a two-step problem to solve a three-step problem.

Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha

2011-01-01

230

Interdisciplinary Problem Solving in Species and Ecosystem Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species and ecosystems are threatened worldwide. Improved problem solving and leadership are needed to address this growing problem. Interdisciplinary problem solving is an innovation that permits leaders to address complex problems more rationally, practically, and morally than use of traditional disciplinary methods. This proven interdisciplinary approach can guide problem solvers in their search for improved conservation policy and programs

Tim W. Clark

231

Children use salience to solve coordination problems.  

PubMed

Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique - and thus salient - picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution. PMID:25066201

Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael

2014-07-25

232

Unsupervised neural networks for solving Troesch's problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, stochastic computational intelligence techniques are presented for the solution of Troesch's boundary value problem. The proposed stochastic solvers use the competency of a feed-forward artificial neural network for mathematical modeling of the problem in an unsupervised manner, whereas the learning of unknown parameters is made with local and global optimization methods as well as their combinations. Genetic algorithm (GA) and pattern search (PS) techniques are used as the global search methods and the interior point method (IPM) is used for an efficient local search. The combination of techniques like GA hybridized with IPM (GA-IPM) and PS hybridized with IPM (PS-IPM) are also applied to solve different forms of the equation. A comparison of the proposed results obtained from GA, PS, IPM, PS-IPM and GA-IPM has been made with the standard solutions including well known analytic techniques of the Adomian decomposition method, the variational iterational method and the homotopy perturbation method. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed schemes, in term of accuracy and convergence, are evaluated from the results of statistical analysis based on sufficiently large independent runs.

Muhammad, Asif Zahoor Raja

2014-01-01

233

Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is there a Difference?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving, and technological problem solving in particular, is clearly a critical survival skill in our technologically advanced world. Government, business, vocational and technology education leaders have increasingly called for more emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and problem solving in both general and technological areas. The American technology education profession has identified problem solving as the technological method (Savage & Sterry, 1990). Authors outside technology education have also suggested that both general and technology teachers would be well advised to focus on enhancing problem solving skills. Given this, the authors sought to examine several key aspects of problem solving in more depth. Of these, the first was problem solving style. Problem-solving style is defined as a tendency to respond in a certain way while addressing problems and not as the steps employed in actually solving the problem. It has been operationally defined by Heppner (1988) in terms of three distinct dimensions which can be measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). Collectively, these dimensions (problem-solving confidence, approach/avoidance, and personal control) comprise problem-solving style. Although many educators claim to address problem solving, if the increasing frequency of mention in the literature is to be believed, the portion of citizens who have developed adequate problem solving capabilities is insufficient. It is no coincidence that this inadequacy is occurring at the same time when our society is experiencing a decrease in technological literacy. This problem is all the more critical given that the pace of technological growth is escalating (Dyrenfurth, 1991; Johnson, 1989). Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Custer, Rodney L.; Dyrenfurth, Michael J.; Wu, Tain-Fung

2009-10-20

234

Prescribing effective human problem solving processes: Problem description in physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A theoretical model specifying the underlying knowledge and procedures whereby human subjects can generate effective initial descriptions of scientific problems was formulated. The model is prescriptive since it does not necessarily try to simulate the behavior of actual experts nor assume that their performance is optimal. The model, elaborated in the domain of mechanics, specifies explicit procedures for redescribing problems in terms of a relevant knowledge base. To test the model, carefully controlled experiments were devised where human subjects were induced to act in accordance with alternative models and where their resulting performance was observed in detail. Such experiments, carried out with undergraduate physics students, showed that the proposed model is sufficient to generate excellent problem descriptions, that these markedly improve subsequent problem solutions, and that most components of the model are indeed necessary for good performance. Detailed data analysis also showed how the model predictably prevents the occurrence of many common errors. Such a validated model of effective problem description provides a useful basis for teaching students improved scientific problem-solving skills.

Heller, Joan I.; Reif, Frederick

2006-06-09

235

Online Conference: Problem Solving with Smithsonian Experts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are there other worlds out there? What can science tell us about American history? These are but a few of the important questions asked by the people at the Smithsonian's Online Conference on problem solving. The conference was convened twice during April 2010, and it was sponsored in part by the Microsoft Partners in Learning organization. The experts asking and answering these questions are all from the Smithsonian Institution, and the website offers access to all of the sessions in question. First-time visitors should feel free to dive right into the "Program" area to view the welcome message from Betsy Broun, the director of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. After that, visitors are free to view the programs at their leisure, and they may also wish to check out the "Exhibit Hall" section of the website. Here they will find highlighted resources from across the Smithsonian community relating to the conference topics. All in all, this is a tremendously valuable resource that can be used in the classroom, or just to expand one's horizon for personal edification.

236

Novel method of solving PMD problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a method of splitting signals from fast and slow axes of polarization maintaining fibers by using a polarization splitter. The new scheme includes a turning connector and a polarization splitter. The polarization splitter will split signals from a fiber and give two separated outputs. It gives some theoretical calculations and the relations between the turning angle and output power from the splitter. It also analyzes the relationship of electrical power spectrum versus differential group delay and relative angles between the axis of a fiber and direction of a polarization splitter. The scheme uses a turning connector to adjust incoming optical signals in fast and slow axes to vertical and horizontal ones of a polarization splitter. We extract useful information to control how to turn the connector. Theoretical calculations show that there exists a relationship between the position of the turning connector and output electrical power at a certain frequency. Preliminary experiments are also given in this paper. The scheme has a great potential of becoming an effective method of solving polarization mode dispersion (PMD) problem.

Wang, Jian; Yu, Jinlong; Liu, Jianfei; Hu, Hao; Yang, Enze

2002-08-01

237

A New Method for Solving Hard Satisfiability Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a greedy local search procedure called GSAT for solving propositional satisfiability problems.Our experiments show that this procedure can be used to solve hard, randomly generated problems that are an order of magnitude larger than those that can be handled by more traditional approaches such as the Davis-Putnam procedure or resolution. We also show that GSAT can solve structured

Bart Selman; Hector J. Levesque; David G. Mitchell

1992-01-01

238

Neos And Condor: Solving Optimization Problems Over The Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as aprovider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimizationproblems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processedby NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations.1 IntroductionThe NEOS Server [8] is a novel environment for solving optimization problems over

Jorge J. Mor'e; Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier

1998-01-01

239

Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving…

Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank

2010-01-01

240

Instructorsâ Beliefs and Values about Learning Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about a common core of faculty beliefs about how their students learn to solve problems in their introductory courses. Using a process of structured interviews and a concept map based analysis, we find that faculty appear to believe that students learn problem solving primarily through a process of reflective introspection (educators call this process metacognition) while they practice solving problems and getting assistance from example problem solutions.

Heller, Patricia; Heller, Kenneth; Henderson, Charles R.; Kuo, H. V.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2010-07-12

241

An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.

2009-10-12

242

Problem Solving Skill Evaluation Instrument â Validation Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers have created several tools for evaluating conceptual understanding as well as students' attitudes and beliefs about physics; however, the field of problem solving is sorely lacking a broad use evaluation tool. This missing tool is an indication of the complexity of the field. The most obvious and largest hurdle to evaluating physics problem solving skills is untangling the skills from the physics content knowledge necessary to solve problems. We are tackling this problem by looking for the physics problem solving skills that are useful in other disciplines as well as physics. We report on the results of a series of interviews comparing physics students' skills when solving physics problems with their anonymous completion of the problem solving instrument.

Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.

2007-11-25

243

The Development of Students' Probllem-Solving Skill from Instruction Emphasizing Qualitative Problem-Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Success in introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. At the University of Minnesota, attempts are being made to teach problem solving successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year.

Foster, Thomas

2011-03-03

244

The Effects of GO Solve Word Problems Math Intervention on Applied Problem Solving Skills of Low Performing Fifth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research investigation examined the effects of "GO Solve Word Problems" math intervention on problem-solving skills of struggling 5th grade students. In a randomized controlled study, 16 5th grade students were given a 12-week intervention of "GO Solve", a computer-based program designed to teach schema-based instruction strategies (SBI.s) to…

Fede, Jessica L.

2010-01-01

245

The relationship between students' problem solving frames and epistemological beliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory undergraduate physics courses aim to help students develop the skills and strategies necessary to solve complex, real world problems, but many students not only leave these courses with serious gaps in their conceptual understanding, but also maintain a novice-like approach to solving problems. Matter and Interactions [M&I] is a curriculum that focuses on a restructuring of physics content knowledge and emphasizes a systematic approach to problem solving, called modeling, which involves the application physical principles to carefully defined systems of objects and interactions (Chabay and Sherwood, 2007a). Because the M&I approach to problem solving is different from many students' previous physics experience, efforts need to be made to attend to their epistemological beliefs and expectations about not only learning physics content knowledge, but problem solving as well. If a student frames solving physics problems as a `plug and chug' type activity, then they are going continue practicing this strategy. Thus, it is important to address students' epistemological beliefs and monitor how they frame the activity of problem solving within the M&I course. This study aims to investigate how students frame problem solving within the context of a large scale implementation of the M&I curriculum, and how, if at all, those frames shift through the semester. By investigating how students frame the act of problem solving in the M&I context, I was able to examine the connection between student beliefs and expectations about problem solving in physics and the skills and strategies used while solving problems in class. To accomplish these goals, I recruited student volunteers from Purdue's introductory, calculus-based physics course and assessed their problem solving approach and espoused epistemological beliefs over the course of a semester. I obtained data through video recordings of the students engaged in small group problem solving during recitation activities, post recitation interviews, and a modified version of the CLASS survey taken at the beginning and end of the semester. I assessed the skills and strategies students used to solve problems, characterized how they framed the activity of problem solving, and then evaluated how these frames shifted through a semester of instruction. Findings indicate that the M&I curriculum helped all the students shift towards a deliberate, more productive problem solving frame. Results also show that beliefs and expectations, as well as knowledge of problem solving skills and strategies must be aligned for students to shift to a productive frame.

Wampler, Wendi N.

246

Facilitating Studentsâ Problem Solving across Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Solving problems presented in multiple representations is an important skill for future physicists and engineers. However, such a task is not easy for most students taking introductory physics courses. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first-semester calculus-based physics course on several topics in introductory mechanics. These interviews helped identify the common difficulties students encountered when solving physics problems posed in multiple representations as well as the hints that help students overcome those difficulties. We found that most representational difficulties arise due to the lack of studentsâ ability to associate physics knowledge with corresponding mathematical knowledge. Based on those findings, we developed, tested and refined a set of problem-solving exercises to help students learn to solve problems in graphical and equational representations. We present our findings on studentsâ common difficulties with graphical and equational representations, the problem-solving exercises and their impact on studentsâ problem solving abilities.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Gire, Elizabeth; Rebello, N. S.

2011-01-01

247

Strategies for Creative Problem Solving: Interactive Computer Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These Interactive Computer Modules (ICMs) are contained on the Strategies for Creative Problem Solving CD-ROM, but are also freely available to download from the website. The ICMs offer participatory problem solving activities for students, intended to supplement the text. The website also includes summary notes from each text chapter and sample problems.

Fogler, H. Scott

248

Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Skills: The Journey to Success  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem…

Rousseau, Donna

2009-01-01

249

Solving Information-Based Problems: Evaluating Sources and Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this special section is on the processes involved when solving information-based problems. Solving these problems requires from people that they are able to define the information problem, search and select usable and reliable sources and information and synthesise information into a coherent body of knowledge. An important aspect…

Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Stadtler, Marc

2011-01-01

250

A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

2003-01-01

251

Problem Solving. Philadelphia Inquirer Newspaper in Education Supplement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual on problem solving was culled from a set of newspaper articles in the Philadelphia Inquirer. Each brief article typically suggests problem solving strategies and offers sample problems on which to test one's skill. Articles are organized into the categories of input, process, and output. The input section offers ideas about analysis,…

Cummings, Alysa

252

Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…

Wiest, Lynda R.

2008-01-01

253

Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

1997-01-01

254

Dimensional Analysis and Qualitative Methods in Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary application of dimensional analysis (DA) is in problem solving. Typically, the problem description indicates that a physical quantity Y(the unknown) is a function f of other physical quantities A[subscript 1], ..., A[subscript n] (the data). We propose a qualitative problem-solving procedure which consists of a parallel decomposition…

Pescetti, D.

2008-01-01

255

Schoenfeld's Problem Solving Theory in a Student Controlled Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper evaluates the effectiveness of a student controlled computer program for high school mathematics based on instruction principles derived from Schoenfeld's theory of problem solving. The computer program allows students to choose problems and to make use of hints during different episodes of solving problems. Crucial episodes are:…

Harskamp, E.; Suhre, C.

2007-01-01

256

Using MCMCF to Solve Multicommodity Flow Problems Jeffrey D. Oldham  

E-print Network

Using MCMCF to Solve Multicommodity Flow Problems Jeffrey D. Oldham 1998 October 09 1 Introduction The program MCMCF approximately solves the minimum-cost multicommodity flow problems on directed graphs-cost multicommodity flow problem, the default is . That is, stop when the flow fits within a network using at most

Pratt, Vaughan

257

Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2010-01-01

258

The Complexity of Quantitative Information Flow Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the computational complexity of quantitative information flow (QIF) problems. Information-theoretic quantitative relaxations of noninterfer- ence (based on Shannon entropy) have been introduced to enable more fine-grained reasoning about programs in situa- tions where limited information flow is acceptable. The QIF bounding problem asks whether the information flow in a given program is bounded by a

Pavol Cerný; Krishnendu Chatterjee; Thomas A. Henzinger

2011-01-01

259

Cognitive Science: Problem Solving And Learning For Physics Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Cognitive Science has focused on general principles of problem solving and learning that might be relevant for physics education research. This paper examines three selected issues that have relevance for the difficulty of transfer in problem solving domains: specialized systems of memory and reasoning, the importance of content in thinking, and a characterization of memory retrieval in problem solving. In addition, references to these issues are provided to allow the interested researcher entries to the literatures.

Ross, Brian H.

2009-07-13

260

Adaptive Expertise as Knowledge Building in Science Teachers’ Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Research,on expert\\/expert, differences ,has ,lead ,to a differentiation of adaptive ,expertise and ,routine expertise. Adaptive expertise was,investigated as a,knowledge-building orientation to problem ,solving ,in high ,school ,science teachers’ instructional problem solving. An authentic task was administered,to adaptive ,and ,routine experts as well ,as novices. Adaptive experts were ,found ,to show ,a higher orientation to knowledge-building during ,problem ,solving than

Valerie M. Crawford

261

Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studentsâ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate studentsâ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate studentsâ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate studentsâ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-01-20

262

Innovation and problem solving: A review of common mechanisms.  

PubMed

Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306

Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David

2014-11-01

263

Problem-Solving Therapy in the Elderly.  

PubMed

We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials of problem-solving therapy (PST) in older adults. Our results indicate that PST led to greater reduction in depressive symptoms of late-life major depression than supportive therapy (ST) and reminiscence therapy. PST resulted in reductions in depression comparable with those of paroxetine and placebo in patients with minor depression and dysthymia, although paroxetine led to greater reductions than placebo. In home health care, PST was more effective than usual care in reducing symptoms of depression in undiagnosed patients. PST reduced disability more than ST in patients with major depression and executive dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that a home-delivered adaptation of PST that includes environmental adaptations and caregiver involvement is efficacious in reducing disability in depressed patients with advanced cognitive impairment or early dementia. In patients with macular degeneration, PST led to improvement in vision-related disability comparable to that of ST, but PST led to greater improvement in measures of vision-related quality of life. Among stroke patients, PST participants were less likely to develop a major or minor depressive episode than those receiving placebo treatment, although the results were not sustained in a more conservative statistical analysis. Among patients with macular degeneration, PST participants had significantly lower 2-month incidence rates of major depression than usual care participants and were less likely to suffer persistent depression at 6 months. Finally, among stroke patients, PST participants were less likely to develop apathy than those receiving placebo treatment. PST also has been delivered via phone, Internet, and videophone, and there is evidence of feasibility and acceptability. Further, preliminary data indicate that PST delivered through the Internet resulted in a reduction in depression comparable with that of in-person PST in home-care patients. PST delivered via videophone results in an improvement in hospice caregivers' quality of life and a reduction in anxiety comparable to those of in-person PST. PST-treated patients with cognitive impairment may require additional compensatory strategies, such as written notes, memory devices, environmental adaptations, and caregiver involvement. PMID:24729951

Kiosses, Dimitris N; Alexopoulos, George S

2014-03-01

264

How Indirect Supportive Digital Help during and after Solving Physics Problems Can Improve Problem-Solving Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…

Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.

2009-01-01

265

Understanding the Problem. Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series. The Math Forum: Problems of the Week  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different techniques for understanding a problem can lead to ideas for never-used-before solutions. Good problem-solvers use a problem-solving strategy and may come back to it frequently while they are working on the problem to refine their strategy, see if they can find better solutions, or find other questions. Writing is an integral part of…

Math Forum @ Drexel, 2009

2009-01-01

266

A Meaningless but Nonalgorithmic Solving Course: Solving a Graphing Problem about Osmosis by Analogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…

Zuckerman, June T.

267

Quality Literature as a Springboard to Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how to use a well-known book, "Caps for Sale", with children as a springboard for mathematical problem solving. Presents patterning problems, problems created by the student, problems with a known total and unknown parts, and problems with known parts and an unknown total. (KHR)

Ducolon, Colin K.

2000-01-01

268

Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…

Szeberényi, József

2014-01-01

269

Strategies in Subtraction Problem Solving in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies used by third graders in solving the 81 elementary subtractions that are the inverses of the one-digit additions with addends from 1 to 9 recently studied by Barrouillet and Lepine. Although the pattern of relationship between individual differences in working memory, on the one hand, and…

Barrouillet, Pierre; Mignon, Mathilde; Thevenot, Catherine

2008-01-01

270

Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)

Norris, A. C.

1980-01-01

271

Using the context of physics problem solving to evaluate the coherence of student knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The context of problem solving is used to show that students exhibit a local coherence but not global coherence in their physics knowledge. When presented with a problem-solving task, students often activate a coherent set of knowledge called a schema to solve the problem. Although the schemas students develop in the physics course are usually sufficient in the class, they are often insufficient for solving complex problems. Complex problems require a deep understanding where students have integrated their qualitative knowledge and quantitative knowledge with related physics topics. We show that our students activate schemas consisting of small amounts of knowledge and these schemas are often isolated from other schemas. Physics Education Research (PER) has shown students in introductory physics lack a deep understanding of physics principles and concepts. PER has also shown that conceptual understanding can be improved and problem solving skills may be taught through a modified research-based curriculum. Despite these improvements, students still have difficulty developing a coherent knowledge of physics or connecting related physics concepts. In addition, they view quantitative problems and qualitative questions as distinct types of tasks, possessing different types of knowledge and rules for responding. Using methods physics instructors and physics education researchers can use to examine coherence in student knowledge, distinct schemas for qualitative and quantitative knowledge are identified and provide evidence for local coherence in student physics knowledge. After identifying some of these difficulties in student understanding, we examine how students connect their qualitative and quantitative knowledge after going through a concept-based curriculum. In addition, we compare performance on quantitative questions between a physics class using the traditional problem-solving recitation and a class using Tutorials in Introductory Physics.

Sabella, Mel

2010-06-30

272

Projective algorithms for solving complementarity problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present robust projective algorithms of the von Neumann type for the linear comple- mentarity problem and for the generalized linear complementarity problem. The methods, an extension of Projections Onto Convex Sets (POCS) are applied to a class of problems consisting of finding the intersection of closed nonconvex sets. We give conditions under which convergence occurs (always in 2 dimensions,

Caroline N. Haddad; George J. Habetler

2002-01-01

273

Cooperative group problem solving laboratories for introductory classes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Problem solving laboratories comprise an important part of our introductory physics courses at Minnesota. These courses emphasize learning fundamental physics through problem solving using cooperative groups. This paper outlines the structure and rationale for both the algebra-based and calculus-based introductory courses. The sample class is one of four laboratory problems on the topic of forces. A section of our student laboratory manual, including the introduction and this problem, is given in this paper.

Heller, Patricia; Foster, Thomas M.; Heller, Kenneth

2006-05-31

274

Problem-solving skills in high school biology: The effectiveness of the IMMEX problem-solving assessment software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Problem-solving through reflective thinking should be both the method and valuable outcome of science instruction in America's schools" proclaimed John Dewey (Gabel, 1995). If the development of problem-solving is a primary goal of science education, more problem-solving opportunities must be an integral part of K-16 education. To examine the effective use of technology in developing and assessing problem-solving skills, a problem-solving authoring, learning, and assessment software, the UCLA IMMEX Program-Interactive Multimedia Exercises-was investigated. This study was a twenty-week quasi-experimental study that was implemented as a control-group time series design among 120 tenth grade students. Both the experimental group (n = 60) and the control group (n = 60) participated in a problem-based learning curriculum; however, the experimental group received regular intensive experiences with IMMEX problem-solving and the control group did not. Problem-solving pretest and posttest were administered to all students. The instruments used were a 35-item Processes of Biological Inquiry Test and an IMMEX problem-solving assessment test, True Roots. Students who participated in the IMMEX Program achieved significant (p <.05) gains in problem-solving skills on both problem-solving assessment instruments. This study provided evidence that IMMEX software is highly efficient in evaluating salient elements of problem-solving. Outputs of students' problem-solving strategies revealed that unsuccessful problem solvers primarily used the following four strategies: (1) no data search strategy, students simply guessed; (2) limited data search strategy leading to insufficient data and premature closing; (3) irrelevant data search strategy, students focus in areas bearing no substantive data; and (4) extensive data search strategy with inadequate integration and analysis. On the contrary, successful problem solvers used the following strategies; (1) focused search strategy coupled with the ability to fill in knowledge gaps by accessing the appropriate resources; (2) targeted search strategy coupled with high level of analytical and integration skills; and (3) focused search strategy coupled with superior discrimination, analytical, and integration skills. The strategies of students who were successful and unsuccessful solving IMMEX problems were consistent with those of expert and novice problem solvers identified in the literature on problem-solving.

Palacio-Cayetano, Joycelin

275

Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…

D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie

2010-01-01

276

Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…

Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen

2008-01-01

277

Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…

Jarrett, Denise, Ed.

2000-01-01

278

Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…

Yee, Sean P.

2012-01-01

279

The Remediation of Problem-Solving Skills in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efforts to remediate the problem-solving deficits of patients with schizophrenia have met with circum- scribed success. This could be viewed as a sign of the immutability of the deficit or, alternatively, as a reflec- tion of the inefficacy of the training techniques used. This study examined the feasibility of using problem- solving teaching techniques developed within educa- tional psychology for

Alice Medalia; Nadine Revheim; Casey Matthew

2001-01-01

280

An Empirical Method for Assessing Social Problem Solving in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a multimethod social problem-solving battery for schizophrenia is described. The battery is unique in that empirical methods were used throughout its development. The battery includes components that tap skills for response generation and response evaluation. The behavioral components of social problem solving are assessed in an extended role-play format. Individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as well

Margaret D. Sayers; Alan S. Bellack; Julie H. Wade; Melanie E. Bennett; Pattey Fong

1995-01-01

281

Amy Bauer--Problem-solving fuels March 11, 2014  

E-print Network

- 1 - Amy Bauer--Problem-solving fuels passion March 11, 2014 Problem-solving fuels passion Always through college. She changed majors from finance to math (in fact, Bauer taught calculus for math majors doctorate in math, she joined Los Alamos as a graduate student focused on biology. #12;- 2 - Bauer developed

282

Patterns of Problem-Solving in Children's Literacy and Arithmetic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of problem-solving among 5-to-7 year-olds' were examined on a range of literacy (reading and spelling) and arithmetic-based (addition and subtraction) problem-solving tasks using verbal self-reports to monitor strategy choice. The results showed higher levels of variability in the children's strategy choice across Years 1 and 2 on the…

Farrington-Flint, Lee; Vanuxem-Cotterill, Sophie; Stiller, James

2009-01-01

283

Students' Comprehension Processes when Solving Two-Step Compare Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The comprehension processes of adult students solving two-step problems of comparison were studied using eye-movement experiments based on the assumption that eye fixations are synchronous with internal cognitive processes. Twenty university students each solved 24 two-step mathematical word problems of three sentences each with consistent…

De Corte, Erik; And Others

284

Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…

Rohrig, Brian

2010-01-01

285

"Opportunities in Work Clothes": Online Problem-Solving Project Structures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…

Harris, Judi

1994-01-01

286

Computers and Problem Solving for Sixth-Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a curriculum unit designed for average sixth-grade students intended to engage them in problem-solving experiences and to teach them problem-solving strategies. The curriculum consists of 20 sessions in which students engage in various activities using the following software packages: The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, Rescue at Boone's…

Oughton, John M.

1995-01-01

287

A Process Approach to Problem Solving in Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses uses of the process approach to teach problem solving techniques to education students enrolling in a noncalculus physics course. Indicates that the prospective teachers are given opportunities to do real problem solving with the hope that they can foster in secondary school youngsters a better inquiry approach to science. (CC)

Brouwer, Wytze

1973-01-01

288

The Role of Problem Solving in Complex Intraverbal Repertoires  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until…

Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Jay, Allison A.; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Carr, James E.

2011-01-01

289

Problem Solving and the Development of Expertise in Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated novice and expert problem solving behavior in management to examine the role of domain specific knowledge on problem solving processes. Forty-one middle level marketing managers in a large petrochemical organization provided think aloud protocols in response to two hypothetical management scenarios. Protocol analysis…

Lash, Fredrick B.

290

Social Problem Solving and Health Behaviors of Undergraduate Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship of social problem solving to health behaviors as reported by 126 undergraduate students. Findings revealed significant relationships between elements of social problem solving and wellness and accident prevention behaviors, and traffic and substance risk taking. However, correlations revealed differences between men and…

Elliott, Timothy R.; And Others

1997-01-01

291

A Case Study of Dynamic Visualization and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful strategies were…

Lavy, Ilana

2007-01-01

292

High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems

Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy

2001-01-01

293

Use of External Visual Representations in Probability Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigate the use of external visual representations in probability problem solving. Twenty-six students enrolled in an introductory statistics course for social sciences graduate students (post-baccalaureate) solved eight probability problems in a structured interview format. Results show that students spontaneously use self-generated…

Corter, James E.; Zahner, Doris C.

2007-01-01

294

Prospective Teachers' Problem Solving Skills and Self-Confidence Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The basic objective of the research is to determine whether the education that prospective teachers in different fields receive is related to their levels of problem solving skills and self-confidence. Within the mentioned framework, the prospective teachers' problem solving and self-confidence levels have been examined under several variables.…

Gursen Otacioglu, Sena

2008-01-01

295

NEOS and Condor: solving optimization problems over the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the use of Condor, a distributed resource management system, as a provider of computational resources for NEOS, an environment for solving optimization problems over the Internet. We also describe how problems are submitted and processed by NEOS, and then scheduled and solved by Condor on available (idle) workstations

Michael C. Ferris; Michael P. Mesnier; Jorge J. Moré

2000-01-01

296

Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…

Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning

2006-01-01

297

Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…

Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna

2007-01-01

298

Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

2013-01-01

299

The Effects of Reading Instruction on Calculus Students' Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of two teaching techniques on college liberal arts majors' ability to solve calculus problems; concludes that instruction involving a modified directed reading-thinking activity followed by peer tutoring may improve problem-solving ability in calculus. (DD)

Lovelace, Terry L.; McKnight, Conrad K.

1980-01-01

300

A theory of intelligence: networked problem solving in animal societies  

E-print Network

A society's single emergent, increasing intelligence arises partly from the thermodynamic advantages of networking the innate intelligence of different individuals, and partly from the accumulation of solved problems. Economic growth is proportional to the square of the network entropy of a society's population times the network entropy of the number of the society's solved problems.

Shour, Robert

2009-01-01

301

ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...

302

Use of the Computer in Solving Mathematics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computer programing and problem-solving steps in mathematics are viewed to have related concepts. Some heuristics are compared with some suggestions for structured programing. The one fundamental difference between problem solving in general and when using the computer is seen as the computer solution must be finite. The computer is viewed as a…

Brooks, Sarah

303

Reflection on Problem Solving in Introductory and Advanced Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reflection is essential to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective physics students are about problem solving and how to improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We evaluate strategies that teach reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. We find a large overlap between introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize based upon similarity of solution. Introductory students in calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in algebra-based courses. Other investigations explored if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty applying physical principles and differences between self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study suggests those who reflected with peers on problem solving drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study involved giving common problems in quantum mechanics midterm and final exams and suggested advanced students do not automatically reflect on mistakes. Interviews revealed even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than their knowledge structure. A survey was developed to evaluate studentsâ attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest introductory and graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to faculty. Responses to individual questions suggest expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.

Mason, Andrew J.

2012-05-09

304

Stable marriage problems with quantitative preferences  

E-print Network

Stable marriage problems with quantitative preferences Maria Silvia Pini, Francesca Rossi, K. Brent Venable, and Toby Walsh Abstract The stable marriage problem is a well-known problem of matching men, to matching students to schools or more generally to any two-sided market. In the classical stable marriage

Rossi, Francesca

305

Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "

2011-01-01

306

On Bounding Problems of Quantitative Information Flow  

E-print Network

On Bounding Problems of Quantitative Information Flow Hirotoshi Yasuoka Tohoku University yasuoka@kb.ecei.tohoku.ac.jp Tachio Terauchi Nagoya University terauchi@is.nagoya-u.ac.jp February 2, 2012 Abstract Researchers have proposed formal definitions of quantitative informa- tion flow based on information theoretic notions

Banbara, Mutsunori

307

On Bounding Problems of Quantitative Information Flow  

E-print Network

. Researchers have attempted to formalize the definition of quantitative infor- mation flow by appealingOn Bounding Problems of Quantitative Information Flow Hirotoshi Yasuoka1 and Tachio Terauchi2 1. Researchers have proposed formal definitions of quantita- tive information flow based on information theoretic

Banbara, Mutsunori

308

Assessing student expertise in introductory physics with isomorphic problems. II. Effect of some potential factors on problem solving and transfer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper explores the use of isomorphic problem pairs (IPPs) to assess introductory physics studentsâ ability to solve and successfully transfer problem-solving knowledge from one context to another in mechanics. The paired problems are âisomorphicâ because they require the same physics principle to solve them. We analyze written responses, individual discussions for a range of isomorphic problems, and potential factors that may help or hinder transfer of problem-solving skills from one problem in a pair to the other. When quantitative and conceptual questions were paired and given back to back, students who answered both questions in the IPP often performed better on the conceptual questions than those who answered the corresponding conceptual questions only. Although students often took advantage of the quantitative counterpart to answer a conceptual question of an IPP correctly, when only given the conceptual question, students seldom tried to convert it into a quantitative question, solve it, and then reason about the solution conceptually. Even in individual interviews when students who were given only conceptual questions had difficulty and the interviewer explicitly encouraged them to convert the conceptual question into the corresponding quantitative problem by choosing appropriate variables, a majority of students were reluctant and preferred to guess the answer to the conceptual question based upon their gut feeling. Misconceptions associated with friction in some problems were so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students discern their underlying similarities. Alternatively, from the knowledge-in-pieces perspective, the activation of the knowledge resource related to friction was so strongly and automatically triggered by the context, which is outside the conscious control of the student, that students did not look for analogies with paired problems or other aids that may be present.

Singh, Chandralekha

2008-09-24

309

Nuclear Teaching: Propaganda or Problem Solving?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how nuclear education has evolved into nuclear age education in an attempt to prepare young people to respond responsibly to world problems. Explains how positive and preventive emphases toward social issues have helped the growing acceptance of nuclear age and peace education. Discusses some remaining problems. (RT)

La Farge, Phyllis

1988-01-01

310

Problem Solved: How To Coach Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When faced with real-world problems, students devise accurate, logical, and creative solutions using skills connecting to different subject areas. Students are intrigued by assignments involving preservation of species and design of environmentally friendly products and transit systems. Problem-based learning depends on coaching, modeling, and…

Krynock, Karoline; Robb, Louise

1999-01-01

311

Children's Thinking in Arithmetic Word Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's mental performance was studied in the context of arithmetic word problem solution. Response latency and error data indicated subtraction was more difficult than addition. Understanding children's problem solutions in terms of flexible strategy use and the fact that many errors have a systematic basis are important in studying children's…

Vakali, Mary

1985-01-01

312

Algorithm for Solving the School Timetabling Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic algorithms (GA) have been applied to a number of optimisation problems with some success (1). The algorithms mimic the process of natural selection, with the effect of creating a number of potentially optimal solutions to some complex search problem. One of the major disadvantages of genetic algorithms is that they are very slow. In this paper we discuss the

D. Abramson; J. Abela

313

SOLVING THE BURMESTER PROBLEM USING KINEMATIC MAPPING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Planar kinematic mapping is applied to the five-position Burmester problem for planar four-bar mechanism synthesis. The problem formulation takes the five distinct rigid body poses directly as inputs to generate five quadratic constraint equations. The five poses are on the fourth order curve of intersection of two hyperboloids of one sheet in the image space. Moreover, the five poses uniquely

M. J. D. Hayes; P. J. Zsombor-Murray

2002-01-01

314

Do prescribed prompts prime sensemaking during group problem solving?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many researchers and textbooks have promoted the use of rigid prescribed strategies for encouraging development of expert-like problem-solving behavior in novice students. The University of British Columbia's introductory algebra-based course for non-physics majors uses Context-Rich problems with a prescribed six-step strategy. We have coded audio recordings of group problem-solving sessions to analyze students' epistemological framing based on the implicit goal of their discussions. By treating the goal of "understanding the physics of the situation" as sensemaking, we argue that prescribed problem-solving prompts are not sufficient to induce subsequent sensemaking discussion.

Mathew "Sandy" Martinuk; Ives, Joss

2012-05-15

315

Solving Physics Problems--How Do We Do It?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses three avenues of problem-solving research: misconceiving natural laws, processing information, and constructing solutions. Suggests that the change in emphasis from problem to problem solver and the key role of "physics" problems are unifying aspects of the research. (JN)

Fuller, Robert G.

1982-01-01

316

Problem solving strategies in an online homework environment  

E-print Network

Problem solving strategies in an online homework environment: "Student Choice and Analytics" Daniel within LON-CAPA - E-text with instructor videos - Concept questions - Easy, Medium, Hard homework problems #12;AAPT - Feb. 2012 D.T. Seaton, MIT Problem Categorization in Homework ¡ Problems categorized

317

Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.

Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer

1993-12-01

318

A Study of the Problem Solving Abilities of Seventh Grade Students Who Receive Anchored Problem Solving Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current mathematics education emphasizes the importance of a problem solving mindset in the classroom. Students need to know how they are going to use what they are learning in real life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anchored problem solving instruction on middle school students' mathematical abilities. The researcher…

Griesser, Sara Anne

319

Impacts of Learning Inventive Problem-Solving Principles: Students' Transition from Systematic Searching to Heuristic Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…

Barak, Moshe

2013-01-01

320

Effects of the Problem Solving and Subject Matter Approaches on the Problem Solving Ability of Secondary School Agricultural Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…

Olowa, O. W.

2009-01-01

321

Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

DeFilippo, Shirley

1975-01-01

322

SOLVING MIXED INTEGER BILINEAR PROBLEMS USING MILP ...  

E-print Network

descriptions of the convex hulls of these reformulated single term bilinear sets and use them in a ...... Thus, our cuts seem to be doing their primary job of obtaining .... problem, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 38 (1999), pp.

2013-01-29

323

An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.

J. Carlier; E. Pinson

1989-01-01

324

5 Principles for a Problem-Solving Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The author presents five principles of developing a problem solving culture that he believes will allow students to grow into mathematical thinkers and sophisticated problem solvers: conjecture, communication, collaboration, chaos, and celebration. Each of these principles encompasses several mindsets and practices, which enable the teacher to build that culture in the classroom. The author includes a link to his webinar on this topic, "Creating a Culture of Problem Solving in Your School or Classroom" (cataloged separately).

Aungst, Gerald

2014-08-10

325

Swinging into thought: Directed movement guides insight in problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can directed actions unconsciously influence higher order cognitive processing? We investigated how movement interventions\\u000a affected participants’ ability to solve a classic insight problem. The participants attempted to solve Maier’s two-string\\u000a problem while occasionally taking exercise breaks during which they moved their arms either in a manner related to the problem’s\\u000a solution (swing group) or in a manner inconsistent with the

Laura E. Thomas; Alejandro Lleras

2009-01-01

326

An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.

Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

2014-03-01

327

Solving initial–boundary-value creep problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Galerkin–Bubnov method with global approximations is used to find approximate solutions to initial–boundary-value creep\\u000a problems. It is shown that this approach allows obtaining solutions available in the literature. The features of how the solutions\\u000a of initial–boundary-value problems for oneand three-dimensional models are found are analyzed. The approximate solutions found\\u000a by the Galerkin–Bubnov method with global approximations is shown to

O. K. Morachkovskii; Yu. V. Romashov

2009-01-01

328

Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…

Hilton, Michael

1998-01-01

329

Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…

Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

330

Solving Satisfiability Problems with Genetic Algorithms  

E-print Network

, and discuss their pros and cons. 1 Introduction Given a propositional formula like (p1 p2 ÂŹp3) (ÂŹp1 p2 p3 algorithms. Furthermore, we explore other genetic operators that may be useful to tackle 3-SAT problems strings of length n and truth assignments to n variables. Therefore the search space that we have

Harmeling, Stefan

331

Solving Discipline Problems: Strategies for Classroom Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides classroom teachers with a variety of discipline models, techniques, methods, and constructs designed to enable them to move beyond a singular approach in handling classroom behavior problems. The book first discusses the Teacher Behavior Continuum (TBC) which shows the teacher the context of his or her own general behavior with…

Wolfgang, Charles H.; Glickman, Carl D.

332

Astronomical problems solved and unsolved - Reflections thereon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process by which scientists arrive at, come to accept, and later revise solutions to major problems is discussed using examples from the field of astronomy. The 300-year history of the discovery of annual stellar parallax is reviewed, and it is pointed out that Bessel's first measurements in the 1830's gained quick acceptance, without independent confirmation, from other astronomers. Hubble's

W. H. McCrea

1983-01-01

333

SOLVING CONGRUENT CIRCLES PROBLEM USING INVERSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometric constructions are known since ancient times and its history confuses itself with the raising of Geometry. In this history, a theme that deserves special attention is the one of tangency problems which can be summarized in this way: as we have three elements, combinations of point, line or circle, find a circle or circles that can be tangent with

Rovilson MAFALDA; Alexandre KAWANO

334

Acid rain: solving a transborder problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of air pollution drifting across the border into Canada and falling as acid rain is discussed. This acid rain is having a great variety of negative impacts on lakes, streams, groundwater, soil, building surfaces, and on forests and certain crops. Between seven and eight million tons of SOâ falling on Canada every year, along with four million tons

1981-01-01

335

Visual Attention Modulates Insight Versus Analytic Solving of Verbal Problems  

PubMed Central

Behavioral and neuroimaging findings indicate that distinct cognitive and neural processes underlie solving problems with sudden insight. Moreover, people with less focused attention sometimes perform better on tests of insight and creative problem solving. However, it remains unclear whether different states of attention, within individuals, influence the likelihood of solving problems with insight or with analysis. In this experiment, participants (N = 40) performed a baseline block of verbal problems, then performed one of two visual tasks, each emphasizing a distinct aspect of visual attention, followed by a second block of verbal problems to assess change in performance. After participants engaged in a center-focused flanker task requiring relatively focused visual attention, they reported solving more verbal problems with analytic processing. In contrast, after participants engaged in a rapid object identification task requiring attention to broad space and weak associations, they reported solving more verbal problems with insight. These results suggest that general attention mechanisms influence both visual attention task performance and verbal problem solving. PMID:24459538

Wegbreit, Ezra; Suzuki, Satoru; Grabowecky, Marcia; Kounios, John; Beeman, Mark

2013-01-01

336

Studentsâ Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate studentsâ difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.

Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. S.

2010-01-19

337

Embedding Game-Based Problem-Solving Phase into Problem-Posing System for Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A problem-posing system is developed with four phases including posing problem, planning, solving problem, and looking back, in which the "solving problem" phase is implemented by game-scenarios. The system supports elementary students in the process of problem-posing, allowing them to fully engage in mathematical activities. In total, 92 fifth…

Chang, Kuo-En; Wu, Lin-Jung; Weng, Sheng-En; Sung, Yao-Ting

2012-01-01

338

Solving subsurface structural problems using a computer  

SciTech Connect

Until recently, the solution of subsurface structural problems has required a combination of graphical construction, trigonometry, time, and patience. Recent advances in software available for both mainframe and microcomputers now reduce the time and potential error of these calculations by an order of magnitude. Software for analysis of deviated wells, three point problems, apparent dip, apparent thickness, and the intersection of two planes, as well as the plotting and interpretation of these data can be used to allow timely and accurate exploration or operational decisions. The available computer software provides a set of utilities, or tools, rather than a comprehensive, intelligent system. The burden for selection of appropriate techniques, computation methods, and interpretations still lies with the explorationist user.

Witte, D.M. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA))

1987-02-01

339

Webotherapy: reading web resources for problem solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to indicate that when webotherapy is applied, it can be of benefit to clients in giving them insight into their problems, resulting in a change of behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Webotherapy, which can be conducted with individuals or groups, refers to the use of web resources or other online reading material (e.g. e-books,

Alireza Noruzi

2007-01-01

340

Solve valve noise and cavitation problems  

SciTech Connect

A clear understanding of aerodynamic noise theory and cavitation will avoid most major valve problems in process plants and allow the valve engineer to design out potential problems. On the other hand, the plant owner has to recognize that such valves may require a cost premium. However, such a premium will be recovered in a small amount of time because of the savings from reduced downtime and lower maintenance costs. Pressure reducing valves used on gases or high pressure steam valves, such as turbine bypass valves, convert substantial energy into heat and a lower pressure level. Unfortunately, this can only be done by accelerating the gas in one or more orifices and then decelerating it rapidly again through a turbulence mechanism or super-sonic shock cells. This causes a lot of noise and vibration. Valve engineering science has made substantial strides in the past few years, and one is now able to predict cavitation and aerodynamic sound levels before a valve is purchased. Similarly, newer valve sizes incorporate features that reduce noise and cavitation effects. Some other minor problems are resonant plug vibration and flashing. The paper discusses how to predict aerodynamic sound, how close can one estimate the sound level, cavitation, and incorrect installation.

Baumann, H.D. [Fisher Controls International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-03-01

341

The Effects of Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving on High School Students' Chemistry Problem-Solving Performance and Verbal Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effects of a thinking aloud pair problem solving (TAPPS) approach on students' chemistry problem-solving performance and verbal interactions. A total of 85 eleventh grade students from three classes in a Korean high school were randomly assigned to one of three groups; either individually using a problem-solving strategy, using a problem-solving strategy with TAPPS, or the control group. After instruction, students' problem-solving performance was examined. The results showed that students in both the individual and TAPPS groups performed better than those in the control group on recalling the related law and mathematical execution, while students in the TAPPS group performed better than those in the other groups on conceptual knowledge. To investigate the verbal behaviors using TAPPS, verbal behaviors of solvers and listeners were classified into 8 categories. Listeners' verbal behavior of "agreeing" and "pointing out", and solvers' verbal behavior of "modifying" were positively related with listeners' problem-solving performance. There was, however, a negative correlation between listeners' use of "point out" and solvers' problem-solving performance. The educational implications of this study are discussed.

Jeon, Kyungmoon; Huffman, Douglas; Noh, Taehee

2005-10-01

342

ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura)  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Testing problem solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) using the string solving in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), six captive vultures were presented with a string. Keywords Turkey vulture Á Cathartes aura Á Cognition Á String-pulling Introduction Selective pressures

343

Monte Carlo Method to Solve Multidimensional Bioheat Transfer Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method is implemented to solve the direct bioheat transfer problems, which are often encountered in the treatment planning of cancer hyperthermia. Several algorithms were developed to solve for the temperature transients inside the biological bodies with various time or space-dependent boundary conditions, blood perfusion, meta- bolic rate, and volumetric heat source for the tissues. The computer code

Zhong-Shan Deng; Jing Liu

2002-01-01

344

Creativity in Problem Solving: Uncovering the Origin of New Ideas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Innovation and enterprise depend for their success on the development of new ideas. But from where do new ideas come? How do they arise? Finding solutions to such questions is at the heart of creativity research and the solving of novel problems. Reflection, not only in cognitive processes but also in the non-cognitive ones used in solving novel…

Aldous, Carol R.

2005-01-01

345

Adapting a Diagnostic Problem-Solving Model to Information Retrieval  

E-print Network

Adapting a Diagnostic Problem-Solving Model to Information Retrieval Inien Syu Department-solving is adapted to information retrieval. In this model, we treat documents as \\disorders" and user information described in (Turtle & Croft, 1991b) integrated several conventional probabilistic and Boolean retrieval

Lang, Sheau-Dong

346

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines  

E-print Network

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced

347

Need New Problem-Solving Ideas? Take a Trip!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how actual or planned travel experiences can form the basis for constructing realistic, challenging, and interesting problem-solving tasks for classroom use. Provides examples of how teachers and students can create travel problems for use in the classroom. The travel-problem concept is adaptable to any elementary, secondary, or…

Wiest, Lynda R.; Sturbaum, Mary Barr

1996-01-01

348

Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…

Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.

2005-01-01

349

Imitation: is cognitive neuroscience solving the correspondence problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of

Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes

2005-01-01

350

On optimization techniques for solving nonlinear inverse problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers optimization techniques for the solution of nonlinear inverse problems where the forward problems, like those encountered in electromagnetics, are modelled by differential equations. Such problems are often solved by utilizing a Gauss-Newton method in which the forward model constraints are implicitly incorporated. Variants of Newton's method which use second-derivative information are rarely employed because their perceived disadvantage

Eldad Haber; Uri M. Ascher; Doug Oldenburg

2000-01-01

351

Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…

Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

2014-01-01

352

Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning?  

E-print Network

Do New Caledonian crows solve physical problems through causal reasoning? A. H. Taylor*, G. R. Hunt, Auckland, New Zealand The extent to which animals other than humans can reason about physical problems complex physical problems by reasoning both causally and analogically about causal relations. Causal

Indiana University

353

A Rationale for and the Development of a Problem Solving Model of Instruction in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses problem solving and how science educators can integrate problem solving into their instruction. The Search, Solve, Create, and Share (SSCS) model was developed based on the findings of problem solving research. (YP)

Pizzini, Edward L.; And Others

1989-01-01

354

Freud, Problem Solving, Ethnicity, and Race: Integrating Psychology into the Interdisciplinary Core Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The new core curriculum at Moravian College, in Pennsylvania, utilizes an interdisciplinary approach, integrating topics of psychology into three of the seven core courses: "Microcosm/Macrocosm"; "Quantitative Problem Solving"; and the seminar "Gender, Ethnicity, and Race." The course "Microcosm/Macrocosm" focuses on major themes in Western…

Dunn, Dana S.

355

Experimental Intervention Studies on Word Problem Solving and Math Disabilities: A Selective Analysis of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a quantitative synthesis of the published literature on word problem solving intervention studies for children with math disabilities (MD). Seven group and eight single-subject design studies met inclusion criteria. Mean effect sizes ("ES"s) for solution accuracy for group design studies were 0.95 (SE = 0.19) for children…

Zheng, Xinhua; Flynn, Lindsay J.; Swanson, H. Lee

2013-01-01

356

The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...

de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre

357

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students learn how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, then apply what they’ve learned in activities that are based on real-world scenarios.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-10-25

358

Attitudes Toward Problem Solving as Predictors of Student Success  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The survey of attitudes towards, and views of, problem solving that is presented here is still under development. It is part of a larger project to develop an assessment of student problem solving ability in introductory physics. The survey is intended for use in a manner similar to the Maryland Physics Expectation Survey (MPEX). That is, it is given to students pre- and post-instruction. Student responses are evaluated in comparison to the answers given by "experts". Post-instruction movement of student responses toward those given by the "experts" is considered to be improvement. This paper presents the survey questions, expert responses and discusses responses of several hundred students at three different institutions. Correlations between student survey results and grades, conceptual survey scores and instructor evaluation of student problem solving ability are presented. The goal is to begin to probe whether student attitudes toward problem solving are correlated to success on other metrics.

Cummings, Karen; Lockwood, Stephanie; Marx, Jeffrey

2005-10-26

359

Structured Planning and Debugging: A Linguistic Approach to Problem Solving  

E-print Network

A structured approach to planning and debugging is obtained by using an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) to model the problem solving process. This proves to be a perspicuous representation for planning concepts including ...

Miller, Mark L.

1976-06-08

360

Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)

Lock, Roger

1991-01-01

361

Instructorsâ Ideas about Problem Solving â Setting Goals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents preliminary hypotheses about the relationship between faculty goals for the introductory calculus-based physics course and their beliefs about student learning of problem solving. All faculty have problem solving as a major goal for their course. There appears to be however, an instructional paradox. When discussing how students learn to solve problems in their own courses, faculty indicate that reflective-practice skills are a necessary prerequisite, and that average students enter the course with these skills. When discussing general problem solving skills, however, faculty seem to believe that similar reflective-practice skills cannot be learned in an introductory physics course, and should be a long-term goal of university education.

Henderson, Charles R.; Heller, Kenneth; Heller, Patricia; Kuo, H. V.; Yerushalmi, Edit

2010-07-12

362

Use of Spreadsheets in Solving Heat Conduction Problems in Fins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Excel is an effective and inexpensive tool available on all computers equipped with Microsoft Office. This software has the necessary functions for solving a large class of engineering problems, including those related to heat transfer. This paper provides several examples to demonstrate the application of Excel in solving problems involving one-dimensional heat conduction in various fin configurations. It provides formulas for the temperature distribution and heat transfer for several different fin profiles.

Karimi, Amir

2011-04-04

363

Problem-solving strategies in reflective and impulsive children  

Microsoft Academic Search

87 reflective and 86 impulsive 7-, 9-, and 11-yr-old children (determined by Matching Familiar Figures Test scores) were given a series of 5 problem-solving tasks in which they were required to determine the correct solution from a number of equiprobable solutions by gathering information that eliminated incorrect alternatives. Results indicate that the relative impact of cognitive style on problem solving

James D. McKinney

1975-01-01

364

Acid rain: solving a transborder problem  

SciTech Connect

The problem of air pollution drifting across the border into Canada and falling as acid rain is discussed. This acid rain is having a great variety of negative impacts on lakes, streams, groundwater, soil, building surfaces, and on forests and certain crops. Between seven and eight million tons of SO/sub 2/ falling on Canada every year, along with four million tons of No/sub x/. At least half of this amount originates from emissions released in the US. The US and Canada took the first step towards reducing the transborder flow of acid rain in 1980, with the signing of a Memorandum of Intent between the two governments. The agreement pledges both countries to negotiate an air pollution agreement. In the interim, the two countries are committed to an enforcement of existing rules and regulations, and to cooperate in studies aimed at gaining information needed to draft an effective agreement.

Roberts, J.

1981-01-01

365

Self-affirmation improves problem-solving under stress.  

PubMed

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

Creswell, J David; Dutcher, Janine M; Klein, William M P; Harris, Peter R; Levine, John M

2013-01-01

366

Self-Affirmation Improves Problem-Solving under Stress  

PubMed Central

High levels of acute and chronic stress are known to impair problem-solving and creativity on a broad range of tasks. Despite this evidence, we know little about protective factors for mitigating the deleterious effects of stress on problem-solving. Building on previous research showing that self-affirmation can buffer stress, we tested whether an experimental manipulation of self-affirmation improves problem-solving performance in chronically stressed participants. Eighty undergraduates indicated their perceived chronic stress over the previous month and were randomly assigned to either a self-affirmation or control condition. They then completed 30 difficult remote associate problem-solving items under time pressure in front of an evaluator. Results showed that self-affirmation improved problem-solving performance in underperforming chronically stressed individuals. This research suggests a novel means for boosting problem-solving under stress and may have important implications for understanding how self-affirmation boosts academic achievement in school settings. PMID:23658751

Creswell, J. David; Dutcher, Janine M.; Klein, William M. P.; Harris, Peter R.; Levine, John M.

2013-01-01

367

Representation use and strategy choice in physics problem solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this paper, we examine student success on three variants of a test item given in different representational formats (verbal, pictorial, and graphical), with an isomorphic problem statement. We confirm results from recent papers where it is mentioned that physics studentsâ problem-solving competence can vary with representational format and that solutions can be triggered by particular details of the representation. Previous studies are complemented with a fine grained analysis of solution strategies. We find that students use different problem-solving strategies, depending on the representational format in which the problem is stated.

De Cock, Mieke

2014-01-31

368

Photography helps solve distribution lightning problems  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the research project, which is being performed for NMPC by Power Technologies, Inc., involving the use of lightning-activated camera systems to photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photograph lightning strikes to a rural distribution line. Since photographs can allow the precise location of the lightning flash and power system flashovers to be observed, they are extremely valuable to engineers who are trying to make better sense of the lightning damage problem. When electrical measurements, such as fault and surge recordings, are combined with photographic data, an overall understanding of each lightning flash and its impact on the system is attained. This can hopefully lead to improved lightning protection practices and systems. The study is being performed on a 13.2 kV distribution system that is located on an exposed plateau near Little Falls, NY (about 80 miles northwest of Albany, NY). Four automated camera systems and a substation fault recorder are utilized. All camera locations afford excellent views of lines and equipment likely to be struck by lightning. The fault recorder is used to measure the fault currents and voltage sags which occur during line flashovers. Also, the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) is used to confirm storm activity and camera triggering efficiency. After each storm, all data is analyzed to determine how lightning affected the power system. Areas being investigated include: What are the relative portions of lightning flashovers caused by induced surges (nearby strikes) and direct lightning hits to the line How often do shielding failures occur What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices afford the best lightning protection What system relaying, construction and overvoltage protection practices are problematic

Barker, P.; Burns, C.W.

1993-06-01

369

How Do I Do A Math Problem? Strategies for mathematical problem solving  

E-print Network

How Do I Do A Math Problem? Strategies for mathematical problem solving This quote tells us how NOT to approach mathematical problem solving - Alice doesn't know her basic math facts, starts her solution are in the problem? What do they mean? As we learn new material, we also learn to identify and understand new math

Maxwell, Bruce D.

370

Problem-Based Learning: A Framework for Prospective Teachers' Pedagogical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current educational reform movements emphasize preparing teachers for pedagogical problem solving in the classroom. This study examines the impact of problem-based learning on prospective teachers' problem-solving abilities. Two classes of prospective teachers were included in this study. The experimental class used problem-based learning while…

De Simone, Christina

2008-01-01

371

Effect of Misconception on Transfer in Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We examine the effect of misconceptions about friction on students' ability to solve problems and transfer from one context to another. We analyze written responses to paired isomorphic problems given to introductory physics students and discussions with a subset of students. Misconceptions associated with friction in problems were sometimes so robust that pairing them with isomorphic problems not involving friction did not help students fully discern their underlying similarities.

Singh, Chandralekha

2009-06-24

372

Representational Format, Student Choice, and Problem Solving in Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student problem-solving ability appears to be tied to the representational format of the problem (math, pictorial, graphical, verbal). In a study of a 367-student algebra-based physics class, we examine student problem solving ability on homework problems given in four different representational formats, with problems as close to isomorphic as possible. In addition, we examine students' capacity for assessing their own representational competence by giving follow-up quizzes in which the students can choose between various problem formats. We report student performance and consider factors that may influence their ability or choices. As a control, part of the class was assigned a random-format follow-up quiz where students received quiz formats at random. We find that there are statistically significant performance differences between isomorphic problems. We also find that allowing students to choose which representational format they use improves student performance under some circumstances and degrades it in others.

Kohl, Patrick B.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2010-01-18

373

Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall  

E-print Network

Chapter 10 Solar Neutrinos: Solved and Unsolved Problems John N. Bahcall Institute for Advanced study solar neutrinos? What does the combined standard model (solar plus electroweak) predict for solar neutrinos? Why are the calculations of neutrino fluxes robust? What are the three solar neutrino problems

Bahcall, John

374

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines  

E-print Network

Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek1 , Tobias Langner2 the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, and Sereni (PODC-time of any ANTS algorithm. 1 Introduction "They operate without any central control. Their collective

375

Problem Solving--An Attitude as well as a Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emphasizes the importance of problem-solving attitudes when the problem solver is waiting for a breakthrough. Discusses the classroom use of five components of "mathematical disposition" from the chapter on "Evaluation" in the "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Nine references are listed. (YP)

Schmalz, Rosemary

1989-01-01

376

Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Advanced Manufacturing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For an advanced manufacturing system to function efficiently, all workers must know how to identify problems within their departments and develop solutions for them. Today's employers expect technicians entering the workplace to possess "soft skills." These include the ability to analyze a problem logically and formulate a solution, but also the ability to work in teams and to effectively communicate with others.This lesson uses real-world scenarios to encourage critical thinking and improve problem-solving skills. The lesson begins with an invitation to explore the many different areas and career paths within advanced manufacturing. Following a brief small-group discussion on how critical thinking and problem solving are used in advanced manufacturing fields, students review a handout that lays out some guidelines for how to approach problem solving. Students watch a video about a manufacturing supervisor, and then begin to relate problem solving to other workplace scenarios. Then, through two short activities, they have a chance to demonstrate their ability to think critically. An optional extension activity has students apply what they've learned by researching an industry of their choice and assessing the problems that are likely to come up. Students prepare a report that includes their analysis of the problems, probable causes, and a possible solution to one of them. They then present their report to the rest of the class.

377

Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction  

E-print Network

Solving an Air Conditioning System Problem using Constraint Satisfaction RaphaĂŤl Chenouard1 An air conditioning system problem 1.1 Context The design process is a sequence of phases ranging from States (2007)" DOI : 10.1007/978-3-540-74970-7_4 #12;In this paper, an air conditioning system (ACS

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

378

Using Problem Solving to Assess Young Children's Mathematics Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematics problem solving provides a means for obtaining a view of young children's understanding of mathematics as they move through the early childhood concept development sequence. Assessment information can be obtained through observations and interviews as children develop problem solutions. Examples of preschool, kindergarten, and primary…

Charlesworth, Rosalind; Leali, Shirley A.

2012-01-01

379

Bowland Maths: Problem Solving in Key Stage 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A project has been developed for KS3 maths, funded by the Bowland Trust (www.bowlandmaths.org.uk) with additional support from the DCSF. It consists of a teaching resource of about 20 case-study problems aimed at developing thinking, reasoning and problem-solving skills and has been distributed to all UK secondary schools. Each case study includes…

Lane, Peter; Lister, Adelaide; Onion, Alice; Wintle, Karen

2008-01-01

380

Solving a Rational Eigenvalue Problem in Fluid-Structure Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider a rational eigenvalue problem governing the vibra- tions of a tube bundle immersed in an inviscid compressible fluid. Taking advantage of eigensolutions of appropriate sparse linear eigenproblems the large nonlinear eigenvalue problem is projected to a much smaller one which is solved by inverse iteration.

H. Voss

2002-01-01

381

A Problem-Solving Oral Examination for Family Medicine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The College of Family Physicians of Canada has used in its certification examination a new type of structured problem-solving examination called the Formal Oral. A series of preselected problem areas such as the complaint, relevant data base, investigation, and treatment are scored by two examiners. (Editor/PG)

Van Wart, Arthur D.

1974-01-01

382

Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS  

E-print Network

Using Genetic Algorithms for Solving Hard Problems in GIS Steven van Dijk Dirk Thierens Mark de in Geographical Information Systems (GIS's). The framework is especially suited for geographical problems since as well. 1 Introduction Geographic Information Systems (GIS's for short) combine a geographical database

Utrecht, Universiteit

383

Solving the Small Sample Size Problem of LDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The small sample size problem is often encountered in pattern recognition. It results in the singularity of the within-class scatter matrix Sw in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Different methods have been proposed to solve this problem in face recognition literature. Some methods reduce the dimension of the original sample space and hence unavoidably remove the null space of Sw, which

Rui Huang; Qingshan Liu; Hanqing Lu; Songde Ma

2002-01-01

384

Applications of Fitzpatrick functions for solving optimization problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents applications of Fitzparick functions to optimization problems. The main purpose of the present work is to introduce applications of the Fitzpatrick functions, involving their specific properties as the maximal monotonicity, or the proper, convex and lower semi-continuity, for solving optimization problems.

Nashed, Z.; Raykov, I.

2012-10-01

385

New computer program solves wide variety of heat flow problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boeing Engineering Thermal Analyzer /BETA/ computer program uses numerical methods to provide accurate heat transfer solutions to a wide variety of heat flow problems. The program solves steady-state and transient problems in almost any situation that can be represented by a resistance-capacitance network.

Almond, J. C.

1966-01-01

386

Two Aspects of Meaningful Problem Solving in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a model for solving genetics problems when problem statements include information on which alleles are dominant/recessive and on what forms of a trait are coded for by the alleles. Includes procedural steps employed in a solution and conceptual knowledge of genetics/meiosis allowing students to justify what they have done. (Author/JN)

Stewart, James

1982-01-01

387

Technologically Mediated Complex Problem-Solving on a Statistics Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Simulations on computers can allow many experiments to be conducted quickly to help students develop an understanding of statistical topics. We used a simulation of a challenging problem in statistics as the focus of an exploration of situations where members of a problem-solving group are physically separated then reconnected via combinations of…

Scanlon, Eileen; Blake, Canan; Joiner, Richard; O'Shea, Tim

2005-01-01

388

Solving Quadratic Multicommodity Problems through an Interior-Point Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard interior-point algorithms usually show a poor performance when applied to multicommodity network flows problems. A recent spe- cialized interior-point algorithm for linear multicommodity network flows overcame this drawback, and was able to eciently solve large and dif- ficult instances. In this work we perform a computational evaluation of an extension of that specialized algorithm for multicommodity problems with convex

Jordi Castro

2001-01-01

389

Using educational technologies to understand how learners solve problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examine how a highly interactive educational technology program Child Growth & Development in the first 12 months of life was used to investigate the problem solving behaviour of learners. This preliminary study was also used to evaluate the study instruments ahead of a more substantial investigation. The design of the program was informed by Problem Based

Kristine A. Elliott; Gregor E. Kennedy

390

A New Approach for Solving the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized traveling problem (GTSP) is an extension of the classical traveling salesman problem. The GTSP is known to be an NP-hard problem and has many interesting applications. In this paper we present a local-global approach for the generalized traveling salesman problem. Based on this approach we describe a novel hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for solving the problem using genetic algorithms. Computational results are reported for Euclidean TSPlib instances and compared with the existing ones. The obtained results point out that our hybrid algorithm is an appropriate method to explore the search space of this complex problem and leads to good solutions in a reasonable amount of time.

Pop, P. C.; Matei, O.; Sabo, C.

391

Review on solving the forward problem in EEG source analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of electroencephalogram (EEG) source localization is to find the brain areas responsible for EEG waves of interest. It consists of solving forward and inverse problems. The forward problem is solved by starting from a given electrical source and calculating the potentials at the electrodes. These evaluations are necessary to solve the inverse problem which is defined as finding brain sources which are responsible for the measured potentials at the EEG electrodes. Methods While other reviews give an extensive summary of the both forward and inverse problem, this review article focuses on different aspects of solving the forward problem and it is intended for newcomers in this research field. Results It starts with focusing on the generators of the EEG: the post-synaptic potentials in the apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons. These cells generate an extracellular current which can be modeled by Poisson's differential equation, and Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. The compartments in which these currents flow can be anisotropic (e.g. skull and white matter). In a three-shell spherical head model an analytical expression exists to solve the forward problem. During the last two decades researchers have tried to solve Poisson's equation in a realistically shaped head model obtained from 3D medical images, which requires numerical methods. The following methods are compared with each other: the boundary element method (BEM), the finite element method (FEM) and the finite difference method (FDM). In the last two methods anisotropic conducting compartments can conveniently be introduced. Then the focus will be set on the use of reciprocity in EEG source localization. It is introduced to speed up the forward calculations which are here performed for each electrode position rather than for each dipole position. Solving Poisson's equation utilizing FEM and FDM corresponds to solving a large sparse linear system. Iterative methods are required to solve these sparse linear systems. The following iterative methods are discussed: successive over-relaxation, conjugate gradients method and algebraic multigrid method. Conclusion Solving the forward problem has been well documented in the past decades. In the past simplified spherical head models are used, whereas nowadays a combination of imaging modalities are used to accurately describe the geometry of the head model. Efforts have been done on realistically describing the shape of the head model, as well as the heterogenity of the tissue types and realistically determining the conductivity. However, the determination and validation of the in vivo conductivity values is still an important topic in this field. In addition, more studies have to be done on the influence of all the parameters of the head model and of the numerical techniques on the solution of the forward problem. PMID:18053144

Hallez, Hans; Vanrumste, Bart; Grech, Roberta; Muscat, Joseph; De Clercq, Wim; Vergult, Anneleen; D'Asseler, Yves; Camilleri, Kenneth P; Fabri, Simon G; Van Huffel, Sabine; Lemahieu, Ignace

2007-01-01

392

Problem Oriented Software Engineering: Solving the Package Router Control Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem orientation is gaining interest as a way of approaching the development of software intensive systems, and yet, a significant example that explores its use is missing from the literature. In this paper, we present the basic elements of Problem Oriented Software Engineering (POSE), which aims at bringing both nonformal and formal aspects of software development together in a single

Jon G. Hall; Lucia Rapanotti; Michael A. Jackson

2008-01-01

393

Solving Hierarchically Decomposable Problems with the Evolutionary Transition Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capturing the metaphor of evolutionary transitions in biological complexity, the Evolutionary Transition Algorithm (ETA) evolves\\u000a solutions of increasing structural and functional complexity from the symbiotic interaction of partial ones. From the definition\\u000a it follows that this algorithm should be very well suited to solve hierarchically decomposable problems. In this chapter,\\u000a we show that the ETA can indeed solve this kind

Tom Lenaerts; Anne Defaweux

2009-01-01

394

Enabling Systems Biology: A Scientific Problem-Solving Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Biologists today are striving to solve multidisciplinary, complex systems biology questions. To successfully address these\\u000a questions, software tools must be created to allow scientists to capture data and information, to share this information,\\u000a and to analyze the data as elements of a complete system. At Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we are creating the Computational\\u000a Cell Environment, a biology-centered collaborative problem-solving

Mudita Singhal; Eric G. Stephan; Kyle R. Klicker; Lynn L. Trease; George Chin Jr.; Deborah K. Gracio; Deborah A. Payne

2004-01-01

395

Survey of Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finding the optimal solution of a Multi-Attribute Decision Problem (MADP) is a key problem for electronic commerce systems. In this paper, we formally define the multi-attribute decision problem, and we report our survey of four different methods (soft-CSP framework, multi-attribute decision theory, CP- network, and Heuristic strategies) which potentially could be used to solve the MADP, and their advantages and

Jiyong Zhang; Pearl Pu

2004-01-01

396

Physics Problem Solving: Student Performance Analysis on Mechanics Problems Requiring Diagrammatic Visualisation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated problem solving skills in mechanics problems that required the use of diagrams. These skills were examined in two ways. First, the study examined student problem solving skills using solution scripts from the Western Australian Tertiary Admission Examination in physics. Solution attempts by students in the 1978 and 1979…

Prendergast, Wilfred Francis

397

The Role of Conceptual Understanding in Solving Word Problems: Two-Step Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work studies the difficulties children have solving two-step word problems of a given structure (e.g., 7 lollypops/2 chocolate bars X 6 chocolate bars). Thirty-six children between the ages of 9 and 14 years were individually observed solving problems of the above type. Other tasks, repetition of the problem and model recognition, were used…

Quintero, Ana Helvia

398

Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

2007-01-01

399

Solving Word Problems using Schemas: A Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Solving word problems is a difficult task for students at-risk for or with learning disabilities (LD). One instructional approach that has emerged as a valid method for helping students at-risk for or with LD to become more proficient at word-problem solving is using schemas. A schema is a framework for solving a problem. With a schema, students are taught to recognize problems as falling within word-problem types and to apply a problem solution method that matches that problem type. This review highlights two schema approaches for 2nd- and 3rd-grade students at-risk for or with LD: schema-based instruction and schema-broadening instruction. A total of 12 schema studies were reviewed and synthesized. Both types of schema approaches enhanced the word-problem skill of students at-risk for or with LD. Based on the review, suggestions are provided for incorporating word-problem instruction using schemas. PMID:21643477

Powell, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

400

Problem Solving across the Curriculum: Improving Students' Problem-Solving Skills Using Off-Computer & On-Computer Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to provide elementary and middle school teachers with motivating problem-solving activities to use with their students. The text contains interesting and challenging problems from mathematics, language arts, social studies, and natural science which are divided into sections of activities of short, middle, and longer duration…

Beaver, John F.

401

Problem Solving and Community Activity Series: Understanding the Problem with Wooden Legs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document for teachers provides four activities to develop students' ability to understand and interpret problems. These strategies help students deepen their focus and improve their problem-solving skills. The document includes both Problem Solving goals and Communication goals, as well as sample activities and specific examples related to the Wooden Legs Problem of the Week from the Math Forum. A copy of the complete problem, the scenario (with the question removed) and student handouts for applying the problem-solving strategies are also provided.

Ray, Max; Weimar, Stephen; Regis, Troy P.

2011-01-01

402

Robust operative diagnosis as problem solving in a hypothesis space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an approach that formulates diagnosis of physical systems in operation as problem solving in a hypothesis space. Such a formulation increases robustness by: (1) incremental hypotheses construction via dynamic inputs, (2) reasoning at a higher level of abstraction to construct hypotheses, and (3) partitioning the space by grouping fault hypotheses according to the type of physical system representation and problem solving techniques used in their construction. It was implemented for a turbofan engine and hydraulic subsystem. Evaluation of the implementation on eight actual aircraft accident cases involving engine faults provided very promising results.

Abbott, Kathy H.

1988-01-01

403

Dynamic application of problem solving strategies : dependency-based flow control  

E-print Network

While humans may solve problems by applying any one of a number of different problem solving strategies, computerized problem solving is typically brittle, limited in the number of available strategies and ways of combining ...

Jacobi, Ian Campbell

2013-01-01

404

Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

1988-01-01

405

Ant colony optimization for solving university facility layout problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadratic Assignment Problems (QAP) is classified as the NP hard problem. It has been used to model a lot of problem in several areas such as operational research, combinatorial data analysis and also parallel and distributed computing, optimization problem such as graph portioning and Travel Salesman Problem (TSP). In the literature, researcher use exact algorithm, heuristics algorithm and metaheuristic approaches to solve QAP problem. QAP is largely applied in facility layout problem (FLP). In this paper we used QAP to model university facility layout problem. There are 8 facilities that need to be assigned to 8 locations. Hence we have modeled a QAP problem with n ? 10 and developed an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm to solve the university facility layout problem. The objective is to assign n facilities to n locations such that the minimum product of flows and distances is obtained. Flow is the movement from one to another facility, whereas distance is the distance between one locations of a facility to other facilities locations. The objective of the QAP is to obtain minimum total walking (flow) of lecturers from one destination to another (distance).

Mohd Jani, Nurul Hafiza; Mohd Radzi, Nor Haizan; Ngadiman, Mohd Salihin

2013-04-01

406

Solving complex band structure problems with the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With straightforward extension, the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm [Polizzi, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115112 (2009)] is capable of solving the generalized eigenvalue problems representing traveling-wave problems—as exemplified by the complex band-structure problem—even though the matrices involved are complex, non-Hermitian, and singular, and hence outside the originally stated range of applicability of the algorithm. The obtained eigenvalues/eigenvectors, however, contain spurious solutions which must be detected and removed. The efficiency and parallel structure of the original algorithm are unaltered. The complex band structures of Si layers of varying thicknesses and InAs nanowires of varying radii are computed as test problems.

Laux, S. E.

2012-08-01

407

Teaching Problem Solving Through Cooperative Grouping. Part 2: Designing Problems and Structuring Groups  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A supportive environment based on cooperative grouping was developed to foster students' learning of an effective problem-solving strategy. Experiments to adapt the technique of cooperative grouping to physics problem solving were carried out in two diverse settings: a large introductory course at a state university, and a small modern physics class at a community college. Groups were more likely to use an effective problem-solving strategy when given context-rich problems to solve than when given standard textbook problems. Well-functioning cooperative groups were found to result from specific structural and management procedures governing group members' interactions. Group size, the gender and ability composition of groups, seating arrangement, role assignment, textbook use, and group as well as individual testing were all found to contribute to the problem-solving performance of cooperative groups.

Heller, Patricia; Hollabaugh, Mark

2006-06-19

408

The Yo-Yo Problem: Solving Linear Equations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students explore linear patterns, write a pattern in symbolic form, and solve linear equations using algebra tiles, symbolic manipulation, and the graphing calculator. The lesson starts with the presentation of the yo-yo problem. Students then complete a hands-on activity involving a design created with pennies that allows them to explore a linear pattern and express that pattern in symbolic form. Algebra tiles are introduced as the students practice solving linear equations. Working from the concrete to the abstract is especially important for students who have difficulty with mathematics, and algebra tiles help students make this transition. In addition to using algebra tiles, students also use symbolic manipulation and the graphing calculator. Finally, the students return to solve the yo-yo problem. A feature of this lesson is the effective use of peer tutors in this inclusion classroom. Student worksheets are included to print.

2007-12-12

409

Solving a Class of Nonlinear Eigenvalue Problems by Newton's Method  

SciTech Connect

We examine the possibility of using the standard Newton's method for solving a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems arising from electronic structure calculation. We show that the Jacobian matrix associated with this nonlinear system has a special structure that can be exploited to reduce the computational complexity of the Newton's method. Preliminary numerical experiments indicate that the Newton's method can be more efficient for small problems in which a few smallest eigenpairs are needed.

Gao, Weiguo; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan C.

2009-07-02

410

Teaching Math K-2 Session 3 Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This professional development session is from an Annenberg Learner course that explores the NCTM process standard of problem solving as a key means to introducing new material and building conceptual understanding in students grades K-2. The session includes sequentially organized problems, video viewing, interactive activities, student responses and reflection opportunities. This session is eligible for graduate credit for a fee when taken in conjunction with the other Teaching Math sessions from this course.

Boston, Wgbh

2002-01-01

411

Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem-Solving (WRAMPS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yu-Chung Change of Pasadena City College developed this method in an inquiry project. Here is her description of the approach: The Writing and Reading Activities for Math Problem Solving (WRAMPS) is a nine-step process that requires students to break a word problem into small pieces by using reading and writing strategies. Students then work collaboratively and concentrate on language decoding and comprehension.

2011-01-01

412

The Effect of Alternative Solutions on Problem Solving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of instruction in alternative solutions on Taiwanese eighth-grade students' mathematical problem solving performance. This study was exploratory rather than experimental. Alternative-Solution Worksheet (ASW) was developed to encourage students' engagement with alternative solutions to…

Lee, Shin-Yi

2011-01-01

413

SOLVING A TWODIMENSIONAL HELMHOLTZ PROBLEM USING ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID \\Lambda  

E-print Network

SOLVING A TWO­DIMENSIONAL HELMHOLTZ PROBLEM USING ALGEBRAIC MULTIGRID \\Lambda PETR VAN Ÿ EK, JAN is applied to the solution of the Helmholtz equation in a first order least squares formulation, discretized for the solution of the Helmholtz equation of scattering are known in the literature. A common disadvantage

Mandel, Jan

414

Problem-Solving Appraisal in Counseling and with Different Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heppner, Witty and Dixon have presented the development and theoretical base of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). They link it to numerous validity and reliability studies, with findings in predicted directions. This article expresses concerns about its use as a target in counseling and its applicability to individuals of the nonmajority…

Lucas, Margaretha S.

2004-01-01

415

Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants  

E-print Network

Solving Permutation Constraint Satisfaction Problems with Artificial Ants Christine Solnon 1 Abstract. We describe in this paper Ant­P­solver, a generic con­ straint solver based on the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) meta­ heuristic. The ACO metaheuristic takes inspiration on the observa­ tion of real ants

Solnon, Christine

416

Mental Representation and Problem Solving in Work-Study Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transitional situations, such as those experienced by work study students, may create cognitive difficulties by requiring people to simultaneously use both a learning and a use logic. To examine this phenomenon, a problem solving task (electrical schemata of a washing machine) was administered to 43 full time students and 51 work study students…

Colardyn, Danielle; White, Kathleen M.

417

A Unified Approach for Solving Nonlinear Regular Perturbation Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a simple alternative unified method of solving nonlinear regular perturbation problems. The procedure is based upon the manipulation of Taylor's approximation for the expansion of the nonlinear term in the perturbed equation. An essential feature of this technique is the relative simplicity used and the associated unified…

Khuri, S. A.

2008-01-01

418

Training Insight Problem Solving through Focus on Barriers and Assumptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has reported successful training interventions that improve insight problem solving. In some ways this is surprising, because the processes involved in insight solutions are often assumed to be unconscious, whereas the training interventions focus on conscious cognitive strategies. We propose one mechanism that may help to explain…

Walinga, Jennifer; Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.

2011-01-01

419

Instructional Design as Design Problem Solving: An Iterative Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Design, including instructional design, is one of most complex and ill-structured kinds of problem solving. Historically, instructional design has been conceptualized as a linear set of phases (e.g., analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation) that a designer progresses through. Silber (2007) has provided an alternative perspective…

Jonassen, David H.,

2008-01-01

420

A Study of Student Interactions during Asynchronous Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to investigate the quality and nature of the students' interactions during asynchronous online problem solving in two sections of College Algebra taught by the author. In a shared-work section, students worked independently for an initial phase and had access to classmates' work during a follow-up phase. Students in the…

Cooper, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

421

What Next? Futuristic Scenarios for Creative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains 52 units designed to assist teachers in helping their students improve their creative writing and communication skills, improve their skills in creative problem solving, and enlarge, enrich, and make more accurate their images of the future. Each unit begins with an overview of the activity, an explanation of the creative…

Myers, Robert E.; Torrance, E. Paul

422

ORIGINAL PAPER Mathematical modeling of evolution. Solved and open problems  

E-print Network

on variation and natural selection is due to the great naturalist Charles Darwin who derived it from a wealthORIGINAL PAPER Mathematical modeling of evolution. Solved and open problems Peter Schuster Received Abstract Evolution is a highly complex multilevel pro- cess and mathematical modeling of evolutionary

Schuster, Peter

423

Extending Fibonacci Numbers to Negative Subscripts through Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom note shows how Fibonacci numbers with negative subscripts emerge from a problem-solving context enhanced by the use of an electronic spreadsheet. It reflects the author's work with prospective K-12 teachers in a number of mathematics content courses. (Contains 4 figures.)

Abramovich, Sergei

2010-01-01

424

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving Ivon Arroyo and Beverly P. Woolf important to consider for domains for which there are well-established group differences, such as gender differences in mathematics. 1 Customization and Multimedia Improve Learning Both customized teaching

Arroyo, Ivon M.

425

Practical Parenting: Successful Strategies for Solving Your Child's Behaviour Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing that all parents encounter challenges in raising their children, this book presents practical strategies for solving common behavior problems. Chapter 1, "Bonding," concerns the development of parent-child attachment. Chapter 2, "Encouraging Development," discusses "hot-housing," language development, and early intervention. Chapter 3,…

Stenhouse, Glen

426

Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2012-01-01

427

Secondary School Genetics Instruction: Making Problem Solving Explicit and Meaningful.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains an algorithm which details procedures for solving a broad class of genetics problems common to pre-college biology. Several flow charts (developed from the algorithm) are given with sample questions and suggestions for student use. Conclusions are based on the authors' research (which includes student interviews and textbook analyses).…

Thomson, Norman; Stewart, James

1985-01-01

428

Tracing Success: Graphical Methods for Analysing Successful Collaborative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of trace diagrams for analysing collaborative problem solving. The paper describes a study where trace diagrams were used to analyse joint navigation in a virtual environment. Ten pairs of undergraduates worked together on a distributed virtual task to collect five flowers using two bees with each…

Joiner, Richard; Issroff, Kim

2003-01-01

429

The Effects of Motivation and Emotion upon Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research has refuted the behaviorist approach by establishing a relationship between emotion and behavior. The data collection procedure, however, has often involved an inferred emotional state from a hypothetical situation. As partial fulfillment of a class requirement, 60 college students were asked to perform two problem solving tasks…

Sanders, Michele; Matsumoto, David

430

Using Dynamic Programming for Solving Variational Problems in Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic programming is discussed as an approach to solving variational problems in vision. Dynamic programming ensures global optimality of the solution, is numerically stable, and allows for hard constraints to be enforced on the behavior of the solution within a natural and straightforward structure. As a specific example of the approach's efficacy, applying dynamic programming to the energy-minimizing active contours

Amir A. Amini; Terry E. Weymouth; Ramesh Jain

1990-01-01

431

Solving the Inverse-Square Problem with Complex Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The equation of motion for a mass that moves under the influence of a central, inverse-square force is formulated and solved as a problem in complex variables. To find the solution, the constancy of angular momentum is first established using complex variables. Next, the complex position coordinate and complex velocity of the particle are assumed…

Gauthier, N.

2005-01-01

432

Towards Efficient Measurement of Metacognition in Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Metacognitive monitoring and regulation play an essential role in mathematical problem solving. Therefore, it is important for researchers and practitioners to assess students' metacognition. One proven valid, but time consuming, method to assess metacognition is by using think-aloud protocols. Although valuable, practical drawbacks of this method…

Jacobse, Annemieke E.; Harskamp, Egbert G.

2012-01-01

433

The Nature of Gestures' Beneficial Role in Spatial Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Co-thought gestures are hand movements produced in silent, noncommunicative, problem-solving situations. In the study, we investigated whether and how such gestures enhance performance in spatial visualization tasks such as a mental rotation task and a paper folding task. We found that participants gestured more often when they had difficulties…

Chu, Mingyuan; Kita, Sotaro

2011-01-01

434

Engineering bacteria to solve the Burnt Pancake Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We investigated the possibility of executing DNA-based computation in living cells by engineering Escherichia coli to address a classic mathematical puzzle called the Burnt Pancake Problem (BPP). The BPP is solved by sorting a stack of distinct objects (pancakes) into proper order and orientation using the minimum number of manipulations. Each manipulation reverses the order and orientation of one

Karmella A Haynes; Marian L Broderick; Adam D Brown; Trevor L Butner; James O Dickson; W Lance Harden; Eric L Jessen; Kelly J Malloy; Brad J Ogden; Sabriya Rosemond; Samantha Simpson; Erin Zwack; A Malcolm Campbell; Todd T Eckdahl; Laurie J Heyer; Jeffrey L Poet

2008-01-01

435

Conceptions of Efficiency: Applications in Learning and Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to clarify conceptions, definitions, and applications of learning and problem-solving efficiency. Conceptions of efficiency vary within the field of educational psychology, and there is little consensus as to how to define, measure, and interpret the efficiency construct. We compare three diverse models that differ…

Hoffman, Bobby; Schraw, Gregory

2010-01-01

436

Elementary Teachers' Perspectives of Mathematics Problem Solving Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants in this study were asked to report what strategies were most often used in their attempts to foster their students' problem solving abilities. Participants included 70 second through fifth-grade elementary teachers from 42 schools in a large state of the south central region in the U.S. Data analyses of the interviews revealed…

Bruun, Faye

2013-01-01

437

Development of Problem Solving Strategies in Reflective and Impulsive Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a developmental study of the problem solving strategies of reflective and impulsive children. Subjects for the study were 30 nine-year-olds, 39 eleven-year-olds, and 23 thirteen-year-olds who had been classified as reflective or impulsive at ages 7, 9, and 11 and who had been followed longitudinally over a three year period.…

McKinney, James D.

438

Collaboration and Chat: Recipiency in Online Math Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine ways that participants in online math problem- solving chat sessions dis-attend and attend to postings by other participants and the ways that participants design their postings to elicit responses from recipients. This is consequential in terms of the design of CSCL systems that use chat as the basis of participant interaction. By developing a proper

Alan Zemel; Nan Zhou; Gerry Stahl

439

Assessment for Intervention: A Problem-Solving Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cutting-edge volume offers a complete primer on conducting problem-solving based assessments in school or clinical settings. Presented are an effective framework and up-to-date tools for identifying and remediating the many environmental factors that may contribute to a student's academic, emotional, or behavioral difficulties, and for…

Brown-Chidsey, Rachel, Ed.

2005-01-01

440

Robotic Toys as a Catalyst for Mathematical Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Robotic toys present unique opportunities for teachers of young children to integrate mathematics learning with engaging problem-solving tasks. This article describes a series of tasks using Bee-bots and Pro-bots, developed as part a larger project examining young children's use of robotic toys as tools in developing mathematical and metacognitive…

Highfield, Kate

2010-01-01

441

Middleware for Building Mixed-Initiative Problem Solving Assistants  

Microsoft Academic Search

CollagenTMis Java middleware for building mixed- initiative problem solving assistants, based on Grosz and Sidner's SharedPlan theory of collaborative dis- course. The implementation includes a discourse state representation, comprised of a focus stack and a plan tree, as well as algorithms for discourse interpretation (including plan recognition) and discourse generation. Collagen has been used to build over a dozen research

Charles Rich; Candace L. Sidner

442

Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…

Man, Yiu-Kwong

2012-01-01

443

Solving Subtraction Problems by Means of Indirect Addition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subtraction problems of the type a - b = ? can be "flexibly" solved by various strategies, including the indirect addition strategy ("how much do I have to add to b to get at a?"). Little research has been done on the use of the indirect addition strategy with multi-digit numbers. The present literature review entails a summary of three recent and…

Torbeyns, Joke; De Smedt, Bert; Stassens, Nick; Ghesquiere, Pol; Verschaffel, Lieven

2009-01-01

444

Combining Feature Selection and Neural Networks for Solving Classification Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an approach to solving classifica- tion problems by combining feature selection and neural networks. The main idea is to use techniques from the field of information theory to select a set of important attributes that can be used to classify tuples. A neural network is trained using these attributes; the neural network is then used to classify

Paul O' Dea; Josephine Griffith; Colm O' Riordan

445

--Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Evan Glazer  

E-print Network

72 InterMath 1 --Professional and Cognitive Development through Problem Solving with Technology). The development of mathematical understanding occurs when technology is used as a cognitive tool that supports to deliver the curriculum through web-based materials and to explore the mathematics using cognitive tools

Spagnolo, Filippo

446

Teaching and Learning. A Problem-Solving Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is dedicated to George Polya, who focused on problem solving as the means for teaching and learning mathematics. The first chapter is a reprint of his article "On Learning, Teaching, and Learning Teaching." Then, G. L. Alexanderson paints a portrait of "George Polya, Teacher," including some anecdotes that exemplify Polya's art of…

Curcio, Frances R., Ed.

447

Aha! Voila! Eureka! Bilingualism and Insightful Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What makes a person able to solve problems creatively? One interesting factor that may contribute is experience with multiple languages from an early age. Bilingual individuals who acquire two languages by the age of 6 have been shown to demonstrate superior performance on a number of thinking tasks that require flexibility. However, bilingual…

Cushen, Patrick J.; Wiley, Jennifer

2011-01-01

448

Science for Environmental Management Enhancing environmental problem solving  

E-print Network

Science for Environmental Management Enhancing environmental problem solving MEES 698Y Special Topics in Marine-Estuarine-Environmental Sciences Spring Semester 2013; Wednesdays 3:30-6:30pm Course will be taught on the Interactive Video Network (IVN) is course will address the role of science in environmental

Boynton, Walter R.

449

Sciencewise: Discovering Scientific Process through Problem Solving. Book 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of activities uses problem solving to help students develop the basic science process skills of observing, predicting, designing/experimenting, eliminating, and drawing conclusions. The activities are divided into two sections: Dynamo Demos and Creative Challenges. The teacher-led Dynamo Demos help students to develop science process…

Holley, Dennis

450

Sciencewise: Discovering Scientific Process through Problem Solving. Book 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of activities uses problem solving to help students develop the basic science process skills of observing, predicting, designing/experimenting, eliminating, and drawing conclusions. The activities are divided into two sections: Dynamo Demos and Creative Challenges. The teacher-led Dynamo Demos help students to develop science process…

Holley, Dennis

451

Ontological Support in Modeling Learners' Problem Solving Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a new model for simulating procedural knowledge in the problem solving process with our ontological system, InfoMap. The method divides procedural knowledge into two parts: process control and action performer. By adopting InfoMap, we hope to help teachers construct curricula (declarative knowledge) and teaching strategies by…

Lu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chia-Wei; Wu, Shih-Hung; Chiou, Guey-Fa; Hsu, Wen-Lian

2005-01-01

452

Prospective Elementary Teachers' Misunderstandings in Solving Ratio and Proportion Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores difficulties that prospective elementary mathematics teachers have with the concepts of ratio and proportion, mainly when they are engaged in solving problems using algorithm procedures. These difficulties can be traced back to earlier experiences when they were students of junior and high school. The reflection on these…

Monteiro, Cecilia

2003-01-01

453

A Working Memory Model Applied to Mathematical Word Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this study is (a) to explore the relationship among cognitive style (field dependence/independence), working memory, and mathematics anxiety and (b) to examine their effects on students' mathematics problem solving. A sample of 161 school girls (13-14 years old) were tested on (1) the Witkin's cognitive style (Group Embedded…

Alamolhodaei, Hassan

2009-01-01

454

Family Problem-Solving with Children Who Have Mental Retardation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem-solving discussions were observed within families of children with mental retardation and multiple comparison groups (total N = 162 families). As expected, parents were more persistent and directive with their children who had mental retardation, but they also avoided negative exchanges with these children. These patterns did not spillover…

Floyd, Frank J; Harter, Kristina S. M.; Costigan, Catherine L.

2004-01-01

455

Assisting Students with Argumentation Plans when Solving Problems in CSCL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In CSCL systems, students who are solving problems in group have to negotiate with each other by exchanging proposals and arguments in order to resolve the conflicts and generate a shared solution. In this context, argument construction assistance is necessary to facilitate reaching to a consensus. This assistance is usually provided with isolated…

Monteserin, Ariel; Schiaffino, Silvia; Amandi, Analia

2010-01-01

456

Modeling and Solving Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problems by Transformation to  

E-print Network

Modeling and Solving Semiring Constraint Satisfaction Problems by Transformation to Weighted Semiring Max-SAT Louise Leenen1 , Anbulagan2 , Thomas Meyer3 , and Aditya Ghose4 1 DSL, SCSSE, University of the Semiring Con- straint Satisfaction framework. We show how to encode a Semiring Con- straint Satisfaction

Anbulagan, A.

457

Thinking Can Cause Forgetting: Memory Dynamics in Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that retrieval can cause the forgetting of related or competing items in memory (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994). In the present research, we examined whether an analogous phenomenon occurs in the context of creative problem solving. Using the Remote Associates Test (RAT; Mednick, 1962), we found…

Storm, Benjamin C.; Angello, Genna; Bjork, Elizabeth Ligon

2011-01-01

458

Towards a Theory of Cooperative Problem Solving Michael Wooldridge  

E-print Network

Towards a Theory of Cooperative Problem Solving Michael Wooldridge Dept. of Computing Manchester Metropolitan University Chester Street, Manchester M1 5GD United Kingdom M.Wooldridge@doc.mmu.ac.uk Nicholas R Kingdom N.R.Jennings@qmw.ac.uk Abstract. One objective of distributed artificial intelligence research

Woolridge, Mike

459

Creating Alien Life Forms: Problem Solving in Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project that helps students integrate biological concepts using both creativity and higher-order problem-solving skills. Involves students playing the roles of junior scientists aboard a starship in orbit around a class M planet and using a description of habitats, seasonal details, and a surface map of prominent geographic features to…

Grimnes, Karin A.

1996-01-01

460

Batik Making as Creative Problem Solving: A Naturalistic Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper introduces an artistic model of planning and problem solving. The model is based on a case study of processes engaged in by a college art student during the course of producing a senior thesis in batik (a wax-resist fabric dyeing process). Based on the premise that knowledge of the creative process is essential to understanding the…

Bollen, Sharon Kesterson

461

SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

462

School Effectiveness: Problem-Solving and Managing Conflict.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module discusses the theory and practice of school improvement and outlines a nine-step systematic problem-solving process for developing an action plan addressing school improvement goals. The first section describes a general model for the study of the school as a social system, as developed by Getzels and Thelen (1960). The second section…

Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul.

463

Make Sense of Problems and Persevere in Solving Them  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Tennessee Early Grades Math Tool Kit provides a rationale for fostering the CCSS Math Practice Standard. Included is a four-step model for learners to follow when solving a mathematical problem, teaching strategies and helpful questions for developing mathematical thinking. Also includes are additional resources (videos, articles and websites) that foster this habit of mind with learners.

2014-01-01

464

Designing WebQuests to Support Creative Problem Solving  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

WebQuests have been a popular alternative for collaborative group work that utilizes internet resources, but studies have questioned how effective they are in challenging students to use higher order thinking processes that involve creative problem solving. This article explains how different levels of inquiry relate to categories of learning…

Rubin, Jim

2013-01-01

465

Analysis of Errors Made by Students Solving Genetics Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the errors made by students solving genetics problems. A sample of 10 non-science undergraduate students was obtained from a private college in Northern New Jersey. The results support prior research in the area of genetics education and show that a weak understanding of the relationship of meiosis to…

Costello, Sandra Judith

466

Creativity and Inspiration for Problem Solving in Engineering Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem solving is a critical skill for engineering students and essential to development of creativity and innovativeness. Essential to such learning is an ease of communication and allowing students to address the issues at hand via the terminology, attitudes, humor and empathy, which is inherent to their frame of mind as novices, without the…

Nordstrom, Katrina; Korpelainen, Paivi

2011-01-01

467

The Cactus Code: A Problem Solving Environment for the Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cactus is an open source problem solving environment designed for scientists and engineers. Its modular structure facilitates parallel computation across different architectures and collaborative code development between different groups. The Cactus Code originated in the academic research community, where it has been developed and used over many years by a large international collaboration of physicists and computational scientists. We discuss

Gabrielle Allen; Werner Benger; Tom Goodale; Hans-christian Hege; Gerd Lanfermann; André Merzky; Thomas Radke; Edward Seidel; John Shalf

2000-01-01

468

The Instructional Design Environment: Technology to Support Design Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Instructional Design Environment (IDE), a hypermedia system for designing and developing instructional material, including texts, interactive video disks, and intelligent tutoring systems. Highlights include the problem-solving nature of instructional design; other computer-based systems for instructional design; and the use of IDE…

Pirolli, Peter; Russell, Daniel M.

1990-01-01

469

Solving fractional packing problems in O ast (1\\/?) iterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We adapt a method proposed by Nesterov [16] to design an algorithm that computes ?-optimal solutions to fractional packing problems by solving O*(?-1 ?Kn) separable convex quadratic programs, where K is the maximum number of non-zeros per row and n is the number of variables. We also show that the quadratic program can be approximated to any degree of accuracy

Daniel Bienstock; Garud Iyengar

2004-01-01

470

General Workplace Algebra. A Numerical Approach to Workplace Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning module reviews basic algebraic principles, the use of algebra for solving mathematical problems in the workplace as related to electronics, mechanics, computer operations, printing, and the general concepts of algebraic formulas. The course provides students with a practical knowledge of algebra in areas such as variable algebraic…

Wilson, Nancy

471

Integrating Content to Create Problem-Solving Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes one seventh-grade teacher's classroom efforts to integrate traditional exercises from different content areas to form more robust questions that provide genuine problem-solving opportunities for students. These exercises are illustrated by connecting the Pythagorean theorem with a variety of prealgebra topics. Since the…

Beigie, Darin

2008-01-01

472

Why Teach Cooperative Problem-Solving in Adult Education?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores aspects of the theory and practice of cooperative problem solving in education from the perspective of community-based adult learning. It describes how society can benefit from using collaborative and questioning approaches as a positive alternative to more confrontational methods of resolving differences and how collective…

Walker, Ann

2013-01-01

473

Finite element method for solving neutron transport problems  

SciTech Connect

A finite element method is introduced for solving the neutron transport equations. Our method falls into the category of Petrov-Galerkin solution, since the trial space differs from the test space. The close relationship between this method and the discrete ordinate method is discussed, and the methods are compared for simple test problems.

Ferguson, J.M.; Greenbaum, A.

1984-03-21

474

Finite element method for solving neutron transport problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element method is introduced for solving the neutron transport equations. The method falls into the category of Petrov-Galerkin solution, since the trial space differs from the test space. The close relationship between this method and the discrete ordinate method is discussed, and the methods are compared for simple test problems.

Ferguson, J. M.; Greenbaum, A.

1984-03-01

475

A Recon guration Algorithm for Distributed Problem Solving  

E-print Network

aspects in Distributed Problem Solving (DPS) in Multi- Agent Systems is that, due to the dynamic of the recon#12;guration algorithm in a distributive environment is presented. 1 Introduction Multi-Agent attitudes in a group of heterogeneous agents. The key concept is that of collec- tive commitment, formally

Dunin-Keplicz, Barbara

476

Promoting Problem-Solving and Reasoning during Cooperative Inquiry Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that was conducted on the effects of training students in specific strategic and meta-cognitive questioning strategies on the development of reasoning, problem-solving, and learning during cooperative inquiry-based science activities. The study was conducted in 18 sixth grade classrooms and involved 35 groups of…

Gillies, Robyn M.; Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert

2011-01-01

477

Advances in Polynomial Continuation for Solving Problems in Kinematics  

E-print Network

Advances in Polynomial Continuation for Solving Problems in Kinematics Andrew J. Sommese # Jan and planar joints are all allowed. Moreover, many higher­order contact joints are also described seems to have been first applied to kinematics in [13, 14], as a heuristic, and later by [21

Sommese, Andrew J.

478

Solving the discrete network design problem to optimality  

SciTech Connect

The network design problem has various applications, such as construction of new links in transportation networks, topological design of computer communication networks and planning of empty freight car transportation on railways. The problem is a multicommodity minimal cost network flow problem with fixed costs on the arcs, i.e. a structured linear mixed-integer programming problem. We discuss solution methods for finding the exact optimal solution of the problem. Encouraging computational results are given for a Lagrangean heuristic within a branch-and-bound framework for the uncapacitated network design problem with single origins and destinations for each commodity (the simplest problem in this class, but still NP-hard). The Lagrangean heuristic uses a Lagrangean relaxation as subproblem, solving the Lagrange dual with subgradient optimization, combined with a primal heuristic (here the Benders subproblem) yielding primal feasible solutions.

Holmberg, K.; Hellstrand, J.

1994-12-31

479

Studies of visual attention in physics problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work described here represents an effort to understand and influence visual attention while solving physics problems containing a diagram. Our visual system is guided by two types of processes -- top-down and bottom-up. The top-down processes are internal and determined by ones prior knowledge and goals. The bottom-up processes are external and determined by features of the visual stimuli such as color, and luminance contrast. When solving physics problems both top-down and bottom-up processes are active, but to varying degrees. The existence of two types of processes opens several interesting questions for physics education. For example, how do bottom-up processes influence problem solvers in physics? Can we leverage these processes to draw attention to relevant diagram areas and improve problem-solving? In this dissertation we discuss three studies that investigate these open questions and rely on eye movements as a primary data source. We assume that eye movements reflect a person's moment-to-moment cognitive processes, providing a window into one's thinking. In our first study, we compared the way correct and incorrect solvers viewed relevant and novice-like elements in a physics problem diagram. We found correct solvers spent more time attending to relevant areas while incorrect solvers spent more time looking at novice-like areas. In our second study, we overlaid these problems with dynamic visual cues to help students' redirect their attention. We found that in some cases these visual cues improved problem-solving performance and influenced visual attention. To determine more precisely how the perceptual salience of diagram elements influenced solvers' attention, we conducted a third study where we manipulated the perceptual salience of the diagram elements via changes in luminance contrast. These changes did not influence participants' answers or visual attention. Instead, similar to our first study, the time spent looking in various areas of the diagram was related to the correctness of an answer. These results suggest that top-down processes dominate while solving physics problems. In sum, the study of visual attention and visual cueing in particular shows that attention is an important component of physics problem-solving and can potentially be leveraged to improve student performance.

Madsen, Adrian M.

480

A cognitive model for problem solving in computer science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to industry representatives, computer science education needs to emphasize the processes involved in solving computing problems rather than their solutions. Most of the current assessment tools used by universities and computer science departments analyze student answers to problems rather than investigating the processes involved in solving them. Approaching assessment from this perspective would reveal potential errors leading to incorrect solutions. This dissertation proposes a model describing how people solve computational problems by storing, retrieving, and manipulating information and knowledge. It describes how metacognition interacts with schemata representing conceptual and procedural knowledge, as well as with the external sources of information that might be needed to arrive at a solution. Metacognition includes higher-order, executive processes responsible for controlling and monitoring schemata, which in turn represent the algorithmic knowledge needed for organizing and adapting concepts to a specific domain. The model illustrates how metacognitive processes interact with the knowledge represented by schemata as well as the information from external sources. This research investigates the differences in the way computer science novices use their metacognition and schemata to solve a computer programming problem. After J. Parham and L. Gugerty reached an 85% reliability for six metacognitive processes and six domain-specific schemata for writing a computer program, the resulting vocabulary provided the foundation for supporting the existence of and the interaction between metacognition, schemata, and external sources of information in computer programming. Overall, the participants in this research used their schemata 6% more than their metacognition and their metacognitive processes to control and monitor their schemata used to write a computer program. This research has potential implications in computer science education and software development through its understanding of the cognitive behavior used to solve computational problems.

Parham, Jennifer R.

481

Novel Problem Solving - The NASA Solution Mechanism Guide  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past five years, the Human Health and Performance (HH&P) Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has conducted a number of pilot and ongoing projects in collaboration and open innovation. These projects involved the use of novel open innovation competitions that sought solutions from "the crowd", non-traditional problem solvers. The projects expanded to include virtual collaboration centers such as the NASA Human Health and Performance Center (NHHPC) and more recently a collaborative research project between NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF). These novel problem-solving tools produced effective results and the HH&P wanted to capture the knowledge from these new tools, to teach the results to the directorate, and to implement new project management tools and coursework. The need to capture and teach the results of these novel problem solving tools, the HH&P decided to create a web-based tool to capture best practices and case studies, to teach novice users how to use new problem solving tools and to change project management training/. This web-based tool was developed with a small, multi-disciplinary group and named the Solution Mechanism Guide (SMG). An alpha version was developed that was tested against several sessions of user groups to get feedback on the SMG and determine a future course for development. The feedback was very positive and the HH&P decided to move to the beta-phase of development. To develop the web-based tool, the HH&P utilized the NASA Tournament Lab (NTL) to develop the software with TopCoder under an existing contract. In this way, the HH&P is using one new tool (the NTL and TopCoder) to develop the next generation tool, the SMG. The beta-phase of the SMG is planed for release in the spring of 2014 and results of the beta-phase testing will be available for the IAC meeting in September. The SMG is intended to disrupt the way problem solvers and project managers approach problem solving and to increase the use of novel and more cost and time effective problem solving tools such as open innovation, collaborative research, and virtual collaborative project centers. The HH&P envisions changing project management coursework by including the SMG in the teaching of project management problem solving tools.

Keeton, Kathryn E.; Richard, Elizabeth E.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

2014-01-01

482

The Influence of Prior Experience and Process Utilization in Solving Complex Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using ill-structured problems and examining problem- solving processes, this study was conducted to explore the nature of solving complex, multistep problems, focusing on how prior knowledge, problem-solving process utilization, and analogical problem solving are related to success. Twenty-four college students qualified to participate by…

Sterner, Paula; Wedman, John

483

Social cognitive problem solving and childhood adjustment: Qualitative and topological analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-cognitive problem solving (SCPS) has been proposed and often accepted as relating positively to social and emotional adjustment, yet empirical support has been inconsistent. This study assessed the SCPS skills of 150 middle-class 6- to 11-year-old children through the use of qualitative, quantitative, and topological measures. Six quality dimensions were employed: Effectiveness, Inappropriateness, Aggressiveness, Passivity, Affective Understanding, and Interpersonal Content.

Gary L. Fischler; Philip C. Kendall

1988-01-01

484

Solving Fuzzy Optimization Problem Using Hybrid Ls-Sa Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuzzy optimization problem has been one of the most and prominent topics inside the broad area of computational intelligent. It's especially relevant in the filed of fuzzy non-linear programming. It's application as well as practical realization can been seen in all the real world problems. In this paper a large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem has been solved by hybrid optimization techniques of Line Search (LS), Simulated Annealing (SA) and Pattern Search (PS). As industrial production planning problem with cubic objective function, 8 decision variables and 29 constraints has been solved successfully using LS-SA-PS hybrid optimization techniques. The computational results for the objective function respect to vagueness factor and level of satisfaction has been provided in the form of 2D and 3D plots. The outcome is very promising and strongly suggests that the hybrid LS-SA-PS algorithm is very efficient and productive in solving the large scale non-linear fuzzy programming problem.

Vasant, Pandian

2011-06-01

485

Rekindle the Fire: Building Supercomputers to Solve Dynamic Problems  

SciTech Connect

Seymour Cray had a Lets go to the moon attitude when it came to building high-performance computers. His drive was to create architectures designed to solve the most challenging problems. Modern high-performance computer architects, however, seem to be focusing on building the largest floating-point-generation machines by using truckloads of commodity parts. Don't get me wrong; current clusters can solve a class of problems that are untouchable by any other system in the world, including the supercomputers of yesteryear. Many of the worlds fastest clusters provide new insights into weather forecasting, our understanding of fundamental sciences and provide the ability to model our nuclear stockpiles. Lets call this class of problem a first-principles simulation because the simulations are based on a fundamental physical understanding or model.

Studham, Scott S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2004-02-16

486

Solving Fractional Programming Problems based on Swarm Intelligence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new approach to solve Fractional Programming Problems (FPPs) based on two different Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. The two algorithms are: Particle Swarm Optimization, and Firefly Algorithm. The two algorithms are tested using several FPP benchmark examples and two selected industrial applications. The test aims to prove the capability of the SI algorithms to solve any type of FPPs. The solution results employing the SI algorithms are compared with a number of exact and metaheuristic solution methods used for handling FPPs. Swarm Intelligence can be denoted as an effective technique for solving linear or nonlinear, non-differentiable fractional objective functions. Problems with an optimal solution at a finite point and an unbounded constraint set, can be solved using the proposed approach. Numerical examples are given to show the feasibility, effectiveness, and robustness of the proposed algorithm. The results obtained using the two SI algorithms revealed the superiority of the proposed technique among others in computational time. A better accuracy was remarkably observed in the solution results of the industrial application problems.

Raouf, Osama Abdel; Hezam, Ibrahim M.

2014-04-01

487

Solving Large-scale Eigenvalue Problems in SciDACApplications  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale eigenvalue problems arise in a number of DOE applications. This paper provides an overview of the recent development of eigenvalue computation in the context of two SciDAC applications. We emphasize the importance of Krylov subspace methods, and point out its limitations. We discuss the value of alternative approaches that are more amenable to the use of preconditioners, and report the progression using the multi-level algebraic sub-structuring techniques to speed up eigenvalue calculation. In addition to methods for linear eigenvalue problems, we also examine new approaches to solving two types of non-linear eigenvalue problems arising from SciDAC applications.

Yang, Chao

2005-06-29

488

Effect of explicit problem solving instruction on high school students' problem-solving performance and conceptual understanding of physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this study a two-sample, pre/posttest, quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the effect of explicit problem-solving instruction on high school students' conceptual understanding of physics. Eight physics classes, with a total of 145 students, were randomly assigned to either a treatment or comparison group. The four treatment classes were taught how to use an explicit problem-solving strategy, while the four comparison classes were taught how to use a textbook problem-solving strategy. Students' problem-solving performance and conceptual understanding were assessed both before and after instruction. The results indicated that the explicit strategy improved the quality and completeness of students' physics representations more than the textbook strategy, but there was no difference between the two strategies on match of equations with representations, organization, or mathematical execution. In terms of conceptual understanding, there was no overall difference between the two groups; however, there was a significant interaction between the sex of the students and group. The explicit strategy appeared to benefit female students, while the textbook strategy appeared to benefit male students. The implications of these results for physics instruction are discussed.

Huffman, Douglas

2005-11-17

489

Self-Monitoring Checklists for Inquiry Problem-Solving: Functional Problem-Solving Methods for Students with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three students with mild to moderate intellectual and multiple disability, enrolled in a self-contained functional curriculum class were taught to use a self-monitoring checklist and science notebook to increase independence in inquiry problem-solving skills. Using a single-subject multiple-probe design, all students acquired inquiry…

Miller, Bridget; Taber-Doughty, Teresa

2014-01-01

490

Effects of Cognitive Strategy Interventions and Cognitive Moderators on Word Problem Solving in Children at Risk for Problem Solving Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the role of strategy instruction and cognitive abilities on word problem solving accuracy in children with math difficulties (MD). Elementary school children (N = 120) with and without MD were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions: general-heuristic (e.g., underline question sentence), visual-schematic presentation…

Swanson, H. Lee; Lussier, Cathy; Orosco, Michael

2013-01-01

491

Solving a novel confinement problem by spartaeine salticids that are predisposed to solve problems in the context of predation.  

PubMed

Intricate predatory strategies are widespread in the salticid subfamily Spartaeinae. The hypothesis we consider here is that the spartaeine species that are proficient at solving prey-capture problems are also proficient at solving novel problems. We used nine species from this subfamily in our experiments. Eight of these species (two Brettus, one Cocalus, three Cyrba, two Portia) are known for specialized invasion of other spiders' webs and for actively choosing other spiders as preferred prey ('araneophagy'). Except for Cocalus, these species also use trial and error to derive web-based signals with which they gain dynamic fine control of the resident spider's behaviour ('aggressive mimicry').The ninth species, Paracyrba wanlessi, is not araneophagic and instead specializes at preying on mosquitoes. We presented these nine species with a novel confinement problem that could be solved by trial and error. The test spider began each trial on an island in a tray of water, with an atoll surrounding the island. From the island, the spider could choose between two potential escape tactics (leap or swim), but we decided at random before the trial which tactic would fail and which tactic would achieve partial success. Our findings show that the seven aggressive-mimic species are proficient at solving the confinement problem by repeating 'correct' choices and by switching to the alternative tactic after making an 'incorrect' choice. However, as predicted, there was no evidence of C. gibbosus or P. wanlessi, the two non-aggressive-mimic species, solving the confinement problem. We discuss these findings in the context of an often-made distinction between domain-specific and domain-general cognition. PMID:25392261

Cross, Fiona R; Jackson, Robert R

2015-03-01

492

Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics studentsâ problem solving performance. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and solution planning. Findings suggest students drawing productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest this is partly due to reduced conceptual planning time as students jump to implementation. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory studentsâ consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect due in part to increased cognitive load. Students exhibiting representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. Finally, a problem solving task was designed to investigate the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). The TAs identified their choices of the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of concepts occurring in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK for both physics instructors and TAs. We find that teaching an independent course and recent teaching experience do not correlate with improved PCK. In addition, the performance of American, Chinese, and foreign TAs in identifying common student difficulties in the context of the TUG-K and FCI is similar. Moreover, many common introductory physics students difficulties were not identified by many instructors and TAs.

Maries, Alexandru

2013-12-12

493

Predictors of well-structured and ill-structured problem solving in an astronomy simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the problem-solving skills required for solving well-structured problems and ill-structured problems in the context of an open-ended, multimedia problem-solving environment in astronomy. Two sets of open-ended questions assessed students' abilities for solving well-structured and ill-structured problems. Generalized, rubric scoring systems were developed for assessing problem-solving skills. Instruments were also developed and administered to assess cognitive and affective

Namsoo Shin; David H. Jonassen; Steven McGee

2003-01-01

494

Russian Doll Search for solving Constraint Optimization problems  

SciTech Connect

If the Constraint Satisfaction framework has been extended to deal with Constraint Optimization problems, it appears that optimization is far more complex than satisfaction. One of the causes of the inefficiency of complete tree search methods, like Depth First Branch and Bound, lies in the poor quality of the lower bound on the global valuation of a partial assignment, even when using Forward Checking techniques. In this paper, we introduce the Russian Doll Search algorithm which replaces one search by n successive searches on nested subproblems (n being the number of problem variables), records the results of each search and uses them later, when solving larger subproblems, in order to improve the lower bound on the global valuation of any partial assignment. On small random problems and on large real scheduling problems, this algorithm yields surprisingly good results, which greatly improve as the problems get more constrained and the bandwidth of the used variable ordering diminishes.

Verfaillie, G.; Lemaitre, M. [CERT/ONERA, Toulouse (France); Schiex, T. [INRA, Castanet Tolosan (France)

1996-12-31

495

Problem-Solving Without Awareness: An ERP Investigation  

PubMed Central

When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly toward the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects showed significant differences in their ERP components during the exploratory phase between correct and incorrect moves. Exploratory incorrect moves were associated with a shallower response-locked N1 component and a larger response-locked P3 component compared with exploratory correct moves. Subjects who solved the task more quickly exhibited a trend towards larger N1 and P3 components. These results suggest that the brain processes information about the correctness of a move well before subjects are aware of move correctness. They further suggest that relatively simple attentional and error-monitoring processes play an important role in complex problem-solving. PMID:20600180

Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.

2010-01-01

496

Role of multiple representations in physics problem solving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role in the initial stages of conceptual analysis and planning of the problem solution. Findings suggest that students who draw productive diagrams are more successful problem solvers even if their approach is primarily mathematical. Furthermore, students provided with a diagram of the physical situation presented in a problem sometimes exhibited deteriorated performance. Think-aloud interviews suggest that this deteriorated performance is in part due to reduced conceptual planning time which caused students to jump to the implementation stage without fully understanding the problem and planning problem solution. Another study investigated two interventions aimed at improving introductory students' representational consistency between mathematical and graphical representations and revealed that excessive scaffolding can have a detrimental effect. The detrimental effect was partly due to increased cognitive load brought on by the additional steps and instructions. Moreover, students who exhibited representational consistency also showed improved problem solving performance. The final investigation is centered on a problem solving task designed to provide information about the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of graduate student teaching assistants (TAs). In particular, the TAs identified what they considered to be the most common difficulties of introductory physics students related to graphical representations of kinematics concepts as they occur in the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). As an extension, the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) was also used to assess this aspect of PCK related to knowledge of student difficulties of both physics instructors and TAs. We find that teaching an independent course and recent teaching experience do not correlate with improved PCK. In addition, the performance of American TAs, Chinese TAs and other foreign TAs in identifying common student difficulties both in the context of the TUG-K and in the context of the FCI is similar. Moreover, there were many common difficulties of introductory physics students that were not identified by many instructors and TAs.

Maries, Alexandru

497

Solving the Attribute Reduction Problem with Ant Colony Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attribute reduction is an important process in rough set theory. More minimal attribute reductions are expected to help clients make decisions in some cases, though the minimal attribute reduction problem (MARP) is proved to be an NP-hard problem. In this paper, we propose a new heuristic approach for solving the MARP based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic. We first model the MARP as finding an assignment which minimizes the cost in a graph. Afterward, we introduce a preprocessing step that removes the redundant data in a discernibility matrix through the absorption operator and the cutting operator, the goal of which is to favor a smaller exploration of the search space at a lower cost. We then develop a new algorithm R-ACO for solving the MARP. Finally, the simulation results show that our approach can find more minimal attribute reductions more efficiently in most cases.

Yu, Hong; Wang, Guoyin; Lan, Fakuan

498

Meaningful Assessment of Problem-Solving Activities in the Classroom: Some Exemplars. Research Monograph No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of four papers deals with problem solving and the measurement of problem solving. "Climbing Up the Competence Ladder: Some Thoughts on Meaningful Assessment of Problem-Solving Tasks in the Classroom" by K. C. Cheung uses the metaphor of a competence ladder to represent the problem-solving continuum with progressive qualitative…

Cheung, K. C.; And Others

499

Dietetics and Foodservice Personnel are Ready for Team Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the readiness of dietetics and foodservice personnel for contributing to team problem solving.Design A descriptive, correlation study in which a five-part questionnaire was designed to collect data.Subjects Dietetics and foodservice personnel (n=632) in eight hospital settings; 321 subjects (51%) volunteered to participate.Statistical analyses performed Statistical data to summarize demographic information and two-way analysis of variance with a

KAYN. WOLF; M. ROSITA SCHILLER

1997-01-01

500

Designing a Useful Problem Solving Coach: Usage and Usability Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designing useful computer coaches for problem-solving in introductory physics requires an iterative process to develop both the software framework and content of the coaches. Research is necessary to determine which students use the coaches, how those students use the coaches, and whether the coaches are effective for those students. We report results of a study of prototype coaches to determine the user characteristics and usage characteristics. We also discuss how this data will guide the next iteration of these coaches.

Ryan, Qing; Frodermann, Evan; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya

2014-02-01