Encouraging Meaningful Quantitative Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, Jeff; Kennedy-Justice, Meghan; Pai, Sunny; Torres, Carmen; Toomey, Rick; Depierro, Ed; Garafalo, Fred
2000-09-01
Quantitative problem-solving is a challenging aspect of any physical science course. Traditionally, students have been encouraged to pursue various techniques in an effort to provide structure to this task. While such methods may help students to generate numerical answers, they can become exercises in symbol manipulation that leave the student without a clear picture of the physical situation associated with the problem. This paper describes the efforts of a group of teachers to help college freshman chemistry students and high school science students to improve their problem-solving skills. The presentation includes several sets of questions intended to elucidate ideas and to involve the reader in the process of reflecting upon his or her own problem-solving strategies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Shih-Yin; Singh, Chandralekha
2015-12-01
It is well known that introductory physics students often have alternative conceptions that are inconsistent with established physical principles and concepts. Invoking alternative conceptions in the quantitative problem-solving process can derail the entire process. In order to help students solve quantitative problems involving strong alternative conceptions correctly, appropriate scaffolding support can be helpful. The goal of this study is to examine how different scaffolding supports involving analogical problem-solving influence introductory physics students' performance on a target quantitative problem in a situation where many students' solution process is derailed due to alternative conceptions. Three different scaffolding supports were designed and implemented in calculus-based and algebra-based introductory physics courses involving 410 students to evaluate the level of scaffolding needed to help students learn from an analogical problem that is similar in the underlying principles involved but for which the problem-solving process is not derailed by alternative conceptions. We found that for the quantitative problem involving strong alternative conceptions, simply guiding students to work through the solution of the analogical problem first was not enough to help most students discern the similarity between the two problems. However, if additional scaffolding supports that directly helped students examine and repair their knowledge elements involving alternative conceptions were provided, e.g., by guiding students to contemplate related issues and asking them to solve the targeted problem on their own first before learning from the analogical problem provided, students were more likely to discern the underlying similarities between the problems and avoid getting derailed by alternative conceptions when solving the targeted problem. We also found that some scaffolding supports were more effective in the calculus-based course than in the algebra-based course. This finding emphasizes the fact that appropriate scaffolding support which is commensurate with students' prior knowledge and skills must be determined via research in order to be effective.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Office of Educational Partnerships,
Students are introduced to a systematic procedure for solving problems through a demonstration and then the application of the method to an everyday activity. The unit project is introduced to provide relevance to subsequent lessons.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Claudia Neuhauser (University of Minnesota-Rochester; Health Sciences)
2010-05-06
This workshop is for Massachusetts Bay Community College faculty interested in quantitative reasoning and its application in contemporary problem solving. Funded by Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Numbers Count Project provides data, tools, and curricular materials for use with undergraduates. We will focus on global health issues surrounding cancer and emphasize the use of medical data, visualization, modeling, and error control. In the age of Big Data, students must grapple with mathematical models, tools, and quantitative reasoning as they prepare for the workplace. As science and technology advance, the rapid acquisition of data frames an evolving intersection between mathematics and science. The use of data in our courses must be accompanied by opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning and familiarity with mathematical models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danjuma, Ibrahim Mohammed
2011-01-01
This paper reports part of the results of research on chemical problem solving behavior of pre-service teachers in Plateau and Northeastern states of Nigeria. Specifically, it examines and describes the methods used by 204 pre-service teachers in solving quantitative problems from four topics in chemistry. Namely, gas laws; electrolysis;…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.
2005-01-01
One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hudson, Peter; Matthews, Kelly
2012-01-01
Women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) areas in university settings; however this may be the result of attitude rather than aptitude. There is widespread agreement that quantitative problem-solving is essential for graduate competence and preparedness in science and other STEM subjects. The research…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-01-01
This page provides a summary of five topics on problems solving: What is a Problem?, What is Problem Solving?, Problem Solving Strategies, Why Teach Problem Solving?, Organizing the Teaching of Problem Solving and a reference section. Users can read more detailed information by accessing the 'More Information' link under each heading.
A Problem-Solving Template for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Physics Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fink, Janice M.; Mankey, Gary J.
2010-01-01
A problem-solving template enables a methodology of instruction that integrates aspects of both sequencing and conceptual learning. It is designed to enhance critical-thinking skills when used within the framework of a learner-centered approach to teaching, where regular, thorough assessments of student learning are key components of the…
Goddard, Wayne
the problem Solving the rephrased problem A spectrum of generalizations Further improvements Improving Brooks Landon Rabern A prison problem Some background The Ore-degree Rephrasing the problem Solving background 3 The Ore-degree 4 Rephrasing the problem 5 Solving the rephrased problem Kierstead and Kostochka
Creating Problem Solving Natives
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michelle Pauls
2013-03-04
In this blog post, the author discusses how valuable the problem-solving tool of drawing (or acting) out the problem is to help learners make sense of the problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of work from students who were successful and who were not successful in solving the problem are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "Schmoos ’n’ Goos" (cataloged separately) that is best solved by drawing a picture.
Mathematics Through Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Margaret Taplin
2011-01-01
This article describes what it means to teach mathematics using a problem solving approach and goes on to explain why teaching via problem solving is important in the development of a student’s mathematical thinking. Problem solving is presented as a way to be able to address three of the values of mathematics: functional, logical and aesthetic.
Problem solving: Waking and dreaming
Rosalind D. Cartwright
1974-01-01
Investigated whether problem-solving ability is either quantitatively or qualitatively superior following an interval of sleep including dreaming than it is following an equal interval of waking time. 24 college students were tested on matched problems before and after these 2 conditions on 3 problem types: crossword puzzles, Remote Associates Test, and Thematic Apperception Test story completions. These were predicted to
Dunbar, Kevin N.
. (1998). Problem solving. In W. Bechtel, & G. Graham (Eds.). A companion to Cognitive Science. London the problem of having nothing to eat. While their solution to the problem did not result in a culinary feast
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivankina, T. I.; Matthies, S.
2015-05-01
A history of texture analysis (TA) evolution is shown, beginning from the first experimental and theoretical attempts to find and characterize preferred orientations of crystal lattices of grains in real polycrystalline samples. Stages of formation of TA theoretical apparatus, its basic elements, and also application of its capabilities for quantitatively describing anisotropic properties of textured samples are discussed. Attention is also paid to the limitations and difficulties associated with the analysis. The application of the quantitative TA apparatus is demonstrated by example describing elastic properties of textured materials up to multiphase samples containing pores and cracks. A wide scope of TA includes the analysis based on neutron scattering which has been effectively developed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. A practical opportunity to determine the bulk crystallographic textures of single-phase and multiphase materials is offered by the use of modern neutron diffractometers, including the SKAT diffractometer at the IBR-2 pulsed reactor. This is especially important for studying samples of natural rocks. The examples given show how the neutron scattering data for the quantitative TA are used in combination with other physical and petrological methods for solving fundamental problems of geology and geophysics based on the analysis of a structure and properties of the Earth's lithosphere matter. The review includes a detailed list of references of original works concerning the TA elaboration, overview publications and monographs, and also information on the most popular TA-related software.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayer, Richard E.
This chapter examines research on the cognitive processes involved in mathematical problem solving. The introduction includes definitions of key terms and a summary of four cognitive processes used in mathematical problem solving: (1) translating; (2) integrating; (3) planning; and (4) executing. Examples are then provided and exemplary research…
Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
Belenky, Alexander
Three management problems that a state (or a public administration acting on its behalf) faces in procuring goods and/or services are considered: a) choosing the type of a contract to be awarded and the type of a competitive ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy
2009-01-01
In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
Chemical Reaction Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veal, William
1999-01-01
Discusses the role of chemical-equation problem solving in helping students predict reaction products. Methods for helping students learn this process must be taught to students and future teachers by using pedagogical skills within the content of chemistry. Emphasizes that solving chemical reactions should involve creative cognition where…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carpenter, Thomas P.; And Others
1980-01-01
Student weaknesses on problem-solving portions of the NAEP mathematics assessment are discussed using Polya's heuristics as a framework. Recommendations for classroom instruction are discussed. (MP) Aspect of National Assessment (NAEP) dealt with in this document: Results (Interpretation).
NSDL National Science Digital Library
kajigga
2009-09-23
Learn some basic math skills while at the same time learning some programming skills This short lesson focuses on solving simple math problem using computer programming. In this case, the examples given will be in Python (click on this link for more information: Official Tutorial for the Python programming language.). Computer programming can and has often been used to solve very complex mathematical problems along the lines of calculating ? ...
Learning ProblemSolving Concepts by Reflecting on Problem Solving
Goel, Ashok
Learning ProblemSolving Concepts by Reflecting on Problem Solving Eleni Stroulia and Ashok K. Goel Learning and problem solving are intimately related: problem solving determines the knowledge requirements of the reasoner which learning must fulfill, and learning enables improved problemsolving performance. Different
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Michael E.
1998-01-01
Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1992-01-01
CBR Express software solves problems by adapting sorted solutions to new problems specified by a user. It is applicable to a wide range of situations. The technology was originally developed by Inference Corporation for Johnson Space Center's Advanced Software Development Workstation. The project focused on the reuse of software designs, and Inference used CBR as part of the ACCESS prototype software. The commercial CBR Express is used as a "help desk" for customer support, enabling reuse of existing information when necessary. It has been adopted by several companies, among them American Airlines, which uses it to solve reservation system software problems.
Style, Alec
1979-01-01
General practitioners use the hypothetico-deductive method of scientific reasoning to solve problems. In the first few minutes of their consultations physicians form initial hypotheses about their patients' problems. This process has childlike, imaginative qualities based on intuition. It is often outside consciousness and probably based on pattern recognition. It has been neglected from study and analysis because of these `mystical' qualities. Yet it is the key to fast and efficient problem solving. If the process could be understood, its efficiency would be improved. This paper is an attempt to explore the nature of general practitioners' intuition. PMID:480297
Persistence in Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
In this 5-minute video third grade teacher Jean Saul demonstrates how she uses problem solving tasks to create a classroom climate that fosters persistence, independence, responsibility, and risk-taking. Students are asked to find three different methods for solving each problem and to record them on a Choose Three Ways graphic organizer. Through collaboration and presentation of their work to peers, students develop math language and discourse skills. A side bar provides reflection questions. Supporting materials include a transcript of the video (doc), the graphic organizer (doc), and two samples of student work (pdf).
Solving Problems through Circles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grahamslaw, Laura; Henson, Lisa H.
2015-01-01
Several problem-solving interventions that utilise a "circle" approach have been applied within the field of educational psychology, for example, Circle Time, Circle of Friends, Sharing Circles, Circle of Adults and Solution Circles. This research explored two interventions, Solution Circles and Circle of Adults, and used thematic…
Solving problems with technology
California at Santa Barbara, University of
to be, plan and prepare. Work Hard and achieve your dreams! #12;Thanks! Vero & Saiph #12;Solving problems with technology: Computer Science! by: Saiph and Veronika #12;What is Computer Science? What makes a good computer scientist? #12;Why Computer Science? To Change the World! Empower
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
Circumference and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Blackburn, Katie; White, David
The concept of pi is one of great importance to all developed civilization and one that can be explored and mastered by elementary students through an inductive and problem-solving approach. Such an approach is outlined and discussed. The approach involves the following biblical quotation: "And he made a moltin sea ten cubits from one brim to the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Jerilou; Sumrall, William J.
2008-01-01
Exploring our patent system is a great way to engage students in creative problem solving. As a result, the authors designed a teaching unit that uses the study of patents to explore one avenue in which scientists and engineers do science. Specifically, through the development of an idea, students learn how science and technology are connected.…
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Office of Educational Partnerships,
The culminating energy project is introduced and the technical problem solving process is applied to get students started on the project. By the end of the class, students should have a good perspective on what they have already learned and what they still need to learn to complete the project.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Center for Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.
The teacher directed problem solving activities package contains 17 units: Future Community Design, Let's Build an Elevator, Let's Construct a Catapult, Let's Design a Recreational Game, Let's Make a Hand Fishing Reel, Let's Make a Wall Hanging, Let's Make a Yo-Yo, Marooned in the Past, Metrication, Mousetrap Vehicles, The Multi System…
Problem Solving through Aviation
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Bryant, Joyce
A unit that focuses on problem solving through real life situations that involveaviation. In spite of a variety of shapes and sizes all airplanes fly in the same way, and the problems of the aviation industry are basically the same. Some of the problems in this unit deal with the tests that have already been in the United States by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Federal Aviation Agency, and the Department of Defense in order to ensure safety, convenience, and efficiency in aviation.
Miller, A.
1999-06-01
Human influences create both environmental problems and barriers to effective policy aimed at addressing those problems. In effect, environmental managers manage people as much as they manage the environment. Therefore, they must gain an understanding of the psychological and sociopolitical dimensions of environmental problems that they are attempting to resolve. The author reappraises conventional analyses of environmental problems using lessons from the psychosocial disciplines. The author combines the disciplines of ecology, political sociology and psychology to produce a more adaptive approach to problem-solving that is specifically geared toward the environmental field. Numerous case studies demonstrate the practical application of theory in a way that is useful to technical and scientific professionals as well as to policymakers and planners.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Student teams follow the steps of the engineering design process to meet the challenge of getting their entire class from one location on the playground to the sidewalk without touching the ground between. The class develops a well thought-out plan while following the steps of the engineering design process. Then, they test their solution by going outside and trying it out. Through the post-activity assessment, they compare their problem-solving experience to real life engineering challenges, such as creating new forms of transportation or new product invention.
Modeling applied to problem solving
Pawl, Andrew
We describe a modeling approach to help students learn expert problem solving. Models are used to present and hierarchically organize the syllabus content and apply it to problem solving, but students do not develop and ...
Problem-Solving Workshop Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixon, David N.; And Others
1979-01-01
Assessed effects of intensive problem-solving training on outcomes related to counseling. Undergraduates participated in problem-solving workshop. Results indicated that training influenced the quality of response, but training did not increase the number of subjects' alternatives. (Author)
Problem Solving and Beginning Programming.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McAllister, Alan
Based on current models of problem solving within cognitive psychology, this study focused on the spontaneous problem solving strategies used by children as they first learned LOGO computer programming, and on strategy transformations that took place during the problem solving process. The research consisted of a six weeks programming training…
PUTNAM PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 7: PROBLEMS PROBLEMS PROBLEMS
Vakil, Ravi
PUTNAM PROBLEM-SOLVING SEMINAR WEEK 7: PROBLEMS PROBLEMS PROBLEMS The Rules. These are way too many of a little algebra. Sleep on it if need be. Ask. Things to remember for the Putnam. What to bring: You should. Â· If you solve a problem, write it up very well (rather than starting a new problem). Grading on the Putnam
Problem Solving in the Professions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jackling, Noel; And Others
1990-01-01
It is proposed that algorithms and heuristics are useful in improving professional problem-solving abilities when contextualized within the academic discipline. A basic algorithm applied to problem solving in undergraduate engineering education and a similar algorithm applicable to legal problems are used as examples. Problem complexity and…
Problem Solving, Scaffolding and Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Shih-Yin
2012-01-01
Helping students to construct robust understanding of physics concepts and develop good solving skills is a central goal in many physics classrooms. This thesis examine students' problem solving abilities from different perspectives and explores strategies to scaffold students' learning. In studies involving analogical problem solving…
Solving Trade Discount Word Problems
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Coonce, Carol
2008-01-01
This learning object from Wisc-Online covers trade discount word problems. The lesson teaches a method of solving these problems which requires students to memorize only one equation. Example problems are included.
Resource Scarcity: Problems Technology Cannot Solve; Problems Technology Can Solve.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meadows, Dennis; Castle, Emery N.
1979-01-01
Lists resource problems technology can and cannot solve, and emphasizes the need for considering and restructuring the social environments and institutions as well as developing new technologies. (CK)
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Thomas Henry Morris
An important part of making a field estimate is being able to give reasonable maximum and minimum values. In order to do this, students need to learn to be consistent in choosing variables when making these calculations. In this exercise the students determine flow velocities of an exhumed fluvial channel in the Jurassic Morrison Formation. They are divided into groups and given only the task without any instruction as to how to go about doing it. The students must collaborate to decide which variables are needed to determine flow velocities. They also must come up with a plan of how to collect the data from the channel and what their data represents. The students then calculate a range of values representing the minimum and maximum flow velocities. In one aspect of the exercise the students are delighted to discover that they are able to make relatively precise quantitative calculations (based on grain size, bedforms, and water depths). However, in another aspect they are challenged with the dilemma of having to make estimations based on very non-quantitative field problems (e.g. channel width). The groups are then asked to report and defend their calculations. The importance of being consistent in choosing variables used to calculate the discharge is discussed (e.g. max., min., etc.). Group dynamics and leadership roles also become obvious during the exercise. The students are given a limited time limit to make their observations and calculations so if the group does not effectively work together it will be difficult to complete their task. For example, while part of the group estimate grain size and flow conditions the other members of the team gather channel width data. The group also selects one team leader to report their findings and works together to defend their calculations.
Problem Solving Framework Read the problem carefully.
Minnesota, University of
Problem Solving Framework Read the problem carefully. Draw a useful picture (sketch) that shows how identified in Step 1. 1. Understand the Problem 2. Analyze the Problem 3. Construct a Solution Apply constraint equations) to eliminate the unwanted unknowns? Use math (algebra/calculus) to solve for target
Creating Expert Problem Solving Systems
David W. Eccles; Paul T. Groth
2005-01-01
This paper describes how human-technology interaction in modern ambient technology environments can be best informed by conceptualizing of such environments as problem solving systems. Typically, such systems comprise multiple human and technological agents that meet the demands imposed by problem constraints through dynamic collaboration. A key assertion is that the design of expert problem solving systems can benefit from an
Algorithms and Problem Solving Introduction
Razak, Saquib
Unit 16 1 Algorithms and Problem Solving · Introduction · What is an Algorithm? · Algorithm Properties · Example · Exercises #12;Unit 16 2 What is an Algorithm? What is an Algorithm? · An algorithm. · The algorithm must be general, that is, it should solve the problem for all possible input sets to the problem
Problem Solving Style, Creative Thinking, and Problem Solving Confidence
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Houtz, John C.; Selby, Edwin C.
2009-01-01
Forty-two undergraduate and graduate students completed VIEW: An Assessment of Problem Solving Style, the non-verbal Torrance Test Thinking Creatively with Pictures, and the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). VIEW assesses individuals' orientation to change, manner of processing, and ways of deciding, while the Torrance test measures several…
Contextual Problem Solving Model Origination
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ernst, Jeremy V.
2009-01-01
Problem solving has become a central focus of instructional activity in technology education classrooms at all levels (Boser, 1993). Impact assessment considerations incorporating society, culture, and economics are factors that require high-level deliberation involving critical thinking and the implementation of problem solving strategy. The…
The Future Problem Solving Program.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crabbe, Anne B.
1989-01-01
Describes the Future Problem Solving Program, in which students from the U.S. and around the world are tackling some complex challenges facing society, ranging from acid rain to terrorism. The program uses a creative problem solving process developed for business and industry. A sixth-grade toxic waste cleanup project illustrates the process.…
Difficulties in Genetics Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tolman, Richard R.
1982-01-01
Examined problem-solving strategies of 30 high school students as they solved genetics problems. Proposes a new sequence of teaching genetics based on results: meiosis, sex chromosomes, sex determination, sex-linked traits, monohybrid and dihybrid crosses (humans), codominance (humans), and Mendel's pea experiments. (JN)
Creative Thinking and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lacy, Grace
The booklet considers the nature of creativity in children and examines classroom implications. Among the topics addressed are the following: theories about creativity; research; developments in brain research; the creative process; creative problem solving; the Structure of Intellect Problem Solving (SIPS) model; a rationale for creativity in the…
Problem Solving vis Soap Bubbles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bader, William A.
1975-01-01
Describes the use of a scientific phenomenon related to the concept of surface tension as an intriguing vehicle to direct attention to useful problem solving techniques. The need for a definite building process in attempts to solve mathematical problems is stressed. (EB)
Wolff-Michael Roth
\\u000a In this Part III, I take a closer look at learning science in an open-inquiry laboratory environment. I particularly focus\\u000a on various aspects of students’ framing of problems and solution finding. That is, we follow students who were faced not with\\u000a preframed problems, but who were in a situation where they had to construct their own problems as well as
Problem Solving 1 Polya's Four Phases of Problem Solving
Lee, Carl
? 2. Devising a Plan. Find the connection between the data and the unknown. You may be obliged some auxiliary element in order to make its use possible? Could you restate the problem? Could you by George Polya called How to Solve It. 1. Understanding the Problem. You have to understand the problem
Solving the Bargaining Problem
Schellenberg, James A.
1990-01-01
problem (in particular, those of Nash, Kalai and Smorodinsky, and Felsenthal and Diskin) are briefly reviewed, and three experiments are described which seek a comparative test of these models. Experimental results fail to provide clear support for any...
Algebra Through Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Hillman, Alexanderson
A non-traditional Algebra text (high school and early college levels) placed on the Web by the Science Education Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Browse it on the Web or download a PDF version. Chapter headings include: The Pascal Triangle; The Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers; Factorials; Arithmetic and Geometric Progressions; Mathematical Induction; The Binomial Theorem; Combinations and Permutations; Polynomial Equations; Determinants; and Inequalities. Problems (and answers to the odd-numbered problems) are provided for each section.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Students apply what they have learned about the engineering design process to a real-life problem that affects them and/or their school. They chose a problem as a group, and then follow the engineering design process to come up with and test their design solution. This activity teaches students how to use the engineering design process while improving something in the school environment that matters to them. By performing each step of the design process, students can experience what it is like to be an engineer.
Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harmel, Sarah Jane
The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Denise
1995-01-01
Reviews several student-tested computer software programs for math instruction: Gameco's "Word Problem Square-Off"; "MathKeys" by MECC and Houghton-Mifflin; Davidson and Associates'"The Cruncher"; and Sunburst Communications'"Exploring Mathematics with Technology: Number and Operation Sense." (HTH)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathematics in School, 1984
1984-01-01
Discusses the development of problem-oriented mathematics materials for a wide variety of students. Materials include teaching guides, student materials, case studies in mathematical modeling, and project activities. Examples of these materials (including a sports-related activity for students who have not had success in mathematics) are provided.…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.
Metaheuristics: Intelligent Problem Solving
Marco Caserta; Stefan Voß
\\u000a Metaheuristics support managers in decision making with robust tools providing high quality solutions to important problems\\u000a in business, engineering, economics and science in reasonable time horizons. While finding exact solutions in these applications\\u000a still poses a real challenge despite the impact of recent advances in computer technology and the great interactions between\\u000a computer science, management science\\/operations research and mathematics, (meta-)
Problem Solving with General Semantics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hewson, David
1996-01-01
Discusses how to use general semantics formulations to improve problem solving at home or at work--methods come from the areas of artificial intelligence/computer science, engineering, operations research, and psychology. (PA)
Problem Solving in Teaching Technology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Esa-Matti Jarvinen (University of Oulu)
2012-01-16
This chapter from the dissertation "Education About and Through Technology: In Search of More Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches to Technology Education" explores the importance and nature of problem solving in technology.
Irrelevance in Problem Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levy, Alon Y.
1992-01-01
The notion of irrelevance underlies many different works in AI, such as detecting redundant facts, creating abstraction hierarchies and reformulation and modeling physical devices. However, in order to design problem solvers that exploit the notion of irrelevance, either by automatically detecting irrelevance or by being given knowledge about irrelevance, a formal treatment of the notion is required. In this paper we present a general framework for analyzing irrelevance. We discuss several properties of irrelevance and show how they vary in a space of definitions outlined by the framework. We show how irrelevance claims can be used to justify the creation of abstractions thereby suggesting a new view on the work on abstraction.
Gowers, P
1984-02-01
Some of the key factors that contribute to an effective immunization program are reviewed, focusing on organization (the cold chain, vaccines, injection equipment, and training) and management. The 3 steps of the organization phase are: to examine the objectives of the plan and the population served, determining what is needed, looking for underserved areas, and calculating the number of immunizations to be given; to determine one 's resources, paying particular attention to transport, referigerators, deep freezes, and infection and sterilization equipment; and to identify what tasks must be performed to achieve program ojectives, realizing that the main areas of concern are the system which ensure that staff have done what is necessary to do the job properly. Organization of the cold chain involves ordering replacements, spare parts, fuel supplies, installation, and monitoring. I for vaccines, different vaccines have different storage requirements, and checklists on correct storage procedures are necessary for each vaccine. The person responsible for storage must also sign for all arriving vaccine and enter it into the stocks. Finally, forms are needed to record vaccine used and individuals immunized. The forms should be simple to use. In terms of injection equipment, it must be determined what is needed, and attention must be paid to the system of ordering, receipt, and storage of equipment. Training should be carried out by supervisors, and the method should be based on teaching the tasks. Regarding management, the District Medical Officer most likely will have overall responsibility. At the community level, shared management, where everyone takes some responsibility and which therefore leads to decisions everyone understands may be best. 1 way to achieve this is to have the staff of each immunization unit meet together as a team, encouraging them to identify and resolve local problems locally. The immunization program requires special supervision because of the different components involved. Someone should be trained as a supervisor and visit several units once every 6 weeks or so to look at the quality of the tasks being performed. By monitoring the process rather than simply the work done, the supervisor should be able to help and support the staff in their work. PMID:12268038
Handbook for Community Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuhn, Sara E.; Rossing, Boyd E.
This handbook is a practical guide that can be used by an individual, group, or group leader in planning an active role in community development. Major topics covered are organizing the group; purpose and structure of your organization; how to identify the problem; planning an active program to solve a community problem; planning a large meeting…
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Sex Differences in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Edward S.
1984-01-01
Nine experiments were performed to verify and extend studies on sex differences in problem solving conducted in the 1950s by Sweeney, Carey, Milton, Nakamura, and Berry. A 20-item problem set was administered to over 1,000 college students. Results indicated a male advantage, averaging 35 percent, virtually identical with 1950s results. (Author/BS)
Robot, computer problem solving system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, J. D.
1972-01-01
The development of a computer problem solving system is reported that considers physical problems faced by an artificial robot moving around in a complex environment. Fundamental interaction constraints with a real environment are simulated for the robot by visual scan and creation of an internal environmental model. The programming system used in constructing the problem solving system for the simulated robot and its simulated world environment is outlined together with the task that the system is capable of performing. A very general framework for understanding the relationship between an observed behavior and an adequate description of that behavior is included.
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center
2009-09-01
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David [IBM Watson Research Center
2007-04-12
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Quantum Computing: Solving Complex Problems
DiVincenzo, David (IBM Watson Research Center) [IBM Watson Research Center
2007-04-11
One of the motivating ideas of quantum computation was that there could be a new kind of machine that would solve hard problems in quantum mechanics. There has been significant progress towards the experimental realization of these machines (which I will review), but there are still many questions about how such a machine could solve computational problems of interest in quantum physics. New categorizations of the complexity of computational problems have now been invented to describe quantum simulation. The bad news is that some of these problems are believed to be intractable even on a quantum computer, falling into a quantum analog of the NP class. The good news is that there are many other new classifications of tractability that may apply to several situations of physical interest.
Teaching Problem-Solving Skills
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-01-01
This webpage offers some basic principles for teaching problem solving that foster critical thinking and decision-making skills. It includes a 5-step implementation model developed by D.R. Woods and a brief list of references. [The Forshay & Kirkley paper is cataloged separately and linked as a related resource.
Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment)
Nizkorodov, Sergey
PSE - 1 Air PSE (Problem Solving Environment) MODELLING OF AIR POLLUTION IN THE LOS ANGELES BASIN WITH AIR PSE Developed by Prof. Donald Dabdub Computational Environmental Sciences Laboratory Mechanical COMPUTER MODELS An air pollution model is a computer program that computes how the different chemical
Customer Service & Team Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Sabrina Budasi
This curriculum guide provides materials for a six-session, site-specific training course in customer service and team problem solving for the Claretian Medical Center. The course outline is followed the six lesson plans. Components of each lesson plan include a list of objectives, an outline of activities and discussion topics for the lesson,…
Solving the problem of writing.
Ferguson, D
1995-04-01
This paper explores the difficulties which some students appear to encounter with written work and recommends the teaching of a problem-solving approach. Exploration of the skills necessary for writing, e.g. language skills and memory functions, highlights the structured format of cognitive processes. Most study skill packages emphasise the need for planning and organising work. It may be that students require more detailed help and guidance in such skills. This paper promotes the teaching to students of a problem-solving approach to written work. We all solve problems every day, many we are completely unaware of. This approach seeks to harness these transferable skills and utilise them in a new area. It can be applied at a macro and at a micro level, i.e. the entire essay/project/report may be planned utilising this approach and then each section or paragraph further planned in the same manner. The use of a mnemonic further aids the student in developing and applying the problem solving approach to written work. PMID:7731439
A Descriptive Study of Cooperative Problem Solving Introductory Physics Labs
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knutson, Paul Aanond
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the ways in which cooperative problem solving in physics instructional laboratories influenced the students' ability to provide qualitative responses to problems. The literature shows that problem solving involves both qualitative and quantitative skills. Qualitative skills are important because those…
Genetics problem solving and worldview
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dale, Esther
The research goal was to determine whether worldview relates to traditional and real-world genetics problem solving. Traditionally, scientific literacy emphasized content knowledge alone because it was sufficient to solve traditional problems. The contemporary definition of scientific literacy is, "The knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision-making, participation in civic and cultural affairs and economic productivity" (NRC, 1996). An expanded definition of scientific literacy is needed to solve socioscientific issues (SSI), complex social issues with conceptual, procedural, or technological associations with science. Teaching content knowledge alone assumes that students will find the scientific explanation of a phenomenon to be superior to a non-science explanation. Formal science and everyday ways of thinking about science are two different cultures (Palmer, 1999). Students address this rift with cognitive apartheid, the boxing away of science knowledge from other types of knowledge (Jedege & Aikenhead, 1999). By addressing worldview, cognitive apartheid may decrease and scientific literacy may increase. Introductory biology students at the University of Minnesota during fall semester 2005 completed a written questionnaire-including a genetics content-knowledge test, four genetic dilemmas, the Worldview Assessment Instrument (WAI) and some items about demographics and religiosity. Six students responded to the interview protocol. Based on statistical analysis and interview data, this study concluded the following: (1) Worldview, in the form of metaphysics, relates to solving traditional genetic dilemmas. (2) Worldview, in the form of agency, relates to solving traditional genetics problems. (3) Thus, worldview must be addressed in curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Journey toward Teaching Mathematics through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sakshaug, Lynae E.; Wohlhuter, Kay A.
2010-01-01
Teaching mathematics through problem solving is a challenge for teachers who learned mathematics by doing exercises. How do teachers develop their own problem solving abilities as well as their abilities to teach mathematics through problem solving? A group of teachers began the journey of learning to teach through problem solving while taking a…
Calculator solves pipe flow problems
Verma, C.P.
1980-07-28
For facilitating pipe-flow calculations that involve the horizontal flow of constant-density fluids, a simple program tailored to the TI-59 hand-held calculator uses the Darcy pressure-drop formula (modified for expressing the friction factor) to compute the unknown parameter needed to solve the fluid problem. Instead of several friction-factor equations applicable only in the individual flow regimes, the program uses a single, full-range friction-factor equation with three sets of coefficients to suit the conditions of the problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slavkin, Michael
What impact do gender roles and self-esteem have on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities? Bronfenbrenner's human ecology model and Barker's behavior setting theory were used to assess how environmental contexts relate to problem solving in scientific contexts. These models also provided improved methodology and increased understanding of these constructs when compared with prior research. Early adolescent girls gender roles and self-esteem were found to relate to differences in problem solving in science-related groups. Specifically, early adolescent girls' gender roles were associated with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive affect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments. Also, levels of early adolescent girls self-esteem were related to verbal expression and dominance in peer groups. Girls with high self-esteem also were more verbally expressive and had higher levels of dominance during science experiments. The dominant model of a masculine-typed and feminine-typed dichotomy of problem solving based on previous literature was not effective in Identifying differences within girls' problem solving. Such differences in the results of these studies may be the result of this study's use of observational measures and analysis of the behavior settings in which group members participated. Group behavior and problem-solving approaches of early adolescent girls seemed most likely to be defined by environmental contexts, not governed solely by the personalities of participants. A discussion for the examination of environmental factors when assessing early adolescent girls' gender roles and self-esteem follows this discussion.
The Effects of Age on Perceptual Problem-Solving Strategies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Jo Ann; Pollack, Robert H.
Witkin's Embedded Figures Test (EFT) was used to measure the changes with age in field dependence and problem-solving ability. Qualitative data concerning problem-solving strategies and quantitative data were collected. EFT was administered to 12 females in each of the following decades: 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s. All subjects were moderately…
Teaching Problem Solving to College Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malouff, John M.
2011-01-01
This article describes steps of teaching problem solving to college students and provides examples in the context of a university course. The steps involve (1) identifying the types of problems and types of problem solving methods to be covered, (2) instructing the students in problem-recognition and problem solving methods, along with ways of…
Appropriate Combinations of Technology for Solving Landscape Management Problems--
Appropriate Combinations of Technology for Solving Landscape Management Problems-- Session J: Timber Management Scenic Beauty Estimation Model: Predicting Perceived Beauty of Forest Landscapes1 2 management programs on landscape scenic beauty. Scenic beauty is assessed in terms of quantitative indices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slavkin, Michael
2001-01-01
Investigates the role of gender and self-esteem on early adolescent girls' abilities to solve problems when participating in natural science-related activities. Reports girls' gender role association with levels of verbal expression, expression of positive effect, dominance, and supportive behavior during science experiments as well as dominance…
Solving the Dark Matter Problem
Baltz, Ted
2009-09-01
Cosmological observations have firmly established that the majority of matter in the universe is of an unknown type, called 'dark matter'. A compelling hypothesis is that the dark matter consists of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the mass range around 100 GeV. If the WIMP hypothesis is correct, such particles could be created and studied at accelerators. Furthermore they could be directly detected as the primary component of our galaxy. Solving the dark matter problem requires that the connection be made between the two. We describe some theoretical and experimental avenues that might lead to this connection.
Beamer graphics problem solved Abhijit Champanerkar
Champanerkar, Abhijit
Beamer graphics problem solved Abhijit Champanerkar College of Staten Island, CUNY January 15, 2009 Abhijit Champanerkar (CSI, CUNY) Beamer graphics problem solved #12;I wanted to get the following and not on a Mac :( Abhijit Champanerkar (CSI, CUNY) Beamer graphics problem solved #12;Graphics Problem: Figure
Developing Problem Solving Skills for Life
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Michelle Pauls
2013-04-02
In this blog post the author explores another tool for the problem-solving toolbox: Wish for an easier problem. Within the post a story problem is presented and examples of ways students could use this strategy are shown. Also included is a link to an AIMS problem solving activity, "One Step at a Time" that is best solved utilizing this strategy.
Problem Solving with the Elementary Youngster.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swartz, Vicki
This paper explores research on problem solving and suggests a problem-solving approach to elementary school social studies, using a culture study of the ancient Egyptians and King Tut as a sample unit. The premise is that problem solving is particularly effective in dealing with problems which do not have one simple and correct answer but rather…
Creative Problem Solving for the Virtual Storyteller
Theune, Mariët
Creative Problem Solving for the Virtual Storyteller Students: Niels Bloom, Joost Vromen to known fairytales, and will use the Creative Problem Solver to solve problems for both the plot agent ............................................................................................ 5 2.3. A Model for Creative Problem Solving .................................................... 8 2
Research on Computers and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burton, John K.; And Others
1988-01-01
Eight articles review and report on research involving computers and problem solving skills. Topics discussed include research design; problem solving skills and programing languages, including BASIC and LOGO; computer anxiety; diagnostic programs for arithmetic problems; and relationships between ability and problem solving scores and between…
Grade 1 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
This is a set of 46 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include applications of basic operations, multistep problems, and comparing quantities and attributes.
Using Logo to Develop Problem Solving Skills.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Denenberg, Stewart A.
1993-01-01
Proposes using computer programing teaching problem solving. Describes the problem-solving technique of Top-Down Design, discusses its application to LOGO, and provides examples of programs using LOGO. (MDH)
Statistical Education Through Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Statistical Education Through Problem Solving (STEPS) was a collaborative project between seven universities throughout the United Kingdom "to develop problem-based teaching and learning materials for statistics." The materials draw on specific problems arising in Biology, Business, Geography and Psychology to help students learn that statistical issues are "important natural parts of the process of reaching conclusions." The software developed as a result of this project, which utilizes the computer and graphical illustration to support learning, is available to educational institutions free of charge and can be downloaded from this website. (Note that other organizations are expected to purchase the software.) A glossary of statistical terms is provided in the software program as well as on this website. Although the funding for the project ended in 1995 and the website was last updated in January 2004, the material is still current and useful for teaching statistics. The authors note that the STEPS modules are intended to be used to support existing coursework, and "not intended to replace lecturing staff or to provide a self-study course in statistics."
Flexibility in Problem Solving: The Case of Equation Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2008-01-01
A key learning outcome in problem-solving domains is the development of flexible knowledge, where learners know multiple strategies and adaptively choose efficient strategies. Two interventions hypothesized to improve flexibility in problem solving were experimentally evaluated: prompts to discover multiple strategies and direct instruction on…
Physics Problem Solving Research Using Protocols.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brekke, Stewart E.
This paper presents an overview of research on physics problem solving using verbal protocols. It asserts that the understanding of physics problem solving strategies enables researchers to write computer programs, which can automatically solve physics problems without the users having to be experts in physics. This, in turn, can generate more…
Evaluating Research in Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Evaluating Research in Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving Keith S. Decker Edmund H. Durfee Research under Contract NR049-041. 0 #12;Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving (CDPS) is a new field Distributed Problem Solving (CDPS) is a new field that has not yet established critical research mass, so
Solving Generalized Small Inverse Problems Noboru Kunihiro
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Solving Generalized Small Inverse Problems Noboru Kunihiro The University of Tokyo, Japan kunihiro@k.u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract. We introduce a "generalized small inverse problem (GSIP)" and present an algorithm for solving such that the target problem can be solved in polynomial time in log M in an explicit form. Since GSIPs in- clude some
Evaluating Research in Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving
Massachusetts at Amherst, University of
Evaluating Research in Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving Keith S. Decker Edmund H. Durfee Research under Contract NR049041. 0 #12; Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving (CDPS) is a new field Cooperative Distributed Problem Solving (CDPS) is a new field that has not yet established critical research
Problem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards
Lee, Carl
Problem Solving 1 NCTM National Mathematics Standards The following comes from the website- tion. The level of mathematical thinking and problem solving needed in the workplace has increased a new set of mathematics basics that enable them to compute fluently and to solve problems creatively
Creative Problem Solving in Quality Circles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ball, Geoffrey H.
One of a series of seven guides to developing the skills of quality circle members, this workbook is intended to introduce participants in creative problem solving workshops to literature on the subject as well as to provide tools for creative problem-solving. Contents include introductory activities, an overview of creative problem-solving, and…
The Important Thing about Teaching Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberts, Sally K.
2010-01-01
The author teaches a content course in problem solving for middle school teachers. During the course, teacher candidates have the opportunity to confront their insecurities as they actively engage in solving math problems using a variety of strategies. As the semester progresses, they add new strategies to their problem-solving arsenal and…
Problem Solving Appraisal of Delinquent Adolescents.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perez, Ruperto M.; And Others
The study investigated the following: (1) the relationship of problem solving appraisal to narcissistic vulnerability, locus of control, and depression; (2) the differences in problem solving appraisal, locus of control, and depression in first-time and repeat offenders; and (3) the prediction of problem solving appraisal by narcissistic…
LEGO Robotics: An Authentic Problem Solving Tool?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Castledine, Alanah-Rei; Chalmers, Chris
2011-01-01
With the current curriculum focus on correlating classroom problem solving lessons to real-world contexts, are LEGO robotics an effective problem solving tool? This present study was designed to investigate this question and to ascertain what problem solving strategies primary students engaged with when working with LEGO robotics and whether the…
Perspectives on Problem Solving and Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.
2013-01-01
Most educators claim that problem solving is important, but they take very different perspective on it and there is little agreement on how it should be taught. This article aims to sort out the different perspectives and discusses problem solving as a goal, a method, and a skill. As a goal, problem solving should not be limited to well-structured…
Fibonacci's Triangle: A Vehicle for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ouellette, Hugh
1979-01-01
A method for solving certain types of problems is illustrated by problems related to Fibonacci's triangle. The method involves pattern recognition, generalizing, algebraic manipulation, and mathematical induction. (MP)
Exploring the Episodic Structure of Algebra Story Problem Solving. Revised.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall Rogers; And Others
This paper analyzes the quantitative and situational structure of algebra story problems, uses these materials to propose an interpretive framework for written problem soving protocols, and then presents an exploratory study of the episodic structure of algebra story problem solving in a sizable group of mathematically competent subjects. Analyses…
Community-powered problem solving.
Gouillart, Francis; Billings, Douglas
2013-04-01
Traditionally, companies have managed their constituencies with specific processes: marketing to customers, procuring from vendors, developing HR policies for employees, and so on. The problem is, such processes focus on repeatability and compliance, so they can lead to stagnation. Inviting your constituencies to collectively help you solve problems and exploit opportunities--"co-creation"--is a better approach. It allows you to continually tap the skills and insights of huge numbers of stakeholders and develop new ways to produce value for all. The idea is to provide stakeholders with platforms (physical and digital forums) on which they can interact, get them to start exploring new experiences and connections, and let the system grow organically. A co-creation initiative by a unit of Becton, Dickinson and Company demonstrates how this works. A global leader in syringes, BD set out to deepen its ties with hospital customers and help them reduce the incidence of infections from unsafe injection and syringe disposal practices. The effort began with a cross-functional internal team, brought in the hospital procurement and supply managers BD had relationships with, and then reached out to hospitals' infection-prevention and occupational health leaders. Eventually product designers, nurses, sustainability staffers, and even hospital CFOs were using the platform, contributing data that generated new best practices and reduced infections. PMID:23593769
Grade 2 Practice Problems: Reasoning, Problem Solving & Communication
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
This is a set of 13 problems that focus on reasoning and problem solving skills. Successful solving requires careful reading of the problems. Math content topics include basic operations, counting, halving and doubling, money and measuring.
Solving Stochastic Inverse Problems: A Sparse Grid
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
Solving Stochastic Inverse Problems: A Sparse Grid Collocation Approach N. Zabaras Cornell to large scale problems. To solve large-scale problems involving high-dimensional stochastic spaces (in Methods for Large-Scale Inverse Problems and Quantification of Uncertainity. Edited by People on Earth c
Consider a spherical cow: A course in environmental problem solving
Harte, J.
1985-01-01
This book explores a variety of techniques for approaching contemporary environmental issues and provides a diverse course of participatory training in environmental problem solving. Using a case study method, the book describes challenging, real-world situations and provides worked-out solutions to illustrate the heuristics of environmental problem solving and to stimulate thinking - both quantitative and creative - across a broad range of environmental concerns, including energy and water resources, food production, indoor air pollution, and acid rain.
How To Solve Typical School Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ohle, Nancy; Morley, Cindy Lakin
This book presents interactive problem-solving situations based on the principles of Total Quality Management. Following the introductory chapter, the second chapter describes the two stages of the problem-solving process: (1) analysis of the problem and its causes, and (2) identification of a solution. Each stage is comprised of three…
Mathematical Problem Solving for Elementary School Teachers
Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut
Mathematical Problem Solving for Elementary School Teachers Dennis E. White April 15, 2013 #12;ii to the interconnection of ideas, to the communication of mathematics and to problem solving skills. Material in these notes interconnect in various ways. Many problems emphasize communicating mathematical ideas both orally
Distributed problem solving by pilots and dispatchers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orasanu, Judith; Wich, Mike; Fischer, Ute; Jobe, Kim; Mccoy, Elaine; Beatty, Roger; Smith, Phil
1993-01-01
The study addressed the following question: Are flight planning problems solved differently by PILOTS and DISPATCHERS when they work alone versus when they work together? Aspect of their performance that were of interest include the following: Problem perception and definition; Problem solving strategies and information use; Options considered; Solution and rational; and errors.
Could HPS Improve Problem-Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coelho, Ricardo Lopes
2013-01-01
It is generally accepted nowadays that History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) is useful in understanding scientific concepts, theories and even some experiments. Problem-solving strategies are a significant topic, since students' careers depend on their skill to solve problems. These are the reasons for addressing the question of whether problem…
General Description of Human Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein, Gary A.; Weitzenfeld, Julian
A theoretical model relating problem identification to problem solving is presented. The main purpose of the study is to increase understanding of decision making among Air Force educators. The problem-solving process is defined as the generation and evaluation of alternatives that will accomplish what is needed and the reidentification of what is…
Problem Solving for the Primary Grades.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruni, James V.
1982-01-01
Defines the concept of problem and notes that primary-grade teachers need to help nurture problem-solving skills. Discusses six practical ways instructors can promote such skills and views the ability and willingness of teachers to transform typical activities into problem-solving opportunities as essential. (MP)
Authentic assessment of students' problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Qing; Heller, Kenneth; Hsu, Leonardo; Aryal, Bijaya
2013-01-01
Improving curricular materials and practices aimed at complex cognitive processes such as problem solving requires careful planning and useful tools for assessment. To illustrate the challenges of measuring a change in students' problem solving in physics, we present the results of and a reflection on a pilot assessment of the effectiveness of computer problem-solving coaches [1] in a large (200+ student) section of an introductory physics course.
Problem-Solving Test: Pyrosequencing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2013-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Maxam-Gilbert sequencing, Sanger sequencing, gel electrophoresis, DNA synthesis reaction, polymerase chain reaction, template, primer, DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, orthophosphate, pyrophosphate, nucleoside monophosphates, luminescence, acid anhydride bond,…
Mobile serious games for collaborative problem solving.
Sanchez, Jaime; Mendoza, Claudia; Salinas, Alvaro
2009-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained from the implementation of a series of learning activities based on mobile serious games (MSG) for the development of problem-solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students, who had to solve the problems posed by the game collaboratively. The data shows that the experimental group had a higher perception of their own skills of collaboration and of the plan execution dimension of problem solving than the control group, providing empirical evidence regarding the contribution of MSGs to the development of collaborative problem-solving skills. PMID:19592762
Problem Solving, Patterns, Probability, Pascal, and Palindromes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hylton-Lindsay, Althea Antoinette
2003-01-01
Presents a problem-solving activity, the birth order problem, and several solution-seeking strategies. Includes responses of current and prospective teachers and a comparison of various strategies. (YDS)
Common Core: Solve Math Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strom, Erich
2012-01-01
The new common core standards for mathematics demand that students (and teachers!) exhibit deeper conceptual understanding. That's music to the ears of education professor John Tapper, who says teachers have overemphasized teaching procedures--and getting right answers. In his new book, "Solving for Why," he makes a powerful case for moving beyond…
Problem Solving Skills for Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Youngs, Bettie B.
This guide was written for children, to help them handle problems they might encounter, learn about other children and how they have handled similar problems, and learn what to do when things go wrong or when they feel misunderstood. In the introduction, children are assured that, even when they have problems, they can be happy again. The body of…
Taking "From Scratch" out of Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brown, Wayne
2007-01-01
Solving problems and creating processes and procedures from the ground up has long been part of the IT department's way of operating. IT staffs will continue to encounter new problems to solve and new technologies to be implemented. They also must involve their constituents in the creation of solutions. Nonetheless, for many issues they no longer…
Can Television Enhance Children's Mathematical Problem Solving?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisch, Shalom M.; And Others
1994-01-01
A summative evaluation of "Square One TV," an educational mathematics series produced by the Children's Television Workshop, shows that children who regularly viewed the program showed significant improvement in solving unfamiliar, complex mathematical problems, and viewers showed improvement in their mathematical problem-solving ability…
Metacognition: Student Reflections on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wismath, Shelly; Orr, Doug; Good, Brandon
2014-01-01
Twenty-first century teaching and learning focus on the fundamental skills of critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and collaboration and communication. Metacognition is a crucial aspect of both problem solving and critical thinking, but it is often difficult to get students to engage in authentic metacognitive…
Mathematical Problem Solving through Sequential Process Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Codina, A.; Cañadas, M. C.; Castro, E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: The macroscopic perspective is one of the frameworks for research on problem solving in mathematics education. Coming from this perspective, our study addresses the stages of thought in mathematical problem solving, offering an innovative approach because we apply sequential relations and global interrelations between the different…
Scaffolding Online Argumentation during Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oh, S.; Jonassen, D. H.
2007-01-01
In this study, constraint-based argumentation scaffolding was proposed to facilitate online argumentation performance and ill-structured problem solving during online discussions. In addition, epistemological beliefs were presumed to play a role in solving ill-structured diagnosis-solution problems. Constraint-based discussion boards were…
VCU SchoolofEngineering Solving Global Problems
Motai, Yuichi
VCU SchoolofEngineering Solving Global Problems Embracing International Partners Vo l u m e f o u r canbecollectedindifferent geometriestoformascaffoldto grownewtissue. #12;solving Global problems embracing international, entitled "Scaffold Characterization of Electrospun Novel Poly(ester-ether) Copolymers: 1,4-Dioxan-2-one
Creative Problem Solving Through Music Activities.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hitz, Randy
1987-01-01
Maintains that young children can develop creative problem-solving skills through such music activities as finger plays and action songs, music games, writing words for songs, and composing melodies. Also suggests ways that teachers can establish and maintain an environment that enables children to solve problems creatively through music. (BB)
Emotion dysregulation, problem-solving, and hopelessness.
Vatan, Sevginar; Lester, David; Gunn, John F
2014-04-01
A sample of 87 Turkish undergraduate students was administered scales to measure hopelessness, problem-solving skills, emotion dysregulation, and psychiatric symptoms. All of the scores from these scales were strongly associated. In a multiple regression, hopelessness scores were predicted by poor problem-solving skills and emotion dysregulation. PMID:24897914
Problem Solving Software for Math Classes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Troutner, Joanne
1987-01-01
Described are 10 computer software programs for problem solving related to mathematics. Programs described are: (1) Box Solves Story Problems; (2) Safari Search; (3) Puzzle Tanks; (4) The King's Rule; (5) The Factory; (6) The Royal Rules; (7) The Enchanted Forest; (8) Gears; (9) The Super Factory; and (10) Creativity Unlimited. (RH)
Problem Solving Software: What Does It Teach?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Duffield, Judith A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for teaching problem solving skills. It was conducted in three phases. During the first phase, two pieces of problem solving software, "The King's Rule" and "Safari Search," were identified and analyzed. During the second phase, two groups of six…
Mathematics Teachers Circle around Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fernandes, Anthony; Koehler, Jacob; Reiter, Harold
2011-01-01
Making problem solving a central part of teaching may be challenging to teachers who have limited experiences in learning and teaching mathematics in this way. Math Teachers' Circles were developed with the aim of establishing a "culture of problem solving" among middle school mathematics teachers. This culture could then be carried back into…
Dynamic Problem Solving: A New Assessment Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiff, Samuel; Wustenberg, Sascha; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This article addresses two unsolved measurement issues in dynamic problem solving (DPS) research: (a) unsystematic construction of DPS tests making a comparison of results obtained in different studies difficult and (b) use of time-intensive single tasks leading to severe reliability problems. To solve these issues, the MicroDYN approach is…
How To Evaluate Progress in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Charles, Randall; And Others
With the increased emphasis on teaching problem solving in mathematics has come the challenge of developing new techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of such instruction. This booklet is an attempt to provide teachers with ways to give credit for a good problem solving strategy, and yet deduct for an incorrect answer. The document provides…
Children Solving Problems. The Developing Child Series.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thornton, Stephanie
The developmental increase in the ability to solve problems is a puzzle. Does it come from basic changes in mental skills, or is it a matter of practice? This book from the Developing Child series synthesizes recent research examining children's problem-solving skills development. Chapter 1 presents the major themes: (1) there is increasing…
Interpersonal Problem Solving in Preschool Aged Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J.
This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive…
Personality, Problem Solving, and Adolescent Substance Use
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jaffee, William B.; D'Zurilla, Thomas J.
2009-01-01
The major aim of this study was to examine the role of social problem solving in the relationship between personality and substance use in adolescents. Although a number of studies have identified a relationship between personality and substance use, the precise mechanism by which this occurs is not clear. We hypothesized that problem-solving…
A Multivariate Model of Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Farley, John
2013-01-01
A model of expertise in physics problem solving was tested on undergraduate science, physics, and engineering majors enrolled in an introductory-level physics course. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expertise in physics problem solving including motivation, metacognitive planning,…
Mathematical Problem Solving. Issues in Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lester, Frank K., Jr., Ed.; Garofalo, Joe, Ed.
This set of papers was originally developed for a conference on Issues and Directions in Mathematics Problem Solving Research held at Indiana University in May 1981. The purpose is to contribute to the clear formulation of the key issues in mathematical problem-solving research by presenting the ideas of actively involved researchers. An…
Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda
2008-01-01
This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)
Problem Solving Academic Resource Center
Heller, Barbara
very helpful, especially in problems that require you to take one set of dimensions (eg grams) and find another dimension (eg number of entities). This allows you to trace out the problem and find the numbers 2. Absolute temperature can never be below 0 3. Violates definition of an element. You cannot have 1
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
Designed for teachers of intermediate elementary grades to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. The interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) program includes both…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kamis, Arnold; Khan, Beverly K.
2009-01-01
How do we model and improve technical problem solving, such as network subnetting? This paper reports an experimental study that tested several hypotheses derived from Kolb's experiential learning cycle and Huber's problem solving model. As subjects solved a network subnetting problem, they mapped their mental processes according to Huber's…
Lesion mapping of social problem solving
Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J.; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H.
2014-01-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Lesion mapping of social problem solving.
Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H
2014-10-01
Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. PMID:25070511
Solving the Tulsa ozone problem
Wagner, K.K. [Atmospheric Information Systems, Norman, OK (United States); Wilson, J.D. [Wilson Consulting Group, Tulsa, OK (United States); Gibeau, E. [Aeromet Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)
1998-12-31
Local governments and interested parties in Tulsa, Oklahoma are planning actions to keep Tulsa in compliance with the ozone ambient air quality standard. Based on recent data Tulsa exceeds the new eight hour average national ambient air quality standard for ozone and occasionally exceeds the previous one hour standard. Currently, Tulsa is in attainment of the former one-hour ozone standard. The first planning step is to integrate the existing information about Tulsa`s ozone problem. Prior studies of Tulsa ozone are reviewed. Tulsa`s recent air quality and meteorological monitoring are evaluated. Emission inventory estimates are assessed. Factors identified with Tulsa`s ozone problem are the transport of ozone and precursor gases, a possible role for biogenic emissions, and a simplistic ozone forecasting method. The integration of information found that current air quality and meteorological monitoring is meager. Observations of volatile organic compounds and NO{sub y} are absent. Prior intensive studies in 1977 and 1985 are more than ten years old and lack relevance to today`s problem. Emission inventory estimates are scarce and uncertain. The current knowledge base was judged inadequate to properly characterize the present ozone problem. Actions are recommended to enlarge the information base to address Tulsa`s ozone problem.
Environmental problem-solving: Psychosocial factors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Alan
1982-11-01
This is a study of individual differences in environmental problem-solving, the probable roots of these differences, and their implications for the education of resource professionals. A group of student Resource Managers were required to elaborate their conception of a complex resource issue (Spruce Budworm management) and to generate some ideas on management policy. Of particular interest was the way in which subjects dealt with the psychosocial aspects of the problem. A structural and content analysis of responses indicated a predominance of relatively compartmentalized styles, a technological orientation, and a tendency to ignore psychosocial issues. A relationship between problem-solving behavior and personal (psychosocial) style was established which, in the context of other evidence, suggests that problem-solving behavior is influenced by more deep seated personality factors. The educational implication drawn was that problem-solving cannot be viewed simply as an intellectual-technical activity but one that involves, and requires the education of, the whole person.
Group Mirrors to Support Interaction Regulation in Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jermann, Patrick; Dillenbourg, Pierre
2008-01-01
Two experimental studies test the effect of group mirrors upon quantitative and qualitative aspects of participation in collaborative problem solving. Mirroring tools consist of a graphical representation of the group's actions which is dynamically updated and displayed to the collaborators. In addition, metacognitive tools display a standard for…
College Students Solving Chemistry Problems: A Theoretical Model of Expertise
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Glynn, Shawn M.
2009-01-01
A model of expertise in chemistry problem solving was tested on undergraduate science majors enrolled in a chemistry course. The model was based on Anderson's "Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational" (ACT-R) theory. The model shows how conceptualization, self-efficacy, and strategy interact and contribute to the successful solution of quantitative,…
Problem Solving as Home: School Strategy and Research Methodology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Heywood-Everett, Gary
1998-01-01
Researchers with the Parents and Schools Project funded by the European Union worked to find a strategy for the enhancement of home: school partnership. A problem-solving activity that was developed is described. This priority diamond exercise helps gather qualitative and quantitative data to promote dialog between schools and parents. (SLD)
(George Plya) problem solving1963...
Siu, M.K.
Press. Fung, C.I. (2004). How history fuels teaching for mathematising: Some personal reflections the problem is not the question and the solution is not the answer: Mathematical knowing and teaching teaching, American Mathematical Monthly, 70, 605-619. Robson, E. (2001). Neither Sherlock Holmes nor
Building Confidence through Problem Solving
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-01-01
This 14-minute video demonstrates how students learn to persevere through challenging number puzzles and games. Headteacher Kate Frood discusses her philosophy and models teaching children to use core multiplication facts as tools for more complex problems. She differentiates tasks to accommodate advanced and struggling learners.
Sour landfill gas problem solved
Nagl, G.; Cantrall, R. [Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems, Inc., Schaumburg, IL (United States)
1996-05-01
In Broward County, Fla., near Pompano Beach, Waste Management of North America (WMNA, a subsidiary of WMX Technologies, Oak Brook, IL) operates the Central Sanitary Landfill and Recycling Center, which includes the country`s largest landfill gas-to-energy plant. The landfill consists of three collection sites: one site is closed, one is currently receiving garbage, and one will open in the future. Approximately 9 million standard cubic feet (scf) per day of landfill gas is collected from approximately 300 wells spread over the 250-acre landfill. With a dramatic increase of sulfur-containing waste coming to a South Florida landfill following Hurricane Andrew, odors related to hydrogen sulfide became a serious problem. However, in a matter of weeks, an innovative desulfurization unit helped calm the landfill operator`s fears. These very high H{sub 2}S concentrations caused severe odor problems in the surrounding residential area, corrosion problems in the compressors, and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission problems in the exhaust gas from the turbine generators.
Problem Solving through an Optimization Problem in Geometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poon, Kin Keung; Wong, Hang-Chi
2011-01-01
This article adapts the problem-solving model developed by Polya to investigate and give an innovative approach to discuss and solve an optimization problem in geometry: the Regiomontanus Problem and its application to football. Various mathematical tools, such as calculus, inequality and the properties of circles, are used to explore and reflect…
Solving Domination Problems with Mathematical Programming
van der Torre, Leon
Solving Domination Problems with Mathematical Programming Team Meeting Ad hoc 2010.01.25 Julien of optimization problems 4 Why these problems? Dominating Sets (DS) and its variants Connected Dominating Sets, they are often used to create virtual backbones Why this approach? #12;Definition: Dominating Set 5 A Dominating
Problem Solving: Can Anybody Do It?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Stuart W.
2008-01-01
This paper examines the definition of a problem and at the process of problem solving. An analysis of a number of first and third year chemistry examination papers from English universities revealed that over ninety per cent of the "problems" fell into the "algorithm" category. Using Bloom's taxonomy and the same examination papers, we found that…
Towards Automated Training of Legal Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muntjewerff, Antoinette J.
An examination of Dutch research on legal case solving revealed that few law students get systematic instruction or testing in the technique of legal problem solving. The research being conducted at the Department of Computer Science and Law at the University of Amsterdam focuses on identifying the different functions in legal reasoning tasks in…
Inductive Influence of Related Quantitative and Conceptual Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dukes, Phillip; Pritchard, David E.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia
This paper addresses two questions: "Does conceptual understanding help students solve related quantitative problems?" and "Does working through a quantitative problem help students understand the concepts involved?" A class of approximately 100 students was split into two equally skillful groups, A and B. Group A was administered a tutorial…
Photoreactors for Solving Problems of Environmental Pollution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Sokolova, I. V.
2015-04-01
Designs and physical aspects of photoreactors, their capabilities for a study of kinetics and mechanisms of processes proceeding under illumination with light, as well as application of photoreactors for solving various applied problem are discussed.
On Solving the Coronal Heating Problem
James A. Klimchuk
2006-03-09
This article assesses the current state of understanding of coronal heating, outlines the key elements of a comprehensive strategy for solving the problem, and warns of obstacles that must be overcome along the way.
Social Influences on Children's Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Perlmutter, Marion; And Others
1989-01-01
Three studies examined effects of peer interaction on the problem solving of 150 children of 4-11 years. Age, task complexity, and task familiarity were found to qualify effects of peer interaction on motivation and learning. (RJC)
An Alternate Path To Stoichiometric Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen
1997-01-01
Discusses an alternate path to teaching introductory stoichiometry based on research findings. The recommendation is to use problems that can be solved easily by rapid mental calculation as well as by pure logic. (AIM)
Solving scientific problems on hypercube parallel computers
Ward, R.C.
1986-01-01
This paper discusses the need of a hypercube parallel computer (or supercomputer) in solving new scientific problems. Performance and efficiency are discussed along with certain applications. 4 refs. (LSP)
Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taconis, R.; Ferguson-Hessler, M. G. M.; Broekkamp, H.
2001-04-01
The traditional approach to teaching science problem solving is having the students work individually on a large number of problems. This approach has long been overtaken by research suggesting and testing other methods, which are expected to be more effective. To get an overview of the characteristics of good and innovative problem-solving teaching strategies, we performed an analysis of a number of articles published between 1985 and 1995 in high-standard international journals, describing experimental research into the effectiveness of a wide variety of teaching strategies for science problem solving. To characterize the teaching strategies found, we used a model of the capacities needed for effective science problem solving, composed of a knowledge base and a skills base. The relations between the cognitive capacities required by the experimental or control treatments and those of the model were specified and used as independent variables. Other independent variables were learning conditions such as feedback and group work. As a dependent variable we used standardized learning effects. We identified 22 articles describing 40 experiments that met the standards we deemed necessary for a meta-analysis. These experiments were analyzed both with quantitative (correlational) methods and with a systematic qualitative method. A few of the independent variables were found to characterize effective strategies for teaching science problem solving. Effective treatments all gave attention to the structure and function (the schemata) of the knowledge base, whereas attention to knowledge of strategy and the practice of problem solving turned out to have little effect. As for learning conditions, both providing the learners with guidelines and criteria they can use in judging their own problem-solving process and products, and providing immediate feedback to them were found to be important prerequisites for the acquisition of problem-solving skills. Group work did not lead to positive effects unless combined with other variables, such as guidelines and feedback.
Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angseesing, J. P. A.
1978-01-01
It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)
Teacher Training as Collaborative Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barojas, Jorge
2004-01-01
A problem solving protocol is described and then applied to a teacher training problematic situation in science and technology education. The problem consists of improving a learning community involved in education research, development and communication. Some remarks concerning the strengths and limitations of using the protocol are made in…
Language and mathematical problem solving among bilinguals.
Bernardo, Allan B I
2002-05-01
Does using a bilingual's 1st or 2nd language have an effect on problem solving in semantically rich domains like school mathematics? The author conducted a study to determine whether Filipino-English bilingual students' understanding and solving of word problems in arithmetic differed when the problems were in the students' 1st and 2nd languages. Two groups participated-students whose 1st language was Filipino and students whose 1st language was English-and easy and difficult arithmetic problems were used. The author used a recall paradigm to assess how students understood the word problems and coded the solution accuracy to assess problem solving. The results indicated a 1st-language advantage; that is, the students were better able to understand and solve problems in their 1st language, whether the 1st language was English or Filipino. Moreover, the advantage was more marked with the easy problems. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. PMID:12206277
Component Architectures for Distributed Scientific Problem Solving
Govindaraju, Madhusudhan
Component Architectures for Distributed Scientific Problem Solving D. Gannon, R. Bramley, T scientific software code base as components of larger problem solutions. In this paper, we survey the design issues and theory of component based software. To illustrate the ideas we also present a prototype
Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.
2005-01-01
This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…
Using Bibliotherapy To Teach Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Forgan, James W.
2002-01-01
This article discusses how students with high-incidence disabilities can benefit from using bibliotherapy by learning to become proactive problem solvers. A sample lesson plan is presented based on a teaching framework for bibliotherapy and problem solving that contains the elements of prereading, guided reading, post-reading discussion, and a…
Teaching Teamwork and Problem Solving Concurrently
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goltz, Sonia M.; Hietapelto, Amy B.; Reinsch, Roger W.; Tyrell, Sharon K.
2008-01-01
Teamwork and problem-solving skills have frequently been identified by business leaders as being key competencies; thus, teaching methods such as problem-based learning and team-based learning have been developed. However, the focus of these methods has been on teaching one skill or the other. A key argument for teaching the skills concurrently is…
Teacher Learning on Problem-Solving Teams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gregory, Anne
2010-01-01
Problem-solving teams address student difficulties. Teams comprised of teachers, specialists, and administrators identify the student problem, develop individualized interventions, and assess student change. Teacher experiences of teams are understudied. In a prospective, mixed-method study conducted in the United States, 34 teachers were followed…
Using CAS to Solve Classical Mathematics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burke, Maurice J.; Burroughs, Elizabeth A.
2009-01-01
Historically, calculus has displaced many algebraic methods for solving classical problems. This article illustrates an algebraic method for finding the zeros of polynomial functions that is closely related to Newton's method (devised in 1669, published in 1711), which is encountered in calculus. By exploring this problem, precalculus students…
Pose and Solve Varignon Converse Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Contreras, José N.
2014-01-01
The activity of posing and solving problems can enrich learners' mathematical experiences because it fosters a spirit of inquisitiveness, cultivates their mathematical curiosity, and deepens their views of what it means to do mathematics. To achieve these goals, a mathematical problem needs to be at the appropriate level of difficulty,…
Model Formulation for Physics Problem Solving. Draft.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Novak, Gordon S., Jr.
The major task in solving a physics problem is to construct an appropriate model of the problem in terms of physical principles. The functions performed by such a model, the information which needs to be represented, and the knowledge used in selecting and instantiating an appropriate model are discussed. An example of a model for a mechanics…
Preservice Teachers' Problem-Solving Processes
Margaret Taplin
1998-01-01
The purpose of the study reported in this paper is to explore some of the common difficulties with mathematical word problems experienced by preservice primary teachers. It examines weaknesses in students' content and procedural knowledge, with a particular focus on how they apply these aspects of knowledge to solving closed word problems\\
Pulsation damper solves analyzer problem (journal version)
Montgomery, J.W.
1988-01-01
This paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output-signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow caused by the sample pump.
PULSATION DAMPER SOLVES ANALYZER PROBLEM (JOURNAL VERSION)
The paper describes the use of a pulsation damper to solve a severe output signal interference problem with a Beckman Model 402 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer. The analyzer was used in a computerized data-gathering system. The problem was traced to compressions/decompressions of flow...
Spatial Visualization in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kozhevnikov, Maria; Motes, Michael A.; Hegarty, Mary
2007-01-01
Three studies were conducted to examine the relation of spatial visualization to solving kinematics problems that involved either predicting the two-dimensional motion of an object, translating from one frame of reference to another, or interpreting kinematics graphs. In Study 1, 60 physics-naive students were administered kinematics problems and…
Values in Principals' Thinking when Solving Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazaridou, Angeliki
2007-01-01
The values that school principals use when solving organisational problems were studied. Data were collected by a think aloud procedure, in which the participants verbalised their thoughts while working on a set of five administrative problems. The results show that the principals referred to seven values that had subtle but important sub-texts:…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karatas, Ilhan; Baki, Adnan
2013-01-01
Problem solving is recognized as an important life skill involving a range of processes including analyzing, interpreting, reasoning, predicting, evaluating and reflecting. For that reason educating students as efficient problem solvers is an important role of mathematics education. Problem solving skill is the centre of mathematics curriculum.…
Problem solving and decisionmaking: An integration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
An attempt was made to redress a critical fault of decisionmaking and problem solving research-a lack of a standard method to classify problem or decision states or conditions. A basic model was identified and expanded to indicate a possible taxonomy of conditions which may be used in reviewing previous research or for systematically pursuing new research designs. A generalization of the basic conditions was then made to indicate that the conditions are essentially the same for both concepts, problem solving and decisionmaking.
Solving scientific problems on hypercube parallel computers
Ward, R.C.
1986-05-15
The presentation discusses the research activities on hypercube parallel computers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and assesses the potential of hypercubes for solving large scale scientific computational problems. Items discussed are the reasons ORNL purchased two hypercube computers, the results of basic research on matrix computations, the status of the seven applications projects being ''converted'' to run on the hypercube, the suggested steps for programming parallel computers, and the advantages and problem areas of the hypercube architecture for solving today's scientific problems. 3 refs.
Nanomedicine : Problem Solving to Treat Cancer
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Amy C. Payne
2006-01-01
Students rarely have the opportunity to delve into the unknown and brainstorm solutions to cutting-edge, unsolved science problems that affect thousands of people. To counter this trend, the following activity was developed to expose students to issues and problems surrounding cancer treatment using an inquiry-based approach. Through this activity, students step into the role of ?real? scientists and brainstorm possible treatment options by working collaboratively, utilizing problem solving strategies, and creativity to explore science and technology.
AI tools in computer based problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beane, Arthur J.
1988-01-01
The use of computers to solve value oriented, deterministic, algorithmic problems, has evolved a structured life cycle model of the software process. The symbolic processing techniques used, primarily in research, for solving nondeterministic problems, and those for which an algorithmic solution is unknown, have evolved a different model, much less structured. Traditionally, the two approaches have been used completely independently. With the advent of low cost, high performance 32 bit workstations executing identical software with large minicomputers and mainframes, it became possible to begin to merge both models into a single extended model of computer problem solving. The implementation of such an extended model on a VAX family of micro/mini/mainframe systems is described. Examples in both development and deployment of applications involving a blending of AI and traditional techniques are given.
Brain dynamics of mathematical problem solving.
Lin, Chun-Ling; Jung, Melody; Wu, Ying Choon; Lin, Chin-Teng; She, Hsiao-Ching
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to examine brain activities of participants solving mental math problems. The research investigated how problem difficulty affected the subjects' responses and electroencephalogram (EEG) in different brain regions. In general, it was found that solution latencies (SL) to the math problems increased with difficulty. The EEG results showed that across subjects, the right-central beta, left-parietal theta, left-occipital theta and alpha, right-parietal alpha and beta, medial-frontal beta and medial central theta power decreased as task difficulty increased. This study further explored the effects of problem-solving performance on the EEG. Slow solvers exhibited greater frontal theta activities in the right hemisphere, whereas an inverse pattern of hemispheric asymmetry was found in fast solvers. Furthermore, analyses of spatio-temporal brain dynamics during problem solving show progressively stronger alpha- and beta-power suppression and theta-power augmentation as subjects were reaching a solution. These findings provide a better understanding of cortical activities mediating math-based problem solving and knowledge acquisition that can ultimately benefit math learning and education. PMID:23366994
Characterization and Developmental History of Problem Solving Methods in Medicine
Harbort, Robert A.
1980-01-01
The central thesis of this paper is the importance of the framework in which information is structured. It is technically important in the design of systems; it is also important in guaranteeing that systems are usable by clinicians. Progress in medical computing depends on our ability to develop a more quantitative understanding of the role of context in our choice of problem solving techniques. This in turn will help us to design more flexible and responsive computer systems. The paper contains an overview of some models of knowledge and problem solving methods, a characterization of modern diagnostic techniques, and a discussion of skill development in medical practice. Diagnostic techniques are examined in terms of how they are taught, what problem solving methods they use, and how they fit together into an overall theory of interpretation of the medical status of a patient.
Sleep promotes analogical transfer in problem solving.
Monaghan, Padraic; Sio, Ut Na; Lau, Sum Wai; Woo, Hoi Kei; Linkenauger, Sally A; Ormerod, Thomas C
2015-10-01
Analogical problem solving requires using a known solution from one problem to apply to a related problem. Sleep is known to have profound effects on memory and information restructuring, and so we tested whether sleep promoted such analogical transfer, determining whether improvement was due to subjective memory for problems, subjective recognition of similarity across related problems, or by abstract generalisation of structure. In Experiment 1, participants were exposed to a set of source problems. Then, after a 12-h period involving sleep or wake, they attempted target problems structurally related to the source problems but with different surface features. Experiment 2 controlled for time of day effects by testing participants either in the morning or the evening. Sleep improved analogical transfer, but effects were not due to improvements in subjective memory or similarity recognition, but rather effects of structural generalisation across problems. PMID:26113445
Problem solving in a distributed environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rashid, R. F.
1980-01-01
Distributed problem solving is anayzed as a blend of two disciplines: (1) problem solving and ai; and (2) distributed systems (monitoring). It may be necessary to distribute because the application itself is one of managing distributed resources (e.g., distributed sensor net) and communication delays preclude centralized processing, or it may be desirable to distribute because a single computational engine may not satisfy the needs of a given task. In addition, considerations of reliability may dictate distribution. Examples of multi-process language environment are given.
Extending problem-solving procedures through reflection.
Anderson, John R; Fincham, Jon M
2014-11-01
A large-sample (n=75) fMRI study guided the development of a theory of how people extend their problem-solving procedures by reflecting on them. Both children and adults were trained on a new mathematical procedure and then were challenged with novel problems that required them to change and extend their procedure to solve these problems. The fMRI data were analyzed using a combination of hidden Markov models (HMMs) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA). This HMM-MVPA analysis revealed the existence of 4 stages: Encoding, Planning, Solving, and Responding. Using this analysis as a guide, an ACT-R model was developed that improved the performance of the HMM-MVPA and explained the variation in the durations of the stages across 128 different problems. The model assumes that participants can reflect on declarative representations of the steps of their problem-solving procedures. A Metacognitive module can hold these steps, modify them, create new declarative steps, and rehearse them. The Metacognitive module is associated with activity in the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC). The ACT-R model predicts the activity in the RLPFC and other regions associated with its other cognitive modules (e.g., vision, retrieval). Differences between children and adults seemed related to differences in background knowledge and computational fluency, but not to the differences in their capability to modify procedures. PMID:25063939
Insightful Problem Solving in an Asian Elephant
Foerder, Preston; Galloway, Marie; Barthel, Tony; Moore, Donald E.; Reiss, Diana
2011-01-01
The “aha” moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants, thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies. We tested whether three Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food. In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving. Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food. PMID:21876741
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chamberlin, Scott A.; Powers, Robert A.
2013-01-01
The focus of the article is the validation of an instrument to assess gifted students' affect after mathematical problem solving tasks. Participants were 225 students identified by their district as gifted in grades four to six. The Chamberlin Affective Instrument for Mathematical Problem Solving was used to assess feelings, emotions, and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…
I Can Problem Solve (ICPS): Interpersonal Cognitive Problem Solving for Young Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
1993-01-01
Teachers of preschool and kindergarten children from low-income families used the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) program to help the children learn to think through and solve typical interpersonal problems with peers and adults. Compared to nontrained controls, the children exhibited fewer instances of impulsive and inhibited behaviors as observed in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
Designed for teachers of kindergarten and the primary grades to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. The 89 lessons are adaptable for various levels of ability throughout the…
I Can Problem Solve: An Interpersonal Cognitive Problem-Solving Program. Preschool.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
Designed for teachers of preschool to enable children to learn how to solve the problems they have with others, the underlying goal of the program is to help children develop problem-solving skills so that they learn how to think, not what to think. Originally developed for four-year-old children in a preschool setting, most three-year-old…
Kendall, P C; Fischler, G L
1984-06-01
The interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills (i.e., means-ends thinking, identified obstacles, alternative solutions, consequential thinking) of 150 families (father, mother, and child 6-11 years old) were assessed via written tests and problem-solving behavioral performance. The interrelationships of ICPS written and behavioral problem-solving skills were examined, as were the relationships of each of these measures of problem solving to both parent and teacher indices of child adjustment. IQ, as measured by the age-appropriate Wechsler scale, was partialed out. Results indicated some ecological validity of written alternatives and consequential tests for children and means-ends tests for parents. Neither parents' nor children's written ICPS scores nor problem-solving behavior were systematically related to either teacher or parent ratings of child adjustment. However, a behavioral index of parental facilitation of child problem solving was significantly related to all problem-solving behaviors and some written ICPS measures. Results are discussed in terms of the role of ICPS skills in child adjustment, the potential limits of ICPS measures in therapy outcome, and the manner in which children learn interpersonal cognitive problem solving. PMID:6734310
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foster, Thomas Michael
Successful learning of introductory college physics requires students to acquire not only the content knowledge of physics, but also the skills to solve problems using this knowledge. In the physics department at the University of Minnesota, this duality is understood and attempts are being made to teach successfully. One such attempt has an instructor explicitly teaching a problem-solving strategy that emphasizes the qualitative analysis of a problem before the manipulation of equations. This class provides a unique case for examining the development of problem-solving skills. However, since there has been no similar study conducted on a class were an explicit problem-solving strategy was not taught, it was necessary to examine another, more traditionally taught class. This interpretive case study will examine the development of the problem solving ability of students in two college introductory physics courses where cooperative-group problem solving was used. In one class there was an explicit problem-solving strategy used. In the other class, no additional attempt was made to teach problem solving. The primary data used is the student's exam solutions. Student's solutions to exam problems provide valuable insights into the students understanding of physics. These solutions were analyzed using a coding rubric developed from the extensive research literature on problem solving. The coding rubric examined four skills: General Approach, Specific Application of the Physics, Logical Progression, and Appropriate Mathematics. From the codes, the development of the students' problem solving skills was examined. The results of the study were skewed slightly by the students in the more traditionally taught course who had average grades higher than their peers. This was not a problem in the course where an explicit problem-solving strategy was taught. In general, the students in the course who were taught an explicit problem-solving strategy tended to develop their skills faster, but did not score any higher than the students in the more traditionally taught course by the end of the year. However, the students in the explicit problem-solving course consistently performed better on the multiple choice concept tests given during the year. Implications for further research and instruction are also discussed.
Solving the Hard Problem of Bertrand's Paradox
Diederik Aerts; Massimiliano Sassoli de Bianchi
2014-06-27
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a 'universal average'. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
Aerts, Diederik, E-mail: diraerts@vub.ac.be [Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies and Department of Mathematics, Brussels Free University, Brussels (Belgium); Sassoli de Bianchi, Massimiliano, E-mail: autoricerca@gmail.com [Laboratorio di Autoricerca di Base, Lugano (Switzerland)
2014-08-15
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an “easy” problem and a “hard” problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible “ways of selecting” an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible “ways of selecting” an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Solving the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aerts, Diederik; de Bianchi, Massimiliano Sassoli
2014-08-01
Bertrand's paradox is a famous problem of probability theory, pointing to a possible inconsistency in Laplace's principle of insufficient reason. In this article, we show that Bertrand's paradox contains two different problems: an "easy" problem and a "hard" problem. The easy problem can be solved by formulating Bertrand's question in sufficiently precise terms, so allowing for a non-ambiguous modelization of the entity subjected to the randomization. We then show that once the easy problem is settled, also the hard problem becomes solvable, provided Laplace's principle of insufficient reason is applied not to the outcomes of the experiment, but to the different possible "ways of selecting" an interaction between the entity under investigation and that producing the randomization. This consists in evaluating a huge average over all possible "ways of selecting" an interaction, which we call a universal average. Following a strategy similar to that used in the definition of the Wiener measure, we calculate such universal average and therefore solve the hard problem of Bertrand's paradox. The link between Bertrand's problem of probability theory and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics is also briefly discussed.
Components of Problem Solving and Types of Problems
Joost Breuker
1994-01-01
A typology of problems is presented that is used for indexing and accessing reusable problem solving components in a library that supports the CommonKADS methodology for building knowledge based systems. Eight types of problems, such as planning, assessment etc., are distinguished, and their dependencies are explained. These dependencies suggest that the typology is to be viewed as a suite rather
Representations in Problem Solving: A Case Study with Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Villegas, Jose L.; Castro, Enrique; Gutierrez, Jose
2009-01-01
Introduction: Representations play an essential role in mathematical thinking. They favor the understanding of mathematical concepts and stimulate the development of flexible and versatile thinking in problem solving. Here our focus is on their use in optimization problems, a type of problem considered important in mathematics teaching and…
Basic corrosion control methods solve varied problems
R. C. Strong; V. K. Majestic; S. M. Wilhelm
1991-01-01
This paper reports that every fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) corrosion-control problem is different, but several basic principles should be understood and applied as needed. These principles were used effectively to solve corrosion problems in three U.S. refineries. The corrosion-control method chosen for any system will depend on both the chemical nature of the corrosion and the physical characteristics of the
Raise the Bar on Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Englard, Lisa
2010-01-01
In a 1981 diagnostic test, the Ministry of Education in Singapore found its country facing a challenge: Only 46 percent of students in grades 2-4 could solve word problems that were presented without such key words as "altogether" or "left." Yet today, according to results from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS…
Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Daoquan
2012-01-01
Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…
Will Biotech Crops Solve World Problems?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Brian R. Shmaefsky (Kingwood College; )
2003-02-01
This lesson examines implications of biotechnology on agriculture. Students can discuss the pro & con arguments and economics of GM food labeling, create a dinner menu of GM food, develop a GM crop testing company, submit ideas for a GM crop that may solve a selected nation's problem, update statistics & data used in the original article... and more!
Design and Problem Solving in Technology Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Custer, Rodney L.
1999-01-01
Collectively, technological literacy embraces everything from intelligent consumerism to concerns about environmental degradation, ethics, and elitism. Technological problem solving can have social, ecological, or technological goals and may be categorized by four types: invention, design, trouble shooting, and procedures. Every citizen should be…
Collaborative Problem Solving Methods towards Critical Thinking
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
2011-01-01
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1983-01-01
Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)
Assessing Mathematical Problem Solving Using Comparative Judgement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Ian; Swan, Malcolm; Pollitt, Alastair
2015-01-01
There is an increasing demand from employers and universities for school leavers to be able to apply their mathematical knowledge to problem solving in varied and unfamiliar contexts. These aspects are however neglected in most examinations of mathematics and, consequentially, in classroom teaching. One barrier to the inclusion of mathematical…
Complex Problem Solving--More than Reasoning?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wustenberg, Sascha; Greiff, Samuel; Funke, Joachim
2012-01-01
This study investigates the internal structure and construct validity of Complex Problem Solving (CPS), which is measured by a "Multiple-Item-Approach." It is tested, if (a) three facets of CPS--"rule identification" (adequateness of strategies), "rule knowledge" (generated knowledge) and "rule application" (ability to control a system)--can be…
Mental Imagery in Creative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Problem Solving in Chemistry Using Eureka.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chau, F. T.; Chik, Andy S. W.
1989-01-01
Discusses a software package that allows the user to solve mathematical problems, analyze data, plot graphs, and to examine mathematical models. Presents the attributes of the program and the available mathematical functions. Provides an example of pH calculations. (MVL)
Stoichiometric Problem Solving in High School Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schmidt, Hans-Jurgen
The purpose of this descriptive study was to create and test questions on stoichiometry with number ratios for quick mental calculations and to identify students' problem-solving strategies. The present study was a component of a more comprehensive investigation in which 7,441 German senior high school students were asked to work on 154 test items…
Supporting Distance Learners for Collaborative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Verdejo, M. F.; Barros, B.; Abad, M. T.
This paper describes a computer-supported environment designed to facilitate distance learning through collaborative problem-solving. The goal is to encourage distance learning students to work together, in order to promote both learning of collaboration and learning through collaboration. Collaboration is defined as working together on a common…
Optimistic Problem Solving Susan L. Epstein
Epstein, Susan L.
and The Graduate Center of The City University of New York 695 Park Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA susan and solve problems optimisti- cally because it is ecologically rational, that is, computa- tionally efficiency and less rigor. As computers tackle increasingly realistic tasks, ecological rationality becomes
UNSW ENGINEERING Solving tomorrow's problems today
New South Wales, University of
Architecture 40 Â Petroleum Engineering 41 Â Photovoltaics and Solar Energy Engineering 42 Â Renewable Energy limbs (biomedical engineering) and harnessing geothermal energy (petroleum engineering) to name justUNSW ENGINEERING Solving tomorrow's problems today Engineering Undergraduate Guide 2016 Never Stand
Educational Telecomputing Activities: Problem-Solving Projects.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Judi
1995-01-01
Presents seven activity structures for Internet-based problem solving projects to aid teachers in designing effective educational telecomputing experiences that can be curriculum-based and adapted to learning needs and preferences of students. These projects include information searches; electronic process writing; sequential creations; parallel…
Problem Solving. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burkhart, Jennifer
The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of three modules for the problem-solving and computer learning systems classes of…
Computer Enhanced Problem Solving Skill Acquisition.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slotnick, Robert S.
1989-01-01
Discusses the implementation of interactive educational software that was designed to enhance critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving in a university psychology course. Piagetian and computer learning perspectives are explained; the courseware package, PsychWare, is described; and the use of heuristics and algorithms in…
Solving Wicked Problems through Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crul, Liselore
2014-01-01
This account of practice outlines the Oxyme Action Learning Program which was conducted as part of the Management Challenge in my final year of the MSc in Coaching and Behavioral Change at Henley Business School. The central research questions were: (1) how action learning can help to solve wicked problems and (2) what the effect of an action…
Problem Solving in Biology: A Methodology
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gary Wisehart
2008-03-01
A methodology is described that teaches science process by combining informal logic and a heuristic for rating factual reliability. This system facilitates student hypothesis formation, testing, and evaluation of results. After problem solving with this scheme, students are asked to examine and evaluate arguments for the underlying principles of biology, and apply them to new sets of facts.
Students' Metacognition in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wong, Philip Siew Koon
The purpose of this study was to determine whether students from different academic settings differ in their usage of metacognitive strategies in mathematical problem solving, and if they do, what the differences are. A questionnaire was administered to students at various levels from academic tracks and academic streams requiring them to…
Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberenyi, Jozsef
2010-01-01
This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…
Abortion: A Problem-Solving Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Campbell, Lloyd P.
1977-01-01
The purpose of this article is to use the vehicle of a controversial issue--abortion--as a means of illustrating the advantages of teaching such issues through a problem-solving method. Discussion ideas and resources are presented. (Author/JR)
How Instructional Designers Solve Workplace Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fortney, Kathleen S.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.
2013-01-01
This naturalistic inquiry investigated how instructional designers engage in complex and ambiguous problem solving across organizational boundaries in two corporations. Participants represented a range of instructional design experience, from novices to experts. Research methods included a participant background survey, observations of…
Should Children Learn to Solve Problems?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watras, Joseph
2011-01-01
In this comparative essay, the author discusses the opposing educational theories of John Dewey and Gregory Bateson. While Dewey believed that the scientific method was the dominant method of solving problems and thereby acquiring knowledge that mattered, Bateson warned that this one-sided approach would lead to actions that could destroy the…
Problem-Solving Research with Computers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Licht, Norman
This study examined whether analogy or means-ends strategies (heuristics) would be used to solve geometric puzzle-like problems, which were generated by a microcomputer. The subjects in the two-group experiment were undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory psychology course at Potsdam College (New York). One group of subjects learned…
Problem solving stages in the five square problem
Fedor, Anna; Szathmáry, Eörs; Öllinger, Michael
2015-01-01
According to the restructuring hypothesis, insight problem solving typically progresses through consecutive stages of search, impasse, insight, and search again for someone, who solves the task. The order of these stages was determined through self-reports of problem solvers and has never been verified behaviorally. We asked whether individual analysis of problem solving attempts of participants revealed the same order of problem solving stages as defined by the theory and whether their subjective feelings corresponded to the problem solving stages they were in. Our participants tried to solve the Five-Square problem in an online task, while we recorded the time and trajectory of their stick movements. After the task they were asked about their feelings related to insight and some of them also had the possibility of reporting impasse while working on the task. We found that the majority of participants did not follow the classic four-stage model of insight, but had more complex sequences of problem solving stages, with search and impasse recurring several times. This means that the classic four-stage model is not sufficient to describe variability on the individual level. We revised the classic model and we provide a new model that can generate all sequences found. Solvers reported insight more often than non-solvers and non-solvers reported impasse more often than solvers, as expected; but participants did not report impasse more often during behaviorally defined impasse stages than during other stages. This shows that impasse reports might be unreliable indicators of impasse. Our study highlights the importance of individual analysis of problem solving behavior to verify insight theory. PMID:26300794
Colorado Assessment of Problem Solving (CAPS) -- Identifying student's problem solving skills
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy; Wieman, Carl
2009-05-01
Problem solving is central to any physics curriculum and physics educators have put extensive effort into understanding successful problem solving; however, there is currently no efficient way to evaluate problem solving skill. Attempts have been made in the past; however, knowledge of the principles required to solve the subject problem are so absolutely critical that they completely overshadow any other skills students may use when solving a problem. The work presented here is unique because CAPS removes the requirement that the student already have a grasp of physics concepts. CAPS has been developed and validated at Colorado and measures a person's competence in 44 separate skills that are used when solving a wide range of in-depth problems including classical mechanics and quantum mechanics problems. Understanding the specific processes that impact how a person solves a problem identifies which components are specific to physics and those that transfer across discipline, and provides insight for improved methods for teaching. 1. Supported in part by funding from National Science Foundation
Optimal Planning and Problem-Solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clemet, Bradley; Schaffer, Steven; Rabideau, Gregg
2008-01-01
CTAEMS MDP Optimal Planner is a problem-solving software designed to command a single spacecraft/rover, or a team of spacecraft/rovers, to perform the best action possible at all times according to an abstract model of the spacecraft/rover and its environment. It also may be useful in solving logistical problems encountered in commercial applications such as shipping and manufacturing. The planner reasons around uncertainty according to specified probabilities of outcomes using a plan hierarchy to avoid exploring certain kinds of suboptimal actions. Also, planned actions are calculated as the state-action space is expanded, rather than afterward, to reduce by an order of magnitude the processing time and memory used. The software solves planning problems with actions that can execute concurrently, that have uncertain duration and quality, and that have functional dependencies on others that affect quality. These problems are modeled in a hierarchical planning language called C_TAEMS, a derivative of the TAEMS language for specifying domains for the DARPA Coordinators program. In realistic environments, actions often have uncertain outcomes and can have complex relationships with other tasks. The planner approaches problems by considering all possible actions that may be taken from any state reachable from a given, initial state, and from within the constraints of a given task hierarchy that specifies what tasks may be performed by which team member.
Geogebra for Solving Problems of Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kllogjeri, Pellumb; Kllogjeri, Adrian
Today is highly speed progressing the computer-based education, which allowes educators and students to use educational programming language and e-tutors to teach and learn, to interact with one another and share together the results of their work. In this paper we will be concentrated on the use of GeoGebra programme for solving problems of physics. We have brought an example from physics of how can be used GeoGebra for finding the center of mass(centroid) of a picture(or system of polygons). After the problem is solved graphically, there is an application of finding the center of a real object(a plate)by firstly, scanning the object and secondly, by inserting its scanned picture into the drawing pad of GeoGebra window and lastly, by finding its centroid. GeoGebra serve as effective tool in problem-solving. There are many other applications of GeoGebra in the problems of physics, and many more in different fields of mathematics.
A connectionist model for diagnostic problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peng, Yun; Reggia, James A.
1989-01-01
A competition-based connectionist model for solving diagnostic problems is described. The problems considered are computationally difficult in that (1) multiple disorders may occur simultaneously and (2) a global optimum in the space exponential to the total number of possible disorders is sought as a solution. The diagnostic problem is treated as a nonlinear optimization problem, and global optimization criteria are decomposed into local criteria governing node activation updating in the connectionist model. Nodes representing disorders compete with each other to account for each individual manifestation, yet complement each other to account for all manifestations through parallel node interactions. When equilibrium is reached, the network settles into a locally optimal state. Three randomly generated examples of diagnostic problems, each of which has 1024 cases, were tested, and the decomposition plus competition plus resettling approach yielded very high accuracy.
Students' Images of Problem Contexts when Solving Applied Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, Kevin C.; Carlson, Marilyn P.
2012-01-01
This article reports findings from an investigation of precalculus students' approaches to solving novel problems. We characterize the images that students constructed during their solution attempts and describe the degree to which they were successful in imagining how the quantities in a problem's context change together. Our analyses revealed…
Giant Story Problems: Reading Comprehension through Math Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goularte, Renee
Primary students solve "oversized" story problems using drawings, equations, and written responses, helping them understand the links between the language of story problems and the numerical representations of matching equations. The activity also includes oral language and reflective writing, thus bringing together a variety of language…
A Problem with Current Conceptions of Expert Problem Solving
Eric Kuo; Michael Hull; Ayush Gupta; Andrew Elby
2011-01-01
Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical\\/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical understanding into mathematics, then performs mathematical\\/symbolic manipulations, then interprets the mathematical solution physically. However, other research suggests that blending conceptual and symbolic reasoning during symbolic manipulations can reflect expertise. We explore the hypothesis that blending conceptual
Quantum problem solving as simultaneous computation
Giuseppe Castagnoli
2007-10-09
I provide an alternative way of seeing quantum computation. First, I describe an idealized classical problem solving machine that, thanks to a many body interaction, reversibly and nondeterministically produces the solution of the problem under the simultaneous influence of all the problem constraints. This requires a perfectly accurate, rigid, and reversible relation between the coordinates of the machine parts - the machine can be considered the many body generalization of another perfect machine, the bounching ball model of reversible computation. The mathematical description of the machine, as it is, is applicable to quantum problem solving, an extension of the quantum algorithms that comprises the physical representation of the problem-solution interdependence. The perfect relation between the coordinates of the machine parts is transferred to the populations of the reduced density operators of the parts of the computer register. The solution of the problem is reversibly and nondeterministically produced under the simultaneous influence of the state before measurement and the quantum principle. At the light of the present notion of simultaneous computation, the quantum speed up turns out to be "precognition" of the solution, namely the reduction of the initial ignorance of the solution due to backdating, to before running the algorithm, a time-symmetric part of the state vector reduction on the solution; as such, it is bounded by state vector reduction through an entropic inequality. PACS numbers: 03.67.Lx, 01.55.+b, 01.70.+w
E 101: Introduction to Engineering & Problem Solving College of Engineering
Hunt, William F.
E 101: Introduction to Engineering & Problem Solving College of Engineering Fall 2008 Sections to the field of Engineering. An objective will be to integrate teamwork, problem solving, and verbal to Engineering & Problem Solving Course Website: [WEB] Introduction to Engineering & Problem Solving, http
Teaching Problem Solving Skills to Elementary Age Students with Autism
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Debra L.; Jones, Vita L.; Barnett, Crystal; Pavelek, Karin; Nguyen, Hoang; Sparks, Shannon L.
2014-01-01
Students with disabilities need problem-solving skills to promote their success in solving the problems of daily life. The research into problem-solving instruction has been limited for students with autism. Using a problem-solving intervention and the Self Determined Learning Model of Instruction, three elementary age students with autism were…
Interactive Problem Solving Tutorials Through Visual Programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Undreiu, Lucian; Schuster, David; Undreiu, Adriana
2008-10-01
We have used LabVIEW visual programming to build an interactive tutorial to promote conceptual understanding in physics problem solving. This programming environment is able to offer a web-accessible problem solving experience that enables students to work at their own pace and receive feedback. Intuitive graphical symbols, modular structures and the ability to create templates are just a few of the advantages this software has to offer. The architecture of an application can be designed in a way that allows instructors with little knowledge of LabVIEW to easily personalize it. Both the physics solution and the interactive pedagogy can be visually programmed in LabVIEW. Our physics pedagogy approach is that of cognitive apprenticeship, in that the tutorial guides students to develop conceptual understanding and physical insight into phenomena, rather than purely formula-based solutions. We demonstrate how this model is reflected in the design and programming of the interactive tutorials.
Analyzing Collaborative Problem Solving with Bayesian Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duque, Rafael; Bravo, Crescencio; Lacave, Carmen
Some learning theories emphasize the benefits of group work and shared knowledge acquisition in the learning processes. The Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) systems are used to supportcollaborative learning and knowledge building, making communication tools, shared workspaces, and automatic analysis tools available to users. In this article we describe a Bayesian network automatically built from a database of analysis indicators qualifying the individual work, the group work, and the solutions built in a CSCL environment that supports a problem solving approach. This network models the relationships between the indicators that represent both the collaborative workprocess and the problem solution.
Answers G53KRR 2013-2014 BOOKWORK VS PROBLEM SOLVING: questions are problem solving un-
Alechina, Natasha
G53KRR-E1 Answers G53KRR 2013-2014 BOOKWORK VS PROBLEM SOLVING: questions are problem solving un- less stated otherwise. Students have done exercises of the same type (e.g. trans- lating English to the exercise is not useful. G53KRR-E1 Turn Over #12;2 G53KRR-E1 1. This question is on first-order logic. (a
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving.
Johnson, Eric D; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on "transparent" Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
Comprehension and computation in Bayesian problem solving
Johnson, Eric D.; Tubau, Elisabet
2015-01-01
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian inferences relative to normalized formats (e.g., probabilities, percentages), both by clarifying logical set-subset relations and by simplifying numerical calculations. Nevertheless, between-study performance on “transparent” Bayesian problems varies widely, and generally remains rather unimpressive. We suggest there has been an over-focus on this representational facilitator (i.e., transparent problem structures) at the expense of the specific logical and numerical processing requirements and the corresponding individual abilities and skills necessary for providing Bayesian-like output given specific verbal and numerical input. We further suggest that understanding this task-individual pair could benefit from considerations from the literature on mathematical cognition, which emphasizes text comprehension and problem solving, along with contributions of online executive working memory, metacognitive regulation, and relevant stored knowledge and skills. We conclude by offering avenues for future research aimed at identifying the stages in problem solving at which correct vs. incorrect reasoners depart, and how individual differences might influence this time point. PMID:26283976
Exploiting Quantum Resonance to Solve Combinatorial Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, Michail; Fijany, Amir
2006-01-01
Quantum resonance would be exploited in a proposed quantum-computing approach to the solution of combinatorial optimization problems. In quantum computing in general, one takes advantage of the fact that an algorithm cannot be decoupled from the physical effects available to implement it. Prior approaches to quantum computing have involved exploitation of only a subset of known quantum physical effects, notably including parallelism and entanglement, but not including resonance. In the proposed approach, one would utilize the combinatorial properties of tensor-product decomposability of unitary evolution of many-particle quantum systems for physically simulating solutions to NP-complete problems (a class of problems that are intractable with respect to classical methods of computation). In this approach, reinforcement and selection of a desired solution would be executed by means of quantum resonance. Classes of NP-complete problems that are important in practice and could be solved by the proposed approach include planning, scheduling, search, and optimal design.
Big vs little problems :What is Problem Solving?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Judy Spicer
This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this wiki page, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond.
Solving the Swath Segment Selection Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Knight, Russell; Smith, Benjamin
2006-01-01
Several artificial-intelligence search techniques have been tested as means of solving the swath segment selection problem (SSSP) -- a real-world problem that is not only of interest in its own right, but is also useful as a test bed for search techniques in general. In simplest terms, the SSSP is the problem of scheduling the observation times of an airborne or spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system to effect the maximum coverage of a specified area (denoted the target), given a schedule of downlinks (opportunities for radio transmission of SAR scan data to a ground station), given the limit on the quantity of SAR scan data that can be stored in an onboard memory between downlink opportunities, and given the limit on the achievable downlink data rate. The SSSP is NP complete (short for "nondeterministic polynomial time complete" -- characteristic of a class of intractable problems that can be solved only by use of computers capable of making guesses and then checking the guesses in polynomial time).
The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erozkan, Atilgan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…
Assessing Leadership and Problem-Solving Skills and Their Impacts in the Community.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rohs, F. Richard; Langone, Christine A.
1993-01-01
A pretest-posttest control group design was used to assess the leadership and problem-solving skills of 281 participants and 110 controls in a statewide community leadership development program. Quantitative and qualitative data demonstrate that the program has been a catalyst to influence leadership and problem-solving skills for community…
Solving the Rehearsal Problem with Planning and with Model Checking
Miller, Alice
Solving the Rehearsal Problem with Planning and with Model Checking Peter Gregory , Alice Miller. Planning problems have been modelled and solved as constraint satis- faction problems [14]. Similarly, model checking problems have been modelled and solved as constraint satisfaction problems [5, 6
Problem Solving Interventions: Impact on Young Children with Developmental Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Diamond, Lindsay Lile
2012-01-01
Problem-solving skills are imperative to a child's growth and success across multiple environments, including general and special education. Problem solving is comprised of: (a) attention to the critical aspects of a problem, (b) generation of solution(s) to solve the problem, (c) application of a solution(s) to the identified problem, and…
Negotiation as a Metaphor for Distributed Problem Solving
Randall Davis; Reid G. Smith
1983-01-01
We describe the concept of distributed problem solving and define it as the cooperative solution of problems by a decentralized and loosely coupled collection of problem solvers. This approach to problem solving offers the promise of increased performance and provides a useful medium for exploring and developing new problem-solving techniques. We present a framework called the contract net that specifies
Data completion problems solved as Nash games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habbal, A.; Kallel, M.
2012-09-01
The Cauchy problem for an elliptic operator is formulated as a two-player Nash game. Player (1) is given the known Dirichlet data, and uses as strategy variable the Neumann condition prescribed over the inaccessible part of the boundary. Player (2) is given the known Neumann data, and plays with the Dirichlet condition prescribed over the inaccessible boundary. The two players solve in parallel the associated Boundary Value Problems. Their respective objectives involve the gap between the non used Neumann/Dirichlet known data and the traces of the BVP's solutions over the accessible boundary, and are coupled through a difference term. We prove the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium, which turns out to be the reconstructed data when the Cauchy problem has a solution. We also prove that the completion algorithm is stable with respect to noise, and present two 3D experiments which illustrate the efficiency and stability of our algorithm.
Solving optimization problems on computational grids.
Wright, S. J.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2001-05-01
Multiprocessor computing platforms, which have become more and more widely available since the mid-1980s, are now heavily used by organizations that need to solve very demanding computational problems. Parallel computing is now central to the culture of many research communities. Novel parallel approaches were developed for global optimization, network optimization, and direct-search methods for nonlinear optimization. Activity was particularly widespread in parallel branch-and-bound approaches for various problems in combinatorial and network optimization. As the cost of personal computers and low-end workstations has continued to fall, while the speed and capacity of processors and networks have increased dramatically, 'cluster' platforms have become popular in many settings. A somewhat different type of parallel computing platform know as a computational grid (alternatively, metacomputer) has arisen in comparatively recent times. Broadly speaking, this term refers not to a multiprocessor with identical processing nodes but rather to a heterogeneous collection of devices that are widely distributed, possibly around the globe. The advantage of such platforms is obvious: they have the potential to deliver enormous computing power. Just as obviously, however, the complexity of grids makes them very difficult to use. The Condor team, headed by Miron Livny at the University of Wisconsin, were among the pioneers in providing infrastructure for grid computations. More recently, the Globus project has developed technologies to support computations on geographically distributed platforms consisting of high-end computers, storage and visualization devices, and other scientific instruments. In 1997, we started the metaneos project as a collaborative effort between optimization specialists and the Condor and Globus groups. Our aim was to address complex, difficult optimization problems in several areas, designing and implementing the algorithms and the software infrastructure need to solve these problems on computational grids. This article describes some of the results we have obtained during the first three years of the metaneos project. Our efforts have led to development of the runtime support library MW for implementing algorithms with master-worker control structure on Condor platforms. This work is discussed here, along with work on algorithms and codes for integer linear programming, the quadratic assignment problem, and stochastic linear programmming. Our experiences in the metaneos project have shown that cheap, powerful computational grids can be used to tackle large optimization problems of various types. In an industrial or commercial setting, the results demonstrate that one may not have to buy powerful computational servers to solve many of the large problems arising in areas such as scheduling, portfolio optimization, or logistics; the idle time on employee workstations (or, at worst, an investment in a modest cluster of PCs) may do the job. For the optimization research community, our results motivate further work on parallel, grid-enabled algorithms for solving very large problems of other types. The fact that very large problems can be solved cheaply allows researchers to better understand issues of 'practical' complexity and of the role of heuristics.
Modal preferences in creative problem solving.
Deininger, Gina; Loudon, Gareth; Norman, Stefanie
2012-08-01
Embodied cognitive science appeals to the idea that cognition depends on the body as well as on the brain. This study looks at whether we are more likely to engage just the brain or enlist the body for complex cognitive functioning such as creative problem solving. Participants were presented with a puzzle based on De Bono's lateral thinking puzzles. The puzzle consisted of rotating and joining two-dimensional shapes to make a three-dimensional one. In one condition, participants were given the choice of either solving the puzzle mentally or through manipulation of the images on a computer screen. In another condition, the subjects had to solve the puzzle first mentally and then report which mode they would have preferred to solve the puzzle. Two more conditions were applied with slight variations. In all conditions, an overwhelming majority of participants chose to solve the puzzle by manipulation, even though there was not a significant increase on performance. It appeared that participants were making a conscious choice for the body to play a feedback-driven role in creative cognitive processing. This strong preference for manual manipulation over just mental representation, regardless of the impact on performance, would seem to suggest that it is our natural tendency to involve the body in complex cognitive functioning. This would support the theory that cognition may be more than just a neural process, and that it is a dynamic interplay between body, brain and world. The experiential feedback of the body moving through space and time may be an inherently important factor in creative cognition. PMID:22806663
Problem-solving deficits in depressed children, adolescents, and adults
Leonard A. Doerfler; Larry L. Mullins; Nora J. Griffin; Lawrence J. Siegel; C. Steven Richards
1984-01-01
Recent research has emphasized the importance of interpersonal problems with depression. It has been hypothesized that deficits in interpersonal problem-solving skills may account for many of these problems. Three studies that examined the relationship between problem-solving skills and depression are reported. Problem-solving skills among children, adolescents, and adults were assessed by the Means-Ends Problem Solving Test. Contrary to prediction, there
"I'm Not Very Good at Solving Problems": An Exploration of Students' Problem Solving Behaviours
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Muir, Tracey; Beswick, Kim; Williamson, John
2008-01-01
This paper reports one aspect of a larger study which looked at the strategies used by a selection of grade 6 students to solve six non-routine mathematical problems. The data revealed that the students exhibited many of the behaviours identified in the literature as being associated with novice and expert problem solvers. However, the categories…
A Process Analysis of Engineering Problem Solving and Assessment of Problem Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grigg, Sarah J.
2012-01-01
In the engineering profession, one of the most critical skills to possess is accurate and efficient problem solving. Thus, engineering educators should strive to help students develop skills needed to become competent problem solvers. In order to measure the development of skills, it is necessary to assess student performance, identify any…
Can galileons solve the muon problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lamm, Henry
2015-09-01
The leptonic bound states positronium and muonium are used to constrain Galileon contributions to the Lamb shift of muonic hydrogen. Through the application of a variety of bounds on lepton compositeness, it is shown that either the assumption of equating the charge radius of a particle with its Galileon scale radius is incompatible with experiments, or the scale of Galileons must be M >1.33 GeV , too large to solve the muon problem. The possibility of stronger constraints in the future from true muonium is discussed.
Problem-solving techniques in occupational medicine.
Shusterman, D
1985-09-01
The diagnosis of occupational illnesses may be considerably more difficult than is the case with occupational injuries because of a variety of factors: an intervening latency period, uncertainty in identifying the most significant chemical or physical exposures, determination of exposure levels retrospectively, and coordination of the physician with regulatory and workers' compensation bureaucracies. Such problem-solving techniques as retrospective industrial hygiene and attention to in-situ chemistry can act as means of reducing the uncertainty in making the diagnosis of occupational illness. Advance familiarity with workers' compensation and state or federal regulatory agencies can further facilitate diagnosis and patient advocacy. PMID:3161991
Multitasking-Pascal extensions solve concurrency problems
Mackie, P.H.
1982-09-29
To avoid deadlock (one process waiting for a resource than another process can't release) and indefinite postponement (one process being continually denied a resource request) in a multitasking-system application, it is possible to use a high-level development language with built-in concurrency handlers. Parallel Pascal is one such language; it extends standard Pascal via special task synchronizers: a new data type called signal, new system procedures called wait and send and a Boolean function termed awaited. To understand the language's use the author examines the problems it helps solve.
Electrical precipitation solves Udang's dehydration problem
Aulenbacher, M.W.
1982-06-01
A tough crude dehydration problem was solved on the Udang a platform offshore Indonesia when Conoco opted to use electric precipitation to remove water from the field's high pour point crude. The platform's 13 wells could produce up to 40,000 bpd of crude, but the system was designed under the assumption that water cuts would increase. Design capacity was set at 50% water, to a maximum of 27,000 bpd of oil and a like amount of water. A dehydration system on a second platform is now handling 60,000 bpd of oil with 5% water.
Big vs little problems : what is problem solving?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Judy Spicer
2005-01-01
In this web publication, the focus is on those problems--big and small--that encourage students to think, ask questions, try a variety of problem-solving approaches, and discuss their strategies and solutions. It points out the vast difference between numerical problems dressed up as episodes of everyday life and real mathematics used every day to facilitate understanding and decision making. Built on the ideas found in the NCTM Standards, the Background section offers pedagogical examples and resources to expand teachers' understanding of mathematics and problem solving. The Activities sections feature selected online resources that are useful in expanding student thinking as they learn to become problem solvers in math class and beyond. The highlighted resources are from collections in the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). Information about each resource includes links to the catalog record and to the resource's original NSDL collection. The publication's final Standards section ties the problem solving standard to the other four NCTM process standards as the foundation for high quality mathematics teaching. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse
Physics Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandralekha; Mason, Andrew
2009-11-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and their development of expertise. We administered an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to physics graduate students and analyzed their responses about problem solving in their own graduate level courses vs. problem solving in introductory physics. The physics graduate students' responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory students and physics faculty. Survey responses suggest that graduate students' attitudes about graduate-level problem solving sometimes has similar patterns to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Solving LWE problem with bounded errors in polynomial time
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Solving LWE problem with bounded errors in polynomial time Jintai Ding1,2 Southern Chinese call the learning with bounded errors (LWBE) problems, we can solve it with complexity O(nD ). Keywords, this problem corresponds to the learning parity with noise (LPN) problem. There are several ways to solve
A KnowledgeTheoretic Approach to Distributed Problem Solving
Woolridge, Mike
A KnowledgeTheoretic Approach to Distributed Problem Solving Michael Wooldridge Department.J.Wooldridge@qmw.ac.uk Abstract. Traditional approaches to distributed problem solving have treated the problem as one of distributed search. In this paper, we propose an alternative, logicbased view of distributed problem solv
A Knowledge-Theoretic Approach to Distributed Problem Solving
Woolridge, Mike
A Knowledge-Theoretic Approach to Distributed Problem Solving Michael Wooldridge Department.J.Wooldridge@qmw.ac.uk Abstract. Traditional approaches to distributed problem solving have treated the problem as one of distributed search. In this paper, we propose an alternative, logic-based view of distributed problem solv
Translation among Symbolic Representations in Problem-Solving. Revised.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shavelson, Richard J.; And Others
This study investigated the relationships among the symbolic representation of problems given to students to solve, the mental representations they use to solve the problems, and the accuracy of their solutions. Twenty eleventh-grade science students were asked to think aloud as they solved problems on the ideal gas laws. The problems were…
Cooperative problem solving in rooks (Corvus frugilegus).
Seed, Amanda M; Clayton, Nicola S; Emery, Nathan J
2008-06-22
Recent work has shown that captive rooks, like chimpanzees and other primates, develop cooperative alliances with their conspecifics. Furthermore, the pressures hypothesized to have favoured social intelligence in primates also apply to corvids. We tested cooperative problem-solving in rooks to compare their performance and cognition with primates. Without training, eight rooks quickly solved a problem in which two individuals had to pull both ends of a string simultaneously in order to pull in a food platform. Similar to chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, performance was better when within-dyad tolerance levels were higher. In contrast to chimpanzees, rooks did not delay acting on the apparatus while their partner gained access to the test room. Furthermore, given a choice between an apparatus that could be operated individually over one that required the action of two individuals, four out of six individuals showed no preference. These results may indicate that cooperation in chimpanzees is underpinned by more complex cognitive processes than that in rooks. Such a difference may arise from the fact that while both chimpanzees and rooks form cooperative alliances, chimpanzees, but not rooks, live in a variable social network made up of competitive and cooperative relationships. PMID:18364318
Neural correlates of mathematical problem solving.
Lin, Chun-Ling; Jung, Melody; Wu, Ying Choon; She, Hsiao-Ching; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
2015-03-01
This study explores electroencephalography (EEG) brain dynamics associated with mathematical problem solving. EEG and solution latencies (SLs) were recorded as 11 neurologically healthy volunteers worked on intellectually challenging math puzzles that involved combining four single-digit numbers through basic arithmetic operators (addition, subtraction, division, multiplication) to create an arithmetic expression equaling 24. Estimates of EEG spectral power were computed in three frequency bands - ? (4-7 Hz), ? (8-13 Hz) and ? (14-30 Hz) - over a widely distributed montage of scalp electrode sites. The magnitude of power estimates was found to change in a linear fashion with SLs - that is, relative to a base of power spectrum, theta power increased with longer SLs, while alpha and beta power tended to decrease. Further, the topographic distribution of spectral fluctuations was characterized by more pronounced asymmetries along the left-right and anterior-posterior axes for solutions that involved a longer search phase. These findings reveal for the first time the topography and dynamics of EEG spectral activities important for sustained solution search during arithmetical problem solving. PMID:25666500
Assessing Cognitive Learning of Analytical Problem Solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billionniere, Elodie V.
Introductory programming courses, also known as CS1, have a specific set of expected outcomes related to the learning of the most basic and essential computational concepts in computer science (CS). However, two of the most often heard complaints in such courses are that (1) they are divorced from the reality of application and (2) they make the learning of the basic concepts tedious. The concepts introduced in CS1 courses are highly abstract and not easily comprehensible. In general, the difficulty is intrinsic to the field of computing, often described as "too mathematical or too abstract." This dissertation presents a small-scale mixed method study conducted during the fall 2009 semester of CS1 courses at Arizona State University. This study explored and assessed students' comprehension of three core computational concepts---abstraction, arrays of objects, and inheritance---in both algorithm design and problem solving. Through this investigation students' profiles were categorized based on their scores and based on their mistakes categorized into instances of five computational thinking concepts: abstraction, algorithm, scalability, linguistics, and reasoning. It was shown that even though the notion of computational thinking is not explicit in the curriculum, participants possessed and/or developed this skill through the learning and application of the CS1 core concepts. Furthermore, problem-solving experiences had a direct impact on participants' knowledge skills, explanation skills, and confidence. Implications for teaching CS1 and for future research are also considered.
Can Compactifications Solve the Cosmological Constant Problem?
Hertzberg, Mark P
2015-01-01
Recently, there have been claims in the literature that the cosmological constant problem can be dynamically solved by specific compactifications of gravity from higher-dimensional toy models. These models have the novel feature that in the four-dimensional theory, the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is much smaller than the Planck density and in fact accumulates at $\\Lambda=0$. Here we show that while these are very interesting models, they do not properly address the real cosmological constant problem. As we explain, the real problem is not simply to obtain $\\Lambda$ that is small in Planck units in a toy model, but to explain why $\\Lambda$ is much smaller than other mass scales (and combinations of scales) in the theory. Instead, in these toy models, all other particle mass scales have been either removed or sent to zero, thus ignoring the real problem. To this end, we provide a general argument that the included moduli masses are generically of order Hubble, so sending them to zero trivially sends the cos...
Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning
2006-11-01
The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld’s problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the opportunity to solve six physics problems. Ninety-nine students from a secondary school in Shanghai participated in the study. Students who learnt to solve problems in collaboration and students who learnt to solve problems individually with hints improved their problem-solving skills compared with those who learnt to solve the problems individually without hints. However, it was hard to discern an extra effect for students working collaboratively with hints—although we observed these students working in a more structured way than those in the other groups. We discuss ways to further investigate effective collaborative processes for solving physics problems.
18.S34 Problem Solving Seminar, Fall 2002
Stanley, Richard P., 1944-
This course is an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. It is intended for students who enjoy solving challenging mathematical problems and who are interested in learning various techniques and background ...
18.S34 Problem Solving Seminar, Fall 2004
Rogers, H. (Hartley), 1926-
This course,which is geared toward Freshmen, is an undergraduate seminar on mathematical problem solving. It is intended for students who enjoy solving challenging mathematical problems and who are interested in learning ...
Individual Differences within Problem-Solving Strategies Used in Physics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dhillon, Amarjit Singh
1998-01-01
Explores the problem-solving behavior of a university lecturer as well as that of undergraduate and graduate students. Identifies and describes 14 physical and cognitive actions employed in the problem solving. Contains 28 references. (DDR)
Strategic differences in algebraic problem solving: neuroanatomical correlates.
Lee, Kerry; Lim, Zee Ying; Yeong, Stephanie H M; Ng, Swee Fong; Venkatraman, Vinod; Chee, Michael W L
2007-06-25
In this study, we built on previous neuroimaging studies of mathematical cognition and examined whether the same cognitive processes are engaged by two strategies used in algebraic problem solving. We focused on symbolic algebra, which uses alphanumeric equations to represent problems, and the model method, which uses pictorial representation. Eighteen adults, matched on academic proficiency and competency in the two methods, transformed algebraic word problems into equations or models, and validated presented solutions. Both strategies were associated with activation of areas linked to working memory and quantitative processing. These included the left frontal gyri, and bilateral activation of the intraparietal sulci. Contrasting the two strategies, the symbolic method activated the posterior superior parietal lobules and the precuneus. These findings suggest that the two strategies are effected using similar processes but impose different attentional demands. PMID:17509541
Solving mathematical problems with quantum search algorithm
Rubens Viana Ramos; Paulo Benicio de Sousa; David Sena Oliveira
2006-04-29
Quantum computation has attracted much attention since it was shown by Shor and Grover the possibility to implement quantum algorithms able to realize, respectively, factoring and searching in a faster way than any other known classical algorithm. It is possible to use Grover algorithm, taking profit of its ability to find a specific value in a unordered database, to find, for example, the zero of a logical function; the minimal or maximal value in a database or to recognize if an odd number is prime or not. Here we show quantum algorithms to solve those cited mathematical problems. The solution requires the use of a quantum bit string comparator being used as oracle. This quantum circuit compares two quantum states and identifies if they are equal or, otherwise, which of them is the largest. Moreover, we also show the quantum bit string comparator allow us to implement conditional statements in quantum computation, a fundamental structure for designing of algorithms.
Learning nucleic acids solving by bioinformatics problems.
Nunes, Rhewter; Barbosa de Almeida Júnior, Edivaldo; Pessoa Pinto de Menezes, Ivandilson; Malafaia, Guilherme
2015-09-10
The article describes the development of a new approach to teach molecular biology to undergraduate biology students. The 34 students who participated in this research belonged to the first period of the Biological Sciences teaching course of the Instituto Federal Goiano at Urutaí Campus, Brazil. They were registered in Cell Biology in the first semester of 2013. They received four 55 min-long expository/dialogued lectures that covered the content of "structure and functions of nucleic acids". Later the students were invited to attend four meetings (in a computer laboratory) in which some concepts of Bioinformatics were presented and some problems of the Rosalind platform were solved. The observations we report here are very useful as a broad groundwork to development new research. An interesting possibility is research into the effects of bioinformatics interventions that improve molecular biology learning. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(5):377-383, 2015. PMID:26251209
Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer
2012-01-01
This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…
The Development, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Problem Solving Heuristic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lorenzo, Mercedes
2005-01-01
Problem-solving is one of the main goals in science teaching and is something many students find difficult. This research reports on the development, implementation and evaluation of a problem-solving heuristic. This heuristic intends to help students to understand the steps involved in problem solving (metacognitive tool), and to provide them…
Sex differences, sex composition, and group problem solving
L. R. Hoffman; N. R. F. Maier
1961-01-01
Males and females solved Maier's (1952) horse trading problem while working alone or in groups. Men tended to solve the problem better individually but also to profit from group discussion. Women in mixed groups seemed better motivated to solve the problem than those in groups composed of all females.
Surveying Graduate Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-01-01
Students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate…
Using Qualitative Representations in Controlling Engineering Problem Solving1
Forbus, Kenneth D.
1 Using Qualitative Representations in Controlling Engineering Problem Solving1 Yusuf Pisan y Ave. STE 300 Evanston, IL 60201-3150 (847) 491-7698 Abstract Engineering problem solving requires both in the domain of engineering thermodynamics. TPS to date has solved over 30 problems, and its solutions
Solving the University Class Scheduling Problem Using Advanced ILP Techniques
Aloul, Fadi
Solving the University Class Scheduling Problem Using Advanced ILP Techniques Ahmed Wasfy and Fadi and algorithms have been proposed to solve scheduling problems, most of which are based on local search the problem. The ILP model of interest is developed and solved using the three advanced ILP solvers based
Solving convex problems involving powers using conic optimization
Glineur, FranÃ§ois
Solving convex problems involving powers using conic optimization and a new self-concordant barrier CFG 07 Heidelberg University CFG 07 Solving convex problems involving powers using conic optimization remarks Future plans CFG 07 Solving convex problems involving powers using conic optimization 2 #12
Observations of Collaborative Behavior in COMPS Computer Mediated Problem Solving
Luther, Ken
Observations of Collaborative Behavior in COMPS Computer Mediated Problem Solving Jung Hee Kim.glass @valpo.edu Abstract COMPS is a web-delivered computer-mediated problem solving environment for student in the problem-solving process. These observations confirm that COMPS indeed fa- cilitates true collaborative
Curriculum and Program Development 177 Modeling and Problem Solving
Peszynska, Malgorzata
@math.oregonstate.edu Introduction Mathematical modeling can be defined, arguably, as "word-problem solving." In this chapter, we] that experience in mathematical modeling and in- terdisciplinary problem solving is important (at least) for (i in mathematical modeling), would agree that to solve problems, it is manda- tory to know the basic mathematics
Enhancing Mathematical Problem Solving for Students with Disabilities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fuchs, Lynn S.; Fuchs,Douglas
2005-01-01
This article focuses on the research program on mathematical problem solving conducted by the Center on Accelerating Student Learning (CASL). First, a subset of CASL themes, illustrated in the mathematical problem-solving studies, is highlighted. Then, the theoretical underpinnings of the mathematical problem-solving intervention methods are…
Problem Solving in the School Curriculum from a Design Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Toh, Tin Lam; Leong, Yew Hoong; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Quek, Khiok Seng
2010-01-01
In this symposium, the participants discuss some preliminary data collected from their problem solving project which uses a design experiment approach. Their approach to problem solving in the school curriculum is in tandem with what Schoenfeld (2007) claimed: "Crafting instruction that would make a wide range of problem-solving strategies…
Team-Based Complex Problem Solving: A Collective Cognition Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Woei
2013-01-01
Today, much problem solving is performed by teams, rather than individuals. The complexity of these problems has exceeded the cognitive capacity of any individual and requires a team of members to solve them. The success of solving these complex problems not only relies on individual team members who possess different but complementary expertise,…
Teaching Problem Solving in Secondary School Mathematics Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lam, Toh Tin; Guan, Tay Eng; Seng, Quek Khiok; Hoong, Leong Yew; Choon, Toh Pee; Him, Ho Foo; Jaguthsing, Dindyal
2014-01-01
This paper reports an innovative approach to teaching problem solving in secondary school mathematics classrooms based on a specifically designed problem-solving module.This approach adopts the science practical paradigm and rides on the works of Polya and Schoenfeld in order to give greater emphasis to the problem solving processes. We report the…
Teaching Young Children Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joseph, Gail E.; Strain, Phillip S.
2010-01-01
Learning how to problem solve is one of the key developmental milestones in early childhood. Children's problem-solving skills represent a key feature in the development of social competence. Problem solving allows children to stay calm during difficult situations, repair social relations quickly, and get their needs met in ways that are safe and…
Maximum/Minimum Problems Solved Using an Algebraic Way
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Modica, Erasmo
2010-01-01
This article describes some problems of the maximum/minimum type, which are generally solved using calculus at secondary school, but which here are solved algebraically. We prove six algebraic properties and then apply them to this kind of problem. This didactic approach allows pupils to solve these problems even at the beginning of secondary…
The Influence of Cognitive Abilities on Mathematical Problem Solving Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bahar, Abdulkadir
2013-01-01
Problem solving has been a core theme in education for several decades. Educators and policy makers agree on the importance of the role of problem solving skills for school and real life success. A primary purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cognitive abilities on mathematical problem solving performance of students. The…
Solving Complex Problems: A Convergent Approach to Cognitive Load Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zheng, Robert; Cook, Anne
2012-01-01
The study challenged the current practices in cognitive load measurement involving complex problem solving by manipulating the presence of pictures in multiple rule-based problem-solving situations and examining the cognitive load resulting from both off-line and online measures associated with complex problem solving. Forty-eight participants…
Future Problem Solving: Preparing Students for Today and Tomorrow.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoomes, Eleanor W.
1984-01-01
The Future Problem Solving Program, designed by E. Paul and Pansy Torrance, is now developing problem-solving skills of 100,000 gifted children in grades 4-12 throughout the United States. The program design, six-step approach to problem solving, scenario writing, and evaluation are briefly explained. (MC)
INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN PROBLEM SOLVING PROCESSES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
FOREHAND, GARLIE A.
MENTAL ABILITY CAN BE MEASURED BY THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS RATHER THAN BY THE NUMBER OF CORRECT SOLUTIONS. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY ARE--(1) TO DEVELOP AND STUDY PROPERTIES OF MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES WHICH REVEAL THE PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESS, (2) TO DEVELOP WAYS OF DESCRIBING INDIVIDUALS THROUGH THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING PROCESSES, AND (3) TO…
The Influence of Cognitive Diversity on Group Problem Solving Strategy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lamm, Alexa J.; Shoulders, Catherine; Roberts, T. Grady; Irani, Tracy A.; Snyder, Lori J. Unruh; Brendemuhl, Joel
2012-01-01
Collaborative group problem solving allows students to wrestle with different interpretations and solutions brought forth by group members, enhancing both critical thinking and problem solving skills. Since problem solving in groups is a common practice in agricultural education, instructors are often put in the position of organizing student…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sullivan, Gary E.
This study examined the effects of specially designed thinking journal activities that have been attributed with encouraging reflective thinking, on instruction using generic, or content-free, problem solving software. Sixty-three fourth grade students participated in four instructional sessions using the software package called "Moptown Hotel."…
Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem with Genetic Algorithms
Solving the Vehicle Routing Problem with Genetic Algorithms Ãslaug SÃ³ley BjarnadÃ³ttir April 2004 Algorithms are used to solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem. The problem involves optimising a fleet.1 The Vehicle Routing Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.1.1 The Problem
Children use salience to solve coordination problems.
Grueneisen, Sebastian; Wyman, Emily; Tomasello, Michael
2015-05-01
Humans are routinely required to coordinate with others. When communication is not possible, adults often achieve this by using salient cues in the environment (e.g. going to the Eiffel Tower, as an obvious meeting point). To explore the development of this capacity, we presented dyads of 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds (N = 144) with a coordination problem: Two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes to obtain a reward. Identical pictures were attached to three boxes whereas a unique--and thus salient--picture was attached to the fourth. Children either received one ball each, and so had to choose the same box (experimental condition), or they received both balls and could get the reward independently (control condition). In all cases, children could neither communicate nor see each other's choices. Children were significantly more likely to choose the salient option in the experimental condition than in the control condition. However, only the two older age groups chose the salient box above chance levels. This study is the first to show that children from at least age 5 can solve coordination problems by converging on a salient solution. PMID:25066201
Technological and Personal Problem Solving Styles: Is there a Difference?
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Custer, Rodney L.
Problem solving, and technological problem solving in particular, is clearly a critical survival skill in our technologically advanced world. Government, business, vocational and technology education leaders have increasingly called for more emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and problem solving in both general and technological areas. The American technology education profession has identified problem solving as the technological method (Savage & Sterry, 1990). Authors outside technology education have also suggested that both general and technology teachers would be well advised to focus on enhancing problem solving skills. Given this, the authors sought to examine several key aspects of problem solving in more depth. Of these, the first was problem solving style. Problem-solving style is defined as a tendency to respond in a certain way while addressing problems and not as the steps employed in actually solving the problem. It has been operationally defined by Heppner (1988) in terms of three distinct dimensions which can be measured by the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI). Collectively, these dimensions (problem-solving confidence, approach/avoidance, and personal control) comprise problem-solving style. Although many educators claim to address problem solving, if the increasing frequency of mention in the literature is to be believed, the portion of citizens who have developed adequate problem solving capabilities is insufficient. It is no coincidence that this inadequacy is occurring at the same time when our society is experiencing a decrease in technological literacy. This problem is all the more critical given that the pace of technological growth is escalating (Dyrenfurth, 1991; Johnson, 1989). Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators
Journey into Problem Solving: A Gift from Polya
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lederman, Eric
2009-02-01
In How to Solve It, accomplished mathematician and skilled communicator George Polya describes a four-step universal solving technique designed to help students develop mathematical problem-solving skills. By providing a glimpse at the grace with which experts solve problems, Polya provides definable methods that are not exclusive to mathematicians but of interest to cognitive psychologists and problem solvers in all fields. I had the good fortune to be introduced to Polya's ideas in my first undergraduate class in physics.
Analyzing the many skills involved in solving complex physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adams, Wendy K.; Wieman, Carl E.
2015-05-01
We have empirically identified over 40 distinct sub-skills that affect a person's ability to solve complex problems in many different contexts. The identification of so many sub-skills explains why it has been so difficult to teach or assess problem solving as a single skill. The existence of these sub-skills is supported by several studies comparing a wide range of individuals' strengths and weaknesses in these sub-skills, their "problem solving fingerprint," while solving different types of problems including a classical mechanics problem, quantum mechanics problems, and a complex trip-planning problem with no physics. We see clear differences in the problem solving fingerprint of physics and engineering majors compared to the elementary education majors that we tested. The implications of these findings for guiding the teaching and assessing of problem solving in physics instruction are discussed.
Comet Polarimetry: Solved Problems and New Mysteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolokolova, L.
2011-11-01
Comets are objects of particular interest as relics of the epoch of solar-system formation which preserve materials as they were in the protosolar nebula. It is well known that the light from comets is polarized due to the scattering of sunlight on cometary dust particles. The polarization shows smooth dependencies on scattering (phase) angle and wavelength, which can be used to reveal the properties of comet dust and, thus, to shed light on conditions in the early solar system when comets were formed. The last decade was very fruitful in comet polarimetry and many longstanding problems have been solved. The main progress was achieved by modeling comet dust as an ensemble of large aggregates of submicron particles. This model allowed us not only to explain the angular and spectral dependence of comet polarization but also to reproduce correctly the comet dust albedo, color, angular change in brightness, and thermal emission spectrum. The combination of polarimetric and thermal data appeared to be especially successful. It allowed us to answer a longstanding question of why there are two types of comets, with high (?25%) and low (?15%) maximum polarization, and to connect this difference with the orbital characteristics of the comets and, finally, with their age and formation region. Although many of the problems in comet polarimetry have been solved, new data on the wavelength dependence of polarization revealed a new mystery: two new types of comets: one with polarization degree that increases with wavelength and the other with polarization degree that decreases with wavelength. A tentative explanation of this phenomenon can be related to a specific of the structure of aggregates dust particles. Another interesting mystery is comet circular polarization. It has recently become possible to observe comet circular polarization with high accuracy and spatial resolution. Circular polarization has been detected in recent bright comets at the level 0.1 - 2%. It has been found changing smoothly with phase angle and distance from the nucleus. This paper discusses possible explanations of comet circular polarization, including scattering of light by homochiral organic molecules embedded in comet dust particles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dufner, Hillrey A.; Alexander, Patricia A.
The differential effects of two different types of problem-solving training on the problem-solving abilities of gifted fourth graders were studied. Two successive classes of gifted fourth graders from Weslaco Independent School District (Texas) were pretested with the Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Thinking Creatively With Pictures…
Cognitive Variables in Problem Solving in Chemistry: A Revisited Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Kam-Wah Lucille; And Others
1996-01-01
Presents results from Singaporean and Australian studies on the relationships between the cognitive variables and problem solving performance in three electrochemistry problems of different degrees of familiarity for comparisons. Concludes that idea association, problem translating skill, prior problem solving experience, specific knowledge, and…
Solving the Traveling Tournament Problem with Heuristic Search
Vetter, Thomas
Solving the Traveling Tournament Problem with Heuristic Search Bachelor's thesis University.duerrenberger@stud.unibas.ch February 9th, 2015 #12;Abstract This thesis discusses the Traveling Tournament Problem and how it can be solved with heuristic search. The Traveling Tournament problem is a sports scheduling problem where one
Measuring Problem Solving with Technology: A Demonstration Study for NAEP
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Randy Elliot; Persky, Hilary; Weiss, Andy; Jenkins, Frank
2010-01-01
This paper describes a study intended to demonstrate how an emerging skill, problem solving with technology, might be measured in the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Two computer-delivered assessment scenarios were designed, one on solving science-related problems through electronic information search and the other on solving…
A simple level set method for solving Stefan problems
Chen, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Merriman, B.; Osher, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Smereka, P. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
1997-07-15
Discussed in this paper is an implicit finite difference scheme for solving a heat equation and a simple level set method for capturing the interface between solid and liquid phases which are used to solve Stefan problems.
Solving the Sports League Scheduling Problem with Tabu Search
Hao, Jin-Kao
of this type. 1 Introduction Many sports leagues (e.g. soccer, hockey, basketball) must deal with scheduling, not able to solve problems as large as those which Régin solved with his second approach. The goal
An Assessment of Problem Solving Processes in Undergraduate Statics
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Four well-articulated models that offer structured approaches to problem solving were identified in the engineering research literature. These models provided a conceptual base for the study reported here. Four undergraduates enrolled in statics and two engineering faculty members provided think-aloud data as they solved two statics problems. The data were used to develop a coding system for characterizing engineering students behavioral and cognitive processes. These codes were used to analyze students problem solving procedures in a detailed manner, particularly differences between good and not-so-good problem solvers. The analyses provide a picture of how students and faculty solve problems at a cognitive level, and indicate that published problem-solving models are incomplete in describing actual problem-solving processes.
1 Problem Solving: How do you do it? Classic example is the Tower of Hanoi problem
O'Reilly, Randall C.
1 Problem Solving: How do you do it? Classic example is the Tower of Hanoi problem: Initial State state. 3 Problem Solving Heuristics Brute force search: explore entire problem space. Hill climbing away from the goal for a bit, it will eventually solve the problem. This is a problem for people too
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becerra-Labra, Carlos; Gras-Marti, Albert; Torregrosa, Joaquin Martinez
2012-01-01
A model of teaching/learning is proposed based on a "problem-based structure" of the contents of the course, in combination with a training in paper and pencil problem solving that emphasizes discussion and quantitative analysis, rather than formulae plug-in. The aim is to reverse the high failure and attrition rate among engineering…
Solving belief problems: toward a task analysis.
Roth, D; Leslie, A M
1998-04-01
Solving belief problems develops as a skill in normal children during the preschool years. To understand this process of development, it is necessary to provide an analysis of the tasks used to test preschool 'theory of mind' skills. This analysis should allow us to relate the structure of a given task to the underlying cognitive mechanisms that the task engages. In two experiments, we find that 3-year-old children show a pattern of success and failure on belief tasks that is not consistent with 'conceptual deficit' accounts. Young children possess the concept, BELIEF, but have certain characteristic difficulties with correctly calculating the contents of beliefs. In childhood autism, by contrast, the mechanisms that in normal development bestow conceptual competence in this domain are impaired. In the first experiment, parallel task structures are used to show that 3-year-olds are no better at predicting behavior from a partially true belief than they are at predicting behavior from an entirely false belief. We develop specific proposals about task structural factors that either facilitate or hinder success in belief-content calculation. These proposals are supported in a second experiment. We compare two false-belief tasks, one of which has helpful structural factors, the other of which has hampering factors, with a third task which exemplifies a hampering task structure but without any theory of mind content. We compare 3- and 4-year-olds' patterns of performance with that of autistic children. Each of the three groups shows a distinct performance profile across the three tasks, as predicted for each case by our model. Innate attentional mechanisms provide the conceptual foundations for 'theory of mind' but must be supplemented by a robust executive process that allows false beliefs to achieve 'conceptual pop-out.' Our approach has general implications for the study of conceptual development. PMID:9675976
Solving a transport equation with OpenCL Solving the shock tube problem with OpenCL
Helluy, Philippe
OpenCL Solving a transport equation with OpenCL Solving the shock tube problem with Open Introduction à OpenCL #12;OpenCL Solving a transport equation with OpenCL Solving the shock tube problem with OpenCL Sommaire 1 OpenCL 2 Solving a transport equation with OpenCL 3 Solving the shock tube problem
From Example Study to Problem Solving: Smooth Transitions Help Learning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Renkl, Alexander; Atkinson, Robert K.; Maier, Uwe H.; Staley, Richard
2002-01-01
Proposed a successive integration of problem-solving elements into example study until learners solved problems on their own and tested the effectiveness of this "fading" method against a traditional method of using example-problem pairs. Results with 20 ninth graders in Germany, 54 U.S. college students, and 45 U.S. college students show that the…
Monte Carlo method of solving heat conduction problems
S. K. Fraley; T. J. Hoffman; P. N. Stevens
1977-01-01
An innovative approach in the use of Monte Carlo to solve heat conduction problems was developed using a transport equation approximation to the heat conduction equation. The method was shown to be applicable to the solution of multimedia problems in complex geometries with no inherent limitations as to the geometric complexity of problems which can be solved. Nuclear radiation transport
Problem Solving. Workplace Improvement of Necessary Skills (WINS).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Ramona
This workshop manual is intended for groups in the workplace. It leads the group step-by-step through problem-solving techniques based on both critical and creative thinking approaches to describe, analyze, plan, and act on a realistic shared understanding of the real problem and workable solutions. It begins with a problem-solving curriculum…
A Computer Based Problem Solving Environment in Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bilgin, Ibrahim; Karakirik, Erol
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to introduce the Mole Solver, a computer based system that facilitates monitors and improves students' problem solving skills on mole concept. The system has three distinct modes that: (1) find step by step solutions to the word problems on the mole concept; (2) enable students to solve word problems on their own by…
A Rubric for Assessing Students' Experimental Problem-Solving Ability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shadle, Susan E.; Brown, Eric C.; Towns, Marcy H.; Warner, Don L.
2012-01-01
The ability to couple problem solving both to the understanding of chemical concepts and to laboratory practices is an essential skill for undergraduate chemistry programs to foster in our students. Therefore, chemistry programs must offer opportunities to answer real problems that require use of problem-solving processes used by practicing…
Problem-Solving Support for English Language Learners
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiest, Lynda R.
2008-01-01
Although word problems pose greater language demands, they also encourage more meaningful problem solving and mathematics understanding. With proper instructional support, a student-centered, investigative approach to contextualized problem solving benefits all students. This article presents a lesson built on an author-adapted version of the…
Feasibility of a Web-Based Assessment of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schacter, John; And Others
This feasibility study explored the automated data collection, scoring, and reporting of children's complex problem-solving processes and performance in Web-based information-rich environments. Problem solving was studied using realistic problems in realistic contexts demanding multiple cognitive processes in the domain of environmental science.…
Improving Mathematical Problem Solving Skills: The Journey to Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rousseau, Donna
2009-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine if problem solving skills can be improved through the use of an interdisciplinary program incorporating reading, music, and mathematics. The study was conducted in seven fifth grade classrooms, and addresses the need to teach problem solving strategies in elementary school and the importance of problem…
A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.
2003-01-01
Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)
Solving the Sailors and the Coconuts Problem via Diagrammatic Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2010-01-01
In this article, we discuss how to use a diagrammatic approach to solve the classic sailors and the coconuts problem. It provides us an insight on how to tackle this type of problem in a novel and intuitive way. This problem-solving approach will be found useful to mathematics teachers or lecturers involved in teaching elementary number theory,…
Cognitive Science: Problem Solving And Learning For Physics Education
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, Brian H.
2007-11-01
Cognitive Science has focused on general principles of problem solving and learning that might be relevant for physics education research. This paper examines three selected issues that have relevance for the difficulty of transfer in problem solving domains: specialized systems of memory and reasoning, the importance of content in thinking, and a characterization of memory retrieval in problem solving. In addition, references to these issues are provided to allow the interested researcher entries to the literatures.
Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.
Lau, Ying
2014-01-01
The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, p<.0001), clinical interaction (ß=.129, p=.047), and interpersonal dysfunction (ß=-.402, p<.0001) were associated with social problem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. PMID:23141038
Problem-solving strategies for teaching mathematics to deaf students.
Mousley, K; Kelly, R R
1998-10-01
Three teaching and learning strategies for problem solving were implemented with first- and second-year deaf college students enrolled in mathematics courses at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), Rochester Institute of Technology. These strategies involved the students in (a) giving an explanation to a peer observer in sign language, after which they would put their understanding of a problem and its solution in writing; (b) visualizing the problem-solving process prior to starting to solve a problem; and (c) observing their teacher modeling the analytical process step by step for a sample problem prior to solving math word problems. The students were asked to solve two types of problems: typical word problems, and a visual/manipulative puzzle that would provide a problem-solving experience that would contrast with the experience of solving a problem presented in text format. The results showed that these kinds of instructional strategies can enhance the problem-solving performance of deaf and hard of hearing college students. PMID:9842060
Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew; Singh, Chandralekha
2010-07-01
Students’ attitudes and approaches to problem solving in physics can profoundly influence their motivation to learn and development of expertise. We developed and validated an Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving survey by expanding the Attitudes toward Problem Solving survey of Marx and Cummings and administered it to physics graduate students. Comparison of their responses to the survey questions about problem solving in their own graduate-level courses vs problem solving in the introductory physics courses provides insight into their expertise in introductory and graduate-level physics. The physics graduate students’ responses to the survey questions were also compared with those of introductory physics and astronomy students and physics faculty. We find that, even for problem solving in introductory physics, graduate students’ responses to some survey questions are less expertlike than those of the physics faculty. Comparison of survey responses of graduate students and introductory students for problem solving in introductory physics suggests that graduate students’ responses are in general more expertlike than those of introductory students. However, survey responses suggest that graduate-level problem solving by graduate students on several measures has remarkably similar trends to introductory-level problem solving by introductory students.
Innovation and problem solving: a review of common mechanisms.
Griffin, Andrea S; Guez, David
2014-11-01
Behavioural innovations have become central to our thinking about how animals adjust to changing environments. It is now well established that animals vary in their ability to innovate, but understanding why remains a challenge. This is because innovations are rare, so studying innovation requires alternative experimental assays that create opportunities for animals to express their ability to invent new behaviours, or use pre-existing ones in new contexts. Problem solving of extractive foraging tasks has been put forward as a suitable experimental assay. We review the rapidly expanding literature on problem solving of extractive foraging tasks in order to better understand to what extent the processes underpinning problem solving, and the factors influencing problem solving, are in line with those predicted, and found, to underpin and influence innovation in the wild. Our aim is to determine whether problem solving can be used as an experimental proxy of innovation. We find that in most respects, problem solving is determined by the same underpinning mechanisms, and is influenced by the same factors, as those predicted to underpin, and to influence, innovation. We conclude that problem solving is a valid experimental assay for studying innovation, propose a conceptual model of problem solving in which motor diversity plays a more central role than has been considered to date, and provide recommendations for future research using problem solving to investigate innovation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. PMID:25245306
Problem-Solving Therapy in the Elderly.
Kiosses, Dimitris N; Alexopoulos, George S
2014-03-01
We systematically reviewed randomized clinical trials of problem-solving therapy (PST) in older adults. Our results indicate that PST led to greater reduction in depressive symptoms of late-life major depression than supportive therapy (ST) and reminiscence therapy. PST resulted in reductions in depression comparable with those of paroxetine and placebo in patients with minor depression and dysthymia, although paroxetine led to greater reductions than placebo. In home health care, PST was more effective than usual care in reducing symptoms of depression in undiagnosed patients. PST reduced disability more than ST in patients with major depression and executive dysfunction. Preliminary data suggest that a home-delivered adaptation of PST that includes environmental adaptations and caregiver involvement is efficacious in reducing disability in depressed patients with advanced cognitive impairment or early dementia. In patients with macular degeneration, PST led to improvement in vision-related disability comparable to that of ST, but PST led to greater improvement in measures of vision-related quality of life. Among stroke patients, PST participants were less likely to develop a major or minor depressive episode than those receiving placebo treatment, although the results were not sustained in a more conservative statistical analysis. Among patients with macular degeneration, PST participants had significantly lower 2-month incidence rates of major depression than usual care participants and were less likely to suffer persistent depression at 6 months. Finally, among stroke patients, PST participants were less likely to develop apathy than those receiving placebo treatment. PST also has been delivered via phone, Internet, and videophone, and there is evidence of feasibility and acceptability. Further, preliminary data indicate that PST delivered through the Internet resulted in a reduction in depression comparable with that of in-person PST in home-care patients. PST delivered via videophone results in an improvement in hospice caregivers' quality of life and a reduction in anxiety comparable to those of in-person PST. PST-treated patients with cognitive impairment may require additional compensatory strategies, such as written notes, memory devices, environmental adaptations, and caregiver involvement. PMID:24729951
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pol, Henk J.; Harskamp, Egbert G.; Suhre, Cor J. M.; Goedhart, Martin J.
2009-01-01
This study investigates the effectiveness of computer-delivered hints in relation to problem-solving abilities in two alternative indirect instruction schemes. In one instruction scheme, hints are available to students immediately after they are given a new problem to solve as well as after they have completed the problem. In the other scheme,…
A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga
2011-01-01
In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zuckerman, June T.
Various researchers have associated meaningful problem solving with methods guided directly by a conceptual knowledge base. By contast, a meaningless solving course, or sequence of operations, is essentially independent of the solver's conceptual understanding of the problem under consideration. This paper is the first to document a meaningless,…
Solving word problems: more than reading issues for deaf students.
Kelly, R R; Mousley, K
2001-07-01
Deaf and hearing college students were given 30 mathematics problems to solve. The initial 15 were presented as numeric/graphic problems, followed by 15 corresponding word problems, with both conditions sequenced for a progressive increase in problem complexity. Each word problem described the kind of shape and measurement information that was presented in its corresponding numeric/graphic problem. The results showed that the deaf college students, regardless of reading level, were comparable in performance to the hearing college students when solving the numeric/graphic problems and the initial, least complex set of corresponding word problems. However, as the complexity of the descriptive information in the word problems increased along with the complexity of the problem situations, the performance scores of the deaf students decreased. No comparable decrease was observed in the hearing students' scores. While reading ability level was associated with the deaf students' lower scores when solving word problems, the analyses show that other factors also contributed. PMID:11523200
Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balka, Don S.
1988-01-01
Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)
SUPPORTING EXPLORATIVE LEARNING BY PROVIDING COLLABORATIVE ONLINE PROBLEM SOLVING (COPS)
Roe, Paul
University of Technology can collaborate, engage, grapple and seek to make sense of authentic problems within81 SUPPORTING EXPLORATIVE LEARNING BY PROVIDING COLLABORATIVE ONLINE PROBLEM SOLVING (COPS) ENVIRONMENTS Sylvia Lauretta Edwards, Jason Watson Faculty of Information Technology Robyn Nash Faculty
The influence of nonreportable primes on problem solving
Schumacher, Jay Scott
1994-01-01
The purpose of the study was to investigate unconscious priming effects in a problem solving context. The influence of unconscious priming on solution rates of Remote Associate Test problems (RAT) was investigated in a series of four experiments...
Formulating and Solving Problems in Computational Chemistry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Norris, A. C.
1980-01-01
Considered are the main elements of computational chemistry problems and how these elements can be used to formulate the problems mathematically. Techniques that are useful in devising an appropriate solution are also considered. (Author/TG)
On solving certain nonlinear acoustics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rubina, L. I.; Ul'yanov, O. N.
2015-09-01
Previously the authors developed a geometric method for studying and solving nonlinear equations and systems of equations with partial derivatives. This method is used in this paper to obtain a series of exact solutions to certain nonlinear acoustics equations, as well as to reduce the system of Euler equations to systems of common differential equations.
Problem-Solving Test: Southwestern Blotting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szeberényi, József
2014-01-01
Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: Southern blotting, Western blotting, restriction endonucleases, agarose gel electrophoresis, nitrocellulose filter, molecular hybridization, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proto-oncogene, c-abl, Src-homology domains, tyrosine protein kinase, nuclear localization signal, cDNA,…
How students blend conceptual and formal mathematical reasoning in solving physics problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuo, Eric; Hull, Michael M.; Gupta, Ayush; Elby, Andrew
2013-01-01
Current conceptions of expert problem solving depict physical/conceptual reasoning and formal mathematical reasoning as separate steps: a good problem solver first translates a physical Current conceptions of quantitative problem-solving expertise in physics incorporate conceptual reasoning in two ways: for selecting relevant equations (before manipulating them), and for checking whether a given quantitative solution is reasonable (after manipulating the equations). We make the case that problem-solving expertise should include opportunistically blending conceptual and formal mathematical reasoning even while manipulating equations. We present analysis of interviews with two students, Alex and Pat. Interviewed students were asked to explain a particular equation and solve a problem using that equation. Alex used and described the equation as a computational tool. By contrast, Pat found a shortcut to solve the problem. His shortcut blended mathematical operations with conceptual reasoning about physical processes, reflecting a view - expressed earlier in his explanation of the equation - that equations can express an overarching conceptual meaning. Using case studies of Alex and Pat, we argue that this opportunistic blending of conceptual and formal mathematical reasoning (i) is a part of problem-solving expertise, (ii) can be described in terms of cognitive elements called symbolic forms (Sherin, 2001), and (iii) is a feasible instructional target.
Preparing students to solve realistic, authentic problems in their chosen
Bedwell, David M.
Preparing students to solve realistic, authentic problems in their chosen careers to be engaged. Students might be doing group work, solving problems together," Mayer says. "There's much more athletic priority see mAckin p3 see qeP p4 Children who play sports always dream big: Hitting the game
Best Known Problem Solving Strategies in "High-Stakes" Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hong, Dae S.
2011-01-01
In its mathematics standards, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) states that problem solving is an integral part of all mathematics learning and exposure to problem solving strategies should be embedded across the curriculum. Furthermore, by high school, students should be able to use, decide and invent a wide range of strategies.…
Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills of Hyperactive Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almeida, M. Connie
The relationship between interpersonal cognitive problem-solving (ICPS) skills and the behavioral adjustment of 30 hyperactive boys (from 5.5 to 12.5 years of age) was examined. Each S was individually administered two problem solving measures to assess alternative thinking and means-end thinking. The childrens' self-concept was also assessed and…
Puzzling Science: Using the Rubik's Cube to Teach Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rohrig, Brian
2010-01-01
A major goal of education is to help learners store information in long-term memory and use that information on later occasions to effectively solve problems (Vockell 2010). Therefore, this author began to use the Rubik's cube to help students learn to problem solve. There is something special about this colorful three-dimensional puzzle that…
Structured Collaboration versus Individual Learning in Solving Physics Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harskamp, Egbert; Ding, Ning
2006-01-01
The research issue in this study is how to structure collaborative learning so that it improves solving physics problems more than individual learning. Structured collaborative learning has been compared with individual learning environments with Schoenfeld's problem-solving episodes. Students took a pre-test and a post-test and had the…
A New Approach: Computer-Assisted Problem-Solving Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gok, Tolga
2010-01-01
Computer-assisted problem solving systems are rapidly growing in educational use and with the advent of the Internet. These systems allow students to do their homework and solve problems online with the help of programs like Blackboard, WebAssign and LON-CAPA program etc. There are benefits and drawbacks of these systems. In this study, the…
Assessing Creative Problem-Solving with Automated Text Grading
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Hao-Chuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Tsai-Yen
2008-01-01
The work aims to improve the assessment of creative problem-solving in science education by employing language technologies and computational-statistical machine learning methods to grade students' natural language responses automatically. To evaluate constructs like creative problem-solving with validity, open-ended questions that elicit…
Autobiographical Memory and Social Problem-Solving in Asperger Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goddard, Lorna; Howlin, Patricia; Dritschel, Barbara; Patel, Trishna
2007-01-01
Difficulties in social interaction are a central feature of Asperger syndrome. Effective social interaction involves the ability to solve interpersonal problems as and when they occur. Here we examined social problem-solving in a group of adults with Asperger syndrome and control group matched for age, gender and IQ. We also assessed…
Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin
2013-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…
A Simple Level Set Method for Solving Stefan Problems
S. Chen; B. Merriman; S. Osher; P. Smereka
1997-01-01
A simple level set method for solving Stefan problems is presented. This method can be applied to problems involving dendritic solidification. Our method consists of an implicit finite difference scheme for solving the heat equation and a level set approach for capturing the front between solid and liquid phases of a pure substance. Our method is accurate with respect to
A Simple Level Set Method For Solving Stefan Problems
S. Chen; B. Merriman; S. Osher; P. Smereka
1997-01-01
. A simple level set method for solving Stefan problems is presented. This methodcan be applied to problems involving dendritic solidification. Our method consists of an implicitfinite difference scheme for solving the heat equation and a level set approach for capturing the frontbetween solid and liquid phases of a pure substance. Our method is accurate with respect to someexact solutions
ORIGINAL PAPER Problem solving by worker bumblebees Bombus impatiens
Indiana University
ORIGINAL PAPER Problem solving by worker bumblebees Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) Hamida) reviewed many aspects of learning and problem solving in bees, mostly with respect to sensory results can be interpreted within the context of Skinnerian shaping and possibly scaffold learning
Role of Multiple Representations in Physics Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maries, Alexandru
2013-01-01
This thesis explores the role of multiple representations in introductory physics students' problem solving performance through several investigations. Representations can help students focus on the conceptual aspects of physics and play a major role in effective problem solving. Diagrammatic representations can play a particularly important role…
Instructing Low-Achievers in Mathematical Word Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kajamies, Anu; Vauras, Marja; Kinnunen, Riitta
2010-01-01
We describe the effects of an intervention designed to develop the mathematical word problem solving of low-achievers. The eight students participating in the intervention were selected from 429 10-year-olds on the basis of their difficulties in word problem solving. In the intervention, we combined intensive, systematic, and explicit teacher…
Reading-Enhanced Word Problem Solving: A Theoretical Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Robert M.; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Rupley, William H.
2012-01-01
There is a reciprocal relationship between mathematics and reading cognition. Metacognitive training within reading-enhanced problem solving should facilitate students developing an awareness of what good readers do when reading for meaning in solving mathematical problems enabling them to apply these strategies. The constructs for each cognitive…
A Markov Model Analysis of Problem-Solving Progress.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vendlinski, Terry
This study used a computerized simulation and problem-solving tool along with artificial neural networks (ANN) as pattern recognizers to identify the common types of strategies high school and college undergraduate chemistry students would use to solve qualitative chemistry problems. Participants were 134 high school chemistry students who used…
Problem Solving Variations in an Online Programming Course
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ebrahimi, Alireza
2007-01-01
An observation on teaching introductory programming courses on SLN for a period of two terms led me to believe that online students try various ways to solve a problem. In the beginning, I got the impression that some of their approaches for a solution were wrong; but after a little investigation, I found that some of the problem-solving…
Emerging Consensus in Novice Physics Problem Solving Research.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Christopher; Chaiklin, Seth
During the summer of 1986 a conference funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) was organized to assess the current state of cognitive research on the psychology of physics problem solving, and to examine the needs of physics instructors and instructional designers that must be addressed by a psychological theory of physics problem solving.…
The Role of Problem Solving in Complex Intraverbal Repertoires
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sautter, Rachael A.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Jay, Allison A.; Goldsmith, Tina R.; Carr, James E.
2011-01-01
We examined whether typically developing preschoolers could learn to use a problem-solving strategy that involved self-prompting with intraverbal chains to provide multiple responses to intraverbal categorization questions. Teaching the children to use the problem-solving strategy did not produce significant increases in target responses until…
Relationship between Problem-Solving Style and Mathematical Literacy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tai, Wen-Chun; Lin, Su-Wei
2015-01-01
Currently, mathematics education is focused on ensuring that students can apply the knowledge and skills they learn to everyday life; students are expected to develop their problem-solving abilities to face challenges by adopting various perspectives. When faced with a problem, students may employ different methods or patterns to solve it. If this…
High School Students' Use of Meiosis When Solving Genetics Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wynne, Cynthia F.; Stewart, Jim; Passmore, Cindy
2001-01-01
Paints a different picture of students' reasoning with meiosis as they solved complex, computer-generated genetics problems, some of which required them to revise their understanding of meiosis in response to anomalous data. Students were able to develop a rich understanding of meiosis and can utilize that knowledge to solve genetics problems.…
Inquiry and Problem Solving MSED 320/538
Heller, Barbara
. Course Goals: Each student will: · Develop a functional understanding of scientific inquiry, problem solving and the nature of science and mathematics · Use his/her understanding of scientific inquiry, and materials. 1 #12;Topical Sequence: · What is Problem Solving/ What is Scientific Inquiry? · Procedural
A Case Study of Dynamic Visualization and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavy, Ilana
2007-01-01
This paper reports an example of a situation in which university students had to solve geometrical problems presented to them dynamically using the interactive computerized environment of the "MicroWorlds Project Builder". In the process of the problem solving, the students used ten different solution strategies. The unsuccessful strategies were…
Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.
Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K
2014-12-15
The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. PMID:25110314
Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Problem Solving and Distance Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Malley, Claire E.; Scanlon, Eileen
1990-01-01
Discusses cooperative problem solving among Open University physics and math students and describes three studies that investigated how to design effective computer-based support for collaborative learning in distance education. The value of peer interaction for learning and problem solving is discussed, and students' attitudes to group work are…
Problem-Solving Correlates of New Assessment Forms in Architecture.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Michael E.
1993-01-01
Figural response (FR) items in architecture were compared with multiple-choice (MC) counterparts for their ability to predict architectural problem-solving proficiency of 33 practicing architects, 34 architecture interns, and 53 architecture students. Although both FR and MC predicted verbal design problem solving, only FR scores predicted…
Problem Solving/Decision Making for Social and Academic Success.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elias, Maurice J.; Tobias, Steven E.
Based on the premise that systematic instruction in social decision-making and problem-solving skills is a developmental right of all children, this book provides an in-service training program for teaching a set of social decision-making and problem-solving steps that are essential for success in school, in the family, with friends, in the world…
Students' Metaphors for Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yee, Sean P.
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the metaphors used by students to describe mathematical problem solving. This study focused on identifying how students interpret and perceive mathematical problem solving via conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2003). These perceptions and interpretations were coded and analyzed qualitatively and…
Facilitating Flexible Problem Solving: A Cognitive Load Perspective
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kalyuga, Slava; Renkl, Alexander; Paas, Fred
2010-01-01
The development of flexible, transferable problem-solving skills is an important aim of contemporary educational systems. Since processing limitations of our mind represent a major factor influencing any meaningful learning, the acquisition of flexible problem-solving skills needs to be based on known characteristics of our cognitive architecture…
Transfer of Learning: Connecting Concepts during Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dixon, Raymond A.; Brown, Ryan A.
2012-01-01
A concern of many educators and managers is students' ability to transfer concepts and procedures learned in school to the work environment. When children are taught a skill, such as solving a mathematical problem, they often fail to recognize that their new skill can be used to solve a similar problem outside of school. In other cases, students…
Robotics and Children: Science Achievement and Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wagner, Susan Preston
1999-01-01
Compared the impact of robotics (computer-powered manipulative) to a battery-powered manipulative (novelty control) and traditionally taught science class on science achievement and problem solving of fourth through sixth graders. Found that the robotics group had higher scores on programming logic-problem solving than did the novelty control…
Learning to Learn: Algorithmic Inspirations from Human Problem Solving
Horvitz, Eric
Learning to Learn: Algorithmic Inspirations from Human Problem Solving Ashish Kapoor, Bongshin Lee the performance of a machine learning method. We show how we can collect evidence about how people optimize for learning from evidence collected about human problem solving to refine and extend automated learning
"Opportunities in Work Clothes": Online Problem-Solving Project Structures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harris, Judi
1994-01-01
Provides activity structures for and gives examples of problem-solving projects to be used with educational telecomputing. Highlights include information searches, electronic process writing, sequential creations, parallel problem solving, simulations, social action projects, and instructions for accessing information about these and other…
Administrator Participation in Promoting Effective Problem-Solving Teams
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rafoth, Mary Ann; Foriska, Terry
2006-01-01
Although the participation of administrators in problem-solving consultation teams is frequently mentioned in the literature as an important factor in the effectiveness of those teams, there has been little research into the impact of administrators on such teams. The impact of administrator participation on problem-solving consultation teams…
Toward a Comprehensive Model of Problem-Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pitt, Ruth B.
Presented is a model of problem solving that incorporates elements of hypothetico-deductive reasoning in the Piagetian sense, and heuristic-algorithmic processing in the information-processing sense. It assumes that people invoke both formal reasoning strategies and learned algorithms whenever they solve problems. The proposed model integrates the…
Representations in Problem Solving in Science: Directions for Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Solaz-Portoles, Joan Josep; Lopez, Vicent Sanjose
2007-01-01
In this paper we focus on some of the findings of the science education research community in the area of representations and problem solving. Problem solving depends on the construction and manipulation of mental models (internal representations) in the mind. A large knowledge base (declarative, procedural, strategic, situational, and schematic…
Problem Solving and Concept Formation: A Comprehensive Bibliography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stern, Carolyn
This comprehensive bibliography on problem solving and concept formation includes books, papers, journal articles, reviews of literature, projects, unpublished manuscripts, reports, research bulletins, dissertations, and related bibliographies dating from 1924-1967. Special annotations are made of materials on problem solving with young children.…
Monitoring Affect States during Effortful Problem Solving Activities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mello, Sidney K.; Lehman, Blair; Person, Natalie
2010-01-01
We explored the affective states that students experienced during effortful problem solving activities. We conducted a study where 41 students solved difficult analytical reasoning problems from the Law School Admission Test. Students viewed videos of their faces and screen captures and judged their emotions from a set of 14 states (basic…
Measurement for Creative Problem Solving in Kindergarten Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lundsteen, Sara W.
This paper briefly describes various methods used in a longitudinal and cross cultural study of kindergarten children's creative problem solving ability. The document contains a figure indicating relationships between four learning styles and child variables, child and parent behavior, and intervention techniques. A problem solving observational…
Cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational aspects of problem solving
Richard E. Mayer
1998-01-01
This article examines the role of cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational skills in problem solving. Cognitive skills include instructional objectives, components in a learning hierarchy, and components in information processing. Metacognitive skills include strategies for reading comprehension, writing, and mathematics. Motivational skills include motivation based on interest, self-efficacy, and attributions. All three kinds of skills are required for successful problem solving
Roulette wheel Graph Colouring for Solving Examination Timetabling Problems
Qu, Rong
Roulette wheel Graph Colouring for Solving Examination Timetabling Problems Nasser R. Sabar1 heuristic that employs a roulette wheel selection mechanism for solving examination timetabling problems. We determines the size of a segment in a roulette wheel, with a larger degree giving a larger segment
Interpersonal Problem Solving and Prevention in Urban School Children.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.; Healey, Kathryn N.
Recognizing that enhancing the interpersonal problem solving skills of children as young as age four can reduce or prevent high-risk behaviors later on, researchers designed a competence-building model of primary prevention. The two criteria tested were: (1) the theory of interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) skills as mediators of social…
Three Parent and Adult Problem-Solving Instruments.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wasik, Barbara H.; Bryant, Donna M.
This document provides information on three adult problem-solving measures developed to assess the effects of participating in a problem-solving training program. Each measure is accompanied by a manual describing the purpose, administrative procedures, psychometric properties, and use in research studies. The first measure is the Parent Means-End…
Interpersonal Problem Solving Intervention for Mother and Child.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna, B.; Spivack, George
This study examined the effects of interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) training for inner city mothers on the problem-solving skills and behaviors of their children. Twenty black mother-child pairs received training and 20 pairs matched in ICPS ability served as controls. The children were of comparable mean age (4.3 years), school…
Animated Pedagogical Agents and Problem-Solving E ectiveness
Lester, James C.
Animated Pedagogical Agents and Problem-Solving E ectiveness: A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation Animated pedagogical agents o er great promise for learning environments. In addition to their signi cant into a rich learning environment, animated pedagogical agents could increase problem-solving e ectiveness
Problem Solving in Genetics: Conceptual and Procedural Difficulties
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Karagoz, Meryem; Cakir, Mustafa
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore prospective biology teachers' understandings of fundamental genetics concepts and the association between misconceptions and genetics problem solving abilities. Specifically, the study describes conceptual and procedural difficulties which influence prospective biology teachers' genetics problem solving…
ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner
Hill, Gary
82 ROBOTS IN PROBLEM-SOLVING AND PROGRAMMING. Scott Turner University of Northampton Avenue Campus based on using Mindstorm (LEGO, Denmark) robot kits. This is being done as a foundation step before experience, problem-solving, robots, Java. INTRODUCTION Mindstorm based robots have been used previously
Teaching Evidence-based Medicine Using Literature for Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mottonen, Merja; Tapanainen, Paivi; Nuutinen, Matti; Rantala, Heikki; Vainionpaa, Leena; Uhari, Matti
2001-01-01
Evidence-based medicine--the process of using research findings systematically as the basis for clinical decisions--can be taught using problem-solving teaching methods. Evaluates whether it was possible to motivate students to use the original literature by giving them selected patient problems to solve. (Author/ASK)
ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM SOLVING WITH GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS: A NATIONAL CONFERENCE
This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of information on the use of GIS as a tool in environmental problem solving. Solving environmental problems has become more complex with consideration of cross-media pollutant transport and watershed-based decision-making. T...
A Descriptive Model of Information Problem Solving while Using Internet
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Wopereis, Iwan; Walraven, Amber
2009-01-01
This paper presents the IPS-I-model: a model that describes the process of information problem solving (IPS) in which the Internet (I) is used to search information. The IPS-I-model is based on three studies, in which students in secondary and (post) higher education were asked to solve information problems, while thinking aloud. In-depth analyses…
Introduction to LogoWriter and Problem Solving for Educators.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yoder, Sharon Burrowes; Moursund, Dave
This book about Logo programming and problem solving is designed to introduce preservice and inservice teachers to problem solving in a Logo programming environment. Such a unit of study can be an important part of an introductory computers in education course for educators. Although Logowriter--a version of Logo--was developed by Logo Computer…
Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.
2012-01-01
Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…
Evaluating the levels of problem solving abilities in mathematics
NOOR AZLAN AHMAD
Currently, there is a general agreement among mathematics educators that students need to acquire problem solving skill, learn to communicate using mathematical knowledge and skills, develop mathematical thinking and reasoning, to see the interconnectedness between mathematics and other disciplines. Based on this perspective, this research looked into the levels of problem solving ability amongst selected Malaysian secondary school students. A
Problem Solving: Getting to the Heart of Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jarrett, Denise, Ed.
2000-01-01
This publication features articles that illustrate how several Northwest teachers are using problem solving to achieve rigorous and imaginative learning in their classrooms. Articles include: (1) "Open-Ended Problem Solving: Weaving a Web of Ideas" (Denise Jarrett); (2) "Teenager or Tyke, Students Learn Best by Tackling Challenging Math" (Suzie…
Problem Solving and Collaboration Using Mobile Serious Games
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sanchez, Jaime; Olivares, Ruby
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results obtained with the implementation of a series of learning activities based on Mobile Serious Games (MSGs) for the development of problem solving and collaborative skills in Chilean 8th grade students. Three MSGs were developed and played by teams of four students in order to solve problems collaboratively. A…
Does Solving Ill-Defined Physics Problems Elicit More Learning than Conventional Problem
VanLehn, Kurt
Does Solving Ill-Defined Physics Problems Elicit More Learning than Conventional Problem Solving- ten with only modest improvements. One promising avenue is the use of ill-defined problems. However, it can be very difficult for students to solve these problems without proper support. If ill-defined
Word Problem Structure and Its Effect on the Transfer of Learning to Solve Algebra Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chang, Kuo-Liang
2010-01-01
A problem in learning to solve mathematics word problems students have been facing is to transfer the learned problem-solving knowledge from one story context to another story context. Some studies have provided evidence showing that structure facilitates transfer of learning to solve word problems. However, it is still under development for what…
Social Problem Solving, Conduct Problems, and Callous-Unemotional Traits in Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Walsh, Trudi M.; Andrade, Brendan F.; King, Sara; Carrey, Normand J.
2007-01-01
This study examined the association between social problem solving, conduct problems (CP), and callous-unemotional (CU) traits in elementary age children. Participants were 53 children (40 boys and 13 girls) aged 7-12 years. Social problem solving was evaluated using the Social Problem Solving Test-Revised, which requires children to produce…
Teaching Problem-Solving as a Habit of Mind
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
Pat Wagener of Los Medanos College describes an inquiry project with his Developmental Math students: "Through my classroom inquiry into teaching problem-solving, I have shown that students can learn to solve problems in ways that help them develop "habits of mind" with problem solving processes with the following features in the instructional plan: Students get lots of problem solving practice, with an emphasis on long term learning of habits of mind Students are introduced to the idea of multiple representations early, and this approach is reinforced through the curriculum materials in meaningful ways and in all aspects of the course Students have many opportunities to share their problem solving publicly through board work "
Effects of subliminal hints on insight problem solving.
Hattori, Masasi; Sloman, Steven A; Orita, Ryo
2013-08-01
Two experiments tested a total of 509 participants on insight problems (the radiation problem and the nine-dot problem). Half of the participants were first exposed to a 1-min movie that included a subliminal hint. The hint raised the solution rate of people who did not recognize it. In addition, the way they solved the problem was affected by the hint. In Experiment 3, a novel technique was introduced to address some methodological concerns raised by Experiments 1 and 2. A total of 80 participants solved the 10-coin problem, and half of them were exposed to a subliminal hint. The hint facilitated solving the problem, and it shortened the solution time. Some implications of subliminal priming for research on and theorizing about insight problem solving are discussed. PMID:23392651
Solving multiple scattering problems in planetary atmospheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Irvine, W. M.; Lenoble, J.
1974-01-01
Multiple scattering problems, radiative transfer problems in planetary atmospheres within extended visible portion of the spectrum, are examined. The direct and inverse problems and the extinction coefficient are defined, along with other scattering characteristics. Albedos in semi-infinite and finite atmospheres are considered, as well as surface illumination, energy deposition, and polarization. The Eddington approximation figures prominently in the calculations. Precise numerical methods and analytical solutions are included.
Solving a Problem With or Without a Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Pei
2013-01-01
To solve a problem, an ordinary computer system executes an existing program. When no such program is available, an AGI system may still be able to solve a concrete problem instance. This paper introduces a new approach to do so in a reasoning system that adapts to its environment and works with insuffcient knowledge and resources. The related approaches are compared, and several conceptual issues are analyzed. It is concluded that an AGI system can solve a problem with or without a problem-specific program, and therefore can have human-like creativity and exibility.
Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1
Rossi, Francesca
Modelling and solving bipolar preference problems Stefano Bistarelli1 , Maria Silvia Pini2 with both positive and negative preferences, that we call bipolar problems. Although seemingly specular with bipolar problems. 1 Introduction Many real-life problems contain statements which can be expressed
The Lagrangian Relaxation Method for Solving Integer Programming Problems
Marshall L. Fisher
1981-01-01
One of the most computationally useful ideas of the 1970s is the observation that many hard integer programming problems can be viewed as easy problems complicated by a relatively small set of side constraints. Dualizing the side constraints produces a Lagrangian problem that is easy to solve and whose optimal value is a lower bound (for minimization problems) on the
Cognitive functioning in mathematical problem solving during early adolescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collis, Kevin F.; Watson, Jane M.; Campbell, K. Jennifer
1993-12-01
Problem-solving in school mathematics has traditionally been considered as belonging only to the concrete symbolic mode of thinking, the mode which is concerned with making logical, analytical deductions. Little attention has been given to the place of the intuitive processes of the ikonic mode. The present study was designed to explore the interface between logical and intuitive processes in the context of mathematical problem solving. Sixteen Year 9 and 10 students from advanced mathematics classes were individually assessed while they solved five mathematics problems. Each student's problem-solving path, for each problem, was mapped according to the type of strategies used. Strategies were broadly classified into Ikonic (IK) or Concrete Symbolic (CS) categories. Students were given two types of problems to solve: (i) those most likely to attract a concrete symbolic approach; and (ii) problems with a significant imaging or intuitive component. Students were also assessed as to the vividness and controllability of their imaging ability, and their creativity. Results indicated that the nature of the problem is a basic factor in determining the type of strategy used for its solution. Students consistently applied CS strategies to CS problems, and IK strategies to IK problems. In addition, students tended to change modes significantly more often when solving CS-type problems than when solving IK-type problems. A switch to IK functioning appeared to be particularly helpful in breaking an unproductive set when solving a CS-type problem. Individual differences in strategy use were also found, with students high on vividness of imagery using IK strategies more frequently than students who were low on vividness. No relationship was found between IK strategy use and either students' degree of controllability of imagery or their level of creativity. The instructional implications of the results are discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barak, Moshe
2013-01-01
This paper presents the outcomes of teaching an inventive problem-solving course in junior high schools in an attempt to deal with the current relative neglect of fostering students' creativity and problem-solving capabilities in traditional schooling. The method involves carrying out systematic manipulation with attributes, functions and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Palumbo, Debra L; Palumbo, David B.
1993-01-01
Computer-based problem-solving software exposure was compared to Lego TC LOGO instruction. Thirty fifth graders received either Lego LOGO instruction, which couples Lego building block activities with LOGO computer programming, or instruction with various problem-solving computer programs. Although both groups showed significant progress, the Lego…
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Tian Yuan et al Modular Form Approach to Solving Lattice Problems Modular Form Approach to Solving for hardness analysis on lattice problems but rarely for computational purposes. Such function's modular/) space complexity. Keywords Lattice Algorithms, SVP, CVP, Modular Forms, Theta Function 1 Introduction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olowa, O. W.
2009-01-01
The approach used by teachers is very important to the success of the teaching process. This is why this study seeks to determine which teaching approaches--problem solving and subject-matter, would best improve the problem solving ability of selected secondary agricultural education students in Ikorodu Local Government Area. Ten classes and 150…
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Application of Graph Embedding to solve Graph Matching Problems Ernest Valveny1 Miquel Ferrer1 Centre de Visió per Computador, Dep (Barcelona), Spain {ernest,mferrer@cvc.uab.cat} Résumé : Graphs have very interesting properties for ob- ject
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ebomoyi, Josephine Itota
The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) Determine the relationship between learning strategies and performance in problem solving, (2) Explore the role of a student's declared major on performance in problem solving, (3) Understand the decision making process of high and low achievers during problem solving. Participants (N = 65) solved problems using the Interactive multimedia exercise (IMMEX) software. All participants not only solved "Microquest," which focuses on cellular processes and mode of action of antibiotics, but also "Creeping Crud," which focuses on the cause, origin and transmission of diseases. Participants also responded to the "Motivated Strategy Learning Questionnaire" (MSLQ). Hierarchical multiple regression was used for analysis with GPA (Gracie point average) as a control. There were 49 (78.6%) that successfully solved "Microquest" while 52 (82.5%) successfully solved "Creeping Crud". Metacognitive self regulation strategy was significantly (p < .10) related to ability to solve "Creeping Crud". Peer learning strategy showed a positive significant (p < .10) relationship with scores obtained from solving "Creeping Crud". Students' declared major made a significant (p < .05) difference on the ability to solve "Microquest". A subset (18) volunteered for a think aloud method to determine decision-making process. High achievers used fewer steps, and had more focused approach than low achievers. Common strategies and attributes included metacognitive skills, writing to keep track, using prior knowledge. Others included elements of frustration/confusion and self-esteem problems. The implications for educational and relevance to real life situations are discussed.
Internet computer coaches for introductory physics problem solving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu Ryan, Qing
The ability to solve problems in a variety of contexts is becoming increasingly important in our rapidly changing technological society. Problem-solving is a complex process that is important for everyday life and crucial for learning physics. Although there is a great deal of effort to improve student problem solving skills throughout the educational system, national studies have shown that the majority of students emerge from such courses having made little progress toward developing good problem-solving skills. The Physics Education Research Group at the University of Minnesota has been developing Internet computer coaches to help students become more expert-like problem solvers. During the Fall 2011 and Spring 2013 semesters, the coaches were introduced into large sections (200+ students) of the calculus based introductory mechanics course at the University of Minnesota. This dissertation, will address the research background of the project, including the pedagogical design of the coaches and the assessment of problem solving. The methodological framework of conducting experiments will be explained. The data collected from the large-scale experimental studies will be discussed from the following aspects: the usage and usability of these coaches; the usefulness perceived by students; and the usefulness measured by final exam and problem solving rubric. It will also address the implications drawn from this study, including using this data to direct future coach design and difficulties in conducting authentic assessment of problem-solving.
Escaping mental fixation: incubation and inhibition in creative problem solving.
Koppel, Rebecca H; Storm, Benjamin C
2014-01-01
The inhibition underlying retrieval-induced forgetting has been argued to play a crucial role in the ability to overcome interference in memory and cognition. Supporting this conjecture, recent research has found that participants who exhibit greater levels of retrieval-induced forgetting are better at overcoming fixation on the Remote Associates Test (RAT) than are participants who exhibit reduced levels of retrieval-induced forgetting. If the ability to inhibit inappropriate responses improves the ability to solve fixated RAT problems, then reducing the fixation caused by inappropriate responses should reduce the correlation between retrieval-induced forgetting and problem solving. We tested this hypothesis by inserting an incubation period between two 30-second problem-solving attempts: half of the participants were given an incubation period (distributed condition), half were not (continuous condition). In the continuous condition retrieval-induced forgetting correlated positively with problem-solving performance during both the initial and final 30 seconds of problem solving. In the distributed condition retrieval-induced forgetting only correlated with problem-solving performance during the first 30 seconds of problem solving. This finding suggests that incubation reduces the need for inhibition by reducing the extent to which problem solvers suffer fixation. PMID:23607286
A dependency-based modelling mechanism for problem solving
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
London, P.
1978-01-01
The paper develops a technique of dependency net modeling which relies on an explicit representation of justifications for beliefs held by the problem solver. Using these justifications, the modeling mechanism is able to determine the relevant lines of inference to pursue during problem solving. Three particular problem-solving difficulties which may be handled by the dependency-based technique are discussed: (1) subgoal violation detection, (2) description binding, and (3) maintaining a consistent world model.
An Algorithm for Solving the Job-Shop Problem
J. Carlier; E. Pinson
1989-01-01
In this paper, we propose a branch and bound method for solving the job-shop problem. It is based on one-machine scheduling problems and is made more efficient by several propositions which limit the search tree by using immediate selections. It solved for the first time the famous 10 \\\\times 10 job-shop problem proposed by Muth and Thompson in 1963.
5 Principles for a Problem-Solving Classroom
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Gerald Aungst
2014-08-10
The author presents five principles of developing a problem solving culture that he believes will allow students to grow into mathematical thinkers and sophisticated problem solvers: conjecture, communication, collaboration, chaos, and celebration. Each of these principles encompasses several mindsets and practices, which enable the teacher to build that culture in the classroom. The author includes a link to his webinar on this topic, "Creating a Culture of Problem Solving in Your School or Classroom" (cataloged separately).
Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFilippo, Shirley
1975-01-01
Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)
Problem Solving in the Chemistry Laboratory
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Adam Wolfer
2002-02-01
In a pilot project implemented at the University of Kansas, a team of instructors from the education and chemistry departments modified the introductory chemistry laboratory curriculum to center on problem-based inquiry learning units. The new laboratory
Identifying, analysing and solving problems in practice.
Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui
When a problem is identified in practice, it is important to clarify exactly what it is and establish the cause before seeking a solution. This solution-seeking process should include input from those directly involved in the problematic situation, to enable individuals to contribute their perspective, appreciate why any change in practice is necessary and what will be achieved by the change. This article describes some approaches to identifying and analysing problems in practice so that effective solutions can be devised. It includes a case study and examples of how the Five Whys analysis, fishbone diagram, problem tree analysis, and Seven-S Model can be used to analyse a problem. PMID:22848969
Solving Infeasibility Problems in Computerized Test Assembly.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Timminga, Ellen
1998-01-01
Discusses problems of diagnosing and repairing infeasible linear-programming models in computerized test assembly. Demonstrates that it is possible to localize the causes of infeasibility, although this is not always easy. (SLD)
Creative problem solving at Rocky Reach
Bickford, B.M.; Garrison, D.H.
1997-04-01
Tainter gate inspection and thrust bearing cooling system problems at the 1287-MW Rocky Reach hydroelectric project on the Columbia River in Washington are described. Gate inspection was initiated in response to a failure of similar gates at Folsom Dam. The approach involved measuring the actual forces on the gates and comparing them to original model study parameters, rather than the traditional method of building a hydraulic model. Measurement and visual inspection was completed in one day and had no effect on migration flows. Two problems with the thrust bearing cooling system are described. First, whenever a generating unit was taken off line, cooling water continued circulating and lowered oil temperatures. The second problem involved silt buildup in flow measuring device tubes on the cooling water system. Modifications to correct cooling system problems and associated costs are outlined.
An amoeboid algorithm for solving linear transportation problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Cai; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zili; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong
2014-03-01
Transportation Problem (TP) is one of the basic operational research problems, which plays an important role in many practical applications. In this paper, a bio-inspired mathematical model is proposed to handle the Linear Transportation Problem (LTP) in directed networks by modifying the original amoeba model Physarum Solver. Several examples are used to prove that the provided model can effectively solve Balanced Transportation Problem (BTP), Unbalanced Transportation Problem (UTP), especially the Generalized Transportation Problem (GTP), in a nondiscrete way.
Problem Solving in Math Class: "Word Problems" Were Never Like This.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weidemann, Wanda
1995-01-01
States that problem-solving skills receive inadequate attention in many mathematics classrooms, and that preservice teacher-education programs can address the lack of instruction in problem solving. Provides rationale for teaching problem solving in the middle grades as an alternative to textbook exercises and worksheets and as a means of…
Corneal Topography: A review, new ANSI standards and problems to solve Stanley A. Klein
Klein, Stanley
Corneal Topography: A review, new ANSI standards and problems to solve Stanley A. Klein School@spectacle.berkeley.edu Abstract: This review of corneal topography has three sections: 1. a brief introduction to how corneal topography instruments work. A quantitative comparison of the relative accuracy of slope based and position
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunn, Dana S.
The new core curriculum at Moravian College, in Pennsylvania, utilizes an interdisciplinary approach, integrating topics of psychology into three of the seven core courses: "Microcosm/Macrocosm"; "Quantitative Problem Solving"; and the seminar "Gender, Ethnicity, and Race." The course "Microcosm/Macrocosm" focuses on major themes in Western…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bal, Ayten Pinar
2014-01-01
This study was designed according to the mixed research method in which quantitative and qualitative research methods were used in order to identify the challenges confronted by classroom teacher candidates in solving mathematical problems and the factors affecting how they choose these representations. The population of this study consisted of…
Forms of Understanding in Mathematical Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greeno, James G.
In the research described in this document, the goal was to develop definite theoretical characterizations of understanding in a specific domain of problems. Some performance that provides persuasive evidence of understanding was chosen, and hypotheses about cognitive structures and processes that cause the performance to occur were developed.…
Solving Discipline Problems: Strategies for Classroom Teachers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolfgang, Charles H.; Glickman, Carl D.
This book provides classroom teachers with a variety of discipline models, techniques, methods, and constructs designed to enable them to move beyond a singular approach in handling classroom behavior problems. The book first discusses the Teacher Behavior Continuum (TBC) which shows the teacher the context of his or her own general behavior with…
Solving the 10 Most Common Carpet Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hilton, Michael
1998-01-01
Identifies the 10 most common carpet problems in school facilities and offers solutions. These include: transition areas, moisture, spot removal, recurring spots, cleaning agents, allergens, wicking, biological contamination, equipment selection, and cleaning methods. Ensuring a successful maintenance program results in satisfactory appearance,…
Metacognitive Macroevaluations in Mathematical Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Desoete, Annemie; Roeyers, Herbert
2006-01-01
This paper focuses on the role of evaluation in mathematics in 749 elementary school children. The macroevaluative skills and calibration scores of high versus low mathematical problem solvers were contrasted as measures of metacognition. No relevant calibration differences were found for gender. In addition, the performances of children with…
Determinants of Learned Helplessness in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, John M.
Despite the support for the proposition that learning is enhanced by the reinforcement of correct responses, there remain learners who continue to fail when contingent reinforcement is administered, even though they may have the ability and be motivated to succeed. This condition, known as learned helplessness, presents a problem for instructional…
Solving Connected Subgraph Problems in Wildlife Conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dilkina, Bistra; Gomes, Carla P.
We investigate mathematical formulations and solution techniques for a variant of the Connected Subgraph Problem. Given a connected graph with costs and profits associated with the nodes, the goal is to find a connected subgraph that contains a subset of distinguished vertices. In this work we focus on the budget-constrained version, where we maximize the total profit of the nodes in the subgraph subject to a budget constraint on the total cost. We propose several mixed-integer formulations for enforcing the subgraph connectivity requirement, which plays a key role in the combinatorial structure of the problem. We show that a new formulation based on subtour elimination constraints is more effective at capturing the combinatorial structure of the problem, providing significant advantages over the previously considered encoding which was based on a single commodity flow. We test our formulations on synthetic instances as well as on real-world instances of an important problem in environmental conservation concerning the design of wildlife corridors. Our encoding results in a much tighter LP relaxation, and more importantly, it results in finding better integer feasible solutions as well as much better upper bounds on the objective (often proving optimality or within less than 1% of optimality), both when considering the synthetic instances as well as the real-world wildlife corridor instances.
Problem solving and search Chapter 3 1
Nejdl, Wolfgang
leaves tomorrow from Bucharest Formulate goal: be in Bucharest Formulate problem: states: various cities actions: drive between cities Find solution: sequence of cities, e.g., Arad, Sibiu, Fagaras, Bucharest?? [Right, Suck, Left, Suck] Contingency, start in #5 Murphy's Law: Suck can dirty a clean carpet Local
Professional Development: How Young Children Solve Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shure, Myrna B.
2006-01-01
There are lots of ways to handle behavior problems in the classroom. Some teachers send difficult children to time out, others tell them what and what not to do, and many explain why. But these techniques have one thing in common: they all do the thinking for the child. In this article, the author discusses how to help children handle conflicts…
Students' Difficulties in Transfer of Problem Solving Across Representations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay
2009-11-01
Studies indicate that the use of multiple representations in teaching helps students become better problem solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties with multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a first semester calculus-based physics course. Each student was interviewed four times during the semester, each time after they had completed an exam in class. During these interviews students were first asked to solve a problem they had seen on the exam, followed by problems that differed in context and type of representation from the exam problem. Students were provided verbal scaffolding to solve the new problems. We discuss the common difficulties that students encountered when attempting to transfer their problem solving skills across problems in different representations.
Human problem solving performance in a fault diagnosis task
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rouse, W. B.
1978-01-01
It is proposed that humans in automated systems will be asked to assume the role of troubleshooter or problem solver and that the problems which they will be asked to solve in such systems will not be amenable to rote solution. The design of visual displays for problem solving in such situations is considered, and the results of two experimental investigations of human problem solving performance in the diagnosis of faults in graphically displayed network problems are discussed. The effects of problem size, forced-pacing, computer aiding, and training are considered. Results indicate that human performance deviates from optimality as problem size increases. Forced-pacing appears to cause the human to adopt fairly brute force strategies, as compared to those adopted in self-paced situations. Computer aiding substantially lessens the number of mistaken diagnoses by performing the bookkeeping portions of the task.
Luther, Ken
Problem Solving: A First Look Melissa A. Desjarlais Valparaiso University melissa.glass@valpo.edu Abstract COMPS is a web-delivered computer-mediated problem solving environment designed for supporting- porting an exercise in quantitative problem-solving. We have identified a number of categories of dialogue
Improving Benders Decomposition to Solve the Tree-Bucking Problem
Ferland, Jacques A.
Improving Benders Decomposition to Solve the Tree-Bucking Problem Sylvie Roussel, D´epartement d The tree bucking problem is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem including a first level of decision to select the proper bucking (crosscutting) rule for each stand and a second level
Solving the brachistochrone and other variational problems with soap films
Criado, Carlos
2010-01-01
We show a method to solve the problem of the brachistochrone as well as other variational problems with the help of the soap films that are formed between two suitable surfaces. We also show the interesting connection between some variational problems of dynamics, statics, optics, and elasticity.
COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING
Weiss, Pierre
COMPLEX WAVELET REGULARIZATION FOR SOLVING INVERSE PROBLEMS IN REMOTE SENSING Mika¨el Carlavan Sophia-Antipolis - France ABSTRACT Many problems in remote sensing can be modeled as the min- imization processing: sparsity and regular- ity priors. 1. INTRODUCTION Some problems in remote sensing consist
Arithmetic Word Problem Solving: A Situation Strategy First Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brissiaud, Remi; Sander, Emmanuel
2010-01-01
Before instruction, children solve many arithmetic word problems with informal strategies based on the situation described in the problem. A Situation Strategy First framework is introduced that posits that initial representation of the problem activates a situation-based strategy even after instruction: only when it is not efficient for providing…
Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines
Solving the ANTS Problem with Asynchronous Finite State Machines Yuval Emek, Tobias Langner, Jara + D) #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced by Feinerman, Korman, Lotker, Sereni [PODC 2012] = #12;Previous Work ANTS problem (Ants Nearby Treasure Search) introduced
Anger in Middle School: The Solving Problems Together Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri L.; Owens, Rachel B.
2009-01-01
Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), with a small group of adolescent African American boys struggling with anger management. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…
Designing Teaching Materials for Learning Problem Solving in Technology Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doornekamp, B. G.
2001-01-01
Considers domain-specific design specifications in the process of designing teaching materials for learning problem solving in technology education in order to raise learning outcomes with these materials. Focuses on a construction problem (open-ended) and an explanation problem (constrained). Compares these newly-designed teaching materials with…
Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques
Rossi, Francesca
Bipolar preference problems: framework, properties and solving techniques Stefano Bistarelli1 preferences, that we call bipolar prefer- ence problems. Although seemingly specular notions, these two kinds the notion of arc consis- tency to bipolar problems, and we show how branch and bound (with or without
Different Procedures for Solving Mathematical Word Problems in High School
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gasco, Javier; Villarroel, Jose Domingo; Zuazagoitia, Dani
2014-01-01
The teaching and learning of mathematics cannot be understood without considering the resolution of word problems. These kinds of problems not only connect mathematical concepts with language (and therefore with reality) but also promote the learning related to other scientific areas. In primary school, problems are solved by using basic…
Productive and Re-Productive Thinking in Solving Insight Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cunningham, J. Barton; MacGregor, James N.
2014-01-01
Many innovations in organizations result when people discover insightful solutions to problems. Insightful problem-solving was considered by Gestalt psychologists to be associated with productive, as opposed to re-productive, thinking. Productive thinking is characterized by shifts in perspective which allow the problem solver to consider new,…
Arithmetic Word-Problem-Solving in Huntington's Disease
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allain, P.; Verny, C.; Aubin, G.; Pinon, K.; Bonneau, D.; Dubas, F.; Gall, D.L.
2005-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine executive functioning in patients with Huntington's disease using an arithmetic word-problem-solving task including eight solvable problems of increasing complexity and four aberrant problems. Ten patients with Huntington's disease and 12 normal control subjects matched by age and education were tested.…
Problem Solving in Student Police Officers' Professional Development
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zascerinska, Jelena; Zascerinskis, Mihails
2011-01-01
Introduction: The success of human safety requires the ability of police officers in problem solving within continuing professional development to be considered. Aim of the study: To analyze problem based teaching and learning in tertiary education within continuing professional development. Materials and methods: The search for problem based…
Imitation: is cognitive neuroscience solving the correspondence problem?
Marcel Brass; Cecilia Heyes
2005-01-01
Imitation poses a unique problem: how does the imi- tator know what pattern of motor activation will make their action look like that of the model? Specialist theories suggest that this correspondence problem has a unique solution; there are functional and neurological mechanisms dedicated to controlling imitation. General- ist theories propose that the problem is solved by general mechanisms of
Solving Inverse Kinematics Constraint Problems for Highly Articulated Models
Waterloo, University of
Solving Inverse Kinematics Constraint Problems for Highly Articulated Models by Kang Teresa Ge to achieve the goal is an inverse kinematics problem. Redundancy of the degrees of freedom (DOF) can be used also be considered, as can loops. Solutions to redundant inverse kinematic problems are well developed
Socratic Problem-Solving in the Business World
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peterson, Evan
2009-01-01
Accurate and effective decision-making is one of the most essential skills necessary for organizational success. The problem-solving process provides a systematic means of effectively recognizing, analyzing, and solving a dilemma. The key element in this process is critical analysis of the situation, which can be executed by a taking a Socratic…
The Role of Conceptual Understanding in Children's Addition Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Canobi, Katherine H.; Reeve, Robert A.; Pattison, Philippa E.
1998-01-01
Examined the relationship between 6- to 8-year olds' conceptual understanding of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity principles and addition problem-solving procedures. Results revealed that conceptual understanding was related to using order-indifferent, decomposition, and retrieval strategies and speed and accuracy in solving…
Problem-Solving without Awareness: An ERP Investigation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paynter, Christopher A.; Kotovsky, Kenneth; Reder, Lynne M.
2010-01-01
When subjects are given the balls-and-boxes problem-solving task (Kotovsky & Simon, 1990), they move rapidly towards the goal after an extended exploratory phase, despite having no awareness of how to solve the task. We investigated possible non-conscious learning mechanisms by giving subjects three runs of the task while recording ERPs. Subjects…
Assessing Student Performance in Solving Complex Physics Problems
Gustafsson, Torgny
Assessing Student Performance in Solving Complex Physics Problems C.W. Liew Department of Computer to form a system of equations that can be used to solve for the value of a variable. To assess a method of analysis and assessment based on (1) representing the domain knowledge that is used
Banning Soccer 'Headers' Won't Solve Concussion Problem
... Solve Concussion Problem: Study Enforcing rules that limit aggressive body contact would be more effective, researcher says ... just enforce these rules you would dramatically reduce aggressive body contact, and dramatically lower the concussion rate, ...
Problem solving as intelligent retrieval from distributed knowledge sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Zhengxin
1987-01-01
Distributed computing in intelligent systems is investigated from a different perspective. From the viewpoint that problem solving can be viewed as intelligent knowledge retrieval, the use of distributed knowledge sources in intelligent systems is proposed.
Structured Planning and Debugging: A Linguistic Approach to Problem Solving
Miller, Mark L.
1976-06-08
A structured approach to planning and debugging is obtained by using an Augmented Transition Network (ATN) to model the problem solving process. This proves to be a perspicuous representation for planning concepts including ...
Assessing Mathematics 4. Problem Solving: The APU Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foxman, Derek; And Others
1984-01-01
Presented are examples of problem-solving items from practical and written mathematics tests. These tests are part of an English survey designed to assess the mathematics achievement of students aged 11 and 15. (JN)
running head: Key processes in algebraic problem solving PAOLO BOERO
Boero, Paolo
AND ANTICIPATION AS KEY PROCESSES IN ALGEBRAIC PROBLEM SOLVING This chapter aims to deepen the idea that one are discussed. 1. INTRODUCTION This chapter aims to deepen the idea that one of the crucial aspects of algebraic
Analyzing patterns in experts' approaches to solving experimental problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
?an?ula, Maja Poklinek; Planinši?, Gorazd; Etkina, Eugenia
2015-04-01
We report detailed observations of three pairs of expert scientists and a pair of advanced undergraduate students solving an experimental optics problem. Using a new method ("transition graphs") of visualizing sequences of logical steps, we were able to compare the groups and identify patterns that could not be found using previously existing methods. While the problem solving of undergraduates significantly differed from that of experts at the beginning of the process, it gradually became more similar to the expert problem solving. We mapped problem solving steps and their sequence to the elements of an approach to teaching and learning physics called Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), and we speculate that the ISLE educational framework closely represents the actual work of physicists.
Problem solving strategies in an online homework environment
used for highly interactive group problem solving sessions (minimal lecture) · Data Mining LON representation, vocabulary terms, and basic appropriate systems, perform ranking, basic facts, algorithms simple calculations, match basic analyzing errors simple time graphs with verbal descriptions, sequences match arrows
Simulated annealing approach for solving economic load dispatch problems
Lavaei, Javad
Simulated annealing approach for solving economic load dispatch problems Power for economic dispatch out of which a Simulated Annealing (SA) is discussed in this paper. In this paper presents Simulated Annealing (SA) algorithm for optimization
Assessing Student's Ability to Solve Textbook Style Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cummings, Karen
2015-04-01
Can We Really Measure Problem Solving Ability? The answer to this question may depend on how we define problem solving ability. But, if we care about students' ability to solve novel textbook style problems, the answer to this question seems to be ``yes.'' In this talk I will discuss a pre-/post- instruction assessment that was recently developed to assess students' ability to solve fairly standard textbook style problems within the domains of Newton's second law, conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. The instrument is designed for large-scale use in typical university classrooms, has already been used in a variety of institutions and appears to be both valid and robust. Data collected with this instrument can help guide curricular improvements and provide important insights relevant to most departments for program review.
The Strength of the Strongest Ties in Collaborative Problem Solving
de Montjoye, Yves-Alexandre
Complex problem solving in science, engineering, and business has become a highly collaborative endeavor. Teams of scientists or engineers collaborate on projects using their social networks to gather new ideas and feedback. ...
Developing Critical Reading Skills through Cooperative Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Flynn, Linda L.
1989-01-01
Describes an instructional model for presenting students with opportunities to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate ideas through cooperative problem solving. Provides suggestions for implementation using examples from the author's classroom experiences. (MM)
Integrating Mathematics with Problem Solving Using the Mathematician's Chair.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hildebrand, Charlene; Ludeman, Clinton J.; Mullin, Joan
1999-01-01
Describes an action-research study conducted in a third-grade classroom that integrates mathematical problem solving with the writing process through the use of the Mathematician's Chair. Contains 14 references. (ASK)
Modelling and solving the stable marriage problem using constraint programming
Manlove, D.F.
Manlove,D.F. O'Malley,G. Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Modelling and Solving Problems with Constraints, held at the 19th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2005) pp 10-17
The Mutual Exclusion Problem Has Been Solved Leslie Lamport
Borgs, Christian
? The mutual exclusion problem was solved, without assuming lower-level mutual exclusion, by the bakery might hope that by now, sixteen years after the bakery algorithm's publication, it would be common
Problem-Solving Methods in Agent-Oriented Software Engineering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogg, Paul; Beydoun, Ghassan; Low, Graham
Problem-solving methods (PSM) are abstract structures that describe specific reasoning processes employed to solve a set of similar problems. We envisage that off-the-shelf PSMs can assist in the development of agent-oriented solutions, not only as reusable and extensible components that software engineers employ for designing agent architecture solutions, but just as importantly as a set of runtime capabilities that agents themselves dynamically employ in order to solve problems. This chapter describes PSMs for agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) that address interaction-dependent problem-solving such as negotiation or cooperation. An extension to an AOSE methodology MOBMAS is proposed whereby PSMs are integrated in the software development phases of MAS Organization Design, Internal Design, and Interaction Design. In this way, knowledge engineering drives the development of agent-oriented systems.
Open-Ended, Problem-Solving Investigations--Getting Started.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lock, Roger
1991-01-01
Ways in which linear lesson sequences can be modified to provide increased opportunities for open-ended activities especially with problem solving are considered. Examples drawn from chemistry and plant reproduction, seeds, and germination are given. (KR)
A smart computer helps solve drilling problems
Stark, C.L.; Bergen, J.K.
1985-07-01
The proper application of drilling fluids technology remains one of the most demanding aspects of drilling, yet one that is still highly dependent on the individual experiences and knowledge of each wellsite mud technologist. With the development and introduction of a new artificial intelligence or expert computer system, the field representative will now routinely be able to ''discuss'' the particular characteristics and problems of his well with a ''senior partner'' back at the office; and together work out a solution. Presented here is a discussion of the system, its concept and development, how it works, and most importantly, how it will help both operators and service company employees drill a better well.
Solving search problems by strongly simulating quantum circuits
Johnson, T. H.; Biamonte, J. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.
2013-01-01
Simulating quantum circuits using classical computers lets us analyse the inner workings of quantum algorithms. The most complete type of simulation, strong simulation, is believed to be generally inefficient. Nevertheless, several efficient strong simulation techniques are known for restricted families of quantum circuits and we develop an additional technique in this article. Further, we show that strong simulation algorithms perform another fundamental task: solving search problems. Efficient strong simulation techniques allow solutions to a class of search problems to be counted and found efficiently. This enhances the utility of strong simulation methods, known or yet to be discovered, and extends the class of search problems known to be efficiently simulable. Relating strong simulation to search problems also bounds the computational power of efficiently strongly simulable circuits; if they could solve all problems in P this would imply that all problems in NP and #P could be solved in polynomial time. PMID:23390585
Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mason, Andrew J.
Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was developed to further evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards problem solving. The survey responses suggest that introductory students and even graduate students have different attitudes and approaches to problem solving on several important measures compared to physics faculty members. Furthermore, responses to individual survey questions suggest that expert and novice attitudes and approaches to problem solving may be more complex than naively considered.
Considering representational choices of fourth graders when solving division problems
Gilbert, Mary Chiles
2007-09-17
CONSIDERING REPRESENTATIONAL CHOICES OF FOURTH GRADERS WHEN SOLVING DIVISION PROBLEMS A Thesis by MARY CHILES GILBERT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2006 Major Subject: Curriculum & Instruction CONSIDERING REPRESENTATIONAL CHOICES OF FOURTH GRADERS WHEN SOLVING DIVISION PROBLEMS A Thesis by MARY CHILES GILBERT Submitted...
The Deming and Goldratt Approaches To Problem Solving: A Contrast
Joseph G. Van Matre; Rexford H. Draman
The quality movement's original problem-solving model was the Plan-Do-Check-Act model of Shewhart and popularized by Deming. Whether called the problem-solving process (Xerox), the Quality Improvement Cycle (AT&T), or the quality-Improvement story (Florida Power & Light), these more recent models are basically variations of the scientific method and the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle. They offer a systematic approach, a standardization to the
Solving MPCC Problem with the Hyperbolic Penalty Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melo, Teófilo; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Matias, João
2011-09-01
The main goal of this work is to solve mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC) using nonlinear programming techniques (NLP). An hyperbolic penalty function is used to solve MPCC problems by including the complementarity constraints in the penalty term. This penalty function [1] is twice continuously differentiable and combines features of both exterior and interior penalty methods. A set of AMPL problems from MacMPEC [2] are tested and a comparative study is performed.
Physical activity problem-solving inventory for adolescents: development and initial validation.
Thompson, Debbe; Bhatt, Riddhi; Watson, Kathy
2013-08-01
Youth encounter physical activity barriers, often called problems. The purpose of problem solving is to generate solutions to overcome the barriers. Enhancing problem-solving ability may enable youth to be more physically active. Therefore, a method for reliably assessing physical activity problem-solving ability is needed. The purpose of this research was to report the development and initial validation of the physical activity problem-solving inventory for adolescents (PAPSIA). Qualitative and quantitative procedures were used. The social problem-solving inventory for adolescents guided the development of the PAPSIA scale. Youth (14- to 17-year-olds) were recruited using standard procedures, such as distributing flyers in the community and to organizations likely to be attended by adolescents. Cognitive interviews were conducted in person. Adolescents completed pen and paper versions of the questionnaire and/or scales assessing social desirability, self-reported physical activity, and physical activity self-efficacy. An expert panel review, cognitive interviews, and a pilot study (n = 129) established content validity. Construct, concurrent, and predictive validity were also established (n = 520 youth). PAPSIA is a promising measure for assessing youth physical activity problem-solving ability. Future research will assess its validity with objectively measured physical activity. PMID:23877432
Using accumulators to solve hydraulic circuit problems
Mordas, J.B. (Hydac Corp., Bethlehem, PA (United States))
1994-01-01
Accumulators can be useful to the plant engineer. Hydropneumatic or gas-charged version are used effectively in hydraulic circuits for auxiliary power, energy storage, emergency operation, leakage compensation or makeup fluid, and motor soft starts. Accumulators are also applied for shock absorption in pressure and tank lines, pulsation dampening, elimination of pump cavitation, and noise attenuation. The first reaction to a malfunction in a hydraulic circuit is to check the pump and valves. Many times the problem may be flow related, either too much or too little. Jeffrey B. Mordas of Hydac Corp. explains how an accumulator resolves difficulties with fluid circuits and provides auxiliary power, energy storage, shock absorption, pulsation dampening, and noise attenuation.
Hydraulic lift can solve many production problems
Jackson, P.G. (Trico Industries, Inc., Huntington Park, CA (US))
1990-05-01
For over five decades, hydraulic pumping systems have offered creative solutions for operators faced with a wide array of producing problems. Today, the well-developed and proven capabilities of this lift method continue to provide innovative approaches in dealing with oil well production, testing and evaluation requirements. The performance characteristics of the system give it unique adaptability to a wide range of changing well conditions, to effective use in shallow to extreme lifting depths, along with the convenient ability to install and retrieve the downhole pump through fluid circulation versus the use of a pulling unit. Hydraulic piston pumps are used in producing from low volumes up to 8,000 bpd. Jet pumps are used to produce up to 80,000 bpd.
Problem solving workshop II: selecting objective lenses
Brooks, W.P.
1985-01-01
The purpose of this workshop is to demonstrate how we select lens systems for experiments at our facility. Different layouts and different types of experiments will provide different constraints, but the basic lens selection problems will be similar. Most of our work involves the use of explosives and (usually) lens systems are protected. This protection is a wall of concrete five-feet thick with a four-inch armor plate facing. Two two-inch thick laminated windows are air spaced from each other and provide access for the optical path from the experiment to the cameras. The minimum opening for the optical path is four inches by eight inches and is approximately six feet from the protected (camera) side of the wall.
An Interactive Algorithm for Solving Integer Goal Programming Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suwendy, Maries; Sinuhaji, Theresa A.; Maulana, B.; Prana, Afen; Elyakin, Victor A.; Zarlis, M.
2011-06-01
Integer goal programming problems arise quite naturally in many real-world applications. In this paper, we propose a reference direction approach and interactive algorithm to solve integer goal programming problem. We use analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to get the reference direction. At each iteration, only one integer linear programming problem is solved to get an efficient solution. Through analytic hierarchy process the decision maker has to provide the preference point such that the original problem has been transformed into linear integer programming model.
Neural network for solving linear programming problems with bounded variables.
Xia, Y; Wang, J
1995-01-01
A new neural network for solving linear programming problems with bounded variables is presented. The network is shown to be completely stable and globally convergent to the solutions to the linear programming problems. The proposed new network is capable of achieving the exact solutions, in contrast to existing optimization neural networks which need a suitable choice of the network parameters and thus can obtain only approximate solutions. Furthermore, both the primal problems and their dual problems are solved simultaneously by the new network. PMID:18263338