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Sample records for quantitative protein electrophoresis

  1. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePLUS

    This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood sample. Other electrophoresis tests that measure proteins in the serum include: Immunoelectrophoresis Immunofixation Globulin electrophoresis

  2. Protein composition of wheat gluten polymer fractions determined by quantitative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour proteins from the US bread wheat Butte 86 were extracted in 0.5% SDS using a two-step procedure with and without sonication and further separated by size exclusion chromatography into monomeric and polymeric fractions. Proteins in each fraction were analyzed by quantitative two-dimensional gel...

  3. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNA populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.

  4. Electronic imaging systems for quantitative electrophoresis of DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most powerful and widely used methods for the separation of DNA. During the last decade, instruments have been developed that accurately quantitate in digital form the distribution of materials in a gel or on a blot prepared from a gel. In this paper, I review the various physical properties that can be used to quantitate the distribution of DNA on gels or blots and the instrumentation that has been developed to perform these tasks. The emphasis here is on DNA, but much of what is said also applies to RNA, proteins and other molecules. 36 refs.

  5. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, D; Merril, C R

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P = 19/186 = .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:6577787

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Using Ultralow Flow Capillary Electrophoresis–Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the incorporation of an ultralow flow interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) and mass spectrometry (MS), in combination with reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation as an alternate workflow for quantitative proteomics. Proteins, extracted from a SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) labeled and an unlabeled yeast strain were mixed and digested enzymatically in solution. The resulting peptides were fractionated using RP-HPLC and analyzed by CE–MS yielding a total of 28?538 quantified peptides that correspond to 3?272 quantified proteins. CE–MS analysis was performed using a neutral capillary coating, providing the highest separation efficiency at ultralow flow conditions (<10 nL/min). Moreover, we were able to demonstrate that CE–MS is a powerful method for the identification of low-abundance modified peptides within the same sample. Without any further enrichment strategies, we succeeded in quantifying 1?371 phosphopeptides present in the CE–MS data set and found 49 phosphopeptides to be differentially regulated in the two yeast strains. Including acetylation, phosphorylation, deamidation, and oxidized forms, a total of 8?106 modified peptides could be identified in addition to 33?854 unique peptide sequences found. The work presented here shows the first quantitative proteomics approach that combines SILAC labeling with CE–MS analysis. PMID:25839223

  7. Using Gel Electrophoresis To Illustrate Protein Diversity and Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Mark; Vanable, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the differences in protein structures by focusing on isoelectric point with an experiment that is observable under certain pH levels in gel electrophoresis. Explains the electrophoresis procedure and reports results of the experiments. (YDS)

  8. Affinity Analysis of a Protein-Aptamer Complex Using Nonequilibrium Capillary Electrophoresis of

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Sergey

    decaying during separation under nonequilibrium conditions. Simple analysis of the three featuresAffinity Analysis of a Protein-Aptamer Complex Using Nonequilibrium Capillary Electrophoresis aptamers as affinity probes in quantitative analy- ses of proteins. The method is based on nonequilibrium

  9. Protein Mobility Shifts Contribute to Gel Electrophoresis Liquid Chromatography Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Nicholas J.; Parker, Graham C.; Gratsch, Theresa; Caruso, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Profiling of cellular and subcellular proteomes by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) after fractionation by SDS-PAGE is referred to as GeLC (gel electrophoresis liquid chromatography)-MS. The GeLC approach decreases complexity within individual MS analyses by size fractionation with SDS-PAGE. SDS-PAGE is considered an excellent fractionation technique for intact proteins because of good resolution for proteins of all sizes, isoelectric points, and hydrophobicities. Additional information derived from the mobility of the intact proteins is available after an SDS-PAGE fractionation, but that information is usually not incorporated into the proteomic analysis. Any chemical or proteolytic modification of a protein that changes the mobility of that protein in the gel can be detected. The ability of SDS-PAGE to resolve proteins with chemical modifications has not been widely utilized within profiling experiments. In this work, we examined the ability of the GeLC-MS approach to help identify proteins that were modified after a small hairpin RNA-dependent knockdown in an experiment using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture-based quantitation. PMID:26229520

  10. Muscle protein analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.

    1982-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis of muscle proteins has provided valuable new information concerning the heterogeneity of some of the major contractile proteins, alterations in the protein population of developing muscle fibers during various stages of myogenesis, and protein aberrations that correlate with muscle diseases. As with all electrophoretic techniques, careful attention must be paid to the preparation of samples and the selection of reagents to be used for the protein separations. Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the obvious method of choice when analysis of protein mixtures is required. The routine clinical application of two-dimensional electrophoresis to analysis of muscle tissue remains to be demonstrated. However, methods of sample preparation for two-dimensional electrophoresis compatible with existing clinical procedures have been described, and the equipment for multiple analyses is available. As protein abnormalities related to human myopathy are detected through the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis as a research tool, useful clinical markers of specific myopathic processes will be found. The preliminary work on muscle protein analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis described in this review has begun a new approach to the enigma of human muscle disease.

  11. [Affinity capillary electrophoresis for screening proteins interacting with domoic acid].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoqian; Gao, Tie; Hong, Zhuan; Qu, Feng

    2015-07-01

    Domoic acid (DA) is a biological neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning. Study of the interactions between DA and important functional proteins contributes to understand the toxicity mechanism of DA to biological macromolecules. In this paper, the interactions between DA and nine important proteins in plasma, intestine and mitochondria were qualitatively compared by affinity capillary electrophoresis. Proteins were used as affinity ligands while DA as the affinity receptor. Proteins with the concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 ?mol/L were added in the electrophoresis buffer and the migration times of 0.2 mg/mL DA were detected. Then the linear graphs of the variation of DA mobility ratio (?M) with the protein mass concentration (L) were drawn. According to the slope value, the relative strength of the interactions between DA and proteins was compared. The results showed that six proteins can interact with DA and the relative strength order was human thrombin > cytochrome C trypsin immunoglobulin E (Ig E) ? ribonuclease A > ? exonuclease, while ferritin, transferrin and lectin had no affinity with DA. With the advantages of high efficiency, fast analysis and less sample consumption, affinity capillary electrophoresis is a convenient method for screening DA target proteins, which will provide basic information for the toxic mechanism and defence of DA. PMID:26672193

  12. Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1983-09-01

    Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.

  13. Differences in the spatial and quantitative reproducibility between two second-dimensional gel electrophoresis systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2003-06-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), together with 2-D gel electrophoresis (GE) analysis software, is a common technique to analyze a complex proteome. In order to accurately locate the differentially expressed proteins in human pituitary macroadenoma tissues in our long-term research program to clarify the molecular mechanisms of macroadenoma formation, a reproducible separation system is needed. An immobilized pH-gradient dry gel-strip (IPG strip) has been extensively used for first-dimensional isoelectric focusing (IEF), and has achieved a high degree of reproducibility in the IEF direction. For the second dimension (SDS-PAGE), different types of gel systems are available, including horizontal vs. vertical gel systems, and gradient vs. constant-percentage gels. A typical horizontal system is the Multiphor II system that analyzes one gel at a time, using a precast gradient gel (180 x 245 x 0.5 mm), and a typical vertical system is the Dodeca system, which analyzes up to 12 gels at a time, using usually a single-concentration gel (190 x 205 x 1 mm). The present study evaluated the spatial and quantitative reproducibility of the two systems for the separation of the complex human pituitary proteome. PDQuest software was used to analyze the digitized gel-image data, and SPSS statistical software was used to analyze the data. The results demonstrated a high percentage (>99%) of protein-spot matches within each electrophoretic system. The Dodeca gel system demonstrated better between-gel reproducibility for spot position, higher resolution in the Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE direction, lower gel background, better spot quality, and higher reproducibility of the spot volume. PMID:12783460

  14. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  15. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins secreted from articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Hermansson, Monika; Saklatvala, Jeremy; Wait, Robin

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful method for separation of complex mixtures of proteins. The standard procedure is not, however, well suited to analysis of articular cartilage, which contains high concentrations of proteoglycans, the polyanionic glycosaminoglycan chains of which interfere with isoelectric focusing. We have developed a method for selective removal of proteoglycans by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride, after which the residual cartilage proteins are amenable to conventional 2DE analysis. Using this method, reproducible 2D-patterns can be obtained from proteins secreted by articular cartilage. The separated proteins may then be visualized by metabolic radiolabeling and silver staining, digested in gel with trypsin, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:17983159

  16. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Loo, J.A.; Udseth, H.R.; Smith, R.D.

    1989-05-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is attracting extensive attention as a fast, high resolution analytical and micro-preparative separations technique for systems of biological interest. In zone electrophoresis, a column is filled with a single electrolyte having a specific conductivity. The mixture of substances to be separated is applied as a narrow band to the head of a buffer filled column in a band whose width is much less than the length of the column and at a concentration too low to affect the buffer conductivity. An electric field is then applied across the length of the column and the individual substances migrate and separate according to their net electrophoretic velocities. Zone electrophoresis carried out in small diameter (<100 ..mu..m) fused silica capillaries is a relatively new approach to the high resolution separation of aqueous samples. Very small volume samples (picoliter range) with separation efficiencies on the order of 10/sup 6/ theoretical plates for amino acids have been achieved. The method can be further enhanced by the dynamic combination of detection sensitivity and selectivity offered by mass spectrometry (MS). The on-line marriage of mass spectrometry to CZE is accomplished by an atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization source interface. Our research efforts have demonstrated that proteins with MW's greater than 100 kDa can be analyzed using a conventional quadrupole mass spectrometer with an upper m/z limit of only 1700. 6 refs.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis-Based Immunoassays: Principles & Quantitative Applications

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Annette C.; Hage, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of capillary electrophoresis as a tool to conduct immunoassays has been an area of increasing interest over the last decade. This approach combines the efficiency, small sample requirements, and relatively high speed of CE with the selectivity of antibodies as binding agents. This review examines the various assay formats and detection modes that have been reported for these assays, along with some representative applications. Most CE immunoassays in the past have employed homogeneous methods in which the sample and reagents are allowed to react in solution. These homogeneous methods have been conducted as both competitive binding immunoassays and as non-competitive binding immunoassays. Fluorescent labels are most commonly used for detection in these assays, but enzyme labels have also been utilized for such work. Some additional work has been performed in CE immunoassays with heterogeneous methods in which either antibodies or an analog of the analyte is immobilized to a solid support. These heterogeneous methods can be used for the selective isolation of analytes prior to their separation by CE or to remove a given species from a sample/reagent mixture prior to analysis by CE. These CE immunoassays can be used with a variety of detection modes, such as fluorescence, UV/visible absorbance, chemiluminescence, electrochemical measurements, mass spectrometry, and surface plasmon resonance. PMID:18646279

  18. Quantitation and characterization of rat tissue metallothioneins by gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, L.Y.; McCormick, C.C.

    1986-03-05

    A discontinuous gradient gel electrophoretic system was developed to quantitate and characterize metallothionein (MT) in rat tissue. Vertical slab separating gels (1.5 mm x 14 cm x 12 cm) consisted of a linear polyacrylamide gradient 7.5 to 30% T and 5% Bis. The stacking gels (3% T and 20% Bis) were photopolymerized using riboflavin as the catalyst. Liver cytosols were prepared from rats which received (i.p.) various amounts of Zn (5 mg/kg BW) or Cd (2.5 mg/kg BW). Purified MT was prepared by gel filtration and DEAE ion-exchange chromatography. Cytosols were heated (80/sup 0/C, 2 min) and centrifuged to obtain a supernatant. An appropriate amount of supernatant and various amounts of MT standard were electrophoresed (constant current, 20 mA per slab) for 9 hours. Gels were stained with Commassie Blue (R-250, 0.25%) for 12 hours and destained. Gels were scanned by densitometer and peaks heights were determined. Significantly linear standard curves (..mu..g MT vs. peak height) were established for both MTI and MTII. (Cd, Zn)-MTI migrated slower than Zn-MTI while mobilities for both (Cd, Zn)- and Zn-MTII were the same. The accumulation of MTI was consistently less than MTII in liver from both Zn- and Cd-injected rats. Their results suggest that electrophoretic analysis is an excellent system not only for quantitation but also for characterization of MT in rat tissue.

  19. Analysis of protein glycation using phenylboronate acrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Morais, Marta P Pereira; Fossey, John S; James, Tony D; van den Elsen, Jean M H

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrate modification of proteins adds complexity and diversity to the proteome. However, undesired carbohydrate modifications also occur in the form of glycation, resulting in diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, autoimmune diseases, and cancer. The analysis of glycated proteins is challenging due to their complexity and variability. Numerous analytical techniques have been developed that require expensive specialised equipment and complex data analysis. In this chapter, we describe a simple electrophoresis-based method that enables users to detect, identify, and analyze these post-translational modifications. This new cost-effective methodology will aid the detection of unwanted glycation products in processed foods and may lead to new diagnostics and therapeutics for age-related chronic diseases and glycosylation disorders. PMID:22585480

  20. Leverage principle of retardation signal in titration of double protein via chip moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu-Xia; Cao, Yi-Ren; Xiao, Hua; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Shao-Rong; Meng, Qing-Hua; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2016-03-15

    In the present work we address a simple, rapid and quantitative analytical method for detection of different proteins present in biological samples. For this, we proposed the model of titration of double protein (TDP) and its relevant leverage theory relied on the retardation signal of chip moving reaction boundary electrophoresis (MRBE). The leverage principle showed that the product of the first protein content and its absolute retardation signal is equal to that of the second protein content and its absolute one. To manifest the model, we achieved theoretical self-evidence for the demonstration of the leverage principle at first. Then relevant experiments were conducted on the TDP-MRBE chip. The results revealed that (i) there was a leverage principle of retardation signal within the TDP of two pure proteins, and (ii) a lever also existed within these two complex protein samples, evidently demonstrating the validity of TDP model and leverage theory in MRBE chip. It was also showed that the proposed technique could provide a rapid and simple quantitative analysis of two protein samples in a mixture. Finally, we successfully applied the developed technique for the quantification of soymilk in adulterated infant formula. The TDP-MRBE opens up a new window for the detection of adulteration ratio of the poor food (milk) in blended high quality one. PMID:26414025

  1. From paper electrophoresis to computer-supported interpretation of capillary electrophoresis--clinical plasma protein analysis in Malmö, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Carlson, J

    2001-11-01

    Protein analyses have been used in Malmö as a routine clinical diagnostic tool since 1953. Most serum samples are submitted for "protein profiles" including capillary zone electrophoresis and rate immune nephelometric quantification of nine proteins (five in urines), although analysis of single proteins may be requested. Standardization between laboratories in our region has been greatly improved by automation, CRM 470 calibration and external quality assurance. We are further extending standardization by developing computer supported interpretations using a program with improved user interface and graphical representation of electrophoretic curves superimposed upon a shaded reference interval. Programming is underway to provide complete automatic interpretation of these curves. Together, capillary electrophoresis (with access to mathematical analysis) and immunochemical quantifications allow a highly automated process accessible to further digital analysis and automated interpretation. Rapid, cost-effective and standardized analysis of serum protein profiles should improve the diagnostic evaluation of many categories of patients. PMID:11831616

  2. Attomole quantitation of protein separations with accelerator mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S; Grant, P G; Buccholz, B A; Dingley, K; Turteltaub, K W

    2000-12-15

    Quantification of specific proteins depends on separation by chromatography or electrophoresis followed by chemical detection schemes such as staining and fluorophore adhesion. Chemical exchange of short-lived isotopes, particularly sulfur, is also prevalent despite the inconveniences of counting radioactivity. Physical methods based on isotopic and elemental analyses offer highly sensitive protein quantitation that has linear response over wide dynamic ranges and is independent of protein conformation. Accelerator mass spectrometry quantifies long-lived isotopes such as 14C to sub-attomole sensitivity. We quantified protein interactions with small molecules such as toxins, vitamins, and natural biochemicals at precisions of 1-5% . Micro-proton-induced-xray-emission quantifies elemental abundances in separated metalloprotein samples to nanogram amounts and is capable of quantifying phosphorylated loci in gels. Accelerator-based quantitation is a possible tool for quantifying the genome translation into proteome.

  3. SEPARATION OF WATER SOLUBLE PROTEINS FROM CEREALS BY FREE ZONE CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS (FZCE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most research concerning grain proteins has concentrated upon the gluten storage proteins. The albumins and globulins are the water and salt soluble proteins that contain biologically active enzymes and enzyme inhibitors. A Free Zone Capillary electrophoresis method was developed to separate these p...

  4. [Protein analysis of 6 crude drugs and their processed products by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique].

    PubMed

    Shi, J; Sun, L; Jing, X

    1995-09-01

    In this paper, the proteins in 6 crude drugs (Prunus persica; P. armeniaca; Dolichos lablab; Strychnos nux-vomica; Mylabris phalerata; Whitmania pigra) and their processed products were analysed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, and the effect of different processing methods on the quantity and kind of protein was explored. Protein electrophorograms of 20 samples are drawn. PMID:8679088

  5. THERMAL DETECTION OF DNA AND PROTEINS DURING GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

    SciTech Connect

    R. JOHNSTON

    2000-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to try to detect unstained, untagged, unlabeled DNA bands in real-time during gel electrophoresis using simple thermal measurements. The technical and ES&H advantages to this approach could potentially be quite significant, especially given the extreme importance of gel electrophoresis to a wide variety of practical and research fields. The project was unable to demonstrate sufficient thermal sensitivity to detect DNA bands. It is clear that we still do not understand the gel electrophoresis phenomenon very well. The temperature control techniques developed during the course of this project have other useful applications.

  6. SEPARATION OF GLUTEN PROTEINS BY HIGH PERFORMANCE CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) is an analytical method that uses a voltage differential to accurately move solvents and solutes through a capillary. HPCE is a relative newcomer to the field of cereal chemistry, it utilizes small inner diameter capillaries as an anti-convective med...

  7. Protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.

    PubMed

    Tatum, L M; Zaias, J; Mealey, B K; Cray, C; Bossart, G D

    2000-12-01

    Plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. Species studied included bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (Tyto alba), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), Harris' hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Stellar's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), barred owl (Strix varia), screech owl (Otus asio), and black vulture (Coragyps atratus). Several clinical cases show the diagnostic/therapeutic value of protein electrophoresis in raptors. This study establishes species-specific reference ranges for several birds of prey and discusses the benefit of electrophoresis as a diagnostic technique in health screens, as a diagnostic aid in conjunction with other tests, and as a prognostic indicator in clinical evaluation of raptors. PMID:11428396

  8. Capillary electrophoresis with noncovalently bilayer-coated capillaries for stability study of allergenic proteins in simulated gastrointestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chang; Liu, Youping; Zhou, Qiuhong; Di, Xin

    2010-10-15

    A novel noncovalently bilayer-coated capillary using cationic polymer polybrene (PB) and anionic polymer (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as coatings was prepared. This PB-PSS coating showed good migration-time reproducibility for proteins and high stability in the range of pH 2-10 and in the presence of 1M NaOH, acetonitrile and methanol. Capillary electrophoresis with PB-PSS coated capillaries was successfully applied to quantitatively investigate the stability of bovine serum albumin, ovomucoid, ?-lactoglobulin and lysozyme in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. ?-lactoglobulin A and ?-lactoglobulin B were both stable in simulated gastric fluid with degradation percentages of 34.3% and 17.2% after 60min of incubation, respectively. Bovine serum albumin, ovomucoid and lysozyme were stable in simulated intestinal fluid with degradation percentages of 17.7%, 23.4% and 22.8% after 60min of incubation, respectively. The superiority of the proposed method over sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and capillary electrophoresis with untreated fused silica capillaries was demonstrated and emphasized. PMID:20837405

  9. Total Protein Extraction and 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Burkholderia Species

    PubMed Central

    Velapatiño, Billie; Zlosnik, James E. A.; Hird, Trevor J.; Speert, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of the intracellular protein levels of bacterial species is of importance to understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases caused by these organisms. Here we describe a procedure for protein extraction from Burkholderia species based on mechanical lysis using glass beads in the presence of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride in phosphate buffered saline. This method can be used for different Burkholderia species, for different growth conditions, and it is likely suitable for the use in proteomic studies of other bacteria. Following protein extraction, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis proteomic technique is described to study global changes in the proteomes of these organisms. This method consists of the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric point by isoelectric focusing in the first dimension, followed by separation on the basis of molecular weight by acrylamide gel electrophoresis in the second dimension. Visualization of separated proteins is carried out by silver staining. PMID:24192802

  10. Determination of free L- and D-alanine in hydrolysed protein fertilisers by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cavani, Luciano; Ciavatta, Claudio; Gessa, Carlo

    2003-01-24

    of racemisation of hydrolysed protein fertilisers (HPFs) using an The objective of this study was to determine the degree inexpensive and easy to handle analytical method for qualitative control of the products. Using a polyacrylamide coated capillary and a run buffer containing 0.1 M Tris-borate+2.5 mM EDTA-Na2+0.1% sodium dodecylsulfate+10 mM beta-cyclodextrin a quantitative separation of D- and L-alanine (Ala) was made from an not treated HPF sample derivatised with dansyl chlorine by capillary electrophoresis. The D-Ala:[D-Ala+L-Ala] ratio, called degree of racemisation (RD), was calculated. The analysis of ten commercial HPFs has shown that more than 60% of HPFs have an RD > or = 40%. while only one product has shown an RD <5%. These results showed that most of the HPFs on the market are obtained with strong hydrolytic processes and high contents of D-amino acids are probably less effective as plant nutrients or even potentially dangerous to plants. PMID:12580515

  11. Identification and quantitation of iodotyrosines and iodothyronines in hydrolysate of iodinated casein by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yining; Sun, Yang; Ren, Jicun

    2006-03-15

    In this paper, a new method for separation, identification and quantitation of iodotyrosines and iodothyronines [3-monoiodo-L-tyrosine (MIT), 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT), L-thyronine (T(0)), 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (T(2)), 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)) and 3,3',5,5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (T(4))] was described by using capillary electrophoresis with photodiode-array ultraviolet-visible detection (CE-UV). The certain influence factors were systematically investigated, including the type, concentration and pH of buffer, and additive. We found that 10mM sodium borate running buffer (pH 8.5) containing 0.10mM beta-CD as additive reagent allowed the best instrumental conditions for the optimum separation of the iodotyrosines and iodothyronines. Under optimized conditions, the analytical time was within 6 min, using an uncoated fused-silica capillary of 75 microm inner diameter with an effective length of 30 cm. The reproducibility of the migration time and peak area was less than 0.6% and 6.8%, respectively. A linear range from 10-1000 microg/mL and low limits of detection from 1.3-3.4 microg/mL were obtained at the detection wavelength of 280 nm. Our preliminary results show that the method is well suitable for determination of the hydrolysate of iodinated casein. PMID:18970540

  12. Rapid (ten-minute) pore-gradient electrophoresis of proteins and peptides in Micrograd gels.

    PubMed

    Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1992-01-01

    Precast gradient gels of short migration length (25 mm) have been developed to provide rapid electrophoretic separation without loss of resolution. These Micrograd gels have been prepared in gel ranges (conventional and unique) to match pore-gradient electrophoresis conditions to proteins/peptides ranging in size from several hundreds to millions. The Hylinx Micrograd gel combines an extreme gel range (6 to 48% polyacrylamide) with a novel crosslinker to provide sieving of polypeptides, and pore-limit electrophoresis of the smallest proteins (e.g. insulin monomer). All gel ranges (such as 3 to 30%) provide zone sharpening in routine analysis of conventional protein mixtures (e.g. serum) within 10 min electrophoresis at 200 to 300 volts. The gels are thin (1 mm) and thus stain quickly, but the gel cassette is of conventional overall width (83 mm), thus fitting many apparatus designs and accommodating 12 samples. The gels are finding valuable use in screening applications, requiring the electrophoretic analysis of many samples, and in cases where a rapid answer is needed, such as monitoring protein purification. The gels have proved particularly useful, in-house, for the latter application in developing Gradipore's new large-scale preparative electrophoresis system, the Gradiflow. PMID:1599958

  13. Can You Solve the Crime? Using Agarose Electrophoresis To Identify an Unknown Colored Protein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltfong, Cynthia L.; Chester, Emily; Albertin, Faith; Smith, Julia; Hall, Judith C.; Arth, Emily C.; Martin, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Describes a lab that introduces agarose electrophoresis techniques and basic information on proteins to middle school and high school students. Insists that, built around a scenario in which students must solve a crime, the lab has real-world applications that should spark student interest. (KHR)

  14. Introducing Proteomics in the Undergraduate Curriculum: A Simple 2D Gel Electrophoresis Exercise with Serum Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Thomas D.; Craig, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) remains an important tool in the study of biological systems by proteomics. While the use of 2DGE is commonplace in research publications, there are few instructional laboratories that address the use of 2DGE for analyzing complex protein samples. One reason for this lack is the fact that the preparation…

  15. Spot volume vs. amount of protein loaded onto a gel: a detailed, statistical comparison of two gel electrophoresis systems.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xianquan; Desiderio, Dominic M

    2003-06-01

    The long-term goal of this research program is to clarify the molecular mechanisms that participate in the formation of human pituitary macroadenomas. One approach to that goal is to characterize the differentially expressed proteins that are found by a comparison of the proteomes of control pituitary vs. macroadenoma tissues. In order to accurately perform a comparative proteomics study, based on the combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) and PDQuest 2-D analysis software, a reproducible 2-DE separation system with a wide linear dynamic measure range is needed. A typical horizontal system is the Multiphor II system that analyzes one gel at a time, using a precast gradient gel (180 x 245 x 0.5 mm); a typical vertical system is the Dodeca system that analyzes up to 12 gels at a time on a single-concentration gel (190 x 205 x 1.0 mm). We have evaluated (Zhan and Desiderio, Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 1834-1846) the spatial and quantitative reproducibility of the two second-dimensional gel systems to separate a human pituitary proteome; that study showed a higher reproducibility for the Dodeca gel system. This present study investigated the relationship between the spot volume and the amount of protein loaded onto the gel for those two 2-D systems. The results demonstrated that the Dodeca gel system provides a wider linear dynamic range to measure the changes in the protein abundance in pituitary proteome. PMID:12783459

  16. A method developed to fractionate intact proteins based on capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xia; Xiao, Hongting; Liang, Shuang; Bao, James J; Li, Tianxiang; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Reduction in the sample complexity enables more thorough intact protein analysis using MS-based proteomics. A capillary electrophoresis method, namely the velocity gap mode of capillary electrophoresis (VGCE), is proposed to separate protein mixtures with high resolution. Although the separation mechanism of VGCE is also based on the difference of the mass-to-charge ratios of the proteins, it fractionates the sample zone into small pieces of subunits. In this way, the resolution can be dramatically improved due to less longitudinal dispersion of the sample. The effect of the new approach is evaluated by separation of three groups of reference protein mixtures, i.e. a mixture of lysozyme and BSA; a mixture of lysozyme, ?-lactoglobulin, and ribonuclease A; and a mixture of cytochrome C, lysozyme, BSA, ?-lactoglobulin, ribonuclease A, conalbumin, carbonic anhydrase, and hemoglobin. The results indicate that the new approach shows great potential to couple with MS for top-down analysis of complex mixtures. PMID:26609548

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis for the Selection of DNA Aptamers Recognizing Activated Protein C.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Nasim Shahidi; Müller, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis-based SELEX (CE-SELEX) is an efficient technique for the isolation of aptamers binding to a wide range of target molecules. CE-SELEX has a number of advantages over conventional SELEX procedures such as the selection of aptamers can be performed on non-immobilized targets, usually within a fewer number of selection cycles. Here we describe a complete procedure of CE-SELEX using activated protein C (APC) as the target protein. PMID:26552816

  18. Identification of methanococcus jannaschii proteins in 2-D gel electrophoresis patterns by mass spectrometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, X.

    1998-06-10

    The genome of Methanococcus jannaschii has been sequenced completely and has been found to contain approximately 1,770 predicted protein-coding regions. When these coding regions are expressed and how their expression is regulated, however, remain open questions. In this work, mass spectrometry was combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify which proteins the genes produce under different growth conditions, and thus investigate the regulation of genes responsible for functions characteristic of this thermophilic representative of the methanogenic Archaea.

  19. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli).

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Hammond, Elizabeth; Haefele, Holly

    2013-12-01

    Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli) are commonly kept in zoos and are subject to routine health monitoring and research studies. Recently, assays for acute phase proteins (APP) have been described in many wildlife species, and specific assays for serum amyloid A (SAA) have been well validated and studied in horses (Equus ferus caballus), in which it serves as a major APP. In the present study, serum samples from 26 Grant's zebra were subject to analysis by using assays for SAA, haptoglobin (HP), and protein electrophoresis. Reference intervals were calculated by using the robust method: SAA 1.8-31.4 mg/L and HP 0.37-1.58 mg/ml. Significant differences in SAA and HP were observed in clinically abnormal zebra; in some cases, these differences were marked and were noted in the absence of abnormal values for protein electrophoretic fractions. These data indicate that APP may be a valuable and sensitive tool in monitoring inflammation in this species. PMID:24450080

  20. Human plasma protein adsorption onto dextranized surfaces: a two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Irene Y.; Tomczyk, Nancy; Eckmann, Joshua I.; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Protein adsorption is fundamental to thrombosis and to the design of biocompatible materials. We report a two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry study to characterize multiple human plasma proteins adsorbed onto four different types of model surfaces: silicon oxide, dextranized silicon, polyurethane and dextranized polyurethane. Dextran was grafted onto the surfaces of silicon and polyurethane to mimic the blood-contacting endothelial cell glycocalyx surface. Surface topography and hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity were determined and analyzed using atomic force microscopy and water contact angle measurements, respectively. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we show that, relative to the unmodified surfaces, dextranization significantly inhibits the adsorption of several human plasma proteins including IGHG1 protein, fibrinogen, haptoglobin, Apo A-IV, Apo A-I, immunoglobulin, serum retinal-binding protein and truncated serum albumin. We further demonstrate the selectivity of plasma protein adsorbed onto the different functionalized surfaces and the potential to control and manipulate proteins adsorption on the surfaces of medical devices, implants and microfluidic devices. This result shows that adsorption experiments using a single protein or a binary mixture of proteins are consistent with competitive protein adsorption studies. In summary, these studies indicate that coating blood-contacting biomedical applications with dextran is an effective route to reduce thrombo-inflammatory responses and to surface-direct biological activities. PMID:21277175

  1. Pneumatic microvalve-based hydrodynamic sample injection for high-throughput, quantitative zone electrophoresis in capillaries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan T; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J; Lee, Cheng S; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary electrophoresis (CE) system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high-throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel, and a fused-silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused-silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused-silica capillary, and following separation, high-sensitivity MS detection is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high-throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates, and CE separation voltages. PMID:24865952

  2. Pneumatic Microvalve-Based Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for High-Throughput, Quantitative Zone Electrophoresis in Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary electrophoresis (CE) system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high-throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel, and a fused-silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused-silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused-silica capillary, and following separation, high-sensitivity MS detection is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high-throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates, and CE separation voltages. PMID:24865952

  3. Accurate Quantitation of Dystrophin Protein in Human Skeletal Muscle Using Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristy J; Marathi, Ramya; Fiorillo, Alyson A; Ciccimaro, Eugene F; Sharma, Seema; Rowlands, David S; Rayavarapu, Sree; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Hoffman, Eric P; Hathout, Yetrib

    2012-12-18

    Quantitation of human dystrophin protein in muscle biopsies is a clinically relevant endpoint for both diagnosis and response to dystrophin-replacement therapies for dystrophinopathies. A robust and accurate assay would enable the use of dystrophin as a surrogate biomarker, particularly in exploratory Phase 2 trials. Currently available methods to quantitate dystrophin rely on immunoblot or immunohistochemistry methods that are not considered robust. Here we present a mass spectrometry based approach to accurately quantitate dystrophin protein in a total protein extract from human muscle biopsies. Our approach uses a combination of stable isotope labeled dystrophin as a spike-in standard, gel electrophoresis and high precision mass spectrometry to detect and quantitate multiple peptides of dystrophin within a complex protein mixture. The method was found highly reproducible and linear over a wide dynamic range, detecting as low as 5% of dystrophin relative to the normal amount in healthy individuals. PMID:23646235

  4. Using charge ladders and capillary electrophoresis to measure the charge, size, and electrostatic interactions of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Upma; Carbeck, Jeffrey D

    2004-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of protein charge ladders--collections of protein derivatives that differ in charge--and capillary electrophoresis (CE). The combination of charge ladders and CE is a useful biophysical tool for measuring the net charge of proteins and the role of electrostatics in biochemical processes involving proteins. Methods to synthesize and analyze charge ladders by CE are described. Applications of charge ladders and CE to the simultaneous measurement of net charge and hydrodynamic radius of proteins are presented. Techniques for using charge ladders and CE to measure the role of interactions between charged groups on protein stability and ligand binding are also given. The power of this approach lies in the ability to isolate protein charge as an independent and measurable variable in the study of protein stability and function. PMID:15163859

  5. Development of Microfluidic Electrophoresis Separation Methods for Calmodulin Binding Proteins

    E-print Network

    Samarasinghe, Thushara

    2015-05-31

    separation under denaturing conditions. Two CBPs, calcineurin (CN) and eNOS, were used as model proteins and photo cross-linked with CaM using different photochemical cross-linkers (BPM and NHS-diazirine). Mass spectrometric analysis of the in-gel digested...

  6. Amino Acid Composition, Molecular Weight Distribution and Gel Electrophoresis of Walnut (Juglans regia L.) Proteins and Protein Fractionations

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiaoying; Hua, Yufei; Chen, Guogang

    2014-01-01

    As a by-product of oil production, walnut proteins are considered as an additional source of plant protein for human food. To make full use of the protein resource, a comprehensive understanding of composition and characteristics of walnut proteins are required. Walnut proteins have been fractionated and characterized in this study. Amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and gel electrophoresis of walnut proteins and protein fractionations were analyzed. The proteins were sequentially separated into four fractions according to their solubility. Glutelin was the main component of the protein extract. The content of glutelin, albumin, globulin and prolamin was about 72.06%, 7.54%, 15.67% and 4.73% respectively. Glutelin, albumin and globulin have a balanced content of essential amino acids, except for methionine, with respect to the FAO pattern recommended for adults. SDS-PAGE patterns of albumin, globulin and glutelin showed several polypeptides with molecular weights 14.4 to 66.2 kDa. The pattern of walnut proteins in two-dimension electrophoresis (2-DE) showed that the isoelectric point was mainly in the range of 4.8–6.8. The results of size exclusion chromatogram indicated molecular weight of the major components of walnut proteins were between 3.54 and 81.76 kDa. PMID:24473146

  7. Galactomannan assay and plasma protein electrophoresis findings in psittacine birds with aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Cray, Carolyn; Reavill, Drury; Romagnano, April; Van Sant, Fern; Champagne, Daphne; Stevenson, Rhoda; Rolfe, Vanessa; Griffin, Chris; Clubb, Susan

    2009-06-01

    In psittacine birds, the antemortem diagnosis of aspergillosis is usually based on the clinical signalment combined with the results of diagnostic tests such as radiography, routine hematologic and biochemical analysis, and biopsy. For several years, plasma protein electrophoresis has been used as an ancillary diagnostic technique in forming a diagnosis and treatment plan in avian species. More recently, a commercially available assay to measure galactomannan, an Aspergillus species antigen, has been described for clinical use in humans, cattle, horses, dogs, and gyr falcons. This report describes several confirmed cases of aspergillosis, with accompanying clinical data, including plasma protein electrophoresis and galactomannan assay results, in addition to results of traditional evaluations by hematology, radiography, and biopsy. In clinical cases in psittacine birds, the galactomannan assay appears useful for detecting circulating Aspergillus antibody. PMID:19673459

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-06-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Bovine Pregnancy-specific Serum Proteins by 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Eun; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hong Rye; Shin, Hyun Young; Lin, Tao; Jin, Dong Il

    2015-01-01

    Two dimensional-fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) is an emerging technique for comparative proteomics, which improves the reproducibility and reliability of differential protein expression analysis between samples. The purpose of this study was to investigate bovine pregnancy-specific proteins in the proteome between bovine pregnant and non-pregnant serum using DIGE technique. Serums of 2 pregnant Holstein dairy cattle at day 21 after artificial insemination and those of 2 non-pregnant were used in this study. The pre-electrophoretic labeling of pregnant and non-pregnant serum proteins were mixed with Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent dyes, respectively, and an internal standard was labeled with Cy2. Labeled proteins with Cy2, Cy3, and Cy5 were separated together in a single gel, and then were detected by fluorescence image analyzer. The 2D DIGE method using fluorescence CyDye DIGE flour had higher sensitivity than conventional 2D gel electrophoresis, and showed reproducible results. Approximately 1,500 protein spots were detected by 2D DIGE. Several proteins showed a more than 1.5-fold up and down regulation between non-pregnant and pregnant serum proteins. The differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. A total 16 protein spots were detected to regulate differentially in the pregnant serum, among which 7 spots were up-regulated proteins such as conglutinin precursor, modified bovine fibrinogen and IgG1, and 6 spots were down-regulated proteins such as hemoglobin, complement component 3, bovine fibrinogen and IgG2a three spots were not identified. The identified proteins demonstrate that early pregnant bovine serum may have several pregnancy-specific proteins, and these could be a valuable information for the development of pregnancy-diagnostic markers in early pregnancy bovine serum. PMID:25925056

  10. Routine diagnosis with PhastSystem compared to conventional electrophoresis: automated sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, silver staining and western blotting of urinary proteins.

    PubMed

    Scherberich, J E; Fischer, P; Bigalke, A; Stangl, P; Wolf, G B; Haimerl, M; Schoeppe, W

    1989-01-01

    The recent introduction of the PhastSystem, an automatic electrophoresis and staining system with precast gradient-gels, allows rapid and reproducible analysis of proteinuria in patients suffering from renal injury. A routine method for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and silver staining of unconcentrated urine specimens in the PhastSystem is described and compared to our conventional "macro"-method with self-cast SDS-polyacrylamide gradient gels. The method described for the PhastSystem using 0.3 microL sample volumes and an 8-25% polyacrylamide gradient gel leads to highly reproducible results within 1.5 h. Before electrophoresis urine specimens were neither concentrated nor dialyzed. Samples with a protein concentration exceeding 5 mg/mL had to be diluted 1:5 (v/v). Analysis and documentation of PhastGels appeared as easy as with our conventional SDS-PAGE. Protein bands could reliably be identified by Western blotting. Urine and serum proteins, separated in PhastGels, were electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose and detected with specific antibodies against human albumin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin and IgG. Comparison of several standard kits for molecular weight determination revealed considerable differences concerning the quality of protein separation patterns. Availability of precast gels and automatization of SDS-PAGE and staining allows easy standardization of urine SDS-PAGE among clinical routine laboratories. PMID:2469571

  11. Western blotting of basic proteins after nondenaturing electrophoresis in acid conditions using the PhastSystem.

    PubMed

    Davril, M; Ducourouble, M P; Van-Seuningen, I

    1993-09-01

    Electroblotting of basic proteins was performed from minigels after electrophoresis, under nondenaturing acidic conditions, by using the automated PhastSystem. Depending on the molecular masses of the proteins to be studied, various precast gel media were chosen. The transfer membranes with various types (nitrocellulose and polyvinylidene difluoride) and pore sizes (0.45 and 0.2 micron) were chosen accordingly. For the semidry electric transfer, a simple, discontinuous two-buffer system was used. The anode solution contained 0.3 M Tris, pH 10.4, and the cathode solution, 40 mM 6-amino-n-hexanoic acid, pH 7.6, with 20% v/v methanol each. The addition of 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the cathode solution facilitated the elution of proteins from the gels and directed the migration of the negative SDS-protein complexes towards the anode membranes. The transfer conditions following native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis allowed the visualization of basic proteins, with molecular weights ranging from 29,000 to 5,000, for which isoforms could be resolved and which retained their biological properties. PMID:8223396

  12. Electrophoresis of small proteins in highly concentrated and crosslinked polyacrylamide gradient gels.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W P; Wrigley, C W; Margolis, J

    1983-02-15

    A high concentration (40%) of acrylamide plus N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide combined with a high level of crosslinking (12.5%) yielded clear gels capable of restricting the passage of small proteins. This gel composition was chosen in preference to other combinations, in particular those producing opaque gels which have larger pore sizes and which provide a reduced sieving effect. Gradient gels were prepared in which the gel concentration rose from 3 to 40% and the degree of crosslinking increased from 4 to 12.5%. Such gels were suitable for fractionating crude, unreduced, and uncharacterized extracts containing proteins ranging in molecular size from 10,000 to several million daltons under conditions where all proteins are retained on the gel even after prolonged electrophoresis. The gels yielded zones which were of improved sharpness and resolution compared with gels of lower concentration and degree of crosslinking, and can be used to provide an estimate of molecular size. Examples of the use of HX gradient gels included both anodic and cathodic electrophoresis at pH 8.3 and 3.1, respectively, of serum and cereal-grain proteins and a partial enzymic hydrolysate of serum albumin. PMID:6859529

  13. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi (Shanghai, CN); Giometti, Carol S. (Glenview, IL); Tollaksen, Sandra L. (Montgomery, IL)

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  14. Quantitative proteomics: assessing the spectrum of in-gel protein detection methods

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Victoria J.; Wright, Elise P.

    2010-01-01

    Proteomics research relies heavily on visualization methods for detection of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Commonly used staining approaches involve colorimetric dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue, fluorescent dyes including Sypro Ruby, newly developed reactive fluorophores, as well as a plethora of others. The most desired characteristic in selecting one stain over another is sensitivity, but this is far from the only important parameter. This review evaluates protein detection methods in terms of their quantitative attributes, including limit of detection (i.e., sensitivity), linear dynamic range, inter-protein variability, capacity for spot detection after 2D gel electrophoresis, and compatibility with subsequent mass spectrometric analyses. Unfortunately, many of these quantitative criteria are not routinely or consistently addressed by most of the studies published to date. We would urge more rigorous routine characterization of stains and detection methodologies as a critical approach to systematically improving these critically important tools for quantitative proteomics. In addition, substantial improvements in detection technology, particularly over the last decade or so, emphasize the need to consider renewed characterization of existing stains; the quantitative stains we need, or at least the chemistries required for their future development, may well already exist. PMID:21686332

  15. Electrophoresis and spectrometric analyses of adaptation-related proteins in thermally stressed Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, I B; Castro, D P; Nogueira, P P O; Angelo, P C S; Nogueira, P A; Gonçalves, J F C; Pereira, A M R F; Garcia, J S; Souza, G H M F; Arruda, M A Z; Eberlin, M N; Astolfi-Filho, S; Andrade, E V; López-Lozano, J L

    2013-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative proteobacteria found in water and soil; it is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, such as the Amazon rainforest. We examined protein expression changes that occur in C. violaceum at different growth temperatures using electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. The total number of spots detected was 1985; the number ranged from 99 to 380 in each assay. The proteins that were identified spectrometrically were categorized as chaperones, proteins expressed exclusively under heat stress, enzymes involved in the respiratory and fermentation cycles, ribosomal proteins, and proteins related to transport and secretion. Controlling inverted repeat of chaperone expression and inverted repeat DNA binding sequences, as well as regions recognized by sigma factor 32, elements involved in the genetic regulation of the bacterial stress response, were identified in the promoter regions of several of the genes coding proteins, involved in the C. violaceum stress response. We found that 30 °C is the optimal growth temperature for C. violaceum, whereas 25, 35, and 40 °C are stressful temperatures that trigger the expression of chaperones, superoxide dismutase, a probable small heat shock protein, a probable phasing, ferrichrome-iron receptor protein, elongation factor P, and an ornithine carbamoyltransferase catabolite. This information improves our comprehension of the mechanisms involved in stress adaptation by C. violaceum. PMID:24301767

  16. Serum protein capillary electrophoresis and measurement of acute phase proteins in a captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Delanghe, Joris; Whitehouse-Tedd, Katherine; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Christensen, Michelle; Hesta, Myriam; Tugirimana, Pierrot; Budd, Jane; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert P J

    2014-09-01

    Renal and gastrointestinal pathologies are widespread in the captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) population but are often diagnosed at a late stage, because diagnostic tools are limited to the evaluation of clinical signs or general blood examination. Presently, no data are available on serum proteins and acute-phase proteins in cheetahs during health or disease, although they might be important to improve health monitoring. This study aimed to quantify serum proteins by capillary electrophoresis in 80 serum samples from captive cheetahs, categorized according to health status and disease type. Moreover, serum amyloid A concentrations were measured via a turbidimetric immunoassay validated in domestic cats, whereas haptoglobin and C-reactive protein were determined by non-species-specific functional tests. Cheetahs classified as healthy had serum protein and acute phase protein concentrations within reference ranges for healthy domestic cats. In contrast, unhealthy cheetahs had higher (P < 0.001) serum amyloid A, alpha2-globulin, and haptoglobin concentrations compared with the healthy subgroup. Moreover, serum amyloid A (P = 0.020), alpha2-globulin (P < 0.001) and haptoglobin (P = 0.001) concentrations in cheetahs suffering from chronic kidney disease were significantly greater compared to the reportedly healthy cheetahs. Our study indicates that serum proteins in the cheetah can be analyzed by routine capillary electrophoresis, whereas acute-phase proteins can be measured using available immunoassays or non-species-specific techniques, which are also likely to be applicable in other exotic felids. Moreover, results suggest that serum amyloid A and haptoglobin are important acute-phase proteins in the diseased cheetah and highlight the need to evaluate their role as early-onset markers for disease. PMID:25314816

  17. Urine Proteins Identified by Two-Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis Facilitate the Differential Diagnoses of Scrapie

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, Lise; Simon, Sharon L. R.; Plews, Margot; Ruddat, Viola; Brunet, Simone; Graham, Catherine; Czub, Stefanie; Knox, J. David

    2013-01-01

    The difficulty in developing a diagnostic assay for Creutzfeldt - Jakob disease (CJD) and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) stems in part from the fact that the infectious agent is an aberrantly folded form of an endogenous cellular protein. This precludes the use of the powerful gene based technologies currently applied to the direct detection of other infectious agents. To circumvent this problem our research objective has been to identify a set of proteins exhibiting characteristic differential abundance in response to TSE infection. The objective of the present study was to assess the disease specificity of differentially abundant urine proteins able to identify scrapie infected mice. Two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis was used to analyze longitudinal collections of urine samples from both prion-infected mice and a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The introduction of fluorescent dyes, that allow multiple samples to be co-resolved and visualized on one two dimensional gel, have increased the accuracy of this methodology for the discovery of robust protein biomarkers for disease. The accuracy of a small panel of differentially abundant proteins to correctly classify an independent naïve sample set was determined. The results demonstrated that at the time of clinical presentation the differential abundance of urine proteins were capable of identifying the prion infected mice with 87% sensitivity and 93% specificity. The identity of the diagnostic differentially abundant proteins was investigated by mass spectrometry. PMID:23704971

  18. Serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gel in clinically healthy and Aspergillus species-infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Kummrow, Maya; Silvanose, Christudas; Di Somma, Antonio; Bailey, Thomas A; Vorbrüggen, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Serum protein electrophoresis has gained importance in avian medicine during the past decade. Interpretation of electrophoretic patterns should be based on species-specific reference intervals and the electrophoresis gel system. In this study, serum protein electrophoresis by using high-resolution agarose gels was performed on blood samples collected from 105 falcons, including peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus), gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus), saker falcons (Falco cherrug), red-naped shaheens (Falco pelegrinoides babylonicus), and hybrid falcons, that were submitted to the Dubai Falcon Hospital (Dubai, United Arab Emirates) between 2003 and 2006. Reference values were established in clinically healthy birds and compared with values from falcons infected with Aspergillus species (n = 32). Falcons with confirmed aspergillosis showed significantly lower prealbumin values, which is a novel finding. Prealbumin has been documented in many avian species, but further investigation is required to illuminate the diagnostic significance of this negative acute-phase protein. PMID:23409432

  19. Qualitative and quantitative metabolomic investigation of single neurons by capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Nemes, Peter; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Aerts, Jordan T.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    Single-cell mass spectrometry (MS) empowers metabolomic investigations by decreasing analytical dimensions to the size of individual cells and subcellular structures. We describe a protocol for investigating and quantifying metabolites in individual isolated neurons using single-cell capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS. The protocol requires ~2 h for sample preparation, neuron isolation, and metabolite extraction, and 1 h for metabolic measurement. The approach was used to detect more than 300 distinct compounds in the mass range of typical metabolites in various individual neurons (25–500-µm in diameter) isolated from the sea slug (Aplysia californica) central and rat (Rattus norvegicus) peripheral nervous systems. A subset of identified compounds was sufficient to reveal metabolic differences among freshly isolated neurons of different types and changes in the metabolite profiles of cultured neurons. The protocol can be applied to the characterization of the metabolome in a variety of smaller cells and/or subcellular domains. PMID:23538882

  20. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of urinary protein in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Sufi M; Woo, K T; Tan, H K; Wong, K S

    2011-07-01

    Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown the importance of urinary proteomics in acute kidney injury (AKI). We analyzed the protein in urine of patients with clinical AKI using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) for its diagnostic value, and followed them up for 40 months to evaluate prognosis. Urine from 31 consecutive cases of AKI was analyzed with SDS-PAGE to determine the low, middle and high molecular weight proteins. Fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was estimated from serum and urine creatinine and sodium (Na). The cases were followed-up for 40 months from the end of the recruitment of study cases. Glomerular protein was higher in the hematuria group when compared with the non-hematuria group (P <0.04) and in the AKI group than in the acute on chronic renal failure (AKI-on-CRF) group (P <0.002). Tubular protein was higher in the AKI-on-CRF group (P <0.003) than in the AKI group. Tubular protein correlated with FENa in groups with diabetes mellitus (DM), AKI-on-CRF, and without hematuria (P <0.03, P <0.02 and P <0.004, respectively). Pattern of protein did not differ between groups with and without DM and clinical acute tubular necrosis (ATN). At the end of 40 months follow-up, category with predominantly glomerular protein progressed to chronic renal failure (CRF) or end-stage renal failure in higher proportion (P <0.05). In clinical AKI, we observed that glomerular protein dominated in cases with glomerular insult, as indicated by hematuria. Tubular protein was common in the study cases with CRF, DM and cases without hematuria. This indicates tubulo-interstitial injury for AKI in these cases. Patients with predominantly glomerular protein had an adverse outcome. PMID:21743220

  1. Quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by quartz nanopipettes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Purushottam Babu; Astudillo, Luisana; Miksovska, Jaroslava; Wang, Xuewen; Li, Wenzhi; Darici, Yesim; He, Jin

    2014-08-01

    In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions.In this report, protein-modified quartz nanopipettes were used to quantitatively study protein-protein interactions in attoliter sensing volumes. As shown by numerical simulations, the ionic current through the conical-shaped nanopipette is very sensitive to the surface charge variation near the pore mouth. With the appropriate modification of negatively charged human neuroglobin (hNgb) onto the inner surface of a nanopipette, we were able to detect concentration-dependent current change when the hNgb-modified nanopipette tip was exposed to positively charged cytochrome c (Cyt c) with a series of concentrations in the bath solution. Such current change is due to the adsorption of Cyt c to the inner surface of the nanopipette through specific interactions with hNgb. In contrast, a smaller current change with weak concentration dependence was observed when Cyt c was replaced with lysozyme, which does not specifically bind to hNgb. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) for the Cyt c-hNgb complex formation was derived and the value matched very well with the result from surface plasmon resonance measurement. This is the first quantitative study of protein-protein interactions by a conical-shaped nanopore based on charge sensing. Our results demonstrate that nanopipettes can potentially be used as a label-free analytical tool to quantitatively characterize protein-protein interactions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Determination of nanopipette diameter; surface modification scheme; numerical simulation; noise analysis; SPR experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02964j

  2. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  3. Sheathless Capillary Electrophoresis-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Top-Down Characterization of Pyrococcus furiosus Proteins on a Proteome Scale

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Intact protein analysis via top-down mass spectrometry (MS) provides the unique capability of fully characterizing protein isoforms and combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs) compared to the bottom-up MS approach. Front-end protein separation poses a challenge for analyzing complex mixtures of intact proteins on a proteomic scale. Here we applied capillary electrophoresis (CE) through a sheathless capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CESI) interface coupled to an Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer to profile the proteome from Pyrococcus furiosus. CESI-top-down MS analysis of Pyrococcus furiosus cell lysate identified 134 proteins and 291 proteoforms with a total sample consumption of 270 ng in 120 min of total analysis time. Truncations and various PTMs were detected, including acetylation, disulfide bonds, oxidation, glycosylation, and hypusine. This is the largest scale analysis of intact proteins by CE-top-down MS to date. PMID:25346219

  4. Efficient extraction of proteins from recalcitrant plant tissue for subsequent analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Parkhey, Suruchi; Chandrakar, Vibhuti; Naithani, S C; Keshavkant, S

    2015-10-01

    Protein extraction for two-dimensional electrophoresis from tissues of recalcitrant species is quite problematic and challenging due to the low protein content and high abundance of contaminants. Proteomics in Shorea robusta is scarcely conducted due to the lack of a suitable protein preparation procedure. To establish an effective protein extraction protocol suitable for two-dimensional electrophoresis in Shorea robusta, four procedures (borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction, organic solvent/trichloroacetic acid precipitation, sucrose/Tris/phenol, and organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate) were evaluated. Following these, proteins were isolated from mature leaves and were analyzed for proteomics, and also for potential contaminants, widely reported to hinder proteomics. The borate buffer/trichloroacetic acid extraction had the lowest protein yield and did not result in any banding even in one-dimensional electrophoresis. In contrast, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction allowed the highest protein yield. Moreover, during proteomics, organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extracted protein resolved the maximum number (144) of spots. Further, when proteins were evaluated for contaminants, significant (77-95%) reductions in the nucleic acids, phenol, and sugars were discernible with refinement in extraction procedure. Accumulated data suggested that the organic solvent/phenol/sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction was the most effective protocol for protein isolation for proteomics of Shorea robusta and can be used for plants that have a similar set of contaminants. PMID:26257211

  5. Effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of anti-VEGF proteins determined by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, S Kevin; Liddell, Mark R; Wen, He

    2011-06-01

    Macromolecules such as therapeutic proteins currently serve an important role in the treatment of eye diseases such as wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Particularly, bevacizumab and ranibizumab have been shown to be effective in the treatment of these diseases. Iontophoresis can be employed to enhance ocular delivery of these macromolecules, but the lack of information on the properties of these macromolecules has hindered its development. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effective electrophoretic mobilities and charges of bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and model compound polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) using capillary zone electrophoresis. Salicylate, lidocaine, and bovine serum albumin (BSA), which have known electrophoretic mobilities in the literature, were also studied to validate the present technique. The hydrodynamic radii and diffusion coefficients of BSA, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and PSS were measured by dynamic light scattering. The effective charges were calculated using the Einstein relation between diffusion coefficient and electrophoretic mobility and the Henry equation. The results show that bevacizumab and ranibizumab have low electrophoretic mobilities and are net negatively charged in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) of pH 7.4 and 0.16M ionic strength. PSS has high negative charge but the electrophoretic mobility in PBS is lower than that expected from the polymer structure. The present study demonstrated that capillary electrophoresis could be used to characterize the mobility and charge properties of drug candidates in the development of iontophoretic drug delivery. PMID:21269789

  6. Quantitative analysis of pungent and anti-inflammatory phenolic compounds in olive oil by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vulcano, Isabella; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Ganzera, Markus

    2015-02-15

    The first CE procedure for the quantitative determination of pharmacologically relevant secoiridoids in olive oil, oleocanthal and oleacein, is described. Together with their precursors tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol they could be baseline separated in less than 15min using a borax buffer with pH 9.5, at 25kV and 30°C. Method validation confirmed that the procedure is selective, accurate (recovery rates from 94.0 to 104.6%), reproducible (?max?6.8%) and precise (inter-day precision?6.4%), and that the compounds do not degrade quickly if non-aqueous acetonitrile is used as solvent. Quantitative results indicated a low occurrence of oleocanthal (0.004-0.021%) and oleacein (0.002-0.048%) in olive oil samples, which is in agreement to published HPLC data. The CE method impresses with its simple instrumental and methodological design, combined with reproducible and valid quantitative results. PMID:25236241

  7. Field-amplified sample stacking ?-cyclodextrin modified capillary electrophoresis for quantitative determination of diastereomeric saponins.

    PubMed

    Emara, Samy; Masujima, Tsutomu; Zarad, Walaa; Mohamed, Khaled; Kamal, Maha; Fouad, Marwa; EL-Bagary, Ramzia

    2014-01-01

    Successful simultaneous diastereomeric separation and sensitive determination of two pairs of triterpenoidal saponins have been achieved by capillary electrophoresis (CE) using ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as a stereoselective agent to cooperate with borate complexation. A usual technique for isolation and group separation of saponins was developed as an appropriate purification step prior to the determination of individual saponins by CE. Soyasaponin I ( S1: ), azukisaponin V ( S2: ), bersimoside I ( S3: ) and bersimoside II ( S4: ) could be well separated within 14 min in a fused-silica capillary (60 cm long to the detector with an additional 10 cm to the cathode; 75 µm i.d.). The background electrolyte was borate buffer (80 mM, pH 10), containing 24 mM ?-CD. The separation voltage was 14 kV with a detection wavelength of 195 nm. The sample was electrokinetically injected using a voltage of 16 kV for 12 s. Methanol (70%) was used as the diluent for field-amplified sample stacking after hydrodynamic injection of short water plug (5 cm, 4 s). The method was partially validated for linearity, repeatability, reproducibility, limits of detection and limits of quantification. The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were all >0.998, and the recoveries were from 98.23 to 96.21%. PMID:24248558

  8. Quantitative Determination of Lercanidipine Enantiomers in Commercial Formulations by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Luciana Pereira; Aguiar, Fernando Armani; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) using cyclodextrin (CD) as chiral selector was developed and validated for determination of lercanidipine (LER) enantiomers, a drug calcium channel blocker which exerts antihypertensive effects of long duration, in a pharmaceutical formulation. Optimum separation of LER enantiomers was obtained on a 50?cm × 50??m id capillary using a sodium acetate buffer solution 200?mmol/L pH 4.0 containing 10?mmol/L of 2,3,6-o-methyl-?-cyclodextrin (TM-?-CD) as background electrolyte. The capillary temperature and voltage were 15°C and 25?kV, respectively, hydrodynamic injection and detection at 237?nm. Linearity was obtained in the range 12.5–100??g/mL for both enantiomers (r ? 0.995). The RSD (%) and relative errors (E, %) obtained in precision and accuracy studies (intraday and interday) were lower than 5%. After validation, the method was applied to quantify the enantiomers of LER in commercial tablets and the results were satisfactory in terms of accuracy and precision, both less than 5%. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for enantioselective quality control of LER enantiomers in pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:25821632

  9. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/?l in serum samples and 126 pg/?l in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/?l, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  10. Electrophoresis characterisation of protein as a method to establish the entomological origin of stingless bee honeys.

    PubMed

    Ramón-Sierra, Jesús Manuel; Ruiz-Ruiz, Jorge Carlos; de la Luz Ortiz-Vázquez, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    Increasing production of stingless-bee honey and the prospect of broader marker for natural and organic products indicate the need to establish parameters to determinate the entomological origin and authenticity of honey. In this research, honeys of Apis mellifera, Melipona beecheii and Trigona spp. were collected in Yucatan, Mexico. Stingless-bee honeys contained more water and less total sugars and reducing sugars. SDS-PAGE patterns show distinctive bands for each kind of honey. The SDS-PAGE pattern of A. mellifera proteins honey showed three bands with molecular weights between 10.2 and 74.8kDa, there were five proteins bands in M. beecheii honey with molecular weights between 6.1 and 97.0kDa and nine for Trigona spp. proteins between 9.3 and 86.7kDa. Conventional physicochemical parameters along with electrophoresis profiles of stingless-bee honeys proteins could be an alternative for determination of entomological origin. PMID:25863608

  11. Muscle protein analysis. II. Two-dimensional electrophoresis of normal and diseased human skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Barany, M.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1980-07-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to analyze the major proteins of normal and pathological human-muscle samples. The normal human-muscle pattern contains four myosin light chains: three that co-migrate with the myosin light chains from rabbit fast muscle (extensor digitorum longus), and one that co-migrates with the light chain 2 from rabbit slow muscle (soleus). Of seven Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples, four yielded patterns with decreased amounts of actin and myosin relative to normal muscle, while three samples gave patterns comparable to that for normal muscle. Six samples from patients with myotonic dystrophy also gave normal patterns. In nemaline rod myopathy, in contrast, the pattern was deficient in two of the fast-type myosin light chains.

  12. Non-denaturing gel electrophoresis system for the purification of membrane bound proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Cavinato, A.G.; Macleod, R.M.; Ahmed, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    A new method is described for the purification of a membrane bound glycoprotein, the kappa opioid receptor from human placental tissue. The method uses preparative slab-gel electrophoresis in the presence of the non-denaturing detergent CHAPS. A linear relationship between log molecular weight and SDS PAGE electrophoretic mobility of known molecular weight markers, in the presence of CHAPS, is observed. Using this method, we were able partially to purify an /sup 3/H-etorphine binding glycoprotein, from placental villus tissue, with an apparent molecular weight range of 60-70,000. The iodinated glycoprotein migrates in SDS PAGE with an apparent molecular weight of 63,000. This method may be useful for the isolation of membrane bound proteins, especially when an affinity ligand is not available.

  13. Prototype for integrated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aoshuang; Sluszny, Chanan; Yeung, Edward S

    2005-09-16

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis practitioners have long waited for a fully automated system. This article presents an integrated platform that is capable of complete automation from sample introduction to spots detection. The strip gel for the first dimensional separation is fixed on the edge of a discrete planar stage before separation. A pair of platinum pin electrodes for isoelectric focusing (IEF) makes contact from underneath the stage. IEF is performed directly after rehydration and protein loading. After the first dimensional separation, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) equilibration is done on the same stage without moving the gel. The IEF stage is then moved horizontally to couple with a precast second dimensional gel. The <0.5 mm gap between the two gels is filled with poly (ethylene oxide) solution. After SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrohporesis separation, a charge-coupled device camera is used to detect spots via protein native fluorescence excited by a Hg (Xe) lamp with the gel inside the running cell. Potential for full automation is demonstrated with 0.5 microg of Escherichia coli proteins on this miniaturized platform. More than 240 spots are detected in a total experiment time of <2.5 h. PMID:16130711

  14. Characterization of low viscosity polymer solutions for microchip electrophoresis of non-denatured proteins on plastic chips

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Takao; Reza Mohamadi, Mohamad; Kaji, Noritada; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study characteristics of polymers (methylcellulose, hypromellose ((hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose), poly(vinylpyrrolidone), and poly(vinyl alcohol)) with different chemical structures for microchip electrophoresis of non-denatured protein samples in a plastic microchip made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Coating efficiency of these polymers for controlling protein adsorption onto the channel surface of the plastic microchip, wettability of the PMMA surface, and electroosmotic flow in the PMMA microchannels in the presence of these polymers were compared. Also relative electrophoretic mobility of protein samples in solutions of these polymers was studied. We showed that when using low polymer concentrations (lower than the polymer entanglement point) where the sieving effect is substantially negligible, the interaction of the samples with the polymer affected the electrophoretic mobility of the samples. This effect can be used for achieving better resolution in microchip electrophoresis of protein samples. PMID:22685502

  15. Definition of the quantitative contents of gossypol in selection samples of cotton by capillary electrophoresis method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil-seed meal from cotton seed contains high-quality protein and can be used in the animal industry. However, its application is limited by the presence of a poisonous substance called gossypol. There is a need to analyze the amount of gossypol in cottonseed as part of the current breeding program...

  16. Quantitative determination of (+)- and (-)-Gossypol in flower petals of selected cotton cultivars using capillary zone electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseeds provide a high quality protein that is currently under utilized because of the presence of a toxic compound called gossypol. Gossypol is biosynthesized by the free radical coupling of two molecules of hemigossypol. This coupling reaction produces two optically active enantiomers. One ...

  17. HIGH THROUGHPUT PROTEIN IDENTIFICATION USING 2-DIMENSIONAL DIFFERENCE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AND ROBOTIC SPOT PICKING FOR ALUMINUM TOLERANCE-RELATED MAIZE ROOT TIP PROTEINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) is the most effective method utilized to carry out gel-based quantitative proteomics. Unfortunately, the most popular image analysis software used to process DIGE images (DeCyder) produces picking coordinates in a format that is incompatible...

  18. A multi-channel gel electrophoresis and continuous fraction collection apparatus for high throughput protein separation and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Megan; Nordmeyer, Robert A.; Cornell, Earl; Dong, Ming; Biggin, Mark D.; Jin, Jian

    2009-10-02

    To facilitate a direct interface between protein separation by PAGE and protein identification by mass spectrometry, we developed a multichannel system that continuously collects fractions as protein bands migrate off the bottom of gel electrophoresis columns. The device was constructed using several short linear gel columns, each of a different percent acrylamide, to achieve a separation power similar to that of a long gradient gel. A Counter Free-Flow elution technique then allows continuous and simultaneous fraction collection from multiple channels at low cost. We demonstrate that rapid, high-resolution separation of a complex protein mixture can be achieved on this system using SDS-PAGE. In a 2.5 h electrophoresis run, for example, each sample was separated and eluted into 48-96 fractions over a mass range of 10-150 kDa; sample recovery rates were 50percent or higher; each channel was loaded with up to 0.3 mg of protein in 0.4 mL; and a purified band was eluted in two to three fractions (200 L/fraction). Similar results were obtained when running native gel electrophoresis, but protein aggregation limited the loading capacity to about 50 g per channel and reduced resolution.

  19. A Novel Gaussian Extrapolation Approach for 2-D Gel Electrophoresis Saturated Protein Spots.

    PubMed

    Natale, Massimo; Caiazzo, Alfonso; Ficarra, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of images obtained from two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D GE) is a topic of utmost importance in bioinformatics research, since commercial and academic software currently available have proven to be neither completely effective nor fully automatic, often requiring manual revision and refinement of computer generated matches. In this chapter, we present an effective technique for the detection and the reconstruction of over-saturated protein spots. Firstly, the algorithm reveals overexposed areas, where spots may be truncated, and plateau regions caused by smeared and overlapping spots. Next, it reconstructs the correct distribution of pixel values in these overexposed areas and plateau regions, using a two-dimensional least-squares fitting based on a generalized Gaussian distribution.Pixel correction in saturated and smeared spots allows more accurate proteins quantification, providing more reliable image analysis results. The method is validated for processing highly exposed 2-D GE images, comparing reconstructed spots with the corresponding non-saturated image. The results demonstrate that the algorithm enables correct spot quantification. PMID:26611417

  20. Studies on proteinograms in dermatorphytes by disc electrophoresis. Part 2: Protein bands of keratinophilic fungi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danev, P.; Balabanov, V.; Friedrich, E.

    1983-01-01

    Disc electrophoresis studies on keratinophili fungi demonstrated corresponding proteinograms in morphologically homogeneous strains of the same species, but different in different species of one and the same genus.

  1. Comparison of ethanol-soluble proteins from different rye (Secale cereale) varieties by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Radzikowski, Louise; Nesi?, Ljiljana; Hansen, Hanne Boskov; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    2002-12-01

    The major storage proteins from six rye varieties, grown under the same conditions in 1997 and 1998 in Rønhave, Denmark, were analyzed by two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proteins were extracted from ground rye kernels with 70% ethanol and separated by 2-D electrophoresis. The gels were scanned, compared using ImageMaster software and the data sets were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) using THE UNSCRAMBLER software. Afterwards MATLAB was used to make a cluster analysis of the varieties based on PCA. The analysis of the gels showed, that the protein patterns (number of different proteins and their isoelectric points and molecular weights) from the six rye varieties were different. Based on the presence of unique cultivar-specific spots it was possible to differentiate between all six varieties if the two harvest years were investigated separately. When the results were combined from the two years five varieties could be differentiated. The results from the PCA confirmed the finding of the unique spots and cluster analysis was made in order to illustrate the results. The combination of the results from 2-D electrophoresis and other grain characteristics showed that one protein spot was located close to the parameters bread volume and bread height. PMID:12481272

  2. Pneumatic Microvalve-Based Hydrodynamic Sample Injection for High-Throughput, Quantitative Zone Electrophoresis in Capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Wang, Chenchen; Rausch, Sarah J.; Lee, Cheng S.; Tang, Keqi

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid microchip/capillary CE system was developed to allow unbiased and lossless sample loading and high throughput repeated injections. This new hybrid CE system consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip sample injector featuring a pneumatic microvalve that separates a sample introduction channel from a short sample loading channel and a fused silica capillary separation column that connects seamlessly to the sample loading channel. The sample introduction channel is pressurized such that when the pneumatic microvalve opens briefly, a variable-volume sample plug is introduced into the loading channel. A high voltage for CE separation is continuously applied across the loading channel and the fused silica capillary separation column. Analytes are rapidly separated in the fused silica capillary with high resolution. High sensitivity MS detection after CE separation is accomplished via a sheathless CE/ESI-MS interface. The performance evaluation of the complete CE/ESI-MS platform demonstrated that reproducible sample injection with well controlled sample plug volumes could be achieved by using the PDMS microchip injector. The absence of band broadening from microchip to capillary indicated a minimum dead volume at the junction. The capabilities of the new CE/ESI-MS platform in performing high throughput and quantitative sample analyses were demonstrated by the repeated sample injection without interrupting an ongoing separation and a good linear dependence of the total analyte ion abundance on the sample plug volume using a mixture of peptide standards. The separation efficiency of the new platform was also evaluated systematically at different sample injection times, flow rates and CE separation voltages.

  3. Continuous Signal Enhancement for Sensitive Aptamer Affinity Probe Electrophoresis Assay Using Electrokinetic Concentration

    E-print Network

    Cheow, Lih Feng

    We describe an electrokinetic concentration-enhanced aptamer affinity probe electrophoresis assay to achieve highly sensitive and quantitative detection of protein targets in a microfluidic device. The key weaknesses of ...

  4. A quantitative measure for protein conformational heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, Nicholas; Das, Rahul K.; Pappu, Rohit V.

    2013-09-01

    Conformational heterogeneity is a defining characteristic of proteins. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and denatured state ensembles are extreme manifestations of this heterogeneity. Inferences regarding globule versus coil formation can be drawn from analysis of polymeric properties such as average size, shape, and density fluctuations. Here we introduce a new parameter to quantify the degree of conformational heterogeneity within an ensemble to complement polymeric descriptors. The design of this parameter is guided by the need to distinguish between systems that couple their unfolding-folding transitions with coil-to-globule transitions and those systems that undergo coil-to-globule transitions with no evidence of acquiring a homogeneous ensemble of conformations upon collapse. The approach is as follows: Each conformation in an ensemble is converted into a conformational vector where the elements are inter-residue distances. Similarity between pairs of conformations is quantified using the projection between the corresponding conformational vectors. An ensemble of conformations yields a distribution of pairwise projections, which is converted into a distribution of pairwise conformational dissimilarities. The first moment of this dissimilarity distribution is normalized against the first moment of the distribution obtained by comparing conformations from the ensemble of interest to conformations drawn from a Flory random coil model. The latter sets an upper bound on conformational heterogeneity thus ensuring that the proposed measure for intra-ensemble heterogeneity is properly calibrated and can be used to compare ensembles for different sequences and across different temperatures. The new measure of conformational heterogeneity will be useful in quantitative studies of coupled folding and binding of IDPs and in de novo sequence design efforts that are geared toward controlling the degree of heterogeneity in unbound forms of IDPs.

  5. A comparison of three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlomydia psittici infections in pet birds 

    E-print Network

    Hofle, Michael David

    1999-01-01

    Three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis hics. and the polymerase chain reaction assays were evaluated in psittacine birds. Birds suspected of Chlamydia psittaci infections were identified and tested with the following assays...

  6. [Application of capillary zone electrophoresis in the interaction analysis of protein C with protein C activator from Agkistrodon acutus venom].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yao; Bao, Pengju; Zhang, Genbao

    2013-01-01

    A new capillary zone electrophoresis method (CZE) has been established for the interaction analysis of protein C (PC) with a protein C activator (PCA) from Agkistrodon acutus venom. The analysis was performed on an uncoated fused-silica capillary with 75 microm i.d. and a total length of 60.2 cm (50 cm to the detector) with a buffer solution of 50 mmol/L Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) and 198 nm of wavelength. The factors which influence the separation of the PCA, such as buffer solution and ion concentration, and the interaction between the PCA and PC incubated for different times at 37.5 degrees C were studied. The linear range was from 10 to 300 mg/L. The limit of detection was 3 mg/L (S/N = 3). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for the migration time of the PCA was 0.56%. The RSD for the peak area was 3.8% (n = 6). The equal volumes of the PCA (200 mg/L) and PC (60 mg/L) were incubated for five minutes, at which their binding rate reached the maximum. And no hydrolyzed peptide chain from PC was found in the electropherogram. The PCA from Agkistrodon acutus venom could activate PC directly through changing the space conformation of PC. The method is simple, and highly sensitive with high resolution, and will provide important theoretical basis for the rapid detection of venom proteins and their activities in the future. PMID:23667991

  7. Protein Electrophoresis/Immunofixation Electrophoresis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... be decreased in: May be increased in: Albumin Malnutrition and malabsorption Pregnancy Kidney disease (especially nephrotic syndrome ) ... Acute or chronic inflammatory diseases Alpha 2 globulin Malnutrition Severe liver disease Hemolysis Kidney disease (nephrotic syndrome) ...

  8. Nonequilibrium Capillary Electrophoresis of Equilibrium Mixtures -A Single Experiment Reveals Equilibrium and Kinetic Parameters of Protein-DNA

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Sergey

    into the capillary and subjected to electrophoresis under nonequilibrium conditions. The new method allowsNonequilibrium Capillary Electrophoresis of Equilibrium Mixtures - A Single Experiment Reveals method, nonequilibrium capillary electrophoresis of equilibrium mixtures (NECEEM), and describe its use

  9. Evaluation of different protein extraction methods for banana (Musa spp.) root proteome analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vaganan, M Mayil; Sarumathi, S; Nandakumar, A; Ravi, I; Mustaffa, M M

    2015-02-01

    Four protocols viz., the trichloroacetic acid-acetone (TCA), phenol-ammonium acetate (PAA), phenol/SDS-ammonium acetate (PSA) and trisbase-acetone (TBA) were evaluated with modifications for protein extraction from banana (Grand Naine) roots, considered as recalcitrant tissues for proteomic analysis. The two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) separated proteins were compared based on protein yield, number of resolved proteins, sum of spot quantity, average spot intensity and proteins resolved in 4-7 pI range. The PAA protocol yielded more proteins (0.89 mg/g of tissues) and protein spots (584) in 2-DE gel than TCA and other protocols. Also, the PAA protocol was superior in terms of sum of total spot quantity and average spot intensity than TCA and other protocols, suggesting phenol as extractant and ammonium acetate as precipitant of proteins were the most suitable for banana rooteomics analysis by 2-DE. In addition, 1:3 ratios of root tissue to extraction buffer and overnight protein precipitation were most efficient to obtain maximum protein yield. PMID:26040117

  10. Consecutive Gated Injection-Based Microchip Electrophoresis for Simultaneous Quantitation of Superoxide Anion and Nitric Oxide in Single PC-12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; Li, Qingling; Chen, Peilin; Li, Zhongyi; Chen, Zhenzhen; Tang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    As important reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), cellular superoxide anion (O2(•-)) and nitric oxide (NO) play significant roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes. Cellular O2(•-) and NO also have a close relationship and always interact with each other. Thus, the simultaneous detection of intracellular O2(•-) and NO, especially at the single-cell level, is important. In this paper, we present a novel method to simultaneously detect and quantify O2(•-) and NO in single cells using microchip electrophoresis based on a new consecutive gated injection method. This novel injection method achieved consecutive manipulation of single cells, guaranteeing an almost constant volumetric flow rate and thus good quantitative reproducibility. After cellular content separation by microchip electrophoresis and detection by laser-induced fluorescence (MCE-LIF), O2(•-) and NO in single PC-12 cells were simultaneously quantified in an automated fashion. This is the first report of consecutive absolute quantitation at the single-cell level. The quantitative results obtained from single cells is beneficial for deep understanding of the biological roles of cellular O2(•-) and NO. This new method constitutes a consecutive, accurate way to study the synergistic function of O2(•-) and NO and other biomolecules in various biological events at the single-cell level. PMID:26639182

  11. ICSH recommendations for assessing automated high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis equipment for the quantitation of HbA2.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A D; Colah, R; Fucharoen, S; Hoyer, J; Keren, D; McFarlane, A; Perrett, D; Wild, B J

    2015-10-01

    Automated high performance liquid chromatography and Capillary electrophoresis are used to quantitate the proportion of Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2 ) in blood samples order to enable screening and diagnosis of carriers of ?-thalassemia. Since there is only a very small difference in HbA2 levels between people who are carriers and people who are not carriers such analyses need to be both precise and accurate. This paper examines the different parameters of such equipment and discusses how they should be assessed. PMID:26372049

  12. Heterogeneity of a labeled tumor surface protein from a murine lung carcinoma demonstrated by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Eisinger, R.W.; Kennel, S.J.

    1981-03-01

    Heterogeneity of a tumor surface protein (designated TSP-180) has been demonstrated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Line 1 carcinoma cells derived from a spontaneous alveolar carcinoma of BALB/c mice were labeled externally with /sup 125/I by use of lactoperoxidase or metabolically with (/sup 3/H)-leucine before cell proteins were solubilized with Triton X-100 detergent. Immunoprecipitates prepared with heterologous antisera allowed comparison of two-dimensional patterns of line 1 surface proteins labeled with /sup 125/I or /sup 3/H. The isoelectric point of /sup 125/I-labeled TSP-180 was heterogeneous and varied between 6.1 and 6.3. Treatment with neuraminidase shifted the pI values to between 5.9 and 6.1 and reduced, but did not eliminate, the banding heterogeneity. These data show that charge heterogeneity due to sialization, as well as other factors, exists in TSP-180.

  13. Detection of tetracysteine-tagged proteins using a biarsenical fluorescein derivative through dry microplate array gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Galia; Bogoev, Roumen; Shevirov, Julia; Sartiel, Adam; Margalit, Ilana

    2004-08-01

    The design of an extended-run 96-well sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) system and the development of protein detection technology based upon fluorescein derivatives that bind to peptide epitope tags, allows the creation of a truly high-throughput analysis of protein expression, where less than 20 min are needed to separate proteins and analyze results. We demonstrate the overall capabilities of such a method combination in a complex cell lysate background, while comparing the specific results obtained using a biarsenical fluorescein-derivative and tetracysteine epitope-tagged proteins with total protein staining using a fluorescent gel stain and with Western blotting where an anti-oligohistidine (His) tag antibody has been employed. When applied on purified target proteins without extraneous protein background, the demonstrated sensitivity of the assay on the extended-run 96-array precast SDS-PAGE system allows detection of quantities of tagged protein as low as 1 pmol per band. PMID:15300761

  14. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-09-15

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS-PAGE to be a plasma protein concentration of about 10mg/ml in 3% (w/v) Triton X-114. 2DE of proteins obtained by CPE of 400 ?l of human plasma revealed about 200 spots constituting a spot pattern very different from the pattern of total plasma. The CPE procedure only had a limited contribution to the technical variation. Identification of about 60 spots, representing only 22 proteins, revealed that several proteins in the obtained subfraction were present in more isoforms or modifications. Among these were apolipoproteins (A-1, D, E, L1, and M), haptoglobin-related protein, phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins and their isoforms or modifications. PMID:26080275

  15. Quantitative Proteomic profiling identifies protein correlates to EGFR kinase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kani, Kian; Faca, Vitor M.; Hughes, Lindsey D.; Zhang, Wenxuan; Fang, Qiaojun; Shahbaba, Babak; Luethy, Roland; Erde, Jonathan; Schmidt, Joanna; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Zhang, Qing; Katz, Jonathan E.; Gross, Mitchell E.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; McIntosh, Martin W.; Jain, Anjali; Hanash, Sam; Agus, David B.; Mallick, Parag

    2014-01-01

    Clinical oncology is hampered by a lack of tools to accurately assess a patient’s response to pathway-targeted therapies. Serum and tumor cell surface proteins whose abundance, or change in abundance in response to therapy, differentiates patients responding to a therapy from patients not-responding to a therapy could be usefully incorporated into tools for monitoring response. Here we posit and then verify that proteomic discovery in in vitro tissue culture models can identify proteins with concordant in vivo behavior and further, can be a valuable approach for identifying tumor-derived serum proteins. In this study we use Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Culture (SILAC) with proteomic technologies to quantitatively analyze the gefitinib-related protein changes in a model system for sensitivity to EGFR targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We identified 3,707 intracellular proteins, 1,276 cell surface proteins, and 879 shed proteins. More than 75% of the proteins identified had quantitative information and a subset consisting of [400] proteins showed a statistically significant change in abundance following gefitinib treatment. We validated the change in expression profile in vitro and screened our panel of response markers in an in vivo isogenic resistant model and demonstrated that these were markers of gefitinib response and not simply markers of phospho-EGFR downregulation. In doing so, we also were able to identify which proteins might be useful as markers for monitoring response and which proteins might be useful as markers for a priori prediction of response. PMID:22411897

  16. Proteomic analysis of surface proteins of Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trichinella spiralis is a zoonotic tissue-dwelling parasitic nematode that infects humans and other mammals. Its surface proteins are recognized as antigenic in many infected hosts, being directly exposed to the host’s immune system and are the main target antigens that induce the immune responses. The larval surface proteins may also interact with intestinal epithelial cells and may play an important role in the invasion and development process of T. spiralis. The purpose of this study was to analyze and characterize the surface proteins of T. spiralis muscle larvae by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Methods The surface proteins of T. spiralis muscle larvae were stripped from the cuticle of live larvae by the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium deoxycholate. The surface protein stripping was examined by an immunofluorescent test (IFT). The surface proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting, and then identified by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Results The IFT results showed that the surface proteins-stripped larvae were not recognized by sera of mice immunized with surface antigens. Western blotting showed 7 of 12 protein bands of the surface proteins were recognized by mouse infection sera at 18 dpi and at 42 dpi. The 2-DE results showed that a total of approximately 33 proteins spots were detected with molecular weights varying from 10 to 66 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) from 4 to 7. Twenty-seven of 33 protein spots were identified and characterized to correlate with 15 different proteins. Out of the 14 proteins identified as T. spiralis proteins, 5 proteins (partial P49 antigen, deoxyribonuclease II family protein, two serine proteases, and serine proteinase) had catalytic and hydrolase activity. All of these 5 proteins were also associated with metabolic processes and 2 of the five proteins were associated with cellular processes. Conclusions In this study, T. spiralis muscle larval surface proteins have been identified, which will provide useful information to elucidate the host-parasite interaction, identify the invasion-related proteins, early diagnostic antigens and the targets for a vaccine. PMID:24330777

  17. Proteomics analysis in mature seed of four peanut cultivars using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis reveals distinct differential expression of storage, anti-nutritive, and allergenic proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein profiles of total seed proteins isolated from mature seeds of four peanut cultivars, New Mexico Valencia C (NM Valencia C), Tamspan 90, Georgia Green, and NC-7, were studied using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with nano electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass ...

  18. A comparative method for protein extraction and 2-D gel electrophoresis from different tissues of Cajanus cajan

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha; Jain, Neha; Kumar, Ram; Jain, Ajay; Singh, Nagendra K.; Rai, Vandna

    2015-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume crop with high protein content. However, it is often subjected to various abiotic and biotic stresses. Proteomics is a state-of-the-art technique used to analyze the protein profiling of a tissue for deciphering the molecular entities that could be manipulated for developing crops resistant to these stresses. In this context, developing a comprehensive proteome profile from different vegetative and reproductive tissues has become mandatory. Although several protein extraction protocols from different tissues of diverse plant species have been reported, there is no report for pigeonpea. Here, we report tissue-specific protein extraction protocols representing vegetative (young leaves), and reproductive (flowers and seeds) organs and their subsequent analysis on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The study explicitly demonstrated that the efficacy of a particular protein extraction protocol is dependent on the different tissues, such as leaves, flowers and seeds that differ in their structure and metabolic constituents. For instance, phenol-based protocol showed an efficacy toward higher protein yield, better spot resolution and a minimal streaking on 2-DE gel for both leaves and flowers. Protein extraction from seeds was best achieved by employing phosphate-TCA-acetone protocol. PMID:26300903

  19. In-spray supercharging of intact proteins by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry using sheath liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Bonvin, Grégoire; Rudaz, Serge; Schappler, Julie

    2014-02-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is a suitable technique for the analysis of intact proteins. The main configuration to realize this coupling is the sheath liquid interface, which is characterized by the addition of a make-up liquid providing the electric contact as well as the appropriate flow and solvent composition for optimal ionization and evaporation. One main advantage of this interface is that the composition of the sheath liquid can be tuned to modify the ionization without affecting CE selectivity and efficiency. In the case of protein ionization, this feature is particularly interesting to modulate their charge-state distribution (CSD), while keeping the separation performance unchanged. In this context, the current work evaluated the effect on proteins' CSD of adding supercharging molecules to the sheath liquid. Several supercharging reagents were tested with different background electrolyte (BGE) and their impact was estimated for three model proteins (i.e., human insulin, human growth hormone, hemoglobin A0) exhibiting various properties in terms of ionization, conformation, and flexibility. Their influence on the global sensitivity for each protein was also assessed. Among the supercharging reagents tested, m-NBA and sulfolane led to supercharging effect whose magnitude depended on the proteins as well of the BGE pH. The sensitivity and separation performance remained globally unchanged for each protein and supercharging additive, while sulfolane led in some cases to a sensitivity improvement. PMID:24528666

  20. The detection and quantitation of protein oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Gell, David A; Grant, Richard P; Mackay, Joel P

    2012-01-01

    There are many different techniques available to biologists and biochemists that can be used to detect and characterize the self-association of proteins. Each technique has strengths and weaknesses and it is often useful to combine several approaches to maximize the former and minimize the latter. Here we review a range of methodologies that identify protein self-association and/or allow the stoichiometry and affinity of the interaction to be determined, placing an emphasis on what type of information can be obtained and outlining the advantages and disadvantages involved. In general, in vitro biophysical techniques, such as size exclusion chromatography, analytical ultracentrifugation, scattering techniques, NMR spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, fluorescence anisotropy and mass spectrometry, provide information on stoichiometry and/or binding affinities. Other approaches such as cross-linking, fluorescence methods (e.g., fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, FCS; Förster resonance energy transfer, FRET; fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, FRAP; and proximity imaging, PRIM) and complementation approaches (e.g., yeast two hybrid assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, BiFC) can be used to detect protein self-association in a cellular context. PMID:22949109

  1. Target protein separation and preparation by free-flow electrophoresis coupled with charge-to-mass ratio analysis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qiao-Yi; Guo, Chen-Gang; Yan, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Xie, Hai-Yang; Jahan, Sharmin; Fan, Liu-Yin; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2015-06-01

    Herein, a novel strategy was developed to separate and prepare target protein from complex sample by free-flow electrophoresis (FFE), which mainly based on the charge-to-mass ratio (C/M) analysis of proteins. The C/M values of three model proteins, namely Cytochrome C (Cyt C), myoglobin (Mb) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were analyzed under different pH and the separation of these proteins was predicted by CLC Protein Workbench software. Series of experiments were performed to validate the proposed method. The obtained data showed high accordance with our prediction. In addition, the chamber buffer (CB) of FFE system was optimized to improve the resolution of separation. Meanwhile, in order to evaluate the analytical performance of the proposed method, Cyt C was extracted from swine heart and further separated by FFE based on C/M analysis. Results showed that Cyt C was completely separated from the crude sample and a purity of 96.9% was achieved. The activity of prepared Cyt C was 98.3%, which indicate that the proposed method is promising in a wide variety of research areas where the native properties of proteins should be maintained for downstream analysis. PMID:25890440

  2. A rapid standardized quantitative microfluidic system approach for evaluating human tear proteins

    PubMed Central

    Bavelloni, Alberto; Blalock, William; Fresina, Michela; Campos, Emilio C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To explore the potential of a chip-based miniaturized capillary gel electrophoresis device in a quantitative evaluation of the human tear protein profile and to validate the method. Methods A total of 5 ?l of tears were collected from 25 patients diagnosed as having mild to moderate dry eye according to Dry Eye Workshop guidelines and from 20 matched normal volunteers. Protein analysis was performed with the 2100 Bioanalyzer; different protein kit assays were evaluated (Protein 80 kit, Protein 230 kit, High Sensitivity Protein 250 kit) for sizing and quantifying protein samples from 5 to 80 kDa, 14 to 230 kDa, and 5 to 250 kDa, respectively. A standard protein ladder was loaded on each chip to allow an estimation of the appropriate molecular weight of the separated proteins; a sample buffer containing a lower and an upper marker was used to check the correct alignment of each lane. Virtual bands generated by the Bioanalyzer were identified and validated as follows: tear samples were run in parallel and proteins separated by one-dimensional and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate–PAGE and characterized by immunoblotting, enzymatic digestion, and analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry followed by a search of the SProt human protein database. Results Analyses were successfully performed by using as small as a 2 ?l tear sample. The Protein 230 kit was selected as the best chip kit, able to differentiate all the proteins of interest. The measurement noise parameters were low, and reproducibility and repeatability exhibited high accuracy (0.998 and 0.995, respectively) and precision (0.974 and 0.977, respectively). The coefficient of variability was slightly higher than that declared by the manufacturer (6.2% versus 5.0%). Total protein content and the following proteins were recognized in all samples: lipophilin A lysozyme C, tear lipocalin-1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, serotransferrin, lactotransferrin, and exudated serum albumin. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that this chip-based tear protein analysis is a reliable method of instrumental diagnosis in daily clinical activity and may provide supporting evaluation parameters for diagnosing and managing tear-based disorders. PMID:23112568

  3. Quantitative Assays for RAS Pathway Proteins and Phosphorylation States

    Cancer.gov

    In cooperation with the RAS Initiative, the NCI's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) has launched a project to develop quantitative assays for proteins and phosphopeptides involved in RAS signaling. Within the next 1-2 years these assays should allow the amounts and phosphorylation states of tens of RAS and RAS-related proteins to be determined in tumor samples, cell lines, or cancer models in a single run.

  4. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    PubMed

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-01-01

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots. PMID:25062492

  5. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  6. The contribution of genetic and environmental factors to quantitative variability of erythrocyte membrane proteins in primary hypotension.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, V P; Polonikov, A V; Solodilova, M A

    2005-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that, compared with healthy individuals, patients with primary arterial hypotension (PAH) have significant quantitative changes in erythrocyte membrane proteins. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contribution made by genetic and environmental factors to quantitative variation of erythrocyte membrane proteins in PAH. We studied 109 hypotensive patients, 124 normotensive subjects, 222 of their first-degree relatives and 24 twin pairs by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The decomposition of total phenotypic variance of erythrocyte membrane proteins to genetic and environmental components was performed on the basis of correlations among first-degree relatives by the least squares method. The genetic dominance and shared environmental factors were found to influence the variability of cytoskeletal membrane proteins whose contents were changed in PAH. Furthermore, variations in alpha-spectrin, actin and anion exchanger in hypotensives were substantially influenced by major gene and maternal effects. Ankyrin 2.1 and actin content was under the control of common underlying genes. Variations in membrane-associated glutathione-S-transferase and tropomyosin were predominantly affected by polygenes. These findings suggest that the putative major genes with pleiotropic effects appear to be involved in the control of quantitative disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins in primary hypotension. PMID:15638825

  7. Study of extraction procedures for protein analysis in plankton samples by OFFGEL electrophoresis hyphenated with Lab-on-a-chip technology.

    PubMed

    García-Otero, Natalia; Barciela-Alonso, Ma Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2013-10-15

    Extraction procedures for protein analysis from plankton samples were studied. OFFGEL electrophoresis combined with Lab-on-a-chip technology has been applied for protein analysis in plankton samples. BCR-414 (plankton) certified reference material from the European Commission was used to evaluate the protein extraction procedures. Three protein extraction procedures were studied: (1) by using Tris-HCl buffer containing a protease inhibitor cocktail, (2) urea/triton X-100 buffer extraction, and (3) using the phenol/sodium dodecyl sulphate method after different washing steps with 10% trichloroacetic acid/acetone solution and methanol. The pellet of proteins obtained was dried and then dissolved in the OFFGEL buffer. Proteins were separated according to their isoelectric points by OFFGEL electrophoresis. This separation was performed using 24 cm, pH 3-10 IPG Dry Strips. The proteins present in each liquid fraction (24 fractions) were separated according to their molecular weight using a microfluidic Lab-on-a-chip electrophoresis with the Protein 80 LabChip kit. This kit allows for the separation of proteins with a molecular weight ranging from 5 to 80 kDa. Taking into account the intensity and the number of the protein bands obtained, the protein extraction procedure using the phenol/sodium dodecyl sulphate after different wash steps with 10% trichloroacetic acid/acetone solution was selected. The developed method was applied for protein determination in a fresh marine plankton sample. The proteins found in this sample have a molecular weight ranging from 6.4 to 57.3 kDa, and the proteins with highest molecular weight were in the OFFGEL fractions with an isoelectric point ranging from 4.40 to 8.60. The concentration of proteins were calculated using external calibration with Bovine Serum Albumin, and the protein concentrations varied from 50.0 to 925.9 ng µL(-1). PMID:24054642

  8. Molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.; Giri, P.R.; O'Brien, J.O.

    1987-05-01

    A molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). An internally consistent matrix of Nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. The derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (Macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and human-chimpanzee. A cladistic analysis of 240 electrophoretic characters that varied between ape species produced an identical tree. Genetic distance measures obtained by 2DE are largely consistent with those generated by other molecular procedures. In addition, the 2DE data set appears to resolve the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy in favor of a more recent association of chimpanzees and humans.

  9. A molecular phylogeny of the hominoid primates as indicated by two-dimensional protein electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Goldman, D; Giri, P R; O'Brien, S J

    1987-05-01

    A molecular phylogeny for the hominoid primates was constructed by using genetic distances from a survey of 383 radiolabeled fibroblast polypeptides resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). An internally consistent matrix of Nei genetic distances was generated on the basis of variants in electrophoretic position. The derived phylogenetic tree indicated a branching sequence, from oldest to most recent, of cercopithecoids (Macaca fascicularis), gibbon-siamang, orangutan, gorilla, and human-chimpanzee. A cladistic analysis of 240 electrophoretic characters that varied between ape species produced an identical tree. Genetic distance measures obtained by 2DE are largely consistent with those generated by other molecular procedures. In addition, the 2DE data set appears to resolve the human-chimpanzee-gorilla trichotomy in favor of a more recent association of chimpanzees and humans. PMID:3106965

  10. Enhanced protein electrophoresis technique for separating human skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamman, M. M.; Clarke, M. S.; Talmadge, R. J.; Feeback, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Talmadge and Roy (J. Appl. Physiol. 1993, 75, 2337-2340) previously established a sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) protocol for separating all four rat skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx, IIb); however, when applied to human muscle, the type II MHC isoforms (Ila, IIx) are not clearly distinguished. In this brief paper we describe a modification of the SDS-PAGE protocol which yields distinct and consistent separation of all three adult human MHC isoforms (MHC I, IIa, IIx) in a minigel system. MHC specificity of each band was confirmed by Western blot using three monoclonal IgG antibodies (mAbs) immunoreactive against MHCI (mAb MHCs, Novacastra Laboratories), MHCI+IIa (mAb BF-35), and MHCIIa+IIx (mAb SC-71). Results provide a valuable SDS-PAGE minigel technique for separating MHC isoforms in human muscle without the difficult task of casting gradient gels.

  11. Visual integration of quantitative proteomic data, pathways, and protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Jianu, Radu; Yu, Kebing; Cao, Lulu; Nguyen, Vinh; Salomon, Arthur R; Laidlaw, David H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce several novel visualization and interaction paradigms for visual analysis of published protein-protein interaction networks, canonical signaling pathway models, and quantitative proteomic data. We evaluate them anecdotally with domain scientists to demonstrate their ability to accelerate the proteomic analysis process. Our results suggest that structuring protein interaction networks around canonical signaling pathway models, exploring pathways globally and locally at the same time, and driving the analysis primarily by the experimental data, all accelerate the understanding of protein pathways. Concrete proteomic discoveries within T-cells, mast cells, and the insulin signaling pathway validate the findings. The aim of the paper is to introduce novel protein network visualization paradigms and anecdotally assess the opportunity of incorporating them into established proteomic applications. We also make available a prototype implementation of our methods, to be used and evaluated by the proteomic community. PMID:20467059

  12. Stress Responsive Proteins Are Actively Regulated during Rice (Oryza sativa) Embryogenesis as Indicated by Quantitative Proteomics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Jin; Zhang, Jiyuan; Wang, Quanhui; Zhou, Baojin; Zhong, Junyan; Zhang, Chaoliang; Qiu, Xuemei; Wen, Bo; Zhang, Shenyan; Fu, Xiqin; Lin, Liang; Liu, Siqi

    2013-01-01

    Embryogenesis is the initial step in a plant’s life, and the molecular changes that occur during embryonic development are largely unknown. To explore the relevant molecular events, we used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with the shotgun proteomics technique (iTRAQ/Shotgun) to study the proteomic changes of rice embryos during embryogenesis. For the first time, a total of 2 165 unique proteins were identified in rice embryos, and the abundances of 867 proteins were actively changed based on the statistical evaluation of the quantitative MS/MS signals. The quantitative data were then confirmed using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) and were also supported by our previous study based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2 DE). Using the proteome at 6 days after pollination (DAP) as a reference, cluster analysis of these differential proteins throughout rice embryogenesis revealed that 25% were up-regulated and 75% were down-regulated. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis implicated that most of the up-regulated proteins were functionally categorized as stress responsive, mainly including heat shock-, lipid transfer-, and reactive oxygen species-related proteins. The stress-responsive proteins were thus postulated to play an important role during seed maturation. PMID:24058531

  13. Quantitation of carcinogen bound protein adducts by fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Liang-Shang; Otteson, Michael S.; Doxtader, Mark M.; Skipper, Paul L.; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    A highly significant correlation of aflatoxin B 1 serum albumin adduct level with daily aflatoxin B 1 intake was observed in a molecular epidemiological study of aflatoxin carcinogenesis which used conventional fluorescence spectroscopy methods for adduct quantitation. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and laser induced fluorescence techniques have been employed to quantitate antibenzo[ a]pyrene diol epoxide derived globin peptide adducts. Fast and efficient methods to isolate the peptide adducts as well as eliminate protein fluorescence background are described. A detection limit of several femtomoles has been achieved. Experimental and technical considerations of low temperature synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence line narrowing to improve the detection sensitivities are also presented.

  14. New capillary gel electrophoresis method for fast and accurate identification and quantification of multiple viral proteins in influenza vaccines.

    PubMed

    van Tricht, Ewoud; Geurink, Lars; Pajic, Bojana; Nijenhuis, Johan; Backus, Harold; Germano, Marta; Somsen, Govert W; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari E

    2015-11-01

    Current methods for the identification and/or quantification of viral proteins in influenza virus and virosome samples suffer from long analysis times, limited protein coverage and/or low accuracy and precision. We studied and optimized capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) in order to achieve faster and enhanced characterization and quantification of viral proteins. Sample preparation as well the composition of the gel buffer was investigated in order to achieve adequate protein separation in relatively short times. The total sample preparation (reduction and deglycosylation) could be carried out efficiently within two hours. Hydrodynamic injection, separation voltage, and capillary temperature were optimized in full factorial design. The final method was validated and showed good performance for hemagglutinin fragment 1 (HA1), hemagglutinin fragment 2 (HA2), matrix protein (M) and nucleoprotein (NP). The CGE method allowed identification of different virus strains based on their specific protein profile. B/Brisbane inactivated virus and virosome samples could be analyzed within one day. The CGE results (titers) were comparable to single radial immune-diffusion (SRID), but the method has the advantage of a much faster time to results. CGE analysis of A/Christchurch from upstream process demonstrated the applicability of the method to samples of high complexity. The CGE method could be used in the same analyte concentration range as the RP-HPLC method, but showed better precision and accuracy. Overall, the total analysis time for the CGE method was much shorter, allowing analysis of 100 samples in 4 days instead of 10 days for SRID. PMID:26452923

  15. A method for in-gel fluorescent visualization of proteins after native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pristov, Jelena Bogdanovi?; Opa?i?, Miloš; Dimitrijevi?, Milena; Babi?, Nikolina; Spasojevi?, Ivan

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a simple one-step 30-min method for fluorescent visualization of proteins in native and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) gels. The method is based on formation of strong fluorophores via potassium ferricyanide-provoked oxidation of tryptophan (Trp). Following PAGE, gels are soaked in water solution of potassium ferricyanide (100 mM) and NaOH (1 M) and are kept in the dark for 30 min. Gels are then transferred to water and scanned. The sensitivity of the method was slightly lower compared with standard Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining. The method can be useful when rapid acquisition of data is of the essence. After preview, gels can be post-stained using the CBB protocol for further analysis. The intensity of fluorescence is dependent on Trp number, so the protocol might find application in the quantification of Trp residues as illustrated here. Importantly, there is room for improvement of the method. Namely, according to excitation-emission matrix analysis of stained protein bands, maximal fluorescence intensity (at 345/460 nm) was 3.5-fold higher compared with the settings that were available on a commercial imager (395/525 nm). As a supplement, we present an upgrade of the previously described method for in-gel detection of non-heme iron-binding proteins that also employs potassium ferricyanide. PMID:25862081

  16. Immunoreactive Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile proteins separated by 2D electrophoresis and identified by tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Deringer, James R.; Chen, Chen; Samuel, James E.; Brown, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of Q fever in humans. Q fever causes acute flu-like symptoms and may develop into a chronic disease leading to endocarditis. Its potential as a bioweapon has led to its classification as a category B select agent. An effective inactivated whole-cell vaccine (WCV) currently exists but causes severe granulomatous/necrotizing reactions in individuals with prior exposure, and is not licensed for use in most countries. Current efforts to reduce or eliminate the deleterious reactions associated with WCVs have focused on identifying potential subunit vaccine candidates. Both humoral and T cell-mediated responses are required for protection in animal models. In this study, nine novel immunogenic C. burnetii proteins were identified in extracted whole-cell lysates using 2D electrophoresis, immunoblotting with immune guinea pig sera, and tandem MS. The immunogenic C. burnetii proteins elicited antigen-specific IgG in guinea pigs vaccinated with whole-cell killed Nine Mile phase I vaccine, suggesting a T cell-dependent response. Eleven additional proteins previously shown to react with immune human sera were also antigenic in guinea pigs, showing the relevance of the guinea pig immunization model for antigen discovery. The antigens described here warrant further investigation to validate their potential use as subunit vaccine candidates. PMID:21030434

  17. Analytical and micropreparative peptide mapping by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry of proteins purified by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, D.; Covey, T. C.; Winz, R.; Brownsey, R. W.; Aebersold, R.

    1993-01-01

    We report the use of microbore reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography connected on-line to an electrospray mass spectrometer for the separation/detection of peptides derived by proteolytic digestion of proteins separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A small fraction (typically 10% of the total) of the peptides eluting from the column was diverted through a flow-splitting device into the ion source of the mass spectrometer, whereas the majority of the peptide samples was collected for further analyses. We demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining reproducible peptide maps from submicrogram amounts of protein applied to the gel and good correlation of the signal detected by the mass spectrometer with peptide detection by UV absorbance. Furthermore, independently verifiable peptide masses were determined from subpicomole amounts of peptides directed into the mass spectrometer. The method was used to analyze the 265-kDa and the 280-kDa isoforms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase isolated from rat liver. The results provide compelling evidence that the two enzyme isoforms are translation products of different genes and suggest that these approaches may be of general utility in the definitive comparison of protein isoforms. We furthermore illustrate that knowledge of peptide masses as determined by this technique provides a major advantage for error-free data interpretation in chemical high-sensitivity peptide sequence analysis. PMID:8104612

  18. Quantitating protein synthesis, degradation, and endogenous antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Princiotta, Michael F; Finzi, Diana; Qian, Shu-Bing; Gibbs, James; Schuchmann, Sebastian; Buttgereit, Frank; Bennink, Jack R; Yewdell, Jonathan W

    2003-03-01

    Using L929 cells, we quantitated the macroeconomics of protein synthesis and degradation and the microeconomics of producing MHC class I associated peptides from viral translation products. To maintain a content of 2.6 x 10(9) proteins, each cell's 6 x 10(6) ribosomes produce 4 x 10(6) proteins min(-1). Each of the cell's 8 x 10(5) proteasomes degrades 2.5 substrates min(-1), creating one MHC class I-peptide complex for each 500-3000 viral translation products degraded. The efficiency of complex formation is similar in dendritic cells and macrophages, which play a critical role in activating T cells in vivo. Proteasomes create antigenic peptides at different efficiencies from two distinct substrate pools: rapidly degraded newly synthesized proteins that clearly represent defective ribosomal products (DRiPs) and a less rapidly degraded pool in which DRiPs may also predominate. PMID:12648452

  19. Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins

    E-print Network

    Denis S. Goldobin; Alexey Zaikin

    2008-06-16

    We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation rates.

  20. Towards quantitative prediction of proteasomal digestion patterns of proteins

    E-print Network

    Goldobin, Denis S

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the problem of proteasomal degradation of proteins. Though proteasomes are important for all aspects of the cellular metabolism, some details of the physical mechanism of the process remain unknown. We introduce a stochastic model of the proteasomal degradation of proteins, which accounts for the protein translocation and the topology of the positioning of cleavage centers of a proteasome from first principles. For this model we develop the mathematical description based on a master-equation and techniques for reconstruction of the cleavage specificity inherent to proteins and the proteasomal translocation rates, which are a property of the proteasome specie, from mass spectroscopy data on digestion patterns. With these properties determined, one can quantitatively predict digestion patterns for new experimental set-ups. Additionally we design an experimental set-up for a synthetic polypeptide with a periodic sequence of amino acids, which enables especially reliable determination of translocation ...

  1. Deciphering the complexities of the wheat flour proteome using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis, three proteases and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, but it is difficult to distinguish and identify the many proteins in a flour sample. The abundant glutamine and proline rich gluten proteins are responsible for many of the unique end-use qualities of wheat flour but it is challenging to dis...

  2. Deciphering the complexities of the wheat flour proteome using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis, three proteases and tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, in part because of the unique end-use qualities conferred by the abundant glutamine- and proline-rich gluten proteins. Many wheat flour proteins also present dietary problems for consumers with celiac disease or wheat allergies. Despite the importance of these proteins it has been particularly challenging to use MS/MS to distinguish the many proteins in a flour sample and relate them to gene sequences. Results Grain from the extensively characterized spring wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum 'Butte 86' was milled to white flour from which proteins were extracted, then separated and quantified by 2-DE. Protein spots were identified by separate digestions with three proteases, followed by tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the peptides. The spectra were used to interrogate an improved protein sequence database and results were integrated using the Scaffold program. Inclusion of cultivar specific sequences in the database greatly improved the results, and 233 spots were identified, accounting for 93.1% of normalized spot volume. Identified proteins were assigned to 157 wheat sequences, many for proteins unique to wheat and nearly 40% from Butte 86. Alpha-gliadins accounted for 20.4% of flour protein, low molecular weight glutenin subunits 18.0%, high molecular weight glutenin subunits 17.1%, gamma-gliadins 12.2%, omega-gliadins 10.5%, amylase/protease inhibitors 4.1%, triticins 1.6%, serpins 1.6%, purinins 0.9%, farinins 0.8%, beta-amylase 0.5%, globulins 0.4%, other enzymes and factors 1.9%, and all other 3%. Conclusions This is the first successful effort to identify the majority of abundant flour proteins for a single wheat cultivar, relate them to individual gene sequences and estimate their relative levels. Many genes for wheat flour proteins are not expressed, so this study represents further progress in describing the expressed wheat genome. Use of cultivar-specific contigs helped to overcome the difficulties of matching peptides to gene sequences for members of highly similar, rapidly evolving storage protein families. Prospects for simplifying this process for routine analyses are discussed. The ability to measure expression levels for individual flour protein genes complements information gained from efforts to sequence the wheat genome and is essential for studies of effects of environment on gene expression. PMID:21314956

  3. Electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing of whole cell and membrane proteins from the extremely halophilic archaebacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stan-Lotter, Helga; Lang, Frank J., Jr.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1989-01-01

    The subunits from two purified halobacterial membrane enzymes (ATPase and nitrate reductase) behaved differently with respect to isoelectric focusing, silver staining and interaction with ampholytes. Differential behavior was also observed in whole cell proteins from Halobacterium saccharovorum regarding resolution in two-dimensional gels and silver staining. It is proposed that these differences reflect the existence of two classes of halobacterial proteins.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis separation of neutral organic compounds, pharmaceutical drugs, proteins and peptides, enantiomers, and anions

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W.L.

    1999-02-12

    Addition of a novel anionic surfactant, namely lauryl polyoxyethylene sulfate, to an aqueous-acetonitrile electrolyte makes it possible to separate nonionic organic compounds by capillary electrophoresis. Separation is based on differences in the association between analytes and the surfactant. Highly hydrophobic compounds such as polyaromatic hydrocarbons are well separated by this new surfactant. Migration times of analytes can be readily changed over an unusually large range by varying the additive concentration and the proportion of acetonitrile in the electrolyte. Several examples are given, including the separation of four methylbenz[a]anthracene isomers and the separation of normal and deuterated acetophenone. The effect of adding this new surfactant to the acidic electrolyte was also investigated. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in the electrolyte is shown to dynamically coat the capillary and reverse electroosmotic flow. Chiral recognition mechanism is studied using novel synthetic surfactants as chiral selectors, which are made from amino acids reacting with alkyl chloroformates. A satisfactory separation of both inorganic and organic anions is obtained using electrolyte solutions as high as 5 M sodium chloride using direct photometric detection. The effect of various salts on electrophoretic and electroosmotic mobility is further discussed. Several examples are given under high-salt conditions.

  5. Changes in muscle protein composition induced by disuse atrophy - Analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Giometti, C. S.; Riley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Using 320 g rats, a two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of muscle proteins in the soleus and EDL muscles from hindlimbs maintained load-free for 10 days is performed. Statistical analysis of the two-dimensional patterns of control and suspended groups reveals more protein alteration in the soleus muscle, with 25 protein differences, than the EDL muscle, with 9 protein differences, as a result of atrophy. Most of the soleus differences reside in minor components. It is suggested that the EDL may also show alteration in its two-dimensional protein map, even though no significant atrophy occurred in muscle wet weight. It is cautioned that strict interpretation of data must take into account possible endocrine perturbations.

  6. An integrated quantitative proteomics and systems biology approach to explore synaptic protein profile changes during morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Steven D; Devi, Lakshmi A

    2014-01-01

    Morphine is a classic analgesic for the treatment of chronic pain. However, its repeated use is known to produce tolerance, physical dependence, and addiction; these properties limit its long-term therapeutic use and this has led to a quest for therapeutics without these unwanted side effects. Understanding the molecular changes in response to long-term use of morphine is likely to aid in the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of pain. Studies examining the effects of chronic morphine administration have reported alterations in gene expression, synapse morphology, and synaptic transmission implying changes in synaptic protein profile. To fully understand the changes in protein profiles, proteomic techniques have been used. Studies using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of various brain regions combined with mass spectrometry have found alterations in the levels of a number of proteins. However, neither the changes in brain regions relevant to morphine effects nor changes in the abundance of synaptic proteins have been clearly delineated. Recent studies employing subcellular fractionation to isolate the striatal synapse, combined with quantitative proteomics and graph theory-inspired network analyses, have begun to quantify morphine-regulated changes in synaptic proteins and facilitate the generation of networks that could serve as targets for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of chronic pain. Thus, an integrated quantitative proteomics and systems biology approach can be useful to identify novel targets for the treatment of pain and other disorders of the brain. PMID:24045585

  7. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracellular soybean pathogenesis-related proteins using PhastSystem.

    PubMed

    Roggero, P; Pennazio, S

    1990-01-01

    Acidic and basic pathogenesis-related proteins (PR-Ps) were extracted from the intercellular fluid (IF) of soybean leaves, locally infected with tobacco necrosis virus and showing necrotic local lesions. Proteins were detected by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) using PhastSystem and precast commercially available gels. Extracts from healthy leaves were run as controls. PR-Ps were first run under native PAGE conditions or isoelectric focusing (IEF), the gels stained with Coomassie Blue, then run under sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-denaturing conditions and finally stained with silver. Ten major acidic PR-Ps were separated; their Mr's were close to those found by conventional PAGE. Their isoelectric points ranged from 3.5 to 5.0. Ten basic PR-Ps were separated and their Mr's estimated. None of these acidic or basic soybean PR-Ps was a glycoprotein. PAGE with PhastSystem and precast gels gives reliable results, comparable with those from conventional 2D-PAGE, with simpler experimental procedures. By electrophoresing Coomassie-stained gels with SDS in the second dimension, we were able to control the first-dimensional separation and to avoid laborious protocols generally adopted with unstained gels. PMID:2318193

  8. Native Electrophoresis-Coupled Activity Assays Reveal Catalytically-Active Protein Aggregates of Escherichia coli ?-Glucuronidase

    PubMed Central

    Burchett, Gina G.; Folsom, Charles G.; Lane, Kimberly T.

    2015-01-01

    ?-glucuronidase is found as a functional homotetramer in a variety of organisms, including humans and other animals, as well as a number of bacteria. This enzyme is important in these organisms, catalyzing the hydrolytic removal of a glucuronide moiety from substrate molecules. This process serves to break down sugar conjugates in animals and provide sugars for metabolism in bacteria. While ?-glucuronidase is primarily found as a homotetramer, previous studies have indicated that the human form of the protein is also catalytically active as a dimer. Here we present evidence for not only an active dimer of the E. coli form of the protein, but also for several larger active complexes, including an octomer and a 16-mer. Additionally, we propose a model for the structures of these large complexes, based on computationally-derived molecular modeling studies. These structures may have application in the study of human disease, as several diseases have been associated with the aggregation of proteins. PMID:26121040

  9. Quantitative determination of gossypol enantiomers using capillary zone electrophoresis of selected cotton cultivars possess high level of (+)-gossypol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As known, cotton oil-seed meal provides a high quality protein that is a valuable feed product for animal industries. However, its use is limited by the presence of a toxic compound called gossypol. This compound occurs in two enantiomeric forms that are designated as (+)- or (-)-gossypol; these ena...

  10. Studies of proteinograms in dermatophytes by disc electrophoresis. 1. Protein bands in relation to growth phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danev, P.; Friedrich, E.; Balabanov, V.

    1983-01-01

    Homogenates were prepared from various growth phases of Microsporum gypseum grown on different amino acids as the nitrogen source. When analyzed on 7.5% polyacrylamide disc gels, the water-soluble proteins in these homogenates gave essentially identical banding patterns.

  11. Separation of Teff Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter seed proteins by capillary electrophoresis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) is an important food grain in Ethiopia where it is used in the preparation of the tradional flatbread injera. Teff is also used in celiac-safe food products due to its gluten-free status. Limited research has been reported on protein properties of this interesti...

  12. Imaging metals in proteins by combining electrophoresis with rapid x-ray fluorescence mapping.

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, L.; Chishti, Y.; Khare, T.; Giometti, C.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A.; Vogt, S.; Univ. of Sydney; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-01-01

    Growing evidence points toward a very dynamic role for metals in biology. This suggests that physiological circumstance may mandate metal ion redistribution among ligands. This work addresses a critical need for technology that detects, identifies, and measures the metal-containing components of complex biological matrixes. We describe a direct, user-friendly approach for identifying and quantifying metal?protein adducts in complex samples using native- or SDS-PAGE, blotting, and rapid synchrotron X-ray fluorescence mapping with micro-XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) of entire blots. The identification and quantification of each metal bound to a protein spot has been demonstrated, and the technique has been applied in two exemplary cases. In the first, the speciation of the in vitro binding of exogenous chromium to blood serum proteins was influenced markedly by both the oxidation state of chromium exposed to the serum proteins and the treatment conditions, which is of relevance to the biochemistry of Cr dietary supplements. In the second case, in vivo changes in endogenous metal speciation were examined to probe the influence of oxygen depletion on iron speciation in Shewanella oneidensis.

  13. Prediction of Protein-DNA Complex Mobility in Gel-Free Capillary Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Sergey

    , and electroosmotic flow. The model was tested with a streptavidin-dsDNA complex linked through biotin (small molecule converted into DNA, which can then be amplified and sequenced. The examples of such libraries are (i) random. The collected bound molecules are dissociated from the protein and identified by sequencing their DNA (or DNA

  14. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that solute is drawn into the cell from reservoirs at both ends of the cell leading to a large mass build up. As a consequence, any initially induced mass flux will vanish after short times. This effect was not captured by the infinite channel model and hence numerical and experimental results deviated significantly. The revised model including finite cell lengths and reservoir volumes allowed quantitative predictions of the time history of the concentration profile throughout the system. This latter model accurately describes the fluxes observed for both oscillatory flow modes in experiments using single protein species. Based on the results obtained from research funded under NASA grant NAG-8-1080.S, we conclude that binary separations are not possible using purely oscillatory flow modes because of end effects associated with the cos((omega)t) mode. Our research shows, however, that a combination of cos(2(omega)t) and steady flow should lead to efficient separation free of end effects. This possibility is currently under investigation.

  15. Proteins modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channels for the enhanced microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-Jun; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2006-02-24

    This report described proteins modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic chip based on layer-by-layer (LBL) assembly technique for enhancing separation efficiency. Two kinds of protein-coated films were prepared. One was obtained by successively immobilizing the cationic polyelectrolyte (chitosan, Chit), gold nanoparticles (GNPs), and protein (albumin, Albu) to the PDMS microfluidic channels surface. The other was achieved by sequentially coating lysozyme (Lys) and Albu. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, DA; epinephrine, EP) and environmental pollutants (p-phenylenediamine, p-PDA; 4-aminophenol, 4-AP; hydroquinone, HQ) as two groups of separation models were studied to evaluate the effect of the functional PDMS microfluidic chips. The results clearly showed these analytes were efficiently separated within 140 s in a 3.7 cm long separation channel and successfully detected with in-channel amperometric detection mode. Experimental parameters in two protocols were optimized in detail. The detection limits of DA, EP, p-PDA, 4-AP, and HQ were 2.0, 4.7, 8.1, 12.3, and 14.8 microM (S/N=3) on the Chit-GNPs-Albu coated PDMS/PDMS microchip, and 1.2, 2.7, 7.2, 9.8, and 12.2 microM (S/N=3) on the Lys-Albu coated one, respectively. In addition, through modification, the more homogenous channel surface displayed higher reproducibility and better stability. PMID:16387312

  16. Separation of peptide fragments of a protein kinase C substrate fused to a ?-hairpin by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zigoneanu, Imola G; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic peptides incorporating well-folded ?-hairpin peptides possess advantages in a variety of cell biology applications by virtue of increased resistance to proteolytic degradation. In this study, the WKpG ?-hairpin peptide fused to a protein kinase C (PKC) substrate was synthesized, and capillary-electrophoretic separation conditions for this peptide and its proteolytic fragments were developed. Fragments of WKpG-PKC were generated by enzymatic treatment with trypsin and Pronase E to produce standards for identification of degradation fragments in a cellular lysate. A simple buffer system of 250 mM H3PO4, pH 1.5 enabled separation of WKpG-PKC and its fragments by capillary electrophoresis in less than 16 min. Using a cellular lysate produced from Ba/F3 cells, the ?-hairpin-conjugated substrate and its PKC?-phosphorylated product could be detected and separated from peptidase-generated fragments produced in a cell lysate. The method has potential application for identification and quantification of WKpG-PKC and its fragments in complex biological systems when the peptide is used as a reporter to assay PKC activity. PMID:26427499

  17. Application of high-performance capillary electrophoresis to the quantitative analysis of nicotine and profiling of other alkaloids in ATF-regulated tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Lu, G H; Ralapati, S

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco products regulated by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF), are classified at different excise tax rates according to the Code of Federal Regulations. These include the smoking (cigars, cigarettes, pipe tobacco and roll-your-own) and smokeless (chewing tobacco and snuff) tobacco products. The active principal components in all tobacco products belong to a class of compounds known as alkaloids. Nicotine is the major tobacco alkaloid, comprising about 98% of the total alkaloids. It is also the primary determinant of what constitutes a tobacco product from a regulatory standpoint. Nornicotine, anabasine and anatabine constitute the minor tobacco alkaloids of importance and interest to ATF. We have previously shown capillary electrophoresis (CE) to be a powerful analytical tool for monitoring nicotine in ATF-regulated products. Here we have extended those CE studies to (i) quantitate nicotine in ATF-regulated tobacco products and (ii) to characterize these different tobacco products according to their alkaloid profiles. Results from these studies will be presented. PMID:9511858

  18. Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A new high resolution apparatus designed for space was built as a laboratory prototype. Using a moving wall with a low zeta potential coating, the major sources of flow distortion for an electrophoretic sample stream are removed. Highly resolved fractions, however, will only be produced in space because of the sensitivity of this chamber to buoyancy-induced convection in the laboratory. The second and third flights of the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Corporation continuous flow electrophoresis system carried samples developed at MSFC intended to evaluate the broad capabilities of free flow electrophoresis in a reduced gravity environment. Biological model materials, hemoglobin and polystyrene latex microspheres, were selected because of their past use as electrophoresis standards and as visible markers for fluid flow due to electroosmosis, spacecraft acceleration or other factors. The dependence of the separation resolution on the properties of the sample and its suspension solution was assessed.

  19. Clonal selection and in vivo quantitation of protein interactions with protein-fragment complementation assays

    PubMed Central

    Remy, Ingrid; Michnick, Stephen W.

    1999-01-01

    Two strategies are described for detecting constitutive or induced protein–protein interactions in intact mammalian cells; these strategies are based on oligomerization domain-assisted complementation of rationally designed fragments of the murine enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR; EC 1.5.1.3). We describe a dominant clonal-selection assay of stably transfected cells expressing partner proteins FKBP (FK506 binding protein) and FRAP (FKBP–rapamycin binding protein) fused to DHFR fragments and show a rapamycin dose-dependent survival of clones that requires ?25 molecules of reconstituted DHFR per cell. A fluorescence assay also is described, based on stoichiometric binding of fluorescein-methotrexate to reconstituted DHFR in vivo. Formation of the FKBP–rapamycin–FRAP complex is detected in stably and transiently transfected cells. Quantitative rapamycin dose-dependence of this complex is shown to be consistent with in vitro binding and distinguishable from a known constitutive interaction of FKBP and FRAP. We also show that this strategy can be applied to study membrane protein receptors, demonstrating dose-dependent activation of the erythropoietin receptor by ligands. The combination of these clonal-selection and fluorescence assays in intact mammalian cells makes possible selection by simple survival, flow cytometry, or both. High-throughput drug screening and quantitative analysis of induction or disruption of protein–protein interactions are also made possible. PMID:10318894

  20. Measurement of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Activity in Single Cells by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Ryan M.; Bair, Eric; Lawrence, David S.; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    A fluorescent peptide substrate was used to measure dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) in cell lysates, and single cells and to investigate the effect of environmental toxins on PTP activity in these systems. Dephosphorylation of the substrate by PTPN1 and PTPN2 obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with KM values of 770 ± 250 nM and 290 ± 54 nM, respectively. Dose-response curves and IC50 values were determined for the inhibition of these two enzymes by the environmental toxins Zn2+ and 1,2-naphthoquinone, as well as pervanadate. In A431 cell lysates, the reporter was a poor substrate for peptidases (degradation rate of 100 ± 8.2 fmol min?1 mg?1) but an excellent substrate for phosphatases (dephosphorylation rate of 1.4 ± 0.3 nmol min?1 mg?1). Zn2+, 1,2-naphthoquinone and pervanadate inhibited dephosphorylation of the reporter in cell lysates with IC50 values of 470 nM, 35 ?M, and 100 nM, respectively. Dephosphorylation of the reporter following loading into living single cells occurred at rates of at least 2 pmol min?1 mg?1. When single cells were exposed to 1,2-naphthoquinone (50 ?M), Zn2+ (100 ?M), and pervandate (1 mM), dephosphorylation was inhibited with median values and first and third quartile values of 41 (Q1 = 0%, Q3 = 96%), 50 (Q1 = 46%, Q3 = 74%), and 53% (Q1 = 36%, Q3 = 77%), respectively, demonstrating both the impact of these toxic exposures on cell signaling and the heterogeneity of response between cells. This approach will provide a valuable tool for the study of PTP dynamics, particularly in small, heterogeneous populations such as human biopsy specimens. PMID:23682679

  1. Simulating Electrophoresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moertel, Cheryl; Frutiger, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes a DNA fingerprinting simulation that uses vegetable food coloring and plastic food containers instead of DNA and expensive gel electrophoresis chambers. Allows students to decipher unknown combinations of dyes in a method similar to that used to decipher samples of DNA in DNA fingerprint techniques. (JRH)

  2. Differences in alcohol-soluble protein from genetically altered wheat using capillary zone electrophoresis, one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis and a novel gluten matrix association factor analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat protein composition and organization play interrelated roles in determining physical properties for technological purposes. In prior research, a number of isogenic wheat lines of Bobwhite that have high levels of expression of the native Dx5 and/or Dy10 high molecular weight subunits (HMW-GS)...

  3. Pre-labeling of diverse protein samples with a fixed amount of Cy5 for sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerneld, Erik J; Johansson, Johan D; Laurin, Ylva; Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Rönn, Ola; Karlsson, Robert

    2015-09-01

    A pre-labeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester labeling of proteins has been developed for one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. We show that a fixed amount of sulfonated Cy5 can be used in the labeling reaction to label proteins over a broad concentration range-more than three orders of magnitude. The optimal amount of Cy5 was found to be 50 to 250pmol in 20?l using a Tris-HCl labeling buffer at pH 8.7. Labeling protein samples with a fixed amount of dye in this range balances the requirements of sub-nanogram detection sensitivity and low dye-to-protein (D/P) ratios for SDS-PAGE. Simulations of the labeling reaction reproduced experimental observations of both labeling kinetics and D/P ratios. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to examine the labeling of proteins in a cell lysate using both sulfonated and non-sulfonated Cy5. For both types of Cy5, we observed efficient labeling across a broad range of molecular weights and isoelectric points. PMID:25957128

  4. Quantitation of protein–protein interactions by thermal stability shift analysis

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Curtis J; Hellinga, Homme W

    2011-01-01

    Thermal stability shift analysis is a powerful method for examining binding interactions in proteins. We demonstrate that under certain circumstances, protein–protein interactions can be quantitated by monitoring shifts in thermal stability using thermodynamic models and data analysis methods presented in this work. This method relies on the determination of protein stabilities from thermal unfolding experiments using fluorescent dyes such as SYPRO Orange that report on protein denaturation. Data collection is rapid and straightforward using readily available real-time polymerase chain reaction instrumentation. We present an approach for the analysis of the unfolding transitions corresponding to each partner to extract the affinity of the interaction between the proteins. This method does not require the construction of a titration series that brackets the dissociation constant. In thermal shift experiments, protein stability data are obtained at different temperatures according to the affinity- and concentration-dependent shifts in unfolding transition midpoints. Treatment of the temperature dependence of affinity is, therefore, intrinsic to this method and is developed in this study. We used the interaction between maltose-binding protein (MBP) and a thermostable synthetic ankyrin repeat protein (Off7) as an experimental test case because their unfolding transitions overlap minimally. We found that MBP is significantly stabilized by Off7. High experimental throughput is enabled by sample parallelization, and the ability to extract quantitative binding information at a single partner concentration. In a single experiment, we were able to quantify the affinities of a series of alanine mutants, covering a wide range of affinities (? 100 nM to ? 100 ?M). PMID:21674662

  5. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  6. In-Line Separation by Capillary Electrophoresis Prior to Analysis by Top-Down Mass Spectrometry Enables Sensitive Characterization of Protein Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Intact protein analysis via top-down mass spectrometry (MS) provides a bird’s eye view over the protein complexes and complex protein mixtures with the unique capability of characterizing protein variants, splice isoforms, and combinatorial post-translational modifications (PTMs). Here we applied capillary electrophoresis (CE) through a sheathless CE–electrospray ionization interface coupled to an LTQ Velos Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer to analyze the Dam1 complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We achieved a 100-fold increase in sensitivity compared to a reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled MS analysis of recombinant Dam1 complex with a total loading of 2.5 ng (12 amol). N-terminal processing forms of individual subunits of the Dam1 complex were observed as well as their phosphorylation stoichiometry upon Mps1p kinase treatment. PMID:25382489

  7. A replaceable microreactor for on-line protein digestion in a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system with tandem mass spectrometry detection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yihan; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis system that incorporates a replaceable enzymatic microreactor for on-line protein digestion. In this system, trypsin is immobilized on magnetic beads. At the start of each experiment, old beads are flushed to waste and replaced with a fresh plug of beads, which is captured by a pair of magnets at the distal tip of the first capillary. For analysis, proteins are separated in the first capillary. A fraction is then parked in the reactor to create peptides. Digested peptides are periodically transferred to the second capillary for separation; a fresh protein fraction is simultaneously moved to the reactor for digestion. An electrospray interface is used to introduce peptides into a mass spectrometer for analysis. This procedure is repeated for several dozen fractions under computer control. The system was demonstrated by the separation and digestion of insulin chain b oxidized and ?-casein as model proteins. PMID:21030030

  8. On-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate-protein complexes using electrokinetic supercharging method with a prefilled water plug in capillary sieving electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Kang, Mingchao; Liu, Zhen

    2011-09-01

    An electrokinetic supercharging (EKS) method with a prefilled water plug at the head column of capillary was developed for on-line preconcentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes in capillary sieving electrophoresis (CSE). Conventional EKS is a combination of electrokinetic injection with transient isotachophoresis (tr-ITP). The capillary is first filled with background electrolyte, then an appropriate amount of a leading electrolyte is filled and electro-injection is carried out for certain duration. After that, terminating electrolyte is filled, and tr-ITP is subsequently initiated, followed by capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation. In this work, the performance of EKS was evaluated by integrating multiple sub-methods step by step, and a water plug containing polymer was introduced before electrokinetic injection in order to further improve the concentration effect. The positive effects of the sub-methods were verified, including molecular sieving effect of polymer, field enhanced sample injection (FESI) with and without a water plug, and transient isotachophoretic electrophoresis-based FESI. It was observed that analyte discrimination usually encountered in conventional electrokinetic injection was eliminated due to the similar charge to mass ratios of SDS-protein complexes. Based on these results, a hybrid on-line preconcentration method, EKS with injecting a water plug containing polymer before sample electrokinetic injection, was proposed and used to indiscriminately preconcentrate SDS-protein complexes, which provided a sensitivity enhancement factor of more than 1000. It was very suitable for the analysis of low-abundance proteins, providing the information of their molecular mass. PMID:22233073

  9. Identification of differentially expressed proteins between human esophageal immortalized and carcinomatous cell lines by two-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xing-Dong; Xu, Li-Yan; Shen, Zhong-Ying; Cai, Wei-Jia; Luo, Jian-Min; Han, Ya-Li; Li, En-Min

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To identify the differentially expressed proteins between the human immortalized esophageal epithelial cell line (SHEE) and the malignant transformed esophageal carcinoma cell line (SHEEC), and to explore new ways for studying esophageal carcinoma associated genes. METHODS: SHEE and SHEEC cell lines were used to separate differentially expressed proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The silver-stained 2-D gels was scanned with EDAS290 digital camera system and analyzed with the PDQuest 6.2 Software. Six spots in which the differentially expressed protein was more obvious were selected and analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flying mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). RESULTS: There were 107±4.58 and 115±9.91 protein spots observed in SHEE and SHEEC respectively, and the majority of these spots between the two cell lines matched each other (r = 0.772), only a few were expressed differentially. After analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS and database search for the six differentially expressed proteins, One new protein as well as other five sequence-known proteins including RNPEP-like protein, human rRNA gene upstream sequence binding transcription factor, uracil DNA glycosylase, Annexin A2 and p300/CBP-associated factor were preliminarily identified. CONCLUSION: These differentially expressed proteins might play an importance role during malignant transformation of SHEEC from SHEE. The identification of these proteins may serve as a new way for studying esophageal carcinoma associated genes. PMID:12378614

  10. Quantitative Mapping of Protein Structure by Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting-Mediated Structural Mass Spectrometry: A Protection

    E-print Network

    Yang, Sichun

    Article Quantitative Mapping of Protein Structure by Hydroxyl Radical Footprinting, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio ABSTRACT Measurements from hydroxyl radical features of a protein can be comprehensively probed by hydroxyl radical footprinting (HRF) mediated

  11. Rapid method for protein quantitation by Bradford assay after elimination of the interference of polysorbate 80.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongfeng; Wei, Haiming; Sun, Rui; Tian, Zhigang; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-02-01

    Bradford assay is one of the most common methods for measuring protein concentrations. However, some pharmaceutical excipients, such as detergents, interfere with Bradford assay even at low concentrations. Protein precipitation can be used to overcome sample incompatibility with protein quantitation. But the rate of protein recovery caused by acetone precipitation is only about 70%. In this study, we found that sucrose not only could increase the rate of protein recovery after 1 h acetone precipitation, but also did not interfere with Bradford assay. So we developed a method for rapid protein quantitation in protein drugs even if they contained interfering substances. PMID:26545323

  12. Fluorescence detection for gel and capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, B.

    1992-07-21

    First, an indirect fluorescence detection system for the separation of proteins via gel electrophoresis. Quantities as low as 50 nanograms of bovine serum albumin and soybean trypsin inhibitor are separated and detected visually without the need for staining of the analytes. This is very similar to levels of protein commonly separated with gel electrophoresis.

  13. Efficient analysis of egg yolk proteins and their thermal sensitivity using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and nonreducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Guilmineau, Fabien; Krause, Ingolf; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2005-11-30

    The multiple functional properties of egg yolk are mostly influenced by its complex protein composition. The high lipid content of egg yolk as well as the low solubility of delipidated egg yolk lipoproteins make analysis by conventional chromatographic or electrophoretic techniques a difficult task. This work describes a method to profile egg yolk proteins after delipidation with acetone using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on precast 8-18% T polyacrylamide gradient gels. Twenty bands were obtained for the whole egg yolk profile with molecular weights ranging between 5 and 221 kDa. The bands were identified based on their molecular weight and by comparison with isolated egg yolk subfractions. The dissociation behavior under reducing and nonreducing conditions provided additionally helpful information for identification and characterization of the yolk proteins. The method presented is very well suited for assaying the thermal sensitivity of whole yolk and its components and thus for the characterization of heat treatment processes. PMID:16302743

  14. Evaluation of two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry for tissue-specific protein profiling of laser-microdissected plant samples

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, Martina; Lipton, Mary S.; Giavalisco, Patrick; Smith, Richard D.; Kehr, Julia

    2005-07-14

    Laser microdissection (LM) allows the collection of homogeneous tissue- and cell specific plant samples. The employment of this technique with subsequent protein analysis has thus far not been reported for plant tissues, probably due to the difficulties associated with defining a reasonable cellular morphology and, in parallel, allowing efficient protein extraction from tissue samples. The relatively large sample amount needed for successful proteome analysis is an additional issue that complicates protein profiling on a tissue- or even cell-specific level. In contrast to transcript profiling that can be performed from very small sample amounts due to efficient amplification strategies, there is as yet no amplification procedure for proteins available. In the current study, we compared different tissue preparation techniques prior to LM/laser pressure catapulting (LMPC) with respect to their suitability for protein retrieval. Cryosectioning was identified as the best compromise between tissue morphology and effective protein extraction. After collection of vascular bundles from Arabidopsis thaliana stem tissue by LMPC, proteins were extracted and subjected to protein analysis, either by classical two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), or by high-efficiency liquid chromatography (LC) in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Our results demonstrate that both methods can be used with LMPC collected plant material. But because of the significantly lower sample amount required for LC-MS/MS than for 2-DE, the combination of LMPC and LC-MS/MS has a higher potential to promote comprehensive proteome analysis of specific plant tissues.

  15. Identification of the hepatic protein targets of reactive metabolites of acetaminophen in vivo in mice using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y; Benet, L Z; Burlingame, A L

    1998-07-10

    Liver toxicity following an overdose of acetaminophen is frequently considered a model for drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Extensive studies over many years have established that such toxicity is well correlated with liver protein arylation by acetaminophen metabolites. Identification of protein targets for covalent modifications is a challenging but necessary step in understanding how covalent binding could lead to liver toxicity. Previous approaches suffered from technical limitations, and thus over the last 10 years heroic efforts were required to determine the identity of only a few target proteins. We present a new mass spectrometry-based strategy for identification of all target proteins that now provides a comprehensive survey of the suite of liver proteins modified. After administration of radiolabeled acetaminophen to mice, the proteins in the liver tissue lysate were separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In-gel digestion of the radiolabeled gel spots gave a set of tryptic peptides, which were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Interrogation of data bases based on experimentally determined molecular weights of peptides and product ion tags from postsource decay mass spectra was employed for the determination of the identities of modified liver proteins. Using this method, more than 20 new drug-labeled proteins have been identified. PMID:9651401

  16. Quantitative characterization of protein–protein complexes involved in base excision DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Moor, Nina A.; Vasil'eva, Inna A.; Anarbaev, Rashid O.; Antson, Alfred A.; Lavrik, Olga I.

    2015-01-01

    Base Excision Repair (BER) efficiently corrects the most common types of DNA damage in mammalian cells. Step-by-step coordination of BER is facilitated by multiple interactions between enzymes and accessory proteins involved. Here we characterize quantitatively a number of complexes formed by DNA polymerase ? (Pol?), apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 1 (XRCC1) and tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1), using fluorescence- and light scattering-based techniques. Direct physical interactions between the APE1-Pol?, APE1-TDP1, APE1-PARP1 and Pol?-TDP1 pairs have been detected and characterized for the first time. The combined results provide strong evidence that the most stable complex is formed between XRCC1 and Pol?. Model DNA intermediates of BER are shown to induce significant rearrangement of the Pol? complexes with XRCC1 and PARP1, while having no detectable influence on the protein–protein binding affinities. The strength of APE1 interaction with Pol?, XRCC1 and PARP1 is revealed to be modulated by BER intermediates to different extents, depending on the type of DNA damage. The affinity of APE1 for Pol? is higher in the complex with abasic site-containing DNA than after the APE1-catalyzed incision. Our findings advance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying coordination and regulation of the BER process. PMID:26013813

  17. A method for studies on interactions between a gold-based drug and plasma proteins based on capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam T T N; Østergaard, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2015-11-01

    An analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection was developed for studies on the interaction of gold-containing drugs and plasma proteins using auranofin as example. A detection limit of 18 ng/mL of auranofin corresponding to 5.2 ng/mL Au and a precision of 1.5 % were obtained. Kinetic studies of the interaction between auranofin and protein were performed by incubation in aqueous solutions as well as 20 % human plasma at 37 °C. The reaction of auranofin with human serum albumin (HSA) and plasma proceeded fast; 50 % of un-bound auranofin disappeared within 2 and 3 min, respectively. By blocking the free cysteine (Cys-34) by iodoacetamide on HSA, it was shown that Cys-34 was the main reaction site for auranofin. By selective labeling of HSA present in 20 % human plasma with iophenoxate, it was demonstrated that HSA was the major auranofin-interacting protein in plasma. The CE-ICP-MS method is proposed as a novel approach for kinetic studies of the interactions between gold-based drugs and plasma proteins. Graphical Abstract Development of a CE-ICP-MS based method allows for studies on interaction of the gold containing drug auranofin with plasma proteins. PMID:26329282

  18. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures. PMID:25319243

  19. Quantitative studies in effects of additives on protein aggregation

    E-print Network

    Shinde, Chetan (Chetan Ulhas)

    2007-01-01

    Rational design of protein additives has been limited by the understanding of mechanism of protein and additive interaction. In this work we have applied molecular dynamics with all atom potentials in order to study the ...

  20. Two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis for comparative proteomics profiling

    PubMed Central

    Tannu, Nilesh S; Hemby, Scott E

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative proteomics is the workhorse of the modern proteomics initiative. The gel-based and MuDPIT approaches have facilitated vital advances in the measurement of protein expression alterations in normal and disease phenotypic states. The methodological advance in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) has been the multiplexing fluorescent two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). 2D-DIGE is based on direct labeling of lysine groups on proteins with cyanine CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes before isoelectric focusing, enabling the labeling of 2–3 samples with different dyes and electrophoresis of all the samples on the same 2D gel. This capability minimizes spot pattern variability and the number of gels in an experiment while providing simple, accurate and reproducible spot matching. This protocol can be completed in 3–5 weeks depending on the sample size of the experiment and the level of expertise of the investigator. PMID:17487156

  1. Definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture filtrate proteins by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, N-terminal amino acid sequencing, and electrospray mass spectrometry.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenberg, M G; Belisle, J T

    1997-01-01

    A number of the culture filtrate proteins secreted by Mycobacterium tuberculosis are known to contribute to the immunology of tuberculosis and to possess enzymatic activities associated with pathogenicity. However, a complete analysis of the protein composition of this fraction has been lacking. By using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, detailed maps of the culture filtrate proteins of M. tuberculosis H37Rv were generated. In total, 205 protein spots were observed. The coupling of this electrophoretic technique with Western blot analysis allowed the identification and mapping of 32 proteins. Further molecular characterization of abundant proteins within this fraction was achieved by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen proteins were subjected to N-group analysis; of these, only 10 could be sequenced by Edman degradation. Among the most interesting were a novel 52-kDa protein demonstrating significant homology to an alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Eubacterium sp. strain VPI 12708, a 25-kDa protein corresponding to open reading frame 28 of the M. tuberculosis cosmid MTCY1A11, and a 31-kDa protein exhibiting an amino acid sequence identical to that of antigen 85A and 85B. This latter product migrated with an isoelectric point between those of antigen 85A and 85C but did not react with the antibody specific for this complex, suggesting that there is a fourth member of the antigen 85 complex. Novel N-terminal amino acid sequences were obtained for three additional culture filtrate proteins; however, these did not yield significant homology to known protein sequences. A protein cluster of 85 to 88 kDa, recognized by the monoclonal antibodies IT-57 and IT-42 and known to react with sera from a large proportion of tuberculosis patients, was refractory to N-group analysis. Nevertheless, mass spectrometry of peptides obtained from one member of this complex identified it as the M. tuberculosis KatG catalase/peroxidase. Thus, the detailed mapping of M. tuberculosis proteins, combined with state-of-the-art analytical techniques such as mass spectrometry, provides a basis for further analysis and rapid identification of biologically relevant molecules. PMID:9353028

  2. Coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy: Quantitative analysis of protein secondary structure in solution

    E-print Network

    Baiz, Carlos R.

    We present a method to quantitatively determine the secondary structure composition of globular proteins using coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy of backbone amide I vibrations (1550–1720 cm?1). Sixteen ...

  3. Plasma Biomarker Discovery Using 3D Protein Profiling Coupled with Label-Free Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Lynn A.; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Speicher, David W.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth quantitative profiling of human plasma samples for biomarker discovery remains quite challenging. One promising alternative to chemical derivatization with stable isotope labels for quantitative comparisons is direct, label-free, quantitative comparison of raw LC–MS data. But, in order to achieve high-sensitivity detection of low-abundance proteins, plasma proteins must be extensively pre-fractionated, and results from LC–MS runs of all fractions must be integrated efficiently in order to avoid misidentification of variations in fractionation from sample to sample as “apparent” biomarkers. This protocol describes a powerful 3D protein profiling method for comprehensive analysis of human serum or plasma proteomes, which combines abundant protein depletion and high-sensitivity GeLC–MS/MS with label-free quantitation of candidate biomarkers. PMID:21468938

  4. Getting the Most out of Electrophoresis Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    At Oklahoma City Community College, they have developed gel electrophoresis activities that support active learning of many scientific concepts, including: pH, electrolysis, oxidation reduction, electrical currents, potentials, conductivity, molarity, gel electrophoresis, DNA and protein separation, and DNA fingerprinting. This article presents…

  5. Changes in protein expression in maturing equine testis: a quantitative DIGE analysis 

    E-print Network

    Roper-Foo, Pilar

    2011-01-11

    -Foo_Final_Thesis_withappendix-FINAL-VERSION.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 CHANGES IN PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN MATURING EQUINE TESTIS: A QUANTITATIVE DIGE ANALYSIS Major: Genetics April 2009 Submitted to the Office of Undergraduate Research Texas A...&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the designation as UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SCHOLAR A Senior Scholars Thesis by PILAR ROPER-FOO CHANGES IN PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN MATURING EQUINE TESTIS: A QUANTITATIVE DIGE ANALYSIS...

  6. Experimental design applied for the simultaneous analysis of whey proteins and caseins of binary and ternary milk mixtures by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Nogalesa, José M; Revilla, Isabel; Vivar-Quintana, Ana M

    2005-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous separation of caseins, whey proteins, and para-kappa-casein that appears during the manufacture of cheese was optimized using the response surface methodology. The parameters selected for this study were pH, voltage, and temperature. Under the optimized conditions (30 kV at 20 degrees C with 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 3) casein proteins alpha(s)-casein; beta-casein, including genetic variants A1, A2, and B, kappa-CN, and para-kappa-CN; and whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin (A and B variants) were separated. The method was applied successfully to skim milk, to casein precipitated at pH 4.6, and to a model sample containing rennet casein and milk. The milk used was of three types: cow, ewe, and goat. The present procedure can be easily applied to the separation of the major bovine, ovine, and caprine milk proteins in binary and ternary milk mixtures. PMID:16042123

  7. Quantitative proteomics analysis of adsorbed plasma proteins classifies nanoparticles with different surface properties and size

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haizhen; Burnum, Kristin E.; Luna, Maria L.; Petritis, Brianne O.; Kim, Jong Seo; Qian, Weijun; Moore, Ronald J.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Thrall, Brian D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Pounds, Joel G.; Liu, Tao

    2011-12-01

    In biofluids (e.g., blood plasma) nanoparticles are readily embedded in layers of proteins that can affect their biological activity and biocompatibility. Herein, we report a study on the interactions between human plasma proteins and nanoparticles with a controlled systematic variation of properties using stable isotope labeling and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based quantitative proteomics. Novel protocol has been developed to simplify the isolation of nanoparticle bound proteins and improve the reproducibility. Plasma proteins associated with polystyrene nanoparticles with three different surface chemistries and two sizes as well as for four different exposure times (for a total of 24 different samples) were identified and quantified by LC-MS analysis. Quantitative comparison of relative protein abundances were achieved by spiking an 18 O-labeled 'universal reference' into each individually processed unlabeled sample as an internal standard, enabling simultaneous application of both label-free and isotopic labeling quantitation across the sample set. Clustering analysis of the quantitative proteomics data resulted in distinctive pattern that classifies the nanoparticles based on their surface properties and size. In addition, data on the temporal study indicated that the stable protein 'corona' that was isolated for the quantitative analysis appeared to be formed in less than 5 minutes. The comprehensive results obtained herein using quantitative proteomics have potential implications towards predicting nanoparticle biocompatibility.

  8. The effect of sodium tetradecyl sulfate on mobility and antigen detectability of microtubule proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, J L; Steffen, W

    1997-10-01

    Several factors been reported to influence the mobility of polypeptide in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) including the brand of SDS. Using microtubule proteins from axonemes of Lytechinus pictus and Spisula solidissima sperm and meiotic spindles of Spisula solidissima we demonstrate that the change in mobility was caused by sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), a major contaminant of many commercial SDS brands. We also examined the use of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and different SDS brands as a tool in extracting more information from immunoblot studies. Commercial SDS containing contaminants other than sodium tetradecyl sulfate reduced or eliminated the immunosignal from certain polypeptides and the loss of antigenicity could not even be recovered by immunoblot under "renaturing" conditions. It can thus be concluded that STS can be useful in separating and identifying comigrating polypeptides and in detecting additional immunobands in immunoblots. PMID:9420152

  9. Electrophoresis. [in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based techniques for electrophoresis take account of the need either to circumvent the effects of gravity to prevent convection, or to use gravity for fluid stabilization through artificial density gradients. The microgravity environments of orbiting spacecraft provides a new alternative for electrophoresis by avoiding the need for either of these two approaches. The paper presents some theoretical considerations concerning electrophoresis, examines certain experimental techniques (zone and high density gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and isotachophoresis), and examines the electrophoresis of living cells.

  10. A Microfluidic Platform for High-Throughput Multiplexed Protein Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Volpetti, Francesca; Garcia-Cordero, Jose; Maerkl, Sebastian J.

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-throughput microfluidic platform capable of quantitating up to 384 biomarkers in 4 distinct samples by immunoassay. The microfluidic device contains 384 unit cells, which can be individually programmed with pairs of capture and detection antibody. Samples are quantitated in each unit cell by four independent MITOMI detection areas, allowing four samples to be analyzed in parallel for a total of 1,536 assays per device. We show that the device can be pre-assembled and stored for weeks at elevated temperature and we performed proof-of-concept experiments simultaneously quantitating IL-6, IL-1?, TNF-?, PSA, and GFP. Finally, we show that the platform can be used to identify functional antibody combinations by screening 64 antibody combinations requiring up to 384 unique assays per device. PMID:25680117

  11. Diagnosis of multiple myeloma by demonstration of M protein in bone marrow aspirate by agar gel electrophoresis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mehta, K D; Khambu, B; Lakhey, M; Lakhey, S; Baral, N; Majhi, S

    2006-01-01

    A number of laboratory tests are used to confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma, including M protein in the serum. Since M protein in the serum originate from tumour cells in the bone marrow before circulating in the serum, demonstration of M protein in bone marrow aspirate can be added to the batteries of diagnostic parameters. PMID:18603966

  12. How Many proteins are Missed in Quantitative proteomics Based on Ms/Ms sequencing Methods?

    PubMed Central

    Mulvey, Claire; Thur, Bettina; Crawford, Mark; Godovac-Zimmermann, Jasminka

    2014-01-01

    Current bottom-up quantitative proteomics methods based on MS/MS sequencing of peptides are shown to be strongly dependent on sample preparation. Using cytosolic proteins from MCF-7 breast cancer cells, it is shown that protein pre-fractionation based on pI and MW is more effective than pre-fractionation using only MW in increasing the number of observed proteins (947 vs. 704 proteins) and the number of spectral counts per protein. Combination of MS data from the different pre-fractionation methods results in further improvements (1238 proteins). We discuss that at present the main limitation on quantitation by MS/MS sequencing is not MS sensitivity and protein abundance, but rather extensive peptide overlap and limited MS/MS sequencing throughput, and that this favors internally calibrated methods such as SILAC, ICAT or ITRAQ over spectral counting methods in attempts to drastically improve proteome coverage of biological samples. PMID:25729266

  13. Metadata of the chapter that will be visualized online Chapter Title Quantitative Fluorescence Spectral Analysis of Protein Denaturation

    E-print Network

    van Stokkum, Ivo

    Spectral Analysis of Protein Denaturation Copyright Year 2013 Copyright Holder Springer Science measured with different concentrations of the denaturant to quantitatively study protein denaturation by "-") Global analysis - Protein denaturation - Singular value decomposition - Steady-state fluorescence #12

  14. Stage-specific analysis of plasma protein profiles in ovarian cancer: Difference in-gel electrophoresis analysis of pooled clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Mark J.; Shield-Artin, Kristy L.; Oliva, Karen; Ayhan, Mustafa; Reisman, Simone; Rice, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological cancer. Non-specific symptoms early in disease and the lack of specific biomarkers hinder early diagnosis. Multi-marker blood screening tests have shown promise for improving identification of early stage disease; however, available tests lack sensitivity, and specificity. Materials and Methods: In this study, pooled deeply-depleted plasma from women with Stage 1, 2 or 3 ovarian cancer and healthy controls were used to compare the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein profiles and identify potential novel markers of ovarian cancer progression. Results/Discussion: Stage-specific variation in biomarker expression was observed. For example, apolipoprotein A1 expression is relatively low in control and Stage 1, but shows a substantial increase in Stage 2 and 3, thus, potential of utility for disease confirmation rather than early detection. A better marker for early stage disease was tropomyosin 4 (TPM4). The expression of TPM4 increased by 2-fold in Stage 2 before returning to “normal” levels in Stage 3 disease. Multiple isoforms were also identified for some proteins and in some cases, displayed stage-specific expression. An interesting example was fibrinogen alpha, for which 8 isoforms were identified. Four displayed a moderate increase at Stage 1 and a substantial increase for Stages 2 and 3 while the other 4 showed only moderate increases. Conclusion: Herein is provided an improved summary of blood protein profiles for women with ovarian cancer stratified by stage. PMID:23858298

  15. Global Subcellular Characterization of Protein Degradation Using Quantitative Proteomics*S

    E-print Network

    Lamond, Angus I.

    Global Subcellular Characterization of Protein Degradation Using Quantitative Proteomics*S Mark. Bioinformatic anal- ysis of the entire data set is presented in the Encyclo- pedia of Proteome Dynamics, a web Proteomics 12: 10.1074/mcp.M112.024547, 638­650, 2013. Targeted protein degradation is an important

  16. QUANTITATIVE DOT-IMMUNOBINDING ASSAY FOR PROTEINS USING NITROCELLULOSE MEMBRANE FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoassay method is described for the quantitative determination of synapsin I (protein I) and of a 36,000-dalton membrane protein from rat brain synaptic vesicles. The samples are spotted on nitrocellulose membrane filters, incubated sequentially with specific antibodies an...

  17. One step physically adsorbed coating of silica capillary with excellent stability for the separation of basic proteins by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Hong; Zhang, Hua-Shan

    2015-11-01

    The coating of capillary inner surface is considered to be an effective approach to suppress the adsorption of proteins on capillary inner surface in CE. However, most of coating materials reported are water-soluble, which may dissolve in BGE during the procedure of electrophoresis. In this study, a novel strategy for selection of physically coating materials has been illustrated to get coating layer with excellent stability using materials having poor solubility in commonly used solvents. Taking natural chitin as example (not hydrolyzed water soluble chitosan), a simple one step coating method using chitin solution in hexafluoroisopropanol was adopted within only 21min with good coating reproducibility (RSDs of EOF for within-batch coated capillaries of 1.55% and between-batch coated capillaries of 2.31%), and a separation of four basic proteins on a chitin coated capillary was performed to evaluate the coating efficacy. Using chitin coating, the adsorption of proteins on capillary inner surface was successfully suppressed with reversed and stable EOF, and four basic proteins including lysozyme, cytochrome c, ribonuclease A and ?-chymotrypsinogen A were baseline separated within 16min with satisfied separation efficiency using 20mMpH 2.0 H3PO4-Na2HPO4 as back ground electrolyte and 20kV as separation voltage. What is more important, the chitin coating layer could be stable for more than two months during this study, which demonstrates that chitin is an ideal material for preparing semi-permanent coating on bare fused silica capillary inner wall and has hopeful potential in routine separation of proteins with CE. PMID:26452799

  18. Identifying specific protein interaction partners using quantitative mass spectrometry and bead proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Boulon, Séverine; Lam, Yun Wah; Urcia, Roby; Boisvert, François-Michel; Vandermoere, Franck; Morrice, Nick A.; Swift, Sam; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Lamond, Angus

    2008-01-01

    The identification of interaction partners in protein complexes is a major goal in cell biology. Here we present a reliable affinity purification strategy to identify specific interactors that combines quantitative SILAC-based mass spectrometry with characterization of common contaminants binding to affinity matrices (bead proteomes). This strategy can be applied to affinity purification of either tagged fusion protein complexes or endogenous protein complexes, illustrated here using the well-characterized SMN complex as a model. GFP is used as the tag of choice because it shows minimal nonspecific binding to mammalian cell proteins, can be quantitatively depleted from cell extracts, and allows the integration of biochemical protein interaction data with in vivo measurements using fluorescence microscopy. Proteins binding nonspecifically to the most commonly used affinity matrices were determined using quantitative mass spectrometry, revealing important differences that affect experimental design. These data provide a specificity filter to distinguish specific protein binding partners in both quantitative and nonquantitative pull-down and immunoprecipitation experiments. PMID:18936248

  19. Quantitative assessment of RNA-protein interactions with high-throughput sequencing-RNA affinity profiling.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Abdullah; Tome, Jacob M; Friedman, Robin C; Gheba, Dan; Schroth, Gary P; Lis, John T

    2015-08-01

    Because RNA-protein interactions have a central role in a wide array of biological processes, methods that enable a quantitative assessment of these interactions in a high-throughput manner are in great demand. Recently, we developed the high-throughput sequencing-RNA affinity profiling (HiTS-RAP) assay that couples sequencing on an Illumina GAIIx genome analyzer with the quantitative assessment of protein-RNA interactions. This assay is able to analyze interactions between one or possibly several proteins with millions of different RNAs in a single experiment. We have successfully used HiTS-RAP to analyze interactions of the EGFP and negative elongation factor subunit E (NELF-E) proteins with their corresponding canonical and mutant RNA aptamers. Here we provide a detailed protocol for HiTS-RAP that can be completed in about a month (8 d hands-on time). This includes the preparation and testing of recombinant proteins and DNA templates, clustering DNA templates on a flowcell, HiTS and protein binding with a GAIIx instrument, and finally data analysis. We also highlight aspects of HiTS-RAP that can be further improved and points of comparison between HiTS-RAP and two other recently developed methods, quantitative analysis of RNA on a massively parallel array (RNA-MaP) and RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS), for quantitative analysis of RNA-protein interactions. PMID:26182240

  20. Coupled Microscale Electrophoresis and Electrochemistry: A Versatile Platform for Label-free Detection, Manufacture of Encapsulated Microbubbles and Protein Crystallization 

    E-print Network

    Huang, Yu-Wen

    2013-12-12

    (encapsulated microbubble synthesis, protein crystallization), and tried to get the diagnostics method out of the laboratory by using pervasive smartphone optics. First, we used DNA as a probe to build up a label-free detection system with microfabricated...

  1. A rapid method of species identification of wild chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) via electrophoresis of hemoglobin proteins in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel (SDS-PAGE).

    PubMed

    Oh, J T; Epler, J H; Bentivegna, C S

    2014-10-01

    Studying aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates (BMIs) in the field requires accurate taxonomic identification, which can be difficult and time consuming. Conventionally, head capsule morphology has been used to identify wild larvae of Chironomidae. However, due to the number of species and possible damage and/or deformity of their head capsules, another supporting approach for identification is needed. Here, we provide hemoglobin (Hb) protein in hemolymph of chironomids as a new biomarker that may help resolve some of the ambiguities and difficulties encountered during taxonomic identification. Chironomids collected from two locations in Maine and New Jersey, USA were identified to the genus level and in some cases to the species-level using head capsule and body morphologies. The head capsule for a particular individual was then associated with a corresponding Hb protein profile generated from sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Distinct Hb profiles were observed from one group (Thienemannimyia) and four genera (Chironomus, Cricotopus, Dicrotendipes, and Glyptotendipes) of chironomids. Several species were polymorphic, having more than one Hb profile and/or having bands of the same size as those of other species. However, major bands and the combination of bands could distinguish individuals at the genus and sometimes species-level. Overall, this study showed that Hb profiles can be used in combination with head capsule morphology to identify wild chironomids. PMID:24923437

  2. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  3. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  4. An Economical Electrophoresis Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the production of an electrophoresis apparatus from commonly discarded articles. Outlines paper and gel electrophoresis and its application to the separation of amino acids and intestinal enzymes. (GS)

  5. Application of a nitrocellulose immunoassay for quantitation of proteins secreted in cultured media

    SciTech Connect

    LaDuca, F.M.; Dang, C.V.; Bell, W.R.

    1986-11-01

    A macro-dot immunoassay was developed to quantitate proteins (antigens) secreted in the culture media of primary rat hepatocytes. Dilutions of protein standards and undiluted spent culture media were applied to numbered sheets of nitrocellulose (NC) paper by vacuum filtration (in volumes up to 1 ml) through a specially designed macrofiltration apparatus constructed of plexiglas. Sequential incubation of the NC with bovine serum albumin blocking buffer, monospecific antibody, and /sup 125/I Protein A enabled quantitation of protein concentration by determination of NC bound radioactivity. Linear and reproducible standard curves were obtained with fibrinogen, albumin, transferrin, and haptoglobin. A high degree of coefficient of correlation between radioactivity (cmp) and protein concentration was found. Intra- and inter-test reproducibility was excellent. By using monospecific antibodies, single proteins (i.e., fibrinogen), as low as 32 ng/ml, could be quantified in heterogeneous protein mixtures and in spent culture media. The assay was sensitive to the difference of fibrinogen secretion under nonstimulatory (serum-free hormonally define medium, SFHD) and stimulatory (SFHD plus hydrocortisone) culture conditions. The procedure and techniques described are applicable to the quantitation of any protein in a suitable buffer.

  6. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  7. Secondary Reactions and Strategies to Improve Quantitative Protein Footprinting

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,G.; Kiselar, J.; He, Q.; Chance, M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyl radical-mediated footprinting permits detailed examination of structure and dynamic processes of proteins and large biological assemblies, as changes in the rate of reaction of radicals with target peptides are governed by changes in the solvent accessibility of the side-chain probe residues. The precise and accurate determination of peptide reaction rates is essential to successfully probing protein structure using footprinting. In this study, we specifically examine the magnitude and mechanisms of secondary oxidation occurring after radiolytic exposure and prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Secondary oxidation results from hydrogen peroxide and other oxidative species generated during radiolysis, significantly impacting the oxidation of Met and Cys but not aromatic or other reactive residues. Secondary oxidation of Met with formation of sulfoxide degrades data reproducibility and inflates the perceived solvent accessibility of Met-containing peptides. It can be suppressed by adding trace amounts of catalase or millimolar Met-NH{sub 2} (or Met-OH) buffer immediately after irradiation; this leads to greatly improved adherence to first-order kinetics and more precise observed oxidation rates. The strategy is shown to suppress secondary oxidation in model peptides and improve data quality in examining the reactivity of peptides within the Arp2/3 protein complex. Cysteine is also subject to secondary oxidation generating disulfide as the principal product. The disulfides can be reduced before mass spectrometric analysis by reducing agents such as TCEP, while methionine sulfoxide is refractory to reduction by this reagent under typical reducing conditions.

  8. Application of PhastSystem to the resolution of bovine milk proteins on urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Thompson, M P

    1992-05-01

    Optimal conditions were established for alkaline urea-PAGE using modified precast, ultrathin gradient gels on the automated PhastSystem. Profiles of milk proteins showed that the caseins and whey proteins resolved extremely well. Major bands were observed for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein, and alpha s2-casein appeared as a well-resolved doublet. In contrast, kappa-casein separated from other caseins as a faint doublet, and purified kappa-casein appeared as one major and one minor band. Whey proteins (serum albumin, alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin) separated into broad bands resolved from each other and from the caseins. Partially (40%) dephosphorylated whole casein showed multiple bands for alpha s1-casein and beta-casein at different levels of phosphorylation. Separation of genetic phenotypes was observed for beta-lactoglobulin A and B; alpha s1-casein A, B, and C; and beta-casein A, B, and C. Electrophoretic patterns of milk proteins extracted from cheese samples varied among the different types of cheeses. Our modified procedure provides researchers with a rapid technique to separate both caseins and whey proteins on the same urea gel according to their charge to mass ratios. PMID:1597574

  9. Quantitative Analysis of Surface Plasma Membrane Proteins of Primary and Metastatic Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Haibo; Wang, Yinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane proteins play critical roles in cell-to-cell recognition, signal transduction and material transport. Because of their accessibility, membrane proteins constitute the major targets for protein-based drugs. Here, we described an approach, which included stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), cell surface biotinylation, affinity peptide purification and LC-MS/MS for the identification and quantification of cell surface membrane proteins. We applied the strategy for the quantitative analysis of membrane proteins expressed by a pair of human melanoma cell lines, WM-115 and WM-266-4, which were derived initially from the primary and metastatic tumor sites of the same individual. We were able to identify more than 100 membrane and membrane-associated proteins from these two cell lines, including cell surface histones. We further confirmed the surface localization of histone H2B and three other proteins by immunocytochemical analysis with confocal microscopy. The contamination from cytoplasmic and other nonmembrane-related sources is greatly reduced by using cell surface biotinylation and affinity purification of biotinylated peptides. We also quantified the relative expression of 62 identified proteins in the two types of melanoma cells. The application to quantitative analysis of membrane proteins of primary and metastatic melanoma cells revealed great potential of the method in the comprehensive identification of tumor progression markers as well as in the discovery of new protein-based therapeutic targets. PMID:18410138

  10. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  11. Laboratory and field validation of a Cry1Ab protein quantitation method for water.

    PubMed

    Strain, Katherine E; Whiting, Sara A; Lydy, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    The widespread planting of crops expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has given rise to concerns regarding potential exposure to non-target species. These proteins are released from the plant throughout the growing season into soil and surface runoff and may enter adjacent waterways as runoff, erosion, aerial deposition of particulates, or plant debris. It is crucial to be able to accurately quantify Bt protein concentrations in the environment to aid in risk analyses and decision making. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used for quantitation of Bt proteins in the environment; however, there are no published methods detailing and validating the extraction and quantitation of Bt proteins in water. The objective of the current study was to optimize the extraction of a Bt protein, Cry1Ab, from three water matrices and validate the ELISA method for specificity, precision, accuracy, stability, and sensitivity. Recovery of the Cry1Ab protein was matrix-dependent and ranged from 40 to 88% in the validated matrices, with an overall method detection limit of 2.1 ng/L. Precision among two plates and within a single plate was confirmed with a coefficient of variation less than 20%. The ELISA method was verified in field and laboratory samples, demonstrating the utility of the validated method. The implementation of a validated extraction and quantitation protocol adds consistency and reliability to field-collected data regarding transgenic products. PMID:25059137

  12. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and their relationship with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Sarsaifi, Kazhal; Haron, Abd Wahid; Vejayan, Jaya; Yusoff, Rosnina; Hani, Homayoun; Omar, Mohamed Ariff; Hong, Lai Wei; Yimer, Nurhusien; Ju, Tan Ying; Othman, Abas-Mazni

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the relationship between Bali bull (Bos javanicus) seminal plasma proteins and different semen quality parameters. Semen samples from 10 mature Bali bulls were evaluated for conventional semen parameters (general motility, viability, and normal morphology), sperm functionality (acrosome reaction, sperm penetration rate, sperm penetration index), sperm kinetics (computer-assisted semen analysis parameters such as sperm velocity), and sperm morphology (acrosome and membrane integrity). Frozen-thawed semen with higher sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, and membrane integrity (P < 0.05) are consistently higher in acrosome reaction and sperm penetration assay. Three bulls showed the highest, four bulls displayed the medium, and the remaining three bulls showed the lowest for all sperm parameters and SPA. The proteome maps of seminal plasma from high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls were also established. Seminal plasma of both high-quality and low-quality Bali bulls was subjected to two-dimensional SDS-PAGE with isoelectric point ranged from 3 to 10 and molecular weight from 10 to 250 kDa. Approximately 116 spots were detected with Blue Silver stain, and of these spots, 29 were selected and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. A majority of the proteins visualized in the seminal plasma two-dimensional maps was successfully identified. An essential group of the identified spots represented binder of sperm 1 (BSP1), clusterin, spermadhesin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2), and phospholipase A2 (PLA2). Other proteins found in high abundance included seminal ribonuclease, serum albumin, cationic trypsin, and peptide similar to ?2 microglobulin. Thus, a reference map of Bali bull seminal plasma proteins has been generated for the very first time and can be used to relate protein pattern changes to physiopathologic events that may influence Bali bull reproductive performance. PMID:26119476

  13. Using quantitative proteomics of Arabidopsis roots and leaves to predict metabolic activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins isolated from developing roots and leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. The resulting 2-D proteome maps are markedly different. Quantitative analysis of root and leaf protein spot pairs revealed that in most instances ther...

  14. Isotope Coded Protein Labeling Coupled Immunoprecipitation (ICPL-IP): A Novel Approach for Quantitative Protein Complex Analysis From Native Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Andreas; Fuerholzner, Bettina; Kinkl, Norbert; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius

    2013-01-01

    High confidence definition of protein interactions is an important objective toward the understanding of biological systems. Isotope labeling in combination with affinity-based isolation of protein complexes has increased in accuracy and reproducibility, yet, larger organisms—including humans—are hardly accessible to metabolic labeling and thus, a major limitation has been its restriction to small animals, cell lines, and yeast. As composition as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes can significantly differ in primary tissues, there is a great demand for methods capable to combine the selectivity of affinity-based isolation as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of isotope-based labeling with its application toward analysis of protein interactions from intact tissue. Toward this goal, we combined isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL)1 with immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). ICPL-IP allows sensitive and accurate analysis of protein interactions from primary tissue. We applied ICPL-IP to immuno-isolate protein complexes from bovine retinal tissue. Protein complexes of immunoprecipitated ?-tubulin, a highly abundant protein with known interactors as well as the lowly expressed small GTPase RhoA were analyzed. The results of both analyses demonstrate sensitive and selective identification of known as well as new protein interactions by our method. PMID:23268931

  15. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, Roger N.; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E.; Price, Julie C.

    2015-11-01

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts, partial volume effects, age effects, image registration and normalization, input functions and metabolites, parametric imaging, receptor internalization and genetic factors.

  16. Quantitative imaging of protein targets in the human brain with PET.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Roger N; Slifstein, Mark; Searle, Graham E; Price, Julie C

    2015-11-21

    PET imaging of proteins in the human brain with high affinity radiolabelled molecules has a history stretching back over 30 years. During this period the portfolio of protein targets that can be imaged has increased significantly through successes in radioligand discovery and development. This portfolio now spans six major categories of proteins; G-protein coupled receptors, membrane transporters, ligand gated ion channels, enzymes, misfolded proteins and tryptophan-rich sensory proteins. In parallel to these achievements in radiochemical sciences there have also been significant advances in the quantitative analysis and interpretation of the imaging data including the development of methods for image registration, image segmentation, tracer compartmental modeling, reference tissue kinetic analysis and partial volume correction. In this review, we analyze the activity of the field around each of the protein targets in order to give a perspective on the historical focus and the possible future trajectory of the field. The important neurobiology and pharmacology is introduced for each of the six protein classes and we present established radioligands for each that have successfully transitioned to quantitative imaging in humans. We present a standard quantitative analysis workflow for these radioligands which takes the dynamic PET data, associated blood and anatomical MRI data as the inputs to a series of image processing and bio-mathematical modeling steps before outputting the outcome measure of interest on either a regional or parametric image basis. The quantitative outcome measures are then used in a range of different imaging studies including tracer discovery and development studies, cross sectional studies, classification studies, intervention studies and longitudinal studies. Finally we consider some of the confounds, challenges and subtleties that arise in practice when trying to quantify and interpret PET neuroimaging data including motion artifacts, partial volume effects, age effects, image registration and normalization, input functions and metabolites, parametric imaging, receptor internalization and genetic factors. PMID:26513176

  17. Quantitation of dopamine, serotonin and adenosine content in a tissue punch from a brain slice using capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Huaifang; Pajski, Megan L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

    2013-01-01

    Methods to determine neurochemical concentrations in small samples of tissue are needed to map interactions among neurotransmitters. In particular, correlating physiological measurements of neurotransmitter release and the tissue content in a small region would be valuable. HPLC is the standard method for tissue content analysis but it requires microliter samples and the detector often varies by the class of compound being quantified; thus detecting molecules from different classes can be difficult. In this paper, we develop capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection (CE-FSCV) for analysis of dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content in tissue punches from rat brain slices. Using field-amplified sample stacking, the limit of detection was 5 nM for dopamine, 10 nM for serotonin, and 50 nM for adenosine. Neurotransmitters could be measured from a tissue punch as small as 7 µg (7 nL) of tissue, three orders of magnitude smaller than a typical HPLC sample. Tissue content analysis of punches in successive slices through the striatum revealed higher dopamine but lower adenosine content in the anterior striatum. Stimulated dopamine release was measured in a brain slice, then a tissue punch collected from the recording region. Dopamine content and release had a correlation coefficient of 0.71, which indicates much of the variance in stimulated release is due to variance in tissue content. CE-FSCV should facilitate measurements of tissue content in nanoliter samples, leading to a better understanding of how diseases or drugs affect dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content. PMID:23795210

  18. Quantitative Laser Diffraction Method for the Assessment of Protein Subvisible Particles

    PubMed Central

    Totoki, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Gaku; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2015-01-01

    Laser diffraction (LD) has been recognized as a method for estimating particle size distribution. Here, a recently developed quantitative LD (qLD) system, which is an LD method with extensive deconvolution analysis, was employed for the quantitative assessment of protein particles sizes, especially aimed at the quantification of 0.2–10 ?m diameter subvisible particles (SVPs). The qLD accurately estimated concentration distributions for silica beads with diameters ranging from 0.2 to 10 ?m that have refractive indices similar to that of protein particles. The linearity of concentration for micrometer-diameter silica beads was confirmed in the presence of a fixed concentration of submicrometer diameter beads. Similarly, submicrometer-diameter silica beads could be quantified in the presence of micrometer-diameter beads. Subsequently, stir- and heat-stressed intravenous immunoglobulins were evaluated by using the qLD, in which the refractive index of protein particles that was determined experimentally was used in the deconvolution analysis. The results showed that the concentration distributions of protein particles in SVP size range differ for the two stresses. The number concentration of the protein particles estimated using the qLD agreed well with that obtained using flow microscopy. This work demonstrates that qLD can be used for quantitative estimation of protein aggregates in SVP size range. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:618–626, 2015 PMID:25449441

  19. Identification of proteins associated with Aha1 in HeLa cells by quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Hartson, Steven D; Matts, Robert L

    2015-05-01

    The identification of the activator of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) ATPase's (Aha1) protein-protein interaction (PPI) network will provide critical insights into the relationship of Aha1 with multi-molecular complexes and shed light onto Aha1's interconnections with Hsp90-regulated biological functions. Flag-tagged Aha1 was over-expressed in HeLa cells and isolated by anti-Flag affinity pull downs, followed by trypsin digestion and identification co-adsorbing proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). A probability-based identification of Aha1 PPIs was generated from the LC-MS/MS analysis by using a relative quantification strategy, spectral counting (SC). By comparing the SC-based protein levels between Aha1 pull-down samples and negative controls, 164 Aha1-interacting proteins were identified that were quantitatively enriched in the pull-down samples over the controls. The identified Aha1-interacting proteins are involved in a wide number of intracellular bioprocesses, including DNA maintenance, chromatin structure, RNA processing, translation, nucleocytoplasmic and vesicle transport, among others. The interactions of 33 of the identified proteins with Aha1 were further confirmed by Western blotting, demonstrating the reliability of our affinity-purification-coupled quantitative SC-MS strategy. Our proteomic data suggests that Aha1 may participate in diverse biological pathways to facilitate Hsp90 chaperone functions in response to stress. PMID:25614414

  20. Qualitative and Quantitative Protein Complex Prediction Through Proteome-Wide Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Rizzetto, Simone; Priami, Corrado; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent progress in proteomics most protein complexes are still unknown. Identification of these complexes will help us understand cellular regulatory mechanisms and support development of new drugs. Therefore it is really important to establish detailed information about the composition and the abundance of protein complexes but existing algorithms can only give qualitative predictions. Herein, we propose a new approach based on stochastic simulations of protein complex formation that integrates multi-source data—such as protein abundances, domain-domain interactions and functional annotations—to predict alternative forms of protein complexes together with their abundances. This method, called SiComPre (Simulation based Complex Prediction), achieves better qualitative prediction of yeast and human protein complexes than existing methods and is the first to predict protein complex abundances. Furthermore, we show that SiComPre can be used to predict complexome changes upon drug treatment with the example of bortezomib. SiComPre is the first method to produce quantitative predictions on the abundance of molecular complexes while performing the best qualitative predictions. With new data on tissue specific protein complexes becoming available SiComPre will be able to predict qualitative and quantitative differences in the complexome in various tissue types and under various conditions. PMID:26492574

  1. Investigation of malignant hyperthermia: analysis of skeletal muscle proteins from normal and halothane sensitive pigs by two dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Lorkin, P A; Lehmann, H

    1983-01-01

    Two dimensional gel analysis of skeletal muscles from normal pigs and from pigs which were homozygous for halothane sensitivity showed no obvious differences in the patterns of spots attributed to the major contractile proteins and glycolytic enzymes. In muscle from a sensitive pig which died of heat shock under anaesthesia there was a selective loss of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and aldolase, presumably owing to proteolytic activity. The progressive loss of these enzymes under anaesthesia could contribute to the mechanism of heat production by diverting fructose 1,6 diphosphate into a futile cycle. PMID:6842531

  2. Capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for quantitative parallel reaction monitoring of peptide abundance and single-shot proteomic analysis of a human cell line.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Mou, Si; Zhao, Yimeng; Champion, Matthew M; Dovichi, Norman J

    2014-09-12

    We coupled capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with an ultrasensitive electrokinetically pumped nanospray ionization source for tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis of complex proteomes. We first used the system for the parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) analysis of angiotensin II spiked in 0.45mg/mL of bovine serum albumin (BSA) digest. A calibration curve was generated between the loading amount of angiotensin II and intensity of angiotensin II fragment ions. CZE-PRM generated a linear calibration curve across over 4.5 orders of magnitude dynamic range corresponding to angiotensin II loading amount from 2amole to 150fmole. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of migration time were <4% and the RSDs of fragment ion intensity were ?20% or less except 150fmole angiotensin II loading amount data (?36% RSD). We further applied the system for the first bottom up proteomic analysis of a human cell line using CZE-MS/MS. We generated 283 protein identifications from a 1h long, single-shot CZE MS/MS analysis of the MCF7 breast cancer cell line digest, corresponding to ?80ng loading amount. The MCF7 digest was fractionated using a C18 solid phase extraction column; single-shot analysis of a single fraction resulted in 468 protein identifications, which is by far the largest number of protein identifications reported for a mammalian proteomic sample using CZE. PMID:25082526

  3. ITRAQ BASED PROTEIN QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE CELL WALL PROTEOME OF PATHOGEN-INFECTED TOMATO LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this work is to use an iTRAQ-based shotgun approach to identify qualitative and quantitative changes in the extracellular proteome, or secretome, of tomato leaves following infection with the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Proteins that are secreted by plants and microbes int...

  4. Microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis for the discovery and characterisation of calmodulin binding partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herling, Therese; Linse, Sara; Knowles, Tuomas

    2015-03-01

    Non-covalent and transient protein-ligand interactions are integral to cellular function and malfunction. Key steps in signalling and regulatory pathways rely on reversible non-covalent protein-protein binding or ion chelation. Here we present a microfluidic free-flow electrophoresis method for detecting and characterising protein-ligand interactions in solution. We apply this method to probe the binding equilibria of calmodulin, a central protein to calcium signalling pathways. In this study we characterise the specific binding of calmodulin to phosphorylase kinase, a known target, and creatine kinase, which we identify as a putative binding partner through a protein array screen and surface plasmon resonance experiments. We verify the interaction between calmodulin and creatine kinase in solution using free-flow electrophoresis and investigate the effect of calcium and sodium chloride on the calmodulin-ligand binding affinity in free solution without the presence of a potentially interfering surface. Our results demonstrate the general applicability of quantitative microfluidic electrophoresis to characterise binding equilibria between biomolecules in solution.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection applied to the quantitation and to the determination of physical-chemical properties of peroxycarboxylates in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Denis T R; do Lago, Claudimir L

    2013-07-01

    CE with C?D (CE-C?D) was successfully applied to the investigation of performate, peracetate, and perpropionate in aqueous medium. Ionic mobilities, diffusion coefficients, and hydrodynamic radii were obtained for the first time for these species. CE-C?D was also used to estimate the pKa values of the peroxycarboxylic acids. Because the peroxycarboxylates (POCs) undergoes hydrolysis while migrating, a simple calibration curve cannot be used for quantitation. Thus, an indirect calibration approach was used. The new method was used to monitor the formation of peroxycarboxylic acids from hydrogen peroxide and the carboxylic acid as well as to the quantitation of peracetic acid in a commercial sample. The CE-C?D method compares favorably with the conventional titration method because of the possibility of speciation of the POC, the low sample consumption, and the low LOD (14, 8, and 24 ?mol/L for performate, peracetate, and perpropionate, respectively). Although POCs are structural isomers of monoalkyl carbonates, they have greater hydrodynamic radii, which suggests that the positions of the oxygen atoms in the molecules have a direct impact in the charge density and consequently on the hydration atmosphere. PMID:23595363

  6. Quantitative proteomics reveals differential regulation of protein expression in recipient myocardium after trilineage cardiovascular cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ying-Hua; Ye, Lei; Cai, Wenxuan; Lee, Yoonkyu; Guner, Huseyin; Lee, Youngsook; Kamp, Timothy J.; Zhang, Jianyi; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Intramyocardial transplantation of cardiomyocytes (CMs), endothelial cells (ECs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has beneficial effects on the post-infarction heart. However, the mechanisms underlying the functional improvements remain undefined. We employed large-scale label-free quantitative proteomics to identify proteins that were differentially regulated following cellular transplantation in a swine model of myocardial infarction (MI). We identified 22 proteins that were significantly up-regulated after trilineage cell transplantation compared to both MI and Sham groups. Among them, 12 proteins, including adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 and tropomodulin-1, are associated with positive regulation of muscular contraction whereas 11 proteins, such as desmoplakin and zyxin, are involved in embryonic and muscular development and regeneration. Moreover, we identified 21 proteins up-regulated and another 21 down-regulated in MI, but reversed after trilineage cell transplantation. Proteins up-regulated after MI but reversed by transplantation are related to fibrosis and apoptosis. Conversely, proteins down-regulated in MI but restored after cell therapy are regulators of protein nitrosylation. Our results show that the functionally beneficial effects of trilineage cell therapy are accompanied by differential regulation of protein expression in the recipient myocardium, which may contribute to the improved cardiac function. PMID:26033914

  7. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress. PMID:26549328

  8. A quantitative chaperone interaction network reveals the architecture of cellular protein homeostasis pathways.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Mikko; Tucker, George; Peng, Jian; Krykbaeva, Irina; Lin, Zhen-Yuan; Larsen, Brett; Choi, Hyungwon; Berger, Bonnie; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Lindquist, Susan

    2014-07-17

    Chaperones are abundant cellular proteins that promote the folding and function of their substrate proteins (clients). In vivo, chaperones also associate with a large and diverse set of cofactors (cochaperones) that regulate their specificity and function. However, how these cochaperones regulate protein folding and whether they have chaperone-independent biological functions is largely unknown. We combined mass spectrometry and quantitative high-throughput LUMIER assays to systematically characterize the chaperone-cochaperone-client interaction network in human cells. We uncover hundreds of chaperone clients, delineate their participation in specific cochaperone complexes, and establish a surprisingly distinct network of protein-protein interactions for cochaperones. As a salient example of the power of such analysis, we establish that NUDC family cochaperones specifically associate with structurally related but evolutionarily distinct ?-propeller folds. We provide a framework for deciphering the proteostasis network and its regulation in development and disease and expand the use of chaperones as sensors for drug-target engagement. PMID:25036637

  9. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  10. Capillary Electrophoresis for the Analysis of Biopolymers

    E-print Network

    Krylov, Sergey

    Postreplication Modification 114R Proteins and Peptides 114R Separation 114R Detection 118R Posttranslational: nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. While this review formally covers 1998 and 1999, we-scale capillary array electrophoresis instruments have been marketed by PE Biosystems (the model 3700 Genetic

  11. Label-free Quantitative Protein Profiling of vastus lateralis Muscle During Human Aging*

    PubMed Central

    Théron, Laëtitia; Gueugneau, Marine; Coudy, Cécile; Viala, Didier; Bijlsma, Astrid; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Maier, Andrea; Béchet, Daniel; Chambon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia corresponds to the loss of muscle mass occurring during aging, and is associated with a loss of muscle functionality. Proteomic links the muscle functional changes with protein expression pattern. To better understand the mechanisms involved in muscle aging, we performed a proteomic analysis of Vastus lateralis muscle in mature and older women. For this, a shotgun proteomic method was applied to identify soluble proteins in muscle, using a combination of high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. A label-free protein profiling was then conducted to quantify proteins and compare profiles from mature and older women. This analysis showed that 35 of the 366 identified proteins were linked to aging in muscle. Most of the proteins were under-represented in older compared with mature women. We built a functional interaction network linking the proteins differentially expressed between mature and older women. The results revealed that the main differences between mature and older women were defined by proteins involved in energy metabolism and proteins from the myofilament and cytoskeleton. This is the first time that label-free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study of aging mechanisms in human skeletal muscle. This approach highlights new elements for elucidating the alterations observed during aging and may lead to novel sarcopenia biomarkers. PMID:24217021

  12. Nine surface plasmon resonance assays for specific protein quantitation during cell culture and process development.

    PubMed

    Frostell, Åsa; Mattsson, Anna; Eriksson, Åsa; Wallby, Elisabeth; Kärnhall, Johan; Illarionova, Nina B; Estmer Nilsson, Camilla

    2015-05-15

    Quantitation of protein is essential during pharmaceutical development, and a variety of methods and technologies for determination of total and specific protein concentration are available. Here we describe the development of a streamlined assay platform for specific quantitation assays using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology. A total of nine different assays were developed using similar conditions, of which eight assays were for quantitation of different human blood plasma proteins (IgG, IgG1-4 subclasses, IgA, transferrin, and albumin) from a chromatography-based IgG plasma process. Lastly, an assay for monitoring the concentration of a recombinant monoclonal antibody during 13 days of CHO cell culturing was developed. Assay performances were compared with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), nephelometry, ARCHITECT, and Cobas c501. SPR assays were shown to have higher sensitivity than analysis using nephelometry, ARCHITECT, and Cobas and to have significantly lower analysis and hands-on time compared with ELISA. Furthermore, the SPR assays were robust enough to be used for up to 12 days, allowing specific protein concentration measurement of a sample to be completed at line within 10 min. Using the same platform with only few varied parameters between different assays has saved time in the lab as well as for evaluation and presentation of results. PMID:25700863

  13. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic methods in the separation of structural muscle proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Barany, K.; Barany, M.; Giometti, C. S.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    1995-04-28

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis plays a major role in analyzing the function of muscle structural proteins. This review describes one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoretic methods for qualitative and quantitative investigation of the muscle proteins, with special emphasis on determination of protein phosphorylation. The electrophoretic studies established the subunit structures of the muscle proteins, characterized their multiple forms, revealed changes in subunit composition or shifts in isoform distribution of specific proteins during development, upon stimulation or denervation of the muscle. Protein phosphorylation during muscle contraction is preferentially studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The same method demonstrated protein alterations in human neuromuscular diseases.

  14. Improved Electrophoresis Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Several proposed modifications are expected to improve performance of a continous-flow electrophoresis cell. Changes would allow better control of buffer flow and would increase resolution by suppressing thermal gradients. Improved electrophoresis device would have high resolution and be easy to operate. Improvements would allow better flow control and heat dissipation.

  15. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  16. Electrophoresis of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of biological products was studied for electrophoresis in space. Free flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and isotachophoresis are described. The candidates discussed include: immunoglobulins and gamma globulins; isolated islet of langerhans from pancreas; bone marrow; tumor cells; kidney cells, cryoprecipitate; and column separated cultures.

  17. Quantitative immunofluorescence mapping reveals little functional coclustering of proteins within platelet ?-granules.

    PubMed

    Kamykowski, Jeffrey; Carlton, Peter; Sehgal, Siddharth; Storrie, Brian

    2011-08-01

    Platelets are small anucleate blood cells that aggregate to seal leaks at sites of vascular injury and are important in the pathology of atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, and the regulation of angiogenesis. In all cases, platelet aggregation requires release of stored proteins from ?-granules. However, how proteins with potentially antagonistic functions are packaged within ?-granules is controversial. One possibility is the packaging of functional agonists and antagonists into different ?-granule populations. By quantitative immunofluorescence colocalization, we found that pair-wise comparisons of 15 angiogenic-relevant ?-granule proteins displayed little, if any, pattern of functional coclustering. Rather, the data suggested a Gaussian distribution indicative of stochastic protein delivery to individual granules. The apparent physiologic paradox raised by these data may be explained through alternate mechanisms, such as differential content release through incomplete granule fusion or dampened and balanced regulatory networks brought about by the corelease of antagonistic factors. PMID:21622648

  18. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Protein Profiles Involved in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Kuo, Chao-Jen; Chiu, Chiang-Yen; Liang, Shih-Shin; Huang, Chun-Hao; Chi, Shu-Wen; Tsai, Kun-Bow; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Hsi, Edward; Cheng, Kuang-Hung; Chiou, Shyh-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins among various stages of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by shotgun proteomics using nano-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry and stable isotope dimethyl labeling. Methods Differentially expressed proteins were identified and compared based on the mass spectral differences of their isotope-labeled peptide fragments generated from protease digestion. Results Our quantitative proteomic analysis of the differentially expressed proteins with stable isotope (deuterium/hydrogen ratio, ?2) identified a total of 353 proteins, with at least 5 protein biomarker proteins that were significantly differentially expressed between cancer and normal mice by at least a 2-fold alteration. These 5 protein biomarker candidates include ?-enolase, ?-catenin, 14-3-3 ?, VDAC1, and calmodulin with high confidence levels. The expression levels were also found to be in agreement with those examined by Western blot and histochemical staining. Conclusions The systematic decrease or increase of these identified marker proteins may potentially reflect the morphological aberrations and diseased stages of pancreas carcinoma throughout progressive developments leading to PDAC. The results would form a firm foundation for future work concerning validation and clinical translation of some identified biomarkers into targeted diagnosis and therapy for various stages of PDAC. PMID:26262590

  19. Quantitative Phosphoproteomics of Cytotoxic T Cells to Reveal Protein Kinase D 2 Regulated Networks*

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, María N.; Goebel, Juergen; Hukelmann, Jens L.; Cantrell, Doreen A.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of the present study was to characterize the phosphoproteome of cytotoxic T cells and to explore the role of the serine threonine kinase PKD2 (Protein Kinase D2) in the phosphorylation networks of this key lymphocyte population. We used Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Culture (SILAC) combined with phosphopeptide enrichment and quantitative mass-spectrometry to determine the impact of PKD2 loss on the cytotoxic T cells phosphoproteome. We identified 15,871 phosphorylations on 3505 proteins in cytotoxic T cells. 450 phosphosites on 281 proteins were down-regulated and 300 phosphosites on 196 proteins were up-regulated in PKD2 null cytotoxic T cells. These data give valuable new insights about the protein phosphorylation networks operational in effector T cells and reveal that PKD2 regulates directly and indirectly about 5% of the cytotoxic T-cell phosphoproteome. PKD2 candidate substrates identified in this study include proteins involved in two distinct biological functions: regulation of protein sorting and intracellular vesicle trafficking, and control of chromatin structure, transcription, and translation. In other cell types, PKD substrates include class II histone deacetylases such as HDAC7 and actin regulatory proteins such as Slingshot. The current data show these are not PKD substrates in primary T cells revealing that the functional role of PKD isoforms is different in different cell lineages. PMID:25266776

  20. Electrophoresis Study of Extracts of Submaxillary Salivary Glands from Naturally Rabid Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Morris D.; Furusho, Yutaka

    1965-01-01

    Rabies virus in submaxillary salivary glands from naturally infected dogs was investigated by a paper electrophoresis technique, and the virus activity was quantitated by intracerebral titration in mice. Extracts from these salivary glands were found to contain (a) 104 to 106 mouse ICLD 50 units of wild rabies seed and (b) a protein complex that migrated electrophoretically in the albumin band and more conspicuously in the beta and gamma bands of normal horse serum. The protein complex was interpreted to comprise aggregates of neutralizing antirabies antibody. PMID:14318538

  1. Qualitative and quantitative characterization of protein-phosphoinositide interactions with liposome-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Busse, Ricarda A.; Scacioc, Andreea; Hernandez, Javier M.; Krick, Roswitha; Stephan, Milena; Janshoff, Andreas; Thumm, Michael; Kühnel, Karin

    2013-01-01

    We characterized phosphoinositide binding of the S. cerevisiae PROPPIN Hsv2 qualitatively with density flotation assays and quantitatively through isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements using liposomes. We discuss the design of these experiments and show with liposome flotation assays that Hsv2 binds with high specificity to both PtdIns3P and PtdIns(3,5)P2. We propose liposome flotation assays as a more accurate alternative to the commonly used PIP strips for the characterization of phosphoinositide-binding specificities of proteins. We further quantitatively characterized PtdIns3P binding of Hsv2 with ITC measurements and determined a dissociation constant of 0.67 µM and a stoichiometry of 2:1 for PtdIns3P binding to Hsv2. PtdIns3P is crucial for the biogenesis of autophagosomes and their precursors. Besides the PROPPINs there are other PtdIns3P binding proteins with a link to autophagy, which includes the FYVE-domain containing proteins ZFYVE1/DFCP1 and WDFY3/ALFY and the PX-domain containing proteins Atg20 and Snx4/Atg24. The methods described could be useful tools for the characterization of these and other phosphoinositide-binding proteins. PMID:23445924

  2. Quantitative variability of 342 plasma proteins in a human twin population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yansheng; Buil, Alfonso; Collins, Ben C; Gillet, Ludovic CJ; Blum, Lorenz C; Cheng, Lin-Yang; Vitek, Olga; Mouritsen, Jeppe; Lachance, Genevieve; Spector, Tim D; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-01-01

    The degree and the origins of quantitative variability of most human plasma proteins are largely unknown. Because the twin study design provides a natural opportunity to estimate the relative contribution of heritability and environment to different traits in human population, we applied here the highly accurate and reproducible SWATH mass spectrometry technique to quantify 1,904 peptides defining 342 unique plasma proteins in 232 plasma samples collected longitudinally from pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins at intervals of 2–7 years, and proportioned the observed total quantitative variability to its root causes, genes, and environmental and longitudinal factors. The data indicate that different proteins show vastly different patterns of abundance variability among humans and that genetic control and longitudinal variation affect protein levels and biological processes to different degrees. The data further strongly suggest that the plasma concentrations of clinical biomarkers need to be calibrated against genetic and temporal factors. Moreover, we identified 13 cis-SNPs significantly influencing the level of specific plasma proteins. These results therefore have immediate implications for the effective design of blood-based biomarker studies. PMID:25652787

  3. Improved Protein Arrays for Quantitative Systems Analysis of the Dynamics of Signaling Pathway Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    YANG, CHIN-RANG

    2013-12-11

    Astronauts and workers in nuclear plants who repeatedly exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR, <10 cGy) are likely to incur specific changes in signal transduction and gene expression in various tissues of their body. Remarkable advances in high throughput genomics and proteomics technologies enable researchers to broaden their focus from examining single gene/protein kinetics to better understanding global gene/protein expression profiling and biological pathway analyses, namely Systems Biology. An ultimate goal of systems biology is to develop dynamic mathematical models of interacting biological systems capable of simulating living systems in a computer. This Glue Grant is to complement Dr. Boothman’s existing DOE grant (No. DE-FG02-06ER64186) entitled “The IGF1/IGF-1R-MAPK-Secretory Clusterin (sCLU) Pathway: Mediator of a Low Dose IR-Inducible Bystander Effect” to develop sensitive and quantitative proteomic technology that suitable for low dose radiobiology researches. An improved version of quantitative protein array platform utilizing linear Quantum dot signaling for systematically measuring protein levels and phosphorylation states for systems biology modeling is presented. The signals are amplified by a confocal laser Quantum dot scanner resulting in ~1000-fold more sensitivity than traditional Western blots and show the good linearity that is impossible for the signals of HRP-amplification. Therefore this improved protein array technology is suitable to detect weak responses of low dose radiation. Software is developed to facilitate the quantitative readout of signaling network activities. Kinetics of EGFRvIII mutant signaling was analyzed to quantify cross-talks between EGFR and other signaling pathways.

  4. Proteomic analysis of rice after different seed space flights by two-dimensional difference electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing

    To investigate the biological effects of space environment in rice plants, proteomic profiles of six rice cultivars growing after twice different seed space flights were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). Over 1500 protein spots were detected in each paired space/ground-control comparison and more than 800 protein spots were reproducible across all the samples. Six proteins including peroxiredoxin and rubisco were found significantly changed in most of the six cultivars after both of the seed space flights, indicating they might be associated with the responses of rice cells to the space environment. Cluster analyses were also applied using the quantitative protein expression data: cultivar hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis both indicated that the rice proteome changed its expression profiles after seed space environment exposures while protein hierarchical clustering revealed that there might be a decrease of protein expression in rice plants after seed space flights.

  5. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease, and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, to generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. In this paper, we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these, no de-glycosylated peptides by LC-ESI-MS, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared to their control littermates.

  6. High Throughput Quantitative Analysis of Serum Proteins Using Glycopeptide Capture and Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui; Yi, Eugene C.; Li, Xiao-jun; Mallick, Parag; Kelly-Spratt, Karen S.; Masselon, Christophe D.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Aebersold, Reudi

    2005-02-01

    It is expected that the composition of the serum proteome can provide valuable information about the state of the human body in health and disease and that this information can be extracted via quantitative proteomic measurements. Suitable proteomic techniques need to be sensitive, reproducible, and robust to detect potential biomarkers below the level of highly expressed proteins, generate data sets that are comparable between experiments and laboratories, and have high throughput to support statistical studies. Here we report a method for high throughput quantitative analysis of serum proteins. It consists of the selective isolation of peptides that are N-linked glycosylated in the intact protein, the analysis of these now deglycosylated peptides by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and the comparative analysis of the resulting patterns. By focusing selectively on a few formerly N-linked glycopeptides per serum protein, the complexity of the analyte sample is significantly reduced and the sensitivity and throughput of serum proteome analysis are increased compared with the analysis of total tryptic peptides from unfractionated samples. We provide data that document the performance of the method and show that sera from untreated normal mice and genetically identical mice with carcinogen-induced skin cancer can be unambiguously discriminated using unsupervised clustering of the resulting peptide patterns. We further identify, by tandem mass spectrometry, some of the peptides that were consistently elevated in cancer mice compared with their control littermates.

  7. Preparative electrophoresis experiment design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiehler, A.

    1972-01-01

    A multifaceted study supporting the NASA programs to develop a space electrophoresis capability has been conducted. The study involved principally the technique of continuous free electrophoresis. It comprised a critical review of the art, study of new techniques for enhancing resolution and stability, and construction and initial testing of a high resolution cell. The effort resulted in a significant advance in free electrophoresis technique. It has provided also a much improved base for developments exploiting the added advantages of a zero-gravity environment.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Multivalent Ligand Presentation on Gold Glyconanoparticles and Their Effects on Protein Binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-03-01

    Bio-functionalized nanomaterials, which combine functions of biological ligands and unique properties of nano-sized building blocks, have exhibited increased potential applications in biosensing, therapeutics, and diagnostics. Glyconanoparitcles carrying a monolayer of carbohydrate ligands on nanoparticles provide an excellent platform for sensitive protein recognitions. Using Au nanoparticles as the scaffold, multivalent interactions between glycan ligands and proteins have been demonstrated. However, quantitative analysis especially the binding affinity of the resulting glyconanoparticles is challenging to determine. Here we present a new characterization technique, based on fluorescent competition binding assays, for measuring dissociation constants for glyconanoparticles-protein interactions. Au nanoparticles coupled with a series of un-derivatized carbohydrates were prepared by a photocoupling chemistry. Dramatic binding affinity enhancement was observed due to the high ligand density on nanoparticles, which was highly relevant to ligand display, controlled by the linker type, chain length, ligand size and density.

  9. Development of a Model Protein Interaction Pair as a Benchmarking Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of 2-Site Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yamniuk, Aaron P; Newitt, John A; Doyle, Michael L; Arisaka, Fumio; Giannetti, Anthony M; Hensley, Preston; Myszka, David G; Schwarz, Fred P; Thomson, James A; Eisenstein, Edward

    2015-12-01

    A significant challenge in the molecular interaction field is to accurately determine the stoichiometry and stepwise binding affinity constants for macromolecules having >1 binding site. The mission of the Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) is to show how biophysical technologies are used to quantitatively characterize molecular interactions, and to educate the ABRF members and scientific community on the utility and limitations of core technologies [such as biosensor, microcalorimetry, or analytic ultracentrifugation (AUC)]. In the present work, the MIRG has developed a robust model protein interaction pair consisting of a bivalent variant of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens extracellular RNase barnase and a variant of its natural monovalent intracellular inhibitor protein barstar. It is demonstrated that this system can serve as a benchmarking tool for the quantitative analysis of 2-site protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction pair enables determination of precise binding constants for the barstar protein binding to 2 distinct sites on the bivalent barnase binding partner (termed binase), where the 2 binding sites were engineered to possess affinities that differed by 2 orders of magnitude. Multiple MIRG laboratories characterized the interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), AUC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of the system as a benchmarking model. Although general agreement was seen for the binding constants measured using solution-based ITC and AUC approaches, weaker affinity was seen for surface-based method SPR, with protein immobilization likely affecting affinity. An analysis of the results from multiple MIRG laboratories suggests that the bivalent barnase-barstar system is a suitable model for benchmarking new approaches for the quantitative characterization of complex biomolecular interactions. PMID:26543437

  10. Development of a Model Protein Interaction Pair as a Benchmarking Tool for the Quantitative Analysis of 2-Site Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Newitt, John A.; Doyle, Michael L.; Arisaka, Fumio; Giannetti, Anthony M.; Hensley, Preston; Myszka, David G.; Schwarz, Fred P.; Thomson, James A.; Eisenstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in the molecular interaction field is to accurately determine the stoichiometry and stepwise binding affinity constants for macromolecules having >1 binding site. The mission of the Molecular Interactions Research Group (MIRG) of the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities (ABRF) is to show how biophysical technologies are used to quantitatively characterize molecular interactions, and to educate the ABRF members and scientific community on the utility and limitations of core technologies [such as biosensor, microcalorimetry, or analytic ultracentrifugation (AUC)]. In the present work, the MIRG has developed a robust model protein interaction pair consisting of a bivalent variant of the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens extracellular RNase barnase and a variant of its natural monovalent intracellular inhibitor protein barstar. It is demonstrated that this system can serve as a benchmarking tool for the quantitative analysis of 2-site protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction pair enables determination of precise binding constants for the barstar protein binding to 2 distinct sites on the bivalent barnase binding partner (termed binase), where the 2 binding sites were engineered to possess affinities that differed by 2 orders of magnitude. Multiple MIRG laboratories characterized the interaction using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), AUC, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) methods to evaluate the feasibility of the system as a benchmarking model. Although general agreement was seen for the binding constants measured using solution-based ITC and AUC approaches, weaker affinity was seen for surface-based method SPR, with protein immobilization likely affecting affinity. An analysis of the results from multiple MIRG laboratories suggests that the bivalent barnase-barstar system is a suitable model for benchmarking new approaches for the quantitative characterization of complex biomolecular interactions. PMID:26543437

  11. Protein profiling of human lung telocytes and microvascular endothelial cells using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yonghua; Cretoiu, Dragos; Yan, Guoquan; Cretoiu, Sanda Maria; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Fang, Hao; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Telocytes (TCs) are described as a particular type of cells of the interstitial space (www.telocytes.com). Their main characteristics are the very long telopodes with alternating podoms and podomers. Recently, we performed a comparative proteomic analysis of human lung TCs with fibroblasts, demonstrating that TCs are clearly a distinct cell type. Therefore, the present study aims to reinforce this idea by comparing lung TCs with endothelial cells (ECs), since TCs and ECs share immunopositivity for CD34. We applied isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) combined with automated 2-D nano-ESI LC-MS/MS to analyse proteins extracted from TCs and ECs in primary cell cultures. In total, 1609 proteins were identified in cell cultures. 98 proteins (the 5th day), and 82 proteins (10th day) were confidently quantified (screened by two-sample t-test, P < 0.05) as up- or down-regulated (fold change >2). We found that in TCs there are 38 up-regulated proteins at the 5th day and 26 up-regulated proteins at the 10th day. Bioinformatics analysis using Panther revealed that the 38 proteins associated with TCs represented cellular functions such as intercellular communication (via vesicle mediated transport) and structure morphogenesis, being mainly cytoskeletal proteins and oxidoreductases. In addition, we found 60 up-regulated proteins in ECs e.g.: cell surface glycoprotein MUC18 (15.54-fold) and von Willebrand factor (5.74-fold). The 26 up-regulated proteins in TCs at 10th day, were also analysed and confirmed the same major cellular functions, while the 56 down-regulated proteins confirmed again their specificity for ECs. In conclusion, we report here the first extensive comparison of proteins from TCs and ECs using a quantitative proteomics approach. Our data show that TCs are completely different from ECs. Protein expression profile showed that TCs play specific roles in intercellular communication and intercellular signalling. Moreover, they might inhibit the oxidative stress and cellular ageing and may have pro-proliferative effects through the inhibition of apoptosis. The group of proteins identified in this study needs to be explored further for the role in pathogenesis of lung disease. PMID:25059386

  12. Complex mixture analysis using protein expression as a qualitative and quantitative tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Bond, J.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences); Tepper, B.E. . Paper Products Division)

    1994-07-01

    Some proteins in organisms exposed to chemicals in stressful amounts or toxic concentrations show increased expression; others show decreased expression. These inducible and repressible proteins together potentially provide qualitative and quantitative diagnoses of components in complex mixtures of chemicals. The authors examined sets of proteins synthesized by Daphnia magna after exposure to mixtures of a cationic polyamide epichlorhydrin adduct (Kymene) and a combined assortment of water-extractable substances from chemi-thermal-mechanical pulp (CTMP) in lab water. Proteins were identified, after extracting from Daphnia magna, by gel filtration and silver staining, or by radiolabeling and then gel separation. Patterns of proteins induced by Kymene[reg sign] and by CTMP extracts were distinguishable in lab water, but there was interaction between them. The method of identifying and quantifying Kymene, however, was successful using lab simulations of mixtures. The method was tested using wastewater samples from a paper manufacturing plant. Kymene could be detected against variable levels and types of additional substances. But, again, there was interference, perhaps due to Kymene binding to other anionic polymers sometimes present in the samples. Interpretation from analyses of protein expression were consistent with results from sublethal Ceriodaphnia dubia assays.

  13. Quantitative changes in sets of proteins as markers of biological response

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Taylor, J.; Gemmell, M.A.; Tollaksen, S.L. ); Lalwani, N.D.; Reddy, J.K. )

    1990-01-01

    Exposure to either physical or chemical insults triggers a cascade of bio-chemical events within the target cell. This response requires adjustment within the protein population of the cell, some proteins becoming more abundant (those involved in the cellular response), others less abundant (those not required or counterproductive to the response). Thus, quantitative changes in the global protein population of an exposed biological system may well serve as an indicator of exposure, provided the alterations observed are selective and dose-dependent. In this paper we present results from a study in which liver protein changes induced by exposure of mice to chemicals known to cause peroxisome proliferation and subsequent hepatocellular carcinoma where monitored. Clofibrate, and its chemical analog ciprofibrate, are hypolipidemic drugs. Di-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer used widely in disposable containers for blood products. WY-14643 is a chemical shown to cause hypolipidemic and peroxisome proliferation, similar to clofibrate, ciprofibrate and DEHP, but structurally different from these three chemicals. Thus, two of the four chemicals are structurally similar while the remaining two are very distinct, although all four chemicals cause the same gross biological response. Our results show that although common protein effects are observed in mice exposed to these chemicals, each chemical also causes specific alterations in selective subsets of proteins that could serve as markers of a particular exposure. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Detection and quantitation of succinimide in intact protein via hydrazine trapping and chemical derivatization.

    PubMed

    Klaene, Joshua J; Ni, Wenqin; Alfaro, Joshua F; Zhou, Zhaohui Sunny

    2014-10-01

    The formation of aspartyl succinimide is a common post-translational modification of protein pharmaceuticals under acidic conditions. We present a method to detect and quantitate succinimide in intact protein via hydrazine trapping and chemical derivatization. Succinimide, which is labile under typical analytical conditions, is first trapped with hydrazine to form stable hydrazide and can be directly analyzed by mass spectrometry. The resulting aspartyl hydrazide can be selectively derivatized by various tags, such as fluorescent rhodamine sulfonyl chloride that absorbs strongly in the visible region (570 nm). Our tagging strategy allows the labeled protein to be analyzed by orthogonal methods, including HPLC-UV-Vis, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and SDS-PAGE coupled with fluorescence imaging. A unique advantage of our method is that variants containing succinimide, after derivatization, can be readily resolved via either affinity enrichment or chromatographic separation. This allows further investigation of individual factors in a complex protein mixture that affect succinimide formation. Some additional advantages are imparted by fluorescence labeling including the facile detection of the intact protein without proteolytic digestion to peptides; and high sensitivity, for example, without optimization, 0.41% succinimide was readily detected. As such, our method should be useful for rapid screening, optimization of formulation conditions, and related processes relevant to protein pharmaceuticals. PMID:25043726

  15. Quantitative proteomics reveals the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yanbo; Cheng, Kai; Mao, Jiawei; Liu, Fangjie; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-10-01

    Trypsin is the popular protease to digest proteins into peptides in shotgun proteomics, but few studies have attempted to systematically investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion in proteome samples. In this study, we applied quantitative proteomics via triplex stable isotope dimethyl labeling to investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed cleavage. It was found that trypsin cleaves the C-terminal to lysine (K) and arginine (R) residues with higher rates for R. And the cleavage sites surrounded by neutral residues could be quickly cut, while those with neighboring charged residues (D/E/K/R) or proline residue (P) could be slowly cut. In a proteome sample, a huge number of proteins with different physical chemical properties coexists. If any type of protein could be preferably digested, then limited digestion could be applied to reduce the sample complexity. However, we found that protein abundance and other physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (Mw), grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY), aliphatic index, and isoelectric point (pI) have no notable correlation with digestion priority of proteins. PMID:25134673

  16. Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of Proteins Involved in Metastasis of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Goto, Rieko; Nakamura, Yasushi; Takami, Tomonori; Sanke, Tokio; Tozuka, Zenzaburo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the analysis of proteins involved in metastasis of breast cancer for diagnosis and determining disease prognosis, as well as to further our understand of metastatic mechanisms. We have previously demonstrated that the protein type XIV collagen may be specifically expressed in metastatic tissues by two dimensional LC-MS/MS. In this study, we developed quantitative LC-MS/MS methods for type XIV collagen. Type XIV collagen was quantified by analyzing 2 peptides generated by digesting type XIV collagen using stable isotope-labeled peptides. The individual concentrations were equivalent between 2 different peptides of type XIV collagen by evaluation of imprecise transitions and using the best transition for the peptide concentration. The results indicated that type XIV collagen is highly expressed in metastatic tissues of patients with massive lymph node involvement compared to non-metastatic tissues. These findings were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Further studies on type XIV collagen are desired to verify its role as a prognostic factor and diagnosis marker for metastasis. PMID:26176947

  17. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein based on quantum dots and immunofiltration assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pengfei; Bao, Yan; Draz, Mohamed Shehata; Lu, Huiqi; Liu, Chang; Han, Huanxing

    2015-01-01

    Convenient and rapid immunofiltration assays (IFAs) enable on-site “yes” or “no” determination of disease markers. However, traditional IFAs are commonly qualitative or semi-quantitative and are very limited for the efficient testing of samples in field diagnostics. Here, we overcome these limitations by developing a quantum dots (QDs)-based fluorescent IFA for the quantitative detection of C-reactive proteins (CRP). CRP, the well-known diagnostic marker for acute viral and bacterial infections, was used as a model analyte to demonstrate performance and sensitivity of our developed QDs-based IFA. QDs capped with both polyethylene glycol (PEG) and glutathione were used as fluorescent labels for our IFAs. The presence of the surface PEG layer, which reduced the non-specific protein interactions, in conjunction with the inherent optical properties of QDs, resulted in lower background signal, increased sensitivity, and ability to detect CRP down to 0.79 mg/L with only 5 µL serum sample. In addition, the developed assay is simple, fast and can quantitatively detect CRP with a detection limit up to 200 mg/L. Clinical test results of our QD-based IFA are well correlated with the traditional latex enhance immune-agglutination aggregation. The proposed QD-based fluorescent IFA is very promising, and potentially will be adopted for multiplexed immunoassay and in field point-of-care test. PMID:26491289

  18. Quantitative LC-MS/MS Analysis of Proteins Involved in Metastasis of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Rieko; Nakamura, Yasushi; Takami, Tomonori; Sanke, Tokio; Tozuka, Zenzaburo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods for the analysis of proteins involved in metastasis of breast cancer for diagnosis and determining disease prognosis, as well as to further our understand of metastatic mechanisms. We have previously demonstrated that the protein type XIV collagen may be specifically expressed in metastatic tissues by two dimensional LC-MS/MS. In this study, we developed quantitative LC-MS/MS methods for type XIV collagen. Type XIV collagen was quantified by analyzing 2 peptides generated by digesting type XIV collagen using stable isotope-labeled peptides. The individual concentrations were equivalent between 2 different peptides of type XIV collagen by evaluation of imprecise transitions and using the best transition for the peptide concentration. The results indicated that type XIV collagen is highly expressed in metastatic tissues of patients with massive lymph node involvement compared to non-metastatic tissues. These findings were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Further studies on type XIV collagen are desired to verify its role as a prognostic factor and diagnosis marker for metastasis. PMID:26176947

  19. Electrophoresis operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis in space processing is described. Spaceborne experiments in areas such as biological products and FDA approved drugs are discussed. These experiments will be carried on shuttle payloads.

  20. Gel Electrophoresis on a Budget to Dye for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important tools used in molecular biology and has facilitated the entire field of genetic engineering by enabling the separation of nucleic acids and proteins. However, commercial electrophoresis kits can cost up to $800 for each setup, which is cost prohibitive for most classroom budgets. This article…

  1. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in Platelet Proteomics Research

    E-print Network

    23 Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis in Platelet Proteomics Research Ángel García Summary Proteomics technology allows a comprehensive and efficient analysis of the proteome and has become electrophoresis (2-DE) in proteomics and its application to platelet research. 2-DE separates proteins according

  2. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  3. Inhibition of Bacterial Conjugation by Phage M13 and Its Protein g3p: Quantitative Analysis and Model

    E-print Network

    Liu, David R.

    of Bacterial Conjugation by Phage M13 and Its Protein g3p: Quantitative Analysis and Model. PLoS ONE 6(5): e://www.sysbio.harvard.edu/csb). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparationInhibition of Bacterial Conjugation by Phage M13 and Its Protein g3p: Quantitative Analysis

  4. Quantitative host cell protein analysis using two dimensional data independent LC-MS(E).

    PubMed

    Farrell, Amy; Mittermayr, Stefan; Morrissey, Brian; Mc Loughlin, Niaobh; Navas Iglesias, Natalia; Marison, Ian W; Bones, Jonathan

    2015-09-15

    Host cell proteins (HCPs) are bioprocess-related impurities arising from cell-death or secretion from nonhuman cells used for recombinant protein production. Clearance of HCPs through downstream purification (DSP) is required to produce safe and efficacious therapeutic proteins. While traditionally measured using anti-HCP ELISA, more in-depth approaches for HCP characterization may ensure that risks to patients from HCPs are adequately assessed. Mass spectrometry methods provide rationale for targeted removal strategies through the provision of both qualitative and quantitative HCP information. A high pH, low pH, reversed-phase data independent 2D-LC-MS(E) proteomic platform was applied to determine HCP repertoires in the Protein A purified monoclonal antibody (mAb) samples as a function of culture harvest time, elution buffer used for DSP and also following inclusion of additional DSP steps. Critical quality attributes (CQAs) were examined for mAbs purified with different Protein A elution buffers to ensure that the selected buffers not only minimized the HCP profile but also exhibited no adverse effect on product quality. Results indicated that an arginine based Protein A elution buffer minimized the levels of HCPs identified and quantified in a purified mAb sample and also demonstrated no impact on product CQAs. It was also observed that mAbs harvested at later stages of cell culture contained higher concentrations of HCPs but that these were successfully removed by the addition of DSP steps complementary to Protein A purification. Taken together, our results showed how mass spectrometry based methods for HCP determination in conjunction with careful consideration of processing parameters such as harvest time, Protein A elution buffers, and subsequent DSP steps can reduce the HCP repertoire of therapeutic mAbs. PMID:26280711

  5. Quantitative reduction of the T cell receptor adapter protein SLP-76 unbalances immunity and immune regulation

    PubMed Central

    Asquith, Kelly; Foster, Paul S.; Liston, Adrian; Goodnow, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Gene variants that disrupt T cell receptor signaling can cause severe immune deficiency, yet less disruptive variants are sometimes associated with immune pathology. Null mutations of the gene encoding the scaffold protein SLP-76, for example, cause an arrest of T cell positive selection, while a synthetic membrane-targeted allele allows limited positive selection but is associated with proinflammatory cytokine production and autoantibodies. Whether these and other enigmatic outcomes are due to a biochemical uncoupling of tolerogenic signaling, or simply a quantitative reduction of protein activity, remains to be determined. We describe here a splice variant of Lcp2 that reduced the amount of wild-type SLP-76 protein by ~90%, disrupting immunogenic and tolerogenic pathways to different degrees. Mutant mice produced excessive amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, autoantibodies and IgE, revealing that simple quantitative reductions of SLP-76 were sufficient to trigger immune dysregulation. This allele reveals a dose-sensitive threshold for SLP-76 in the balance of immunity and immune dysregulation: a common disturbance of atypical clinical immune deficiencies. PMID:25662996

  6. Identification of DNA-binding proteins that interact with the 5'-flanking region of the human d-amino acid oxidase gene by pull-down assay coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tran, Diem Hong; Shishido, Yuji; Chung, Seong Pil; Trinh, Huong Thi Thanh; Yorita, Kazuko; Sakai, Takashi; Fukui, Kiyoshi

    2015-12-10

    d-Amino acid oxidase (DAO) is a flavoenzyme that metabolizes d-amino acids and is expected to be a promising therapeutic target of schizophrenia and glioblastoma. The study of DNA-binding proteins has yielded much information in the regulation of transcription and other biological processes. However, proteins interacting with DAO gene have not been elucidated. Our assessment of human DAO promoter activity using luciferase reporter system indicated the 5'-flanking region of this gene (-4289bp from transcription initiation site) has a regulatory sequence for gene expression, which is regulated by multi-protein complexes interacting with this region. By using pull-down assay coupled with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified six proteins binding to the 5'-flanking region of the human DAO gene (zinc finger C2HC domain-containing protein 1A; histidine-tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic; molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein; 60S ribosomal protein L37; calponin-1; calmodulin binding protein and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1). These preliminary results will contribute to the advance in the understanding of the potential factors associated with the regulatory mechanism of DAO expression. PMID:25749303

  7. Quantitative Time-course Profiling of Parasite and Host Cell Proteins in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum*

    PubMed Central

    Foth, Bernardo Javier; Zhang, Neng; Chaal, Balbir Kaur; Sze, Siu Kwan; Preiser, Peter Rainer; Bozdech, Zbynek

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome have shown that the tightly controlled progression of the parasite through the intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC) is accompanied by a continuous gene expression cascade in which most expressed genes exhibit a single transcriptional peak. Because the biochemical and cellular functions of most genes are mediated by the encoded proteins, understanding the relationship between mRNA and protein levels is crucial for inferring biological activity from transcriptional gene expression data. Although studies on other organisms show that <50% of protein abundance variation may be attributable to corresponding mRNA levels, the situation in Plasmodium is further complicated by the dynamic nature of the cyclic gene expression cascade. In this study, we simultaneously determined mRNA and protein abundance profiles for P. falciparum parasites during the IDC at 2-hour resolution based on oligonucleotide microarrays and two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis protein gels. We find that most proteins are represented by more than one isoform, presumably because of post-translational modifications. Like transcripts, most proteins exhibit cyclic abundance profiles with one peak during the IDC, whereas the presence of functionally related proteins is highly correlated. In contrast, the abundance of most parasite proteins peaks significantly later (median 11 h) than the corresponding transcripts and often decreases slowly in the second half of the IDC. Computational modeling indicates that the considerable and varied incongruence between transcript and protein abundance may largely be caused by the dynamics of translation and protein degradation. Furthermore, we present cyclic abundance profiles also for parasite-associated human proteins and confirm the presence of five human proteins with a potential role in antioxidant defense within the parasites. Together, our data provide fundamental insights into transcript-protein relationships in P. falciparum that are important for the correct interpretation of transcriptional data and that may facilitate the improvement and development of malaria diagnostics and drug therapy. PMID:21558492

  8. Quantitative Correlation Between the Protein Primary Sequences and Secondary Structures in Spider Dragline Silks

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Janelle E.; Creager, Melinda S.; Lewis, Randolph V.; Holland, Gregory P.; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic spider silk holds great potential for use in various applications spanning medical uses to ultra lightweight armor, however producing synthetic fibers with mechanical properties comparable to natural spider silk has eluded the scientific community. Natural dragline spider silks are commonly made from proteins that contain highly repetitive amino acid motifs, adopting an array of secondary structures. Before further advances can be made in the production of synthetic fibers based on spider silk proteins, it is imperative to know the percentage of each amino acid in the protein that forms a specific secondary structure. Linking these percentages to the primary amino acid sequence of the protein will establish a structural foundation for synthetic silk. In this study, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques are used to quantify the percentage of Ala, Gly, and Ser that form both ?-sheet and helical secondary structures. The fraction of these three amino acids and their secondary structure are quantitatively correlated to the primary amino acid sequence for the proteins that comprise major and minor ampullate silk from the Nephila clavipes spider providing a blueprint for synthetic spider silks. PMID:20000730

  9. Dynamics of Natural Killer cell receptor revealed by quantitative analysis of photoswitchable protein

    E-print Network

    Pageon, Sophie V; Lagrue, Kathryn; Köhler, Karsten; Endres, Robert G; Davis, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Natural Killer (NK) cell activation is dynamically regulated by numerous activating and inhibitory surface receptors that accumulate at the immune synapse. Quantitative analysis of receptor dynamics has been limited by methodologies which rely on indirect measurements such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Here, we report a novel approach to study how proteins traffic to and from the immune synapse using NK cell receptors tagged with the photoswitchable fluorescent protein tdEosFP, which can be irreversibly photoswitched from a green to red fluorescent state by ultraviolet light. Thus, following a localized switching event, the movement of the photoswitched molecules can be temporally and spatially resolved by monitoring fluorescence in two regions of interest. By comparing images with mathematical models, we evaluated the diffusion coefficient of the receptor KIR2DL1 (0.23 +- 0.06 micron^2/s) and assessed how synapse formation affects receptor dynamics. Our data conclude that the inhibitory NK c...

  10. A quantitative autoradiographic method for the measurement of local rates of brain protein synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.E.; Donatoni, P.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1982-05-01

    We have developed a new method for measuring local rates of brain protein synthesis in vivo. It combines the intraperitoneal injection of a large dose of low specific activity amino acid with quantitative autoradiography. This method has several advantages: 1) It is ideally suited for young or small animals or where immobilizing an animal is undesirable. 2 The amino acid injection ''floods'' amino acid pools so that errors in estimating precursor specific activity, which is especially important in pathological conditions, are minimized. 3) The method provides for the use of a radioautographic internal standard in which valine incorporation is measured directly. Internal standards from experimental animals correct for tissue protein content and self-absorption of radiation in tissue sections which could vary under experimental conditions.

  11. Genetic mapping and confirmation of quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil contents and seed weight in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] meal has increased worldwide and soybean importers often offer premiums for soybean containing higher contents of protein and oil. Objectives were to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with soybean seed protein, oil, and seed weight in a soyb...

  12. Quantitation of protein phosphorylation in pregnant rat uteri using stable isotope dimethyl labeling coupled with IMAC.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Yu; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Wu, Chin-Jen; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2006-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation provides important insights into molecular signaling mechanisms and a better understanding of many cellular processes. In this study, we coupled stable isotope dimethyl labeling with immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) enrichment to quantify protein phosphorylation at MS-determined phosphorylation sites. The proposed method was first characterized using alpha- and beta-casein as two model phosphoproteins, and further applied to the analysis of pregnant rat uteri with and without treatment with 8-bromo-cGMP. Dimethyl labeling has several significant advantages: global, fast (within 5 min) and complete (near 100%). Our results indicate that the labeling has no adverse effect on the IMAC enrichment for tryptic peptides having single and multiple phosphorylation sites. Moreover, the enhanced a1 signal and the complete reaction by dimethyl labeling provide unequivocal identification of both the N-terminal amino acid and the number of the labeling site. Using these two criteria in data validation, which is particularly important for identifying phosphoproteins, we found that the confidence in interpreting dimethyl-labeled peptides had greatly increased. In the analysis of late gestation rat uteri, the abundance ratio between treated and un-treated phosphopeptide signals ranged from 0.51 to 1.69 with an average of around 1.01 +/- 0.25. The obtained ratio of the phosphorylation levels at Ser 15 of HSP27 was further confirmed by the consistent results obtained from Western blot analyses. Based on the analysis of the results, it is interesting to note that the activated cGMP dependent protein kinase G (PKG) seems to affect the phosphorylation of proteins associated with the inhibition of cell migration and proliferation, redistribution of actin-associated proteins, and the increase of protein synthesis in late-gestation uteri. These observations provide important evidence suggesting that activated PKG may play a critical role in the shift of pregnant uteri from proliferative to hypertrophic states. PMID:16470654

  13. A quantitative comparison of sRNA-based and protein-based gene regulation

    E-print Network

    Pankaj Mehta; Sidhartha Goyal; Ned S. Wingreen

    2008-09-02

    Small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles as genetic regulators in prokaryotes. sRNAs act post-transcriptionally via complementary pairing with target mRNAs to regulate protein expression. We use a quantitative approach to compare and contrast sRNAs with conventional transcription factors (TFs) to better understand the advantages of each form of regulation. In particular, we calculate the steady-state behavior, noise properties, frequency-dependent gain (amplification), and dynamical response to large input signals of both forms of regulation. While the mean steady-state behavior of sRNA-regulated proteins exhibits a distinctive tunable threshold-linear behavior, our analysis shows that transcriptional bursting leads to significantly higher intrinsic noise in sRNA-based regulation than in TF-based regulation in a large range of expression levels and limits the ability of sRNAs to perform quantitative signaling. Nonetheless, we find that sRNAs are better than TFs at filtering noise in input signals. Additionally, we find that sRNAs allow cells to respond rapidly to large changes in input signals. These features suggest a niche for sRNAs in allowing cells to transition quickly yet reliably between distinct states. This functional niche is consistent with the widespread appearance of sRNAs in stress-response and quasi-developmental networks in prokaryotes.

  14. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...use. (a) Identification. An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma proteins, lipoproteins, enzymes, and hemoglobulins on the basis of their net charge...

  15. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...use. (a) Identification. An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma proteins, lipoproteins, enzymes, and hemoglobulins on the basis of their net charge...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...use. (a) Identification. An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma proteins, lipoproteins, enzymes, and hemoglobulins on the basis of their net charge...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma proteins, lipoproteins, enzymes, and hemoglobulins on the basis of their net charge in specified buffered media. This...

  18. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma proteins, lipoproteins, enzymes, and hemoglobulins on the basis of their net charge in specified buffered media. This...

  19. ELECTROPHORESIS 08www.electrophoresis-journal.com

    E-print Network

    Xuan, Xiangchun "Schwann"

    with chemiluminescence detection for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified organism and metalloproteins in open tubular capillary electrochromatography with etched chemically modified columns J. J

  20. Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Rude, Thomas H; Fowler, Vance G

    2016-01-01

    Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) is a powerful genotyping technique used for the separation of large DNA molecules (entire genomic DNA) after digesting it with unique restriction enzymes and applying to a gel matrix under the electric field that periodically changes direction. PFGE is a variation of agarose gel electrophoresis that permits analysis of bacterial DNA fragments over an order of magnitude larger than that with conventional restriction enzyme analysis. It provides a good representation of the entire bacterial chromosome in a single gel with a highly reproducible restriction profile, providing clearly distinct and well-resolved DNA fragments. PMID:25682374

  1. Automated and quantitative immunocytochemical assays of Bcl-2 protein in breast carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Charpin, C.; Garcia, S.; Bouvier, C.; Devictor, B.; Andrac, L.; Lavaut, M. N.; Allasia, C.

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the bcl-2 gene was investigated in 218 human breast carcinomas by immunohistochemical analysis. Immunodetections were assessed using (1) frozen sections, (2) documented commercially available monoclonal antibody (bcl-2/124, Dako), (3) automation of immunoperoxidase technique (Ventana) and (4) quantitative evaluation of results by image analysis (SAMBA) and statistical analysis of quantitative data (BMDP software). Bcl-2 protein expression was correlated with current prognostic indicators and with molecular markers detected by the same procedure as for Bcl-2. It was shown that Bcl-2 expression is not related to patients' age, tumour size and type or lymph node status, but an inverse relationship was observed between Bcl-2 and tumour grade (P < 0.0001). An inverse relationship was also observed between Bcl-2 expression and p53 (P < 0.0001), Ki67/MIB1 antigen- (P = 0.0012), and P-gp- (P = 0.002) positive immunoreactions. In contrast, anti-Bcl-2 positive reaction was significantly associated with ER-positive (P < 0.001) and with ER/PR-positive or ER/PR/pS2-positive immunoreactions (P < or = 0.005). Bcl-2 expression was independent of CD31 and cathepsin D expression. Thus, Bcl-2 protein, thought to be antiapoptotic, exhibits parodoxical expression in human breast carcinomas. It is strongly detected in low-grade tumours (well-differentiated) with low (MIB1) growth fraction, but is independent of the tumour progression (size, node status, CD31, and cathepsin D). Bcl-2 acting on apoptosis is related to p53 gene abnormalities in breast carcinomas. Bcl-2 protein expression may also be involved in response to endocrine therapy (associated to ER/PR/pS2 positive immunoreactions) and probably with chemoresistance mechanisms (inverse relationship with P-gp). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9252201

  2. Proteomic profiling of the mesenteric lymph after hemorrhagic shock: Differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Experiments show that upon traumatic injury the composition of mesenteric lymph changes such that it initiates an immune response that can ultimately result in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). To identify candidate protein mediators of this process we carried out a quantitative proteomic study on mesenteric lymph from a well characterized rat shock model. We analyzed three animals using analytical 2D differential gel electrophoresis. Intra-animal variation for the majority of protein spots was minor. Functional clustering of proteins revealed changes arising from several global classes that give novel insight into fundamental mechanisms of MODS. Mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis of proteins in mesenteric lymph can effectively be used to identify candidate mediators and loss of protective agents in shock models. PMID:21906351

  3. Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying water soluble protein content in soybean.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiguo; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Haichao; Yuan, Daohua; Li, Jinying; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Zhongwen; Cui, Shiyou; Du, Weiijun

    2013-02-01

    Water soluble protein content (SPC) plays an important role in the functional efficacy of protein in food products. Therefore, for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SPC, 212 F(2:9) lines of the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross of ZDD09454 × Yudou12 were grown along with the parents, in six different environments (location × year) to determine inheritance and map solubility-related genes. A linkage map comprising of 301 SSR markers covering 3,576.81 cM was constructed in the RIL population. Seed SPC was quantified with a macro-Kjeldahl procedure in samples collected over multiple years from three locations (Nantong in 2007 and 2008, Zhengzhou in 2007 and 2008, and Xinxiang in 2008 and 2009). SPC demonstrated transgressive segregation, indicating a complementary genetic structure between the parents. Eleven putative QTL were associated with SPC explaining 4.5-18.2 % of the observed phenotypic variation across the 6 year/location environments. Among these, two QTL (qsp8-4, qsp8-5) near GMENOD2B and Sat_215 showed an association with SPC in multiple environments, suggesting that they were key QTL related to protein solubility. The QTL × environment interaction demonstrated the complex genetic mechanism of SPC. These SPC-associated QTL and linked markers in soybean will provide important information that can be utilized by breeders to improve the functional quality of soybean varieties. PMID:23052024

  4. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals the role of protein arginine phosphorylation in the bacterial stress response.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Andreas; Trentini, Débora Broch; Spiess, Silvia; Fuhrmann, Jakob; Ammerer, Gustav; Mechtler, Karl; Clausen, Tim

    2014-02-01

    Arginine phosphorylation is an emerging protein modification implicated in the general stress response of Gram-positive bacteria. The modification is mediated by the arginine kinase McsB, which phosphorylates and inactivates the heat shock repressor CtsR. In this study, we developed a mass spectrometric approach accounting for the peculiar chemical properties of phosphoarginine. The improved methodology was used to analyze the dynamic changes in the Bacillus subtilis arginine phosphoproteome in response to different stress situations. Quantitative analysis showed that a B. subtilis mutant lacking the YwlE arginine phosphatase accumulated a strikingly large number of arginine phosphorylations (217 sites in 134 proteins), however only a minor fraction of these sites was increasingly modified during heat shock or oxidative stress. The main targets of McsB-mediated arginine phosphorylation comprise central factors of the stress response system including the CtsR and HrcA heat shock repressors, as well as major components of the protein quality control system such as the ClpCP protease and the GroEL chaperonine. These findings highlight the impact of arginine phosphorylation in orchestrating the bacterial stress response. PMID:24263382

  5. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in the different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.

  6. Quantitative fitness analysis shows that NMD proteins and many other protein complexes suppress or enhance distinct telomere cap defects.

    PubMed

    Addinall, Stephen Gregory; Holstein, Eva-Maria; Lawless, Conor; Yu, Min; Chapman, Kaye; Banks, A Peter; Ngo, Hien-Ping; Maringele, Laura; Taschuk, Morgan; Young, Alexander; Ciesiolka, Adam; Lister, Allyson Lurena; Wipat, Anil; Wilkinson, Darren James; Lydall, David

    2011-04-01

    To better understand telomere biology in budding yeast, we have performed systematic suppressor/enhancer analyses on yeast strains containing a point mutation in the essential telomere capping gene CDC13 (cdc13-1) or containing a null mutation in the DNA damage response and telomere capping gene YKU70 (yku70?). We performed Quantitative Fitness Analysis (QFA) on thousands of yeast strains containing mutations affecting telomere-capping proteins in combination with a library of systematic gene deletion mutations. To perform QFA, we typically inoculate 384 separate cultures onto solid agar plates and monitor growth of each culture by photography over time. The data are fitted to a logistic population growth model; and growth parameters, such as maximum growth rate and maximum doubling potential, are deduced. QFA reveals that as many as 5% of systematic gene deletions, affecting numerous functional classes, strongly interact with telomere capping defects. We show that, while Cdc13 and Yku70 perform complementary roles in telomere capping, their genetic interaction profiles differ significantly. At least 19 different classes of functionally or physically related proteins can be identified as interacting with cdc13-1, yku70?, or both. Each specific genetic interaction informs the roles of individual gene products in telomere biology. One striking example is with genes of the nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) pathway which, when disabled, suppress the conditional cdc13-1 mutation but enhance the null yku70? mutation. We show that the suppressing/enhancing role of the NMD pathway at uncapped telomeres is mediated through the levels of Stn1, an essential telomere capping protein, which interacts with Cdc13 and recruitment of telomerase to telomeres. We show that increased Stn1 levels affect growth of cells with telomere capping defects due to cdc13-1 and yku70?. QFA is a sensitive, high-throughput method that will also be useful to understand other aspects of microbial cell biology. PMID:21490951

  7. Identification of indicator proteins associated with flooding injury in soybean seedlings using label-free quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Nanjo, Yohei; Nakamura, Takuji; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-11-01

    Flooding injury is one of the abiotic constraints on soybean growth. An experimental system established for evaluating flooding injury in soybean seedlings indicated that the degree of injury is dependent on seedling density in floodwater. Dissolved oxygen levels in the floodwater were decreased by the seedlings and correlated with the degree of injury. To understand the molecular mechanism responsible for the injury, proteomic alterations in soybean seedlings that correlated with severity of stress were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. The analysis showed that the abundance of proteins involved in cell wall modification, such as polygalacturonase inhibitor-like and expansin-like B1-like proteins, which may be associated with the defense system, increased dependence on stress at both the protein and mRNA levels in all organs during flooding. The manner of alteration in abundance of these proteins was distinct from those of other responsive proteins. Furthermore, proteins also showing specific changes in abundance in the root tip included protein phosphatase 2A subunit-like proteins, which are possibly involved in flooding-induced root tip cell death. Additionally, decreases in abundance of cell wall synthesis-related proteins, such as cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase and cellulose synthase-interactive protein-like proteins, were identified in hypocotyls of seedlings grown for 3 days after flooding, and these proteins may be associated with suppression of growth after flooding. These flooding injury-associated proteins can be defined as indicator proteins for severity of flooding stress in soybean. PMID:23659366

  8. xTract: software for characterizing conformational changes of protein complexes by quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Walzthoeni, Thomas; Joachimiak, Lukasz A; Rosenberger, George; Röst, Hannes L; Malmström, Lars; Leitner, Alexander; Frydman, Judith; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2015-12-01

    Chemical cross-linking in combination with mass spectrometry generates distance restraints of amino acid pairs in close proximity on the surface of native proteins and protein complexes. In this study we used quantitative mass spectrometry and chemical cross-linking to quantify differences in cross-linked peptides obtained from complexes in spatially discrete states. We describe a generic computational pipeline for quantitative cross-linking mass spectrometry consisting of modules for quantitative data extraction and statistical assessment of the obtained results. We used the method to detect conformational changes in two model systems: firefly luciferase and the bovine TRiC complex. Our method discovers and explains the structural heterogeneity of protein complexes using only sparse structural information. PMID:26501516

  9. Strigolactone-Regulated Proteins Revealed by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhou; Czarnecki, Olaf; Chourey, Karuna; Yang, Jun; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Pan, Chongle; Chen, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a new class of plant hormones. In addition to acting as a key inhibitor of shoot branching, SLs stimulate seed germination of root parasitic plants and promote hyphal branching and root colonization of symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. They also regulate many other aspects of plant growth and development. At the transcription level, SL-regulated genes have been reported. However, nothing is known about the proteome regulated by this new class of plant hormones. Here, a quantitative proteomics approach using an isobaric chemical labeling reagent, iTRAQ, to identify the proteome regulated by SLs in Arabidopsis seedlings is presented. It was found SLs regulate the expression of about three dozens of proteins that have not been previously assigned to SL pathways. These findings provide a new tool to investigate the molecular mechanism of action of SLs.

  10. Identification and quantitative analysis of genes encoding odorant binding proteins in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Chunxiao; Yan, Ting; Dong, Yande; Zhao, Tongyan

    2012-05-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) play a critical role in mediating mosquito behaviors. In the current study, four AealOBP genes were cloned and sequenced. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool Program and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences identified a unique putative ortholog in Aedes aegypti (L.) for each Aedes albopictus (Skuse) OBP. Quantitative analysis showed some AealOBPs with a strong female/male expression ratio, which we proposed to be involved in the host seeking of female mosquitoes. Other OBPs are expressed at higher levels in male antennae and are considered candidates for the detection of floral volatiles. The current study provides basis for further detailed molecular characterization of Ae. albopictus olfactory systems. PMID:22679864

  11. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance to Quantitatively Assess Lipid-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Kathryn; Stahelin, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a quantitative, label-free method for determining molecular interactions in real time. The technology involves fixing a ligand onto a senor chip, measuring a baseline resonance angle, and flowing an analyte in bulk solution over the fixed ligand to measure the subsequent change in resonance angle. The mass of analyte bound to fixed ligand is directly proportional to the resonance angle change and the system is sensitive enough to detect as little as picomolar amounts of analyte in the bulk solution. SPR can be used to determine both the specificity of molecular interactions and the kinetics and affinity of an interaction. This technique has been especially useful in measuring the affinities of lipid-binding proteins to intact liposomes of varying lipid compositions. PMID:26552681

  12. Unbiased Quantitative Models of Protein Translation Derived from Ribosome Profiling Data

    PubMed Central

    Gritsenko, Alexey A.; Hulsman, Marc; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; de Ridder, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Translation of RNA to protein is a core process for any living organism. While for some steps of this process the effect on protein production is understood, a holistic understanding of translation still remains elusive. In silico modelling is a promising approach for elucidating the process of protein synthesis. Although a number of computational models of the process have been proposed, their application is limited by the assumptions they make. Ribosome profiling (RP), a relatively new sequencing-based technique capable of recording snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes, is a promising source of information for deriving unbiased data-driven translation models. However, quantitative analysis of RP data is challenging due to high measurement variance and the inability to discriminate between the number of ribosomes measured on a gene and their speed of translation. We propose a solution in the form of a novel multi-scale interpretation of RP data that allows for deriving models with translation dynamics extracted from the snapshots. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by simultaneously determining for the first time per-codon translation elongation and per-gene translation initiation rates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from RP data for two versions of the Totally Asymmetric Exclusion Process (TASEP) model of translation. We do this in an unbiased fashion, by fitting the models using only RP data with a novel optimization scheme based on Monte Carlo simulation to keep the problem tractable. The fitted models match the data significantly better than existing models and their predictions show better agreement with several independent protein abundance datasets than existing models. Results additionally indicate that the tRNA pool adaptation hypothesis is incomplete, with evidence suggesting that tRNA post-transcriptional modifications and codon context may play a role in determining codon elongation rates. PMID:26275099

  13. A quantitative and highly sensitive luciferase-based assay for bacterial toxins that inhibit protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Luyi; Haslam, David B

    2005-11-01

    Inhibition of protein synthesis is a common mechanism by which bacterial and plant toxins injure human cells. Examples of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis include shiga toxins of Escherichia coli, diphtheria toxin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A and the plant toxin ricin. In order to facilitate studies on toxin pathogenesis and to enable screening for inhibitors of toxin action, a quantitative and highly sensitive assay for the action of these toxins on mammalian cells was developed. The cDNA encoding destabilized luciferase was cloned into an adenoviral expression plasmid and a high-titre viral stock was prepared. Following transduction of Vero cells, luciferase expression was found to be linear with respect to viral multiplicity of infection. Luciferase expression by as few as 10 cells was readily detected. Treatment of transduced cells with either cycloheximide or shiga toxin resulted in a decrease in luciferase activity, with a half-life ranging from 1 to 2 h. Inhibition of luciferase expression was evident at toxin concentrations as low as 1 pg ml(-1). The assay was adapted for use in 24-, 96- and 384-well plates, enabling rapid processing of large numbers of samples. Using this approach, susceptibility of Vero, Hep2, Chang, A549, COS-1 and HeLa cells to three different toxins was determined. These results demonstrate that the luciferase-based assay is applicable to the study of numerous cell types, is quantitative, highly sensitive and reproducible. These features will facilitate studies on pathophysiology of toxin-mediated diseases and allow high-throughput screening for inhibitors of cytotoxicity. PMID:16192432

  14. Mapping and Analysis of Dairy Cattle Quantitative Trait Loci by Maximum Likelihood Methodology Using Milk Protein Genes as Genetic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Bovenhuis, H.; Weller, J. I.

    1994-01-01

    Maximum likelihood methodology was used to estimate effects of both a marker gene and a linked quantitative trait locus (QTL) on quantitative traits in a segregating population. Two alleles were assumed for the QTL. In addition to the effects of genotypes at both loci on the mean of the quantitative trait, recombination frequency between the loci, frequency of the QTL alleles and the residual standard deviation were also estimated. Thus six parameters were estimated in addition to the marker genotype means. The statistical model was tested on simulated data, and used to estimate direct and linked effects of the milk protein genes, ?-lactoglobulin, ?casein, and ?-casein, on milk, fat, and protein production and fat and protein percent in the Dutch dairy cattle population. ?-Lactoglobulin had significant direct effects on milk yield and fat percent. ?-Casein had significant direct effects on milk yield, protein percent and fat yield. ?-Casein had significant direct effects on milk yield, fat and protein percent and fat and protein yield. Linked QTL with significant effects on fat percent were found for ?-casein and ?-casein. Since the ?-casein and ?-casein genes are closely linked, it is likely that the same QTL was detected for those two markers. Further, a QTL with a significant effect on fat yield was found to be linked to ?-casein and a QTL with a significant effect on protein yield was linked to ?-lactoglobulin. PMID:8056316

  15. Nearly 1000 Protein Identifications from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis Zygote Homogenate Using Online Sample Preparation on a Strong Cation Exchange Monolith Based Microreactor Coupled with Capillary Zone Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Cox, Olivia F; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J

    2016-01-01

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation exchange monolith microreactor was synthesized and coupled to a linear polyacrylamide coated capillary for online sample preparation and capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) bottom-up proteomic analysis. The protein sample was loaded onto the microreactor in an acidic buffer. After online reduction, alkylation, and digestion with trypsin, the digests were eluted with 200 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 8.2 for CZE-MS/MS analysis using 1 M acetic acid as the background electrolyte. This combination of basic elution and acidic background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction. 369 protein groups and 1274 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis zygote homogenate, which is comparable with an offline sample preparation method, but the time required for sample preparation was decreased from over 24 h to less than 40 min. Dramatically improved performance was produced by coupling the reactor to a longer separation capillary (?100 cm) and a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. 975 protein groups and 3749 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus protein using the online sample preparation method. PMID:26670623

  16. Quantitative Description of a Protein Fitness Landscape Based on Molecular Features.

    PubMed

    Meini, María-Rocío; Tomatis, Pablo E; Weinreich, Daniel M; Vila, Alejandro J

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind protein evolution requires the ability to correlate the molecular impact of mutations with organismal fitness. To address this issue, we employ here metallo-?-lactamases as a model system, which are Zn(II) dependent enzymes that mediate antibiotic resistance. We present a study of all the possible evolutionary pathways leading to a metallo-?-lactamase variant optimized by directed evolution. By studying the activity, stability and Zn(II) binding capabilities of all mutants in the preferred evolutionary pathways, we show that this local fitness landscape is strongly conditioned by epistatic interactions arising from the pleiotropic effect of mutations in the different molecular features of the enzyme. Activity and stability assays in purified enzymes do not provide explanatory power. Instead, measurement of these molecular features in an environment resembling the native one provides an accurate description of the observed antibiotic resistance profile. We report that optimization of Zn(II) binding abilities of metallo-?-lactamases during evolution is more critical than stabilization of the protein to enhance fitness. A global analysis of these parameters allows us to connect genotype with fitness based on quantitative biochemical and biophysical parameters. PMID:25767204

  17. Improved method for identification of low abundance proteins using 2D-gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF and TOF/TOF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Differential protein expression studies have been routinely performed in our laboratory to determine the health effects of environmentally-important chemicals. In this abstract, improvements in the in-gel protein digestion, MALDI plate spotting and data acquisition...

  18. Analysis of proteins using DIGE and MALDI mass spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work the sensitivity of the quantitative proteomics approach 2D-DIGE/MS (twoDimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis / Mass Spectrometry) was tested by detecting decreasing amounts of a specific protein at the low picomole and sub-picomole range. Sensitivity of the 2D-D...

  19. Analysis of electrophoresis performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    The SAMPLE computer code models electrophoresis separation in a wide range of conditions. Results are included for steady three dimensional continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE), time dependent gel and acetate film experiments in one or two dimensions and isoelectric focusing in one dimension. The code evolves N two dimensional radical concentration distributions in time, or distance down a CFE chamber. For each time or distance increment, there are six stages, successively obtaining the pH distribution, the corresponding degrees of ionization for each radical, the conductivity, the electric field and current distribution, and the flux components in each direction for each separate radical. The final stage is to update the radical concentrations. The model formulation for ion motion in an electric field ignores activity effects, and is valid only for low concentrations; for larger concentrations the conductivity is, therefore, also invalid.

  20. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyance-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chamber are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field were not considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  1. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyancy-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chambers are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrohydrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field have not been considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  2. Applications of space-electrophoresis in medicine. [for cellular separations in molecular biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of electrophoresis is reviewed and potential advances realizable in the field of biology and medicine from a space electrophoresis facility are examined. The ground-based applications of electrophoresis: (1) characterization of an ionized species; (2) determination of the quantitative composition of a complex mixture; and (3) isolation of the components of a mixture, separation achieved on the basis of the difference in transport rates is reviewed. The electrophoresis of living cells is considered, touching upon the following areas: the separation of T and B lymphocytes; the genetic influence on mouse lymphocyte mobilities; the abnormal production of specific and monoclonal immunoproteins; and the study of cancer. Schematic diagrams are presented of three types of electrophoresis apparatus: the column assembly for the static electrophoresis experiment on the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the continuous flow apparatus used in the same mission and a miniaturized electrophoresis apparatus.

  3. Targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring on quantitative changes in proteins that regulate volatile biosynthesis of strawberry fruit at different ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Forney, Charles F; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-08-01

    A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM, SRM) technique was conducted on strawberry fruit at different development stages. We investigated 22 proteins and isoforms from 32 peptides with 111 peptide transitions, which may be involved in the volatile aroma biosynthesis pathway. The normalized protein abundance was significantly changed in coincidence with increased volatile production and advanced fruit maturities. Among them, alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), quinone oxidoreductase (QR), malonyl Co-A decarboxylase, (MLYCD), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACCase), and acyl Co-A synthetase (ACAs) were increased significantly. Several alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), and 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the expression of seven genes related to strawberry volatile production was also investigated using real-time qPCR. Among the tested genes, QR, AAT, ACCase, OMT, PDC and ADH showed increased up-regulation during fruit ripening, while 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMD) decreased. Strong correlation between quantitative proteomic data and gene expression suggested that AAT, QR, ACCase, and PDC played critical roles in volatile biosynthesis of strawberry during fruit ripening. Poor correlation between protein abundance and gene expression of ADH was found. PMID:26087350

  4. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms. PMID:23226239

  5. Shape-shifting 3D protein microstructures with programmable directionality via quantitative nanoscale stiffness modulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mian Rong; Phang, In Yee; Cui, Yan; Lee, Yih Hong; Ling, Xing Yi

    2015-02-11

    The ability to shape-shift in response to a stimulus increases an organism's survivability in nature. Similarly, man-made dynamic and responsive "smart" microtechnology is crucial for the advancement of human technology. Here, 10-30 ?m shape-changing 3D BSA protein hydrogel microstructures are fabricated with dynamic, quantitative, directional, and angle-resolved bending via two-photon photolithography. The controlled directional responsiveness is achieved by spatially controlling the cross-linking density of BSA at a nanometer lengthscale. Atomic force microscopy measurements of Young's moduli of structures indicate that increasing the laser writing distance at the z-axis from 100-500 nm decreases the modulus of the structure. Hence, through nanoscale modulation of the laser writing z-layer distance at the nanoscale, control over the cross-linking density is possible, allowing for the swelling extent of the microstructures to be quantified and controlled with high precision. This method of segmented moduli is applied within a single microstructure for the design of shape-shifting microstructures that exhibit stimulus-induced chirality, as well as for the fabrication of a free-standing 3D microtrap which is able to open and close in response to a pH change. PMID:25264141

  6. Non Linear Programming (NLP) Formulation for Quantitative Modeling of Protein Signal Transduction Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Melody K.; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms. PMID:23226239

  7. Using Fluorescent Proteins to Visualize and Quantitate Chlamydia Vacuole Growth Dynamics in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Meghan; Feng, Caroline; Hybiske, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia elicits a great burden on global public health. C. trachomatis is the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection and also the primary cause of preventable blindness in the world. An essential determinant for successful infection of host cells by Chlamydia is the bacterium's ability to manipulate host cell signaling from within a novel, vacuolar compartment called the inclusion. From within the inclusion, Chlamydia acquire nutrients required for their 2-3 day developmental growth, and they additionally secrete a panel of effector proteins onto the cytosolic face of the vacuole membrane and into the host cytosol. Gaps in our understanding of Chlamydia biology, however, present significant challenges for visualizing and analyzing this intracellular compartment. Recently, a reverse-imaging strategy for visualizing the inclusion using GFP expressing host cells was described. This approach rationally exploits the intrinsic impermeability of the inclusion membrane to large molecules such as GFP. In this work, we describe how GFP- or mCherry-expressing host cells are generated for subsequent visualization of chlamydial inclusions. Furthermore, this method is shown to effectively substitute for costly antibody-based enumeration methods, can be used in tandem with other fluorescent labels, such as GFP-expressing Chlamydia, and can be exploited to derive key quantitative data about inclusion membrane growth from a range of Chlamydia species and strains. PMID:26484535

  8. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  9. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  10. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  11. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Chang, Huan-Tsang (Silver Spring, MD); Fung, Eliza N. (Ames, IA); Li, Qingbo (Ames, IA); Lu, Xiandan (Ames, IA)

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  12. Investigation of Pokemon-regulated proteins in hepatocellular carcinoma using mass spectrometry-based multiplex quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xin; Jin, Yibao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Gao, Dan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2013-01-01

    Pokemon is a transcription regulator involved in embryonic development, cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. It is aberrantly overexpressed in multiple human cancers including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is considered as a promising biomarker for HCC. In this work, the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics strategy was used to investigate the proteomic profile associated with Pokemon in human HCC cell line QGY7703 and human hepatocyte line HL7702. Samples were labeled with four-plex iTRAQ reagents followed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 24 differentially expressed proteins were selected as significant. Nine proteins were potentially up-regulated by Pokemon while 15 proteins were potentially down-regulated and many proteins were previously identified as potential biomarkers for HCC. Gene ontology (GO) term enrichment revealed that the listed proteins were mainly involved in DNA metabolism and biosynthesis process. The changes of glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD, up-regulated) and ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large sub-unit (RIM1, down-regulated) were validated by Western blotting analysis and denoted as Pokemon's function of oncogenesis. We also found that Pokemon potentially repressed the expression of highly clustered proteins (MCM3, MCM5, MCM6, MCM7) which played key roles in promoting DNA replication. Altogether, our results may help better understand the role of Pokemon in HCC and promote the clinical applications. PMID:24261083

  13. High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Saez, Natalie J.; Nozach, Hervé; Blemont, Marilyne; Vincentelli, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment. Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays. PMID:25146501

  14. Development and Validation of a Multiplexed Protein Quantitation Assay for the Determination of Three Recombinant Proteins in Soybean Tissues by Liquid Chromatography with Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ryan C; Oman, Trent J; Shan, Guomin; Schafer, Barry; Eble, Julie; Chen, Cynthia

    2015-08-26

    Currently, traditional immunochemistry technologies such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are the predominant analytical tool used to measure levels of recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered (GE) plants. Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have created a need to develop methods capable of selectively detecting and quantifying multiple proteins in complex matrices because of increasing numbers of transgenic proteins being coexpressed or "stacked" to achieve tolerance to multiple herbicides or to provide multiple modes of action for insect control. A multiplexing analytical method utilizing liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated to quantify three herbicide-tolerant proteins in soybean tissues: aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase (AAD-12), 5-enol-pyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (2mEPSPS), and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT). Results from the validation showed high recovery and precision over multiple analysts and laboratories. Results from this method were comparable to those obtained with ELISA with respect to protein quantitation, and the described method was demonstrated to be suitable for multiplex quantitation of transgenic proteins in GE crops. PMID:26237374

  15. Neuronal network analysis of serum electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, M. A.; Ivandic, B.; Fateh-Moghadam, A.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To advise a system of neuronal networks which can classify the densitometric patterns of serum electrophoresis. METHODS: Digitised data containing 83 normal and 132 pathological serum protein electrophoresis patterns were presented to four neuronal networks containing 1900 neurons. Network 1 evaluates the integrated values of the albumin, alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma fractions together with total protein (Biuret method). Networks 2, 3, and 4 analyse the shape of the albumin, beta and gamma fractions. To increase the sensitivity for the detection of monoclonal gammopathies a Fourier transformation was applied to the beta and gamma fractions. RESULTS: After a learning period of 20 minutes (back-propagation learning algorithm) the system was tested with a set of electrophoresis patterns comprising 446 routinely collected samples. It differentiated between physiological and pathological curves with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 98.8%, with 86% correct diagnoses. All monoclonal gammopathies were recognised by the Fourier detector. CONCLUSIONS: Neuronal networks could be useful for certain medical uses. Unlike rule based systems, neuronal networks do not have to be programmed but have the capacity to "learn" quickly. PMID:1517463

  16. Phenotyping breast cancer cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis and affinity chromatography for glutathione-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Transformed phenotypes are common to cell lines derived from various cancers. Proteome profiling is a valuable tool that may reveal uncharacteristic cell phenotypes in transformed cells. Changes in expression of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and other proteins interacting with glutathione (GSH) in model cell lines could be of particular interest. Methods We compared the phenotypes of breast cell lines EM-G3, HCC1937, MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 using 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). We further separated GSH-binding proteins from the cell lines using affinity chromatography with GSH-Sepharose 4B, performed 2-DE analysis and identified the main protein spots. Results Correlation coefficients among 2-DE gels from the cell lines were lower than 0.65, pointing to dissimilarity among the cell lines. Differences in primary constituents of the cytoskeleton were shown by the 2-D protein maps and western blots. The spot patterns in gels of GSH-binding fractions from primary carcinoma-derived cell lines HCC1937 and EM-G3 were similar to each other, and they differed from the spot patterns of cell lines MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 that were derived from pleural effusions of metastatic mammary carcinoma patients. Major differences in the expression of GST P1-1 and carbonyl reductase [NADPH] 1 were observed among the cell lines, indicating differential abilities of the cell lines to metabolize xenobiotics. Conclusions Our results confirmed the applicability of targeted affinity chromatography to proteome profiling and allowed us to characterize the phenotypes of four breast cancer cell lines. PMID:20731849

  17. Using capillary electrophoresis for failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.G.; Scully, H.S.; Stoner, G.E. . Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE), an advanced solution analysis technique, can be used for failure analysis of corroded components. It has high sensitivity (concentrations as low as parts-per-trillion) and can detect quantitatively a large number of ionic species. CE determined the vapor-phase attack by organic acids, mainly acetic acid, on an electrical equipment enclosure. These acids most likely originated from the seasoning of the oak pallets used to transport the manufactured items, accumulating inside the shrink-wrap film used to bind packages to the pallet.

  18. A new approach to electrophoresis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1990-01-01

    Previous electrophoresis experiments performed in space are reviewed. There is sufficient data available from the results of these experiments to show that they were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. Redesigning laboratory chambers and operating procedures developed on Earth for space without understanding both the advantages and disadvantages of the microgravity environment has yielded poor separations of both cells and proteins. However, electrophoreris is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  19. Integrated isolation and quantitative analysis of exosome shuttled proteins and nucleic acids using immunocapture approaches.

    PubMed

    Zarovni, Natasa; Corrado, Antonietta; Guazzi, Paolo; Zocco, Davide; Lari, Elisa; Radano, Giorgia; Muhhina, Jekatarina; Fondelli, Costanza; Gavrilova, Julia; Chiesi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Clinical implementation of exosome based diagnostic and therapeutic applications is still limited by the lack of standardized technologies that integrate efficient isolation of exosomes with comprehensive detection of relevant biomarkers. Conventional methods for exosome isolation based on their physical properties such as size and density (filtration, ultracentrifugation or density gradient), or relying on their differential solubility (chemical precipitation) are established primarily for processing of cell supernatants and later adjusted to complex biological samples such as plasma. Though still representing gold standard in the field, these methods are clearly suboptimal for processing of routine clinical samples and have intrinsic limits that impair their use in biomarker discovery and development of novel diagnostics. Immunoisolation (IA) offers unique advantages for the recovery of exosomes from complex and viscous fluids, in terms of increased efficiency and specificity of exosome capture, integrity and selective origin of isolated vesicles. We have evaluated several commercially available solutions for immunoplate- and immunobead-based affinity isolation and have further optimized protocols to decrease non-specific binding due to exosomes complexity and matrix contaminants. In order to identify best molecular targets for total exosome capture from diverse biological sources, as well as for selective enrichment in populations of interest (e.g. tumor derived exosomes) several exosome displayed proteins and respective antibodies have been evaluated for plate and bead functionalisation. Moreover, we have optimized and directly implemented downstream steps allowing on-line quantification and characterization of bound exosome markers, namely proteins and RNAs. Thus assembled assays enabled rapid overall quantification and validation of specific exosome associated targets in/on plasma exosomes, with multifold increased yield and enrichment ratio over benchmarking technologies. Assays directly coupling selective immobilization of exosomes to a solid phase and their immune- and or molecular profiling through conventional ELISA and PCR analysis, resulted in easy-to-elaborate, quantitative readouts, with high low-end sensitivity and dynamic range, low costs and hands-on time, minimal sample handling and downscaling of a working plasma volumes to as few as 100?l. PMID:26044649

  20. Differential recovery of lupin proteins from the gluten matrix in lupin-wheat bread as revealed by mass spectrometry and two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shahidul; Ma, Wujun; Yan, Guijun; Gao, Liyan; Appels, Rudi

    2011-06-22

    Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin ?-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the ?-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of ?-conglutins compared to ?-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference. PMID:21548652

  1. Dynamics of the G Protein-coupled Vasopressin V2 Receptor Signaling Network Revealed by Quantitative Phosphoproteomics*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffert, Jason D.; Pisitkun, Trairak; Saeed, Fahad; Song, Jae H.; Chou, Chung-Lin; Knepper, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate diverse physiological processes, and many human diseases are due to defects in GPCR signaling. To identify the dynamic response of a signaling network downstream from a prototypical Gs-coupled GPCR, the vasopressin V2 receptor, we have carried out multireplicate, quantitative phosphoproteomics with iTRAQ labeling at four time points following vasopressin exposure at a physiological concentration in cells isolated from rat kidney. A total of 12,167 phosphopeptides were identified from 2,783 proteins, with 273 changing significantly in abundance with vasopressin. Two-dimensional clustering of phosphopeptide time courses and Gene Ontology terms revealed that ligand binding to the V2 receptor affects more than simply the canonical cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A and arrestin pathways under physiological conditions. The regulated proteins included key components of actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell-cell adhesion, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, Wnt/?-catenin signaling, and apoptosis pathways. These data suggest that vasopressin can regulate an array of cellular functions well beyond its classical role in regulating water and solute transport. These results greatly expand the current view of GPCR signaling in a physiological context and shed new light on potential roles for this signaling network in disorders such as polycystic kidney disease. Finally, we provide an online resource of physiologically regulated phosphorylation sites with dynamic quantitative data (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/TiPD/index.html). PMID:22108457

  2. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  3. Electrophoresis demonstration on Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Free fluid electrophoresis, a process used to separate particulate species according to surface charge, size, or shape was suggested as a promising technique to utilize the near zero gravity condition of space. Fluid electrophoresis on earth is disturbed by gravity-induced thermal convection and sedimentation. An apparatus was developed to demonstrate the principle and possible problems of electrophoresis on Apollo 14 and the separation boundary between red and blue dye was photographed in space. The basic operating elements of the Apollo 14 unit were used for a second flight demonstration on Apollo 16. Polystyrene latex particles of two different sizes were used to simulate the electrophoresis of large biological particles. The particle bands in space were extremely stable compared to ground operation because convection in the fluid was negligible. Electrophoresis of the polystyrene latex particle groups according to size was accomplished although electro-osmosis in the flight apparatus prevented the clear separation of two particle bands.

  4. Monitoring refolding of tailspike endorhamnosidase using capillary electrophoresis-laser induced tryptophan fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.K.; Lee, Cheng S.; King, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of capillary electrophoresis equipped with laser-induced tryptophan fluorescence detection is presented for monitoring the refolding pathway of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase. Upon initiation of refolding, tailspike polypeptides rapidly fold into structured monomeric intermediates with a high content of secondary structure. These monomeric species associate to form the triple-chain defined folding intermediates, the protrimers. Conversion of the protrimer into the native, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant tailspike protein is the rate-limiting step in the refolding pathway. Refolding kinetics and yield measured by capillary electrophoresis are in good agreement with those obtained via native gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. To enhance separation resolution between protrimer and native protein in capillary electrophoresis, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) is investigated for the introduction of a sieving separation mechanism. The increased viscosity of the electrophoresis buffer may also play a role in resolution enhancement.

  5. Electrophoresis experiment for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; Micale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Apollo 16 electrophoresis experiment was analyzed, demonstrating that the separation of the two different-size monodisperse latexes did indeed take place, but that the separation was obscured by the pronounced electroosmotic flow of the liquid medium. The results of this experiment, however, were dramatic since it is impossible to carry out a similar separation on earth. It can be stated unequivocally from this experiment that any electrophoretic separation will be enhanced under microgravity conditions. The only question is the degree of this enhancement, which can be expected to vary from one experimental technique to another. The low-electroosmotic-mobility coating (Z6040-MC) developed under this program was found to be suitable for a free-fluid electrophoretic separation such as the experiment designed for the ASTP flight. The problem with this coating, however, is that its permanency is limited because of the slow desorption of the methylcellulose from the coated surface.

  6. Static continuous electrophoresis device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H. (inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for carrying out a moving wall type electrophoresis process for separation of cellular particles. The apparatus includes a water-tight housing containing an electrolytic buffer solution. A separation chamber in the housing is defined by spaced opposed moving walls and spaced opposed side walls. Substrate assemblies, which support the moving wall include vacuum ports for positively sealing the moving walls against the substrate walls. Several suction conduits communicate with the suction ports and are arranged in the form of valleys in a grid plate. The raised land portion of the grid plat supports the substrate walls against deformation inwardly under suction. A cooling chamber is carried on the back side of plate. The apparatus also has tensioner means including roller and adjustment screws for maintaining the belts in position and a drive arrangement including an electric motor with a gear affixed to its output shaft. Electrode assemblies are disposed to provide the required electric field.

  7. Identification of Hypoxia-Regulated Proteins Using MALDI-Mass Spectrometry Imaging Combined with Quantitative Proteomics

    E-print Network

    with Quantitative Proteomics Marie-Claude Djidja,,#, Joan Chang,,,, Andreas Hadjiprocopis, Fabian Schmich,, John quantitative proteomics combined with MALDI- mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). Here we present a compre- hensive hypoxic proteome study and are the first to investigate changes in situ using tumor samples

  8. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  9. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-01-01

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm. PMID:26287180

  10. Measurement of local rates of brain protein synthesis by quantitative autoradiography: validation with L-(/sup 3/H)valine

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, B.E.; Donatoni, P.; Wasterlain, C.G.

    1982-12-01

    Following the injection of 4-day old rats with 150 mM L-(3,4-/sup 3/H)valine (10 mumol/g, IP) the incorporation of /sup 3/H into protein was linear 2 hours. Valine specific activity in the brain acid-soluble fraction was constant between 30 and 120 min after injection with a mean value of 82.3% of the injectate. Significant amounts of tritated metabolites accumulated in the brain acid-soluble fraction (41.4% of radioactivity at 120 min) but do not prove an impediment to measuring rates of protein synthesis. The rate of protein synthesis in cerebral cortex of the 4-day old rat was measured by quantitative autoradiography using (/sup 3/H)valine and /sup 3/H-sensitive film. The measured rate shows excellent agreement with that found previously using L-(1-/sup 14/C)valine. Our results suggest that (/sup 3/H)valine can be a useful precursor to measure local rates of brain protein synthesis by quantitative autoradiography.

  11. Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Kang

    Background: Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. ...

  12. A capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry methodology for the determination of non-protein amino acids in vegetable oils as novel markers for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Marina, Maria Luisa; Crego, Antonio L

    2011-07-29

    A new analytical methodology based on capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS(2)) is presented in this work, enabling the identification and determination of six non-protein amino acids (ornithine, ?-alanine, GABA, alloisoleucine, citrulline and pyroglutamic acid) in vegetable oils. This methodology is based on a previous derivatization with butanol and subsequent separation using acidic conditions followed by on-line coupling to an ion trap analyzer for MS(2) detection established through an electrospray-coaxial sheath flow interface. The electrophoretic and interface parameters were optimized obtaining the separation of all compounds in less than 15 min and with resolutions higher than 5. The proposed method was validated by assessing its accuracy, precision (RSD<7% for corrected peak areas), LODs and LOQs (between 0.04-0.19 ng/g and 0.06-0.31 ng/g, respectively) and linearity range (R(2)>0.99), and it was used in order to identify the selected non-protein amino acids in soybean oils, sunflower oils, corn oils and extra virgin olive oils. MS(2) experiments performed the fingerprint fragmentation of these compounds allowing to corroborate ornithine and alloisoleucine in seed oils but not in olive oils. The method was applied to identify and quantify olive oil adulterations with soybean oil detecting in a single run the amino acids in mixtures up to 2% (w/w). The results showed a high potential in using these compounds as novel markers for the detection of adulterations of extra virgin olive oils with seed oils. Thus, the developed method could be considered a simple, rapid and reliable method for the quality evaluation of extra virgin olive oil permitting its authentication. PMID:21306720

  13. PPCheck: A Webserver for the Quantitative Analysis of Protein–Protein Interfaces and Prediction of Residue Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Sukhwal, Anshul; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Modeling protein–protein interactions (PPIs) using docking algorithms is useful for understanding biomolecular interactions and mechanisms. Typically, a docking algorithm generates a large number of docking poses, and it is often challenging to select the best native-like pose. A further challenge is to recognize key residues, termed as hotspots, at protein–protein interfaces, which contribute more in stabilizing a protein–protein interface. RESULTS We had earlier developed a computer algorithm, called PPCheck, which ascribes pseudoenergies to measure the strength of PPIs. Native-like poses could be successfully identified in 27 out of 30 test cases, when applied on a separate set of decoys that were generated using FRODOCK. PPCheck, along with conservation and accessibility scores, was able to differentiate ‘native-like and non-native-like poses from 1883 decoys of Critical Assessment of Prediction of Interactions (CAPRI) targets with an accuracy of 60%. PPCheck was trained on a 10-fold mixed dataset and tested on a 10-fold mixed test set for hotspot prediction. We obtain an accuracy of 72%, which is in par with other methods, and a sensitivity of 59%, which is better than most existing methods available for hotspot prediction that uses similar datasets. Other relevant tests suggest that PPCheck can also be reliably used to identify conserved residues in a protein and to perform computational alanine scanning. CONCLUSIONS PPCheck webserver can be successfully used to differentiate native-like and non-native-like docking poses, as generated by docking algorithms. The webserver can also be a convenient platform for calculating residue conservation, for performing computational alanine scanning, and for predicting protein–protein interface hotspots. While PPCheck can differentiate the generated decoys into native-like and non-native-like decoys with a fairly good accuracy, the results improve dramatically when features like conservation and accessibility are included. The method can be successfully used in ranking/scoring the decoys, as obtained from docking algorithms. PMID:26448684

  14. A new approach to scaling up electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Tarnopolsky, Y.; Roman, M.; Brown, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Free Flow Electrophoresis (FFE) has been utilized for the separation of proteins and cells for many years, and has evolved into the most promising method of continuous separation. One of the major drawbacks inherent with FFE, however, is the thermal convection due to Joule heating which occurs whenever current is passed through a conducting solution. To provide efficient heat dissipation, the size of FFE units is restricted, which limits sample throughput. A new type of FFE design, which internally cools the separation unit by passing water through capillary tubes, has been developed and tested. Results of separations of dyes are presented, using a bed {1/4} inch thick which maintains efficient cooling.

  15. Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry of carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Zaia, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for capillary electrophoresis (CE) with on-line mass spectrometric detection (CE/MS) is driven by the need for accurate, robust and sensitive glycomics analysis for basic biomedicine, biomarker discovery, and analysis of recombinant protein therapeutics. One important capability is to profile glycan mixtures with respect to the patterns of substituents including sialic acids, acetate, sulfate, phosphate, and other groups. There is additional need for an MS-compatible separation system capable of resolving carbohydrate isomers. This review summarizes applications of CS/MS to analysis of carbohydrates, glycoproteins and glycopeptides that have appeared since 2008. Readers are referred to recent comprehensive reviews covering earlier publications. PMID:23386333

  16. Quantitative analysis of RNA-protein interactions on a massively parallel array for mapping biophysical and evolutionary landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Buenrostro, Jason D.; Chircus, Lauren M.; Araya, Carlos L.; Layton, Curtis J.; Chang, Howard Y.; Snyder, Michael P.; Greenleaf, William J.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-protein interactions drive fundamental biological processes and are targets for molecular engineering, yet quantitative and comprehensive understanding of the sequence determinants of affinity remains limited. Here we repurpose a high-throughput sequencing instrument to quantitatively measure binding and dissociation of MS2 coat protein to >107 RNA targets generated on a flow-cell surface by in situ transcription and inter-molecular tethering of RNA to DNA. We decompose the binding energy contributions from primary and secondary RNA structure, finding that differences in affinity are often driven by sequence-specific changes in association rates. By analyzing the biophysical constraints and modeling mutational paths describing the molecular evolution of MS2 from low- to high-affinity hairpins, we quantify widespread molecular epistasis, and a long-hypothesized structure-dependent preference for G:U base pairs over C:A intermediates in evolutionary trajectories. Our results suggest that quantitative analysis of RNA on a massively parallel array (RNAMaP) relationships across molecular variants. PMID:24727714

  17. Proteomic profiling of macrophages by 2D electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Marion; Turkieh, Annie; Acosta-Martin, Adelina E; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Beseme, Olivia; Amouyel, Philippe; Pinet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis protocol described here is to show how to analyse the phenotype of human cultured macrophages. The key role of macrophages has been shown in various pathological disorders such as inflammatory, immunological, and infectious diseases. In this protocol, we use primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages that can be differentiated into the M1 (pro-inflammatory) or the M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotype. This in vitro model is reliable for studying the biological activities of M1 and M2 macrophages and also for a proteomic approach. Proteomic techniques are useful for comparing the phenotype and behaviour of M1 and M2 macrophages during host pathogenicity. 2D gel electrophoresis is a powerful proteomic technique for mapping large numbers of proteins or polypeptides simultaneously. We describe the protocol of 2D electrophoresis using fluorescent dyes, named 2D Differential Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE). The M1 and M2 macrophages proteins are labelled with cyanine dyes before separation by isoelectric focusing, according to their isoelectric point in the first dimension, and their molecular mass, in the second dimension. Separated protein or polypeptidic spots are then used to detect differences in protein or polypeptide expression levels. The proteomic approaches described here allows the investigation of the macrophage protein changes associated with various disorders like host pathogenicity or microbial toxins. PMID:25408153

  18. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartsova, L. A.; Bessonova, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  19. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng (State College, PA); Li, Qingbo (State College, PA)

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  20. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  1. The Development and Application of a Quantitative Peptide Microarray Based Approach to Protein Interaction Domain Specificity Space*

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Brett W.; Kim, Yohan; Wang, Miaoyan; Peters, Bjoern; Rock, Ronald S.; Nash, Piers D.

    2014-01-01

    Protein interaction domain (PID) linear peptide motif interactions direct diverse cellular processes in a specific and coordinated fashion. PID specificity, or the interaction selectivity derived from affinity preferences between possible PID-peptide pairs is the basis of this ability. Here, we develop an integrated experimental and computational cellulose peptide conjugate microarray (CPCMA) based approach for the high throughput analysis of PID specificity that provides unprecedented quantitative resolution and reproducibility. As a test system, we quantify the specificity preferences of four Src Homology 2 domains and 124 physiological phosphopeptides to produce a novel quantitative interactome. The quantitative data set covers a broad affinity range, is highly precise, and agrees well with orthogonal biophysical validation, in vivo interactions, and peptide library trained algorithm predictions. In contrast to preceding approaches, the CPCMAs proved capable of confidently assigning interactions into affinity categories, resolving the subtle affinity contributions of residue correlations, and yielded predictive peptide motif affinity matrices. Unique CPCMA enabled modes of systems level analysis reveal a physiological interactome with expected node degree value decreasing as a function of affinity, resulting in minimal high affinity binding overlap between domains; uncover that Src Homology 2 domains bind ligands with a similar average affinity yet strikingly different levels of promiscuity and binding dynamic range; and parse with unprecedented quantitative resolution contextual factors directing specificity. The CPCMA platform promises broad application within the fields of PID specificity, synthetic biology, specificity focused drug design, and network biology. PMID:25135669

  2. Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

  3. Potentials and Method Improvements of Capillary Zone Electrophoresis for Use in Spelt Breeding Programs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) in acidic buffer systems is capable of separating cereal storage proteins based on similar separation principles as classical acidic polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. However, it is faster, its resolution is distinctly higher and data evaluation is much simpler...

  4. Frequently made mistakes in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Westermeier, Reiner

    2007-09-01

    In spite of text books, instrument manuals, product instructions, and web tutorials there are a number of erroneous protocols around, which lead repeatedly to issues during electrophoresis runs and to inadequate results. The relatively low resolution and short running time of miniformat systems often conceals these issues. However, in high-resolution 2-D electrophoresis in large format gels, one of the most important separation methods in Proteomics, the consequences of these mistakes become more obvious. PMID:17893853

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomics identifies SnRK2 protein kinase substrates and reveals the effectors of abscisic acid action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengcheng; Xue, Liang; Batelli, Giorgia; Lee, Shinyoung; Hou, Yueh-Ju; Van Oosten, Michael J.; Zhang, Huiming; Tao, W. Andy; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2013-01-01

    Sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase 2s (SnRK2s) are central components of abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathways. The snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple-mutant plants are nearly completely insensitive to ABA, suggesting that most of the molecular actions of ABA are triggered by the SnRK2s-mediated phosphorylation of substrate proteins. Only a few substrate proteins of the SnRK2s are known. To identify additional substrate proteins of the SnRK2s and provide insight into the molecular actions of ABA, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to compare the global changes in phosphopeptides in WT and snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant seedlings in response to ABA treatment. Among the 5,386 unique phosphorylated peptides identified in this study, we found that ABA can increase the phosphorylation of 166 peptides and decrease the phosphorylation of 117 peptides in WT seedlings. In the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant, 84 of the 166 peptides, representing 58 proteins, could not be phosphorylated, or phosphorylation was not increased under ABA treatment. In vitro kinase assays suggest that most of the 58 proteins can serve as substrates of the SnRK2s. The SnRK2 substrates include proteins involved in flowering time regulation, RNA and DNA binding, miRNA and epigenetic regulation, signal transduction, chloroplast function, and many other cellular processes. Consistent with the SnRK2 phosphorylation of flowering time regulators, the snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutant flowered significantly earlier than WT. These results shed new light on the role of the SnRK2 protein kinases and on the downstream effectors of ABA action, and improve our understanding of plant responses to adverse environments. PMID:23776212

  6. Assessment of ERCC1 and XPF Protein Expression Using Quantitative Immunohistochemistry in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Undergoing Curative Intent Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jagdis, Amanda; Phan, Tien; Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta ; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta ; Laskin, Janessa J.; Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia ; Lau, Harold Y.; Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta ; Petrillo, Stephanie K.; Siever, Jodi E.; Thomson, Thomas A.; Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia ; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta ; Hao, Desirée; Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate the prognostic/predictive value of ERCC1 and XPF in patients with nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with curative intent. Methods and Materials: ERCC1 and XPF protein expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence combined with automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, respectively. ERCC1 and XPF protein expression levels were correlated with clinical outcomes. Results: Patient characteristics were as follows: mean age 52 years (range, 18-85 years), 67% male, 72% Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ?90%, World Health Organization (WHO) type 1/2/3 = 12%/28%/60%, stage III/IV 65%. With a median follow-up time of 50 months (range, 2.9 to 120 months), the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 70.8%. Median standardized nuclear AQUA scores were used as cutpoints for ERCC1 (n=138) and XPF (n=130) protein expression. Agreement between dichotomized ERCC1 and XPF scores was high at 79.4% (kappa = 0.587, P<.001). Neither biomarker predicted locoregional recurrence, DFS, or OS after adjustment for age and KPS, irrespective of stratification by stage, WHO type, or treatment. Conclusions: Neither ERCC1 nor XPF, analyzed by quantitative immunohistochemistry using the FL297 and 3F2 antibodies, was prognostic or predictive in this cohort of NPC patients.

  7. Quantitative chemoproteomics for site-specific analysis of protein alkylation by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Tallman, Keri A; Porter, Ned A; Liebler, Daniel C

    2015-03-01

    Protein alkylation by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), an endogenous lipid derived electrophile, contributes to stress signaling and cellular toxicity. Although previous work has identified protein targets for HNE alkylation, the sequence specificity of alkylation and dynamics in a cellular context remain largely unexplored. We developed a new quantitative chemoproteomic platform, which uses isotopically tagged, photocleavable azido-biotin reagents to selectively capture and quantify the cellular targets labeled by the alkynyl analogue of HNE (aHNE). Our analyses site-specifically identified and quantified 398 aHNE protein alkylation events (386 cysteine sites and 12 histidine sites) in intact cells. This data set expands by at least an order of magnitude the number of such modification sites previously reported. Although adducts formed by Michael addition are thought to be largely irreversible, we found that most aHNE modifications are lost rapidly in situ. Moreover, aHNE adduct turnover occurs only in intact cells and loss rates are site-selective. This quantitative chemoproteomics platform provides a versatile general approach to map bioorthogonal-chemically engineered post-translational modifications and their cellular dynamics in a site-specific and unbiased manner. PMID:25654326

  8. Quantitative Shotgun Proteomics Analysis of Rice Anther Proteins after Exposure to High Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mijeong; Kim, Hijin; Lee, Wondo; Lee, Yoonjung; Kwon, Soon-Wook; Lee, Joohyun

    2015-01-01

    In rice, the stage of development most sensitive to high temperature stress is flowering, and exposure at this stage can result in spikelet sterility, thereby leading to significant yield losses. In this study, protein expression patterns of rice anthers from Dianxi4, a high temperature tolerant Japonica rice variety, were compared between samples exposed to high temperature and those grown in natural field conditions in Korea. Shotgun proteomics analysis of three replicate control and high-temperature-treated samples identified 3,266 nonredundant rice anther proteins (false discovery rate < 0.01). We found that high levels of ATP synthase, cupin domain-containing proteins, and pollen allergen proteins were present in rice anthers. Comparative analyses of 1,944 reproducibly expressed proteins identified 139 differentially expressed proteins, with 95 increased and 44 decreased in response to high temperature conditions. Heat shock, DnaK family, and chaperone proteins showed highly increased expression, suggesting that the high temperature tolerance of Dianxi4 is achieved by stabilization of proteins in pollen cells. Trehalose synthase was also highly increased after heat treatment, suggesting a possible role for trehalose in preventing protein denaturation through desiccation. PMID:26618163

  9. Label-free Quantitative Analysis of Changes in Broiler Liver Proteins under Heat Stress using SWATH-MS Technology.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangfang; Meng, Qingshi; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhang, Minhong

    2015-01-01

    High temperature is one of the key environmental stressors affecting broiler production efficiency and meat yield. Knowledge of broiler self-regulation mechanisms under heat stress is important for the modern scale of poultry breeding. In the present study, the SWATH strategy was employed to investigate the temporal response of the broiler liver to heat stress. A total of 4,271 proteins were identified and used to generate a reference library for SWATH analysis. During this analysis, 2,377 proteins were quantified, with a coefficient of variation ?25% among technical and biological replicates. A total of 257 proteins showed differential expression between the control and heat stressed groups. Consistent results for 26 and 5 differential proteins were validated respectively by MRM and western blotting quantitative analyses. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the up- and down-regulation of these proteins appear involved in the following three categories of cellular pathways and metabolisms: 1) inhibit the ERK signaling pathway; 2) affect broiler liver lipid and amino acid metabolism; 3) induce liver cell immune responses to adapt to the high temperatures and reduce mortality. The study reported here provides an insight into broiler self-regulation mechanisms and shed light on the improved broiler adaptability to high-temperature environments. PMID:26459884

  10. Quantitation of low concentrations of polysorbates in high protein concentration formulations by solid phase extraction and cobalt-thiocyanate derivatization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Justin; Qiu, Jinshu

    2014-01-01

    A spectrophotometric method was developed to quantify low polysorbate (PS) levels in biopharmaceutical formulations containing high protein concentrations. In the method, Oasis HLB solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge was used to extract PS from high protein concentration formulations. After loading a sample, the cartridge was washed with 4M guanidine HCl and 10% (v/v) methanol, and the retained PS was eluted by acetonitrile. Following the evaporation of acetonitrile, aqueous cobalt-thiocyanate reagent was added to react with the polyoxyethylene oxide chain of polysorbates to form a blue colored PS-cobaltothiocyante complex. This colored complex was then extracted into methylene chloride and measured spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. The method performance was evaluated on three products containing 30-40 mg L(-1) PS-20 and PS-80 in ?70 g L(-1) protein formulations. The method was specific (no matrix interference identified in three types of protein formulations), sensitive (quantitation limit of 10 mg L(-1) PS) and robust with good precision (relative standard deviation ?6.4%) and accuracy (spike recoveries from 95% to 101%). The linear range of the method for both PS-20 and PS-80 was 10 to 80 mg L(-1) PS. By diluting samples with 6M guanidine HCl and/or using different methylene chloride volumes to extract the colored complexes of standards and samples, the method could accurately and precisely quantify 40 mg L(-1) PS in up to 300 g L(-1) protein formulations. PMID:24331050

  11. Label-free Quantitative Analysis of Changes in Broiler Liver Proteins under Heat Stress using SWATH-MS Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiangfang; Meng, Qingshi; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Sheng; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhang, Minhong

    2015-01-01

    High temperature is one of the key environmental stressors affecting broiler production efficiency and meat yield. Knowledge of broiler self-regulation mechanisms under heat stress is important for the modern scale of poultry breeding. In the present study, the SWATH strategy was employed to investigate the temporal response of the broiler liver to heat stress. A total of 4,271 proteins were identified and used to generate a reference library for SWATH analysis. During this analysis, 2,377 proteins were quantified, with a coefficient of variation ?25% among technical and biological replicates. A total of 257 proteins showed differential expression between the control and heat stressed groups. Consistent results for 26 and 5 differential proteins were validated respectively by MRM and western blotting quantitative analyses. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that the up- and down-regulation of these proteins appear involved in the following three categories of cellular pathways and metabolisms: 1) inhibit the ERK signaling pathway; 2) affect broiler liver lipid and amino acid metabolism; 3) induce liver cell immune responses to adapt to the high temperatures and reduce mortality. The study reported here provides an insight into broiler self-regulation mechanisms and shed light on the improved broiler adaptability to high-temperature environments. PMID:26459884

  12. Quantitative proteomics reveals the effect of protein glycosylation in soybean root under flooding stress

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Flooding stress has a negative impact on soybean cultivation because it severely impairs growth and development. To understand the flooding responsive mechanism in early stage soybeans, a glycoproteomic technique was used. Two-day-old soybeans were treated with flooding for 2 days and roots were collected. Globally, the accumulation level of glycoproteins, as revealed by cross-reaction with concanavalin A decreased by 2 days of flooding stress. Glycoproteins were enriched from total protein extracts using concanavalin A lectin resin and analyzed using a gel-free proteomic technique. One-hundred eleven and 69 glycoproteins were identified without and with 2 days of flooding stress, respectively. Functional categorization of these identified glycoproteins indicated that the accumulation level of proteins related to protein degradation, cell wall, and glycolysis increased, while stress-related proteins decreased under flooding stress. Also the accumulation level of glycoproteins localized in the secretory pathway decreased under flooding stress. Out of 23 common glycoproteins between control and flooding conditions, peroxidases and glycosyl hydrolases were decreased by 2 days of flooding stress. mRNA expression levels of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum and N-glycosylation related proteins were downregulated by flooding stress. These results suggest that flooding might negatively affect the process of N-glycosylation of proteins related to stress and protein degradation; however glycoproteins involved in glycolysis are activated. PMID:25477889

  13. Detecting intracellular translocation of native proteins quantitatively at the single cell level

    E-print Network

    Lu, Chang

    and selectively transit between functionally distinct subcellular compartments including plasma membrane, cytosol Zhenning Cao,a Shuo Geng,b Liwu Lib and Chang Lu*ac The intracellular localization and movement (i.e. translocation) of proteins are critically correlated with the functions and activation states of these proteins

  14. Quantitative analysis of Nipah virus proteins released as virus-like particles reveals central role for the matrix protein

    PubMed Central

    Patch, Jared R; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Eaton, Bryan T; Broder, Christopher C

    2007-01-01

    Background Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging paramyxovirus distinguished by its ability to cause fatal disease in both animal and human hosts. Together with Hendra virus (HeV), they comprise the genus Henipavirus in the Paramyxoviridae family. NiV and HeV are also restricted to Biosafety Level-4 containment and this has hampered progress towards examining details of their replication and morphogenesis. Here, we have established recombinant expression systems to study NiV particle assembly and budding through the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs). Results When expressed by recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) or plasmid transfection, individual NiV matrix (M), fusion (F) and attachment (G) proteins were all released into culture supernatants in a membrane-associated state as determined by sucrose density gradient flotation and immunoprecipitation. However, co-expression of F and G along with M revealed a shift in their distribution across the gradient, indicating association with M in VLPs. Protein release was also altered depending on the context of viral proteins being expressed, with F, G and nucleocapsid (N) protein reducing M release, and N release dependent on the co-expression of M. Immunoelectron microscopy and density analysis revealed VLPs that were similar to authentic virus. Differences in the budding dynamics of NiV proteins were also noted between rMVA and plasmid based strategies, suggesting that over-expression by poxvirus may not be appropriate for studying the details of recombinant virus particle assembly and release. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that NiV M, F, and G each possess some ability to bud from expressing cells, and that co-expression of these viral proteins results in a more organized budding process with M playing a central role. These findings will aid our understanding of paramyxovirus particle assembly in general and could help facilitate the development of a novel vaccine approach for henipaviruses. PMID:17204159

  15. Identifying and Quantitating Conformational Exchange in Membrane Proteins Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Protein structures are not static but sample different conformations over a range of amplitudes and time scales. These fluctuations may involve relatively small changes in bond angles or quite large rearrangements in secondary structure and tertiary fold. The equilibrium between discrete structural substates on the microsecond to millisecond time scale is sometimes termed conformational exchange. Protein dynamics and conformational exchange are believed to provide the basis for many important activities, such as protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions, enzymatic activity and protein allostery; however, for many proteins, the dynamics and conformational exchange that lead to function are poorly defined. Spectroscopic methods, such as NMR, are among the most important methods to explore protein dynamics and conformational exchange; however, they are difficult to implement in some systems and with some types of exchange events. Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is an EPR based approach that is particularly well-suited to high molecular-weight systems such as membrane proteins. Because of the relatively fast time scale for EPR spectroscopy, it is an excellent method to examine exchange. Conformations that are in exchange are captured as distinct populations in the EPR spectrum, and this feature when combined with the use of methods that can shift the free energy of conformational substates allows one to identify regions of proteins that are in dynamic exchange. In addition, modern pulse EPR methods have the ability to examine conformational heterogeneity, resolve discrete protein states, and identify the substates in exchange. Protein crystallography has provided high-resolution models for a number of membrane proteins; but because of conformational exchange, these models do not always reflect the structures that are present when the protein is in a native bilayer environment. In the case of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter, BtuB, the energy coupling segment of this protein undergoes a substrate-dependent unfolding, which acts to couple this outer-membrane protein to the inner-membrane protein TonB. EPR spectroscopy demonstrates that the energy coupling segment is in equilibrium between ordered and disordered states, and that substrate binding shifts this equilibrium to favor an unfolded state. However, in crystal structures of BtuB, this segment is resolved and folded within the protein, and neither the presence of this equilibrium nor the substrate-induced change is revealed. This is a result of the solute environment and the crystal lattice, both of which act to stabilize one conformational substate of the transporter. Using SDSL, it can be shown that conformational exchange is present in other regions of BtuB and in other members of this transporter family. Conformational exchange has also been examined in systems such as the plasma membrane SNARE protein, syntaxin 1A, where dynamics are controlled by regulatory proteins such as munc18. Regulating the microsecond to millisecond time scale dynamics in the neuronal SNAREs is likely to be a key feature that regulates assembly of the SNAREs and neurotransmitter release. PMID:25152957

  16. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Reveals a Unique Set of Proteins with Potential Prognostic Significance*

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Olena; White, Nicole M. A.; DeSouza, Leroi V.; Krakovska, Olga; Matta, Ajay; Metias, Shereen; Khalil, Bishoy; Romaschin, Alexander D.; Honey, R. John; Stewart, Robert; Pace, Kenneth; Bjarnason, Georg A.; Siu, K. W. Michael; Yousef, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most treatment-resistant malignancies, and patients have a dismal prognosis, with a <10% five-year survival rate. The identification of markers that can predict the potential for metastases will have a great effect in improving patient outcomes. In this study, we used differential proteomics with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in metastatic and primary RCC. We identified 1256 non-redundant proteins, and 456 of these were quantified. Further analysis identified 29 proteins that were differentially expressed (12 overexpressed and 17 underexpressed) in metastatic and primary RCC. Dysregulated protein expressions of profilin-1 (Pfn1), 14–3-3 zeta/delta (14–3-3?), and galectin-1 (Gal-1) were verified on two independent sets of tissues by means of Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Hierarchical clustering analysis showed that the protein expression profile specific for metastatic RCC can distinguish between aggressive and non-aggressive RCC. Pathway analysis showed that dysregulated proteins are involved in cellular processes related to tumor progression and metastasis. Furthermore, preliminary analysis using a small set of tumors showed that increased expression of Pfn1 is associated with poor outcome and is a potential prognostic marker in RCC. In addition, 14–3-3? and Gal-1 also showed higher expression in tumors with poor prognosis than in those with good prognosis. Dysregulated proteins in metastatic RCC represent potential prognostic markers for kidney cancer patients, and a greater understanding of their involved biological pathways can serve as the foundation of the development of novel targeted therapies for metastatic RCC. PMID:23082029

  17. Protein-nanoparticle interactions evaluation by immunomethods: Surfactants can disturb quantitative determinations.

    PubMed

    Fornaguera, Cristina; Calderó, Gabriela; Solans, Conxita; Vauthier, Christine

    2015-08-01

    The adsorption of proteins on nanoparticle surface is one of the first events that occur when nanoparticles enter in the blood stream, which influences nanoparticles lifetime and further biodistribution. Albumin, which is the most abundant protein in serum and which has been deeply characterized, is an interesting model protein to investigate nanoparticle-protein interactions. Therefore, the interaction of nanoparticles with serum albumin has been widely studied. Immunomethods were suggested for the investigation of adsorption isotherms because of their ease to quantify the non-adsorbed bovine serum albumin without the need of applying separation methods that could modify the balance between the adsorbed and non-adsorbed proteins. The present work revealed that this method should be applied with caution. Artifacts in the determination of free protein can be generated by the presence of surfactants such as polysorbate 80, widely used in the pharmaceutical and biomedical field, that are needed to preserve the stability of nanoparticle dispersions. It was shown that the presence of traces of polysorbate 80 in the dispersion leads to an overestimation of the amount of bovine serum albumin remaining free in the dispersion medium when determined by both radial immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoresis. However, traces of poloxamer 188 did not result in clear perturbed migrations. These methods are not appropriate to perform adsorption isotherms of proteins on nanoparticle dispersions containing traces of remaining free surfactant. They should only be applied on dispersions that are free of surfactant that is not associated with nanoparticles. PMID:26070388

  18. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) for Detecting Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hellman, Lance M.; Fried, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    The gel electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) is used to detect protein complexes with nucleic acids. It is the core technology underlying a wide range of qualitative and quantitative analyses for the characterization of interacting systems. In the classical assay, solutions of protein and nucleic acid are combined and the resulting mixtures are subjected to electrophoresis under native conditions through polyacrylamide or agarose gel. After electrophoresis, the distribution of species containing nucleic acid is determined, usually by autoradiography of 32P-labeled nucleic acid. In general, protein-nucleic acid complexes migrate more slowly than the corresponding free nucleic acid. In this article, we identify the most important factors that determine the stabilities and electrophoretic mobilities of complexes under assay conditions. A representative protocol is provided and commonly used variants are discussed. Expected outcomes are briefly described. References to extensions of the method and a troubleshooting guide are provided. PMID:17703195

  19. Proteomic analysis of cellular soluble proteins from human bronchial smooth muscle cells by combining nondenaturing micro 2DE and quantitative LC-MS/MS. 2. Similarity search between protein maps for the analysis of protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ya; Yuan, Qi; Zhang, Jun; Manabe, Takashi; Tan, Wen

    2015-09-01

    Human bronchial smooth muscle cell soluble proteins were analyzed by a combined method of nondenaturing micro 2DE, grid gel-cutting, and quantitative LC-MS/MS and a native protein map was prepared for each of the identified 4323 proteins [1]. A method to evaluate the degree of similarity between the protein maps was developed since we expected the proteins comprising a protein complex would be separated together under nondenaturing conditions. The following procedure was employed using Excel macros; (i) maps that have three or more squares with protein quantity data were selected (2328 maps), (ii) within each map, the quantity values of the squares were normalized setting the highest value to be 1.0, (iii) in comparing a map with another map, the smaller normalized quantity in two corresponding squares was taken and summed throughout the map to give an "overlap score," (iv) each map was compared against all the 2328 maps and the largest overlap score, obtained when a map was compared with itself, was set to be 1.0 thus providing 2328 "overlap factors," (v) step (iv) was repeated for all maps providing 2328 × 2328 matrix of overlap factors. From the matrix, protein pairs that showed overlap factors above 0.65 from both protein sides were selected (431 protein pairs). Each protein pair was searched in a database (UniProtKB) on complex formation and 301 protein pairs, which comprise 35 protein complexes, were found to be documented. These results demonstrated that native protein maps and their similarity search would enable simultaneous analysis of multiple protein complexes in cells. PMID:26031785

  20. Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-03-01

    While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development.

  1. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling Reveals Differentially Regulated Proteins in Cystic Fibrosis Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The most prevalent cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the deletion of a phenylalanine residue at position 508 in CFTR (?F508-CFTR) protein. The mutated protein fails to fold properly, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum via the action of molecular chaperones, and is tagged for degradation. In this study, the differences in protein expression levels in CF cell models were assessed using a systems biology approach aided by the sensitivity of MudPIT proteomics. Analysis of the differential proteome modulation without a priori hypotheses has the potential to identify markers that have not yet been documented. These may also serve as the basis for developing new diagnostic and treatment modalities for CF. Several novel differentially expressed proteins observed in our study are likely to play important roles in the pathogenesis of CF and may serve as a useful resource for the CF scientific community. PMID:24818864

  2. Quantitative proteomics of Xenopus laevis embryos: expression kinetics of nearly 4000 proteins during early development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liangliang; Bertke, Michelle M.; Champion, Matthew M.; Zhu, Guijie; Huber, Paul W.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2014-01-01

    While there is a rich literature on transcription dynamics during the development of many organisms, protein data is limited. We used iTRAQ isotopic labeling and mass spectrometry to generate the largest developmental proteomic dataset for any animal. Expression dynamics of nearly 4,000 proteins of Xenopus laevis was generated from fertilized egg to neurula embryo. Expression clusters into groups. The cluster profiles accurately reflect the major events that mark changes in gene expression patterns during early Xenopus development. We observed decline in the expression of ten DNA replication factors after the midblastula transition (MBT), including a marked decline of the licensing factor XCdc6. Ectopic expression of XCdc6 leads to apoptosis; temporal changes in this protein are critical for proper development. Measurement of expression in single embryos provided no evidence for significant protein heterogeneity between embryos at the same stage of development. PMID:24626130

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Acute Phase Proteins in Post Chemo-Radiation Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Chethana; Rao, Pratima S; Madathil, Lal P; Rao, Suresh; Shetty, Pushparaja

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral mucositis induced by radiation is an inevitable but transient side-effect of radiotherapy. Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose phase concentrations fluctuate in response to inflammation. The best known of the acute phase proteins is C-reactive protein, a protein that rises in the blood with inflammation. Materials and Methods 30 patients undergoing chemo – radiotherapy for head and neck cancer were clinically evaluated for mucositis on day 0, 7, 14, 28 and 42. Blood investigations like C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total leukocyte count were also conducted. Results There was a significant increase in the severity of mucositis during the course of treatment followed by a gradual decrease in severity towards the end of radiotherapy. Comparison of C-reactive protein levels from day 0 to day 42 in the study group showed a significant increase towards the end of radiotherapy. There was a significant increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels till day 14 followed by a decrease towards the end of radiotherapy whereas total leukocyte count showed a significant decrease from day 0 to day 7 followed by an increase towards the end of radiotherapy. Conclusion The oral mucosa bears only a small clinical spectrum of the side-effect conveyed by chemo-radiation. Both widespread and late effects do occur, and tissues may never return to normal completely. Inflammatory serum markers like C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and total leukocyte count can thus be used as an objective measure to study the complexities of radiation mucositis which is documented as one of the worst side effects of head and neck cancer therapy. PMID:26557611

  4. Quantitative analysis of isomeric (l-?-, l-?-, d-?-, d-?-) aspartyl residues in proteins from elderly donors.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Noriko; Takata, Takumi; Fujii, Norihiko

    2015-12-10

    Homochirality is essential for life. For a long time, it was considered that d-amino acids were excluded from living systems. In the past 30 years, however, d-amino acids have been found in living organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides and proteins, owing to advances in the analysis of optical isomers of amino acids. Free d-amino acids and d-amino-acid-containing peptides have been shown to have important physiological functions. The amount of d-aspartate (Asp) residues in protein spontaneously increases in metabolically inert tissues such as the eye and brain during aging, and may be related to cataract formation and the development of Alzheimer disease, suggesting that d-Asp might be a molecular marker of aging and age-related disorders. The presence of d-Asp in living organisms is thought to result from the isomerization of l-Asp residues in some proteins. Furthermore, the isomerization of Asp does not occur uniformly but only at specific sites. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the sites of isomeric Asp in these proteins in order to elucidate the mechanism of spontaneous Asp isomerization during aging. Herein, we summarize the localization and mechanism of d-amino acids in proteins of living tissues, and the effects of d-amino acid formation in proteins. Furthermore, we describe methods for the analysis of protein-bound d-amino acids including a conventional enantioseparation method based on HPLC and a new convenient method based on LC-MS that can identify the specific sites of d-Asp in proteins. PMID:25983190

  5. Cell Cycle Dynamics of Proteins and Post-translational Modifications Using Quantitative Immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Akopyan, Karen; Lindqvist, Arne; Müllers, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescence can be a powerful tool to detect protein levels, intracellular localization, and post-translational modifications. However, standard immunofluorescence provides only a still picture and thus lacks temporal information. Here, we describe a method to extract temporal information from immunofluorescence images of fixed cells. In addition, we provide an optional protocol that uses micropatterns, which increases the accuracy of the method. These methods allow assessing how protein levels, intracellular localization, and post-translational modifications change through the cell cycle. PMID:26254923

  6. Filamin C, a dysregulated protein in cancer revealed by label-free quantitative proteomic analyses of human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei-Lei; Chen, Si-Jie; Yao, Jun; Jiang, Ying-Hua; Peng, Gang; Fang, Cai-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth and fifth most common cancer in men and women, respectively. We identified 2,750 proteins at false discovery rates of 1.3% (protein) and 0.03% (spectrum) by comparing the proteomic profiles of three GC and a normal gastric cell lines. Nine proteins were significantly dysregulated in all three GC cell lines, including filamin C, a muscle-specific filamin and a large actin-cross-linking protein. Downregulation of filamin C in GC cell lines and tissues were verified using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. Data-mining using public microarray datasets shown that filamin C was significantly reduced in many human primary and metastasis cancers. Transient expression or silencing of filamin C affected the proliferation and colony formation of cancer cells. Silencing of endogenous filamin C enhanced cancer cell migration and invasion, whereas ectopic expression of filamin C had opposing effects. Silencing of filamin C increased the expression of matrix metallopeptidase 2 and improved the metastasis of prostate cancer in a zebrafish model. High filamin C associated with better prognosis of prostate cancer, leukemia and breast cancer patients. These findings establish a functional role of filamin C in human cancers and these data will be valuable for further study of its mechanisms. PMID:25577646

  7. Hypoxia Strongly Affects Mitochondrial Ribosomal Proteins and Translocases, as Shown by Quantitative Proteomics of HeLa Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bousquet, Paula A.; Sandvik, Joe Alexander; Arntzen, Magnus Ø.; Jeppesen Edin, Nina F.; Christoffersen, Stine; Krengel, Ute; Pettersen, Erik O.; Thiede, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an important and common characteristic of many human tumors. It is a challenge clinically due to the correlation with poor prognosis and resistance to radiation and chemotherapy. Understanding the biochemical response to hypoxia would facilitate the development of novel therapeutics for cancer treatment. Here, we investigate alterations in gene expression in response to hypoxia by quantitative proteome analysis using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) in conjunction with LCMS/MS. Human HeLa cells were kept either in a hypoxic environment or under normoxic conditions. 125 proteins were found to be regulated, with maximum alteration of 18-fold. In particular, three clusters of differentially regulated proteins were identified, showing significant upregulation of glycolysis and downregulation of mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and translocases. This interaction is likely orchestrated by HIF-1. We also investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cell cycle, which shows accumulation in G1 and a prolonged S phase under these conditions. Implications. This work not only improves our understanding of the response to hypoxia, but also reveals proteins important for malignant progression, which may be targeted in future therapies. PMID:26421188

  8. Electrophoresis as a management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P., II; Chapman, J.A.; Noe, L.A.; Henny, C.J.

    1974-01-01

    The theme of this 1974 Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference is 'A New Era'. Indeed, it is a new era for improved techniques to assist in management of our fish and wildlife resources for the maximum benefit of all. In some cases, the new techniques are primarily used in research.on fish and wildlife, and the results from the research are used to aid management and enforcement agencies in the decision-making process. One of the newer techniques that is being applied to problems in fisheries and wildlife is electrophoresis. In this paper, we review briefly the techniques of electrophoresis and illustrate research problems in wildlife and fisheries where the use of electrophoresis is now assisting or may potentially aid in management decisions.

  9. Protein Profiling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics in Two West African Populations

    PubMed Central

    Fye, Haddy K. S.; Wright-Drakesmith, Cynthia; Kramer, Holger B.; Camey, Suzi; da Costa, Andre Nogueira; Jeng, Adam; Bah, Alasana; Kirk, Gregory D.; Sharif, Mohamed I. F.; Ladep, Nimzing G.; Okeke, Edith; Hainaut, Pierre; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D.; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Mendy, Maimuna E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular Carcinoma is the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide, often diagnosed by measuring serum AFP; a poor performance stand-alone biomarker. With the aim of improving on this, our study focuses on plasma proteins identified by Mass Spectrometry in order to investigate and validate differences seen in the respective proteomes of controls and subjects with LC and HCC. Methods Mass Spectrometry analysis using liquid chromatography electro spray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight was conducted on 339 subjects using a pooled expression profiling approach. ELISA assays were performed on four significantly differentially expressed proteins to validate their expression profiles in subjects from the Gambia and a pilot group from Nigeria. Results from this were collated for statistical multiplexing using logistic regression analysis. Results Twenty-six proteins were identified as differentially expressed between the three subject groups. Direct measurements of four; hemopexin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A1 and complement component 3 confirmed their change in abundance in LC and HCC versus control patients. These trends were independently replicated in the pilot validation subjects from Nigeria. The statistical multiplexing of these proteins demonstrated performance comparable to or greater than ALT in identifying liver cirrhosis or carcinogenesis. This exercise also proposed preliminary cut offs with achievable sensitivity, specificity and AUC statistics greater than reported AFP averages. Conclusions The validated changes of expression in these proteins have the potential for development into high-performance tests usable in the diagnosis and or monitoring of HCC and LC patients. The identification of sustained expression trends strengthens the suggestion of these four proteins as worthy candidates for further investigation in the context of liver disease. The statistical combinations also provide a novel inroad of analyses able to propose definitive cut-offs and combinations for evaluation of performance. PMID:23935864

  10. Quantitative J correlation methods for the accurate measurement of 13C'-13Calpha dipolar couplings in proteins.

    PubMed

    Jaroniec, Christopher P; Ulmer, Tobias S; Bax, Ad

    2004-10-01

    Methods are described for the precise and accurate measurement of one-bond dipolar (13)C'-(13)C(alpha) couplings in weakly aligned proteins. The experiments are based on the principle of quantitative J correlation, where (1)J(C'C(alpha)) (or (1)J(C'C(alpha)) + 1D(C'C(alpha)) is measured from the relative intensity of two interleaved 3D TROSY-HN(CO)CA or 3DTROSY-HNCO spectra recorded with dephasing intervals of zero (reference spectrum) and approximately 3/(2(1)J(C'C(alpha)) (attenuated spectrum). In analogy to other quantitative J correlation techniques, the random error in the measured (1)J(C'C(alpha)) value is inversely proportional to the signal-to-noise ratio in the reference spectrum. It is shown that for weakly aligned proteins, with the magnitude of the alignment tensor of D(a)(NH) < or = 10-15 Hz, the systematic errors are typically negligible. The methods are demonstrated for the third IgG-binding domain of protein G (GB3) and a-synuclein in complex with a detergent micelle, where errors in (1)D(C'C(alpha)) of less than 0.1 Hz and ca. 0.2 Hz,respectively, are estimated. Remarkably, the dipolar couplings determined for GB3 are in even better agreement with the recently refined 1.1-angstroms X-ray structure than the input (13)C'-(13)C(alpha) couplings used for the refinement. PMID:15666562

  11. Fluid flow electrophoresis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Four areas relating to free-flow electrophoresis in space were investigated. The first was the degree of improvement over earthbound operations that might be expected. The second area of investigation covered the problems in developing a flowing buffer electrophoresis apparatus. The third area of investigation was the problem of testing on the ground equipment designed for use in space. The fourth area of investigation was the improvement to be expected in space for purification of biologicals. The results of some ground-based experiments are described. Other studies included cooling requirements in space, fluid sealing techniques, and measurement of voltage drop across membranes.

  12. Quantitative Trait Loci for Endosperm Modification and Amino Acid Contents in Quality Protein Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deficient protein quality of corn grain can be improved by replacing the normal Opaque2 (O2) alleles with non-functional mutant alleles o2. Unfortunately, o2 alleles are associated with a very soft endosperm texture, poor yield and susceptibility to diseases and insects. Plant breeders have been...

  13. CIUSuite: A Quantitative Analysis Package for Collision Induced Unfolding Measurements of Gas-Phase Protein Ions.

    PubMed

    Eschweiler, Joseph D; Rabuck-Gibbons, Jessica N; Tian, Yuwei; Ruotolo, Brandon T

    2015-11-17

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) is a technology of growing importance for structural biology, providing complementary 3D structure information for biomolecules within samples that are difficult to analyze using conventional analytical tools through the near-simultaneous acquisition of ion collision cross sections (CCSs) and masses. Despite recent advances in IM-MS instrumentation, the resolution of closely related protein conformations remains challenging. Collision induced unfolding (CIU) has been demonstrated as a useful tool for resolving isocrossectional protein ions, as they often follow distinct unfolding pathways when subjected to collisional heating in the gas phase. CIU has been used for a variety of applications, from differentiating binding modes of activation state-selective kinase inhibitors to characterizing the domain structure of multidomain proteins. With the growing utilization of CIU as a tool for structural biology, significant challenges have emerged in data analysis and interpretation, specifically the normalization and comparison of CIU data sets. Here, we present CIUSuite, a suite of software modules designed for the rapid processing, analysis, comparison, and classification of CIU data. We demonstrate these tools as part of a series of workflows for applications in comparative structural biology, biotherapeutic analysis, and high throughput screening of kinase inhibitors. These examples illustrate both the potential for CIU in general protein analysis as well as a demonstration of best practices in the interpretation of CIU data. PMID:26489593

  14. Protein Charge Ladders, Capillary Electrophoresis, and

    E-print Network

    Gao, Jinming

    recognition can reflect van der Waals, hydrophobic, hydrogen bonding, and electro- static interactions; all include both enthalpic and entropic contributions. The role of van der Waals interactions in molecular Recognition JEFFREY D. CARBECK, IAN J. COLTON, JINMING GAO, AND GEORGE M. WHITESIDES* Department of Chemistry

  15. Quantitative fluorescence co-localization to study protein-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Pompey, Shanica N; Michaely, Peter; Luby-Phelps, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy can be used to assess quantitatively the interaction between a ligand and its receptor, between two macromolecules, or between a macromolecule and a particular intracellular compartment by co-localization analysis. In general, this analysis involves tagging potential interacting partners with distinct fluorophores-by direct labeling of a small ligand, by expression of fluorescent cDNA constructs, by immunofluorescence labeling, or by some combination of these methods. Pairwise comparison of the fluorescence intensity of the two fluorophores at each pixel in a two channel digital image of the sample reveals regions where both are present. With appropriate protocols, the image data can be interpreted to indicate where the potential interacting partners are co-localized. Keeping in mind the limited resolution of the light microscope, co-localization is often used to support the claim that two molecules are interacting.All quantitative methods for evaluating co-localization begin with identifying the pixels where the intensities of both color channels are above background. Typically this involves two sequential image segmentation steps: the first to exclude pixels where neither channel is above background, and the second to set overlap thresholds that exclude pixels where only one color channel is present. Following segmentation, various quantitative measures can be computed to describe the remaining subset of pixels where the two color channels overlap. These metrics range from simple calculation of the fraction of pixels where overlap occurs to more sophisticated image correlation metrics. Additional constraints may be employed to distinguish true co-localization from random overlap. Finally, an image map showing only the co-localized pixels may be displayed as an additional image channel in order to visualize the spatial distribution of co-localized pixels. Several commercial and open source software solutions provide this type of co-localization analysis, making image segmentation and calculation of metrics relatively straightforward. As an example, we provide a protocol for the time-dependent co-localization of fluorescently tagged lipoproteins with LDL receptor (LDLR) and with the early endosome marker EEA1. PMID:23729262

  16. Fig S1. Images of Two dimensional gel electrophoresis gels. The left image is for the untreated control; the right image is for Gm treated samples. Green represents protein

    E-print Network

    Matin, A.C.

    Fig S1. Images of Two dimensional gel electrophoresis gels. The left image. #12; Fig S2. N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) dampens the lethal effect of Gm in the stationary-treated cells with or without NAC. #12; Fig S3. Gm treatment

  17. Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{beta}/{delta} (PPAR{beta}/{delta}) protein in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Girroir, Elizabeth E.; Hollingshead, Holly E.; He Pengfei; Zhu Bokai; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-07-04

    The expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta} have been described, but the majority of these data are based on mRNA data. To date, there are no reports that have quantitatively examined the expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} protein in mouse tissues. In the present study, a highly specific PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibody was developed, characterized, and used to examine tissue expression patterns of PPAR{beta}/{delta}. As compared to commercially available anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies, one of six polyclonal anti-PPAR{beta}/{delta} antibodies developed was significantly more effective for immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated PPAR{beta}/{delta}. This antibody was used for quantitative Western blot analysis using radioactive detection methods. Expression of PPAR{beta}/{delta} was highest in colon, small intestine, liver, and keratinocytes as compared to other tissues including heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and thymus. Interestingly, PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression was localized in the nucleus and RXR{alpha} can be co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear PPAR{beta}/{delta}. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPAR{beta}/{delta} expression is highest in intestinal epithelium, liver, and keratinocytes, consistent with significant biological roles in these tissues.

  18. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  19. Hyperoxia-Induced Protein Alterations in Renal Rat Tissue: A Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Identify Hyperoxia-Induced Effects in Cellular Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hinkelbein, Jochen; Böhm, Lennert; Spelten, Oliver; Sander, David; Soltész, Stefan; Braunecker, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. In renal tissue as well as in other organs, supranormal oxygen pressure may lead to deleterious consequences on a cellular level. Additionally, hyperoxia-induced effect in cells and related free radicals may potentially contribute to renal failure. The aim of this study was to analyze time-dependent alterations of rat kidney protein expression after short-term normobaric hyperoxia using proteomics and bioinformatic approaches. Material and Methods. N = 36 Wistar rats were randomized into six different groups: three groups with normobaric hyperoxia (exposure to 100% oxygen for 3?h) and three groups with normobaric normoxia (NN; room air). After hyperoxia exposure, kidneys were removed immediately, after 3 days and after 7 days. Kidney lysates were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by peptide mass fingerprinting using tandem mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with DeCyder 2D software (p < 0.01). Biological functions of differential regulated proteins were studied using functional network analysis (Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and PathwayStudio). Results. Expression of 14 proteins was significantly altered (p < 0.01): eight proteins (MEP1A_RAT, RSSA_RAT, F16P1_RAT, STML2_RAT, BPNT1_RAT, LGMN_RAT, ATPA_RAT, and VDAC1_RAT) were downregulated and six proteins (MTUS1_RAT, F16P1_RAT, ACTG_RAT, ACTB_RAT, 2ABA_RAT, and RAB1A_RAT) were upregulated. Bioinformatic analyses revealed an association of regulated proteins with inflammation. Conclusions. Significant alterations in renal protein expression could be demonstrated for up to 7 days even after short-term hyperoxia. The identified proteins indicate an association with inflammation signaling cascades. MEP1A and VDAC1 could be promising candidates to identify hyperoxic injury in kidney cells. PMID:26106253

  20. Novel absorption detection techniques for capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Y.

    1994-07-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as one of the most versatile separation methods. However, efficient separation is not sufficient unless coupled to adequate detection. The narrow inner diameter (I.D.) of the capillary column raises a big challenge to detection methods. For UV-vis absorption detection, the concentration sensitivity is only at the {mu}M level. Most commercial CE instruments are equipped with incoherent UV-vis lamps. Low-brightness, instability and inefficient coupling of the light source with the capillary limit the further improvement of UV-vis absorption detection in CE. The goals of this research have been to show the utility of laser-based absorption detection. The approaches involve: on-column double-beam laser absorption detection and its application to the detection of small ions and proteins, and absorption detection with the bubble-shaped flow cell.

  1. Quantitative Profiling for Substrates of the Mitochondrial Presequence Processing Protease Reveals a Set of Nonsubstrate Proteins Increased upon Proteotoxic Stress.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Julia M; Taskin, Asli A; Zahedi, René P; Vögtle, F-Nora

    2015-11-01

    The majority of mitochondrial preproteins are targeted via N-terminal presequences that are cleaved upon import into the organelle. The essential mitochondrial processing protease (MPP) is assumed to cleave the majority of incoming precursors; however, only a small fraction of mitochondrial precursors have been experimentally analyzed limiting the information on MPP recognition and substrate specificity. Here we present the first systematic approach for identification of authentic MPP substrate proteins using a temperature-sensitive mutant of the MPP subunit Mas1. Inactivation of MPP at nonpermissive temperature leads to accumulation of immature precursors in mitochondria, which were measured by quantitative N-terminal ChaFRADIC. This led to the identification of 66 novel MPP substrates. Deduction of the cleaved presequences determines arginine in position -2 of the cleavage site as a main factor for MPP recognition. Interestingly, a set of nonprocessed proteins was also increased in mas1 mutant mitochondria. Additionally, mas1 mitochondria respond to temperature elevation with an increase in membrane potential and oxygen consumption. These changes might indicate that mas1 cells exert a response to balance the proteotoxic stress induced by MPP dysfunction. PMID:26446170

  2. Quantitative proteomic dissection of a native 14-3-3? interacting protein complex associated with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chen; Tang, Siwei; Bai, Chen; Chen, Xian

    2014-04-01

    The 14-3-3 proteins regulate diverse biological processes that are implicated in cancer development, and seven 14-3-3 isoforms were identified with isoform-specific roles in different human tumors. In our previous work, we dissected the interactome of 14-3-3? formed during the DNA damage response in a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell using an AACT/SILAC-based quantitative proteomic approach. In this study, we used a similar proteomic approach to profile/identify the 14-3-3? interactome formed in native HCC cells. Functional categorization and data-dependent network analysis of the native HCC-specific 14-3-3? interactome revealed that 14-3-3? is involved in the regulation of multiple biological processes (BPs)/pathways, including cell cycle control, apoptosis, signal transduction, transport, cell adhesion, carbohydrate metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism. Biological validation further supports that 14-3-3?, via association with multiple BP/pathway-specific proteins, coordinates the regulation of proliferation, survival, and metastasis of HCC. The findings in this study, together with those of our previous study, provide an extensive profile of the 14-3-3? interaction network in HCC cells, which should be valuable for understanding the pathology of HCC and HCC therapy. PMID:24363202

  3. Real time quantitative PCR as a method to evaluate simian virus 40 removal during pharmaceutical protein purification.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Norling, L A; Lau, A S; Krejci, S; Laney, A J; Xu, Y

    1999-09-01

    Continuous cell lines used for pharmaceutical protein manufacturing have the potential to be contaminated by viruses. To ensure the safety of pharmaceutical proteins derived from continuous cell lines, validation of the ability of the manufacturing process to clear potential contaminating viruses is required for product registration. In this paper, a real time quantitative PCR method has been applied to the evaluation of simian virus 40 (SV40) removal during chromatography and filtration procedures. This method takes advantage of the 5'-3' exonuclease activity of Taq DNA polymerase and utilizes the PRISM 7700 sequence detection system of PE Applied Biosystems for automated SV40 DNA quantification through a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe. This method provides accurate and reproducible quantification of SV40 DNA. The SV40 clearance during chromatography and filtration procedures determined by this method is highly comparable with that determined by the cell-based infectivity assay. This method offers significant advantages over cell-based infectivity assays, such as higher sensitivity, greater reliability, higher sample throughput and lower cost. This method can be potentially used to evaluate the clearance of all model viruses during chromatography and filtration procedures. This method can be used to substitute cell-based infectivity assays for process validation of viral removal procedures and the availability of this method should greatly facilitate and reduce the cost of viral clearance evaluations required for new biologic product development. PMID:10652180

  4. Quantitative Label-Free Phosphoproteomics Reveals Differentially Regulated Protein Phosphorylation Involved in West Nile Virus-Induced Host Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Sun, Jun; Ye, Jing; Ashraf, Usama; Chen, Zheng; Zhu, Bibo; He, Wen; Xu, Qiuping; Wei, Yanming; Chen, Huanchun; Fu, Zhen F; Liu, Rong; Cao, Shengbo

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) can cause neuro-invasive and febrile illness that may be fatal to humans. The production of inflammatory cytokines is key to mediating WNV-induced immunopathology in the central nervous system. Elucidating the host factors utilized by WNV for productive infection would provide valuable insights into the evasion strategies used by this virus. Although attempts have been made to determine these host factors, proteomic data depicting WNV-host protein interactions are limited. We applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for label-free, quantitative phosphoproteomics to systematically investigate the global phosphorylation events induced by WNV infection. Quantifiable changes to 1,657 phosphoproteins were found; of these, 626 were significantly upregulated and 227 were downregulated at 12 h postinfection. The phosphoproteomic data were subjected to gene ontology enrichment analysis, which returned the inflammation-related spliceosome, ErbB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor kappa B, and mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathways. We used short interfering RNAs to decrease the levels of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, bifunctional polynucleotide phosphatase/kinase, and retinoblastoma 1 and found that the activity of nuclear factor kappa B (p65) is significantly decreased in WNV-infected U251 cells, which in turn led to markedly reduced inflammatory cytokine production. Our results provide a better understanding of the host response to WNV infection and highlight multiple targets for the development of antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:26485063

  5. Cell surface protein detection with immunogold labelling in ESEM: optimisation of the method and semi-quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Muscariello, Livio; Rosso, Francesco; Marino, Gerardo; Barbarisi, Manlio; Cafiero, Gennaro; Barbarisi, Alfonso

    2008-03-01

    In this work we used a combination of immunogold labelling (IGL) and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to detect the presence of a protein on the cell surface. To achieve this purpose we chose as experimental system 3T3 Swiss Albino Mouse Fibroblasts and galectin-3. This protein, whose sub-cellular distribution is still under discussion, is involved in a large number of cell physiological and pathological processes. IGL technique has been utilised by many authors in combination with SEM and TEM to obtain the identification/localisation of receptors and antigens, both in cells and tissues. ESEM represents an important tool in biomedical research, since it does not require any severe processing of the sample, lowering the risk of generating artefacts and interfere with IGL procedure. The absence of metal coating could yield further advantages for our purpose as the labelling detection is based on the atomic number difference between Nanogold spheres and the biological material. Using the gaseous secondary electron detector (GSED) compositional contrast is easily revealed by the backscattered electrons component of the signal. In spite of this fact, only few published papers present a combination of ESEM and IGL. Hereby we present our method, optimised to improve the intensity and the specificity of the labelling signal, in order to obtain a semi-quantitative evaluation of the labelling signal. PMID:17972266

  6. Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Mitochondrial Proteins Reveals Pro-Survival Mechanisms in the Perpetuation of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Stefani N.; Waters, Katrina M.; Morgan, William F.; Yang, Austin; Baulch, Janet E.

    2012-07-26

    Radiation induced genomic instability is a well-studied phenomenon that is measured as mitotically heritable genetic alterations observed in the progeny of an irradiated cell. The mechanisms that perpetuate this instability are unclear, however, a role for chronic oxidative stress has consistently been demonstrated. In the chromosomally unstable LS12 cell line, oxidative stress and genomic instability were correlated with mitochondrial dysfunction. To clarify this mitochondrial dysfunction and gain insight into the mechanisms underlying radiation induced genomic instability we have evaluated the mitochondrial sub-proteome and performed quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of LS12 cells. Of 98 quantified mitochondrial proteins, 17 met criteria for fold changes and reproducibility; and 11 were statistically significant in comparison with the stable parental GM10115 cell line. Previous observations implicated defects in the electron transport chain (ETC) in the LS12 cell mitochondrial dysfunction. Proteomic analysis supports these observations, demonstrating significantly reduced levels of mitochondrial cytochrome c, the intermediary between complexes III and IV of the ETC. Results also suggest that LS12 cells compensate for ETC dysfunction and oxidative stress through increased levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes and up-regulation of proteins that protect against oxidative stress and apoptosis. More than one cellular defect is likely to contribute to the genomic instability phenotype. These data suggest that LS12 cells have adapted mechanisms that allow survival under sub-optimal conditions of oxidative stress and compromised mitochondrial function to perpetuate genomic instability.

  7. Gold-coated graphene field-effect transistors for quantitative analysis of protein–antibody interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Alexey; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Flynn, Erin M.; Joiner, Corey A.; Taylor, Robert C.; Vogel, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on large-area graphene and other 2D materials can potentially be used as low-cost and flexible potentiometric biological sensors. However, there have been few attempts to use these devices for quantifying molecular interactions and to compare their performance to established sensor technology. Here, gold-coated graphene FETs are used to measure the binding affinity of a specific protein–antibody interaction. Having a gold surface gives access to well-known thiol chemistry for the self-assembly of linker molecules. The results are compared with potentiometric silicon-based extended-gate sensors and a surface plasmon resonance system. The estimated dissociation constants are in excellent agreement for all sensor types as long as the active surfaces are the same (gold). The role of the graphene transducer is to simply amplify surface potential changes caused by adsorption of molecules on the gold surface.

  8. Quantitative In Vivo Fluorescence Cross-Correlation Analyses Highlight the Importance of Competitive Effects in the Regulation of Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sadaie, Wakako; Harada, Yoshie; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted simulation is a promising approach for clarifying complicated signaling networks. However, this approach is currently limited by a deficiency of kinetic parameters determined in living cells. To overcome this problem, we applied fluorescence cross-correlation spectrometry (FCCS) to measure dissociation constant (Kd) values of signaling molecule complexes in living cells (in vivo Kd). Among the pairs of fluorescent molecules tested, that of monomerized enhanced green fluorescent protein (mEGFP) and HaloTag-tetramethylrhodamine was most suitable for the measurement of in vivo Kd by FCCS. Using this pair, we determined 22 in vivo Kd values of signaling molecule complexes comprising the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)–Ras–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. With these parameters, we developed a kinetic simulation model of the EGFR-Ras-ERK MAP kinase pathway and uncovered a potential role played by stoichiometry in Shc binding to EGFR during the peak activations of Ras, MEK, and ERK. Intriguingly, most of the in vivo Kd values determined in this study were higher than the in vitro Kd values reported previously, suggesting the significance of competitive bindings inside cells. These in vivo Kd values will provide a sound basis for the quantitative understanding of signal transduction. PMID:24958104

  9. HomoSAR: bridging comparative protein modeling with quantitative structural activity relationship to design new peptides.

    PubMed

    Borkar, Mahesh R; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C

    2013-11-15

    Peptides play significant roles in the biological world. To optimize activity for a specific therapeutic target, peptide library synthesis is inevitable; which is a time consuming and expensive. Computational approaches provide a promising way to simply elucidate the structural basis in the design of new peptides. Earlier, we proposed a novel methodology termed HomoSAR to gain insight into the structure activity relationships underlying peptides. Based on an integrated approach, HomoSAR uses the principles of homology modeling in conjunction with the quantitative structural activity relationship formalism to predict and design new peptide sequences with the optimum activity. In the present study, we establish that the HomoSAR methodology can be universally applied to all classes of peptides irrespective of sequence length by studying HomoSAR on three peptide datasets viz., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides, CAMEL-s antibiotic peptides, and hAmphiphysin-1 SH3 domain binding peptides, using a set of descriptors related to the hydrophobic, steric, and electronic properties of the 20 natural amino acids. Models generated for all three datasets have statistically significant correlation coefficients (r(2)) and predictive r2 (r(pred)2) and cross validated coefficient ( q(LOO)2). The daintiness of this technique lies in its simplicity and ability to extract all the information contained in the peptides to elucidate the underlying structure activity relationships. The difficulties of correlating both sequence diversity and variation in length of the peptides with their biological activity can be addressed. The study has been able to identify the preferred or detrimental nature of amino acids at specific positions in the peptide sequences. PMID:24105965

  10. A Quantitative Study of the Effects of Chaotropic Agents, Surfactants, and Solvents on the Digestion Efficiency of Human Plasma Proteins by Trypsin

    PubMed Central

    Proc, Jennifer L.; Kuzyk, Michael A.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Yang, Juncong; Smith, Derek S.; Jackson, Angela M.; Parker, Carol E.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2010-01-01

    Plasma biomarkers studies are based on the differential expression of proteins between different treatment groups or between diseased and control populations. Most mass spectrometry-based methods of protein quantitation, however, are based on the detection and quantitation of peptides, not intact proteins. For peptide-based protein quantitation to be accurate, the digestion protocols used in proteomic analyses must be both efficient and reproducible. There have been very few studies, however, where plasma denaturation/digestion protocols have been compared using absolute quantitation methods. In this paper, 14 combinations of heat, solvent [acetonitrile, methanol, trifluoroethanol], chaotropic agents [guanidine hydrochloride, urea], and surfactants [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (DOC)] were compared with respect to their effectiveness in improving subsequent tryptic digestion. These digestion protocols were evaluated by quantitating the production of proteotypic tryptic peptides from 45 moderate- to high-abundance plasma proteins, using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, with a mixture of stable-isotope labeled analogues of these proteotypic peptides as internal standards. When the digestion efficiencies of these 14 methods were compared, we found that both of the surfactants (SDS and DOC) produced an increase in the overall yield of tryptic peptides from these 45 proteins, when compared to the more commonly used urea protocol. SDS, however, can be a serious interference for subsequent mass spectrometry. DOC, on the other hand, can be easily removed from the samples by acid precipitation. Examining the results of a reproducibility study, done with 5 replicate digestions, DOC and SDS with a 9 h digestion time produced the highest average digestion efficiencies (~80%), with the highest average reproducibility (<5% error, defined as the relative deviation from the mean value). However, because of potential interferences resulting from the use of SDS, we recommend DOC with a 9 h digestion procedure as the optimum protocol. PMID:20722421

  11. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Dorairaj, Rathissh (Hillsboro, OR); Keynton, Robert S. (Louisville, KY); Roussel, Thomas J. (Louisville, KY); Crain, Mark M. (Georgetown, IN); Jackson, Douglas J. (New Albany, IN); Walsh, Kevin M. (Louisville, KY); Naber, John F. (Goshen, KY); Baldwin, Richard P. (Louisville, KY); Franco, Danielle B. (Mount Washington, KY)

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  12. Enhancing Centrifugal Separation With Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    Separation of biological cells by coil-planet centrifuge enhanced by electrophoresis. By itself, coil-planet centrifuge offers relatively gentle method of separating cells under low centrifugal force in physiological medium that keeps cells alive. With addition of voltage gradient to separation column of centrifuge, separation still gentle but faster and more complete. Since separation apparatus contains no rotary seal, probability of leakage, contamination, corrosion, and short circuits reduced.

  13. Rapid analysis of atorvastatin calcium using capillary electrophoresis and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Guihen, Elizabeth; Sisk, Garry D; Scully, Norma M; Glennon, Jeremy D

    2006-06-01

    In this work, a capillary electrophoretic method for the rapid quantitation of atorvastatin (AT) in a lipitor tablet was investigated and developed. Method development included studies of the effect of applied potential, buffer concentration, buffer pH, and hydrodynamic injection time on the electrophoretic separation. The method was validated with regard to linearity, precision, specificity, LOD, and LOQ. The optimum electrophoretic separation conditions were 25 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 6, with a separation voltage of 25 kV using a 50 microm capillary of 33 cm total length. Sodium diclofenac was used as an internal standard. Analysis of AT in a commercial lipitor tablet by electrophoresis gave quite high efficiency, coupled with an analysis time of less than 1.2 min in comparison to LC. Once the separation was optimized on capillary, it was further miniaturized to a microchip platform, with linear imaging UV detection using microchip electrophoresis (MCE). Linear imaging UV detection allowed for real-time monitoring of the analyte movement on chip, so that the optimum separation time could be easily determined. This microchip electrophoretic method was compared to the CE method with regard to speed, efficiency, precision, and LOD. This work represents the most rapid and first reported analysis of AT using MCE. PMID:16786480

  14. Separation of biogenic materials by electrophoresis under zero gravity (L-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Masao

    1993-01-01

    Electrophoresis separates electrically charged materials by imposing a voltage between electrodes. Though free-flow electrophoresis is used without carriers such as colloids to separate and purify biogenic materials including biogenic cells and proteins in blood, its resolving power and separation efficiency is very low on Earth due to sedimentation, flotation, and thermal convection caused by the specific gravity differences between separated materials and buffer solutions. The objective of this experiment is to make a comparative study of various electrophoresis conditions on the ground and in zero-gravity in order to ultimately develop a method for separating various important 'vial' components which are difficult to separate on the ground.

  15. How it all began: a personal history of gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Smithies, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Arne Tiselius' moving boundary electrophoresis method was still in general use in 1951 when this personal history begins, although zonal electrophoresis with a variety of supporting media (e.g., filter paper or starch grains) was beginning to replace it. This chapter is an account of 10 years of experiments carried out by the author during which molecular sieving gel electrophoresis was developed and common genetic variants of two proteins, haptoglobin and transferrin, were discovered in normal individuals. Most of the figures are images of pages from the author's laboratory notebooks, which are still available, so that some of the excitement of the time and the humorous moments are perhaps apparent. Alkaline gels, acidic gels with and without denaturants, vertical gels, two-dimensional gels, and gels with differences in starch concentration are presented. The subtle details that can be discerned in these various gels played an indispensable role in determining the nature of the change in the haptoglobin gene (Hp) that leads to the polymeric series characteristic of Hp ( 2 ) /Hp ( 2 ) homozygotes. Where possible, the names of scientific friends who made this saga of gel electrophoresis so memorable and enjoyable are gratefully included. PMID:22585472

  16. Neurofilament protein defines regional patterns of cortical organization in the macaque monkey visual system: a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hof, P. R.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Visual function in monkeys is subserved at the cortical level by a large number of areas defined by their specific physiological properties and connectivity patterns. For most of these cortical fields, a precise index of their degree of anatomical specialization has not yet been defined, although many regional patterns have been described using Nissl or myelin stains. In the present study, an attempt has been made to elucidate the regional characteristics, and to varying degrees boundaries, of several visual cortical areas in the macaque monkey using an antibody to neurofilament protein (SMI32). This antibody labels a subset of pyramidal neurons with highly specific regional and laminar distribution patterns in the cerebral cortex. Based on the staining patterns and regional quantitative analysis, as many as 28 cortical fields were reliably identified. Each field had a homogeneous distribution of labeled neurons, except area V1, where increases in layer IVB cell and in Meynert cell counts paralleled the increase in the degree of eccentricity in the visual field representation. Within the occipitotemporal pathway, areas V3 and V4 and fields in the inferior temporal cortex were characterized by a distinct population of neurofilament-rich neurons in layers II-IIIa, whereas areas located in the parietal cortex and part of the occipitoparietal pathway had a consistent population of large labeled neurons in layer Va. The mediotemporal areas MT and MST displayed a distinct population of densely labeled neurons in layer VI. Quantitative analysis of the laminar distribution of the labeled neurons demonstrated that the visual cortical areas could be grouped in four hierarchical levels based on the ratio of neuron counts between infragranular and supragranular layers, with the first (areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A) and third (temporal and parietal regions) levels characterized by low ratios and the second (areas MT, MST, and V4) and fourth (frontal regions) levels characterized by high to very high ratios. Such density trends may correspond to differential representation of corticocortically (and corticosubcortically) projecting neurons at several functional steps in the integration of the visual stimuli. In this context, it is possible that neurofilament protein is crucial for the unique capacity of certain subsets of neurons to perform the highly precise mapping functions of the monkey visual system.

  17. Novel detection schemes and automated image analysis algorithms for planar chromatography and gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Koutney, L.B.

    1992-09-09

    After a discussion of charge coupled devices and personal computer capabilities, examples of their applications involving novel analytical techniques are presented: laser-based indirect fluorometric detection in thin-layer chromatography; on-line detection of DNA and proteins in gel electrophoresis by uv absorption; automated image analysis for distortion compensation in sequencing gel electrophoresis; and expert systems for data acquisition to achieve constant signal-to-noise, with application to DNA sequencing slab gels.

  18. A quantitative protocol for dynamic measurements of protein interactions by Förster resonance energy transfer-sensitized fluorescence emission

    PubMed Central

    Elder, A.D.; Domin, A.; Kaminski Schierle, G.S.; Lindon, C.; Pines, J.; Esposito, A.; Kaminski, C.F.

    2008-01-01

    Fluorescence detection of acceptor molecules sensitized by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful method to study protein interactions in living cells. The method requires correction for donor spectral bleed-through and acceptor cross-excitation as well as the correct normalization of signals to account for varying fluorophore concentrations and imaging parameters. In this paper, we review different methods for FRET signal normalization and then present a rigorous model for sensitized emission measurements, which is both intuitive to understand and practical to apply. The method is validated by comparison with the acceptor photobleaching and donor lifetime-imaging techniques in live cell samples containing EYFP and ECFP tandem constructs exhibiting known amounts of FRET. By varying the stoichiometry of interaction in a controlled fashion, we show that information on the fractions of interacting donors and acceptors can be recovered. Furthermore, the method is tested by performing measurements on different microscopy platforms in both widefield and confocal imaging modes to show that signals recovered under different imaging conditions are in quantitative agreement. Finally, the method is applied in the study of dynamic interactions in the cyclin–cdk family of proteins in live cells. By normalizing the obtained signals for both acceptor and donor concentrations and using a FRET exhibiting control construct for calibration, stoichiometric changes in these interactions could be visualized in real time. The paper is written to be of practical use to researchers interested in performing sensitized emission measurements. The correct interpretation of the retrieved signals in a biological context is emphasized, and guidelines are given for the practical application of the developed algorithms.

  19. Establishment of a quantitative PCR system for discriminating chitinase-like proteins: catalytically inactive breast regression protein-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) [chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1) or 38-kDa glycoprotein (gp38k)], Ym1 (Chi3l3) and Ym2 (Chi3l4). Recently, CLPs have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Although the exact functions of CLPs are largely unknown, the significance of their increased expression levels during pathophysiological states needs to be determined. The quantification of BRP-39, Ym1 and Ym2 is an important step in gaining insight into the in vivo regulation of the CLPs. Methods We constructed a standard DNA for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by containing three CLPs target fragments and five reference genes cDNA in a one-to-one ratio. We evaluated this system by analyzing the eight target cDNA sequences. Tissue cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA from four embryonic stages and eight adult tissues were analyzed using the qPCR system with the standard DNA. Results We established a qPCR system detecting CLPs and comparing their expression levels with those of five reference genes using the same scale in mouse tissues. We found that BRP-39 and Ym1 were abundant in the mouse lung, whereas Ym2 mRNA was abundant in the stomach, followed by lung. The expression levels of BRP-39 and Ym1 in the mouse lung were higher than those of two active chitinases and were comparable to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a housekeeping gene which is constitutively expressed in all tissues. Conclusion Our results indicate that catalytically inactive BRP-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in normal mouse lung. PMID:25294623

  20. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L.; Benson, Helen E.; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J.; Alexander, Stephen P. H.; Buneman, O. Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; McGrath, John C.; Peters, John A.; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A.; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  1. The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY in 2016: towards curated quantitative interactions between 1300 protein targets and 6000 ligands.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Sharman, Joanna L; Benson, Helen E; Faccenda, Elena; Pawson, Adam J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Buneman, O Peter; Davenport, Anthony P; McGrath, John C; Peters, John A; Spedding, Michael; Catterall, William A; Fabbro, Doriano; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-01-01

    The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb, http://www.guidetopharmacology.org) provides expert-curated molecular interactions between successful and potential drugs and their targets in the human genome. Developed by the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR) and the British Pharmacological Society (BPS), this resource, and its earlier incarnation as IUPHAR-DB, is described in our 2014 publication. This update incorporates changes over the intervening seven database releases. The unique model of content capture is based on established and new target class subcommittees collaborating with in-house curators. Most information comes from journal articles, but we now also index kinase cross-screening panels. Targets are specified by UniProtKB IDs. Small molecules are defined by PubChem Compound Identifiers (CIDs); ligand capture also includes peptides and clinical antibodies. We have extended the capture of ligands and targets linked via published quantitative binding data (e.g. Ki, IC50 or Kd). The resulting pharmacological relationship network now defines a data-supported druggable genome encompassing 7% of human proteins. The database also provides an expanded substrate for the biennially published compendium, the Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY. This article covers content increase, entity analysis, revised curation strategies, new website features and expanded download options. PMID:26464438

  2. Quantitative Genome-Wide Genetic Interaction Screens Reveal Global Epistatic Relationships of Protein Complexes in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Stewart, Geordie; Samanfar, Bahram; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Wagih, Omar; Vlasblom, James; Phanse, Sadhna; Lad, Krunal; Yeou Hsiung Yu, Angela; Graham, Christopher; Jin, Ke; Brown, Eric; Golshani, Ashkan; Kim, Philip; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Greenblatt, Jack; Houry, Walid A.; Parkinson, John; Emili, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI) screens can provide insights into the biological role(s) of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among ?-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems. PMID:24586182

  3. Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots (SAPH-ire)--A Quantitative Informatics Method Enabling the Discovery of Novel Regulatory Elements in Protein Families.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Henry M; Choudhury, Shilpa; Torres, Matthew P

    2015-08-01

    Predicting the biological function potential of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is becoming increasingly important in light of the exponential increase in available PTM data from high-throughput proteomics. We developed structural analysis of PTM hotspots (SAPH-ire)--a quantitative PTM ranking method that integrates experimental PTM observations, sequence conservation, protein structure, and interaction data to allow rank order comparisons within or between protein families. Here, we applied SAPH-ire to the study of PTMs in diverse G protein families, a conserved and ubiquitous class of proteins essential for maintenance of intracellular structure (tubulins) and signal transduction (large and small Ras-like G proteins). A total of 1728 experimentally verified PTMs from eight unique G protein families were clustered into 451 unique hotspots, 51 of which have a known and cited biological function or response. Using customized software, the hotspots were analyzed in the context of 598 unique protein structures. By comparing distributions of hotspots with known versus unknown function, we show that SAPH-ire analysis is predictive for PTM biological function. Notably, SAPH-ire revealed high-ranking hotspots for which a functional impact has not yet been determined, including phosphorylation hotspots in the N-terminal tails of G protein gamma subunits--conserved protein structures never before reported as regulators of G protein coupled receptor signaling. To validate this prediction we used the yeast model system for G protein coupled receptor signaling, revealing that gamma subunit-N-terminal tail phosphorylation is activated in response to G protein coupled receptor stimulation and regulates protein stability in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of integrating protein structural and sequence features into PTM prioritization schemes that can improve the analysis and functional power of modification-specific proteomics data. PMID:26070665

  4. Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots (SAPH-ire) – A Quantitative Informatics Method Enabling the Discovery of Novel Regulatory Elements in Protein Families*

    PubMed Central

    Dewhurst, Henry M.; Choudhury, Shilpa; Torres, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the biological function potential of post-translational modifications (PTMs) is becoming increasingly important in light of the exponential increase in available PTM data from high-throughput proteomics. We developed structural analysis of PTM hotspots (SAPH-ire)—a quantitative PTM ranking method that integrates experimental PTM observations, sequence conservation, protein structure, and interaction data to allow rank order comparisons within or between protein families. Here, we applied SAPH-ire to the study of PTMs in diverse G protein families, a conserved and ubiquitous class of proteins essential for maintenance of intracellular structure (tubulins) and signal transduction (large and small Ras-like G proteins). A total of 1728 experimentally verified PTMs from eight unique G protein families were clustered into 451 unique hotspots, 51 of which have a known and cited biological function or response. Using customized software, the hotspots were analyzed in the context of 598 unique protein structures. By comparing distributions of hotspots with known versus unknown function, we show that SAPH-ire analysis is predictive for PTM biological function. Notably, SAPH-ire revealed high-ranking hotspots for which a functional impact has not yet been determined, including phosphorylation hotspots in the N-terminal tails of G protein gamma subunits—conserved protein structures never before reported as regulators of G protein coupled receptor signaling. To validate this prediction we used the yeast model system for G protein coupled receptor signaling, revealing that gamma subunit–N-terminal tail phosphorylation is activated in response to G protein coupled receptor stimulation and regulates protein stability in vivo. These results demonstrate the utility of integrating protein structural and sequence features into PTM prioritization schemes that can improve the analysis and functional power of modification-specific proteomics data. PMID:26070665

  5. Mathematical models of continuous flow electrophoresis: Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, Dudley A.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of continuous flow electrophoresis were studied: (1) the structure of the flow field in continuous flow devices; and (2) the electrokinetic properties of suspended particles relevant to electrophoretic separations. Mathematical models were developed to describe flow structure and stability, with particular emphasis on effects due to buoyancy. To describe the fractionation of an arbitrary particulate sample by continuous flow electrophoresis, a general mathematical model was constructed. In this model, chamber dimensions, field strength, buffer composition, and other design variables can be altered at will to study their effects on resolution and throughput. All these mathematical models were implemented on a digital computer and the codes are available for general use. Experimental and theoretical work with particulate samples probed how particle mobility is related to buffer composition. It was found that ions on the surface of small particles are mobile, contrary to the widely accepted view. This influences particle mobility and suspension conductivity. A novel technique was used to measure the mobility of particles in concentrated suspensions.

  6. Profiling and quantitative evaluation of three Nickel-Coated magnetic matrices for purification of recombinant proteins: lelpful hints for the optimized nanomagnetisable matrix preparation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several materials are available in the market that work on the principle of protein magnetic fishing by their histidine (His) tags. Little information is available on their performance and it is often quoted that greatly improved purification of histidine-tagged proteins from crude extracts could be achieved. While some commercial magnetic matrices could be used successfully for purification of several His-tagged proteins, there are some which have been proved to operate just for a few extent of His-tagged proteins. Here, we address quantitative evaluation of three commercially available Nickel nanomagnetic beads for purification of two His-tagged proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and present helpful hints for optimized purification of such proteins and preparation of nanomagnetisable matrices. Results Marked differences in the performance of nanomagnetic matrices, principally on the basis of their specific binding capacity, recovery profile, the amount of imidazole needed for protein elution and the extent of target protein loss and purity were obtained. Based on the aforesaid criteria, one of these materials featured the best purification results (SiMAG/N-NTA/Nickel) for both proteins at the concentration of 4 mg/ml, while the other two (SiMAC-Nickel and SiMAG/CS-NTA/Nickel) did not work well with respect to specific binding capacity and recovery profile. Conclusions Taken together, functionality of different types of nanomagnetic matrices vary considerably. This variability may not only be dependent upon the structure and surface chemistry of the matrix which in turn determine the affinity of interaction, but, is also influenced to a lesser extent by the physical properties of the protein itself. Although the results of the present study may not be fully applied for all nanomagnetic matrices, but provide a framework which could be used to profiling and quantitative evaluation of other magnetisable matrices and also provide helpful hints for those researchers facing same challenge. PMID:21824404

  7. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes

    PubMed Central

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  8. pI-Control in Comparative Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) using amphoteric azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Hanneken, Marina; Šlais, Karel; König, Simone

    2015-06-01

    Amphoteric azo dyes were used for internal control of pI values in Comparative two-dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis (CoFGE) [1]. The 2D-gel images of separated Escherichia coli proteins as well as those of colored amphoteric dyes separated by isoelectric focussing are presented. The latter were used to correct for variation in the first electrophoretic dimension and further improve protein coordinate assignment in 2D-gel electrophoresis. Data tables are supplied to demonstrate pI-value calibration and the effect on the assignment of protein spot coordinates. PMID:26217748

  9. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S. (Ames, IA); Tan, Hongdong (Ames, IA)

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  10. Proteomic Analysis of Rice Nonhost Resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici Using Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Yuheng; Kang, Zhensheng

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the only widely cultivated gramineous crops that cannot be infected by rust fungi. To decipher the molecular basis of rice nonhost resistance (NHR) to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal agent of wheat stripe rust, proteomic analysis was performed using the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) technique. The expressed proteins from rice leaves 24 and 48 h post inoculation with Pst and from mock-inoculated leaves were identified. Quantitative analysis revealed a total of 27 differentially expressed proteins in response to Pst inoculation. Most of these proteins fall into the category “response to stimulus” and are involved in basic resistance processes, such as glycerol-3-phosphate and hydrogen peroxide signaling. A homologue of wheat leaf rust resistance protein Lr10 was also identified, implicating multiple layers of plant defense are implicated in rice NHR to Pst. These results demonstrate an intrinsic relationship between host and nonhost resistance. Changes in abundance of these proteins, together with their putative functions reveal a comprehensive profile of rice NHR to Pst and provide new insights into plant immunity. PMID:25429427

  11. Capillary electrophoresis for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lurie, Ira S.

    1999-02-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a high resolution separation technique which is amenable to a wide variety of solutes, including compounds which are thermally degradable, non-volatile and highly polar, and is therefore well suited for drug analysis. Techniques which have been used in our laboratory include electrokinetic chromatography (ECC), free zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC). ECC, which uses a charged run buffer additive which migrates counter to osmotic flow, is excellent for many applications, including, drug screening and analyses of heroin, cocaine and methamphetamine samples. ECC approaches include the use of micelles and charged cyclodextrins, which allow for the separation of complex mixtures. Simultaneous separation of acidic, neutral and basic solutes and the resolution of optical isomers and positional isomers are possible. CZE has been used for the analysis of small ions (cations and anions) in heroin exhibits. For the ECC and CZE experiments performed in our laboratory, uncoated capillaries were used. In contrast, CEC uses capillaries packed with high performance liquid chromatography stationary phases, and offers both high peak capacities and unique selectivities. Applications include the analysis of cannabinoids and drug screening. Although CE suffers from limited concentration sensitivity, it is still applicable to trace analysis of drug samples, especially when using injection techniques such as stacking, or detection schemes such as laser induced fluorescence and extended pathlength UV.

  12. Correlation of mRNA expression and protein abundance affected by multiple sequence features related to translational efficiency in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: A quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Lei; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-12-01

    The modest correlation between mRNA expression and protein abundance in large scale datasets is explained in part by experimental challenges, such as technological limitations, and in part by fundamental biological factors in the transcription and translation processes. Among various factors affecting the mRNA-protein correlation, the roles of biological factors related to translation are poorly understood. In this study, using experimental mRNA expression and protein abundance data collected from Desulfovibrio vulgaris by DNA microarray and LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, we quantitatively examined the effects of several translational-efficiency-related sequence features on mRNA-protein correlation. Three classes of sequence features were investigated according to different translational stages: (1) initiation: Shine-Dalgarno sequences, start codon identity and start codon context; (2) elongation: codon usage and amino acid usage; and (3) termination: stop codon identity and stop codon context. Surprisingly, although it is widely accepted that translation initiation is a rate-limiting step for translation, our results showed that the mRNA-protein correlation was affected the most by the features at elongation stages, codon usage and amino acid composition (7.4-12.6% and 5.3-9.3% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation, respectively), followed by stop codon context and the Shine-Dalgarno sequence (2.5-4.2% and 2.3%, respectively). Taken together, all sequence features contributed to 18.4-21.8% of the total variation of mRNA-protein correlation. As the first comprehensive quantitative analysis of the mRNA-protein correlation in bacterial D. vulgaris, our results suggest that the traditional view of the relative importance of various sequence features in prokaryotic protein translation might be questionable.

  13. DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Barry Karger

    2011-05-09

    The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach in sequencing up to 500 bases. Other application papers of sequencing up to this level were also published in the mid 1990's. A major interest of the sequencing community has always been read length. The longer the sequence read per run the more efficient the process as well as the ability to read repeat sequences. We therefore devoted a great deal of time to studying the factors influencing read length in capillary electrophoresis, including polymer type and molecule weight, capillary column temperature, applied electric field, etc. In our initial optimization, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the sequencing of over 1000 bases with 90% accuracy. The run required 80 minutes for separation. Sequencing of 1000 bases per column was next demonstrated on a multiple capillary instrument. Our studies revealed that linear polyacrylamide produced the longest read lengths because the hydrophilic single strand DNA had minimal interaction with the very hydrophilic linear polyacrylamide. Any interaction of the DNA with the polymer would lead to broader peaks and lower read length. Another important parameter was the molecular weight of the linear chains. High molecular weight (> 1 MDA) was important to allow the long single strand DNA to reptate through the entangled polymer matrix. In an important paper, we showed an inverse emulsion method to prepare reproducibility linear polyacrylamide polymer with an average MWT of 9MDa. This approach was used in the polymer for sequencing the human genome. Another critical factor in the successful use of capillary electrophoresis for sequencing was the sample preparation method. In the Sanger sequencing reaction, high concentration of salts and dideoxynucleotide remained. Since the sample was introduced to the capillary column by electrokinetic injection, these salt ions would be favorably injected into the column over the sequencing fragments, thus reducing the signal for longer fragments and hence reading read length. In two papers, we examined the role of individual components from the sequencing reaction and then developed a protocol to reduce the deleterio

  14. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of avian eggshell matrix and uterine fluid proteins associated with eggshell mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjiao; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production. During the process of eggshell formation, uncalcified eggs are bathed in uterine fluid that plays regulatory roles in eggshell calcification. In this study, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology was used to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs (shell matrix protein from strong eggshells and shell matrix protein from weak eggshells) and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs (uterine fluid bathing strong eggs and uterine fluid bathing weak eggs) in a chicken population. Here, we reported the first global proteomic analysis of uterine fluid. A total of 577 and 466 proteins were identified in uterine fluid and eggshell matrix, respectively. Of 447 identified proteins in uterine fluid bathing strong eggs, up to 357 (80%) proteins were in common with proteins in uterine fluid bathing weak eggs. Similarly, up to 83% (328/396) of the proteins in shell matrix protein from strong eggshells were in common with the proteins in shell matrix protein from weak eggshells. The large amount of common proteins indicated that the difference in protein abundance should play essential roles in influencing eggshell strength. Ultimately, 15 proteins mainly relating to eggshell matrix specific proteins, calcium binding and transportation, protein folding and sorting, bone development or diseases, and thyroid hormone activity were considered to have closer association with the formation of strong eggshell. PMID:24151251

  15. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; UPCR Formal name: Urine Protein Related tests: Urinalysis ; Albumin ; Microalbumin ; Protein Electrophoresis ; ...

  16. Quantitative Proteomics by SWATH-MS Reveals Altered Expression of Nucleic Acid Binding and Regulatory Proteins in HIV-1-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection remains a worldwide epidemic, and innovative therapies to combat the virus are needed. Developing a host-oriented antiviral strategy capable of targeting the biomolecules that are directly or indirectly required for viral replication may provide advantages over traditional virus-centric approaches. We used quantitative proteomics by SWATH-MS in conjunction with bioinformatic analyses to identify host proteins, with an emphasis on nucleic acid binding and regulatory proteins, which could serve as candidates in the development of host-oriented antiretroviral strategies. Using SWATH-MS, we identified and quantified the expression of 3608 proteins in uninfected and HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophages. Of these 3608 proteins, 420 were significantly altered upon HIV-1 infection. Bioinformatic analyses revealed functional enrichment for RNA binding and processing as well as transcription regulation. Our findings highlight a novel subset of proteins and processes that are involved in the host response to HIV-1 infection. In addition, we provide an original and transparent methodology for the analysis of label-free quantitative proteomics data generated by SWATH-MS that can be readily adapted to other biological systems. PMID:24564501

  17. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-09-01

    Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), (2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4) rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed. PMID:26306314

  18. Data set for the proteomic inventory and quantitative analysis of chicken eggshell matrix proteins during the primary events of eggshell mineralization and the active growth phase of calcification

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B.; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-01-01

    Chicken eggshell is a biomineral composed of 95% calcite calcium carbonate mineral and of 3.5% organic matrix proteins. The assembly of mineral and its structural organization is controlled by its organic matrix. In a recent study [1], we have used quantitative proteomic, bioinformatic and functional analyses to explore the distribution of 216 eggshell matrix proteins at four key stages of shell mineralization defined as: (1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), (2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, (3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and (4) rapid growth of calcite as columnar structure with preferential crystal orientation. The current article detailed the quantitative analysis performed at the four stages of shell mineralization to determine the proteins which are the most abundant. Additionally, we reported the enriched GO terms and described the presence of 35 antimicrobial proteins equally distributed at all stages to keep the egg free of bacteria and of 81 proteins, the function of which could not be ascribed. PMID:26306314

  19. Electrophoresis tests on STS-3 and ground control experiments - A basis for future biological sample selections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R.; Lewis, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    Static zone electrophoresis is an electrokinetic method of separating macromolecules and small particles. However, its application for the isolation of biological cells and concentrated protein solutions is limited by sedimentation and convection. Microgravity eliminates or reduces sedimentation, floatation, and density-driven convection arising from either Joule heating or concentration differences. The advantages of such an environment were first demonstrated in space during the Apollo 14 and 16 missions. In 1975 the Electrophoresis Technology Experiment (MA-011) was conducted during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project flight. In 1979 a project was initiated to repeat the separations of human kidney cells. One of the major objectives of the Electrophoresis Equipment Verification Tests (EEVT) on STS-3 was to repeat and thereby validate the first successful electrophoretic separation of human kidney cells. Attention is given to the EEVT apparatus, the preflight electrophoresis, and inflight operational results.

  20. Compensating for Electro-Osmosis in Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Simple mechanical adjustment eliminates transverse velocity component. New apparatus for moving-wall electrophoresis increases degree of collimation of chemical species in sample stream. Electrophoresis chamber set at slight angle in horizontal plane to adjust angle between solution flow and wall motion. Component of velocity created cancels electro-osmotic effect.

  1. Patch Clamp Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Articles Patch Clamp Detection in Capillary Electrophoresis Kent Jardemark Department of Anatomy a capillary electrophoresis-patch clamp (CE- PC) analysis of biomolecules that activate ligand-gated ion responses were calculated from currents recorded with patch clamp detection. This information

  2. Two Electrophoresis Experiments for Freshmen in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabson, G. Dana; Waugh, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes procedures involved with paper electrophoresis separation of amino acids, gel electrophoresis separation of DNA, and design of an electrophoresis tank. Describes experiments using paper (amino acids) and gel (deoxyribonucleic acid fragments). Provides material lists, procedures, and discussion. (JM)

  3. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Fought, E.R.

    1987-11-10

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface. 8 figs.

  4. Electrophoresis-mass spectrometry probe

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D. (Pleasanton, CA); Fought, Eric R. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01

    The invention involves a new technique for the separation of complex mixtures of chemicals, which utilizes a unique interface probe for conventional mass spectrometers which allows the electrophoretically separated compounds to be analyzed in real-time by a mass spectrometer. This new chemical analysis interface, which couples electrophoresis with mass spectrometry, allows complex mixtures to be analyzed very rapidly, with much greater specificity, and with greater sensitivity. The interface or probe provides a means whereby large and/or polar molecules in complex mixtures to be completely characterized. The preferred embodiment of the probe utilizes a double capillary tip which allows the probe tip to be continually wetted by the buffer, which provides for increased heat dissipation, and results in a continually operating interface which is more durable and electronically stable than the illustrated single capillary tip probe interface.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis coupled to contactless conductivity detection for the analysis of S-nitrosothiols decomposition and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Abdulghani; d'Orlyé, Fanny; Griveau, Sophie; Bedioui, Fethi; Varenne, Anne; da Silva, José Alberto Fracassi

    2015-08-01

    S-Nitrosothiols (RSNO) are composed of a NO group bound to the sulfhydryl group of a peptide or protein. RSNO are very important biological molecules, since they have many effects on human health. RSNO are easily naturally decomposed by metal ions, light, and heat, with different kinetics. They can furthermore undergo transnitrosation (NO moieties exchange), which is a crucial point in physiological conditions since the concentration ratios between the different nitrosothiols is a key factor in many physiopathological processes. There is therefore a great need for their quantitation. Many S-nitrosothiol detection and quantitation methods need their previous decomposition, leading thus to some limitations. We propose a direct quantitation method employing the coupling of capillary electrophoresis with a homemade capacitively coupled contactless conductivity (C(4) D) detector in order to separate and quantify S-nitrosoglutathione and its decomposition products. After optimization of the method, we have studied the kinetics of decomposition using light and heat. Our results show that the decomposition by light is first order (kobs   =  (3.40 ± 0.15) × 10(-3)  s(-1) ) while that using heat (at 80°C) is zeroth order (kobs,80°C   =  (4.34 ± 0.14) × 10(-6)  mol L(-1) s(-1) ). Transnitrosation reaction between S-nitrosoglutathione and cysteine was also studied, showing the possibility of separation and detection of all the products of this reaction in less than 2.5 min. PMID:25999258

  6. SILAC-iPAC: A quantitative method for distinguishing genuine from non-specific components of protein complexes by parallel affinity capture

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Johanna S.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Jackson, Antony P.

    2015-01-01

    Pull-down assays can identify members of protein complexes but suffer from co-isolation of contaminants. The problem is particularly acute when the specifically interacting partners are of low-abundance and/or bind transiently with low affinity. To differentiate true interacting partners from contaminants, we have combined SILAC labelling with a proteomic method called “Interactomes by Parallel Affinity Capture” (iPAC). In our method, a cell-line stably expressing a doubly tagged target endogenous protein and its tag-less control cell-line are differentially SILAC labelled. Lysates from the two cell-lines are mixed and the tagged protein is independently purified for MS analysis using multiple affinity resins in parallel. This allows the quantitative identification of tagged proteins and their binding partners. SILAC–iPAC provides a rigorous and sensitive approach that can discriminate between genuine binding partners and contaminants, even when the contaminants in the pull-down are in large excess. We employed our method to examine the interacting partners of phosphatidyl inositol 5-phosphate 4-kinase 2? subunit (PI5P4K2?) and the Fanconi anaemia core complex in the chicken pre-B cell-line DT40. We confirmed known components of these two complexes, and we have identified new potential binding partners. Combining the iPAC approach with SILAC labelling provides a sensitive and fully quantitative method for the discrimination of specific interactions under conditions where low signal to noise ratios are unavoidable. In addition, our work provides the first characterisation of the most abundant proteins within the DT40 proteome and the non-specific DT40 ‘beadomes’ (non-specific proteins binding to beads) for common epitope tags. Given the importance and widespread use of the DT40 cell-line, these will be important resources for the cell biology and immunology communities. Biological significance SILAC–iPAC provides an improved method for the analysis of low-affinity and/or low abundance protein-protein interactions. We use it to clarify two examples where the nature of the protein complexes are known, or are currently unclear. The method is simple and quantitative and will be applicable to many problems in cell and molecular biology. We also report the first chicken beadomes. PMID:25534881

  7. Quantitative characterization of the protein contents of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell by soft x-ray microscopy and advanced digital imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Loo Jr., Billy W.

    2000-06-09

    The study of the exocrine pancreatic acinar cell has been central to the development of models of many cellular processes, especially of protein transport and secretion. Traditional methods used to examine this system have provided a wealth of qualitative information from which mechanistic models have been inferred. However they have lacked the ability to make quantitative measurements, particularly of the distribution of protein in the cell, information critical for grounding of models in terms of magnitude and relative significance. This dissertation describes the development and application of new tools that were used to measure the protein content of the major intracellular compartments in the acinar cell, particularly the zymogen granule. Soft x-ray microscopy permits image formation with high resolution and contrast determined by the underlying protein content of tissue rather than staining avidity. A sample preparation method compatible with x-ray microscopy was developed and its properties evaluated. Automatic computerized methods were developed to acquire, calibrate, and analyze large volumes of x-ray microscopic images of exocrine pancreatic tissue sections. Statistics were compiled on the protein density of several organelles, and on the protein density, size, and spatial distribution of tens of thousands of zymogen granules. The results of these measurements, and how they compare to predictions of different models of protein transport, are discussed.

  8. Galactomannans as a sieving matrix in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dolník, V; Gurske, W A; Padua, A

    2001-01-01

    Purification of galactomannans including guaran, tara gum, and locust bean gum is described as well as their use as a sieving matrix in DNA sequencing by capillary electrophoresis (CE). Three methods of galactomannan purification were developed and tested using guaran. The first method is based on hydrolysis of proteins using alkali treatment and precipitation of guaran with acetone. The second method uses ion-exchange resins QAE Sephadex A-25 and SP Sephadex C-25 together with acetone precipitation. The third method is similar to the second one, except that it uses ion-exchange resins based on polystyrene, Source 30Q and Source 30S. Capillary zone electrophoresis of acetonitrile extracts from guaran revealed 4-5 characteristic major peaks and several minor peaks. Guar gum from different suppliers differed in the content of proteins. In purified guaran, protein peaks were detectable only using a 300-fold concentrate of extract. The content of proteins in the guaran purified using the third method was 0.001% m/m as determined by CE. The weight average molecular mass of purified guaran can be as large as 2.2 x 10(6). The purified galactomannans were used as a sieving matrix in DNA sequencing by CE. M13 DNA was sequenced to read lengths of about 600 bases in less than 90 min. Separation efficiencies exceeded 1 million theoretical plates for DNA fragments shorter than about 600 bases. PMID:11296926

  9. Diversity of puroindolines as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Branlard, Gérard; Amiour, Nardjis; Igrejas, Gilberto; Gaborit, Thérèse; Herbette, Stephane; Dardevet, Mireille; Marion, Didier

    2003-02-01

    Puroindolines are endosperm lipid binding proteins, which are separated by reversed phase-high-performance liquid chromatography or cation exchange chromatography into two isoforms, puroindoline-a (PIN-a) and puroindoline-b (PIN-b). Being very basic and close in molecular weight, PIN-a and PIN-b have never been separated using conventional isoelectric focusing and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A two-dimensional electrophoresis method, linear immobiline pH gradient (IPGxSDS-PAGE), was developed, using 6-11 linear immobiline Dry Strips in the first dimension, which allowed the puroindolines to be focused between isoelectric point 10.5 and 11. Immunoblotting revealed that both PIN-a and PIN-b were each composed of several spots. Two-dimensional patterns from unrelated wheat varieties revealed that several spots can be highlighted among varieties. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight spectrometry allowed the majority of the spots revealed in the puroindoline zone to be identified. The two-dimensional IPGxSDS-PAGE of these very basic wheat endosperm proteins, puroindolines and related grain softness proteins should facilitate the identification of the proteins associated with wheat endosperm texture that have a strong effect on milling, dough properties and end-uses of wheats. PMID:12601809

  10. Proteomic Screening of Antigenic Proteins from the Hard Tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Ha; slam, Mohammad Saiful; You, Myung-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. For detection of antigens from Haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-DE) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. Reactivity bands and 2-DE immunoblotting were performed following 2-DE electrophoresis to identify protein spots. The proteome of the partially fed female had a larger number of lower molecular weight proteins than that of the unfed female tick. The total number of detected spots was 818 for unfed and 670 for partially fed female ticks. The 2-DE immunoblotting identified 10 antigenic spots from unfed females and 8 antigenic spots from partially fed females. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) of relevant spots identified calreticulin, putative secreted WC salivary protein, and a conserved hypothetical protein from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and Swiss Prot protein sequence databases. These findings indicate that most of the whole body components of these ticks are non-immunogenic. The data reported here will provide guidance in the identification of antigenic proteins to prevent infestation and diseases transmitted by H. longicornis. PMID:25748713

  11. [Optimization of two-dimensional electrophoresis conditions for proteomics of Issatchenkia orientalis in degrading dyes].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Sheng; Bai, Zhi-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xun; Zhang, Ling

    2011-02-01

    Total protein of the yeast Issatchenkia orientalis was extracted and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) before and after the dye Reactive Brilliant Red K-2BP was degraded by this yeast, respectively. Different protein extraction methods, different volumes of sample loaded and different staining techniques were tested and compared for the 2-DE. Among three different protein extraction methods, the final protein concentrations of 3.4 mg/mL, 1.8 mg/mL and 5.6 mg/mL were obtained by single ultrasonication, ultrasonication-TCA/acetone,and ultrasonication-ammonium sulfate precipitation, respectively. The best electrophoresis pattern could be gotten by loading 150 microg protein samples from the method of ultrasonication-ammonium sulfate precipitation, using IPG strips of pH 4-7 for the first dimensional electrophoresis and staining with silver nitrate. This electrophoresis pattern had high resolution and good repetition. It was detected to have 730 +/- 30 protein points by preliminary image analysis. This research results provided a technical support for screening dye-degrading enzymes from the yeast of I. orientalis. PMID:21528582

  12. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted. PMID:25840947

  13. The new horizon in 2D electrophoresis: new technology to increase resolution and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Moche, Martin; Albrecht, Dirk; Maaß, Sandra; Hecker, Michael; Westermeier, Reiner; Büttner, Knut

    2013-06-01

    A principally new type of an electrophoresis setup for the second dimension of 2DE named HPE (high performance electrophoresis) has recently become available that provides excellent reproducibility much superior to traditional 2DE. It takes up ideas from early beginnings of 2DE which could not be satisfactory realized at that time. The new HPE system is in contrast to all other established systems a horizontal electrophoresis that employs a new type of precast polyacrylamide gels on film-backing and runs on a multilevel flatbed electrophoresis apparatus. In a systematic approach we compared its features to traditional 2DE for the cytosolic proteome of Bacillus subtilis. Not only the reproducibility is enhanced, but also nearly all qualitative parameters as resolution, sensitivity, the number of protein spots (25% more), and the number of different proteins (also additional 25%) are markedly increased. More than 200 proteins were exclusively found in HPE. This new electrophoresis system does not use buffer tanks. No glass plates are needed. Therefore handling of gels is greatly facilitated and very simple to use even for personnel with low technical skills. The new HPE system is technically at the beginnings and further development with increased performance can be expected. PMID:23494680

  14. Comparison of non-electrophoresis grade with electrophoresis grade BIS in NIPAM polymer gel preparation

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Roghayeh; Khajeali, Azim; Farajollahi, Ali Reza; Hajalioghli, Parisa; Raeisi, Noorallah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:The main objective of this study was to investigate the possibility of replacing electrophoresis cross-linker with non-electrophoresis N, N?-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS) in N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) polymer gel and its possible effect on dose response. Methods: NIPAM polymer gel was prepared from non-electrophoresis grade BIS and the relaxation rate (R2) was measured by MR imaging after exposing the gel to gamma radiation from Co-60 source. To compare the response of this gel with the one that contains electrophoresis grade BIS, two sets of NIPAM gel were prepared using electrophoresis and non-electrophoresis BIS and irradiated to different gamma doses. Results: It was found that the dose–response of NIPAM gel made from the non-electrophoresis grade BIS is coincident with that of electrophoresis grade BIS. Conclusion:Taken all, it can be concluded that the non-electrophoresis grade BIS not only is a suitable alternative for the electrophoresis grade BIS but also reduces the cost of gel due to its lower price. PMID:26457250

  15. Differential effects of mineral nutrition on wheat flour proteins determined by quantitative 2-DE and MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour protein composition changed significantly when plants of the hard red spring wheat Triticum aestivum Butte 86 were grown with or without post-anthesis fertilization with NPK. To measure changes in individual proteins, 369 protein spots were resolved and quantified by 2-DE of total flour protei...

  16. Differential effects of mineral nutrition on wheat flour proteins determined by quantitative 2-DE and MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour protein composition changed significantly when plants of the hard red spring wheat Triticum aestivum cv Butte 86 were grown with or without post-anthesis fertilization with NPK. To measure changes in individual proteins, 369 protein spots were resolved and quantified by 2-DE of total flour pro...

  17. Differentiation of opium and poppy straw using capillary electrophoresis and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Reid, Raymond G; Durham, David G; Boyle, Susanne P; Low, Ann S; Wangboonskul, Jinda

    2007-12-12

    Opium samples from four different locations and poppy straw from different plant varieties have been assayed using micellar capillary electrophoresis incorporating a sweeping technique. Individual alkaloids (morphine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine, thebaine, oripavine, reticuline and narceine) were quantitatively determined in the different samples by a validated capillary electrophoresis method. Unsupervised pattern recognition of the opium samples and the poppy straw samples using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), showed distinct clusters. Supervised pattern recognition using soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was performed to show individual groupings and allow unknown samples to be classified according to the models built using the CZE assay results. PMID:18022406

  18. Quantitative proteomics provides new insights into chicken eggshell matrix protein functions during the primary events of mineralisation and the active calcification phase.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pauline; Labas, Valérie; Brionne, Aurélien; Harichaux, Grégoire; Hennequet-Antier, Christelle; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro B; Nys, Yves; Gautron, Joël

    2015-08-01

    Eggshell is a bioceramic composed of 95% calcium carbonate mineral and 3.5% organic matrix. Its structural organisation is controlled by its organic matrix. We have used quantitative proteomics to study four key stages of shell mineralisation: 1) widespread deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), 2) ACC transformation into crystalline calcite aggregates, 3) formation of larger calcite crystal units and 4) development of a columnar structure with preferential calcite crystal orientation. This approach explored the distribution of 216 shell matrix proteins found at the four stages. Variations in abundance according to these calcification events were observed for 175 proteins. A putative function related to the mineralisation process was predicted by bioinformatics for 77 of them and was further characterised. We confirmed the important role of lysozyme, ovotransferrin, ovocleidin-17 and ovocleidin-116 for shell calcification process, characterised major calcium binding proteins (EDIL3, ALB, MFGE8, NUCB2), and described novel proteoglycans core proteins (GPC4, HAPLN3). We suggest that OVAL and OC-17 play a role in the stabilisation of ACC. Finally, we report proteins involved in the regulation of proteins driving the mineralisation. They correspond to numerous molecular chaperones including CLU, PPIB and OCX21, protease and protease inhibitors including OVM and CST3, and regulators of phosphorylation. PMID:26049031

  19. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: vertical isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Dorri, Yaser

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) is one of the most powerful tools for separating proteins based on their size and charge. 2-DE is very useful to separate two proteins with identical molecular weights but different charges, which cannot be achieved with just sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Here, a simpler and easier version of 2-DE is presented which is also faster than all the currently available techniques. In this modified version of 2-DE, isoelectric focusing is carried out in the first dimension using a vertical SDS-PAGE apparatus. Following the first-dimensional IEF, each individual lane is excised from the IEF gel and, after a 90° rotation, is inserted into a second-dimensional SDS-PAGE, which can be stained with Coomassie Brilliant Blue for protein analysis or immunoblotted for further analysis. This version of IEF can be run in less than 2 h compared to the overnight run required by O'Farrell's method. Difficult tube gel casting and gel extrusion as well as tube gel distortion are eliminated in our method. This method is simpler, faster, and inexpensive. Both dimensions can be done on the same SDS-PAGE apparatus, and up to ten samples can be run simultaneously using one gel. PMID:22585490

  20. Nonlinear waves in capillary electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Ghosal, Sandip; Chen, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Electrophoretic separation of a mixture of chemical species is a fundamental technique of great usefulness in biology, health care and forensics. In capillary electrophoresis the sample migrates in a microcapillary in the presence of a background electrolyte. When the ionic concentration of the sample is sufficiently high, the signal is known to exhibit features reminiscent of nonlinear waves including sharp concentration ‘shocks’. In this paper we consider a simplified model consisting of a single sample ion and a background electrolyte consisting of a single co-ion and a counterion in the absence of any processes that might change the ionization states of the constituents. If the ionic diffusivities are assumed to be the same for all constituents the concentration of sample ion is shown to obey a one dimensional advection diffusion equation with a concentration dependent advection velocity. If the analyte concentration is sufficiently low in a suitable non-dimensional sense, Burgers’ equation is recovered, and thus, the time dependent problem is exactly solvable with arbitrary initial conditions. In the case of small diffusivity either a leading edge or trailing edge shock is formed depending on the electrophoretic mobility of the sample ion relative to the background ions. Analytical formulas are presented for the shape, width and migration velocity of the sample peak and it is shown that axial dispersion at long times may be characterized by an effective diffusivity that is exactly calculated. These results are consistent with known observations from physical and numerical simulation experiments. PMID:20238181

  1. Mesoscale modelling of polyelectrolyte electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Grass, Kai; Holm, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains ranging from single monomers up to long fragments of a hundred repeat units is studied by a mesoscopic simulation approach. Abstracting from the atomistic details of the polyelectrolyte and the fluid, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model connected to a mesoscopic fluid described by the Lattice-Boltzmann approach is used to investigate free-solution electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates the importance of hydrodynamic interactions for the electrophoretic motion of polyelectrolytes and quantifies the influence of surrounding ions. The length-dependence of the electrophoretic mobility can be understood by evaluating the scaling behavior of the effective charge and the effective friction. The perfect agreement of our results with experimental measurements shows that all chemical details and fluid structure can be safely neglected, and a suitable coarse-grained approach can yield an accurate description of the physics of the problem, provided that electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between all entities in the system, i.e., the polyelectrolyte, dissociated counterions, additional salt and the solvent, are properly accounted for. Our model is able to bridge the single molecule regime of a few nm up to macromolecules with contour lengths of more than 100 nm, a length scale that is currently not accessible to atomistic simulations. PMID:20158023

  2. Mesoscale modelling of polyelectrolyte electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Kai Grass; Christian Holm

    2009-02-11

    The electrophoretic behaviour of flexible polyelectrolyte chains ranging from single monomers up to long fragments of hundred repeat units is studied by a mesoscopic simulation approach. Abstracting from the atomistic details of the polyelectrolyte and the fluid, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model connected to a mesoscopic fluid described by the Lattice Boltzmann approach is used to investigate free-solution electrophoresis. Our study demonstrates the importance of hydrodynamic interactions for the electrophoretic motion of polyelectrolytes and quantifies the influence of surrounding ions. The length-dependence of the electrophoretic mobility can be understood by evaluating the scaling behavior of the effective charge and the effective friction. The perfect agreement of our results with experimental measurements shows that all chemical details and fluid structure can be safely neglected, and a suitable coarse-grained approach can yield an accurate description of the physics of the problem, provided that electrostatic and hydrodynamic interactions between all entities in the system, i.e., the polyelectrolyte, dissociated counterions, additional salt and the solvent, are properly accounted for. Our model is able to bridge the single molecule regime of a few nm up to macromolecules with contour lengths of more than 100 nm, a length scale that is currently not accessible to atomistic simulations.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Severs, Joanne C. (Hayward, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  4. Study of disposable microdevices for DNA electrophoresis

    E-print Network

    Timp, Winston (Winston G.)

    2005-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if a microfluidic chip, made of economical plastic materials, is feasible. The chip was designed to perform gel electrophoresis, specifically of DNA fragments for either sequencing or ...

  5. High-performance capillary electrophoresis of histones

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; London, J.E.; Valdez, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    A high performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) system has been developed for the fractionation of histones. This system involves electroinjection of the sample and electrophoresis in a 0.1M phosphate buffer at pH 2.5 in a 50 {mu}m {times} 35 cm coated capillary. Electrophoresis was accomplished in 9 minutes separating a whole histone preparation into its components in the following order of decreasing mobility; (MHP) H3, H1 (major variant), H1 (minor variant), (LHP) H3, (MHP) H2A (major variant), (LHP) H2A, H4, H2B, (MHP) H2A (minor variant) where MHP is the more hydrophobic component and LHP is the less hydrophobic component. This order of separation is very different from that found in acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and in reversed-phase HPLC and, thus, brings the histone biochemist a new dimension for the qualitative analysis of histone samples. 27 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Induced-charge electrophoresis near a wall

    E-print Network

    Kilic, Mustafa Sabri

    Induced-charge electrophoresis (ICEP) has mostly been analyzed for asymmetric particles in an infinite fluid, but channel walls in real systems further break symmetry and lead to dielectrophoresis (DEP) in local field ...

  7. Microchamber integration unifies distinct separation modes for two-dimensional electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Tentori, Augusto M.; Hughes, Alex J.; Herr, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    By combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) with subsequent gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) affords more specific characterization of proteins than each constituent unit separation. In a new approach to integrating the two assay dimensions in a microscope slide-sized glass device, we introduce microfluidic 2DE using photopatterned polyacrylamide (PA) gel elements housed in a millimeter-scale, 20 micron-deep chamber. The microchamber minimizes information loss inherent to channel network architectures commonly used for microfluidic 2DE. To define the IEF axis along a ‘lane’ at the top of the chamber, we used free solution carrier ampholytes and immobilized acrylamido buffers in the PA gels. This approach yielded high resolution (0.1 pH units) and rapid (<20 min) IEF. Next, protein transfer to the second dimension was accomplished using chemical mobilization perpendicular to the IEF axis. Mobilization drove focused proteins off the IEF lane and into a region for protein gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we observed transfer induced band broadening factors ~7.5-fold lower than those observed in microchannel networks. Both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and pore-limit electrophoresis (PLE) were studied as the second assay dimension and completed in <15 min. PLE yields protein molecular mass information without the need for ionic surfactant or reducing agents, simplifying device design and operation. Microchamber-based 2DE unifies two independent separation dimensions in a single device with minimal transfer-associated information losses. Peak capacities for the total assay ranged from 256 to 35 with <1 hr assay duration. The rapid microchamber 2DE assay has the potential to bridge an existing gap in targeted proteomics for protein biomarker validation and systems biology that may complement recent innovation in mass spectrometry. PMID:23565932

  8. Microchamber integration unifies distinct separation modes for two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tentori, Augusto M; Hughes, Alex J; Herr, Amy E

    2013-05-01

    By combining isoelectric focusing (IEF) with subsequent gel electrophoresis, two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) affords more specific characterization of proteins than each constituent unit separation. In a new approach to integrating the two assay dimensions in a microscope slide-sized glass device, we introduce microfluidic 2DE using photopatterned polyacrylamide (PA) gel elements housed in a millimeter-scale, 20-?m-deep chamber. The microchamber minimizes information loss inherent to channel network architectures commonly used for microfluidic 2DE. To define the IEF axis along a "lane" at the top of the chamber, we used free solution carrier ampholytes and immobilized acrylamido buffers in the PA gels. This approach yielded high-resolution (0.1 pH unit) and rapid (<20 min) IEF. Next, protein transfer to the second dimension was accomplished by chemical mobilization perpendicular to the IEF axis. Mobilization drove focused proteins off the IEF lane and into a region for protein gel electrophoresis. Using fluorescently labeled proteins, we observed transfer-induced band broadening factors ~7.5-fold lower than those observed in microchannel networks. Both native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and pore-limit electrophoresis (PLE) were studied as the second assay dimension and completed in <15 min. PLE yields protein molecular mass information without the need for ionic surfactant or reducing agents, simplifying device design and operation. Microchamber-based 2DE unifies two independent separation dimensions in a single device with minimal transfer-associated information losses. Peak capacities for the total assay ranged from 256 to 35 with <1 h assay duration. The rapid microchamber 2DE assay has the potential to bridge an existing gap in targeted proteomics for protein biomarker validation and systems biology that may complement recent innovation in mass spectrometry. PMID:23565932

  9. Comparison of serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein analysis, and genetic restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for identification of rickettsiae: characterization of two new rickettsial strains.

    PubMed Central

    Beati, L; Finidori, J P; Gilot, B; Raoult, D

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, 17 adult Rhipicephalus turanicus ticks were collected in the south of France. Two spotted fever group rickettsiae, Mtu1 and Mtu5, were isolated from the hemolymphs of two of these ticks by the centrifugation shell-vial technique by using HEL cells. These isolates were compared with reference spotted fever group rickettsial serotypes by using three identification methods: microimmunofluorescence serologic typing, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction endonuclease fragment length polymorphism analysis. The results obtained by all these techniques showed that Mtu1 and Mtu5 are each previously undescribed rickettsial serotypes. A comparison of the three methods used to identify the isolates led us to the conclusion that, in large-scale epidemiological studies, the simplest way to identify isolates in ticks is to first use the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis directly on triturated ticks as a screening method to detect interesting rickettsiae, and then attempt to isolate rickettsiae from ticks for identification by microimmunofluorescence and SDS-PAGE, both of which are time-consuming and expensive to carry out. Images PMID:1354221

  10. Affinity Electrophoresis Using Ligands Attached To Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Snyder, Robert S.; Harris, J. M.; Brooks, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    In new technique, reduction of electrophoretic mobilities by addition of polyethylene glycol to ligands increases electrophoretic separabilities. In immuno-affinity electrophoresis, modification of ligands extends specificity of electrophoretic separation to particles having surface electric-charge structures otherwise making them electrophoretically inseparable. Modification of antibodies by polyethylene glycol greatly reduces ability to aggregate while enhancing ability to affect electrophoretic mobilities of cells. In hydrophobic-affinity electrophoresis, addition of polyethylene glycol reduces tendency toward aggregation of cells or macromolecules.

  11. Free-Flow Open-Chamber Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Free-flow open-chamber electrophoresis variant of free-flow electrophoresis performed in chamber with open ends and in which velocity of electro-osmotic flow adjusted equal to and opposite mean electrophoretic velocity of sample. Particles having electrophoretic mobilities greater than mean mobility of sample particles move toward cathode, those with mobilities less move toward anode. Technique applied to separation of components of mixtures of biologically important substances. Sensitivity enhanced by use of tapered chamber.

  12. Development of a Univariate Membrane-Based Mid-Infrared Method for Protein Quantitation and Total Lipid Content Analysis of Biological Samples

    PubMed Central

    Cappione, Amedeo; Lento, Joseph; Chernokalskaya, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Biological samples present a range of complexities from homogeneous purified protein to multicomponent mixtures. Accurate qualification of such samples is paramount to downstream applications. We describe the development of an MIR spectroscopy-based analytical method offering simultaneous protein quantitation (0.25–5?mg/mL) and analysis of total lipid or detergent species, as well as the identification of other biomolecules present in biological samples. The method utilizes a hydrophilic PTFE membrane engineered for presentation of aqueous samples in a dried format compatible with fast infrared analysis. Unlike classical quantification techniques, the reported method is amino acid sequence independent and thus applicable to complex samples of unknown composition. By comparison to existing platforms, this MIR-based method enables direct quantification using minimal sample volume (2?µL); it is well-suited where repeat access and limited sample size are critical parameters. Further, accurate results can be derived without specialized training or knowledge of IR spectroscopy. Overall, the simplified application and analysis system provides a more cost-effective alternative to high-throughput IR systems for research laboratories with minimal throughput demands. In summary, the MIR-based system provides a viable alternative to current protein quantitation methods; it also uniquely offers simultaneous qualification of other components, notably lipids and detergents. PMID:25371845

  13. Determination of preservatives in soft drinks by capillary electrophoresis with ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bingbing; Qi, Li; Wang, Minglin

    2014-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method for separating preservatives with various ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives has been developed. The performances for separation of the preservatives using five ionic liquids with different anions and different substituted group numbers on imidazole ring were studied. After investigating the influence of the key parameters on the separation (the concentration of ionic liquids, pH, and the concentration of borax), it has been found that the separation efficiency could be improved obviously using the ionic liquids as the electrolyte additives and tested preservatives were baseline separated. The proposed capillary electrophoresis method exhibited favorable quantitative analysis property of the preservatives with good linearity (r(2) = 0.998), repeatability (relative standard deviations ? 3.3%) and high recovery (79.4-117.5%). Furthermore, this feasible and efficient capillary electrophoresis method was applied in detecting the preservatives in soft drinks, introducing a new way for assaying the preservatives in food products. PMID:24910409

  14. Urine Collected From Diapers Can Be Used for 2-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) in Infants and Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Mary Jayne; Griffin, Angela; Su, Ruifeng; Merchant, Michael; Klein, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Urinary proteomic profiling has potential to identify candidate biomarkers of renal injury in infants provided an adequate urine sample can be obtained. Although diapers are used to obtain urine for clinical evaluation, their use for proteomic analysis has not been investigated. We therefore performed feasibility studies on the use of diaper-extracted urine for 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Pediatric waste urine (2–20 mL) was applied to gel-containing, non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers and then mechanically expressed. Urine volume and total protein were measured pre- and post-extraction. Proteins were separated via 2D-PAGE following application of urine (20–40 mL) to each matrix. 2D-PAGE was also performed on clinical specimens collected using each diaper type. Differences in the adsorption and retention of urine volume and protein were noted between matrices. Non-gel and cotton-gauze diapers provided the best protein/volume recovery and the lowest interference with the Bradford assay. 2D-PAGE was also successfully completed using urine samples from both cotton fiber matrices. Conversely, samples from low-gel diapers demonstrated poor protein separation and reproducibility. Diapers containing cotton-fiber matrices appear adequate for 2D-PAGE. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of resolved proteins using replicate, high resolution gels will be required, however, before diaper-extracted urine can be applied in proteomic profiling. PMID:21137001

  15. Organic acid production by Aspergillus niger in recycling culture analyzed by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, J M; Raedts, M J; Stouthamer, A H; van Verseveld, H W

    1995-10-10

    Wild-type Aspergillus niger N402 and glucoamylase++ overproducing transformant A. niger N402[pAB6-10]B1 have grown in maltodextrin- and xylose-limited recycling culture at pH 4.5 on mineral medium. The only products formed were organic acids and proteins, among which glucoamylase. The production of organic acids by the fungus has been analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively using capillary electrophoresis. The only organic acids produced in these cultures were substantial amounts of citric acid. This is the first demonstration of abundant oxalic acid production and a very low citric acid production by submerged cultures of A. niger. In the maltodextrin-limited culture the oxalic acid production rate increased during the first 80 h of cultivation and decreased after that time. In xylose-limited recycling culture the oxalic acid production rate always increased in time and highest values were found in the last samples taken from the culture after about 140 h of cultivation. Oxalic acid production rates were highest by the wild-type strain grown on xylose as carbon source, i.e., when the lowest glucoamylase production rates were observed. A clear negative correlation was found between the oxalic acid production rate and the respiration quotient (RQ). An increase in the oxygen consumption rate, due to the production of strongly oxidized oxalic acid, caused the RQ to be lowest at those stages of recycling cultivation when highest oxalic acid production rates were observed. PMID:8678298

  16. Quantitative trait loci affecting milk yield and protein percentage in a three-country Brown Swiss population.

    PubMed

    Bagnato, A; Schiavini, F; Rossoni, A; Maltecca, C; Dolezal, M; Medugorac, I; Sölkner, J; Russo, V; Fontanesi, L; Friedmann, A; Soller, M; Lipkin, E

    2008-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping projects have been implemented mainly in the Holstein dairy cattle breed for several traits. The aim of this study is to map QTL for milk yield (MY) and milk protein percent (PP) in the Brown Swiss cattle populations of Austria, Germany, and Italy, considered in this study as a single population. A selective DNA pooling approach using milk samples was applied to map QTL in 10 paternal half-sib daughter families with offspring spanning from 1,000 to 3,600 individuals per family. Three families were sampled in Germany, 3 in Italy, 1 in Austria and 3 jointly in Austria and Italy. The pools comprised the 200 highest and 200 lowest performing daughters, ranked by dam-corrected estimated breeding value for each sire-trait combination. For each tail, 2 independent pools, each of 100 randomly chosen daughters, were constructed. Sire marker allele frequencies were obtained by densitometry and shadow correction analyses of 172 genome-wide allocated autosomal markers. Particular emphasis was placed on Bos taurus chromosomes 3, 6, 14, and 20. Marker association for MY and PP with a 10% false discovery rate resulted in nominal P-values of 0.071 and 0.073 for MY and PP, respectively. Sire marker association tested at a 20% false discovery rate (within significant markers) yielded nominal P-values of 0.031 and 0.036 for MY and PP, respectively. There were a total of 36 significant markers for MY, 33 for PP, and 24 for both traits; 75 markers were not significant for any of the traits. Of the 43 QTL regions found in the present study, 10 affected PP only, 8 affected MY only, and 25 affected MY and PP. Remarkably, all 8 QTL regions that affected only MY in the Brown Swiss, also affected MY in research reported in 3 Web-based QTL maps used for comparison with the findings of this study (http://www.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/reprogen/QTL_Map/; http://www.animalgenome.org/QTLdb/cattle.html; http://bovineqtl.tamu.edu/). Similarly, all 10 QTL regions in the Brown Swiss that affected PP only, affected only PP in the databases. Thus, many QTL appear to be common to Brown Swiss and other breeds in the databases (mainly Holstein), and an appreciable fraction of QTL appears to affect MY or PP primarily or exclusively, with little or no effect on the other trait. Although QTL information available today in the Brown Swiss population can be utilized only in a within family marker-assisted selection approach, knowledge of QTL segregating in the whole population should boost gene identification and ultimately the implementation and efficiency of an individual genomic program. PMID:18218765

  17. Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry: Correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfides (PSSG) are commonly quantified by the reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This met...

  18. A Comparative Quantitative Proteomic Study Identifies New Proteins Relevant for Sulfur Oxidation in the Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    PubMed Central

    Weissgerber, Thomas; Sylvester, Marc; Kröninger, Lena

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the proteome response of Allochromatium vinosum when growing photoautotrophically in the presence of sulfide, thiosulfate, and elemental sulfur with the proteome response when the organism was growing photoheterotrophically on malate. Applying tandem mass tag analysis as well as two-dimensional (2D) PAGE, we detected 1,955 of the 3,302 predicted proteins by identification of at least two peptides (59.2%) and quantified 1,848 of the identified proteins. Altered relative protein amounts (?1.5-fold) were observed for 385 proteins, corresponding to 20.8% of the quantified A. vinosum proteome. A significant number of the proteins exhibiting strongly enhanced relative protein levels in the presence of reduced sulfur compounds are well documented essential players during oxidative sulfur metabolism, e.g., the dissimilatory sulfite reductase DsrAB. Changes in protein levels generally matched those observed for the respective relative mRNA levels in a previous study and allowed identification of new genes/proteins participating in oxidative sulfur metabolism. One gene cluster (hyd; Alvin_2036-Alvin_2040) and one hypothetical protein (Alvin_2107) exhibiting strong responses on both the transcriptome and proteome levels were chosen for gene inactivation and phenotypic analyses of the respective mutant strains, which verified the importance of the so-called Isp hydrogenase supercomplex for efficient oxidation of sulfide and a crucial role of Alvin_2107 for the oxidation of sulfur stored in sulfur globules to sulfite. In addition, we analyzed the sulfur globule proteome and identified a new sulfur globule protein (SgpD; Alvin_2515). PMID:24487535

  19. A Novel Function for Arabidopsis CYCLASE1 in Programmed Cell Death Revealed by Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Analysis of Extracellular Matrix Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sarah J.; Kroon, Johan T. M.; Simon, William J.; Slabas, Antoni R.; Chivasa, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death is essential for plant development and stress adaptation. A detailed understanding of the signal transduction pathways that regulate plant programmed cell death requires identification of the underpinning protein networks. Here, we have used a protagonist and antagonist of programmed cell death triggered by fumonisin B1 as probes to identify key cell death regulatory proteins in Arabidopsis. Our hypothesis was that changes in the abundance of cell death-regulatory proteins induced by the protagonist should be blocked or attenuated by concurrent treatment with the antagonist. We focused on proteins present in the mobile phase of the extracellular matrix on the basis that they are important for cell–cell communications during growth and stress-adaptive responses. Salicylic acid, a plant hormone that promotes programmed cell death, and exogenous ATP, which can block fumonisin B1-induced cell death, were used to treat Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures prior to isobaric-tagged relative and absolute quantitation analysis of secreted proteins. A total of 33 proteins, whose response to salicylic acid was suppressed by ATP, were identified as putative cell death-regulatory proteins. Among these was CYCLASE1, which was selected for further analysis using reverse genetics. Plants in which CYCLASE1 gene expression was knocked out by insertion of a transfer-DNA sequence manifested dramatically increased cell death when exposed to fumonisin B1 or a bacterial pathogen that triggers the defensive hypersensitive cell death. Although pathogen inoculation altered CYCLASE1 gene expression, multiplication of bacterial pathogens was indistinguishable between wild type and CYCLASE1 knockout plants. However, remarkably severe chlorosis symptoms developed on gene knockout plants in response to inoculation with either a virulent bacterial pathogen or a disabled mutant that is incapable of causing disease in wild type plants. These results show that CYCLASE1, which had no known function hitherto, is a negative regulator of cell death and regulates pathogen-induced symptom development in Arabidopsis. PMID:25862728

  20. Highly Multiplexed and Reproducible Ion-Current-Based Strategy for Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomics and the Application to Protein Expression Dynamics Induced by Methylprednisolone in 60 Rats

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A proteome-level time-series study of drug effects (i.e., pharmacodynamics) is critical for understanding mechanisms of action and systems pharmacology, but is challenging, because of the requirement of a proteomics method for reliable quantification of many biological samples. Here, we describe a highly reproducible strategy, enabling a global, large-scale investigation of the expression dynamics of corticosteroid-regulated proteins in livers from adrenalectomized rats over 11 time points after drug dosing (0.5–66 h, N = 5/point). The analytical advances include (i) exhaustive tissue extraction with a Polytron/sonication procedure in a detergent cocktail buffer, and a cleanup/digestion procedure providing very consistent protein yields (relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.7%–6.4%) and peptide recoveries (4.1–9.0%) across the 60 animals; (ii) an ultrahigh-pressure nano-LC setup with substantially improved temperature stabilization, pump-noise suppression, and programmed interface cleaning, enabling excellent reproducibility for continuous analyses of numerous samples; (iii) separation on a 100-cm-long column (2-?m particles) with high reproducibility for days to enable both in-depth profiling and accurate peptide ion-current match; and (iv) well-controlled ion-current-based quantification. To obtain high-quality quantitative data necessary to describe the 11 time-points protein expression temporal profiles, strict criteria were used to define “quantifiable proteins”. A total of 323 drug-responsive proteins were revealed with confidence, and the time profiles of these proteins provided new insights into the diverse temporal changes of biological cascades associated with hepatic metabolism, response to hormone stimuli, gluconeogenesis, inflammatory responses, and protein translation processes. Most profile changes persisted well after the drug was eliminated. The developed strategy can also be broadly applied in preclinical and clinical research, where the analysis of numerous biological replicates is crucial. PMID:25072516

  1. Highly multiplexed and reproducible ion-current-based strategy for large-scale quantitative proteomics and the application to protein expression dynamics induced by methylprednisolone in 60 rats.

    PubMed

    Nouri-Nigjeh, Eslam; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Shen, Xiaomeng; Duan, Xiaotao; DuBois, Debra C; Almon, Richard R; Jusko, William J; Qu, Jun

    2014-08-19

    A proteome-level time-series study of drug effects (i.e., pharmacodynamics) is critical for understanding mechanisms of action and systems pharmacology, but is challenging, because of the requirement of a proteomics method for reliable quantification of many biological samples. Here, we describe a highly reproducible strategy, enabling a global, large-scale investigation of the expression dynamics of corticosteroid-regulated proteins in livers from adrenalectomized rats over 11 time points after drug dosing (0.5-66 h, N = 5/point). The analytical advances include (i) exhaustive tissue extraction with a Polytron/sonication procedure in a detergent cocktail buffer, and a cleanup/digestion procedure providing very consistent protein yields (relative standard deviation (RSD%) of 2.7%-6.4%) and peptide recoveries (4.1-9.0%) across the 60 animals; (ii) an ultrahigh-pressure nano-LC setup with substantially improved temperature stabilization, pump-noise suppression, and programmed interface cleaning, enabling excellent reproducibility for continuous analyses of numerous samples; (iii) separation on a 100-cm-long column (2-?m particles) with high reproducibility for days to enable both in-depth profiling and accurate peptide ion-current match; and (iv) well-controlled ion-current-based quantification. To obtain high-quality quantitative data necessary to describe the 11 time-points protein expression temporal profiles, strict criteria were used to define "quantifiable proteins". A total of 323 drug-responsive proteins were revealed with confidence, and the time profiles of these proteins provided new insights into the diverse temporal changes of biological cascades associated with hepatic metabolism, response to hormone stimuli, gluconeogenesis, inflammatory responses, and protein translation processes. Most profile changes persisted well after the drug was eliminated. The developed strategy can also be broadly applied in preclinical and clinical research, where the analysis of numerous biological replicates is crucial. PMID:25072516

  2. Quantitative Mass Spectrometric Profiling of Cancer-cell Proteomes Derived From Liquid and Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Ströbel, Philipp; Mohr, Sebastian; Corso, Jasmin; Berg, Tobias; Urlaub, Henning; Lenz, Christof; Serve, Hubert; Oellerich, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In-depth analyses of cancer cell proteomes are needed to elucidate oncogenic pathomechanisms, as well as to identify potential drug targets and diagnostic biomarkers. However, methods for quantitative proteomic characterization of patient-derived tumors and in particular their cellular subpopulations are largely lacking. Here we describe an experimental set-up that allows quantitative analysis of proteomes of cancer cell subpopulations derived from either liquid or solid tumors. This is achieved by combining cellular enrichment strategies with quantitative Super-SILAC-based mass spectrometry followed by bioinformatic data analysis. To enrich specific cellular subsets, liquid tumors are first immunophenotyped by flow cytometry followed by FACS-sorting; for solid tumors, laser-capture microdissection is used to purify specific cellular subpopulations. In a second step, proteins are extracted from the purified cells and subsequently combined with a tumor-specific, SILAC-labeled spike-in standard that enables protein quantification. The resulting protein mixture is subjected to either gel electrophoresis or Filter Aided Sample Preparation (FASP) followed by tryptic digestion. Finally, tryptic peptides are analyzed using a hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometer, and the data obtained are processed with bioinformatic software suites including MaxQuant. By means of the workflow presented here, up to 8,000 proteins can be identified and quantified in patient-derived samples, and the resulting protein expression profiles can be compared among patients to identify diagnostic proteomic signatures or potential drug targets. PMID:25867170

  3. Chimeric proteins for detection and quantitation of DNA mutations, DNA sequence variations, DNA damage and DNA mismatches

    DOEpatents

    McCutchen-Maloney, Sandra L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Chimeric proteins having both DNA mutation binding activity and nuclease activity are synthesized by recombinant technology. The proteins are of the general formula A-L-B and B-L-A where A is a peptide having DNA mutation binding activity, L is a linker and B is a peptide having nuclease activity. The chimeric proteins are useful for detection and identification of DNA sequence variations including DNA mutations (including DNA damage and mismatches) by binding to the DNA mutation and cutting the DNA once the DNA mutation is detected.

  4. 2D-PAGE protein analysis of dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum based on three different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latib, Norhidayu Abdul; Norshaha, Safida Anira; Usup, Gires; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Harmful algae bloom or red tide seems to be considered as threat to ecosystem, especially to human consumption because of the production of neurotoxin by dinoflagellates species such as Alexandrium minutum which can lead to paralytic shellfish poisoning. The aim of this study is to determine the most suitable method for protein extraction of A. minutum followed by determination of differential protein expression of A. minutum on three different temperatures (15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C). After the optimization, the protein extract was subjected to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to compare the intensity and distribution of the protein spots. Based on quantitative and qualitative protein assessment, use of Trizol reagent is the most suitable method to extract protein from A. minutum. 2-DE analysis of the samples results in different distribution and intensity of the protein spots were compared between 15°C, 26°C and 31.5°C.

  5. Direct methods for dynamic monitoring of secretions from single cells by capillary electrophoresis and microscopy with laser-induced native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.

    1997-10-08

    Microscale separation and detection methods for real-time monitoring of dynamic cellular processes (e.g., secretion) by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microscopic imaging were developed. Ultraviolet laser-induced native fluorescence (LINF) provides simple, sensitive and direct detection of neurotransmitters and proteins without any derivatization. An on-column CE-LINF protocol for quantification of the release from single cell was demonstrated. Quantitative measurements of both the amount of insulin released from and the amount remaining in the cell ({beta}TC3) were achieved simultaneously. Secretion of catecholamines (norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E)) from individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was determined using the on-column CE-LINF. Direct visualization of the secretion process of individual bovine adrenal chromaffin cells was achieved by LINF imaging microscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution. The secretion of serotonin from individual leech Retzius neurons was directly characterized by LINF microscopy with high spatial resolution.

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on invasion-promoting proteins secreted by glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sangar, Vineet; Funk, Cory C; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Campbell, David S; Moritz, Robert L; Price, Nathan D

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and aggressive brain tumor with an invariably poor prognosis. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a primary influencer of invasion and proliferation in tumor cells and the constitutively active EGFRvIII mutant, found in 30-65% of Glioblastoma multiforme, confers more aggressive invasion. To better understand how EGFR contributes to tumor aggressiveness, we investigated the effect of EGFR on the secreted levels of 65 rationally selected proteins involved in invasion. We employed selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled internal peptide standards to quantity proteins in the secretome from five GBM (U87) isogenic cell lines in which EGFR, EGFRvIII, and/or PTEN were expressed. Our results show that cell lines with EGFR overexpression and constitutive EGFRvIII expression differ remarkably in the expression profiles for both secreted and intracellular signaling proteins, and alterations in EGFR signaling result in reproducible changes in concentrations of secreted proteins. Furthermore, the EGFRvIII-expressing mutant cell line secretes the majority of the selected invasion-promoting proteins at higher levels than other cell lines tested. Additionally, the intracellular and extracellular protein measurements indicate elevated oxidative stress in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that EGFR signaling has a significant effect on the levels of secreted invasion-promoting proteins, likely contributing to the aggressiveness of Glioblastoma multiforme. Further characterization of these proteins may provide candidates for new therapeutic strategies and targets as well as biomarkers for this aggressive disease. PMID:24997998

  7. Outer membrane vesicles of the VA-MENGOC-BC vaccine against serogroup B of Neisseria meningitidis: Analysis of protein components by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Uli, Liliam; Castellanos-Serra, Lila; Betancourt, Lazaro; Domínguez, Francisco; Barberá, Ramón; Sotolongo, Franklin; Guillén, Gerardo; Pajón Feyt, Rolando

    2006-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for significant mortality worldwide. While effective polysaccharides-based vaccines exist against serogroups A, C, W135, and Y, no similar vaccine is suitable for children under 4 years against disease caused by serogroup B strains. Therefore, major vaccine efforts against this serogroup are based on outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), containing major outer membrane proteins. The OMV-based vaccine produced by the Finlay Institute in Cuba (VA-MENGOC-BC) contributed to the rapid decline of the epidemic in this Caribbean island. While the content of major proteins in this vaccine has been discussed, no detailed work of an outer membrane proteomic map of this, or any other, commercially available OMV-derived product has been published so far. Since OMVs exhibit a large bias toward a few major proteins and usually contain a high content of lipids, establishing the adequate conditions for high resolution, 2-DE of this kind of preparation was definitely a technical challenge. In this work, 2-DE and MS have been used to generate a proteomic map of this product, detailing the presence of 31 different proteins, and it allows the identification of new putative protective protein components it contains. PMID:16673438

  8. A Quantitative Approach to Evaluate the Impact of Fluorescent Labeling on Membrane-Bound HIV-Gag Assembly by Titration of Unlabeled Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gunzenhäuser, Julia; Wyss, Romain; Manley, Suliana

    2014-01-01

    The assembly process of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) is driven by the viral polyprotein Gag. Fluorescence imaging of Gag protein fusions is widely performed and has revealed important information on viral assembly. Gag fusion proteins are commonly co-transfected with an unlabeled form of Gag to prevent labeling artifacts such as morphological defects and decreased infectivity. Although viral assembly is widely studied on individual cells, the efficiency of the co-transfection rescue has never been tested at the single cell level. Here, we first develop a methodology to quantify levels of unlabeled to labeled Gag in single cells using a fluorescent reporter protein for unlabeled Gag and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Using super-resolution imaging based on photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) combined with molecular counting we then study the nanoscale morphology of Gag clusters as a function of unlabeled to labeled Gag ratios in single cells. We show that for a given co-transfection ratio, individual cells express a wide range of protein ratios, necessitating a quantitative read-out for the expression of unlabeled Gag. Further, we show that monomerically labeled Gag assembles into membrane-bound clusters that are morphologically indistinguishable from mixtures of unlabeled and labeled Gag. PMID:25493438

  9. Quantitative analysis of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and PEGylated proteins in animal tissues by LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jiachang; Gu, Xiaomei; Achanzar, William E; Chadwick, Kristina D; Gan, Jinping; Brock, Barry J; Kishnani, Narendra S; Humphreys, W Griff; Iyer, Ramaswamy A

    2014-08-01

    The covalent conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG, typical MW > 10k) to therapeutic peptides and proteins is a well-established approach to improve their pharmacokinetic properties and diminish the potential for immunogenicity. Even though PEG is generally considered biologically inert and safe in animals and humans, the slow clearance of large PEGs raises concerns about potential adverse effects resulting from PEG accumulation in tissues following chronic administration, particularly in the central nervous system. The key information relevant to the issue is the disposition and fate of the PEG moiety after repeated dosing with PEGylated proteins. Here, we report a novel quantitative method utilizing LC-MS/MS coupled with in-source CID that is highly selective and sensitive to PEG-related materials. Both (40K)PEG and a tool PEGylated protein (ATI-1072) underwent dissociation in the ionization source of mass spectrometer to generate a series of PEG-specific ions, which were subjected to further dissociation through conventional CID. To demonstrate the potential application of the method to assess PEG biodistribution following PEGylated protein administration, a single dose study of ATI-1072 was conducted in rats. Plasma and various tissues were collected, and the concentrations of both (40K)PEG and ATI-1072 were determined using the LC-MS/MS method. The presence of (40k)PEG in plasma and tissue homogenates suggests the degradation of PEGylated proteins after dose administration to rats, given that free PEG was absent in the dosing solution. The method enables further studies for a thorough characterization of disposition and fate of PEGylated proteins. PMID:25003239

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).

  11. High sensitivity capillary zone electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry for the rapid analysis of complex proteomes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-10-01

    The vast majority of bottom-up proteomic studies employ reversed-phase separation of tryptic digests coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These studies are remarkably successful for the analysis of samples containing micrograms of protein. However, liquid chromatography tends to perform poorly for samples containing nanogram amounts of protein, presumably due to loss of trace-level peptides within the chromatographic system. Capillary zone electrophoresis provides a much simpler flow system and would appear to be an attractive alternative to liquid chromatography for separation of small peptide samples before electrospray ionization and mass spectrometry detection. However, capillary zone electrophoresis has received very little attention as a tool for analysis of complex proteomes. In 2012, we reported the use of capillary zone electrophoresis for the analysis of the secretome of Mycobacterium marinum, a model system for tuberculosis. Roughly 400 peptides and over 100 proteins were identified from this medium-complexity proteome; this identification required analysis of a set of 11 fractions and occupied three hours of mass spectrometer time. We have recently employed an improved capillary zone electrophoresis system for the analysis of 100 ng of the Escherichia coli proteome and observed over 1300 peptides and nearly 350 proteins in a single separation. More interestingly, analysis of 1 ng of the E. coli proteome yielded over 600 peptide and 140 protein groups. This sample size approaches that of a large eukaryotic cell, suggesting that capillary zone electrophoresis may ultimately be a useful tool for chemical cytometry. PMID:23911612

  12. Glycosaminoglycan blotting and detection after electrophoresis separation.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Separation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) by electrophoresis and their characterization to the microgram level are integral parts of biochemical research. Their blotting on membranes after electrophoresis offers the advantage to perform further analysis on single separated species such as identification with antibodies and/or recovery of single band. A method for the blotting and immobilizing of several nonsulfated and sulfated complex GAGs on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose-gel electrophoresis is illustrated. This approach to the study of these complex macromolecules utilizes the capacity of agarose-gel electrophoresis to separate single species of polysaccharides from mixtures and the membrane technology for further preparative and analytical uses. Nitrocellulose membranes are derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of GAGs are capillary blotted after their separation in agarose-gel electrophoresis. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides are transferred on derivatized membranes with an efficiency of 100 % and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining). This enables a lower amount limit of detection of 0.1 ?g. Nonsulfated polyanions, for example hyaluronic acid (HA), may also be transferred to membranes with a limit of detection of approximately 0.1-0.5 ?g after irreversible or reversible staining. The membranes may be stained with reversible staining and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. PMID:26043997

  13. Solubilization and electrophoretic characterization of select edible nut seed proteins.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Shridhar K; Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Sharma, Girdhari M; Kshirsagar, Harshal H; Teuber, Suzanne S; Roux, Kenneth H

    2009-09-01

    The solubility of almond, Brazil nut, cashew nut, hazelnut, macadamia, pecan, pine nut, pistachio, walnut, and peanut proteins in several aqueous solvents was qualitatively and quantitatively assessed. In addition, the effects of extraction time and ionic strength on protein solubility were also investigated. Electrophoresis and protein determination (Lowry, Bradford, and micro-Kjeldahl) methods were used for qualitative and quantitative assessment of proteins, respectively. Depending on the seed, buffer type and ionic strength significantly affected protein solubility. The results suggest that buffered sodium borate (BSB; 0.1 M H(3)BO(3), 0.025 M Na(2)B(4)O(7), 0.075 M NaCl, pH 8.45) optimally solubilizes nut seed proteins. Qualitative differences in seed protein electrophoretic profiles were revealed. For a specific seed type, these differences were dependent on the solvent(s) used to solubilize the seed proteins. SDS-PAGE results suggest the polypeptide molecular mass range for the tree nut seed proteins to be 3-100 kDa. The results of native IEF suggested that the proteins were mainly acidic, with a pI range from >4.5 to <7.0. Western immunoblotting experiments indicated that rabbit polyclonal antibodies recognized substantially the same polypeptides as those recognized by the corresponding pooled patient sera IgE. PMID:19655801

  14. Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis-Based Plant Phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Yang, Pingfang

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation is one of the most important reversible protein modifications and is involved in regulating signal transduction, subcellular localization and enzyme activity of target proteins. Phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of proteins is directly reflected in changed ratios of phosphoprotein abundance and total protein abundance. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE)-based proteomics allow quantification of both total protein abundance by Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) staining and phosphoprotein abundance by fluorescence-based staining. Pro-Q diamond phosphoprotein stain (Pro-Q DPS) can bind to the phosphate moiety of the phospho-amino acid directly, regardless of the nature of the phospho-amino acid. Phosphoproteins can thus be detected using proper excitation light, quantified using image analysis software and subsequently be subjected to analysis by mass spectrometry. Here, we describe a protein phosphorylation status analysis method combining both CBB and Pro-Q DPS staining based on 2-DE gel-based phosphoproteomics, which has been widely applied to plant phosphoproteomics studies. PMID:26584928

  15. Paper Electrophoresis Study of Sera of Dogs Immune to Wild Rabies Virus

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Morris D.; Furusho, Yutaka; Iiyama, Shigemi

    1965-01-01

    Three hyperimmune dogs were injected intramuscularly with canine wild rabies virus. The dogs showed no clinical evidence of rabies. Intramuscular injection of the wild rabies virus in susceptible puppies induced fulminating disease and mortality in 14 to 16 days. Investigation of the serum proteins of the hyperimmune dogs by a paper electrophoresis technique revealed conspicuous changes in the beta and gamma protein bands. PMID:14281077

  16. Quantitation of protein S-glutathionylation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: correction for contaminating glutathione and glutathione disulfide.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Michael R; Bucklin, Christopher; Picklo, Matthew J

    2015-01-15

    Protein S-glutathionylation is a posttranslational modification that links oxidative stimuli to reversible changes in cellular function. Protein-glutathione mixed disulfide (PSSG) is commonly quantified by reduction of the disulfide and detection of the resultant glutathione species. This methodology is susceptible to contamination by free unreacted cellular glutathione (GSH) species, which are present in 1000-fold greater concentration. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based method was developed for quantification of glutathione and glutathione disulfide (GSSG), which was used for the determination of PSSG in biological samples. Analysis of rat liver samples demonstrated that GSH and GSSG coprecipitated with proteins similar to the range for PSSG in the sample. The use of [(13)C2,(5)N]GSH and [(13)C4,(5)N2]GSSG validated these results and demonstrated that the release of GSH from PSSG did not occur during sample preparation and analysis. These data demonstrate that GSH and GSSG contamination must be accounted for when determining PSSG content in cellular/tissue preparations. A protocol for rinsing samples to remove the adventitious glutathione species is demonstrated. The fragmentation patterns for glutathione were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry, and candidate ions for detection of PSSG on protein and protein fragments were identified. PMID:25448621

  17. Integrating mRNA and Protein Sequencing Enables the Detection and Quantitative Profiling of Natural Protein Sequence Variants of Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Paul E; Wang, Xiaojing; Ranjan, Priya; Nookaew, Intawat; Zhang, Bing; Tuskan, Gerald A; Hettich, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has transformed the ability to link genotypes to phenotypes and facilitates the dissection of genetic contribution to complex traits. However, it is challenging to link genetic variants with the perturbed functional effects on proteins encoded by such genes. Here we show how RNA sequencing can be exploited to construct genotype-specific protein sequence databases to assess natural variation in proteins, providing information about the molecular toolbox driving cellular processes. For this study, we used two natural genotypes selected from a recent genome-wide association study of Populus trichocarpa, an obligate outcrosser with tremendous phenotypic variation across the natural population. This strategy allowed us to comprehensively catalogue proteins containing single amino acid polymorphisms (SAAPs), as well as insertions and deletions. We profiled the frequency of 128 types of naturally occurring amino acid substitutions, including both expected (neutral) and unexpected (non-neutral) SAAPs, with a subset occurring in regions of the genome having strong polymorphism patterns consistent with recent positive and/or divergent selection. By zeroing in on the molecular signatures of these important regions that might have previously been uncharacterized, we now provide a high-resolution molecular inventory that should improve accessibility and subsequent identification of natural protein variants in future genotype-to-phenotype studies. PMID:26483142

  18. Determination of dyes in foodstuffs by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Urquiza, M; Beltrán, J L

    2000-11-17

    A rapid method based on capillary zone electrophoresis coupled with photodiode-array detection has been developed to determine the dyes Tartrazine E-102, Sunset Yellow FCF E110, Amaranth E-123, New Coccine E-124, Patent Blue V calcium salt E-131 and Allura Red AC E-129 in foodstuffs. Separation was done by using a Bare CElect-FS75 CE column, using a 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 11.0. Hydrodynamic injections at 0.5 p.s.i. for 4 s (21 nl of sample) and 20 kV separation voltage were used. The quantitation limits for the six dyes ranged from 3 to 6 microg/ml. A linear relationship between 3 to 95 microg/ml, with correlation coefficient better than 0.995 was obtained. This method has been applied to the determination of the studied dyes in beverages, jellies and syrups. PMID:11117425

  19. Free flow cell electrophoresis using zwitterionic buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkey, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Studies of a zwitterionic buffer formulated for cell electrophoresis were done using the McDonnell-Douglas Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Standard buffers were analyzed for their stability in the electrical field and the results showed that both buffers tested were inherently unstable. Further, titration studies showed that the standards buffers buffered poorly at the pH employed for electrophoresis. The zwitterionic buffer buffered well at its nominal pH and was shown to be stable in the electrical field. Comparative studies of the buffer with standard cell separation buffers using formalin fixed rabbit and goose red blood cells showed that the zwitterionic buffer gave better resolution of the fixed cells. Studies with viable hybridoma cells showed that buffer Q supported cell viability equal to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and that hybridoma cells in different stages of the growth cycle demonstrated reproducible differences in electrophoretic mobility.

  20. Proteins with altered levels in plasma from glioblastoma patients as revealed by iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Poonam; Nair, Sudha C; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sharma, Rakesh; Polisetty, Ravindra Varma; Uppin, Megha S; Sundaram, Challa; Puligopu, Aneel K; Ankathi, Praveen; Purohit, Aniruddh K; Chandak, Giriraj R; Harsha, H C; Sirdeshmukh, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are the most common and lethal primary tumors of the central nervous system with high level of recurrence despite aggressive therapy. Tumor-associated proteins/peptides may appear in the plasma of these patients as a result of disruption of the blood-brain barrier in them, raising the scope for development of plasma-based tests for diagnosis and monitoring the disease. With this objective, we analyzed the levels of proteins present in the plasma from GBM patients using an iTRAQ based LC-MS/MS approach. Analysis with pooled plasma specimens from the patient and healthy control samples revealed high confidence identification of 296 proteins, of which 61 exhibited a fold-change ?1.5 in the patient group. Forty-eight of them contained signal sequence. A majority have been reported in the differentially expressed transcript or protein profile of GBM tissues; 6 have been previously studied as plasma biomarkers for GBM and 16 for other types of cancers. Altered levels of three representative proteins-ferritin light chain (FTL), S100A9, and carnosinase 1 (CNDP1)-were verified by ELISA in a test set of ten individual plasma specimens. FTL is an inflammation marker also implicated in cancer, S100A9 is an important member of the Ca(2+) signaling cascade reported to be altered in GBM tissue, and CNDP1 has been reported for its role in the regulation of the levels of carnosine, implicated as a potential drug for GBM. These and other proteins in the dataset may form useful starting points for further clinical investigations for the development of plasma-based biomarker panels for GBM. PMID:23029420

  1. Quantitative analysis and clinico-pathological correlations of different dipeptide repeat protein pathologies in C9ORF72 mutation carriers.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Ian R A; Frick, Petra; Grässer, Friedrich A; Gendron, Tania F; Petrucelli, Leonard; Cashman, Neil R; Edbauer, Dieter; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Prudlo, Johannes; Troost, Dirk; Neumann, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    Hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9ORF72 is the most common genetic cause of frontotemporal dementia and motor neuron disease. One consequence of the mutation is the formation of different potentially toxic polypeptides composed of dipeptide repeats (DPR) (poly-GA, -GP, -GR, -PA, -PR) generated by repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. While previous studies focusing on poly-GA pathology have failed to detect any clinico-pathological correlations in C9ORF72 mutation cases, recent data from animal and cell culture models suggested that it may be only specific DPR species that are toxic and only when accumulated in certain intracellular compartments. Therefore, we performed a systematic clinico-pathological correlative analysis with counting of actual numbers of distinct types of inclusion (neuronal cytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions, dystrophic neurites) for each DPR protein in relevant brain regions (premotor cortex, lower motor neurons) in a cohort of 35 C9ORF72 mutation cases covering the clinical spectrum from those with pure MND, mixed FTD/MND and pure FTD. While each DPR protein pathology had a similar pattern of anatomical distribution, the total amount of inclusions for each DPR protein varied remarkably (poly-GA > GP > GR > PR/PA), indicating that RAN translation seems to be more effective from sense than from antisense transcripts. Importantly, with the exception of moderate associations for the amount of poly-GA-positive dystrophic neurites with degeneration in the frontal cortex and total burden of poly-GA pathology with disease onset, no relationship was identified for any other DPR protein pathology with degeneration or phenotype. Biochemical analysis revealed a close correlation between insoluble DPR protein species and numbers of visible inclusions, while we did not find any evidence for the presence of soluble DPR protein species. Thus, overall our findings strongly argue against a role of DPR protein aggregation as major and exclusive pathomechanism in C9ORF72 pathogenesis. However, this does not exclude that DPR protein formation might be essential in C9ORF72 pathogenesis in interplay with other consequences associated with the C9ORF72 repeat expansion. PMID:26374446

  2. Recent progress in preparation and application of microfluidic chip electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Hailin; Xu, Xiaodan; Yu, Bing; Yuan, Hua; Peng, Qiaohong; Tian, Chao

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1990, microfluidic chip electrophoresis (MCE) has allowed the development of applications with small size, fast analysis, low cost, high integration density and automatic level, which are easy to carry and have made commercialization efficient. MCE has been widely used in the areas of environmental protection, biochemistry, medicine and health, clinical testing, judicial expertise, food sanitation, pharmaceutical checking, drug testing, agrochemistry, biomedical engineering and life science. As one of the foremost fields in the research of capillary electrophoresis, MCE is the ultimate frontier to develop the miniaturized, integrated, automated all-in-one instruments needed in modern analytical chemistry. By adopting the advanced technologies of micro-machining, lasers and microelectronics, and the latest research achievements in analytical chemistry and biochemistry, the sampling, separation and detection systems of commonly used capillary electrophoresis are integrated with high densities onto glass, quartz, silicon or polymer wafers to form the MCE, which can finish the analysis of multi-step operations such as injection, enrichment, reaction, derivatization, separation, and collection of samples in a portable, efficient and super high speed manner. With reference to the different technological achievements in this area, the latest developments in MCE are reviewed in this article. The preparation mechanisms, surface modifications, and properties of different materials in MCE are compared, and the different sampling, separation and detection systems in MCE are summarized. The performance of MCE in analysis of fluorescent substance, metallic ion, sugar, medicine, nucleic acid, DNA, amino acid, polypeptide and protein is discussed, and the future direction of development is forecast.

  3. Undergraduate physics laboratory: Electrophoresis in chromatography paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Alexander; Batishchev, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    An experiment studying the physical principles of electrophoresis in liquids was developed for an undergraduate laboratory. We have improved upon the standard agarose gel electrophoresis experimental regime with a straightforward and cost-effective procedure, in which drops of widely available black food coloring were separated by electric field into their dye components on strips of chromatography paper soaked in a baking soda/water solution. Terminal velocities of seven student-safe dyes were measured as a function of the electric potential applied along the strips. The molecular mobility was introduced and calculated by analyzing data for a single dye. Sources of systematic and random errors were investigated.

  4. Movement profiles: a tool for quantitative analysis of cell-to-cell movement of plant viral movement proteins.

    PubMed

    Trutnyeva, Kateryna; Ruggenthaler, Pia; Waigmann, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Movement proteins (MPs) are virally encoded factors that mediate transport of viral nucleic acid between plant cells. Many MPs are able to move between cells themselves. This feature serves as the basis for evaluation of the transport activity of individual MPs. MPs are transiently expressed as a fusion to autofluorescent proteins such as green fluorescent protein (GFP) in individual epidermal cells of leaves by biolistic delivery. Expressing cells can be directly monitored for subcellular localization and cell-to-cell movement of the MP:GFP fusion protein into neighboring cells by confocal scanning microscopy. During the time frame of transient expression, numerous cells are evaluated at several time points, and the accumulated data are depicted in a graph termed "movement profile." Thus, a movement profile will provide information on the correlation between subcellular localization of the MP in the expressing cell and the efficiency of cell-to-cell transport, the time course and efficiency of targeting of the MP to plasmodesmata, and the translocation efficiency of the MP into neighboring cells. PMID:18370265

  5. A Quantitative Mass Spectrometry-based Approach for Identifying Protein Kinase-Clients and Quantifying Kinase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana genomes are believed to encode >500 and >1,000 protein kinases, respectively. Despite this abundance, few bona fide kinase-client relationships have been described in detail. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches have been integral to the large-scale mapp...

  6. The identification of protein biomarkers distinguishing virus transmission competent and refractive insect populations by coupling genetics with quantitative intact proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of insects that vector pathogens is a massive challenge to human health and agriculture. Yellow dwarf viruses (YDV) cause economically significant disease in cereal crops (barley, wheat, rye, maize) worldwide and are vectored by aphids. The identification of vector proteins mediating virus ...

  7. SILAC-iPAC- a quantitative method for exploring genuine components of protein complexes and interactomes by parallel affinity capture

    E-print Network

    Rees, Johanna S.; Lilley, Kathryn S.; Jackson, Antony P.

    2014-12-19

    pro- teins were present, most were cytosolic, endomembrane or mitochondrial, and thus unlikely to be biologically relevant. STRING mapping showed experimental evidence of only a few proteins directly interacting, via FANC-A: brg1/SMARCA4a, a SWI/SNF...

  8. The identification of protein biomarkers distinguishing virus transmission competent and refractive insect populations by coupling genetics with quantitative intact proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow dwarf viruses cause the most economically important virus diseases of cereal crops worldwide and are vectored by aphids. The identification of vector proteins mediating virus transmission is critical to develop agriculturally-sustainable virus management practices and to understand viral str...

  9. Genetics coupled to quantitative intact proteomics links heritable aphid and endosymbiont protein isoform expression to polerovirus transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow dwarf viruses in the family Luteoviridae, such as Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV), are vectored by aphids and cause the most economically important virus disease of cereal crops worldwide. The identification of aphid proteins mediating virus transmission will better define transmiss...

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci influencing endosperm proteins and end-use quality traits of Hard Red Spring Wheat breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of high yielding wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties with acceptable end-use quality is a major focus in breeding programs worldwide. Variations in molecular weight (Mw) distribution of wheat endosperm proteins are known to influence end-use quality traits. In this paper, we report th...

  11. Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional cross-relaxation NMR spectra of proteins. Interproton distances in Turkey ovomucoid third domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fejzo, Jasna; Zolnai, Zsolt; Macura, Slobodan; Markley, John L.

    A novel method is proposed for quantifying two-dimensional, phase-sensitive, cross-relaxation spectra of proteins. Relative cross-peak volumes are calculated from peak heights and linewidths (measured along the x and y axes). We show that this method gives the same result for isolated peaks as direct volume integration. In the case of moderate peak overlap, our method is less prone to error than volume integration. Computerization of the method is easily implemented and can be used for measuring the massive sets of cross-peak volumes contained in a series of two-dimensional NMR spectra. This approach has enabled us to use a quadratic approximation to the initial build-up rates to determine cross-relaxation rates for 90 proton pairs in a protein, in the laboratory and rotating frames of reference (J. Fejzo, Zs. Zolnai, S. Macura, and J. L. Markley, J. Magn. Reson.82, 518, 1989). The molecule studied was turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3), a small (6.1 kDa) globular protein. The cross-relaxation rates in the two frames were analyzed in terms of molecular mobility and interproton distances. The results confirmed that rigid-body isotropic motion with a correlation time of 6 ns holds for OMTKY3. Interproton distances were determined with relative errors of 10-30% and compared with values derived from X-ray crystal structure of this protein.

  12. Jesse Rinehart, PhD Proteins: Proteomics & Protein-Protein Interactions

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    Jesse Rinehart, PhD Proteins: Proteomics & Protein-Protein Interactions Part I #12;DNA RNA PROTEIN Purification - Quantitative Proteomics · Applications - Representative Studies · Putting it all together.... - Databases & Pathways Proteins: Proteomics & Protein-Protein Interactions #12;Overview · Techniques

  13. Quantitative Analysis of BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 Protein Over-Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Symes, Andrew J.; Eilertsen, Marte; Millar, Michael; Nariculam, Joseph; Freeman, Alex; Notara, Maria; Feneley, Mark R.; Patel, Hitenedra R. H.; Masters, John R. W.; Ahmed, Aamir

    2013-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma is the most common cancer in men with few, quantifiable, biomarkers. Prostate cancer biomarker discovery has been hampered due to subjective analysis of protein expression in tissue sections. An unbiased, quantitative immunohistochemical approach provided here, for the diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer could overcome this problem. Antibodies against four proteins BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 were used in a prostate tissue array (> 500 individual tissue cores from 82 patients, 41 case pairs matched with one patient in each pair had biochemical recurrence). Protein expression, quantified in an unbiased manner using an automated analysis protocol in ImageJ software, was increased in malignant vs non-malignant prostate (by 2-2.5 fold, p<0.0001). Operating characteristics indicate sensitivity in the range of 0.68 to 0.74; combination of markers in a logistic regression model demonstrates further improvement in diagnostic power. Triple-labeled immunofluorescence (BTF3, HINT1 and NDRG1) in tissue array showed a significant (p<0.02) change in co-localization coefficients for BTF3 and NDRG1 co-expression in biochemical relapse vs non-relapse cancer epithelium. BTF3, HINT1, NDRG1 and ODC1 could be developed as epithelial specific biomarkers for tissue based diagnosis and stratification of prostate cancer. PMID:24386364

  14. Micro-flow imaging and resonant mass measurement (Archimedes)--complementary methods to quantitatively differentiate protein particles and silicone oil droplets.

    PubMed

    Weinbuch, Daniel; Zölls, Sarah; Wiggenhorn, Michael; Friess, Wolfgang; Winter, Gerhard; Jiskoot, Wim; Hawe, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Our study aimed to comparatively evaluate Micro-Flow Imaging (MFI) and the recently introduced technique of resonant mass measurement (Archimedes, RMM) as orthogonal methods for the quantitative differentiation of silicone oil droplets and protein particles. This distinction in the submicron and micron size range is highly relevant for the development of biopharmaceuticals, in particular for products in prefilled syringes. Samples of artificially generated silicone oil droplets and protein particles were quantified individually and in defined mixtures to assess the performance of the two techniques. The built-in MFI software solution proved to be suitable to discriminate between droplets and particles for sizes above 2 ?m at moderate droplet/particle ratios (70:30-30:70). A customized filter developed specifically for this study greatly improved the results and enabled reliable discrimination also for more extreme mixing ratios (95:5-15:85). RMM showed highly accurate discrimination in the size range of about 0.5-2 ?m independent of the ratio, provided that a sufficient number of particles (>50 counted particles) were counted. We recommend applying both techniques for a comprehensive analysis of biotherapeutics potentially containing silicone oil droplets and protein particles in the submicron and micron size range. PMID:23625851

  15. Affinity-Based Assays for the Identification and Quantitative Evaluation of Noncovalent Poly(ADP-Ribose)-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Haince, Jean-François; Pic, Émilie; Poirier, Guy G.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases have been linked to several cellular functions, most of which being mediated through the dynamics of poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr). In several pathways, pADPr is the effector molecule that regulates cellular signaling and dictates biological outcomes. pAPDr is a central molecule that is capable of promoting both cell survival through the maintenance of genome integrity and cell death that occurs by way of a signal-mediated apoptotic-like process. Thus, interactions with pADPr are extremely important in bringing about the balanced regulation that controls cell fate. Further clues regarding these functions are emerging from a growing list of proteins with which pADPr interacts. Here, we describe the current approaches for investigating noncovalent protein interactions with pADPr. PMID:21870257

  16. Quantitative characterization of nonspecific self- and hetero-interactions of proteins in nonideal solutions via static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Minton, Allen P

    2015-02-01

    The dependence of static light scattering upon the compositions of solutions including hen egg white ovalbumin, hen egg white ovomucoid, ribonuclease A, and binary mixtures of these proteins at total concentrations of up to about 40 g/L were measured at different values of the pH and ionic strength. At the pH values of measurement, ovalbumin and ovomucoid have a net negative charge and ribonuclease A has a net positive charge. The observed dependence of scattering intensity upon solution composition may be accounted for by an extension of previously formulated equivalent hard particle models that allows for the presence of both repulsive interactions between like species and attractive interactions between unlike species in mixtures of positively and negatively charged proteins. PMID:25580677

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    PubMed

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro. PMID:26516115

  18. Development of coatings to control electroosmosis in zero gravity electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krupnick, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    A major problem confronting the operation of free fluid electrophoresis in zero gravity is the control of electrokinetic phenomena and, in particular, electroosmosis. Due to the severity of counter flow, as a result of electroosmosis, the electrical potential developed at the surface of shear must be maintained at near, or as close to, zero millivolts as possible. Based upon this investigation, it has been found that the amount of bound water or the degree of hydroxylation plays a major role in the control of this phenomena. Of necessity, factors, such as adhesion, biocompatibility, protein adsorption, and insolubility were considered in this investigation because of the long buffer-coating exposure times required by present space operations. Based upon tests employing microcapillary electrophoresis, it has been found that gamma amino propyl trihydroxysilane produced a coating which provides the lowest potential (minus 3.86 mv) at the surface of shear between the stationary and mobile layers. This coating has been soaked in both borate and saline buffers, up to three months, in a pH range of 6.5 to 10 without deleterious effects or a change in its ability to control electrokinetic effects.

  19. Temperature Effects on Electrophoresis Supporting Information

    E-print Network

    Santiago, Juan G.

    S-1 Temperature Effects on Electrophoresis Supporting Information Anita Rogacs, Juan G. Santiago contains the following supplementary figures, tables, and information further describing our temperature of ionization at room temperature, 25°C. · Predictions for anionic (and cationic) mobility for the solutions

  20. Increasing Sensitivity In Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of continuous-flow electrophoresis (CFE) chamber increased by introducing lateral gradients in concentration of buffer solution and thickness of chamber. Such gradients, with resulting enhanced separation, achieved in CFE chamber with wedge-shaped cross section and collateral flow. Enables improved separations of homogeneous components of mixtures of variety of biologically important substances.

  1. Role of gravity in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental formulas of electrophoresis are derived microscopically and applied to the problem of isotachophoresis. A simple physical model of the isotachophoresis front is proposed. The front motion and structure are studied in the simplified case without convection, diffusion and non-electric external forces.

  2. A Simple Vertical Slab Gel Electrophoresis Apparatus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, J. B.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, easily constructed, and safe vertical slab gel kit used routinely for sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis research and student experiments. Five kits are run from a single transformer. Because toxic solutions are used, students are given plastic gloves and closely supervised during laboratory…

  3. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies a ?-Catenin Network as an Element of the Signaling Response to Frizzled-8 Protein-Related Antiproliferative Factor*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Goo Chung, Yeun; Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Taek-Kyun; Keay, Susan K.; Zhang, Chen-Ou; Ji, Mihee; Hwang, Daehee; Pyo Kim, Kwang; Steen, Hanno; Freeman, Michael R.; Kim, Jayoung

    2011-01-01

    Antiproliferative factor (APF), a Frizzled-8 protein-related sialoglycopeptide involved in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis, potently inhibits proliferation of normal urothelial cells as well as certain cancer cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the growth-inhibitory effect of APF, we performed stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture analysis of T24 bladder cancer cells treated with and without APF. Among over 2000 proteins identified, 54 were significantly up-regulated and 48 were down-regulated by APF treatment. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that a protein network involved in cell adhesion was substantially altered by APF and that ?-catenin was a prominent node in this network. Functional assays demonstrated that APF down-regulated ?-catenin, at least in part, via proteasomal and lysosomal degradation. Moreover, silencing of ?-catenin mimicked the antiproliferative effect of APF whereas ectopic expression of nondegradable ?-catenin rescued growth inhibition in response to APF, confirming that ?-catenin is a key mediator of APF signaling. Notably, the key role of ?-catenin in APF signaling is not restricted to T24 cells, but was also observed in an hTERT-immortalized human bladder epithelial cell line, TRT-HU1. In addition, the network model suggested that ?-catenin is linked to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), implying a potential connection between APF and inflammation. Functional assays verified that APF increased the production of prostaglandin E2 and that down-modulation of ?-catenin elevated COX-2 expression, whereas forced expression of nondegradable ?-catenin inhibited APF-induced up-regulation of COX-2. Furthermore, we confirmed that ?-catenin was down-regulated whereas COX-2 was up-regulated in epithelial cells explanted from IC bladder biopsies compared with control tissues. In summary, our quantitative proteomics study describes the first provisional APF-regulated protein network, within which ?-catenin is a key node, and provides new insight that targeting the ?-catenin signaling pathway may be a rational approach toward treating interstitial cystitis. PMID:21422242

  4. Development of a Multi-Point Quantitation Method to Simultaneously Measure Enzymatic and Structural Components of the Clostridium thermocellum Cellulosome Protein Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, Andrew B; St. Brice, Lois; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Izquierdo, Javier; Cook, Kelsey; Lynd, Lee R; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has emerged as a leading bioenergy-relevant microbe due to its ability to solubilize cellulose into carbohydrates, mediated by multi-component membrane-attached complexes termed cellulosomes. To probe microbial cellulose utilization rates, it is desirable to be able to measure the concentrations of saccharolytic enzymes and estimate the total amount of cellulosome present on a mass basis. Current cellulase determination methodologies involve labor-intensive purification procedures and only allow for indirect determination of abundance. We have developed a method using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-MS) to simultaneously quantitate both enzymatic and structural components of the cellulosome protein complex in samples ranging in complexity from purified cellulosomes to whole cell lysates, as an alternative to a previously-developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method of cellulosome quantitation. The precision of the cellulosome mass concentration in technical replicates is better than 5% relative standard deviation for all samples, indicating high precision for determination of the mass concentration of cellulosome components.

  5. RNA Bind-n-Seq: quantitative assessment of the sequence and structural binding specificity of RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Nicole; Robertson, Alex; Jangi, Mohini; McGeary, Sean; Sharp, Phillip A.; Burge, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Specific protein-RNA interactions guide post-transcriptional gene regulation. Here we describe RNA Bind-n-Seq (RBNS), a method that comprehensively characterizes sequence and structural specificity of RNA binding proteins (RBPs), and its application to the developmental alternative splicing factors RBFOX2, CELF1/CUGBP1 and MBNL1. For each factor, we recovered both canonical motifs and additional near-optimal binding motifs. RNA secondary structure inhibits binding of RBFOX2 and CELF1, while MBNL1 favors unpaired Us but tolerates C/G pairing in motifs containing UGC and/or GCU. Dissociation constants calculated from RBNS data using a novel algorithm correlated highly with values measured by surface plasmon resonance. Motifs identified by RBNS were conserved, were bound and active in vivo, and distinguished the subset of motifs enriched by CLIP-Seq that had regulatory activity. Together, our data demonstrate that RBNS complements crosslinking-based methods and show that in vivo binding and activity of these splicing factors is driven largely by intrinsic RNA affinity. PMID:24837674

  6. Anomalous Negative Fluorescence Anisotropy in Yellow Fluorescent Protein (YFP 10C): Quantitative Analysis of FRET in YFP Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xinghua; Basran, Jaswir; Seward, Harriet E.; Childs, William; Bagshaw, Clive R.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2008-01-01

    YFP is widely used as a genetically-encoded fluorescent marker in biology. In the course of a comprehensive study of this protein, we observed an unusual, negative fluorescence anisotropy at pH 6.0 (McAnaney, T. B., Zeng, W., Doe, C. F. E., Bhanji, N., Wakelin, S., Pearson, D. S., Abbyad, P., Shi, X. H., Boxer, S. G., and Bagshaw, C. R. (2005), Biochemistry 44, 5510–5524). Here we report that the fluorescence anisotropy of YFP 10C depends on protein concentration in the low micromolar range that was not expected. We propose that the negative anisotropy is a result of unidirectional Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in a dimer of YFP, with the donor chromophore in the neutral form and the acceptor chromophore in the anionic form. This unusual mechanism is supported by studies of a monomeric YFP (A206K YFP) and transient-absorption spectroscopy of YFP 10C. A detailed analysis of the chromophore transition dipole moment direction is presented. The anisotropy and rate constant of this energy transfer are consistent with values produced by an analysis of the dimer structure observed in crystals. PMID:18027983

  7. Capillary electrophoresis of alkali and alkaline-earth cations with imidazole or benzylamine buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, P.; Francois, C.; Dreux, M. . Lab. de Chimie Bioorganique et Analytique)

    1994-01-01

    The separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and ammonium cations in several samples of water was achieved by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. A solution of imidazole (10[sup [minus]2] M, pH 4.5) was used as a buffer to resolve a mixture of six cations (K[sup +], Na[sup +], Ca[sup 2+], Ba[sup 2+], Li[sup +] and Mg[sup 2+]) by capillary electrophoresis at 214 nm in less than 10 min. The addition of potassium cation to the running buffer has an influence on the resolution of Ca[sup 2+]/Na[sup +] and Na[sup +]/Mg[sup 2+] peaks. A linear relationship between the corrected peak area and concentration was obtained in the 1--10 ppm range for these cations using a hydrodynamic injector. This electrophoretic system permitted the separation of these inorganic cations at a 50 ppb-level concentration with a hydrodynamic injection, thus making it possible to quantitatively determine their presence in mineral waters by capillary electrophoresis. At pH 4.5, potassium and ammonium unfortunately have identical ionic mobilities causing them to comigrate in an imidazole buffer. Using an alkaline solution of benzylamine as carrier electrolyte, their separation can be successfully achieved with excellent resolution at 204 nm. The analyses of tap water and several mineral waters have been achieved by capillary electrophoresis.

  8. Electrophoresis of nonuniformly charged chains

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; Solomentsev, Y.

    1993-12-31

    A theory is developed for the motion of long, rigid {open_quotes}slender bodies{close_quotes} in liquids under the influence of an applied electric field. The authors propose this theory as a model for the electrophoretic motion of linear chains with an arbitrary charge distribution along the axis of the chain. The Debye screening length is assumed to be smaller than the cross-sectional radius of the chain, but the chain can have an arbitrary contour as long as the radius of the contour is much greater than the cross-sectional radius. The theory is based on satisfying the governing equations of the electrostatics and the fluid dynamics, with application of the Helmholtz`s expression relating the electroosmotic {open_quotes}slip velocity{close_quotes} of the double layer to the electric field. Numerical results for prolate spheroids are presented here, and extensions to toroidal and helical structures are suggested. Possible applications of the theory are to linear polyelectrolytes, stiff and flexible, to polyelectrolyte/colloid complexes, and to chain-like structures formed by aggregation of small particles and globular proteins.

  9. Thermally reversible gels in electrophoresis. I - Matrix characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Two series of thermally reversible hydrogen-bonded gels have been characterized: (5 pct) PVA-(4 pct) PEG and (5 pct) PVA-(0.04 pct) borate gels. They both have extremely low melting points (16-17 C) and could be of potential interest for recovery of proteins after preparative electrophoresis. The PVA-borate gels can be exploited in the pH range 7-11 by progressively increasing the borate content in the pH interval 8 to 7 and concomitantly decreasing the borate levels in the pH zone 8 to 11. It is hypothesized that the low melting point of these gels is due to the fact that they are sparingly and sparsely hydrogen bonded along the PVA chain: on the average, 1 OH group out of 3 or 4 OH groups in the PVA polymer should be engaged in H-bond formation.

  10. Detection of mechanically recovered chicken meat using capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Day, L; Brown, H

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated the use of capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) as a method for differentiating between raw mechanically recovered chicken meat (MRM) and hand deboned chicken breast meat (HDM). Twenty samples of MRM were obtained and twenty samples of HDM were prepared in the laboratory. They were extracted and analysed using Prosort™ SDS-protein analysis reagent. There were obvious differences in the relative peak areas within the profiles obtained which distinguished raw MRM from raw HDM; specifically, that of haemoglobin was higher in MRM. Using the peak area of haemoglobin and its ratio to other peaks, the technique was tested using composite MRM-HDM mixtures. The results suggest that it is possible to differentiate mixtures containing 7.5% MRM from that of 0% MRM using the CGE method. PMID:22061916

  11. Quantitative genomic analysis of RecA protein binding during DNA double-strand break repair reveals RecBCD action in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cockram, Charlotte A.; Filatenkova, Milana; Danos, Vincent; El Karoui, Meriem; Leach, David R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding molecular mechanisms in the context of living cells requires the development of new methods of in vivo biochemical analysis to complement established in vitro biochemistry. A critically important molecular mechanism is genetic recombination, required for the beneficial reassortment of genetic information and for DNA double-strand break repair (DSBR). Central to recombination is the RecA (Rad51) protein that assembles into a spiral filament on DNA and mediates genetic exchange. Here we have developed a method that combines chromatin immunoprecipitation with next-generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and mathematical modeling to quantify RecA protein binding during the active repair of a single DSB in the chromosome of Escherichia coli. We have used quantitative genomic analysis to infer the key in vivo molecular parameters governing RecA loading by the helicase/nuclease RecBCD at recombination hot-spots, known as Chi. Our genomic analysis has also revealed that DSBR at the lacZ locus causes a second RecBCD-mediated DSBR event to occur in the terminus region of the chromosome, over 1 Mb away. PMID:26261330

  12. Protein resonance assignment at MAS frequencies approaching 100 kHz: a quantitative comparison of J-coupling and dipolar-coupling-based transfer methods.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Susanne; Smith, Albert A; Agarwal, Vipin; Hunkeler, Andreas; Org, Mai-Liis; Samoson, Ago; Böckmann, Anja; Ernst, Matthias; Meier, Beat H

    2015-10-01

    We discuss the optimum experimental conditions to obtain assignment spectra for solid proteins at magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies around 100 kHz. We present a systematic examination of the MAS dependence of the amide proton T 2' times and a site-specific comparison of T 2' at 93 kHz versus 60 kHz MAS frequency. A quantitative analysis of transfer efficiencies of building blocks, as they are used for typical 3D experiments, was performed. To do this, we compared dipolar-coupling and J-coupling based transfer steps. The building blocks were then combined into 3D experiments for sequential resonance assignment, where we evaluated signal-to-noise ratio and information content of the different 3D spectra in order to identify the best assignment strategy. Based on this comparison, six experiments were selected to optimally assign the model protein ubiquitin, solely using spectra acquired at 93 kHz MAS. Within 3 days of instrument time, the required spectra were recorded from which the backbone resonances have been assigned to over 96 %. PMID:26267840

  13. Stacking in a continuous sample flow interface in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gstoettenmayr, Daniel; Quirino, Joselito; Ivory, Cornelius F; Breadmore, Michael

    2015-08-21

    Using a tee connector in a commercial capillary electrophoresis instrument, the effect of field amplified sample injection from both flowing and static sample volumes was investigated. It is shown that under identical conditions (40min electrokinetic injection at 5kV from a sample volume of 295?L) the limit of detection using the continuous sample flow interface is 4 times lower than from a static vial. The relationship between different flow rates and injection voltages on the injected sample amount was also investigated using a 2D axisymmetric simulation (COMSOL 4.3b) and verified experimentally, confirming conditions under which there is near-quantitative injection of the sample target ions. Using electrokinetic injection at 30kV and a flow rate of 558nL/s the same enhancement from an even smaller volume of 184?L could be achieved in 5.5min than could be achieved from 295?L and a 40min injection. This sensitivity enhancement factor corresponded to four orders of magnitude improvement compared to a hydrodynamic injection. This is the first report showing that a continuous sample flow interface combined with stacking methods under conditions approaching quantitative injection from the entire sample volume has the potential to be more sensitive than a static system. PMID:26189205

  14. Quantitative Proteomics of the Tonoplast Reveals a Role for Glycolytic Enzymes in Salt Tolerance[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Hernández-Coronado, Marcela; Pantoja, Omar

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the tonoplast in plant salt tolerance and identify proteins involved in the regulation of transporters for vacuolar Na+ sequestration, we exploited a targeted quantitative proteomics approach. Two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis analysis of free flow zonal electrophoresis separated tonoplast fractions from control, and salt-treated Mesembryanthemum crystallinum plants revealed the membrane association of glycolytic enzymes aldolase and enolase, along with subunits of the vacuolar H+-ATPase V-ATPase. Protein blot analysis confirmed coordinated salt regulation of these proteins, and chaotrope treatment indicated a strong tonoplast association. Reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed that the glycolytic enzymes interacted with the V-ATPase subunit B VHA-B, and aldolase was shown to stimulate V-ATPase activity in vitro by increasing the affinity for ATP. To investigate a physiological role for this association, the Arabidopsis thaliana cytoplasmic enolase mutant, los2, was characterized. These plants were salt sensitive, and there was a specific reduction in enolase abundance in the tonoplast from salt-treated plants. Moreover, tonoplast isolated from mutant plants showed an impaired ability for aldolase stimulation of V-ATPase hydrolytic activity. The association of glycolytic proteins with the tonoplast may not only channel ATP to the V-ATPase, but also directly upregulate H+-pump activity. PMID:20028841

  15. Mapping and Quantitation of the Interaction between the Recombination Activating Gene Proteins RAG1 and RAG2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Hang; Shetty, Keerthi; Surleac, Marius D; Petrescu, Andrei J; Schatz, David G

    2015-05-01

    The RAG endonuclease consists of RAG1, which contains the active site for DNA cleavage, and RAG2, an accessory factor whose interaction with RAG1 is critical for catalytic function. How RAG2 activates RAG1 is not understood. Here, we used biolayer interferometry and pulldown assays to identify regions of RAG1 necessary for interaction with RAG2 and to measure the RAG1-RAG2 binding affinity (KD ?0.4 ?M) (where RAG1 and RAG2 are recombination activating genes 1 or 2). Using the Hermes transposase as a guide, we constructed a 36-kDa "mini" RAG1 capable of interacting robustly with RAG2. Mini-RAG1 consists primarily of the catalytic center and the residues N-terminal to it, but it lacks a zinc finger region in RAG1 previously implicated in binding RAG2. The ability of Mini-RAG1 to interact with RAG2 depends on a predicted ?-helix (amino acids 997-1008) near the RAG1 C terminus and a region of RAG1 from amino acids 479 to 559. Two adjacent acidic amino acids in this region (Asp-546 and Glu-547) are important for both the RAG1-RAG2 interaction and recombination activity, with Asp-546 of particular importance. Structural modeling of Mini-RAG1 suggests that Asp-546/Glu-547 lie near the predicted 997-1008 ?-helix and components of the active site, raising the possibility that RAG2 binding alters the structure of the RAG1 active site. Quantitative Western blotting allowed us to estimate that mouse thymocytes contain on average ?1,800 monomers of RAG1 and ?15,000 molecules of RAG2, implying that nuclear concentrations of RAG1 and RAG2 are below the KD value for their interaction, which could help limit off-target RAG activity. PMID:25745109

  16. Quantitative quadruple-label immunofluorescence of mitochondrial and cytoplasmic proteins in single neurons from human midbrain tissue

    PubMed Central

    Grünewald, Anne; Lax, Nichola Z.; Rocha, Mariana C.; Reeve, Amy K.; Hepplewhite, Philippa D.; A. Rygiel, Karolina; Taylor, Robert W.; Turnbull, Doug M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory chain (RC) deficiencies are found in primary mtDNA diseases. Focal RC defects are also associated with ageing and neurodegenerative disorders, e.g. in substantia nigra (SN) neurons from Parkinson's disease patients. In mitochondrial disease and ageing, mtDNA mutational loads vary considerably between neurons necessitating single cell-based assessment of RC deficiencies. Evaluating the full extent of RC deficiency within SN neurons is challenging because their size precludes investigations in serial sections. We developed an assay to measure RC abnormalities in individual SN neurons using quadruple immunofluorescence. New method Using antibodies against subunits of complex I (CI) and IV, porin and tyrosine hydroxylase together with IgG subtype-specific fluorescent labelled secondary antibodies, we quantified the expression of CI and CIV compared to mitochondrial mass in dopaminergic neurons. CI:porin and CIV:porin ratios were determined relative to a standard control. Results Quantification of expression of complex subunits in midbrain sections from patients with mtDNA disease and known RC deficiencies consistently showed reduced CI:porin and/or CIV:porin ratios. Comparison with existing method(s) The standard histochemical method to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction, the cytochrome c oxidase/succinate dehydrogenase assay, measures CIV and CII activities. To also study CI in a patient, immunohistology in additional sections, i.e. in different neurons, is required. Our method allows correlation of the expression of CI, CIV and mitochondrial mass at a single cell level. Conclusion Quantitative quadruple-label immunofluorescence is a reliable tool to measure RC deficiencies in individual neurons that will enable new insights in the molecular mechanisms underlying inherited and acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24880043

  17. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and questioned. An alternative approach from synthetic biology is to create new regulation networks using novel transport proteins with desired properties for transforming agricultural crops. The approach had not been widely used earlier; it leads also to theoretical and pure scientific aspects of protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis. Summarizing, several potential ways are aimed at required increase in salinity tolerance of plants of interest. PMID:26579140

  18. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and questioned. An alternative approach from synthetic biology is to create new regulation networks using novel transport proteins with desired properties for transforming agricultural crops. The approach had not been widely used earlier; it leads also to theoretical and pure scientific aspects of protein chemistry, structure-function relations of membrane proteins, systems biology and physiology of stress and ion homeostasis. Summarizing, several potential ways are aimed at required increase in salinity tolerance of plants of interest. PMID:26579140

  19. Numerical simulation of electrophoresis separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganjoo, D. K.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation has been proposed for transient convection-diffusion problems. Most Petrov-Galerkin formulations take into account the spatial discretization, and the weighting functions so developed give satisfactory solutions for steady state problems. Though these schemes can be used for transient problems, there is scope for improvement. The schemes proposed here, which consider temporal as well as spatial discretization, provide improved solutions. Electrophoresis, which involves the motion of charged entities under the influence of an applied electric field, is governed by equations similiar to those encountered in fluid flow problems, i.e., transient convection-diffusion equations. Test problems are solved in electrophoresis and fluid flow. The results obtained are satisfactory. It is also expected that these schemes, suitably adapted, will improve the numerical solutions of the compressible Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations.

  20. Mathematical Models of Continuous Flow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, D. A.; Snyder, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Development of high resolution continuous flow electrophoresis devices ultimately requires comprehensive understanding of the ways various phenomena and processes facilitate or hinder separation. A comprehensive model of the actual three dimensional flow, temperature and electric fields was developed to provide guidance in the design of electrophoresis chambers for specific tasks and means of interpreting test data on a given chamber. Part of the process of model development includes experimental and theoretical studies of hydrodynamic stability. This is necessary to understand the origin of mixing flows observed with wide gap gravitational effects. To insure that the model accurately reflects the flow field and particle motion requires extensive experimental work. Another part of the investigation is concerned with the behavior of concentrated sample suspensions with regard to sample stream stability particle-particle interactions which might affect separation in an electric field, especially at high field strengths. Mathematical models will be developed and tested to establish the roles of the various interactions.