These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Telephone Survey Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts, definitions, and notation that have evolved with the development of telephone survey design methodology are discussed and presented as a unified structure. This structure is then applied to some of the more well-known telephone survey designs and alternative designs are developed. The relative merits of the different survey designs

Casady, Robert J.


Quantitative evolutionary design  

PubMed Central

The field of quantitative evolutionary design uses evolutionary reasoning (in terms of natural selection and ultimate causation) to understand the magnitudes of biological reserve capacities, i.e. excesses of capacities over natural loads. Ratios of capacities to loads, defined as safety factors, fall in the range 1.2-10 for most engineered and biological components, even though engineered safety factors are specified intentionally by humans while biological safety factors arise through natural selection. Familiar examples of engineered safety factors include those of buildings, bridges and elevators (lifts), while biological examples include factors of bones and other structural elements, of enzymes and transporters, and of organ metabolic performances. Safety factors serve to minimize the overlap zone (resulting in performance failure) between the low tail of capacity distributions and the high tail of load distributions. Safety factors increase with coefficients of variation of load and capacity, with capacity deterioration with time, and with cost of failure, and decrease with costs of initial construction, maintenance, operation, and opportunity. Adaptive regulation of many biological systems involves capacity increases with increasing load; several quantitative examples suggest sublinear increases, such that safety factors decrease towards 1.0. Unsolved questions include safety factors of series systems, parallel or branched pathways, elements with multiple functions, enzyme reaction chains, and equilibrium enzymes. The modest sizes of safety factors imply the existence of costs that penalize excess capacities. Those costs are likely to involve wasted energy or space for large or expensive components, but opportunity costs of wasted space at the molecular level for minor components. PMID:12122135

Diamond, Jared



Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)




EPA Science Inventory

The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...


Qualities of a Psychiatric Mentor: A Quantitative Singaporean Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Psychiatric mentors are an important part of the new, seamless training program in Singapore. There is a need to assess the qualities of a good psychiatric mentor vis-a-vis those of a good psychiatrist. Method: An anonymous survey was sent out to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in Singapore to assess quantitatively the…

Tor, Phern-Chern; Goh, Lee-Gan; Ang, Yong-Guan; Lim, Leslie; Winslow, Rasaiah-Munidasa; Ng, Beng-Yeong; Wong, Sze-Tai; Ng, Tse-Pin; Kia, Ee-Heok



Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.



Quantitative evolutionary design of nutrient processing: Glucose  

PubMed Central

Quantitative evolutionary design involves the numerical relationships, evolved through natural selection, of biological capacities to each other and to natural loads. Here we study the relation of nutrient-processing capacities of the intestine and of organs beyond it (such as liver and kidneys) to each other and to natural loads of nutrients normally consumed. To control experimentally the rate of nutrient delivery to organs beyond the intestine, we administered nutrients directly into the veins of rats by the method of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Control rats consuming the TPN solution by mouth ingested glucose at 42 mmol/day and processed it completely, as gauged by negligible appearance of glucose in urine and feces. Experimental rats receiving TPN were able to process infused glucose completely at rates up to 92 mmol/day. At higher infusion rates, they were unable to process further glucose, as gauged by rises in serum and urinary glucose levels and serum osmolality. At the highest infusion rates, they exhibited diuresis, dehydration, and both decreased weight gain and survival. These symptoms closely resemble the human diabetic condition known as nonketotic hypertonicity. Thus, a rat's body has a safety factor of 2.2 (=92/42) for glucose processing: it can process glucose at a rate 2.2 times its voluntary intake. This safety factor represents apparent excess capacity that may have evolved to process other nutrients converted into glucose, to minimize the risk of loads swamping capacities, to handle suddenly increased nutrient requirements, or to effect rapid mobilization of glucose. PMID:12077313

Steyermark, Anthony C.; Lam, Mandy M.; Diamond, Jared



Quantitative Inference in a Mechanical Design \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

or hydraulic power transmission system, plus specifications and a utility function, and returns catalognumbers from predefined catalogs for the optimal selection of components implementing the design. Unlikeprograms for designing single components or systems, this program provides the designer with a high level"language" in which to compose new designs. It then performs some of the detailed design process for him.The process

Allen C. Ward; Warren P. Seering




EPA Science Inventory

Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...


Survey of Instructional Design Needs and Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey was designed to obtain information on jobs and task requirements for instructional design (ID) professionals and relate positions in the field to academic programs. Data were collected via a questionnaire that combined needs assessment and analysis of instructional requirements, including the demographics of ID positions, the…

Seels, Barbara; Glasgow, Z.


Survey of quantitative antimicrobial consumption in two different pig finishing systems.  


The primary objectives of this study were to: (a) collect on-farm antimicrobial use (AMU) data in fattener pigs employing two questionnaire-based surveys; (b) assess different quantitative measures for quantifying AMU in fattener pigs; (c) compare AMU in fattener pigs between two different management systems producing finishers: farrow-to-finish (FtF) farms versus finisher farms. Two questionnaires were designed both containing five groups of questions focused on the responder, the farm and AMU (eg, in-feed, in-drinking water and parenteral); both surveys were carried out by means of personal face-to-face interviews. Both surveys started with a sample size of 108 potentially eligible farms per survey; nevertheless, finally 67 finisher farms and 49 FtF farms were recruited. Overall percentages of animals exposed to antimicrobials (AM) were high (90 per cent in finisher farms and 54 per cent FtF farms); colistin (61 per cent and 33 per cent) and doxycycline (62 per cent and 23 per cent) were the most common AMs, followed by amoxicillin (51 per cent and 19 per cent) and lincomycin (49 per cent), respectively. Questionnaire-based surveys using face-to-face interviews are useful for capturing information regarding AMU at the farm level. Farm-level data per administration route can be used for comparative AMU analysis between farms. Nevertheless, for the analysis of the putative relationships between AMU and AM resistance, measures based on exposed animals or exposure events are needed. PMID:22915683

Moreno, M A



Spatially balanced survey designs for natural resources  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological resource monitoring programs typically require the use of a probability survey design to select locations or entities to be physically sampled in the field. The ecological resource of interest, the target population, occurs over a spatial domain and the sample selecte...


Six Criteria for Survey Sample Design Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of the sample survey in educational research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good study from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design. The sources are either limited or too extensive to use in a practical sense. The purpose of this paper is to recommend six important…

Wang, Lin; Fan, Xitao


A Survey of Power Plant Designs  

E-print Network

. The Plant uses only methane gas, naturally generated from the site, to produce electricity for more than 180,000 households. #12;Solar Power Plant Photovoltaic (PV) systems use semiconductor cells that convert sunlightA Survey of Power Plant Designs Elizabeth K. Ervin (with many thanks to internet and text sources

Ervin, Elizabeth K.


Design of an Embedded Video Compression System - A Quantitative Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good system design should spend resources in a way that the system is well bal- anced and a high performance\\/cost ratio is achieved. In a quantitative approach the deci- sions upon the most suitable size for each com- ponent is based on measured analysis data. Adopting this approach for Embedded Syste- m(ES) design requires to measure analysis data for

Jörg Wilberg; Raul Camposano; Ursula Westerholz; Uwe Steinhausen



Research Design and Methods of Quantitative Synthesis of Medical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the scientific principles, strengths, and limitations of research designs and methods of quantitative synthesis of medical evidence.Data Sources: We used MEDLINE to perform a systematic search for literature using the keywords research design, epidemiology, and biometry. Journals searched included six major journals in obstetrics and gynecology and three in general medicine. These sources were supplemented with texts

Jeffrey F Peipert; Deidre S Gifford; Lori A Boardman



Design for manufacturability: quantitative measures for design evaluation  

E-print Network

the application of the methodology to a specific domain. Two examples are given to demonstrate how this theory can help designers create cost efficient designs. The ability to integrate expert knowledge into the evaluation makes the methodology particularly...

Polisetty, Francis Showry Kumar



Robust decoupled controller design with quantitative feedback theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a robust decoupled controller design method for MIMO systems by combining the Perron-Frobenius theory, Ostrowski's theorem and quantitative feedback theory. Our aim is to find a required robust controller with less complexity such that the required performances are achieved. An example is given to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method

Jin-Chuan Chang; Yeong-Hwa Chang; Li-Wei Chen



Comparison of Cell Phone and Landline Surveys: A Design Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly decreasing coverage of landline surveys is increasing the need to implement dual-frame surveys for inference to the adult U.S. population. Vast differences between the way cell phones and landlines are used, and the populations using them, require separate data collection designs. Yet research comparing cell phone surveys to landline telephone surveys is scarce with respect to operational outcomes. The

Lisa R. Carley-Baxter; Andy Peytchev; Michele C. Black



The Design of Grids in Web Surveys  

PubMed Central

Grid or matrix questions are associated with a number of problems in Web surveys. In this paper, we present results from two experiments testing the design of grid questions to reduce breakoffs, missing data, and satisficing. The first examines dynamic elements to help guide respondent through the grid, and on splitting a larger grid into component pieces. The second manipulates the visual complexity of the grid and on simplifying the grid. We find that using dynamic feedback to guide respondents through a multi-question grid helps reduce missing data. Splitting the grids into component questions further reduces missing data and motivated underreporting. The visual complexity of the grid appeared to have little effect on performance.

Couper, Mick P.; Tourangeau, Roger; Conrad, Frederick G.; Zhang, Chan



Factors Affecting Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus Trawl Survey Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently a lack of abundance information for effectively managing horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus. A trawl survey program that specifically targets horseshoe crabs would provide that information. We conducted a study to examine the factors that would influence the trawl survey design. Depth, topography, and time of day were examined as potential survey design influences. Horseshoe crab catches were

David Hata; Jim Berkson



Online Survey Design and Development: A Janus-Faced Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we propose a "Janus-faced" approach to survey design--an approach that encourages researchers to consider how they can design and implement surveys more effectively using the latest web and database tools. Specifically, this approach encourages researchers to look two ways at once; attending to both the survey interface…

Lauer, Claire; McLeod, Michael; Blythe, Stuart



Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.



A Survey of Quantitative Team Performance Metrics for Human-Robot Collaboration  

E-print Network

between failures, resource utilization and cost, mental workload, etc.). Some of the methodsA Survey of Quantitative Team Performance Metrics for Human-Robot Collaboration Sharon M. Singer and David L. Akin Space Systems Laboratory, University of Maryland, College Park, 20742, USA Humans

Akin, David


Bird community as an indicator of biodiversity: results from quantitative surveys in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This short review presents the results obtained in several localities of Brazil on the composition of forest bird communities. Data were collected since the late 80's, after we introduced a new methodology of quantitative survey, based on acoustic identification and unlimited-radius point census. Although these data are still scattered, they show uniquely precise and coherently comparative patterns of composition of




Designing Strategic Survey Protocols for Bats Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary I present results from a project that evaluated design components and field-tested survey protocols necessary to initiate a strategic survey program for 8 Sensitive Species of bats throughout the NWFP area. Survey protocols were evaluated in 8 study areas distributed across the NWFP from northern California to the Olympic peninsula. Sample units within study areas were located consistent with

Theodore J. Weller


Design and Validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of students' conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included…

McKagan, S. B.; Perkins, K. K.; Wieman, C. E.



Practical Guidelines for Evaluating Sampling Designs in Survey Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of sample surveys in evaluation and research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good survey from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design used in a survey study. The sources are either too limited or too extensive to be useful practically. The purpose of this paper is to…

Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin


Quantitative estimation of minimum offset for multichannel surface-wave survey with actively exciting source  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Multichannel analysis of surface waves is a developing method widely used in shallow subsurface investigations. The field procedures and related parameters are very important for successful applications. Among these parameters, the source-receiver offset range is seldom discussed in theory and normally determined by empirical or semi-quantitative methods in current practice. This paper discusses the problem from a theoretical perspective. A formula for quantitatively evaluating a layered homogenous elastic model was developed. The analytical results based on simple models and experimental data demonstrate that the formula is correct for surface wave surveys for near-surface applications. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Xu, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.



Submission ID Number STM #172 The Design Conjecture: A Survey  

E-print Network

introduced a new type of combinatorial object called a square �linked design. This object is the dual of what be constructed in this fashion. This paper is a survey of the current (2006) status of this conjecture. (Please that all �designs can be constructed in this fashion. This paper is a survey of the current (2006) status

Hein, Derek


Survey of Oxidase-Positive and Negative Bacteria Using a Quantitative Kovacs Oxidase Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A manometric assay system employing ascorbate and N,N,N',N'-tetra- methyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used to quantitate terminal oxidase activity in bacterial non-proliferating whole cells. A wide variety of physiologi- cally diverse bacteria, all of which were grown heterotrophically, was tested by this assay. For this survey study, 79 bacterial strains, which represented 34 genera, were used. Turbidimetrically standardized resting (non-proliferat- ing) cell



Designing community surveys to provide a basis for noise policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After examining reports from a large number of social surveys, two areas were identified where methodological improvements in the surveys would be especially useful for public policy. The two study areas are: the definition of noise indexes and the assessment of noise impact. Improvements in the designs of surveys are recommended which would increase the validity and reliability of the noise indexes. Changes in interview questions and sample designs are proposed which would enable surveys to provide measures of noise impact which are directly relevant for public policy.

Fields, J. M.



Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys for long tunnel construction design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne geophysical surveys enable us to clarify three-dimensional subsurface structures in large and inaccessible areas. Therefore, they have been used recently to investigate large-scale landslides and volcanoes, as well as in mineral and hydrocarbon explorations. This paper describes a geological assessment for tunnel design and construction using helicopter-borne geophysical surveys.Airborne electromagnetic surveys using a grounded electric dipole source and magnetic

Kenji Okazaki; Toru Mogi; Mitsuru Utsugi; Yoshihiko Ito; Hideki Kunishima; Takashi Yamazaki; Yukitsugu Takahashi; Takeshi Hashimoto; Yusuke Ymamaya; Hisatoshi Ito; Hideshi Kaieda; Kazuhiro Tsukuda; Youichi Yuuki; Akira Jomori


Designing surveys for tests of gravity.  


Modified gravity theories may provide an alternative to dark energy to explain cosmic acceleration. We argue that the observational programme developed to test dark energy needs to be augmented to capture new tests of gravity on astrophysical scales. Several distinct signatures of gravity theories exist outside the 'linear' regime, especially owing to the screening mechanism that operates inside halos such as the Milky Way to ensure that gravity tests in the solar system are satisfied. This opens up several decades in length scale and classes of galaxies at low redshift that can be exploited by surveys. While theoretical work on models of gravity is in the early stages, we can already identify new regimes that cosmological surveys could target to test gravity. These include: (i) a small-scale component that focuses on the interior and vicinity of galaxy and cluster halos, (ii) spectroscopy of low-redshift galaxies, especially galaxies smaller than the Milky Way, in environments that range from voids to clusters, and (iii) a programme of combining lensing and dynamical information, from imaging and spectroscopic surveys, respectively, on the same (or statistically identical) sample of galaxies. PMID:22084295

Jain, Bhuvnesh



Soil Survey and Ecological Sites: Integrated Map Unit Design and  

E-print Network

Soil Survey and Ecological Sites: Integrated Map Unit Design and Interpretation Arlene J. Tugel Soil Scientist, Liasion to ARS Natural Resources Conservation Service Las Cruces, NM #12;Objectives · Soil maps- a review · Soil survey legend development · Data collection · Soil-Site correlation


Design and delivery of a national pilot survey of capabilities  

E-print Network

of the population on the capabilities that are particularly relevant to design. This paper describes a key step towards this, in the form of a pilot survey of 362 people drawn from across England and Wales. This national pilot tested the survey methods...

Tenneti, Raji; Goodman-Deane, Joy; Langdon, Patrick; Waller, Sam; Ruggeri, Kai; Clarkson, P. John; Huppert, Felicia A.



Survey of Fashion Design Employers. Volume IX, No. 16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was conducted to determine the availability of internship opportunities for fashion design students at Harper College and to measure the value of Harper design graduates to their employers. A sample of 279 manufacturers, contacts, and retail stores employing fashion designers were identified in the Chicago metropolitan area and after two…

Aurand, Cecilia; Lucas, John A.


Quantitative performance-based evaluation of a procedure for flexible design concept generation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an experimental methodology for objective and quantitative design procedure evaluation based on anticipated lifecycle performance of design concepts, and a procedure for flexible design concept generation. ...

Cardin, Michel-Alexandre, 1979-



A survey of design issues in spatial input  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a survey of design issues for developing effective free-space three-dimensional (3D) user interfaces. Our survey is based upon previous work in 3D interaction, our experience in developing free-space interfaces, and our informal observations of test users. We illustrate our design issues using examples drawn from instances of 3D interfaces.For example, our first issue suggests that users have difficulty

Ken Hinckley; Randy F. Pausch; John C. Goble; Neal F. Kassell



The Coordinated Radio and Infrared Survey for High-Mass Star Formation (The CORNISH Survey). I. Survey Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of the CORNISH survey, an arcsecond-resolution radio continuum survey of the inner galactic plane at 5 GHz using the Very Large Array (VLA). It is a blind survey coordinated with the northern Spitzer GLIMPSE I region covering 10° l < 65° and |b| < 1° at similar resolution. We discuss in detail the strategy that we employed to control the shape of the synthesised beam across this survey, which covers a wide range of fairly low declinations. Two snapshots separated by 4h kept the beam elongation to less that 1.5 over 75% of the survey area and less than 2 over 98% of the survey. The prime scientific motivation is to provide an unbiased survey for ultra-compact H II regions to study this key phase in massive star formation. A sensitivity around 2 mJy will allow the automatic distinction between radio-loud and radio-quiet mid-IR sources found in the Spitzer surveys. This survey has many legacy applications beyond star formation, including evolved stars, active stars and binaries, and extragalactic sources. The CORNISH survey for compact ionized sources complements other Galactic plane surveys that target diffuse and nonthermal sources, as well as atomic and molecular phases to build up a complete picture of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy.

Hoare, M. G.; Purcell, C. R.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C. J.; Smethurst, S.; Kurtz, S. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Jackson, J. M.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martí, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Zijlstra, A. A.



The Dark Energy Survey instrument design  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab



Surveying clinicians by web: current issues in design and administration.  


The versatility, speed, and reduced costs with which web surveys can be conducted with clinicians are often offset by low response rates. Drawing on best practices and general recommendations in the literature, we provide an evidence-based overview of methods for conducting online surveys with providers. We highlight important advantages and disadvantages of conducting provider surveys online and include a review of differences in response rates between web and mail surveys of clinicians. When administered online, design-based features affect rates of survey participation and data quality. We examine features likely to have an impact including sample frames, incentives, contacts (type, timing, and content), mixed-mode approaches, and questionnaire length. We make several recommendations regarding optimal web-based designs, but more empirical research is needed, particularly with regard to identifying which combinations of incentive and contact approaches yield the highest response rates and are the most cost-effective. PMID:23975760

Dykema, Jennifer; Jones, Nathan R; Piché, Tara; Stevenson, John



Optical design for a survey x-ray telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0 degree full field-of-view.

Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.



Database design and implementation for quantitative image analysis research.  


Quantitative image analysis (QIA) goes beyond subjective visual assessment to provide computer measurements of the image content, typically following image segmentation to identify anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Commercially available picture archiving and communication systems focus on storage of image data. They are not well suited to efficient storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. In this paper, we present a system that integrates image segmentation, quantitation, and characterization with database and data mining facilities. The paper includes generic process and data models for QIA in medicine and describes their practical use. The data model is based upon the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data hierarchy, which is augmented with tables to store segmentation results (ROIs) and quantitative data from multiple experiments. Data mining for statistical analysis of the quantitative data is described along with example queries. The database is implemented in PostgreSQL on a UNIX server. Database requirements and capabilities are illustrated through two quantitative imaging experiments related to lung cancer screening and assessment of emphysema lung disease. The system can manage the large amounts of quantitative data necessary for research, development, and deployment of computer-aided diagnosis tools. PMID:15787012

Brown, Matthew S; Shah, Sumit K; Pais, Richard C; Lee, Yeng-Zhong; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Goldin, Jonathan G; Cardenas, Alfonso F; Aberle, Denise R



An Evaluation of the Sample Designs in Educational Survey Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper shares the findings of an inquiry that evaluated 50 survey articles published in a refereed journal, "Educational Administration Quarterly," by examining the 53 sample designs reported in the articles. The paper presents a typology of the sample designs identified, discusses the problems of sample selection and estimation procedures,…

Wang, Lin; McNamara, James F.


A Survey and Taxonomy of GALS Design Styles  

E-print Network

A Survey and Taxonomy of GALS Design Styles Paul Teehan, Mark Greenstreet, and Guy Lemieux find the concepts and taxonomy presented here very useful. --Sandeep Shukla, Virginia Tech Figure 1. In this article, we describe some design examples and introduce our taxonomy of these techniques. Taxonomy

Lemieux, Guy


Mathematical Models for Aircraft Trajectory Design : A Survey  

E-print Network

Mathematical Models for Aircraft Trajectory Design : A Survey D. Delahaye and S. Puechmorel and P to aircraft trajectory design. Fi- nally, we introduce some path planning techniques via natural language and maintaining separation between aircraft. After giving some definitions, some typical feature of aircraft

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Quantitative research for virtual mobile robot design cycle based on PERT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

75% to 80% of the mobile robot cost is determined by robots design, and to a large extent the efficiency of the production of robots and their performance are also determined. Quantitative evaluation of the virtual design cycle has been plagued robot designers. In this paper, CBD technique is used to design the mobile robots. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is used to compare quantitatively the design cycle between virtual design and traditional design. By way of comparison between the virtual design and traditional design used in the design process for the mobile robots, virtual design cycle was shortened the design cycle by more than 40 percent. And at the circumstances of same design cycle, the completion probability of using virtual design is much higher than the designs of using traditional design.

Wang, Jingkun; Ai, Xing; Zhang, Jinsheng; Chong, Kil To



Quantitative research for virtual mobile robot design cycle based on PERT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

75% to 80% of the mobile robot cost is determined by robots design, and to a large extent the efficiency of the production of robots and their performance are also determined. Quantitative evaluation of the virtual design cycle has been plagued robot designers. In this paper, CBD technique is used to design the mobile robots. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) is used to compare quantitatively the design cycle between virtual design and traditional design. By way of comparison between the virtual design and traditional design used in the design process for the mobile robots, virtual design cycle was shortened the design cycle by more than 40 percent. And at the circumstances of same design cycle, the completion probability of using virtual design is much higher than the designs of using traditional design.

Wang, Jingkun; Ai, Xing; Zhang, Jinsheng; Chong, Kil To



Microstructure Sensitive Design: A Quantitative Approach to New Materials Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The central goal of the project is to develop a new spectral method for design of polycrystalline materials. The methodology (MSD) differs from other materials design approaches in that all components of the materials design enterprise are communicated in...

B. L. Adams, S. R. Kalidindi



Quantitative modelling in design and operation of food supply systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades food supply systems not only got interest of food technologists but also from the field of Operations Research and Management Science. Operations Research (OR) is concerned with quantitative modelling and can be used to get insight into the optimal configuration and operation of food supply systems. In this contribution a short general introduction is given.

Paul van Beek




SciTech Connect

Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)



Lack of quantitative training among early-career ecologists: a survey of the problem and potential solutions  

PubMed Central

Proficiency in mathematics and statistics is essential to modern ecological science, yet few studies have assessed the level of quantitative training received by ecologists. To do so, we conducted an online survey. The 937 respondents were mostly early-career scientists who studied biology as undergraduates. We found a clear self-perceived lack of quantitative training: 75% were not satisfied with their understanding of mathematical models; 75% felt that the level of mathematics was “too low” in their ecology classes; 90% wanted more mathematics classes for ecologists; and 95% more statistics classes. Respondents thought that 30% of classes in ecology-related degrees should be focused on quantitative disciplines, which is likely higher than for most existing programs. The main suggestion to improve quantitative training was to relate theoretical and statistical modeling to applied ecological problems. Improving quantitative training will require dedicated, quantitative classes for ecology-related degrees that contain good mathematical and statistical practice. PMID:24688862

Ezard, Thomas H.G.; J?rgensen, Peter S.; Zimmerman, Naupaka; Chamberlain, Scott; Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Curran, Timothy J.; Poisot, Timothee



Automatic detection and quantitative assessment of peculiar galaxy pairs in Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied computational tools for automatic detection of peculiar galaxy pairs. We first detected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 ˜400 000 galaxy images with i magnitude <18 that had more than one point spread function, and then applied a machine learning algorithm that detected ˜26 000 galaxy images that had morphology similar to the morphology of galaxy mergers. That data set was mined using a novelty detection algorithm, producing a short list of 500 most peculiar galaxies as quantitatively determined by the algorithm. Manual examination of these galaxies showed that while most of the galaxy pairs in the list were not necessarily peculiar, numerous unusual galaxy pairs were detected. In this paper, we describe the protocol and computational tools used for the detection of peculiar mergers, and provide examples of peculiar galaxy pairs that were detected.

Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John



The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment  

PubMed Central

Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013) and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting. PMID:24738055

Taylor, Sean C.; Posch, Anton



The design of a quantitative western blot experiment.  


Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013) and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting. PMID:24738055

Taylor, Sean C; Posch, Anton



Informing Curricular Design by Surveying CS1 Tom Lauwers1  

E-print Network

designs are grounded in current CS1 classroom realities, we embarked on an extensive survey of educa- tors the classroom realities exposed by the previous ques- tions inform methods for introducing new educational tools. These participants and the institutions they represented were diverse with respect to gender, professional level

Nourbakhsh, Illah


Evaluation of a portable x-ray fluorescence survey meter for the quantitative determination of trace metals in welding fumes  

E-print Network


Fehrenbacher, Mary Catherine



Survey Says? A Primer on Web-based Survey Design and Distribution  

PubMed Central

The internet has changed the way in which we gather and interpret information. While books were once the exclusive bearers of data, knowledge is now only a keystroke away. The internet has also facilitated the synthesis of new knowledge. Specifically, it has become a tool through which medical research is conducted. A review of the literature reveals that in the past year, over one-hundred medical publications have been based on web-based survey data alone. Due to emerging internet technologies, web-based surveys can now be launched with little computer knowledge. They may also be self-administered, eliminating personnel requirements. Ultimately, an investigator may build, implement, and analyze survey results with speed and efficiency, obviating the need for mass mailings and data processing. All of these qualities have rendered telephone and mail-based surveys virtually obsolete. Despite these capabilities, web-based survey techniques are not without their limitations, namely recall and response biases. When used properly, however, web-based surveys can greatly simplify the research process. This article discusses the implications of web-based surveys and provides guidelines for their effective design and distribution. PMID:21701347

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Kasten, Steven J.; Haase, Steven C.



From User Requirements to Conceptual Design in Data Warehouse Design - a Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptual design and requirement analysis are two of the key steps within the data warehouse design process. They are to a great extent responsible for the success of a data warehouse project since, during these two phases, the expressivity of the multidimensional schemata is completely defined. This paper proposes a survey of the literature related to these design steps and

Matteo Golfarelli


Optimum structural design with plate bending elements - A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey is presented of recently published papers in the field of optimum structural design of plates, largely with respect to the minimum-weight design of plates subject to such constraints as fundamental frequency maximization. It is shown that, due to the availability of powerful computers, the trend in optimum plate design is away from methods tailored to specific geometry and loads and toward methods that can be easily programmed for any kind of plate, such as finite element methods. A corresponding shift is seen in optimization from variational techniques to numerical optimization algorithms. Among the topics covered are fully stressed design and optimality criteria, mathematical programming, smooth and ribbed designs, design against plastic collapse, buckling constraints, and vibration constraints.

Haftka, R. T.; Prasad, B.



Metamodels for Computer-Based Engineering Design: Survey and Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of statistical techniques to build approximations of expensive computer analysis codes pervades much of todays engineering design. These statistical approximations, or metamodels, are used to replace the actual expensive computer analyses, facilitating multidisciplinary, multiobjective optimization and concept exploration. In this paper we review several of these techniques including design of experiments, response surface methodology, Taguchi methods, neural networks, inductive learning, and kriging. We survey their existing application in engineering design and then address the dangers of applying traditional statistical techniques to approximate deterministic computer analysis codes. We conclude with recommendations for the appropriate use of statistical approximation techniques in given situations and how common pitfalls can be avoided.

Simpson, Timothy W.; Peplinski, Jesse; Koch, Patrick N.; Allen, Janet K.



Application of the space syntax theory to quantitative street lighting design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new design methodology for quantitative street lighting design planning using space syntax theory, which is used to generate a strategic design framework based on detailed analysis of spatial configuration, is described. The space syntax theory is based on the fact that any urban area can be represented as a matrix of connected spaces, and that mathematical properties of this

An-Seop Choi; Young-Ook Kim; Eun-Suk Oh; Yong-Shik Kim



Cascade design of single input single output systems using H? and quantitative feedback theory methodologies  

E-print Network

CASCADE DESIGN OF SINGLE INPUT SINGLE OUTPUT SYSTEMS USING H? AND QUANTITATIVE FEEDBACK THEORY METHODOLOGIES A Thesis by MAYANK LAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2004 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering CASCADE DESIGN OF SINGLE INPUT SINGLE OUTPUT SYSTEMS USING H? AND QUANTITATIVE FEEDBACK...

Lal, Mayank



Spatial Sampling Design for a Demographic and Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in global position systems (GPS), geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing (RS) can be\\u000a exploited for spatial sampling design for demographic and health surveys. These technologies are particularly useful when\\u000a a sampling frame is unavailable and\\/or location (of household) is important for data collection (e.g., location of residence\\u000a might greatly impact exposure to ambient air pollution

Naresh Kumar



The HST/ACS Coma Cluster Survey: I - Survey Objectives and Design  

E-print Network

We describe the HST ACS Coma cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 square arcmin in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium within the cluster. The ACS failure of January 27th 2007 leaves the survey 28% complete, with 21 ACS pointings (230 square arcmin) complete, and partial data for a further 4 pointings (44 square arcmin). Predicted survey depth for 10 sigma detections for optimal photometry of point sources is g' = 27.6 in the F475W filter, and IC=26.8 mag in F814 (AB magnitudes). Initial simulations with artificially injected point sources show 90% recovered at magnitude limits of g' = 27.55 and IC = 26.65. For extended sources, the predicted 10 sigma limits for a 1 square arcsecond region are g' = 25.8 mag/sq. arcsec and IC = 25.0 mag/sq. arcsec. We highlight several motivating science goals of the survey, including study of the faint end of the cluster galaxy luminosity function, structural parameters of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations and their effect on colors and color gradients, evolution of morphological components in a dense environment, the nature of ultra compact dwarf galaxies, and globular cluster populations of cluster galaxies of a range of luminosities and types. This survey will also provide a local rich cluster benchmark for various well known global scaling relations and explore new relations pertaining to the nuclear properties of galaxies.

David Carter; Paul Goudfrooij; Bahram Mobasher; Henry C. Ferguson; Thomas H. Puzia; Alfonso L. Aguerri; Marc Balcells; Dan Batcheldor; Terry J. Bridges; Jonathan I. Davies; Peter Erwin; Alister W. Graham; Rafael Guzmán; Derek Hammer; Ann Hornschemeier; Carlos Hoyos; Michael J. Hudson; Avon Huxor; Shardha Jogee; Yutaka Komiyama; Jennifer Lotz; John R. Lucey; Ronald O. Marzke; David Merritt; Bryan W. Miller; Neal A. Miller; Mustapha Mouhcine; Sadanori Okamura; Reynier F. Peletier; Steven Phillipps; Bianca M. Poggianti; Ray M. Sharples; Russell J. Smith; Neil Trentham; R. Brent Tully; Edwin Valentijn; Gijs Verdoes Kleijn



Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  


In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G



Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.



Design and validation of the Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Survey (QMCS) is a 12-question survey of studentsâ conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. It is intended to be used to measure the relative effectiveness of different instructional methods in modern physics courses. In this paper, we describe the design and validation of the survey, a process that included observations of students, a review of previous literature and textbooks and syllabi, faculty and student interviews, and statistical analysis. We also discuss issues in the development of specific questions, which may be useful both for instructors who wish to use the QMCS in their classes and for researchers who wish to conduct further research of student understanding of quantum mechanics. The QMCS has been most thoroughly tested in, and is most appropriate for assessment of (as a posttest only), sophomore-level modern physics courses. We also describe testing with students in junior quantum courses and graduate quantum courses, from which we conclude that the QMCS may be appropriate for assessing junior quantum courses, but is not appropriate for assessing graduate courses. One surprising result of our faculty interviews is a lack of faculty consensus on what topics should be taught in modern physics, which has made designing a test that is valued by a majority of physics faculty more difficult than expected.

Mckagan, Sam B.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.




SciTech Connect

The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others



SEDS: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Survey Design, Photometry, and Deep IRAC Source Counts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg(exp 2) to a depth of 26 AB mag (3sigma) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 +/- 1.0 and 4.4 +/- 0.8 nW / square m/sr at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Arendt, A.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Dave, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Illingworth, G.; Kashlinsky, A; Koekmoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Moseley, H.



A New Optical Design Of A Fundus Imaging Device For Quantitative Retinal Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new optical design has been incorporated into an instrument for use in digital imaging and quantitative analysis of fundus images. By using an optical design program, in combination with custom electronics, we have developed a new instrument for fundus imaging.

Schalck, Robert E.



Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Insights into Design and Analysis Issues  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes and discusses issues related to research design and data analysis in the mixing of qualitative and quantitative methods. It is increasingly desirable to use multiple methods in research, but questions arise as to how best to design and analyze the data generated by mixed methods projects. I offer a conceptualization for such…

Lieber, Eli



Methods for Evidence-Based Practice: Quantitative Synthesis of Single-Subject Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Good quantitative evidence does not require large, aggregate group designs. The authors describe ground-breaking work in managing the conceptual and practical demands in developing meta-analytic strategies for single subject designs in an effort to add to evidence-based practice. (Contains 2 figures.)

Shadish, William R.; Rindskopf, David M.



Conceptual framework for designing a national survey of human exposure.  


The development and implementation of a National Human Exposure Assessment Survey requires a sound conceptual framework in order to select the population for study, the chemicals of concern, and the media and routes of exposure requiring direct and indirect measurements. A three-level conceptual model is presented within a multidimensional space that provides the basic parameters needed to be considered in the design of such a study. The axis common to all three levels is the duration of exposure. A fundamental need in a national survey is information on environmentally relevant chemicals, the biological mechanisms and health responses, the types of personal contact, the environmental concentrations, the sources, and the populations at risk. Application of the model is appropriate for exposures that can lead to acute or chronic health effects. Five chemicals are used to illustrate the need for multimedia and multiroute exposure analyses of the general population. PMID:8814779

Lioy, P J; Pellizzari, E



The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: I. Science Goals, Survey Design and Strategy  

E-print Network

The recently initiated Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey aims to map 7000 square degrees of the high galactic latitude sky visible from Arecibo, providing a HI line spectral database covering the redshift range between -1600 km/s and 18,000 km/s with 5 km/s resolution. Exploiting Arecibo's large collecting area and small beam size, ALFALFA is specifically designed to probe the faint end of the HI mass function in the local universe and will provide a census of HI in the surveyed sky area to faint flux limits, making it especially useful in synergy with wide area surveys conducted at other wavelengths. ALFALFA will also provide the basis for studies of the dynamics of galaxies within the Local and nearby superclusters, will allow measurement of the HI diameter function, and enable a first wide-area blind search for local HI tidal features, HI absorbers at z < 0.06 and OH megamasers in the redshift range 0.16 < z < 0.25. Although completion of the survey will require some five years, public access to the ALFALFA data and data products will be provided in a timely manner, thus allowing its application for studies beyond those targeted by the ALFALFA collaboration. ALFALFA adopts a two-pass, minimum intrusion, drift scan observing technique which samples the same region of sky at two separate epochs to aid in the discrimination of cosmic signals from noise and terrestrial interference. Survey simulations, which take into account large scale structure in the mass distribution and incorporate experience with the ALFA system gained from tests conducted during its commissioning phase, suggest that ALFALFA will detect on the order of 20,000 extragalactic HI line sources out to z=0.06, including several hundred with HI masses of less than 10^{7.5} msun.

Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes; Brian R. Kent



The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope preliminary design overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project is a public-private partnership that is well into the design and development of the complete observatory system to conduct a wide fast deep survey and to process and serve the data. The telescope has a 3-mirror wide field optical system with an 8.4 meter primary, 3.4 meter secondary, and 5 meter tertiary mirror. The reflective optics feed three refractive elements and a 64 cm 3.2 gigapixel camera. The LSST data management system will reduce, transport, alert and archive the roughly 15 terabytes of data produced nightly, and will serve the raw and catalog data accumulating at an average of 7 petabytes per year to the community without any proprietary period. The project has completed several data challenges designed to prototype and test the data management system to significant pre-construction levels. The project continues to attract institutional partners and has acquired non-federal funding sufficient to construct the primary mirror, already in progress at the University of Arizona, build the secondary mirror substrate, completed by Corning, and fund detector prototype efforts, several that have been tested on the sky. A focus of the project is systems engineering, risk reduction through prototyping and major efforts in image simulation and operation simulations. The project has submitted a proposal for construction to the National Science Foundation Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) program and has prepared project advocacy papers for the National Research Council's Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey. The project is preparing for a 2012 construction funding authorization.

Krabbendam, V. L.; Sweeney, D.



50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. (a) To be designated as an...state's participation in a regional survey of marine and anadromous...



50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. (a) To be designated as an...state's participation in a regional survey of marine and anadromous...



Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to the design of a rotorcraft flight control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. Quantitative Feedback Theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear uncertain model of the AH-64 rotorcraft. In this model, the uncertainty is assigned, and is assumed to be attributable to actual uncertainty in the dynamic model and to the changes in the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics which occur near hover. The model includes an approximation to the rotor and actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which handling qualities criteria may be incorporated into the design of realistic rotorcraft control systems in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model.

Hess, R. A.; Gorder, P. J.



Quantitative Comparison of Commercial CCD and Custom-Designed CMOS Camera for Biological  

E-print Network

Quantitative Comparison of Commercial CCD and Custom-Designed CMOS Camera for Biological and systems where even the smallest details have a meaning, CCD cameras are mostly preferred and they hold camera to compete with the default CCD camera of an inverted microscope for fluorescence imaging

De Micheli, Giovanni


Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIt has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical

Ulrika Östlund; Lisa Kidd; Yvonne Wengström; Neneh Rowa-Dewar



Discrimination, Personality, and Achievement: A Survey of Northern Blacks. Quantitative Studies in Social Relations Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Spring of 1966, the Civil Rights Commission asked the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) to conduct a survey of Northern blacks to determine the effects, if any, of attending integrated versus segregated schools. The result was an extensive survey of 1651 black men and women, aged 21 to 45, living in the metropolitan areas of the…

Crain, Robert L.; Weisman, Carol Sachs


Quantitative Design of Regulatory Elements Based on High-Precision Strength Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network  

PubMed Central

Accurate and controllable regulatory elements such as promoters and ribosome binding sites (RBSs) are indispensable tools to quantitatively regulate gene expression for rational pathway engineering. Therefore, de novo designing regulatory elements is brought back to the forefront of synthetic biology research. Here we developed a quantitative design method for regulatory elements based on strength prediction using artificial neural network (ANN). One hundred mutated Trc promoter & RBS sequences, which were finely characterized with a strength distribution from 0 to 3.559 (relative to the strength of the original sequence which was defined as 1), were used for model training and test. A precise strength prediction model, NET90_19_576, was finally constructed with high regression correlation coefficients of 0.98 for both model training and test. Sixteen artificial elements were in silico designed using this model. All of them were proved to have good consistency between the measured strength and our desired strength. The functional reliability of the designed elements was validated in two different genetic contexts. The designed parts were successfully utilized to improve the expression of BmK1 peptide toxin and fine-tune deoxy-xylulose phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that the methodology based on ANN model can de novo and quantitatively design regulatory elements with desired strengths, which are of great importance for synthetic biology applications. PMID:23560087

Xiong, Zhiqiang; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Yong



Sampling design for air quality measurement surveys: An optimization approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement surveys using passive diffusion tubes are regularly carried out to elaborate atmospheric concentration maps over various areas. Sampling schemes must be designed to characterize both contaminant concentrations (of benzene or nitrogen dioxide for example) and their relations to environmental variables so as to obtain pollution maps as precise as possible. The concentration variable is interpolated by external drift kriging, with the help of exhaustively known covariates. The quality of a sampling scheme is quantified by the spatially averaged external drift kriging variance, which incorporates the drift estimation error as well as the spatial interpolation error. A weighted criterion is also introduced. Optimizing this criterion by simulated annealing provides an optimal sampling scheme. A preliminary study is performed on concentration data available from previous surveys on two different agglomerations so as to determine the covariance model and the relevant covariates to be used on a third agglomeration. It does not reveal a single model but a whole parametrized family of relevant models. The method is then applied to the third agglomeration with different values of the model parameters. The results are discussed and finally compared to those obtained with a pragmatic approach, described in a previous paper.

Romary, Thomas; de Fouquet, Chantal; Malherbe, Laure



Survey of design tools for passive and hybrid low energy buildings  

SciTech Connect

Design tools for passive and hybrid low energy buildings were surveyed as part of the solar heating and cooling program. A total of 164 design tools were surveyed. The design tools are categorized in various ways. The need for further design tools development for certain application is identified.

Rittelmann, P.R.; Davy, J.E.; Ahmed, S.F.



Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary rocks. Attempts to use spectral IP characteristics to determine relative abundances of sulphides and graphite were not conclusive. The overall effectiveness of the screening technique however encouraged NBDOT to apply it to an additional 50 km of planned rock cuts along the corridor selected for the new Trans-Canada Highway.

Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.



A quantitative and objective evaluation approach for optimal selection of design concept in conceptual design stage  

E-print Network

, shown below: [ FR ) = [T] ?[ DP )? where, [T ] is the design matrix or FR( 1) FR(2) DP(1) DP(2) FR(m) T T . . . . . . . . T m, l m, 2 '"' "" m, n DP(n) In a linear design the elements of the design matrix are constants; whereas, in a non... independently by means of one DP. In other words, varying one DP will affect only one FR. Such a design involves no coupling between FRs and is, therefore, called an uncoupled design. Mathematically, for an uncoupled design, the number of FRs should be equal...

Tiwari, Sanjay



Professional values and reported behaviours of doctors in the USA and UK: quantitative survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe authors aimed to determine US and UK doctors' professional values and reported behaviours, and the extent to which these vary with the context of care.Method1891 US and 1078 UK doctors completed the survey (64.4% and 40.3% response rate respectively). Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare responses to identical questions in the two surveys.ResultsUK doctors were more likely to

Martin Roland; Sowmya R Rao; Bonnie Sibbald; Mark Hann; Stephen Harrison; Alex Walter; Bruce Guthrie; Catherine Desroches; Timothy G Ferris; Eric G Campbell



A Critical Analysis of Interview, Telephone, and Mail Survey Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical analysis is presented of the literature as it relates to survey research, including personal interviews, telephone interviews, and mail questionnaires. Additional research concerns are explored, and a code of ethics for survey researchers is presented. Focus groups, interviews, long interviews, telephone interviews, and mail surveys are…

Katz, Elinor


Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa



A custom-built PET phantom design for quantitative imaging of printed distributions.  


This note presents a practical approach to a custom-made design of PET phantoms enabling the use of digital radioactive distributions with high quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution. The phantom design allows planar sources of any radioactivity distribution to be imaged in transaxial and axial (sagittal or coronal) planes. Although the design presented here is specially adapted to the high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT), the presented methods can be adapted to almost any PET scanner. Although the presented phantom design has many advantages, a number of practical issues had to be overcome such as positioning of the printed source, calibration, uniformity and reproducibility of printing. A well counter (WC) was used in the calibration procedure to find the nonlinear relationship between digital voxel intensities and the actual measured radioactive concentrations. Repeated printing together with WC measurements and computed radiography (CR) using phosphor imaging plates (IP) were used to evaluate the reproducibility and uniformity of such printing. Results show satisfactory printing uniformity and reproducibility; however, calibration is dependent on the printing mode and the physical state of the cartridge. As a demonstration of the utility of using printed phantoms, the image resolution and quantitative accuracy of reconstructed HRRT images are assessed. There is very good quantitative agreement in the calibration procedure between HRRT, CR and WC measurements. However, the high resolution of CR and its quantitative accuracy supported by WC measurements made it possible to show the degraded resolution of HRRT brain images caused by the partial-volume effect and the limits of iterative image reconstruction. PMID:21983701

Markiewicz, P J; Angelis, G I; Kotasidis, F; Green, M; Lionheart, W R; Reader, A J; Matthews, J C



National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Integration of Geospatial Data in Their Survey Design and Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) are a series of four statistical surveys conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency working in collaboration with states, tribal nations and other federal agencies. The surveys are conducted for lakes and reservoirs, streams...


The Development of the Progressive in 19th Century English: A Quantitative Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expansion of the progressive (be+ing periphrastic form, where "be" is at the same time the copula and a statement of existence) was a major feature of modernization of the English verb system in the 19th century. A survey (1787-1880) of a collection of private letters, most from famous writers, reveals that linguistic factors played a small role…

Arnaud, Rene



Textile materials for the design of wearable antennas: a survey.  


In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented. PMID:23202235

Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro



Trajectory Design for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission launching in 2017. TESS will travel in a highly eccentric orbit around Earth, with initial perigee radius near 17 Earth radii (Re) and apogee radius near 59 Re. The orbit period is near 2:1 resonance with the Moon, with apogee nearly 90 degrees out-of-phase with the Moon, in a configuration that has been shown to be operationally stable. TESS will execute phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby, with a final maneuver to achieve 2:1 resonance with the Moon. The goals of a resonant orbit with long-term stability, short eclipses and limited oscillations of perigee present significant challenges to the trajectory design. To rapidly assess launch opportunities, we adapted the SWM76 launch window tool to assess the TESS mission constraints. To understand the long-term dynamics of such a resonant orbit in the Earth-Moon system we employed Dynamical Systems Theory in the Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem (CR3BP). For precise trajectory analysis we use a high-fidelity model and multiple shooting in the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to optimize the maneuver delta-V and meet mission constraints. Finally we describe how the techniques we have developed can be applied to missions with similar requirements.

Dichmann, Donald J.; Parker, Joel; Williams, Trevor; Mendelsohn, Chad



Sample Design and Estimation Procedures for a National Health Examination Survey of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents considerations for sample design and estimation procedures for the Health Examination Survey, one of the major survey programs employed by the National Center for Health Statistics. The survey collects data which provide national estimates and distributions of various health characteristics related to the growth and…

Bryant, E. Earl; And Others


Using Survey Methods for Design and Evaluation in Child Computer Interaction  

E-print Network

Using Survey Methods for Design and Evaluation in Child Computer Interaction Janet Read ABSTRACT This paper begins with a review of some of the current literature on the use of survey methods with children. It then presents four known concerns with using survey methods and reflects on how these may


A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

Gorder, Peter James



Design Unit Consultant Data Set Expertise Survey Data Sets  

E-print Network

Nursing Home Survey (NNHS) Health Care Utilization and Health Status 1995, 1997, 1999 Nursing Homes National 14,000 residents of 1,423 nursing homes AHA Annual Survey Database Health Care Cost) Health Care Access, Cost, and Use 1991present Medicare Patients National 12,000 National Home

Derisi, Joseph


A quantitative framework for the forward design of synthetic miRNA circuits.  


Synthetic genetic circuits incorporating regulatory components based on RNA interference (RNAi) have been used in a variety of systems. A comprehensive understanding of the parameters that determine the relationship between microRNA (miRNA) and target expression levels is lacking. We describe a quantitative framework supporting the forward engineering of gene circuits that incorporate RNAi-based regulatory components in mammalian cells. We developed a model that captures the quantitative relationship between miRNA and target gene expression levels as a function of parameters, including mRNA half-life and miRNA target-site number. We extended the model to synthetic circuits that incorporate protein-responsive miRNA switches and designed an optimized miRNA-based protein concentration detector circuit that noninvasively measures small changes in the nuclear concentration of ?-catenin owing to induction of the Wnt signaling pathway. Our results highlight the importance of methods for guiding the quantitative design of genetic circuits to achieve robust, reliable and predictable behaviors in mammalian cells. PMID:25218181

Bloom, Ryan J; Winkler, Sally M; Smolke, Christina D



Profiling Tools for FPGA-Based Embedded Systems: Survey and Quantitative Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiling tools are computer-aided design (CAD) tools that help in determining the computationally intensive portions in software. Embedded systems consist of hard- ware and software components that execute concurrently and efficiently to execute a specific task or application. Profiling tools are used by embedded system designers to choose computationally intensive functions for hardware implementation and acceleration. In this paper we

Jason G. Tong; Mohammed A. S. Khalid



Obstructed Telescopes vs Unobstructed Telescopes for Wide Field Survey - A Quantitative Analysis  

E-print Network

Telescopes with unobstructed pupil are known to deliver clean point spread function (PSF) to their focal plane, in contrast to traditional telescopes with obstructed pupil. Recent progress in the manufacturing aspheric surfaces and mounting accuracy favors unobstructed telescopes over obstructed telescopes for science cases that demand stable and clean PSF over the entire field-of-view. In this paper we compare the image quality of an unobstructed Three-Mirror-Anastigmat (TMA) design with that of an obstructed TMA. Both the designs have the same primary mirror, effective focal length, field-of-view and detector characteristics. We demonstrate using simulated images of faint elliptical galaxies imaged through the two designs, that both the designs can measure morphological parameters with same precision, if the PSF is reconstructed within 12 arc-minutes of the source. We also demonstrate that, the unobstructed design delivers desirable precision even if the PSF is reconstructed 50 arc-minutes away from the sou...

Singaravelu, Balasubramanian



A Survey of Design Rationale Systems: Approaches, Representation, Capture and Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a survey on recent research in the area of design rationale. The study of design rationale spans a number of diverse disciplines, touching on concepts from research communities in mechanical design, software engineering, artificial intelligence, civil engineering, com- puter-supported cooperative work, and human-factors and human-computer interaction research. We focus this survey on prototype design rationale systems for

William C. Regli; Xiaochun Hu; Michael Atwood; Wei Sun



Fitting multilevel models in complex survey data with design weights: Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multilevel models (MLM) offer complex survey data analysts a unique approach to understanding individual and contextual determinants of public health. However, little summarized guidance exists with regard to fitting MLM in complex survey data with design weights. Simulation work suggests that analysts should scale design weights using two methods and fit the MLM using unweighted and scaled-weighted data. This

Adam C Carle



The Importance of Adhering to Details of the Total Design Method (TDM) for Mail Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The empirical effects of adherence of details of the Total Design Method (TDM) approach to the design of mail surveys is discussed, based on the implementation of a common survey in 11 different states. The results suggest that greater adherence results in higher response, especially in the later stages of the TDM. (BW)

Dillman, Don A.; And Others



The health effects of climate change: a survey of recent quantitative research.  


In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or long-run climate variations affect the occurrence of infectious diseases? Second, is it possible to build more accurate quantitative models which are capable of predicting the future effects of different climate conditions on the transmissibility of particularly dangerous infectious diseases? The primary goal of this paper is to review the most relevant contributions which have directly tackled those questions, both with respect to the effects of climate changes on the diffusion of non-infectious and infectious diseases, with malaria as a case study. Specific attention will be drawn on the methodological aspects of each study, which will be classified according to the type of quantitative model considered, namely time series models, panel data and spatial models, and non-statistical approaches. Since many different disciplines and approaches are involved, a broader view is necessary in order to provide a better understanding of the interactions between climate and health. In this respect, our paper also presents a critical summary of the recent literature related to more general aspects of the impacts of climate changes on human health, such as: the economics of climate change; how to manage the health effects of climate change; the establishment of Early Warning Systems for infectious diseases. PMID:22754455

Grasso, Margherita; Manera, Matteo; Chiabai, Aline; Markandya, Anil



Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.

Hess, R. A.




EPA Science Inventory

Monitoring the occurrence of specific amphibian species in ponds is one component of the US Geological Survey's Amphibian Monitoring and Research Initiative. Two collaborative studies were conducted in Olympic National Park and southeastern region of Oregon. The number of ponds...


Sample size and optimal sample design in tuberculosis surveys  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis surveys sponsored by the World Health Organization have been carried out in different communities during the last few years. Apart from the main epidemiological findings, these surveys have provided basic statistical data for use in the planning of future investigations. In this paper an attempt is made to determine the sample size desirable in future surveys that include one of the following examinations: tuberculin test, direct microscopy, and X-ray examination. The optimum cluster sizes are found to be 100-150 children under 5 years of age in the tuberculin test, at least 200 eligible persons in the examination for excretors of tubercle bacilli (direct microscopy) and at least 500 eligible persons in the examination for persons with radiological evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (X-ray). Modifications of the optimum sample size in combined surveys are discussed. PMID:5300008

Sánchez-Crespo, J. L.



CTSI Quantitative Methods Pilot Program The Design, Biostatistics and Epidemiology (DBE) Core, the Pilot Core, and the Novel  

E-print Network

1 CTSI Quantitative Methods Pilot Program The Design, Biostatistics and Epidemiology (DBE) Core, a quantitative methods researcher is an investigator with a background in statistics, biostatistics, epidemiology the career development of junior investigators in the fields of statistics, biostatistics, and epidemiology

Sibille, Etienne


Nutrient sources in the American diet: quantitative data from the NHANES II survey. I. Vitamins and minerals.  


Dietary data from 11,658 adult respondents in the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to provide quantitative information regarding the contribution of specific foods to the total population intake of the following 10 nutrients: vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, iron, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Data are reported in the companion paper regarding the number of adults in the US population consuming each of 147 food items, representing all foods reported by these respondents. The percentage of total nutrient intake which each food provides is presented for the top 50 contributors of each of the nutrients listed above. Foods sometimes overlooked as important sources are found in some instances to be quantitatively important to population intake, such as spaghetti dishes as an independent source of carotenoids. These data should be useful to epidemiologists with a substantive interest in dietary etiologies or a methodological interest in the development of dietary assessment instruments. In addition, they may be useful to health care planners or nutrition educators. PMID:4014190

Block, G; Dresser, C M; Hartman, A M; Carroll, M D




SciTech Connect

Using J- and K{sub s}-band imaging obtained as part of the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS), we measure Sérsic indices for 2160 field and cluster galaxies at 0.31 < z < 0.54. Using both mass- and magnitude-limited samples, we compare the distributions for spectroscopically determined passive, continuously star-forming, starburst, and post-starburst systems and show that previously established spatial and statistical connections between these types extend to their gross morphologies. Outside of cluster cores, we find close structural ties between starburst and continuously star-forming, as well as post-starburst and passive types, but not between starbursts and post-starbursts. These results independently support two conclusions presented in Paper II of this series: (1) most starbursts are the product of a non-disruptive triggering mechanism that is insensitive to global environment, such as minor mergers; (2) starbursts and post-starbursts generally represent transient phases in the lives of 'normal' star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively, originating from and returning to these systems in closed 'recycling' loops. In this picture, spectroscopically identified post-starbursts constitute a minority of all recently terminated starbursts, largely ruling out the typical starburst as a quenching event in all but the densest environments.

Abramson, Louis E.; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Monson, Andrew; Persson, Eric [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta, E-mail: [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)



Empowerment among athletes - an e-survey design.  


This study focus on a healthcare system integrating citizens orientation towards a healthy sports active lifestyle in combination with an individual health information, to prevent them from sports injuries and to empower them in an everyday context. Sports give quality of life, but often result in injuries. In this survey population of 1,320 athletes, 90% had sports related injuries and 80% had received medical treatment. An e-survey investigates how the athletes use IT in relation to health and is a descriptive research into investigating specific indicators of individual empowerment. PMID:19592953

Pallesen, Bodil; Engberg, Axel; Barlach, Anders



A Systematic Approach for Quantitative Analysis of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) framework for an aerospace engineering system should use and integrate distributed resources such as various analysis codes, optimization codes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, Data Base Management Systems (DBMS), etc. in a heterogeneous environment, and need to provide user-friendly graphical user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for determining a reference MDO framework and for evaluating MDO frameworks. The proposed approach incorporates two well-known methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), in order to provide a quantitative analysis of the qualitative criteria of MDO frameworks. Identification and hierarchy of the framework requirements and the corresponding solutions for the reference MDO frameworks, the general one and the aircraft oriented one were carefully investigated. The reference frameworks were also quantitatively identified using AHP and QFD. An assessment of three in-house frameworks was then performed. The results produced clear and useful guidelines for improvement of the in-house MDO frameworks and showed the feasibility of the proposed approach for evaluating an MDO framework without a human interference.

Kim, Sangho; Park, Jungkeun; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Lee, Jae-Woo



SciTech Connect

Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful tracers of star-forming galaxies. We have defined a homogeneous subsample of 69 Swift GRB-selected galaxies spanning a very wide redshift range. Special attention has been devoted to making the sample optically unbiased through simple and well-defined selection criteria based on the high-energy properties of the bursts and their positions on the sky. Thanks to our extensive follow-up observations, this sample has now achieved a comparatively high degree of redshift completeness, and thus provides a legacy sample, useful for statistical studies of GRBs and their host galaxies. In this paper, we present the survey design and summarize the results of our observing program conducted at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) aimed at obtaining the most basic properties of galaxies in this sample, including a catalog of R and K{sub s} magnitudes and redshifts. We detect the host galaxies for 80% of the GRBs in the sample, although only 42% have K{sub s} -band detections, which confirms that GRB-selected host galaxies are generally blue. The sample is not uniformly blue, however, with two extremely red objects detected. Moreover, galaxies hosting GRBs with no optical/NIR afterglows, whose identification therefore relies on X-ray localizations, are significantly brighter and redder than those with an optical/NIR afterglow. This supports a scenario where GRBs occurring in more massive and dusty galaxies frequently suffer high optical obscuration. Our spectroscopic campaign has resulted in 77% now having redshift measurements, with a median redshift of 2.14 {+-} 0.18. TOUGH alone includes 17 detected z > 2 Swift GRB host galaxies suitable for individual and statistical studies-a substantial increase over previous samples. Seven hosts have detections of the Ly{alpha} emission line and we can exclude an early indication that Ly{alpha} emission is ubiquitous among GRB hosts, but confirm that Ly{alpha} is stronger in GRB-selected galaxies than in flux-limited samples of Lyman break galaxies.

Hjorth, Jens; Malesani, Daniele; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Kruehler, Thomas; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall; Schulze, Steve [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 3, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jaunsen, Andreas O. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Gorosabel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Levan, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michalowski, Michal J. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Moller, Palle [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching by Muenchen (Germany); Tanvir, Nial R., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)



Designing occupancy studies: general advice and allocating survey effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The fraction of sampling units in a landscape where a target species is present (occu- pancy) is an extensively used concept in ecology. Yet in many applications the species will not always be detected in a sampling unit even when present, resulting in biased estimates of occupancy. Given that sampling units are surveyed repeatedly within a relatively short

D. I. MacKenzie; J. A. Royle



EPA Science Inventory

Estimating proportion of sites occupied, or proportion of area occupied (PAO) is a common problem in environmental studies. Typically, field surveys do not ensure that occupancy of a site is made with perfect detection. Maximum likelihood estimation of site occupancy rates when...


Survey Design and Operation in Areas of War Conflict: The Lebanon Wars Surveys Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wars inflict tremendous damage on societies. While, there is a large body of literature dedicated to investigating the impact of war, little attention has been given to the methodological complexities encountered by researchers in conducting wartime surveys. Lebanon has been a scene of wars since 1975. The Institute for Development, Research, Advocacy and Applied Care (IDRAAC) was initially founded in



[National Health Survey in Brazil: design and methodology of application].  


The National Health Survey is a household-based nationwide survey carried out by the Ministry of Health in partnership with the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The scope of the survey is to establish the health status and lifestyles of the population - as well as how they look after their health - with regard to access and use of services, preventive actions, continuity of care, and health care financing. The sample size is 80,000 households and enables the calculation of some indicators at different geographic levels, namely states, capitals, metropolitan and rural areas. The questionnaire is divided into three parts. The first two are answered by one resident and include questions on the household characteristics and on the social and economic level and health status of all inhabitants. The individual questionnaire is answered by an adult (aged 18 years or more), selected with equal probability among the adult residents, and focuses on morbidity and lifestyle. For this individual, measurements of weight, height, waist circumference and blood pressure are taken, as well as laboratory exams to characterize the lipid profile and blood glucose level, as well as determine the urine sodium content. The laboratory exams are taken in a subsample of 25% of the census sectors selected. PMID:24863810

Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Vieira, Maria Lucia França Pontes; Conde, Wolney Lisboa; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Azevedo, Luiz Otávio; Azevedo E Silva, Gulnar; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda; Lopes, Cláudia de Souza; Romero, Dália Elena; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto



A Survey of Co-Design Ideas and Methodologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Designing embedded systems becomes more and more complex due to the increasing size of integrated circuits, increasing software complexity and decreasing time-to-market requirements and product costs. A possible way to deal with this complexity is the use of high-level system design languages. Such approaches combine modelling of software and hardware, and are called Co-Design approaches. A fundamental dierence between

G. Bosman


Survey design for lakes and reservoirs in the United States to assess contaminants in fish tissue  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Lake Fish Tissue Study (NLFTS) was the first survey of fish contamination in lakes and reservoirs in the 48 conterminous states based on probability survey design. This study included the largest set (268) of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals ev...


Quantitative imaging of the human upper airway: instrument design and clinical studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging of the human upper airway is widely used in medicine, in both clinical practice and research. Common imaging modalities include video endoscopy, X-ray CT, and MRI. However, no current modality is both quantitative and safe to use for extended periods of time. Such a capability would be particularly valuable for sleep research, which is inherently reliant on long observation sessions. We have developed an instrument capable of quantitative imaging of the human upper airway, based on endoscopic optical coherence tomography. There are no dose limits for optical techniques, and the minimally invasive imaging probe is safe for use in overnight studies. We report on the design of the instrument and its use in preliminary clinical studies, and we present results from a range of initial experiments. The experiments show that the instrument is capable of imaging during sleep, and that it can record dynamic changes in airway size and shape. This information is useful for research into sleep disorders, and potentially for clinical diagnosis and therapies.

Leigh, M. S.; Armstrong, J. J.; Paduch, A.; Sampson, D. D.; Walsh, J. H.; Hillman, D. R.; Eastwood, P. R.



Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (?0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.




SciTech Connect

We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 {open_square}' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} depending on the wavelength, and Ly{alpha} luminosities between 3 x 10{sup 42} and 6 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Ly{alpha} emission at 1.9 < z < 3.8, and the majority of the remainder objects are low-redshift [O II]3727 emitters at z < 0.56. The classification between low- and high-redshift objects depends on rest-frame equivalent width (EW), as well as other indicators, where available. Based on matches to X-ray catalogs, the active galactic nuclei fraction among the Ly{alpha} emitters is 6%. We also analyze the survey's completeness and contamination properties through simulations. We find five high-z, highly significant, resolved objects with FWHM sizes >44 {open_square}' which appear to be extended Ly{alpha} nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Ly{alpha} EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW{sub 0}>240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1402, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf [Max-Planck Instituet fur extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kelz, Andreas [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)



Metamodels for Computer-based Engineering Design: Survey and recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The use of statistical techniques,to build ap- proximations,of expensive computer,analysis codes pervades much,of today’s engineering,design. These statistical approxi- mations, or metamodels, are used to replace the actual expensive computer analyses, facilitating multidisciplinary, multiobjective optimization and,concept,exploration. In this paper, we review several of these techniques, including design of experiments, response surface methodology, Taguchi methods, neural networks, inductive learning and kriging.

Timothy W. Simpson; J. D. Poplinski; P. N. Koch; J. K. Allen



Developing the design of a continuous national health survey for New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background A continuously operating survey can yield advantages in survey management, field operations, and the provision of timely information for policymakers and researchers. We describe the key features of the sample design of the New Zealand (NZ) Health Survey, which has been conducted on a continuous basis since mid-2011, and compare to a number of other national population health surveys. Methods A number of strategies to improve the NZ Health Survey are described: implementation of a targeted dual-frame sample design for better M?ori, Pacific, and Asian statistics; movement from periodic to continuous operation; use of core questions with rotating topic modules to improve flexibility in survey content; and opportunities for ongoing improvements and efficiencies, including linkage to administrative datasets. Results and discussion The use of disproportionate area sampling and a dual frame design resulted in reductions of approximately 19%, 26%, and 4% to variances of M?ori, Pacific and Asian statistics respectively, but at the cost of a 17% increase to all-ethnicity variances. These were broadly in line with the survey’s priorities. Respondents provided a high degree of cooperation in the first year, with an adult response rate of 79% and consent rates for data linkage above 90%. Conclusions A combination of strategies tailored to local conditions gives the best results for national health surveys. In the NZ context, data from the NZ Census of Population and Dwellings and the Electoral Roll can be used to improve the sample design. A continuously operating survey provides both administrative and statistical advantages. PMID:24364838



Using GIS to generate spatially balanced random survey designs for natural resource applications.  


Sampling of a population is frequently required to understand trends and patterns in natural resource management because financial and time constraints preclude a complete census. A rigorous probability-based survey design specifies where to sample so that inferences from the sample apply to the entire population. Probability survey designs should be used in natural resource and environmental management situations because they provide the mathematical foundation for statistical inference. Development of long-term monitoring designs demand survey designs that achieve statistical rigor and are efficient but remain flexible to inevitable logistical or practical constraints during field data collection. Here we describe an approach to probability-based survey design, called the Reversed Randomized Quadrant-Recursive Raster, based on the concept of spatially balanced sampling and implemented in a geographic information system. This provides environmental managers a practical tool to generate flexible and efficient survey designs for natural resource applications. Factors commonly used to modify sampling intensity, such as categories, gradients, or accessibility, can be readily incorporated into the spatially balanced sample design. PMID:17546523

Theobald, David M; Stevens, Don L; White, Denis; Urquhart, N Scott; Olsen, Anthony R; Norman, John B



Quantitative analysis of conditional gene inactivation using rationally designed, tetracycline-controlled miRNAs.  


The combination of RNA interference (RNAi) with the tetracycline-controlled transcription activation (tet) system promises to become a powerful method for conditional gene inactivation in cultured cells and in whole organisms. Here, we tested critical sequence elements that originated from miRNA mR-30 for optimal efficiency of RNAi-based gene knockdown in mammalian cells. Rationally designed miRNAs, expressed conditionally via the tet system, led to an efficient knockdown of the expression of both reporter genes and the endogenous mitotic spindle protein TPX2 in HeLa cells. Quantitative studies of the tet-controlled gene inactivation revealed that the residual expression of the target gene is an intrinsic attribute of all cells that cannot be eliminated either by increasing the miRNA to target mRNA ratio or by simultaneous expression of miRNAs targeting different sequences within the transcript. The kinetic analysis of the reversibility of the miRNA mediated knockdown suggests that the recovery of target gene expression is primarily driven by cell division. Our miRNA design provides a useful tool for conditional gene inactivation in combination with the RNA-polymerase II based tet system. The identified characteristics of the conditional RNAi-mediated knockdown need to be considered for its application in cell culture or in vivo. PMID:20639530

Berger, Stefan M; Pesold, Brigitte; Reber, Simone; Schönig, Kai; Berger, Annette J; Weidenfeld, Ina; Miao, Jun; Berger, Martin R; Gruss, Oliver J; Bartsch, Dusan



Modified Universal Design Survey: Enhancing Operability of Launch Vehicle Ground Crew Worksites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.

Blume, Jennifer L.



A Survey of Hardware Accelerators Used in Computer-Aided Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware accelerators, or special-purpose engines, have been used in computer-aided design applications for nearly 20 years. In this time, roughly 20 machines have been built and tested specifically for such purposes as simulation, design rule checking, placement, and routing. Their uses are increasing, and the machines are becoming commercially available. This survey describes not only the machines but also their

Tom Blank



The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.  


The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. PMID:24902590

Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim



Quantitative fault tolerant control design for a hydraulic actuator with a leaking piston seal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic actuators are complex fluid power devices whose performance can be degraded in the presence of system faults. In this thesis a linear, fixed-gain, fault tolerant controller is designed that can maintain the positioning performance of an electrohydraulic actuator operating under load with a leaking piston seal and in the presence of parametric uncertainties. Developing a control system tolerant to this class of internal leakage fault is important since a leaking piston seal can be difficult to detect, unless the actuator is disassembled. The designed fault tolerant control law is of low-order, uses only the actuator position as feedback, and can: (i) accommodate nonlinearities in the hydraulic functions, (ii) maintain robustness against typical uncertainties in the hydraulic system parameters, and (iii) keep the positioning performance of the actuator within prescribed tolerances despite an internal leakage fault that can bypass up to 40% of the rated servovalve flow across the actuator piston. Experimental tests verify the functionality of the fault tolerant control under normal and faulty operating conditions. The fault tolerant controller is synthesized based on linear time-invariant equivalent (LTIE) models of the hydraulic actuator using the quantitative feedback theory (QFT) design technique. A numerical approach for identifying LTIE frequency response functions of hydraulic actuators from acceptable input-output responses is developed so that linearizing the hydraulic functions can be avoided. The proposed approach can properly identify the features of the hydraulic actuator frequency response that are important for control system design and requires no prior knowledge about the asymptotic behavior or structure of the LTIE transfer functions. A distributed hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation architecture is constructed that enables the performance of the proposed fault tolerant control law to be further substantiated, under realistic operating conditions. Using the HIL framework, the fault tolerant hydraulic actuator is operated as a flight control actuator against the real-time numerical simulation of a high-performance jet aircraft. A robust electrohydraulic loading system is also designed using QFT so that the in-flight aerodynamic load can be experimentally replicated. The results of the HIL experiments show that using the fault tolerant controller to compensate the internal leakage fault at the actuator level can benefit the flight performance of the airplane.

Karpenko, Mark


HRMS sky survey wideband feed system design for DSS 24 beam waveguide antenna  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The High-Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS) Sky Survey project will be implemented on the DSS 24 beam waveguide (BWG) antenna over the frequency range of 2.86 to 10 GHz. Two wideband, ring-loaded, corrugated feed horns were designed to cover this range. The horns match the frequency-dependent gain requirements for the DSS 24 BWG system. The performance of the feed horns and the calculated system performance of DSS 24 are presented.

Stanton, P. H.; Lee, P. R.; Reilly, H. F.



A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems were surveyed. The class of linear systems were emphasized, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

Willsky, A. S.



Spatial coverage and inference: Trade-offs between survey design and model assumptions in the North American Breeding Bird Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Route selection in the North American Breeding Bird Survey is based on a quasi-stratified random sampling design motivated (in part) by the desire to achieve unbiased estimates of trends and other summaries of avian population status. In practice, some departure from design intentions is realized because active routes become concentrated around urban areas, and this yields unbalanced sampling with respect to habitat and land use patterns, and temporal changes in land use. The need to consider potential biases induced by factors not controlled for (or uncontrollable) by design has motivated the development of a model-based framework for conducting inference about population status and trend assessments from BBS data. The present modeling framework is sufficiently generic to allow consideration of designs that deviate from random sampling. Thus, for example, redundant information that results from clustering routes around urban areas, or targeted sampling to assess specific hypotheses (e.g., about the effect of land-use patterns on population status), can be viewed not as deficiencies in the design, but as features that necessitate extension of existing models used for assessment. In this paper, we consider whether the sampling design is relevant to conducting inference about population status and trends, and we provide a framework for addressing potential biases induced by an imbalance in spatial coverage of sampled routes.

Royle, J.A.; Sauer, J.R.



The design and implementation of Activity Based Costing (ABC): a South African survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activity Based Costing (ABC) has been researched extensively in developed countries. Research on these issues in South Africa is limited. This article creates a better understanding of the design of ABC systems in South Africa, comparing ABC implementation in South Africa to that in several developed\\/developing countries. A quantitative methodology was adopted to evaluate the extent of ABC implementation. A

K Sartorius; C Eitzen; P Kamala



The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA): Design, Technical Overview and Performance  

E-print Network

The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is the 4-metre wide-field survey telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory, equipped with the world's largest near-infrared imaging camera (VISTA IR Camera, VIRCAM), with 1.65 degree diameter field of view, and 67 Mpixels giving 0.6 square degrees active pixel area, operating at wavelengths 0.8 - 2.3 microns. We provide a short history of the project, and an overview of the technical details of the full system including the optical design, mirrors, telescope structure, IR camera, active optics, enclosure and software. The system includes several innovative design features such as the f/1 primary mirror, the cold-baffle camera design and the sophisticated wavefront sensing system delivering closed-loop 5-axis alignment of the secondary mirror. We conclude with a summary of the delivered performance, and a short overview of the six ESO public surveys in progress on VISTA.

Sutherland, Will; Dalton, Gavin; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Beard, Steven; Bennett, Richard; Bezawada, Naidu; Born, Andrew; Caldwell, Martin; Clark, Paul; Craig, Simon; Henry, David; Jeffers, Paul; Little, Bryan; McPherson, Alistair; Murray, John; Stewart, Malcolm; Stobie, Brian; Terrett, David; Ward, Kim; Whalley, Martin; Woodhouse, Guy



Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

Plonsky, Luke



Robust controller design for course changing \\/ course keeping control of a ship using PSO enabled automated quantitative feedback theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a robust course controller for a cargo ship interacting with an uncertain environment using particle swarm optimization (PSO) enabled automated quantitative feedback theory. The plant model considers here is Nomotopsilas second order model, with structure parametric variation. In the present paper we have taken Nomotopsilas second order model as it is valid for high

B. Satpati; I. Bandyopadhyay; C. Koley; S. K. Ojha



Final report on the radiological surveys of designated DX firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

CHEMRAD was contracted by Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform USRADS{reg_sign} (UltraSonic Ranging And Data System) radiation scanning surveys at designated DX Sites at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary purpose of these scanning surveys was to identify the presence of Depleted Uranium (D-38) resulting from activities at the DX Firing Sites. This effort was conducted to update the most recent surveys of these areas. This current effort was initiated with site orientation on August 12, 1996. Surveys were completed in the field on September 4, 1996. This Executive Summary briefly presents the major findings of this work. The detail survey results are presented in the balance of this report and are organized by Technical Area and Site number in section 2. This organization is not in chronological order. USRADS and the related survey methods are described in section 3. Quality Control issues are addressed in section 4. Surveys were conducted with an array of radiation detectors either mounted on a backpack frame for man-carried use (Manual mode) or on a tricycle cart (RadCart mode). The array included radiation detectors for gamma and beta surface near surface contamination as well as dose rate at 1 meter above grade. The radiation detectors were interfaced directly to an USRADS 2100 Data Pack.




Palomar-QUEST: A case study in designing sky surveys in the VO era  

E-print Network

The advent of wide-area multicolour synoptic sky surveys is leading to data sets unprecedented in size, complexity and data throughput. VO technology offers a way to exploit these to the full but requires changes in design philosophy. The Palomar-QUEST survey is a major new survey being undertaken by Caltech, Yale, JPL and Indiana University to repeatedly observe 1/3 of the sky (~15000 sq. deg. between -27 < Dec <27 in seven passbands. Utilising the 48-inch Oschin Schmidt Telescope at the Palomar Observatory with the 112-CCD QUEST camera covering the full 4 x 4 sq. deg. field of view, it will generate \\~1TB of data per month. In this paper, we review the design of QUEST as a VO resource, a federated data set and an exemplar of VO standards.

Matthew J. Graham; Roy Williams; S. G. Djorgovski; Ashish Mahabal; Charles Baltay; Dave Rabinowitz; Anne Bauer; Jeff Snyder; Nick Morgan; Peter Andrews; Alexander S. Szalay; Robert J. Brunner; Jim Musser



Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.



Designing and Assessing Numeracy Training for Journalists: Toward Improving Quantitative Reasoning Among Media Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Journalists inform multitudes of people. However, they sometimes over-focus on the narrative, failing to integrate critical quantitative information effectively. The Numerically Driven Inferencing (NDI) paradigm’s research(e.g., Ranney et al., 2001; Munnich, Ranney, & Appel, 2004) suggested that a curricular module highlighting evidential\\/scientific thinking might enhance reporters’ quantitative and analytic skills. The resulting controlled experiment involved 55 first-year journalism graduate

Michael Andrew Ranney; Luke F. Rinne; Louise Yarnall; Edward Munnich; Luke Miratrix; Patricia Schank



Methodological Uses of TUS to Inform Design and Analysis of Tobacco Control Surveys

Methodological Uses of TUS to Inform Design and Analysis of Tobacco Control Surveys Cristine Delnevo, PhD, MPH UMDNJ-School of Public Health Why is methods research in Tobacco Surveillance important? z Measuring individual behavior over time is crucial



EPA Science Inventory

Using a probabilistic survey design, we assessed the ecological condition of the Florida (USA) portion of the Escambia River watershed using selected environmental and benthic macroinvertebrate data. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 28 sites during July-August 1996, and 3414 i...


Designing fecal pellet surveys for snowshoe hares K.E. Hodges *, L.S. Mills  

E-print Network

(Vernes, 1999), and elephants (Walsh et al., 2001). For snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus in revised form 15 July 2008 Accepted 15 July 2008 Keywords: Abundance index Fecal pellet plots Lepus americanus Monte Carlo simulations Negative binomial Snowshoe hare Survey design A B S T R A C T Index

Mills, L. Scott


A Survey of Recent Alumni: Design and Processing Considerations. SAIR Conference Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development, design, and results of a survey of Florida State University alumni who received their degrees during 1980-1981 are examined. The questionnaire was mailed to 4,588 students who received undergraduate or graduate degrees, and 1,533 responses were obtained. Attention was directed to whether students had achieved personal, academic,…

Gusler, Thomas E.



EPA Science Inventory

Probabilistic sampling has been used to assess the condition of estuarine ecosystems, and the use of this survey design approach was examined for a northwest Florida watershed. Twenty-eight lotic sites within the Escambia River, Florida, watershed were randomly selected and visit...


Design and field procedures in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A).  


An overview is presented of the design and field procedures of the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a US face-to-face household survey of the prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV mental disorders. The survey was based on a dual-frame design that included 904 adolescent residents of the households that participated in the US National Comorbidity Survey Replication (85.9% response rate) and 9244 adolescent students selected from a nationally representative sample of 320 schools (74.7% response rate). After expositing the logic of dual-frame designs, comparisons are presented of sample and population distributions on Census socio-demographic variables and, in the school sample, school characteristics. These document only minor differences between the samples and the population. The results of statistical analysis of the bias-efficiency trade-off in weight trimming are then presented. These show that modest trimming meaningfully reduces mean squared error. Analysis of comparative sample efficiency shows that the household sample is more efficient than the school sample, leading to the household sample getting a higher weight relative to its size in the consolidated sample relative to the school sample. Taken together, these results show that the NCS-A is an efficient sample of the target population with good representativeness on a range of socio-demographic and geographic variables. PMID:19507169

Kessler, Ronald C; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, E Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Heeringa, Steven; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M



Median and quantile tests under complex survey design using SAS and R.  


Techniques for conducting hypothesis testing on the median and other quantiles of two or more subgroups under complex survey design are limited. In this paper, we introduce programs in both SAS and R to perform such a test. A detailed illustration of the computations, macro variable definitions, input and output for the SAS and R programs are also included in the text. Urinary iodine data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used as examples for comparing medians between females and males as well as comparing the 75th percentiles among three salt consumption groups. PMID:25123100

Pan, Yi; Caudill, Samuel P; Li, Ruosha; Caldwell, Kathleen L



The Design of AN Interactive E-Learning Platform for Surveying Exercise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surveying exercise is a fundamental course for Civil Engineering students. This course is featured with field operation. This study explores the design of an e-learning platform for the surveying exercise course. The issues on organizing digital contents such as recorded video of the standard instrument operation, editing learning materials, and constructing the portfolio for the learning process, as well as generating learning motivation, are discussed. Noting the uploaded videos, publishing articles and commentaries, interactive examination sessions, assessing for each other, and mobile device accessing, are found to be useful elements for this platform.

Cheng, S.-C.; Shih, P. T. Y.; Chang, S.-L.; Chen, G.-Y.



Estimation of wildlife population ratios incorporating survey design and visibility bias  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Age and sex ratio statistics are often a key component of the evaluation and management of wildlife populations. These statistics are determined from counts of animals that are commonly plagued by errors associated with either survey design or visibility bias. We present age and sex ratio estimators that incorporate both these sources of error and include the typical situation that animals are sampled in groups. Aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus) in northcentral Idaho illustrate that differential visibility of age or sex classes can produce biased ratio estimates. Visibility models may be used to provide corrected estimates of ratios and their variability that incorporates errors due to sampling, visibility bias, and visibility estimation.

Samuel, M.D.; Steinhorst, R.K.; Garton, E.O.; Unsworth, J.W.



Screen Design Guidelines for Motivation in Interactive Multimedia Instruction: A Survey and Framework for Designers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies guidelines from the literature relating to screen design and design of interactive instructional materials. Describes two types of guidelines--those aimed at enhancing motivation and those aimed at preventing loss of motivation--for typography, graphics, color, and animation and audio. Proposes a framework for considering motivation in…

Lee, Sung Heum; Boling, Elizabeth




Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) The world's largest, on-going telephone health survey system, tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States yearly since 1984. Currently, data are collected monthly in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.


Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard-to-Involve Internet Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Internet to conduct quantitative research presents challenges not found in conventional research. Paper-based survey quality criteria cannot be completely adapted to electronic formats. Electronic surveys have distinctive technological, de- mographic, and response characteristics that affect their design, use, and implemen- tation. Survey design, participant privacy and confidentiality, sampling and subject solicitation, distribution methods and response rates, and survey

Dorine Andrews; Blair Nonnecke; Jennifer Preece



Distance software: design and analysis of distance sampling surveys for estimating population size  

PubMed Central

1.Distance sampling is a widely used technique for estimating the size or density of biological populations. Many distance sampling designs and most analyses use the software Distance. 2.We briefly review distance sampling and its assumptions, outline the history, structure and capabilities of Distance, and provide hints on its use. 3.Good survey design is a crucial prerequisite for obtaining reliable results. Distance has a survey design engine, with a built-in geographic information system, that allows properties of different proposed designs to be examined via simulation, and survey plans to be generated. 4.A first step in analysis of distance sampling data is modelling the probability of detection. Distance contains three increasingly sophisticated analysis engines for this: conventional distance sampling, which models detection probability as a function of distance from the transect and assumes all objects at zero distance are detected; multiple-covariate distance sampling, which allows covariates in addition to distance; and mark–recapture distance sampling, which relaxes the assumption of certain detection at zero distance. 5.All three engines allow estimation of density or abundance, stratified if required, with associated measures of precision calculated either analytically or via the bootstrap. 6.Advanced analysis topics covered include the use of multipliers to allow analysis of indirect surveys (such as dung or nest surveys), the density surface modelling analysis engine for spatial and habitat modelling, and information about accessing the analysis engines directly from other software. 7.Synthesis and applications. Distance sampling is a key method for producing abundance and density estimates in challenging field conditions. The theory underlying the methods continues to expand to cope with realistic estimation situations. In step with theoretical developments, state-of-the-art software that implements these methods is described that makes the methods accessible to practising ecologists. PMID:20383262

Thomas, Len; Buckland, Stephen T; Rexstad, Eric A; Laake, Jeff L; Strindberg, Samantha; Hedley, Sharon L; Bishop, Jon RB; Marques, Tiago A; Burnham, Kenneth P



Mixed Method Designs: A Review of Strategies for Blending Quantitative and Qualitative Methodologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The historical debate surrounding quantitative and qualitative research paradigms has been at times rather passionate. Arguments for and against methodologies often have centered on the philosophical differences regarding issues such as generalizability, epistemology, and authentic representation of the phenomena under research. More recently,…

Pole, Kathryn



AI/OR computational model for integrating qualitative and quantitative design methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A theoretical framework for integrating qualitative and numerical computational methods for optimally-directed design is described. The theory is presented as a computational model and features of implementations are summarized where appropriate. To demonstrate the versatility of the methodology we focus on four seemingly disparate aspects of the design process and their interaction: (1) conceptual design, (2) qualitative optimal design, (3) design innovation, and (4) numerical global optimization.

Agogino, Alice M.; Bradley, Stephen R.; Cagan, Jonathan; Jain, Pramod; Michelena, Nestor



Preliminary Design of The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)  

E-print Network

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024x1024 HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47'x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions. WISE will be placed into a Sun-synchronous polar orbit on a Delta 7320-10 launch vehicle. The WISE survey approach is simple and efficient. The three-axis-stabilized spacecraft rotates at a constant rate while the scan mirror freezes the telescope line of sight during each exposure. WISE is currently in its Preliminary Design Phase, with the mission Preliminary Design Review scheduled for July, 2005. WISE is scheduled to launch in mid 2009; the project web site can be found at

A. K. Mainzer; P. Eisenhardt; E. L. Wright; F. Liu; W. Irace; I. Heinrichsen; R. Cutri; V. Duval



Overview of important design issues for a National Human Exposure Assessment Survey.  


Exposure issues have important consequences for regulatory decisions. Reliable answers to exposure questions are critical for site cleanup, model validation, and cumulative risk issues, as well as giving perspective on our risk estimates. This paper discusses some of the important issues in designing the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) and, by implication, other exposure-monitoring-based studies as well. Sampling design issues are discussed in terms useful to exposure assessors. These issues include simple random sample designs versus more complex multistage designs, design efficiency, how to determine the sample size for the desired precision of the estimate, and the effects of stratification and oversampling on the needed sample size. This paper also discusses several important nonsampling issues such as population definition, response rates, and several potential sources of error in interpreting the monitoring results. PMID:8814772

Callahan, M A; Clickner, R P; Whitmore, R W; Kalton, G; Sexton, K



The National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A): II. Overview and Design  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To present an overview of the design and field procedures of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A) METHOD The NCS-A is a nationally representative face-to-face household survey of the prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV mental disorders among US adolescents (ages 13–17) that was carried out between February 2001 and January 2004 by the Survey Research Center of the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The sample was based on a dual-frame design that included 904 adolescent residents of the households that participated in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (85.9% response rate) and 9244 adolescent students selected from a representative sample of 320 schools in the same nationally representative sample of counties as the NCS-R (74.7% response rate). RESULTS Comparisons of sample and population distributions on Census socio-demographic variables and, in the school sample, school characteristics documented only minor differences that were corrected with post-stratification weighting. Comparisons of DSM-IV disorder prevalence estimates among household vs. school sample respondents in counties that differed in the use of replacement schools for originally selected schools that refused to participate showed that the use of replacement schools did not introduce bias into prevalence estimates. CONCLUSIONS The NCS-A is a rich nationally representative dataset that will substantially increase understanding of the mental health and well-being of adolescents in the United States. PMID:19242381

Kessler, Ronald C.; Avenevoli, Shelli; Costello, E. Jane; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Heeringa, Steven; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Pennell, Beth-Ellen; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.



Complementary methods of system usability evaluation: surveys and observations during software design and development cycles.  


Poor usability of clinical information systems delays their adoption by clinicians and limits potential improvements to the efficiency and safety of care. Recurring usability evaluations are therefore, integral to the system design process. We compared four methods employed during the development of outpatient clinical documentation software: clinician email response, online survey, observations and interviews. Results suggest that no single method identifies all or most problems. Rather, each approach is optimal for evaluations at a different stage of design and characterizes different usability aspect. Email responses elicited from clinicians and surveys report mostly technical, biomedical, terminology and control problems and are most effective when a working prototype has been completed. Observations of clinical work and interviews inform conceptual and workflow-related problems and are best performed early in the cycle. Appropriate use of these methods consistently during development may significantly improve system usability and contribute to higher adoption rates among clinicians and to improved quality of care. PMID:20546936

Horsky, Jan; McColgan, Kerry; Pang, Justine E; Melnikas, Andrea J; Linder, Jeffrey A; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Middleton, Blackford



Quantitative Evaluation in Embedded System Design: Trends in Modeling and Analysis Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of extra-functional properties of embedded systems, such as reliability, timeliness, and energy consumption, as well as dealing with uncertainty, e.g., in the timing of events, is getting more and more important. What are the models and approaches to analyze such properties in a reliable way? We survey some main developments and trends in the modeling, and the analysis

Joost-pieter Katoen



Quantitative evaluation in embedded system design: trends in modeling and analysis techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evaluation of extra-functional properties of embedded systems, such as reliability, timeliness, and energy consumption, as well as dealing with uncertainty, e.g., in the timing of events, is getting more and more important. What are the models and approaches to analyze such properties in a reliable way? We survey some main developments and trends in the modeling, and the analysis

Joost-Pieter Katoen



Applications of quantitative structure-activity relationships to drug design of piperazine derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) procedures to our own practical drug research are reviewed. A benzylpiperazine cerebral vasodilator (KB-2796) and a piperazine-acetate antiulcer agent (KB-5492) were successfully optimized by use of QSAR information. In these cases, appropriate strategies of the synthetic research were devised and QSAR analyses were performed repeatedly in each step during the research. In the last

Hiroshi Ohtaka



Proposal for new quantitative eco-design indicators: a first case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eco-design is a valuable approach in order to reduce the environmental impact associated with a product system, by introducing environmental considerations early on in its design. Different strategies are possible for the implementation of eco-design, depending on the intended goals as well as the characteristics of the products. The present work proposes a series of eco-design indicators and tests to

Carlos Cerdan; Cristina Gazulla; Marco Raugei; Eva Martinez; Pere Fullana-i-Palmer



Design of Stated Preference Surveys: Is There More to Learn from Behavioral Economics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the design of stated preference (SP) surveys in light of findings in behavioral economics such as context dependence\\u000a of preferences, learning, and differences between revealed and normative preferences. More specifically, we discuss four different\\u000a areas: (1) revealed and normative preferences, (2) learning and constructed preferences, (3) context dependence, and (4) hypothetical\\u000a bias. We argue that SP methods would

Fredrik Carlsson



Quantitative Comparison of Minimum Inductance and Minimum Power Algorithms for the Design of Shim Coils for Small Animal Imaging  

PubMed Central

High-performance shim coils are required for high-field magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. Complete sets of high-power and high-performance shim coils were designed using two different methods: the minimum inductance and the minimum power target field methods. A quantitative comparison of shim performance in terms of merit of inductance (ML) and merit of resistance (MR) was made for shim coils designed using the minimum inductance and the minimum power design algorithms. In each design case, the difference in ML and the difference in MR given by the two design methods was <15%. Comparison of wire patterns obtained using the two design algorithms show that minimum inductance designs tend to feature oscillations within the current density; while minimum power designs tend to feature less rapidly varying current densities and lower power dissipation. Overall, the differences in coil performance obtained by the two methods are relatively small. For the specific case of shim systems customized for small animal imaging, the reduced power dissipation obtained when using the minimum power method is judged to be more significant than the improvements in switching speed obtained from the minimum inductance method. PMID:20411157




Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.



The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys: study design, participation and evaluation of bias.  


Exposure to farming environments has been shown to protect substantially against asthma and atopic disease across Europe and in other parts of the world. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys (GABRIELA) were conducted to determine factors in farming environments which are fundamental to protecting against asthma and atopic disease. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys have a multi-phase stratified design. In a first-screening phase, a comprehensive population-based survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of exposure to farming environments and of asthma and atopic diseases (n?=?103,219). The second phase was designed to ascertain detailed exposure to farming environments and to collect biomaterial and environmental samples in a stratified random sample of phase 1 participants (n?=?15,255). A third phase was carried out in a further stratified sample only in Bavaria, southern Germany, aiming at in-depth respiratory disease and exposure assessment including extensive environmental sampling (n?= 895). Participation rates in phase 1 were around 60% but only about half of the participating study population consented to further study modules in phase 2. We found that consenting behaviour was related to familial allergies, high parental education, wheeze, doctor diagnosed asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, and to a lesser extent to exposure to farming environments. The association of exposure to farm environments with asthma or rhinoconjunctivitis was not biased by participation or consenting behaviour. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys are one of the largest studies to shed light on the protective 'farm effect' on asthma and atopic disease. Bias with regard to the main study question was able to be ruled out by representativeness and high participation rates in phases 2 and 3. The GABRIEL Advanced Surveys have created extensive collections of questionnaire data, biomaterial and environmental samples promising new insights into this area of research. PMID:21819425

Genuneit, Jon; Büchele, Gisela; Waser, Marco; Kovacs, Katalin; Debinska, Anna; Boznanski, Andrzej; Strunz-Lehner, Christine; Horak, Elisabeth; Cullinan, Paul; Heederik, Dick; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; von Mutius, Erika



Medical economics survey-methods study: design, data collection, and analytical plan.  


This paper describes the background, methodology, data collection, and analytical plan of a pilot investigation conducted under contract for the National Center for Health Statistics during 1975. The objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of a variety of strategies under consideration for national application to develop previously unavailable information on utilization of, and the costs and payments for, health care. Detailed data on health care utilization and expenditures were collected periodically from a panel of 691 Maryland households over a six-month interval. Issues to be tested through a random experimental design include whether periodicity (monthly vs bimonthly interviews) and type of contact (in-person vs telephone) are significant factors in the cost effectiveness of this type of survey. An extensive record check involving all providers and third-party payers identified in the household survey was carried out. Record information will be used to 1) provide a basis for measuring accuracy of household data, 2) fill gaps in household knowledge, and 3) determine whether a subset of the record sources can provide adequate information for correcting household data. The household survey resulted in an initial response rate of 77.5 per cent with a subsequent attrition rate over six months of 13.6 per cent. Signed permission to access record data was obtained for 84.9 per cent of the individuals completing the entire survey. The most intensive survey strategy, monthly, mostly in-person contact, resulted in the lowest participation. The analytical plan presents details of the approaches to be taken in making judgments on the relative accuracy and completeness of data obtained by the various survey strategies and the contribution made by availability of data from record sources. PMID:824509

Shapiro, S; Yaffe, R; Fuchsberg, R R; Corpeño, H C



Design and methods of the Adult Inuit Health Survey 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. Design The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. Results The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Conclusion Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions. PMID:23166895

Saudny, Helga; Leggee, Donna; Egeland, Grace



The Proteome of Human Liver Peroxisomes: Identification of Five New Peroxisomal Constituents by a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Survey  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or ?-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD+ becomes regenerated during fatty acid ?-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease. PMID:23460848

Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Waterham, Hans R.; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J.; Warscheid, Bettina



A survey of sustainability and passive design curriculum development in schools of architecture  

SciTech Connect

Although there seems to be much abuzz regarding the teaching of Sustainability to students of Architecture, the current state of this teaching is not clearly defined. In an effort to understand the present condition of Sustainable education the author has conducted a United States-Canada Survey on the influence of Sustainability and Passive Design on curricular content and direction in Schools of Architecture. The purpose of this paper is to present a snapshot of the current status of Passive and Sustainable teaching; address issues in approach related to regionality--on both a geographic and climatic basis; and review preferred teaching resource packages, texts, videos and software. The analysis which follows was based on a Survey which was sent to faculty of Schools of Architecture in Canada and the United States over a 121 month period from January to December 1995. This paper reflects the January 96 status of the analysis.

Boake, T.M. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). School of Architecture




SciTech Connect

A novel method of generating artificial scintillation noise is developed and used to evaluate occultation rates and false positive rates for surveys probing the Kuiper Belt with the method of serendipitous stellar occultations. A thorough examination of survey design shows that (1) diffraction-dominated occultations are critically (Nyquist) sampled at a rate of 2 Fsu{sup -1}, corresponding to 40 s{sup -1} for objects at 40 AU, (2) occultation detection rates are maximized when targets are observed at solar opposition, (3) Main Belt asteroids will produce occultations light curves identical to those of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) if target stars are observed at solar elongations of: 116{sup 0} {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 125 deg., or 131 deg. {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 141 deg., and (4) genuine KBO occultations are likely to be so rare that a detection threshold of {approx}>7-8{sigma} should be adopted to ensure that viable candidate events can be disentangled from false positives.

Bickerton, S. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Welch, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:



Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores



Improving radiation survey data using CADD\\/CAE (computer-aided design and drafting computer-aided engineering)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new application of computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) cleanup is improving the quality of radiation survey data taken in the plant. The use of CADD\\/CAE-generated survey maps has increased both the accuracy of survey data and the capability to perform analyses with these data. In addition, health

G. L. Palau; J. E. Tarpinian



A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis.

Meyer, P.D.



A quantitative methodology for mapping project costs to engineering decisions in naval ship design and procurement  

E-print Network

Alternative methods for cost estimation are important in the early conceptual stages of a design when there is not enough detail to allow for a traditional quantity takeoff estimate to be performed. Much of the budgeting ...

Netemeyer, Kristopher David



Design of a linguistic feature space for quantitative color harmony judgment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful judgement of color harmony primarily depends on the determined features related to human's pleasure. In this paper, a new color feature of color linguistic distributions (CLD) is proposed upon a designed 1D image scale of 'CHEERFUL-SILENT'. This linguistic feature space is mainly designed by consisting with the color-difference of practical color vision. The CLD is described by a

Yu-Chuan Shen; Yung-Sheng Chen; Wen-Hsing Hsu



Implementing the World Mental Health Survey Initiative in Portugal - rationale, design and fieldwork procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The World Mental Health Survey Initiative was designed to evaluate the prevalence, the correlates, the impact and the treatment patterns of mental disorders. This paper describes the rationale and the methodological details regarding the implementation of the survey in Portugal, a country that still lacks representative epidemiological data about psychiatric disorders. Methods The World Mental Health Survey is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the Portuguese population, aged 18 or older, based on official census information. The WMH-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, adapted to the Portuguese language by a group of bilingual experts, was used to evaluate the mental health status, disorder severity, impairment, use of services and treatment. Interviews were administered face-to-face at respondent’s dwellings, which were selected from a nationally representative multi-stage clustered area probability sample of households. The survey was administered using computer-assisted personal interview methods by trained lay interviewers. Data quality was strictly controlled in order to ensure the reliability and validity of the collected information. Results A total of 3,849 people completed the main survey, with 2,060 completing the long interview, with a response rate of 57.3%. Data cleaning was conducted in collaboration with the WMHSI Data Analysis Coordination Centre at the Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School. Collected information will provide lifetime and 12-month mental disorders diagnoses, according to the International Classification of Diseases and to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Conclusions The findings of this study could have a major influence in mental health care policy planning efforts over the next years, specially in a country that still has a significant level of unmet needs regarding mental health services organization, delivery of care and epidemiological research. PMID:23837605



Improving the design of acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification, with an application to Lake Michigan prey fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reliable estimates of fish biomass are vital to the management of aquatic ecosystems and their associated fisheries. Acoustic and midwater trawl surveys are an efficient sampling method for estimating fish biomass in large bodies of water. To improve the precision of biomass estimates from combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys, sampling effort should be optimally allocated within each stage of the survey design. Based on information collected during fish surveys, we developed an approach to improve the design of combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification. Geographic strata for acoustic surveying and depth strata for midwater trawling were defined using neighbor-restricted cluster analysis, and the optimal allocation of sampling effort for each was then determined. As an example, we applied this survey stratification approach to data from lakewide acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of Lake Michigan prey fishes. Precision of biomass estimates from surveys with and without geographic stratification was compared through resampling. Use of geographic stratification with optimal sampling allocation reduced the variance of Lake Michigan acoustic biomass estimates by 77%. Stratification and optimal allocation at each stage of an acoustic and midwater trawl survey should serve to reduce the variance of the resulting biomass estimates.

Adams, J. V.; Argyle, R. L.; Fleischer, G. W.; Curtis, G. L.; Stickel, R. G.



Design Effects and Generalized Variance Functions for the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Volume II. Technical Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical report provides the results of a study on the calculation and use of generalized variance functions (GVFs) and design effects for the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). The SASS is a periodic integrated system of sample surveys conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) that produces sampling variances…

Salvucci, Sameena; And Others



EPA Science Inventory

A stratified random sample with unequal probability selection within strata was used to design a multipurpose survey of headwater watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. Objectives for data from the survey include unbiased estimates of regional headwater watershed condition...


A survey of airway responsiveness in 36 inbred mouse strains facilitates gene mapping studies and identification of quantitative trait loci  

PubMed Central

Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) is a critical phenotype of human asthma and animal models of asthma. Other studies have measured AHR in nine mouse strains, but only six strains have been used to identify genetic loci underlying AHR. Our goals were to increase the genetic diversity of available strains by surveying 27 additional strains, to apply haplotype association mapping to the 36-strain survey, and to identify new genetic determinants for AHR. We derived AHR from the increase in airway resistance in females subjected to increasing levels of methacholine concentrations. We used haplotype association mapping to identify associations between AHR and haplotypes on chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, and 14. And we used bioinformatics techniques to narrow the identified region on chromosome 13, reducing the region to 29 candidate genes, with 11 of considerable interest. Our combined use of haplotype association mapping with bioinformatics tools is the first study of its kind for AHR on these 36 strains of mice. Our analyses have narrowed the possible QTL genes and will facilitate the discovery of novel genes that regulate AHR in mice. PMID:20143096

Leme, Adriana S.; Williams, Laura K.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Verdugo, Ricardo; Paigen, Beverly; Shapiro, Steven D.



A comparative study of optimization methods and conventional methods for sampling design in fishery-independent surveys  

E-print Network

A comparative study of optimization methods and conventional methods for sampling design in fishery of optimization methods and conventional methods for sampling design in fishery- independent surveys. ­ ICES spatial simulated annealing method, for developing an optimal sampling design for fishery

Chen, Yong


Injury survey of a non-traditional 'soft-edged' trampoline designed to lower equipment hazards.  


In Australia trampolines contribute one quarter of all childhood play equipment injuries. The objective of this study was to gather and evaluate injury data from a non-traditional, 'soft-edged', consumer trampoline, where the design aimed to minimise injuries from the equipment and from falling off. The manufacturer of the non-traditional trampoline provided the University of Technology Sydney with their Australian customer database. The study involved surveys in Queensland and New South Wales, between May 2007 and March 2010. Initially injury data was gathered by a phone interview pilot study, then in the full study, through an email survey. The 3817 respondents were the carers of child users of the 'soft-edge' trampolines. Responses were compared with Australian and US emergency department data. In both countries the proportion of injuries caused by the equipment and falling off was compared with the proportion caused by the jumpers to themselves or each other. The comparisons showed a significantly lower proportion resulted from falling-off or hitting the equipment for this design when compared to traditional trampolines, both in Australia and the US. This research concludes that equipment-induced and falling-off injuries, the more severe injuries on traditional trampolines, can be significantly reduced with appropriate trampoline design. PMID:22471672

Eager, David B; Scarrott, Carl; Nixon, Jim; Alexander, Keith



Integrated siRNA design based on surveying of features associated with high RNAi effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Short interfering RNAs have allowed the development of clean and easily regulated methods for disruption of gene expression. However, while these methods continue to grow in popularity, designing effective siRNA experiments can be challenging. The various existing siRNA design guidelines suffer from two problems: they differ considerably from each other, and they produce high levels of false-positive predictions when tested on data of independent origins. Results Using a distinctly large set of siRNA efficacy data assembled from a vast diversity of origins (the siRecords data, containing records of 3,277 siRNA experiments targeting 1,518 genes, derived from 1,417 independent studies), we conducted extensive analyses of all known features that have been implicated in increasing RNAi effectiveness. A number of features having positive impacts on siRNA efficacy were identified. By performing quantitative analyses on cooperative effects among these features, then applying a disjunctive rule merging (DRM) algorithm, we developed a bundle of siRNA design rule sets with the false positive problem well curbed. A comparison with 15 online siRNA design tools indicated that some of the rule sets we developed surpassed all of these design tools commonly used in siRNA design practice in positive predictive values (PPVs). Conclusion The availability of the large and diverse siRNA dataset from siRecords and the approach we describe in this report have allowed the development of highly effective and generally applicable siRNA design rule sets. Together with ever improving RNAi lab techniques, these design rule sets are expected to make siRNAs a more useful tool for molecular genetics, functional genomics, and drug discovery studies. PMID:17129386

Gong, Wuming; Ren, Yongliang; Xu, Qiqi; Wang, Yejun; Lin, Dong; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Tongbin



Recommended survey designs for occupancy modelling using motion-activated cameras: insights from empirical wildlife data  

PubMed Central

Motion-activated cameras are a versatile tool that wildlife biologists can use for sampling wild animal populations to estimate species occurrence. Occupancy modelling provides a flexible framework for the analysis of these data; explicitly recognizing that given a species occupies an area the probability of detecting it is often less than one. Despite the number of studies using camera data in an occupancy framework, there is only limited guidance from the scientific literature about survey design trade-offs when using motion-activated cameras. A fuller understanding of these trade-offs will allow researchers to maximise available resources and determine whether the objectives of a monitoring program or research study are achievable. We use an empirical dataset collected from 40 cameras deployed across 160 km2 of the Western Slope of Colorado, USA to explore how survey effort (number of cameras deployed and the length of sampling period) affects the accuracy and precision (i.e., error) of the occupancy estimate for ten mammal and three virtual species. We do this using a simulation approach where species occupancy and detection parameters were informed by empirical data from motion-activated cameras. A total of 54 survey designs were considered by varying combinations of sites (10–120 cameras) and occasions (20–120 survey days). Our findings demonstrate that increasing total sampling effort generally decreases error associated with the occupancy estimate, but changing the number of sites or sampling duration can have very different results, depending on whether a species is spatially common or rare (occupancy = ?) and easy or hard to detect when available (detection probability = p). For rare species with a low probability of detection (i.e., raccoon and spotted skunk) the required survey effort includes maximizing the number of sites and the number of survey days, often to a level that may be logistically unrealistic for many studies. For common species with low detection (i.e., bobcat and coyote) the most efficient sampling approach was to increase the number of occasions (survey days). However, for common species that are moderately detectable (i.e., cottontail rabbit and mule deer), occupancy could reliably be estimated with comparatively low numbers of cameras over a short sampling period. We provide general guidelines for reliably estimating occupancy across a range of terrestrial species (rare to common: ? = 0.175–0.970, and low to moderate detectability: p = 0.003–0.200) using motion-activated cameras. Wildlife researchers/managers with limited knowledge of the relative abundance and likelihood of detection of a particular species can apply these guidelines regardless of location. We emphasize the importance of prior biological knowledge, defined objectives and detailed planning (e.g., simulating different study-design scenarios) for designing effective monitoring programs and research studies. PMID:25210658

Lewis, Jesse S.; Gerber, Brian D.



Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.



Overview of Test Design: A Survey of Black Box Software Testing Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes resources for a broad survey of software test technique noticing different objectives, strengths, and blind spots. Materials present a few techniques more closely than the rest. Students will: gain familiarity with a variety of test techniques; learn structures for comparing objectives and strengths of different test techniques; use the Heuristic Test Strategy Model for test planning and design; and use concept mapping tools for test planning. Resources include lecture videos, slides, activities, suggested readings, and study guide materials.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.



Questionnaire survey of customer satisfaction for product categories towards certification of ergonomic quality in design.  


Customer satisfaction was surveyed for 6 product categories (consumer electronics, daily commodities, home equipment, information systems, cars, and health appliances) by questionnaires based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Analyzing weight of evaluation factors, the 6 product categories were reorganized into 4 categories, those were related to 4 aspects in daily living that formed by two axes: home living - mobility life and healthy life - active communication. It was found that consumers were attracted by the actual user test by public institutes for all product categories. The certification based on the design process standard established by authorities, such as EQUID was the second best attractor for consumers. PMID:22316844

Mochimaru, Masaaki; Takahashi, Miwako; Hatakenaka, Nobuko; Horiuchi, Hitoshi



Health effects from drinking: type, severity, and associated drinking patterns based on qualitative and quantitative questions in a methodological survey.  


The specific content of reported health harms are explored in relation to heavy episodic drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms. A national telephone computer-assisted interview of U.S. adults (N = 635), was conducted in 1994. A modified National Alcohol Survey instrument assessed self-reported health harms and related economic costs and work missed. Among the 579 lifetime drinkers, 26% reported health harms from drinking. In multivariate logistic regression harms relating to intoxication, injuries or internal organs were associated with monthly heavy drinking (5+ drinks) and past dependence symptoms. Study limitations are noted. Dependence symptoms should be assessed in screening for those most at risk for alcohol-related health harms. PMID:17613945

Lown, E Anne; Greenfield, Thomas K; Rogers, John D



A Holistic Method to Design an Optimized Energy Scenario and Quantitatively Evaluate Promising Technologies for Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we focus on today's worldwide energy system, a fundamentally illogical and unsustainable system. Today, 85% of the world wide energy system depends on carbon-based fossil fuels. We develop a holistic method to analyze mankind's use of energy in a broad way and to design optimized, normative energy scenarios that conform to important scientific principles. The procedure is

Christian Deilmann; Klaus-Jürgen Bathe



HIV testing during the Canadian immigration medical examination: a national survey of designated medical practitioners.  


HIV testing is mandatory for individuals wishing to immigrate to Canada. Since the Designated Medical Practitioners (DMPs) who perform these tests may have varying experience in HIV and time constraints in their clinical practices, there may be variability in the quality of pre- and posttest counseling provided. We surveyed DMPs regarding HIV testing, counseling, and immigration inadmissibility. A 16-item survey was mailed to all DMPs across Canada (N = 203). The survey inquired about DMP characteristics, knowledge of HIV, attitudes and practices regarding inadmissibility and counseling, and interest in continuing medical education. There were a total of 83 respondents (41%). Participants frequently rated their knowledge of HIV diagnostics, cultural competency, and HIV/AIDS service organizations as "fair" (40%, 43%, and 44%, respectively). About 25%, 46%, and 11% of the respondents agreed/strongly agreed with the statements "HIV infected individuals pose a danger to public health and safety," "HIV-positive immigrants cause excessive demand on the healthcare system," and "HIV seropositivity is a reasonable ground for denial into Canada," respectively. Language was cited as a barrier to counseling, which focused on transmission risks (46% discussed this as "always" or "often") more than coping and social support (37%). There was a high level of interest (47%) in continuing medical education in this area. There are areas for improvement regarding DMPs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices about HIV infection, counseling, and immigration criteria. Continuing medical education and support for DMPs to facilitate practice changes could benefit newcomers who test positive through the immigration process. PMID:25029636

Tran, Jennifer M; Li, Alan; Owino, Maureen; English, Ken; Mascarenhas, Lyndon; Tan, Darrell H S



The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Design, Observations, Data Reduction, and Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z ~ 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude MB = -20 at z ~ 1 via ~90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg2 divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R AB = 24.1. Objects with z <~ 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted ~2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z ~ 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 Å doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm-1 grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R ~ 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate observations. Sky subtraction is essentially photon-limited even under bright OH sky lines; we describe the strategies that permitted this, based on high image stability, accurate wavelength solutions, and powerful B-spline modeling methods. We also investigate the impact of targets that appear to be single objects in ground-based targeting imaging but prove to be composite in Hubble Space Telescope data; they constitute several percent of targets at z ~ 1, approaching ~5%-10% at z > 1.5. Summary data are given that demonstrate the superiority of DEEP2 over other deep high-precision redshift surveys at z ~ 1 in terms of redshift accuracy, sample number density, and amount of spectral information. We also provide an overview of the scientific highlights of the DEEP2 survey thus far. Based on observations taken at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology, and on observations made with the NASA/ESO Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archives at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and from the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre.

Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Coil, Alison L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Harker, Justin J.; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.; Lai, Kamson; Madgwick, Darren S.; Noeske, K. G.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Connolly, A. J.; Kaiser, N.; Kirby, Evan N.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lin, Lihwai; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Luppino, G. A.; Marinoni, C.; Matthews, Daniel J.; Metevier, Anne; Schiavon, Ricardo P.




SciTech Connect

We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z {approx} 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude M{sub B} = -20 at z {approx} 1 via {approx}90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg{sup 2} divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R{sub AB} = 24.1. Objects with z {approx}< 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted {approx}2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z {approx} 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 A doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm{sup -1} grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R {approx} 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate observations. Sky subtraction is essentially photon-limited even under bright OH sky lines; we describe the strategies that permitted this, based on high image stability, accurate wavelength solutions, and powerful B-spline modeling methods. We also investigate the impact of targets that appear to be single objects in ground-based targeting imaging but prove to be composite in Hubble Space Telescope data; they constitute several percent of targets at z {approx} 1, approaching {approx}5%-10% at z > 1.5. Summary data are given that demonstrate the superiority of DEEP2 over other deep high-precision redshift surveys at z {approx} 1 in terms of redshift accuracy, sample number density, and amount of spectral information. We also provide an overview of the scientific highlights of the DEEP2 survey thus far.

Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Harker, Justin J.; Lai, Kamson [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Finkbeiner, Douglas P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Yan Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Kassin, Susan A. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Konidaris, N. P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others



Statistical methods for efficient design of community surveys of response to noise: Random coefficients regression models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research studies of residents' responses to noise consist of interviews with samples of individuals who are drawn from a number of different compact study areas. The statistical techniques developed provide a basis for those sample design decisions. These techniques are suitable for a wide range of sample survey applications. A sample may consist of a random sample of residents selected from a sample of compact study areas, or in a more complex design, of a sample of residents selected from a sample of larger areas (e.g., cities). The techniques may be applied to estimates of the effects on annoyance of noise level, numbers of noise events, the time-of-day of the events, ambient noise levels, or other factors. Methods are provided for determining, in advance, how accurately these effects can be estimated for different sample sizes and study designs. Using a simple cost function, they also provide for optimum allocation of the sample across the stages of the design for estimating these effects. These techniques are developed via a regression model in which the regression coefficients are assumed to be random, with components of variance associated with the various stages of a multi-stage sample design.

Tomberlin, T. J.



Design of the stereoscopic eye-tracking system for quantitative remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal data derived from eye movements, compiled while the human eye observes geospatial imagery, retain meaningful and usable information. When human perceives the stereo effect, the virtual three dimensional (3D) model resulting from eye-brain interaction is generated in the mind. If the eye movements are recorded while the virtual model is observed, it is possible to reconstruct a 3D geometrical model almost identical to the one generated in the human brain. Information obtained from eye-movements can be utilized in many ways for remote sensing applications such as geospatial image analysis and interpretation. There are various eyetracking systems available on the market; however, none of them is designed to work with stereoscopic imagery. We explore different approaches and designs of the most suitable and non-intrusive scheme for stereoscopic image viewing in the eye-tracking systems to observe and analyze 3D visual models. The design of the proposed system is based on the optical separation method, which provides visually comfortable environment for perception of stereoscopic imagery. A proof of concept solution is based on multiple mirror-lens assembly that provides a significant reduction of geometrical constrains in eye-frame capturing. Two projected solutions: for wide-angle of viewing and helmet-integrated eye-tracker are also discussed here.

Sergeyev, Aleksandr; Levin, Eugene; Roggemann, Michael C.; Gienko, Gennady



Antileishmanial chalcones: statistical design, synthesis, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.  


A large number of substituted chalcones have been synthesized and tested for antileishmanial and lymphocyte-suppressing activities. A subset of the chalcones was designed by using statistical methods. 3D-QSAR analyses using 67 (antileishmanial activity) and 63 (lymphocyte-suppressing activity) of the compounds for the training sets and 9 compounds as an external validation set were performed by using the GRID/GOLPE methodology. The Smart Region Definition procedure with subsequent region selection as implemented in GOLPE reduced the number of variables to approximately 1300 yielding 3D-QSAR models of high quality (lymphocyte-suppressing model, R2 = 0. 90, Q2 = 0.80; antileishmanial model, R2 = 0.73, Q2 = 0.63). The coefficient plots indicate that steric interactions between the chalcones and the target are of major importance for the potencies of the compounds. A comparison of the coefficient plots for the antileishmanial effect and the lymphocyte-suppressing activity discloses significant differences which should make it possible to design chalcones having a high antileishmanial activity without suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes. PMID:9822551

Nielsen, S F; Christensen, S B; Cruciani, G; Kharazmi, A; Liljefors, T



Flow bioreactor design for quantitative measurements over endothelial cells using micro-particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells (ECs) is a highly complex process through which cells respond to changes in hemodynamic loading by generating biochemical signals involving gene and protein expression. To study the effects of mechanical loading on ECs in a controlled fashion, different in vitro devices have been designed to simulate or replicate various aspects of these physiological phenomena. This paper describes the design, use, and validation of a flow chamber which allows for spatially and temporally resolved micro-particle image velocimetry measurements of endothelial surface topography and stresses over living ECs immersed in pulsatile flow. This flow chamber also allows the study of co-cultures (i.e., ECs and smooth muscle cells) and the effect of different substrates (i.e., coverslip and/or polyethylene terepthalate (PET) membrane) on cellular response. In this report, the results of steady and pulsatile flow on fixed endothelial cells seeded on PET membrane and coverslip, respectively, are presented. Surface topography of ECs is computed from multiple two-dimensional flow measurements. The distributions of shear stress and wall pressure on each individual cell are also determined and the importance of both types of stress in cell remodeling is highlighted.

Leong, Chia Min; Voorhees, Abram; Nackman, Gary B.; Wei, Timothy



Design Tool Survey. IEA Solar Heating and Cooling - Task 8. Passive and Hybrid Solar Low-Energy Buildings, Subtask C: Design Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the results of a survey of design tools conducted as part of Subtask C (Design Methods) of Task VIII of the IAE Solar Heating and Cooling Program. At the start of the task, the participants agreed that it would be useful to identify...

P. R. Rittelmann, S. F. Ahmed



Design of eye models used in quantitative analysis of interaction between chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Special kinds of eye models are constructed by means of optical system design to quantitatively investigate impacts of longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) and LCA+TCA on retina image quality and on depth of focus (DOF), as well as interaction between chromatic and higher-order aberrations. Results show that LCA plays a main role in enhancement of DOF and higher-order aberrations further increase DOF. For most of the eyes the impact of higher-order aberrations on vision is much smaller than that of LCA+TCA and the presence of LCA+TCA further reduces the impact of higher-order aberrations. The impact of LCA approximates to that of LCA+TCA, and the impact of TCA approximates to that of normal level of higher-order aberrations and is negligible.

Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang



Survey of Editors and Reviewers of High-Impact Psychology Journals: Statistical and Research Design Problems in Submitted Manuscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors surveyed 21 editors and reviewers from major psychology journals to identify and describe the statistical and design errors they encounter most often and to get their advice regarding prevention of these problems. Content analysis of the text responses revealed themes in 3 major areas: (a) problems with research design and reporting (e.g., lack of an a priori power

Alex Harris; Rachelle Reeder; Jenny Hyun



Household market for electric vehicles. Testing the hybrid household hypothesis: A reflexively designed survey of new-car-buying, multi-vehicle California households. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey was sponsored by the Air Resources Board in order to assist the Board in its evaluation of the zero-emission vehicle (ZEV) regulation. The survey was designed to test the consumer marketability of electric vehicles (EVs). A total of 454 households in six California metropolitan areas were surveyed. The survey consisted of four main parts: (1) Assessment of household

T. Turrentine; K. Kurani




SciTech Connect

We present the design and methods of the COS-Halos survey, a systematic investigation of the gaseous halos of 44 z = 0.15-0.35 galaxies using background QSOs observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This survey has yielded 39 spectra of z{sub em} ? 0.5 QSOs with S/N ?10-15 per resolution element. The QSO sightlines pass within 150 physical kpc of the galaxies, which span early and late types over stellar mass log M{sub *}/M{sub ?} = 9.5-11.5. We find that the circumgalactic medium exhibits strong H I, averaging ? 1 Å in Ly? equivalent width out to 150 kpc, with 100% covering fraction for star-forming galaxies and 75% covering for passive galaxies. We find good agreement in column densities between this survey and previous studies over similar range of impact parameter. There is weak evidence for a difference between early- and late-type galaxies in the strength and distribution of H I. Kinematics indicate that the detected material is bound to the host galaxy, such that ?> 90% of the detected column density is confined within ±200 km s{sup –1} of the galaxies. This material generally exists well below the halo virial temperatures at T ?< 10{sup 5} K. We evaluate a number of possible origin scenarios for the detected material, and in the end favor a simple model in which the bulk of the detected H I arises in a bound, cool, low-density photoionized diffuse medium that is generic to all L* galaxies and may harbor a total gaseous mass comparable to galactic stellar masses.

Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher; Sembach, Kenneth R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Meiring, Joseph D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Davé, Romeel [University of the Western Cape, South African Astronomical Observatories, and African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ford, Amanda Brady [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); O'Meara, John M. [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, VT (United States); Peeples, Molly S. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Weinberg, David H. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)



The COS-Halos Survey: Rationale, Design, and a Census of Circumgalactic Neutral Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and methods of the COS-Halos survey, a systematic investigation of the gaseous halos of 44 z = 0.15-0.35 galaxies using background QSOs observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This survey has yielded 39 spectra of z em ~= 0.5 QSOs with S/N ~10-15 per resolution element. The QSO sightlines pass within 150 physical kpc of the galaxies, which span early and late types over stellar mass log M */M ? = 9.5-11.5. We find that the circumgalactic medium exhibits strong H I, averaging ~= 1 Å in Ly? equivalent width out to 150 kpc, with 100% covering fraction for star-forming galaxies and 75% covering for passive galaxies. We find good agreement in column densities between this survey and previous studies over similar range of impact parameter. There is weak evidence for a difference between early- and late-type galaxies in the strength and distribution of H I. Kinematics indicate that the detected material is bound to the host galaxy, such that >~ 90% of the detected column density is confined within ±200 km s-1 of the galaxies. This material generally exists well below the halo virial temperatures at T <~ 105 K. We evaluate a number of possible origin scenarios for the detected material, and in the end favor a simple model in which the bulk of the detected H I arises in a bound, cool, low-density photoionized diffuse medium that is generic to all L* galaxies and may harbor a total gaseous mass comparable to galactic stellar masses. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO11598.

Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher; Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Meiring, Joseph D.; Ford, Amanda Brady; O'Meara, John M.; Peeples, Molly S.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Weinberg, David H.



Design of optical frequency comb for sky survey astronomical spectrograph calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sky survey telescope is an important approach to ground-based observation of external galaxies, and further research on large-scale structure of the universe, galaxy formation and evolution. Sky survey spectrograph (SSS) with low resolution is included in such kind of telescope system. The spectral measurement accuracy of SSS will determine the accuracy and scientific value of mass spectral data. Currently iodine absorption cell or Thorium-Argon lamp is adopted as the calibration source for SSS. However, the spectral lines are sparse, with non-uniform spectral interval and intensity, and even instable over long time. The novel astro-comb cannot be applied to SSS directly because the spectral intervals are still too dense to be used in SSS with relatively lower resolution. In this paper, spectral mode filtering method with acceptable energy reduction and accurate spectral line frequency is studied to improve current astro-comb to properly distributed spectral lines and solve the above critical problem. Aiming at calibration for the measuring of the spectral lines in 3700-5900 Å region, we design an improved astro-comb system based on Erbium-doped fiber laser and Fabry-Perot filter series. Feasible systematical parameters are given. It will help develop a novel calibration approach with systematic error reduction to less than 1/10000 of that of the current calibration methods.

Hu, Yao; Wang, Xiang



Sampling design for the Birth in Brazil: National Survey into Labor and Birth.  


This paper describes the sample design for the National Survey into Labor and Birth in Brazil. The hospitals with 500 or more live births in 2007 were stratified into: the five Brazilian regions; state capital or not; and type of governance. They were then selected with probability proportional to the number of live births in 2007. An inverse sampling method was used to select as many days (minimum of 7) as necessary to reach 90 interviews in the hospital. Postnatal women were sampled with equal probability from the set of eligible women, who had entered the hospital in the sampled days. Initial sample weights were computed as the reciprocals of the sample inclusion probabilities and were calibrated to ensure that total estimates of the number of live births from the survey matched the known figures obtained from the Brazilian System of Information on Live Births. For the two telephone follow-up waves (6 and 12 months later), the postnatal woman's response probability was modelled using baseline covariate information in order to adjust the sample weights for nonresponse in each follow-up wave. PMID:25167189

de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; do Nascimento Silva, Pedro Luis; Pereira, Ana Paula Esteves; Schilithz, Arthur Orlando Correa; de Souza Junior, Paulo Roberto Borges; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann



Challenges and strategies in the administration of a population based mortality follow-back survey design.  


Population-based mortality follow-back survey designs have been used to collect information concerning end-of-life care from bereaved family members in several countries. In Canada, this design was recently employed to gather population-based information about the end-of-life care experience among adults in Nova Scotia as perceived by the decedent's family. In this article we describe challenges that emerged during the implementation of the study design and discuss resolutions strategies to help overcome them. Challenges encountered included the inability to directly contact potential participants, difficulties ascertaining eligibility, mailing strategy complications and the overall effect of these issues on response rate and subsequent sample size. Although not all challenges were amenable to resolution, strategies implemented proved beneficial to the overall process and resulted in surpassing the targeted sample size. The inability to directly contact potential participants is an increasing reality and limitations associated with this process best acknowledged during study development. Future studies should also consider addressing participant concerns pertaining to their eligibility and use of a more cost effective mailing strategy. PMID:23919380

Lawson, Beverley; Van Aarsen, Kristine; Burge, Frederick



Hot rocket plume experiment - Survey and conceptual design. [of rhenium-iridium bipropellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to a space-borne engine plume experiment study to fly an experiment which will both verify and quantify the reduced contamination from advanced rhenium-iridium earth-storable bipropellant rockets (hot rockets) and provide a correlation between high-fidelity, in-space measurements and theoretical plume and surface contamination models. The experiment conceptual design is based on survey results from plume and contamination technologists throughout the U.S. With respect to shuttle use, cursory investigations validate Hitchhiker availability and adaptability, adequate remote manipulator system (RMS) articulation and dynamic capability, acceptable RMS attachment capability, adequate power and telemetry capability, and adequate flight altitude and attitude/orbital capability.

Millard, Jerry M.; Luan, Taylor W.; Dowdy, Mack W.



Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Survey Design for Monitoring Carbon Capture and Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of sub-seabed Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites will require systems that are flexible, independent, and have long-endurance. In this presentation we will discuss the utility of autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with different sensor packages in monitoring storage sites. We will present data collected using Autosub AUV, as part of the ECO2 project, from the Sleipner area of the North Sea. The Autosub AUV was equipped with sidescan sonar, an EM2000 multibeam systems, a Chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a variety of chemical sensors. Our presentation will focus on survey design, and the simultaneous use of multiple sensor packages in environmental monitoring on the continental shelf.

Bull, J. M.; Cevatoglu, M.; Connelly, D.; Wright, I. C.; McPhail, S.; Shitashima, K.



Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform  

PubMed Central

Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312



The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households  

E-print Network

survey of 13,692 new car buyers PAGE THE HOUSEHOLD MARKET FOR ELECTRICElectric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis - A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis— A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-car-

Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth



Nonexperimental Quantitative Research and Its Role in Guiding Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Different research designs answer different questions. Educators cannot use nonexperimental quantitative research designs, such as descriptive surveys and correlational research, to determine definitively that an intervention causes improved student outcomes and is an evidence-based practice. However, such research can (a) inform educators about a…

Cook, Bryan G.; Cook, Lysandra



Optical Design for the 8.4m Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed 8.4m Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) facility will digitally survey the entire visible sky. It will explore the nature of dark matter and dark energy, open the faint optical transient time window and catalog earth-crossing asteroids >300m in diameter. This concept was strongly endorsed by the three National Academy of Sciences reports: "Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos", "Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium" and "New Frontiers in the Solar System". In response to these endorsements we present the design of a modified 8.4m Paul-Baker or Laux(1) telescope that expands the etendue ("A - Omega") product to >300m2}deg{2, a factor of >50 beyond any existing facility. This evolved telescope design has increased etendue to meet the demanding science requirements for the LSST and simplifications in the optical prescription to enhance manufacturability. The optical design delivers a 3.5-degree diameter field of view (9.62 deg2) with superb <0.2 arcsec FWHM images over 5 spectral bands covering 400-1000 nm. The flat focal surface has a plate scale of 51 microns/arcsec (f/1.25), chosen to match the 10 microns pixel size of a large 0.65m diameter mosaic digital detector. The f/1.14 primary can be made using polishing techniques and metrology methods pioneered at the University of Arizona Mirror Lab for the 8.4m f/1.1 Large Binocular Telescope primaries. The 3.4 m convex secondary is twice the size of the largest convex secondary yet manufactured; the 1.7 m MMT f/5 secondary. We show a fabrication and testing plan for this optic. The corrective camera optics are significantly simplified from earlier designs in that all refractive elements have spherical surfaces. In addition the 3 mirror telescope system delivers, without the camera corrector optics, a spherical wavefront on axis that greatly helps in initial assembly and alignment. 1. R. N. Wilson, ``Reflecting Optical Telescopes I", Springer A&A Library, 2000, Chapter 3.6.5.

Seppala, L. G.; Liang, M.; Claver, C. F.; Burge, J.; Cook, K.; Daggert, L.; Ellis, S.; Kahn, S. M.; Krabbendam, V.; Sweeney, D.; Stubbs, C.; Wittman, D.; Tyson, J. A.



Measuring coverage in MNCH: design, implementation, and interpretation challenges associated with tracking vaccination coverage using household surveys.  


Vaccination coverage is an important public health indicator that is measured using administrative reports and/or surveys. The measurement of vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries using surveys is susceptible to numerous challenges. These challenges include selection bias and information bias, which cannot be solved by increasing the sample size, and the precision of the coverage estimate, which is determined by the survey sample size and sampling method. Selection bias can result from an inaccurate sampling frame or inappropriate field procedures and, since populations likely to be missed in a vaccination coverage survey are also likely to be missed by vaccination teams, most often inflates coverage estimates. Importantly, the large multi-purpose household surveys that are often used to measure vaccination coverage have invested substantial effort to reduce selection bias. Information bias occurs when a child's vaccination status is misclassified due to mistakes on his or her vaccination record, in data transcription, in the way survey questions are presented, or in the guardian's recall of vaccination for children without a written record. There has been substantial reliance on the guardian's recall in recent surveys, and, worryingly, information bias may become more likely in the future as immunization schedules become more complex and variable. Finally, some surveys assess immunity directly using serological assays. Sero-surveys are important for assessing public health risk, but currently are unable to validate coverage estimates directly. To improve vaccination coverage estimates based on surveys, we recommend that recording tools and practices should be improved and that surveys should incorporate best practices for design, implementation, and analysis. PMID:23667334

Cutts, Felicity T; Izurieta, Hector S; Rhoda, Dale A



The Hawk-I UDS and GOODS Survey (HUGS): Survey design and deep K-band number counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a new, ultra-deep, near-infrared imaging survey executed with the Hawk-I imager at the ESO VLT, of which we make all the data (images and catalog) public. This survey, named HUGS (Hawk-I UDS and GOODS Survey), provides deep, high-quality imaging in the K and Y bands over the portions of the UKIDSS UDS and GOODS-South fields covered by the CANDELS HST WFC3/IR survey. In this paper we describe the survey strategy, the observational campaign, the data reduction process, and the data quality. We show that, thanks to exquisite image quality and extremely long exposure times, HUGS delivers the deepest K-band images ever collected over areas of cosmological interest, and in general ideally complements the CANDELS data set in terms of image quality and depth. In the GOODS-S field, the K-band observations cover the whole CANDELS area with a complex geometry made of 6 different, partly overlapping pointings, in order to best match the deep and wide areas of CANDELS imaging. In the deepest region (which includes most of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field) exposure times exceed 80 hours of integration, yielding a 1 - ? magnitude limit per square arcsec of ?28.0 AB mag. The seeing is exceptional and homogeneous across the various pointings, confined to the range 0.38-0.43 arcsec. In the UDS field the survey is about one magnitude shallower (to match the correspondingly shallower depth of the CANDELS images) but includes also Y-band band imaging (which, in the UDS, was not provided by the CANDELS WFC3/IR imaging). In the K-band, with an average exposure time of 13 hours, and seeing in the range 0.37-0.43 arcsec, the 1 - ? limit per square arcsec in the UDS imaging is ?27.3 AB mag. In the Y-band, with an average exposure time ?8 h, and seeing in the range 0.45-0.5 arcsec, the imaging yields a 1 - ? limit per square arcsec of ?28.3 AB mag. We show that the HUGS observations are well matched to the depth of the CANDELS WFC3/IR data, since the majority of even the faintest galaxies detected in the CANDELS H-band images are also detected in HUGS. Finally we present the K-band galaxy number counts produced by combining the HUGS data from the two fields. We show that the slope of the number counts depends sensitively on the assumed distribution of galaxy sizes, with potential impact on the estimated extra-galactic background light. All the HUGS images and catalogues are made publicly available at the ASTRODEEP website ( as well as from the ESO archive.Full Table 3 is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

Fontana, A.; Dunlop, J. S.; Paris, D.; Targett, T. A.; Boutsia, K.; Castellano, M.; Galametz, A.; Grazian, A.; McLure, R.; Merlin, E.; Pentericci, L.; Wuyts, S.; Almaini, O.; Caputi, K.; Chary, R.-R.; Cirasuolo, M.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Faber, S. M.; Fazio, G.; Ferguson, H. C.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Grogin, N. A.; Hathi, N.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Lucas, R. A.; Nonino, M.; Rix, H. W.; Renzini, A.; Rosario, D.; Santini, P.; Scarlata, C.; Sommariva, V.; Stark, D. P.; van der Wel, A.; Vanzella, E.; Wild, V.; Yan, H.; Zibetti, S.



High-Resolution Linkage and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Aided by Genome Survey Sequencing: Building Up An Integrative Genomic Framework for a Bivalve Mollusc  

PubMed Central

Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in genetic and genomic studies. Recent development of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods holds great promise for constructing high-resolution linkage maps in organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present study, linkage mapping was conducted for a bivalve mollusc (Chlamys farreri) using a newly developed GBS method—2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD). Genome survey sequencing was performed to generate a preliminary reference genome that was utilized to facilitate linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in C. farreri. A high-resolution linkage map was constructed with a marker density (3806) that has, to our knowledge, never been achieved in any other molluscs. The linkage map covered nearly the whole genome (99.5%) with a resolution of 0.41 cM. QTL mapping and association analysis congruously revealed two growth-related QTLs and one potential sex-determination region. An important candidate QTL gene named PROP1, which functions in the regulation of growth hormone production in vertebrates, was identified from the growth-related QTL region detected on the linkage group LG3. We demonstrate that this linkage map can serve as an important platform for improving genome assembly and unifying multiple genomic resources. Our study, therefore, exemplifies how to build up an integrative genomic framework in a non-model organism. PMID:24107803

Jiao, Wenqian; Fu, Xiaoteng; Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Hengde; Su, Hailin; Mao, Junxia; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin



The Bochum survey of the southern Galactic disk: I. Survey design and first results on 50 square degrees monitored in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are monitoring a 6° wide stripe along the southern Galactic disk simultaneously in the r and i bands, using a robotic 15-cm twin telescope of the Universitätsternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile. Utilising the telescope's 2.7° field of view, the survey aims at observing a mosaic of 268 fields once per month and to monitor dedicated fields once per night. The survey reaches a sensitivity from 10m down to 18m (AB system), with a completeness limit of r˜15.5m and i˜14.5m which - due to the instrumental pixel size of 2.4 arcsec - refers to stars separated by >3 arcsec. This brightness range is ideally suited to examine the intermediately bright stellar population supposed to be saturated in deep variability surveys with large telescopes. To connect to deep surveys or to explore faint long term variables, coadded images of several nights reach a depth of ˜20m. The astrometric accuracy is better than 1 arcsec, as determined from the overlap of neighbouring fields. We describe the survey design, the data properties and our procedures to derive the light curves and to extract variable stars. We present a list of ˜2200 variable stars identified in 50 square degrees with 50-80 observations between May and October 2011. For bright stars the variability amplitude A reaches down to A˜0.05m, while at the faint end variations of A>1m are detected. About 200 stars were known to be variable, and their amplitudes and periods - as far as determinable from our six month monitoring - agree with literature values, demonstrating the performance of the Bochum Galactic Disk Survey.

Haas, M.; Hackstein, M.; Ramolla, M.; Drass, H.; Watermann, R.; Lemke, R.; Chini, R.



Using Survey Methods for Design and Evaluation in Child Computer Interaction  

E-print Network

This paper begins with a review of some of the current literature on the use of survey methods with children. It then presents four known concerns with using survey methods and reflects on how these may impact on studies in Child Computer Interaction. The paper presents some guidelines for HCI researchers and developers intending to use survey methods in their studies with children, and closes with some thoughts about the use of survey methods in this interesting but complex area.

Janet Read


Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C): survey design and pilot study results on selected exposure biomarkers.  


For the first nationwide representative survey on the environmental health of children and adolescents in Korea, we designed the Korean Environmental Health Survey in Children and Adolescents (KorEHS-C) as a two-phase survey and planned a sampling strategy that would represent the whole population of Korean children and adolescents, based on the school unit for the 6-19 years age group and the household unit for the 5 years or less age group. A pilot study for 351 children and adolescents aged 6 to 19 years in elementary, middle, and high school of two cities was performed to validate several measurement methods and tools, as well as to test their feasibility, and to elaborate the protocols used throughout the survey process. Selected exposure biomarkers, i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium in blood, and bisphenol A, metabolites of diethylhexyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate and cotinine in urine were analyzed. We found that the levels of blood mercury (Median: 1.7 ug/L) and cadmium (Median: 0.30 ug/L) were much higher than those of subjects in Germany and the US, while metabolites of phthalates and bisphenol A showed similar levels and tendencies by age; the highest levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A occurred in the youngest group of children. Specific investigations to elucidate the exposure pathways of major environmental exposure need to be conducted, and the KorEHS-C should cover as many potential environmental hazards as possible. PMID:23831304

Ha, Mina; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Leem, Jong-Han; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Lee, Kee Jae; Park, Inho; Lim, Young-Wook; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Yeni; Seo, Ju-Hee; Hong, Soo-Jong; Choi, Youn-Hee; Yu, Jeesuk; Kim, Jeongseon; Yu, Seung-Do; Lee, Bo-Eun



A systematic quantitative approach to rational drug design and discovery of novel human carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.  


Drug design involves the design of small molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed for a series of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques with the help of SYBYL 7.1 software. The large set of 36 different aromatic/heterocyclic sulfamates carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC inhibitors, such as hCA IX, was chosen for this study. The conventional ligand-based 3D-QSAR studies were performed based on the low energy conformations employing database alignment rule. The ligand-based model gave q(2) values 0.802 and 0.829 and r(2) values 1.000 and 0.994 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively, and the predictive ability of the model was validated. The predicted r(2) values are 0.999 and 0.502 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. SEA (steric, electrostatic, hydrogen bond acceptor) of CoMSIA has the significant contribution for the model development. The docking of inhibitors into hCA IX active site using Glide XP (Schrödinger) software revealed the vital interactions and binding conformation of the inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA field contour maps are well in agreement with the structural characteristics of the binding pocket of hCA IX active site, which suggests that the information rendered by 3D-QSAR models and the docking interactions can provide guidelines for the development of improved hCA IX inhibitors as leads for various types of metastatic cancers including those of cervical, renal, breast and head and neck origin. PMID:24090419

Sethi, Kalyan K; Verma, Saurabh M



Robust controller design for load frequency control of non-minimum phase Hydro power plant using PSO enabled automated Quantitative Feedback Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a robust PID controller for load frequency control of non-minimum phase hydro power plant using particle swarm optimization (PSO) enabled automated quantitative feedback theory (QFT). The plant model considered here is a dynamic model of power system that includes the turbine, governor, load and machine dynamics subjected to control the load frequency in accordance

B. Satpati; I. Bandyopadhyay; G. Das; C. Koley



A two-phase sampling design for increasing detections of rare species in occupancy surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magnified when working with rare species when effort can be wasted in areas with none or very few individuals. 2. Here, we develop a two-phase sampling approach that mitigates these problems by using a design that places more effort in areas with higher predicted probability of occurrence. We compare our new sampling design to traditional single-season occupancy estimation under a range of conditions and population characteristics. We develop an intuitive measure of predictive error to compare the two approaches and use simulations to assess the relative accuracy of each approach. 3. Our two-phase approach exhibited lower predictive error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach in highly spatially correlated environments. The difference was greatest when detection probability was high (0·75) regardless of the habitat or sample size. When the true occupancy rate was below 0·4 (0·05-0·4), we found that allocating 25% of the sample to the first phase resulted in the lowest error rates. 4. In the majority of scenarios, the two-phase approach showed lower error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach suggesting our new approach is fairly robust to a broad range of conditions and design factors and merits use under a wide variety of settings. 5. Synthesis and applications. Conservation and management of rare species are a challenging task facing natural resource managers. It is critical for studies involving rare species to efficiently allocate effort and resources as they are usually of a finite nature. We believe our approach provides a framework for optimal allocation of effort while maximizing the information content of the data in an attempt to provide the highest conservation value per unit of effort.

Pacifici, Krishna; Dorazio, Robert M.; Dorazio, Michael J.



Design of Gravity Survey Network using Fractal Theory to Delineate Hydrocarbon bearing Jabera Structure, Vindhyan Basin, Central India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A gravity survey network was designed using fractal dimension analysis to delineate a domal structure (Jabera dome) reported in southeastern part of the Vindhyan basin, Central India. This area is also regarded as a `high risk-high reward' frontier area for hydrocarbon exploration in previous studies, hence our aim was to delineate shape and lateral extent of the reported domal structure. Based on the synthetic grid, designed using the concept of fractal dimension, gravity data is collected in Jabera-Damoh area of Vindhyan basin. The collected data is random, but the data density is significant, hence the data points are sorted in a way so that they are close to the synthetic grid points of given grid interval. After sorting the data, again the fractal dimension analysis using box counting method has been carried out to avoid the aliasing in the data due to interpolation and also to know the optimum number of data points sufficient for desired quality of Bouguer anomaly maps. Optimization of number of stations takes care of time and cost involved in the survey and the detectibility limit ensures that the data collected is good enough to resolve the target body under study. The fractal dimension analysis gives clue to select these parameters. It showed that it is always preferable to have well distributed station locations instead of clustering the observation points at some geologically known feature because clustering of data points below required station spacing is not going to add much information where as equally distributed observation points add the information. The study area lies in a difficult terrain of Vindhayn basin, hence according to the accessibility, fractal dimension analysis of the real data sorted approximately at regular grid intervals on 2,3, and 4 km has been done and using the concept of optimum gridding interval Bouguer anomaly maps of the region are prepared. The preliminary depth values of the major interfaces in the area were obtained from the 2D scaling spectral analysis of the data. Results of the scaling spectral method reveals that in the study area, there are three main depth interfaces at 5 km, 1.5 km and 0.8 km respectively which corresponds to the basement and lower Vindhyan interface, lower Vindhyan and Upper Vindhyan interface and upper most is the terrain clearance. For quantitative interpretation, we selected a profile across the target structure (reported as Jabera dome) and modeling of the gravity data acquired along the profile was carried out using Marquardt inversion approach. This profile is selected in order to estimate the tentative geological cross section across the conspicuous low gravity anomaly observed in the southern part of the study area. Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) studies carried out by earlier workers indicated presence thick sediments in this part of the Vindhyan basin. The gravity anomaly drawn along this profile shows a typical anomaly pattern of a sedimentary basin faulted on its both margins. The modeling results show that the anomaly corresponds to a deep faulted basin in the crystalline basement in which the upper layer with density value of 2.46 g/cc corresponds to the upper Vindhyan rocks. This layer is underlain by a thick layer (1.0 to 6.5 km) of lower Vindhyan sediments. This layer which has gentle slope from NW to SE direction sits over the high density rocks comprising of Bijawar/Mahakoshal group.

Dimri, V. P.; Srivastava, R. P.; Vedanti, N.



Design Effects and Generalized Variance Functions for the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). Volume I. User's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This user's manual summarizes the results and use of design effects and generalized variance functions (GVF) to approximate standard errors for the 1990-91 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS). It is Volume I of a two-volume publication that is part of the Technical Report series of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The SASS is a…

Salvucci, Sameena; And Others


Grand Design and Flocculent Spirals in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) were measured at 3.6 mum, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in

Debra Meloy Elmegreen; Bruce G. Elmegreen; Andrew Yau; E. Athanassoula; Albert Bosma; Ronald J. Buta; George Helou; Luis C. Ho; Dimitri A. Gadotti; Johan H. Knapen; Eija Laurikainen; Barry F. Madore; Karen L. Masters; Sharon E. Meidt; Karín Menéndez-Delmestre; Michael W. Regan; Heikki Salo; Kartik Sheth; Dennis Zaritsky; Manuel Aravena; Ramin Skibba; Joannah L. Hinz; Jarkko Laine; Armando Gil de Paz; Juan-Carlos Muñoz-Mateos; Mark Seibert; Trisha Mizusawa; Taehyun Kim; Santiago Erroz Ferrer



Technology Survey and Performance Scaling for the Design of High Power Nuclear Electric Power and Propulsion Systems  

E-print Network

1 Technology Survey and Performance Scaling for the Design of High Power Nuclear Electric Power OF HIGH POWER NUCLEAR ELECTRIC POWER AND PROPULSION SYSTEMS by Daniel B. White Jr. Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Aeronautics and Astronautics ABSTRACT High power nuclear electric


Design of Gravity Survey Network using Fractal Theory to Delineate Hydrocarbon bearing Jabera Structure, Vindhyan Basin, Central India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gravity survey network was designed using fractal dimension analysis to delineate a domal structure (Jabera dome) reported in southeastern part of the Vindhyan basin, Central India. This area is also regarded as a `high risk-high reward' frontier area for hydrocarbon exploration in previous studies, hence our aim was to delineate shape and lateral extent of the reported domal structure.

V. P. Dimri; R. P. Srivastava; N. Vedanti




EPA Science Inventory

Probabilistic sampling has been used to assess the condition of estuarine ecosystems, and the use of this survey design approach was examined for a northwest Florida watershed. Twenty-eight lotic sites within the Escambia River, Florida, watershed were randomly selected and visit...


SIS Mixer Design for a Broadband Millimeter Spectrometer Suitable for Rapid Line Surveys and Redshift Determinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present some detail of the waveguide probe and SIS mixer chip designs for a low-noise 180-300 GHz double- sideband receiver with an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz. The receiver's single SIS junction is excited by a broadband, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output is coupled to a 6-18 GHz MMIC low- noise preamplifier. Following further amplification, the output is processed by an array of 4 GHz, 128-channel analog autocorrelation spectrometers (WASP 11). The single-sideband receiver noise temperature goal of 70 Kelvin will provide a prototype instrument capable of rapid line surveys and of relatively efficient carbon monoxide (CO) emission line searches of distant, dusty galaxies. The latter application's goal is to determine redshifts by measuring the frequencies of CO line emissions from the star-forming regions dominating the submillimeter brightness of these galaxies. Construction of the receiver has begun; lab testing should begin in the fall. Demonstration of the receiver on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) telescope should begin in spring 2003.

Rice, F.; Sumner, M.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Hu, R.; LeDuc, H.; Harris, A.; Miller, D.



Designing Anti-Influenza Aptamers: Novel Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach Gives Insights into Aptamer - Virus Interaction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus’ infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer’s binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers’ binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model’s sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer’s binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed. PMID:24846127

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia



Designing anti-influenza aptamers: novel quantitative structure activity relationship approach gives insights into aptamer-virus interaction.  


This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus' infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer's binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers' binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model's sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer's binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed. PMID:24846127

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia



National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Multiple objectives and constraints lead to design complexity  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency began conducting the National Aquatic resource Surveys (NARS) in 2007 with a national survey of lakes (NLA 2007) followed by rivers and streams in 2008-9 (NRSA 2008), coastal waters in 2010 (NCCA 2010) and wetlands in 2011 (NWCA). The surve...


Non-market Recreational Value of a National Forest: Survey Design and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and discusses the main features of a forest recreation survey. The first objective of the survey is the collection of primary data to be used in non-market valuation through the application of the travel cost and contingent behaviour methods. The second is to improve available data regarding people environmental perceptions and recreational preferences. Respondents in the sample

Paula Simões; Luís Cruz; Eduardo Barata



A national baseline prevalence survey of schistosomiasis in the Philippines using stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling design.  


For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion. PMID:22518170

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Villacorte, Elena; Lebanan, May Antonnette; Crisostomo, Bobby; Hernandez, Leda; Baquilod, Mario; Erce, Edgardo; Martinez, Ruth; Velayudhan, Raman



Practical Experiences in the Design and Conduct of Surveys in Empirical Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A survey is an empirical research strategy for the collection of information from heterogeneous sources. In this way, survey\\u000a results often exhibit a high degree of external validity. It is complementary to other empirical research strategies such\\u000a as controlled experiments, which usually have their strengths in the high internal validity of the findings. While there is\\u000a a growing number of

Marcus Ciolkowski; Oliver Laitenberger; Sira Vegas; Stefan Biffl



[New design of the Health Survey of Catalonia (Spain, 2010-2014): a step forward in health planning and evaluation].  


This article presents the genesis of the Health Survey of Catalonia (Spain, 2010-2014) with its semiannual subsamples and explains the basic characteristics of its multistage sampling design. In comparison with previous surveys, the organizational advantages of this new statistical operation include rapid data availability and the ability to continuously monitor the population. The main benefits are timeliness in the production of indicators and the possibility of introducing new topics through the supplemental questionnaire as a function of needs. Limitations consist of the complexity of the sample design and the lack of longitudinal follow-up of the sample. Suitable sampling weights for each specific subsample are necessary for any statistical analysis of micro-data. Accuracy in the analysis of territorial disaggregation or population subgroups increases if annual samples are accumulated. PMID:24472532

Alcañiz-Zanón, Manuela; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Guillén-Estany, Montserrat; Medina-Bustos, Antonia; Aragay-Barbany, Josep M; Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Tresserras-Gaju, Ricard



Knee complaints and consequences on work status; a 10-year follow-up survey among floor layers and graphic designers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study was to examine if knee complaints among floor layers predict exclusion from the trade. METHODS: In 1994\\/95 self-reported data were obtained from a cohort of floor layers and graphic designers with and without knee straining work activities, respectively. At follow-up in 2005 the questionnaire survey was repeated. The study population consisted of 81 floor

Søren Rytter; Lilli Kirkeskov Jensen; Jens Peter Bonde



665: Building Material Selection and Air Quality in Healthcare Design: A Survey of the Design and Construction Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decisions architects make over the selection of materials for interior spaces is crucial in the hospital setting. The depth of understanding the properties of the material influences these decisions. Design parameters include functionality, aesthetics, availability and cost, in addition to economic and social concerns, particularly when designing sustainable buildings. Common materials selected for interiors emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs),

Kelly Cook; Pamela Harght; Jae Chang


Design of Reconnaissance Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Geophysical Surveys of the North Platte River and Lodgepole Creek, Nebraska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative flight line layout using widely separated lines was used for frequency domain helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys in 2008 and 2009 in the Panhandle of western Nebraska. The HEM survey design was developed as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District, South Platte Natural Resource District, UNL-Conservation and Survey Division, and U.S. Geological Survey to improve the understanding of relationships between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater flow models used in water resources management programs. Use of HEM methods for hydrologic mapping had been demonstrated by HEM surveys conducted in 2007 of sites in the glaciated Platte River Basin in eastern Nebraska. These surveys covered township-scale areas with flight lines laid out in blocks where the lines were spaced about 270m apart. The HEM successfully mapped the complex 3D geometry of shallow sand and gravel aquifers through and within conductive till to a depth of about 40m in a total area of about 680 km2 (263 mi2). Current groundwater flow models in western Nebraska include the Cooperative Hydrologic Study (COHYST), run by a consortium of state agencies, which is tasked to develop scientifically supportable hydrologic databases, analyses, and models, and the North Platte River Valley Optimization Model (NPRVOM). The COHYST study area, about 75,000 km2 (29,000 mi2), includes the Platte River Basin from the Nebraska - Wyoming border to Lincoln. Considering the large area of the groundwater models, the USGS decided in collaboration with the NRD to use a more reconnaissance-style layout for the 2008 HEM survey which encompassed about 21,000 km2 (8,000 mi2). A reconnaissance-type HEM survey is made possible due to technical capabilities of applicable HEM systems and due to the level of hydrogeologic information available in the NRD. The particular capabilities of the HEM system are careful calibration, low drift, low noise, and leveling. The widely spaced lines do not provide as much opportunity for self-checking by line-to-line correlation as closely spaced lines. The final project design in 2008 consisted of flight lines paralleling the major drainages and lines perpendicular to the drainages spaced about 10 km (6 mi) apart. Layout of lines following the drainages is similar to the design of previous HEM surveys of levees. Although the general geologic features are known to be broad (sandstone channels and bedrock topography) from wells spaced about 2.5 km (1.5 mi), two “standard blocks” were flown with 270 m line spacing in critical areas to both better resolve of electrical signatures and to provide greater detail than the reconnaissance survey. The processed data from the two detailed survey blocks confirmed hypothesized electrical signatures of major hydrostratigraphic units in the area. Interpretation of data from the widely spaced lines, lines along the rivers, and the detail blocks fit well with the known hydrogeology.

Smith, B. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Abraham, J. D.



Essential Steps for Web Surveys: A Guide to Designing, Administering and Utilizing Web Surveys for University Decision-Making. Professional File. Number 102, Winter 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past few years, several Harvard paper surveys were converted to Web surveys. These were high-profile surveys endorsed by the Provost and the Dean of the College, and covered major portions of the university population (all undergraduates, all graduate students, tenured and non-tenured faculty). When planning for these surveys started in…

Cheskis-Gold, Rena; Loescher, Ruth; Shepard-Rabadam, Elizabeth; Carroll, Barbara



Preliminary Design of The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)  

E-print Network

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope. Using 1024x1024 HgCdTe and Si:As arrays at 3.3, 4.7, 12 and 23 microns, WISE will find the most luminous galaxies in the universe, the closest stars to the Sun, and it will detect most of the main belt asteroids larger than 3 km. The single WISE instrument consists of a 40 cm diamond-turned aluminum afocal telescope, a two-stage solid hydrogen cryostat, a scan mirror mechanism, and reimaging optics giving 5" resolution (full-width-half-maximum). The use of dichroics and beamsplitters allows four color images of a 47'x47' field of view to be taken every 8.8 seconds, synchronized with the orbital motion to provide total sky coverage with overlap between revolutions....

Mainzer, A K; Wright, E L; Liu, F; Irace, W; Heinrichsen, I; Cutri, R; Duval, V



Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

Kuhl, Christopher A.



German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave  

PubMed Central

Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79?years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79?years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79?years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal diseases. Other core topics include vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization status, nutritional deficiencies, health in older age, and the association between health-related behavior and mental health. PMID:22938722



Image resolution analysis: a new, robust approach to seismic survey design  

E-print Network

?guration, parameters such as the structure and seismic velocity also in?uence image resolution. Understanding their e?ect on image quality, allows us to better interpret the resolution results for the surveys under examination. A salt model was used to simulate...

Tzimeas, Constantinos




Microsoft Academic Search

Using stress and coping as a unifying theoretical concept, a series of five models was developed in order to synthesize the survey questions and to classify information. These models identified the question, listed the research study, described measurements, listed workplace data, and listed industry and national reference data.^ A set of 38 instrument questions was developed within the five coping




Measuring the Urologic Iceberg: Design and Implementation of the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey, a National Institutes of Health-supported epidemiological study of symptoms suggestive of the following urologic conditions: urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia, interstitial cystitis, chronic pelvic pain of bladder origin, prostatitis, hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, and female sexual dysfunction.

John B. McKinlay; Carol L. Link



Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.



Survey of Sustainable Building Design Practices in North America, Europe, and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable design should be applied in all phases of the life cycle of a building, including programming, design, building construction, building operation, and finally demolition. This paper compares and contrasts sustainable design programs based on the life cycle of a building in North America, Europe, and Asia. Tables comparing programs from these three regions are provided for each phase in

Kimberly R. Bunz; Gregor P. Henze; Dale K. Tiller



Power of Daughter and Granddaughter Designs for Determining Linkage Between Marker Loci and Quantitative Trait Loci in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT There is considerable interest in bo- vine DNA-level polymorphic marker loci as a means of mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) of economic,importance in cattle. Progeny of a sire heterozygous for both a marker locus and a linked QTL, which,inherit different alleles for the marker, will have different trait means. Based on this, power to detect QTL, as , grandsire

J. I. Weller; Y. Kashi; M. Soller



The efficiency of designs for fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci using combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a simulation study, different designs were compared for efficiency of fine-mapping of QTL. The variance component method for fine-mapping of QTL was used to estimate QTL position and variance components. The design of many families with small size gave a higher mapping resolution than a design with few families of large size. However, the difference is small in half

Sang Hong Lee; Julius Werf



Is the linear modeling technique good enough for optimal form design? A comparison of quantitative analysis models.  


How to design highly reputable and hot-selling products is an essential issue in product design. Whether consumers choose a product depends largely on their perception of the product image. A consumer-oriented design approach presented in this paper helps product designers incorporate consumers' perceptions of product forms in the design process. The consumer-oriented design approach uses quantification theory type I, grey prediction (the linear modeling technique), and neural networks (the nonlinear modeling technique) to determine the optimal form combination of product design for matching a given product image. An experimental study based on the concept of Kansei Engineering is conducted to collect numerical data for examining the relationship between consumers' perception of product image and product form elements of personal digital assistants (PDAs). The result of performance comparison shows that the QTTI model is good enough to help product designers determine the optimal form combination of product design. Although the PDA form design is used as a case study, the approach is applicable to other consumer products with various design elements and product images. The approach provides an effective mechanism for facilitating the consumer-oriented product design process. PMID:23258961

Lin, Yang-Cheng; Yeh, Chung-Hsing; Wang, Chen-Cheng; Wei, Chun-Chun



Is the Linear Modeling Technique Good Enough for Optimal Form Design? A Comparison of Quantitative Analysis Models  

PubMed Central

How to design highly reputable and hot-selling products is an essential issue in product design. Whether consumers choose a product depends largely on their perception of the product image. A consumer-oriented design approach presented in this paper helps product designers incorporate consumers' perceptions of product forms in the design process. The consumer-oriented design approach uses quantification theory type I, grey prediction (the linear modeling technique), and neural networks (the nonlinear modeling technique) to determine the optimal form combination of product design for matching a given product image. An experimental study based on the concept of Kansei Engineering is conducted to collect numerical data for examining the relationship between consumers' perception of product image and product form elements of personal digital assistants (PDAs). The result of performance comparison shows that the QTTI model is good enough to help product designers determine the optimal form combination of product design. Although the PDA form design is used as a case study, the approach is applicable to other consumer products with various design elements and product images. The approach provides an effective mechanism for facilitating the consumer-oriented product design process. PMID:23258961

Lin, Yang-Cheng; Yeh, Chung-Hsing; Wang, Chen-Cheng; Wei, Chun-Chun



[The mixed design in nursing sciences or when a question of research calls for qualitative and quantitative strategies].  


The use of a mixed method research design raises many questions, especially regarding the paradigmatic position. With this paradigm, we may consider the mixed method design as the best way of answering a research question and the latter orients to one of the different subtypes of mixed method design. To illustrate the use of this kind of design, we propose a study such as conducted in nursing sciences. In this article, the challenges raised by the mixed method design, and the place of this type of research in nursing sciences is discussed. PMID:21322192

Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances; Michaud, Cécile; Saint-Cyr-Tribble, Denise



Spatial scales of variation in lichens: implications for sampling design in biomonitoring surveys.  


The variability of biological data is a main constraint affecting the quality and reliability of lichen biomonitoring surveys for estimation of the effects of atmospheric pollution. Although most epiphytic lichen bioindication surveys focus on between-site differences at the landscape level, associated with the large scale effects of atmospheric pollution, current protocols are based on multilevel sampling, thus adding further sources of variation and affecting the error budget. We test the hypothesis that assemblages of lichen communities vary at each spatial scale examined, in order to determine what scales should be included in future monitoring studies. We compared four sites in Italy, along gradients of atmospheric pollution and climate, to test the partitioning of the variance components of lichen diversity across spatial scales (from trunks to landscapes). Despite environmental heterogeneity, we observed comparable spatial variance. However, residuals often overcame between-plot variability, leading to biased estimation of atmospheric pollution effects. PMID:22628101

Giordani, Paolo; Brunialti, Giorgio; Frati, Luisa; Incerti, Guido; Ianesch, Luca; Vallone, Emanuele; Bacaro, Giovanni; Maccherini, Simona



Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Lukacs, P. M.; Gude, J. A.; Russell, R. E.; Ackerman, B. B.



Sample frame and related sample design issues for surveys of physicians and physician practices.  


A sample frame is the listing of the units from which a sample is to be selected. When deciding upon a file to serve as a source for a sample frame for a survey, perhaps the most important consideration is the extent to which the target population will be covered by the frame. However, other issues also come into play such as the accuracy of contact and other information appearing on the file as well as its cost. The American Medical Association Masterfile has long been considered the preferred choice for surveys of physicians, although it does have drawbacks. Here we consider two alternative files, discussing their relative advantages and disadvantages. For surveys of physician practices (or other organizations that employ physicians), there have been no files that are obvious choices to serve as the basis for a sample frame. Here we discuss data collection on physician practices from an analytic perspective and consider how sampling physicians to obtain practice level data may be a desirable approach. PMID:23975759

Digaetano, Ralph



Designing Messaging to Engage Patients in an Online Suicide Prevention Intervention: Survey Results From Patients With Current Suicidal Ideation  

PubMed Central

Background Computerized, Internet-delivered interventions can be efficacious; however, uptake and maintaining sustained client engagement are still big challenges. We see the development of effective engagement strategies as the next frontier in online health interventions, an area where much creative research has begun. We also argue that for engagement strategies to accomplish their purpose with novel targeted populations, they need to be tailored to such populations (ie, content is designed with the target population in mind). User-centered design frameworks provide a theoretical foundation for increasing user engagement and uptake by including users in development. However, deciding how to implement this approach to enage users in mental health intervention development is challenging. Objective The aim of this study was to get user input and feedback on acceptability of messaging content intended to engage suicidal individuals. Methods In March 2013, clinic intake staff distributed flyers announcing the study, “Your Feedback Counts” to potential participants (individuals waiting to be seen for a mental health appointment) together with the Patient Health Questionnaire. The flyer explained that a score of two or three (“more than half the days” or “nearly every day” respectively) on the suicide ideation question made them eligible to provide feedback on components of a suicide prevention intervention under development. The patient could access an anonymous online survey by following a link. After providing consent online, participants completed the anonymous survey. Results Thirty-four individuals provided data on past demographic information. Participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that they were cared about, that was personalized, that others like them had found it helpful, and that included examples with real people. Participants preferred email invitations with subject lines expressing concern and availability of extra resources. Participants also provided feedback about a media prototype including a brand design and advertisement video for introducing the intervention. Conclusions This paper provides one model (including development of an engagement survey, audience for an engagement survey, methods for presenting results of an engagement survey) for including target users in the development of uptake strategies for online mental health interventions. PMID:24509475

Lungu, Anita; Richards, Julie; Simon, Gregory E; Clingan, Sarah; Siler, Jaeden; Snyder, Lorilei; Ludman, Evette



Using SEM to Analyze Complex Survey Data: A Comparison between Design-Based Single-Level and Model-Based Multilevel Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both ad-hoc robust sandwich standard error estimators (design-based approach) and multilevel analysis (model-based approach) are commonly used for analyzing complex survey data with nonindependent observations. Although these 2 approaches perform equally well on analyzing complex survey data with equal between- and within-level model structures…

Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man



The challenge of comprehensively mapping children's health in a nation-wide health survey: Design of the German KiGGS-Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: From May 2003 to May 2006, the Robert Koch Institute conducted the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Aim of this first nationwide interview and examination survey was to collect comprehensive data on the health status of children and adolescents aged 0 to 17 years. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Participants were enrolled in two steps: first, 167

Bärbel-Maria Kurth; Panagiotis Kamtsiuris; Heike Hölling; Martin Schlaud; Rüdiger Dölle; Ute Ellert; Heidrun Kahl; Hiltraud Knopf; Michael Lange; Gert BM Mensink; Hannelore Neuhauser; Angelika Schaffrath Rosario; Christa Scheidt-Nave; Liane Schenk; Robert Schlack; Heribert Stolzenberg; Michael Thamm; Wulf Thierfelder; Ute Wolf



A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

Zhang, Lin



Grand Design and Flocculent Spirals in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G)  

E-print Network

Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G) were measured at 3.6mu, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius...

Elmegreen, Debra Meloy




SciTech Connect

Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) were measured at 3.6 {mu}m, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early-type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius beyond the end of the bar, and they tend to be short, low amplitude, and exponential-profiled in late Hubble types, with arm contrasts that are constant or increase with radius. Longer bars tend to have larger amplitudes and stronger arms.

Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Yau, Andrew [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), UMR6110, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Technopole de Marseille Etoile, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Helou, George; Sheth, Kartik [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Menendez-Delmestre, KarIn [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Department of Physical Sciences/Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 (Finland); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 2EH (United Kingdom); Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)




EPA Science Inventory

National, state, and tribal nation monitoring programs are designed to address multiple objectives. One objective comes from Clean Water Act Section 305(b) and is to provide status and trend estimates of the number (or percent) of stream and river lengths that meet designated u...


Longitudinal emittance: An introduction to the concept and survey of measurement techniques including design of a wall current monitor  

SciTech Connect

The properties of charged particle beams associated with the distribution of the particles in energy and in time can be grouped together under the category of longitudinal emittance. This article is intended to provide an intuitive introduction to the concepts longitudinal emittance; to provide an incomplete survey of methods used to measure this emittance and the related properties of bunch length and momentum spread; and to describe the detailed design of a 6 Ghz bandwidth resistive wall current monitor useful for measuring bunch shapes of moderate to high intensity beams. Overall, the article is intended to be broad in scope, in most cases deferring details to cited original papers. 37 refs., 21 figs.

Webber, R.C.



Quantitative Imaging Network

The QIN Imaging Network is designed to promote research and development of quantitative imaging methods for the measurement of tumor response to therapies in clinical trial settings, with the overall goal of facilitating clinical decision-making. The


Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.



Design of removable partial dentures: a survey of dental laboratories in Greece.  


The aim of this study was to compare data on design and fabrication methods of removable partial dentures (RPDs) in two major cities in Greece. A questionnaire was sent to 150 randomly selected dental technicians. The participation rate was 79.3%. The anterior palatal strap, the lingual bar, and the Roach-type clasp arm designs were preferred. Half of the RPDs fabricated were retained using precision attachments. Differences between the two cities were observed in types of major maxillary connectors used, types of attachments and impression materials used, as well as the design of distal-extension RPDs. Postdoctoral education was found to have an impact on RPD fabrication. Despite the differences observed, design and fabrication of RPDs followed commonly used principles. PMID:22259800

Avrampou, Marianna; Kamposiora, Phophi; Papavasiliou, Georgios; Pissiotis, Argirios; Katsoulis, Joannis; Doukoudakis, Asterios



Survey and analysis of research on supersonic drag-due-to-lift minimization with recommendations for wing design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of research on drag-due-to-lift minimization at supersonic speeds, including a study of the effectiveness of current design and analysis methods was conducted. The results show that a linearized theory analysis with estimated attainable thrust and vortex force effects can predict with reasonable accuracy the lifting efficiency of flat wings. Significantly better wing performance can be achieved through the use of twist and camber. Although linearized theory methods tend to overestimate the amount of twist and camber required for a given application and provide an overly optimistic performance prediction, these deficiencies can be overcome by implementation of recently developed empirical corrections. Numerous examples of the correlation of experiment and theory are presented to demonstrate the applicability and limitations of linearized theory methods with and without empirical corrections. The use of an Euler code for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics of a twisted and cambered wing and its application to design by iteration are discussed.

Carlson, Harry W.; Mann, Michael J.



Design and operation of the national survey of children with special health care needs, 2009-2010.  


Objectives - This report presents the development, plan, and operation of the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a module of the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey. The survey is conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. This survey was designed to produce national and state-specific prevalence estimates of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), to describe the types of services that they need and use, and to assess aspects of the system of care for CSHCN. Methods - A random-digit-dial sample of households with children under age 18 years was constructed for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The sampling frame consisted of landline phone numbers and cellular(cell) phone numbers of households that reported a cell-phone-only or cell-phone-mainly status. Children in identified households were screened for special health care needs. If CSHCN were identified in the household, a detailed interview was conducted for one randomly selected child with special health care needs. Respondents were parents or guardians who knew about the children's health and health care. Results - A total of 196,159 household screening interviews were completed from July 2009 through March 2011, resulting in 40,242 completed special-needs interviews, including 2,991 from cell-phone interviews. The weighted overall response rate was 43.7% for the landline sample, 15.2% for the cell-phone sample, and 25.5% overall. PMID:25383698

Bramlett, Matthew D; Blumberg, Stephen J; Ormson, A Elizabeth; George, Jacquelyn M; Williams, Kim L; Frasier, Alicia M; Skalland, Benjamin J; Santos, Kathleen B; Vsetecka, Danielle M; Morrison, Heather M; Pedlow, Steven; Wang, Fang



Presentation of information for spatial decision support A survey on the use of maps by participants in quantitative water management in the IJsselmeer region, The Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial decision support systems generate a diversity of information presented in tables, graphs, text and maps. Which form is used is dictated partially by the nature of the information but also by those who prepare information to be used in a decision-making process. The users of the information do not necessarily have the same preference for the way the information is presented. A survey has been conducted amongst stakeholders in a decision-making process to see what their preferences are. The purpose of the survey was to gain insight into the ability of stakeholders to use information presented at different levels of detail when comparing alternatives. This paper reports on the survey’s results. Possible relations between level of detail, the ease of use of information, confidence in correctness and value of the information are presented. The results show that maps and graphs are preferred above tables and text. A high preference for maps is, however, not a measure of the ability to use maps. In addition, the results show that even though the ability to use the information increased with decreasing level of detail, detailed information is found more valuable.

Janssen, Ron; Uran, Oddrun


Design and methods in a survey of living conditions in the Arctic - the SLiCA study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The main objective of this study is to describe the methods and design of the survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA), relevant participation rates and the distribution of participants, as applicable to the survey data in Alaska, Greenland and Norway. This article briefly addresses possible selection bias in the data and also the ways to tackle it in future studies. Study design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Methods Indigenous individuals aged 16 years and older, living in Greenland, Alaska and in traditional settlement areas in Norway, were invited to participate. Random sampling methods were applied in Alaska and Greenland, while non-probability sampling methods were applied in Norway. Data were collected in 3 periods: in Alaska, from January 2002 to February 2003; in Greenland, from December 2003 to August 2006; and in Norway, in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Results A total of 663, 1,197 and 445 individuals were interviewed in Alaska, Greenland and Norway, respectively. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, while a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. A predominance of female respondents was obtained in Alaska. Overall, the Sami cohort is older than the cohorts from Greenland and Alaska. Conclusions Preliminary assessments suggest that selection bias in the Sami sample is plausible but not a major threat. Few or no threats to validity are detected in the data from Alaska and Greenland. Despite different sampling and recruitment methods, and sociocultural differences, a unique database has been generated, which shall be used to explore relationships between health and other living conditions variables. PMID:22456042

Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Kruse, Jack; Poppel, Birger; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild



Designing and managing manufacturing networks–a survey of Swedish plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and management of the manufacturing network for a firm is an important factor for its competitive position. By manufacturing network we mean the plant or plants of a manufacturing firm and the relationships with external suppliers. The way that these operate together is crucial for supporting the competition of the products in the marketplace. This article presents the

A. Feldmann; J. Olhager; F. Persson



Context-based design of mobile applications for museums: a survey of existing practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a review of mobile applications used in museum environments, focusing on the notion of context and its constituent dimensions. Museums are a representative example in which the context influences interaction. During a museum visit, the visitors interact with the exhibits through mobile devices. We argue that, effective interaction design needs to take into consideration multiple dimensions of

Dimitrios Raptis; Nikolaos K. Tselios; Nikolaos M. Avouris



A survey of design techniques for system-level dynamic power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic power management (DPM) is a design methodology for dynamically reconfiguring systems to provide the requested services and performance levels with a minimum number of active components or a minimum load on such com- ponents. DPM encompasses a set of techniques that achieves energy-efficient computation by selectively turning off (or re- ducing the performance of) system components when they are

Luca Benini; Alessandro Bogliolo; Giovanni De Micheli



A Study of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Puerto Rican Youth: I. Background, Design, and Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This is the first of two related articles on a study carried out between 2000 and 2003 designed to assess the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in two populations of Puerto Rican children: one in the Standard Metropolitan Areas of San Juan and Caguas in Puerto Rico, and the other in…

Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Davies, Mark; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Febo, Vivian; Ramirez, Rafael; Hoven, Christina; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Loeber, Rolf




EPA Science Inventory

Great River Ecosystems (GRE) include the river channel and associated backwaters and floodplain habitats. The challenge in designing a GRE monitoring and assessment program is to choose a set of habitats, indicators, and sampling locations that reveal the ecological condition of ...


A survey of systems approaches to green design with illustrations from the computer industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased recognition of the importance of sustainable development is posing new challenges for industry. A systems approach provides a framework for reconciling the needs of sustainable development with all of the other demands on industry. The computer industry has been chosen to illustrate the application of a systems approach to green design in industry on account of both its increasing

Marion A. Hersh



Toward AUV Survey Design for Optimal Coverage and Localization using the Cramer Rao Lower Bound  

E-print Network

]. What distinguishes our work is that what we are proposing is not an online method but rather a planning is that they are governed by the amount of battery power that can be carried. Therefore, due to this power limitation method to be used as a design tool for operator mission planning--allowing the AUV operator to make

Eustice, Ryan


Computer Game Theories for Designing Motivating Educational Software: A Survey Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to evaluate computer game theories for educational software. We propose a framework for designing engaging educational games based on contemporary game studies which includes ludology and narratology. Ludology focuses on the study of computer games as play and game activities, while narratology revolves around the study of computer games as narratives. The proposed framework

Chee Siang Ang; G. S. V Radha Krishna Rao



Keeping Florida's Children Safe in School: How One State Designed a Model Safe School Climate Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Florida's statewide effort to provide a means of collecting information on perceptions of safety held by students, teachers, and administrators to enhance the currently available school crime and violence data collected through the statewide incident referral system. Documents the design process and development of two statewide model…

Barnett, Rosemary V.; Easton, Janice; Israel, Glenn D.



Disposable surface plasmon resonance aptasensor with membrane-based sample handling design for quantitative interferon-gamma detection.  


ELISA and ELISPOT methods are utilized for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) release assays (IGRAs) to detect the IFN-? secreted by T lymphocytes. However, the multi-step protocols of the assays are still performed with laboratory instruments and operated by well-trained people. Here, we report a membrane-based microfluidic device integrated with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to realize an easy-to-use and cost effective multi-step quantitative analysis. To conduct the SPR measurements, we utilized a membrane-based SPR sensing device in which a rayon membrane was located 300 ?m under the absorbent pad. The basic equation covering this type of transport is based on Darcy's law. Furthermore, the concentration of streptavidin delivered from a sucrose-treated glass pad placed alongside the rayon membrane was controlled in a narrow range (0.81 ?M ± 6%). Finally, the unbound molecules were removed by a washing buffer that was pre-packed in the reservoir of the chip. Using a bi-functional, hairpin-shaped aptamer as the sensing probe, we specifically detected the IFN-? and amplified the signal by binding the streptavidin. A high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.995) was obtained, in the range from 0.01 to 100 nM. A detection limit of 10 pM was achieved within 30 min. Thus, the SPR assay protocols for IFN-? detection could be performed using this simple device without an additional pumping system. PMID:24931052

Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Chang, Chia-Chen; Chu-Su, Yu; Wei, Shih-Chung; Zhao, Xi-hong; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lin, Chii-Wann




E-print Network

Milwaukee, WI 53233 Email: ABSTRACT A magnetic levitation (maglev) system for maglev systems are designed based on a nominal linearized model. System variations and uncertainties method based on Quan- titative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to a single degree-of- freedom (DOF) maglev

Nagurka, Mark L.


A general mixture model approach for mapping quantitative trait loci from diverse cross designs involving multiple inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper, we outline a general approach of mixturemodel analyses that are applicable to various crossesfrom two or multiple inbred lines. We first focus on agroup of F # populations from a diallel design of Llines as an example. In simulation studies, we showhow the methods can be used for di#erent kinds ofcombinations of crosses. The methods are su#cientlyflexible to




Design of small impact-resistant RTGs for Mars environmental survey (MESUR) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing studies by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the robotic exploration of Mars contemplate a network of about twenty small and relatively inexpensive landers distributed over both low and high latitudes of the Martian globe. They are intended to explore the structural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Martian soil, search for possible subsurface trapped ice, and collect long-term seismological and meteorological data over a period of ten years. They can also serve as precursors for later unmanned and manned Mars missions. The collected data will be transmitted periodically, either directly to Earth or indirectly via an orbiting relay. The choice of transmission will determine the required power, which is currently expected to be between 2 and 12 watts(e) per lander. This could be supplied either by solar arrays or by Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Solar-powered landers could only be used for low Martian latitudes, but RTG-powered landers can be used for both low and high latitudes. Moreover, RTGs are less affected by Martian sandstorms and can be modified to resist high-g-load impacts. High impact resistance is a critical goal. It is desired by the mission designers, to minimize the mass and complexity of the system needed to decelerate the landers to a survivable impact velocity. To support the NASA system studies, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) asked Fairchild to perform RTG design studies for this mission. The key problem in designing these RTGs is how to enable the generators to tolerate substantially higher g-loads than those encountered on previous RTG missions. The Fairchild studies resulted in designs of compact RTGs based on flight-proven and safety-qualified heat source components, with a number of novel features designed to provide the desired high impact tolerance. The present paper describes those designs and their rationale, and a preliminary, quasi-static impact analysis that yielded very encouraging results. They indicate that these RTGs have sufficient impact resistance to enable survival of landers without retrorockets. This would result in significant cost savings.

Schock, Alfred



Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.



Statistics of Local Public School Systems, Fall 1970: Staff. Elementary-Secondary General Information Survey Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is the fourth report in an annual survey series designed to provide reliable data on individual local public school systems for planning, policy, and research purposes. The report contains tables of national estimates and basic data tables providing quantitative staff data on the school systems in the survey. The data are derived…

Hughes, Warren A.


The Fly's Eye Camera System -- an instrument design for large \\'etendue time-domain survey  

E-print Network

In this paper we briefly summarize the design concepts of the Fly's Eye Camera System, a proposed high resolution all-sky monitoring device which intends to perform high cadence time domain astronomy in multiple optical passbands while still accomplish a high \\'etendue. Fundings have already been accepted by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in order to design and build a Fly's Eye device unit. Beyond the technical details and the actual scientific goals, this paper also discusses the possibilities and yields of a network operation involving $\\sim10$ sites distributed geographically in a nearly homogeneous manner. Currently, we expect to finalize the mount assembly -- that performs the sidereal tracking during the exposures -- until the end of 2012 and to have a working prototype with a reduced number of individual cameras sometimes in the spring or summer of 2013.

Csépány, Gergely; Vida, Krisztián; Regály, Zsolt; Mészáros, László; Oláh, Katalin; Kiss, Csaba; Döbrentei, László; Jaskó, Attila; Mez?, György; Farkas, Ern?



A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie



The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS): objectives and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the objectives and design of a prospective study of the prevalence, incidence and course of psychiatric\\u000a disorders in a representative sample of non-institutionalized Dutch adults. A total of 7146 men and women aged 18–64, contacted\\u000a through a multistage sample of municipalities and households, were interviewed at home in 1996. The primary diagnostic instrument\\u000a was the CIDI, which

R. V. Bijl; G. van Zessen; A. Ravelli; C. de Rijk; Y. Langendoen



An improved method for quantitative trait loci detection and identification of within-line segregation in F2 intercross designs.  


We present a new flexible, simple, and powerful genome-scan method (flexible intercross analysis, FIA) for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) in experimental line crosses. The method is based on a pure random-effects model that simultaneously models between- and within-line QTL variation for single as well as epistatic QTL. It utilizes the score statistic and thereby facilitates computationally efficient significance testing based on empirical significance thresholds obtained by means of permutations. The properties of the method are explored using simulations and analyses of experimental data. The simulations showed that the power of FIA was as good as, or better than, Haley-Knott regression and that FIA was rather insensitive to the level of allelic fixation in the founders, especially for pedigrees with few founders. A chromosome scan was conducted for a meat quality trait in an F(2) intercross in pigs where a mutation in the halothane (Ryanodine receptor, RYR1) gene with a large effect on meat quality was known to segregate in one founder line. FIA obtained significant support for the halothane-associated QTL and identified the base generation allele with the mutated allele. A genome scan was also performed in a previously analyzed chicken F(2) intercross. In the chicken intercross analysis, four previously detected QTL were confirmed at a 5% genomewide significance level, and FIA gave strong evidence (P < 0.01) for two of these QTL to be segregating within the founder lines. FIA was also extended to account for epistasis and using simulations we show that the method provides good estimates of epistatic QTL variance even for segregating QTL. Extensions of FIA and its applications on other intercross populations including backcrosses, advanced intercross lines, and heterogeneous stocks are also discussed. PMID:18430952

Rönnegård, Lars; Besnier, Francois; Carlborg, Orjan



Quantitative molecular methods in virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the past few years, significant technical effort was made to develop molecular methods for the absolute quantitation of nucleic acids in biological samples. In virology, semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques of different principle, complexity, and reliability were designed, optimized, and applied in basic and clinical researches. The principal data obtained in successful pilot applications in vivo are reported in

M. Clementi; S. Menzo; A. Manzin; P. Bagnarelli



The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Survey Design, Data Processing, and Spectral Analysis Methods  

E-print Network

We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data-cubes have 5.6'' FWHM spatial resolution, ~5A FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600A-6800A range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to ~0.7 R_25. These data-cubes can be used to produce 2D maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data-cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are de...

Blanc, Guillermo A; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Luo, Rongxin; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Hao, Lei; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Yoachim, Peter



The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS): design and implementation of the northern receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C-Band All-Sky Survey is a project to map the full sky in total intensity and linear polarization at 5 GHz. The northern component of the survey uses a broad-band single-frequency analogue receiver fitted to a 6.1-m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California, USA. The receiver architecture combines a continuous-comparison radiometer and a correlation polarimeter in a single receiver for stable simultaneous measurement of both total intensity and linear polarization, using custom-designed analogue receiver components. The continuous-comparison radiometer measures the temperature difference between the sky and temperature-stabilized cold electrical reference loads. A cryogenic front-end is used to minimize receiver noise, with a system temperature of ?30 K in both linear polarization and total intensity. Custom cryogenic notch filters are used to counteract man-made radio frequency interference. The radiometer 1/f noise is dominated by atmospheric fluctuations, while the polarimeter achieves a 1/f noise knee frequency of 10 mHz, similar to the telescope azimuthal scan frequency.

King, O. G.; Jones, Michael E.; Blackhurst, E. J.; Copley, C.; Davis, R. J.; Dickinson, C.; Holler, C. M.; Irfan, M. O.; John, J. J.; Leahy, J. P.; Leech, J.; Muchovej, S. J. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Stevenson, M. A.; Taylor, Angela C.



Designing for Dissemination Among Public Health Researchers: Findings From a National Survey in the United States  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We have described the practice of designing for dissemination among researchers in the United States with the intent of identifying gaps and areas for improvement. Methods. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 266 researchers using a search of the top 12 public health journals in PubMed and lists available from government-sponsored research. The sample involved scientists at universities, the National Institutes of Health, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the United States. Results. In the pooled sample, 73% of respondents estimated they spent less than 10% of their time on dissemination. About half of respondents (53%) had a person or team in their unit dedicated to dissemination. Seventeen percent of all respondents used a framework or theory to plan their dissemination activities. One third of respondents (34%) always or usually involved stakeholders in the research process. Conclusions. The current data and the existing literature suggest considerable room for improvement in designing for dissemination. PMID:23865659

Jacobs, Julie A.; Tabak, Rachel G.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.



Design and Calibration of a Flowfield Survey Rake for Inlet Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is a unique test platform available for use on NASA's F-15B aircraft, tail number 836, as a modular host for a variety of aerodynamics and propulsion research. For future flight data from this platform to be valid, more information must be gathered concerning the quality of the airflow underneath the body of the F-15B at various flight conditions, especially supersonic conditions. The flow angularity and Mach number must be known at multiple locations on any test article interface plane for measurement data at these locations to be valid. To determine this prerequisite information, flight data will be gathered in the Rake Airflow Gauge Experiment using a custom-designed flowfield rake to probe the airflow underneath the F-15B at the desired flight conditions. This paper addresses the design considerations of the rake and probe assembly, including the loads and stress analysis using analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element analysis. It also details the flow calibration procedure, including the completed wind-tunnel test and posttest data reduction, calibration verification, and preparation for flight-testing.

Flynn, Darin C.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Frederick, Michael



Methodological survey of designed uneven randomization trials (DU-RANDOM): a protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although even randomization (that is, approximately 1:1 randomization ratio in study arms) provides the greatest statistical power, designed uneven randomization (DUR), (for example, 1:2 or 1:3) is used to increase participation rates. Until now, no convincing data exists addressing the impact of DUR on participation rates in trials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology and to explore factors associated with DUR. Methods We will search for reports of RCTs published within two years in 25 general medical journals with the highest impact factor according to the Journal Citation Report (JCR)-2010. Teams of two reviewers will determine eligibility and extract relevant information from eligible RCTs in duplicate and using standardized forms. We will report the prevalence of DUR trials, the reported reasons for using DUR, and perform a linear regression analysis to estimate the association between the randomization ratio and the associated factors, including participation rate, type of informed consent, clinical area, and so on. Discussion A clearer understanding of RCTs with DUR and its association with factors in trials, for example, participation rate, can optimize trial design and may have important implications for both researchers and users of the medical literature. PMID:24456965



Optimized survey design: efficiently exploiting the full information content offered by geoelectrical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the introduction of multi-electrode acquisition systems and 2D and 3D tomographic inversion codes, the geoelectrical method has experienced a renaissance and is currently the method of choice for many applications associated with hydrological problems. Despite the flexibility offered by the multi-electrode systems, the majority of applications reported in the literature continue to employ traditional electrode configurations such as the Wenner, Dipole-Dipole or Schlumberger arrays. These arrays were designed for efficient data acquisition using four-electrode recording systems, and may thus be not optimal for constraining 2D or 3D tomographic models. By using tools provided by statistical experimental design, we have shown that the resolution power of geoelectrical data can be improved substantially by appropriately combining "arbitrary" injecting and measuring dipoles. An important conclusion from these studies was that optimal data sets comprise many more measurements than traditional data sets. To ensure efficient data acquisition, we have developed a novel multi-electrode array that allows parallel measurements to be made, such that electrical currents are injected through two electrodes and the remaining electrodes measure the potential differences simultaneously with respect to a reference electrode that can be chosen arbitrarily; for an n-element electrode array, n-3 measurements can be made simultaneously. Despite the parallel data acquisition capability, there still exist a large number of possible (parallelized) measurement configurations out of which optimal configurations need to be identified prior to an experiment. This number of configurations could be reduced substantially by only using pole-pole or pole-dipole configuration. Since pole-pole configurations are susceptible to high noise levels, we employ the more robust pole-dipole configurations. With only 2n parallel pole-dipole scans, any other pole-dipole configuration can be reconstructed with acceptable accuracy. This leads to highly efficient field procedures and facilitates application of post-acquisition experimental design procedures that result in the identification of those electrode configurations that constrain the tomographic models in an optimal fashion.

Maurer, H.; Blome, M.



Quantitative analysis for the effect of plant oil and fatty acid on Tuber melanosporum culture by uniform design combined with partial least squares regression.  


Uniform design and partial least squares regression were adopted to quantitatively analyze the effects of plant oil and fatty acid as well as their addition amount and addition time on the performance of Tuber melanosporum submerged fermentation. The regression models showed the optimal scheme was the addition of 1.2 mL soybean oil on day 9, which was validated by experiment. The maximal biomass of 25.89 +/- 1.01 g/L and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production of 6.51 +/- 0.68 g/L were obtained, which were enhanced by 18.5% and 86%, respectively. Palmitic acid was identified to be the key component to stimulate the cell growth and EPS biosynthesis, and stearic acid was beneficial for the production of intracellular polysaccharides. Not only the biomass but also EPS production obtained in this work are the highest reported in the batch fermentation of truffle. PMID:20473608

Liu, Rui-Sang; Tang, Ya-Jie



Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.




Expert systems as design aids for artificial vision systems: a survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of software that would be to computer vision what expert system shells are to expert systems has been the subject of considerable inquiry over the last ten years; this paper reviews the pertinent publications and tries to present a coherent view of the field. We start by outlining two major differences between would be `vision shells' and conventional expert system shells. The first is the need for an intermediate level of symbolic representation between image pixels and the knowledge base. The second is that the mental operations that people perform to interpret images lie almost totally below the threshold of consciousness. Vision system designers therefore cannot, as domain experts normally do, examine their own mental processes and cast them into rules to extract information from images. The vision shell should thus contain, in addition to the usual knowledge engineering toolbox, knowledge on the pertinence of specific imaging operations towards various goals. After a review of the role of explicit knowledge in artificial vision, we examine the architecture a vision shell should have, and look at ways of facilitating the entry of domain-pertinent knowledge into it. Final remarks are made on knowledge representation and acquisition aspects particular to industrial applications.

Crevier, Daniel



Quantitative analysis of human ankle characteristics at different gait phases and speeds for utilizing in ankle-foot prosthetic design  

PubMed Central

Background Ankle characteristics vary in terms of gait phase and speed change. This study aimed to quantify the components of ankle characteristics, including quasi-stiffness and work in different gait phases and at various speeds. Methods The kinetic and kinematic data of 20 healthy participants were collected during normal gait at four speeds. Stance moment-angle curves were divided into three sub-phases including controlled plantarflexion, controlled dorsiflexion and powered plantarflexion. The slope of the moment-angle curves was quantified as quasi-stiffness. The area under the curves was defined as work. Results The lowest quasi-stiffness was observed in the controlled plantarflexion. The fitted line to moment-angle curves showed R2?>?0.8 at controlled dorsiflexion and powered plantarflexion. Quasi-stiffness was significantly different at different speeds (P?=?0.00). In the controlled dorsiflexion, the ankle absorbed energy; by comparison, energy was generated in the powered plantarflexion. A negative work value was recorded at slower speeds and a positive value was observed at faster speeds. Ankle peak powers were increased with walking speed (P?=?0.00). Conclusions Our findings suggested that the quasi-stiffness and work of the ankle joint can be regulated at different phases and speeds. These findings may be clinically applicable in the design and development of ankle prosthetic devices that can naturally replicate human walking at various gait speeds. PMID:24568175



Do We Need to Go Cellular? Assessing Political Media Consumption Using a Single-Frame Landline\\/Cellular Survey Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has been published on cellular phone only households and the challenges posed by cellular phones to traditional survey methodologies that attempt to generate representative samples using only landline telecommunications. This study reports analyses comparing two separate survey strata (Nlandline = 152, Ncellular = 153) collected simultaneously and nested within a single-frame survey of a state in the American Midwest for differences in

Megan R. Hill; John M. Tchernev; R. Lance Holbert




SciTech Connect

We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data cubes have 5.''6 FWHM spatial resolution, {approx}5 A FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600 A-6800 A range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to {approx}0.7R{sub 25}. These data cubes can be used to produce two-dimensional maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are described, as well as the construction of the data cube, our spectral fitting method, and the fitting of the stellar and ionized gas velocity fields. We also propose a new method to measure the inclination of nearly face-on systems based on the matching of the stellar and gas rotation curves using asymmetric drift corrections. VENGA will measure relevant physical parameters across different environments within these galaxies, allowing a series of studies on star formation, structure assembly, stellar populations, chemical evolution, galactic feedback, nuclear activity, and the properties of the interstellar medium in massive disk galaxies.

Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Weinzirl, Tim; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J. II; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Van den Bosch, Remco C. E. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Luo Rongxin; Hao Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China); Drory, Niv [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Fabricius, Maximilian [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Fisher, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Yoachim, Peter [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)



On Quantitizing  

PubMed Central

Quantitizing, commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance inquiry. Among these assumptions are that qualitative and quantitative data constitute two kinds of data, that quantitizing constitutes a unidirectional process essentially different from qualitizing, and that counting is an unambiguous process. Among the judgments are deciding what and how to count. Among the compromises are balancing numerical precision with narrative complexity. The standpoints of “conditional complementarity,” “critical remediation,” and “analytic alternation” clarify the added value of converting qualitative data into quantitative form. PMID:19865603

Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George




EPA Science Inventory

The National Stream Survey - Phase I, conducted during the spring of 1986, was designed to assess quantitatively the present chemical status of streams in regions of the eastern United States where aquatic resources are potentially at risk as a result of acidic deposition. A qual...


Attributions for Poverty: A Survey of Student’s Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, attribution for poverty have been investigated using 147 marketing students of Sunyani polytechnic who were selected through the use of convenient sample method. The paper is based on exploratory quantitative survey. With the use of self design questionnaire primary data were obtained from the field and analysed using SPSS 16.0. Percentages and frequencies as well as One-Way

Yeboah Asuamah Samuel; Kumi Ernest



Environmental management in the United Kingdom: new survey evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a snapshot of environmental management practices in the UK and discuss managerial responses to environmental issues in comparison with earlier research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A telephone interview survey approach is adopted encompassing both quantitative and qualitative open-ended questions with a sample of 167 UK companies stratified by firm size and industry

Frederik Dahlmann; Stephen Brammer; Andrew Millington



We All Want the Same Thing Results from a Roadway Design Survey of Pedestrians, Drivers, Bicyclists, and Transit Users in the Bay Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedestrians, bicyclists, drivers, and public transit users all desire similar roadway design features, at least according to findings from a recent intercept survey of 537 people along a major urban corridor in the San Francisco Bay Area. This research was sponsored by the California Department of Transportation to understand traveler preferences for street design that could increase perceived traffic safety,

Rebecca L. Sanders; Jill F. Cooper



Prevalence of coronary artery disease and coronary risk factors in Kerala, South India: A population surveyDesign and methods  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of reliable contemporary data on prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and risk factors in Indians. Only a few studies on prevalence of CAD have been conducted in Kerala, a Southern Indian state. The main objective of the Cardiological Society of India Kerala Chapter Coronary Artery Disease and Its Risk Factors Prevalence Study (CSI Kerala CRP Study) was to determine the prevalence of CAD and risk factors of CAD in men and women aged 20–79 years in urban and rural settings of three geographical areas of Kerala. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional population survey. We estimated the sample size based on an anticipated prevalence of 7.4% of CAD for rural and 11% for urban Kerala. The derived sample sizes for rural and urban areas were 3000 and 2400, respectively. The urban areas for sampling constituted one ward each from three municipal corporations at different parts of the state. The rural sample was drawn from two panchayats each in the same districts as the urban sample. One adult from each household in the age group of 20–59 years was selected using Kish method. All subjects between 60 and 79 years were included from each household. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess the risk factors, history of CAD, family history, educational status, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, physical activity and treatment for CAD; anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, electrocardiogram and fasting blood levels of glucose and lipids were recorded. PMID:23809375

Zachariah, Geevar; Harikrishnan, S.; Krishnan, M.N.; Mohanan, P.P.; Sanjay, G.; Venugopal, K.; Thankappan, K.R.



Quantitative Graphics in Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of quantitative graphics in newspapers requires achieving a balance between being accurate and getting the attention of the reader. The statistical representations in newspapers are drawn by graphic designers whose key technique is fusion--the striking combination of two visual images. This technique often results in visual puns,…

Tankard, James W., Jr.


A Dish-based Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessment of Dietary Intakes in Epidemiologic Studies in Iran: Design and Development  

PubMed Central

Background: Earlier forms of food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in Iran have extensive lists of foods, traditional categories and food-based design, mostly with the interviewer-administered approach. The aim of the current paper is to describe the development of a dish-based, machine-readable, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (DFQ). Methods: Within the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health and Nutrition project, we created a novel FFQ using Harvard FFQ as a model. Results: The following steps were taken to develop the questionnaire: Construction of a list of commonly consumed Iranian foods, definition of portion sizes, design of response options for consumption frequency of each food item and finally a pilot test of the preliminary DFQ. From a comprehensive list of foods and mixed dishes, we included those that were nutrient-rich, consumed reasonably often or contributed to between-person variations. We focused on mixed dishes, rather than their ingredients, along with foods. To shorten the list, the related food items or mixed dishes were categorized together in one food group. These exclusions resulted in a list of 106 foods or dishes in the questionnaire. The portion sizes used in the FFQ were obtained from our earlier studies that used dietary recalls and food records. The frequency response options for the food list varied from 6-9 choices from “never or less than once a month” to “12 or more times per day”. Conclusions: The DFQ could be a reasonable dietary assessment tool for future epidemiological studies in the country. Validation studies are required to assess the validity and reliability of this newly developed questionnaire. PMID:24554989

Keshteli, AH; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Rajaie, Somayeh; Askari, Gholamreza; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Adibi, Peyman



On Quantitizing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Quantitizing", commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance…

Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George



Biological effect of low-head sea lamprey barriers: Designs for extensive surveys and the value of incorporating intensive process-oriented research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four sampling designs for quantifying the effect of low-head sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) barriers on fish communities were evaluated, and the contribution of process-oriented research to the overall confidence of results obtained was discussed. The designs include: (1) sample barrier streams post-construction; (2) sample barrier and reference streams post-construction; (3) sample barrier streams pre- and post-construction; and (4) sample barrier and reference streams pre- and post-construction. In the statistical literature, the principal basis for comparison of sampling designs is generally the precision achieved by each design. In addition to precision, designs should be compared based on the interpretability of results and on the scale to which the results apply. Using data collected in a broad survey of streams with and without sea lamprey barriers, some of the tradeoffs that occur among precision, scale, and interpretability are illustrated. Although circumstances such as funding and availability of pre-construction data may limit which design can be implemented, a pre/post-construction design including barrier and reference streams provides the most meaningful information for use in barrier management decisions. Where it is not feasible to obtain pre-construction data, a design including reference streams is important to maintain the interpretability of results. Regardless of the design used, process-oriented research provides a framework for interpreting results obtained in broad surveys. As such, information from both extensive surveys and intensive process-oriented research provides the best basis for fishery management actions, and gives researchers and managers the most confidence in the conclusions reached regarding the effects of sea lamprey barriers.

Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Dodd, H.R.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.



ESO imaging survey: optical deep public survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents new five passbands (UBVRI) optical wide-field imaging data accumulated as part of the DEEP Public Survey (DPS) carried out as a public survey by the ESO Imaging Survey (EIS) project. Out of the 3 square degrees originally proposed, the survey covers 2.75 square degrees, in at least one band (normally R), and 1.00 square degrees in five passbands. The median seeing, as measured in the final stacked images, is 0.97 arcsec, ranging from 0.75 arcsec to 2.0 arcsec. The median limiting magnitudes (AB system, 2´´ aperture, 5? detection limit) are UAB=25.65, BAB=25.54, VAB=25.18, RAB = 24.8 and IAB =24.12 mag, consistent with those proposed in the original survey design. The paper describes the observations and data reduction using the EIS Data Reduction System and its associated EIS/MVM library. The quality of the individual images were inspected, bad images discarded and the remaining used to produce final image stacks in each passband, from which sources have been extracted. Finally, the scientific quality of these final images and associated catalogs was assessed qualitatively by visual inspection and quantitatively by comparison of statistical measures derived from these data with those of other authors as well as model predictions, and from direct comparison with the results obtained from the reduction of the same dataset using an independent (hands-on) software system. Finally to illustrate one application of this survey, the results of a preliminary effort to identify sub-mJy radio sources are reported. To the limiting magnitude reached in the R and I passbands the success rate ranges from 66 to 81% (depending on the fields). These data are publicly available at CDS. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile under program Nos. 164.O-0561, 169.A-0725, and 267.A-5729. Appendices A, B and C are only available in electronic form at

Mignano, A.; Miralles, J.-M.; da Costa, L.; Olsen, L. F.; Prandoni, I.; Arnouts, S.; Benoist, C.; Madejsky, R.; Slijkhuis, R.; Zaggia, S.



Surveys: Tracking Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Surveys are the scientific instrument of the social and behavioral sciences. The National Science Foundation (NSF) conducts or supports surveys that document peopleâs demographic information, income, attitudes, voting behavior, and feelings. Major survey activities supported include the General Social Survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the American National Election Studies. Other NSF surveys are the principal source of information about the science and engineering enterprise in the United States. An overview of survey design relative to sample selection and type of question is presented along with discussion of specific surveys and the future use of surveys.


Inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia: design, methods, call outcomes, costs and sample representativeness  

PubMed Central

Background In Australia telephone surveys have been the method of choice for ongoing jurisdictional population health surveys. Although it was estimated in 2011 that nearly 20% of the Australian population were mobile-only phone users, the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into these existing landline population health surveys has not occurred. This paper describes the methods used for the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an existing ongoing landline random digit dialling (RDD) health survey in an Australian state, the New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS). This paper also compares the call outcomes, costs and the representativeness of the resultant sample to that of the previous landline sample. Methods After examining several mobile phone pilot studies conducted in Australia and possible sample designs (screening dual-frame and overlapping dual-frame), mobile phone numbers were included into the NSWPHS using an overlapping dual-frame design. Data collection was consistent, where possible, with the previous years’ landline RDD phone surveys and between frames. Survey operational data for the frames were compared and combined. Demographic information from the interview data for mobile-only phone users, both, and total were compared to the landline frame using ?2 tests. Demographic information for each frame, landline and the mobile-only (equivalent to a screening dual frame design), and the frames combined (with appropriate overlap adjustment) were compared to the NSW demographic profile from the 2011 census using ?2 tests. Results In the first quarter of 2012, 3395 interviews were completed with 2171 respondents (63.9%) from the landline frame (17.6% landline only) and 1224 (36.1%) from the mobile frame (25.8% mobile only). Overall combined response, contact and cooperation rates were 33.1%, 65.1% and 72.2% respectively. As expected from previous research, the demographic profile of the mobile-only phone respondents differed most (more that were young, males, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, overseas born and single) compared to the landline frame responders. The profile of respondents from the two frames combined, with overlap adjustment, was most similar to the latest New South Wales (NSW) population profile. Conclusions The inclusion of the mobile phone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, did not impact negatively on response rates or data collection, and although costing more the design was still cost-effective because of the additional interviews that were conducted with young people, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and people who were born overseas resulting in a more representative overall sample. PMID:23173849



On the power of experimental designs for the detection of linkage between marker loci and quantitative loci in crosses between inbred lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The power of experiments aimed at detecting linkage between a quantitative locus and a marker locus, both segregating in the backross or F2 generation of a cross between two inbred lines, is examined. Given that the two lines are close to fixation for alternative alleles of both marker locus and quantitative locus, it is concluded that experiments involving a few

M. Soller; T. Brody; A. Genizi



Research Article A National Baseline Prevalence Survey of Schistosomiasis in the Philippines Using Stratified Two-Step Systematic Cluster Sampling Design  

E-print Network

License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soiltransmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion. 1.

Lydia Leonardo; Pilarita Rivera; Ofelia Saniel; Elena Villacorte; May Antonnette; Bobby Crisostomo; Leda Hern; Mario Baquilod; Edgardo Erce



Rational design of novel anti-microtubule agent (9-azido-noscapine) from quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) evaluation of noscapinoids.  


An anticough medicine, noscapine [(S)-3-((R)4-methoxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinolin-5-yl)-6,7-dimethoxyiso-benzofuran-1(3H)-one], was discovered in the authors' laboratory as a novel type of tubulin-binding agent that mitigates polymerization dynamics of microtubule polymers without changing overall subunit-polymer equilibrium. To obtain systematic insight into the relationship between the structural framework of noscapine scaffold and its antitumor activity, the authors synthesized strategic derivatives (including two new ones in this article). The IC(50) values of these analogs vary from 1.2 to 56.0 µM in human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells (CEM). Geometrical optimization was performed using semiempirical quantum chemical calculations at the 3-21G* level. Structures were in agreement with nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of molecular flexibility in solution and crystal structures. A genetic function approximation algorithm of variable selection was used to generate the quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model. The robustness of the QSAR model (R(2) = 0.942) was analyzed by values of the internal cross-validated regression coefficient (R(2) (LOO) = 0.815) for the training set and determination coefficient (R(2) (test) = 0.817) for the test set. Validation was achieved by rational design of further novel and potent antitumor noscapinoid, 9-azido-noscapine, and reduced 9-azido-noscapine. The experimentally determined value of pIC(50) for both the compounds (5.585 M) turned out to be very close to predicted pIC(50) (5.731 and 5.710 M). PMID:21972248

Santoshi, Seneha; Naik, Pradeep K; Joshi, Harish C



Stream Surveying  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The class breaks into groups of 3-4. Each week we go out to the same stream channel, and perform the stream survey activities in the USFS Harrelson document, one chapter per week. After the snow flies, collected data are used to calculate channel hydrologic and hydraulic data such as bankfull flow and critical shear stress. Designed for a geomorphology course

Williams, Karen


Yeasts in floral nectar: a quantitative survey  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims One peculiarity of floral nectar that remains relatively unexplored from an ecological perspective is its role as a natural habitat for micro-organisms. This study assesses the frequency of occurrence and abundance of yeast cells in floral nectar of insect-pollinated plants from three contrasting plant communities on two continents. Possible correlations between interspecific differences in yeast incidence and pollinator composition are also explored. Methods The study was conducted at three widely separated areas, two in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and one in the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico). Floral nectar samples from 130 species (37–63 species per region) in 44 families were examined microscopically for the presence of yeast cells. For one of the Spanish sites, the relationship across species between incidence of yeasts in nectar and the proportion of flowers visited by each of five major pollinator categories was also investigated. Key Results Yeasts occurred regularly in the floral nectar of many species, where they sometimes reached extraordinary densities (up to 4 × 105 cells mm?3). Depending on the region, between 32 and 44 % of all nectar samples contained yeasts. Yeast cell densities in the order of 104 cells mm?3 were commonplace, and densities >105 cells mm?3 were not rare. About one-fifth of species at each site had mean yeast cell densities >104 cells mm?3. Across species, yeast frequency and abundance were directly correlated with the proportion of floral visits by bumble-bees, and inversely with the proportion of visits by solitary bees. Conclusions Incorporating nectar yeasts into the scenario of plant–pollinator interactions opens up a number of intriguing avenues for research. In addition, with yeasts being as ubiquitous and abundant in floral nectars as revealed by this study, and given their astounding metabolic versatility, studies focusing on nectar chemical features should carefully control for the presence of yeasts in nectar samples. PMID:19208669

Herrera, Carlos M.; de Vega, Clara; Canto, Azucena; Pozo, Maria I.



The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Survey Design and Deep Public UBVRIz' Images and Catalogs of the Extended Hubble Deep Field-South  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present UBVRIz' optical images taken with MOSAIC on the CTIO 4 m telescope of the 0.32 deg2 Extended Hubble Deep Field-South. This is one of four fields comprising the MUSYC survey, which is optimized for the study of galaxies at z=3, active galactic nucleus (AGN) demographics, and Galactic structure. Our methods used for astrometric calibration, weighted image combination, and photometric calibration in AB magnitudes are described. We calculate corrected aperture photometry and its uncertainties and find through tests that these provide a significant improvement upon standard techniques. Our photometric catalog of 62,968 objects is complete to a total magnitude of RAB=25, with R-band counts consistent with results from the literature. We select z~=3 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates from their UVR colors and find a sky surface density of 1.4 arcmin-2 and an angular correlation function w(?)=(2.3+/-1.0)?-0.8, consistent with previous findings that high-redshift Lyman break galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos. Our images and catalogs are available online. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Gawiser, Eric; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Herrera, David; Maza, José; Castander, Francisco J.; Infante, Leopoldo; Lira, Paulina; Quadri, Ryan; Toner, Ruth; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Altmann, Martin; Assef, Roberto; Christlein, Daniel; Coppi, Paolo S.; Durán, MarÍa Fernanda; Franx, Marijn; Galaz, Gaspar; Huerta, Leonor; Liu, Charles; López, Sebastián; Méndez, René; Moore, David C.; Rubio, Mónica; Ruiz, MarÍa Teresa; Toft, Sune; Yi, Sukyoung K.



Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system---A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design  

SciTech Connect

As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over {pi} steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard'' methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document. 7 refs.

Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.



EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well as the correlates of engagement in these risk behaviours. PMID:21281466



Quantitative Literacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards.On this wiki page, you will find online lessons, activities, and projects that allow students a range of real-world contexts. The Content Collections section contains sites that offer sets of problems and illustrations that connect middle school math to down-to-earth settings. The Interdisciplinary Lessons and Activities section offers activities and projects ready for interdisciplinary teaching. Each of the following sections focuses on a math topic: Data Analysis and Display, Probability, Measurement, Number and Operations. The resources offer mathematics in settings that deliberately cross over into other areas of the curriculum. Finally, for teachers looking for support in teaching quantitative literacy, a new approach for us all, Background Information for Teachers presents a select set of professional resources.

Herrera, Terese




EPA Science Inventory

Assessing conditions on large bodies of water presets multiple statistical and logistical challenges. As part of the Upper Missouri River Program of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Project (EMAP) we surveyed water quality of Lake Oahe in July-August, 2002 using a spat...


Carleton Quantitative Inquiry, Reasoning, and Knowledge Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an era increasingly awash with numbers, how can one parse it all out? How is it possible to separate the proverbial quantitative chaff from the valuable wheat? Carleton College has taken on this weighty matter with their Quantitative Inquiry, Reasoning, and Knowledge Initiative (QuIRK). On the site, visitors will find sections that include Curricular Materials, Quantitative Reasoning Assessment, and Program Design. Some key resources for educators include "10 Foundational Quantitative Reasoning Questions" and examples of assignments and courses designed to teach quantitative reasoning.


Automated Quantitative Histomorphometry in Osteoarthritis  

E-print Network

Automated Quantitative Histomorphometry in Osteoarthritis Eigil Mølvig Jensen Supervised by Bjarne the images using software implemented image analysis methods. The features has been validated as end points Integrator System was designed and developed using standard methods of Object Oriented Analysis and Design


Identifying Influential Facilitators of Mathematics Professional Development: A Survey Analysis of Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper builds on results from a previous phenomenological study examining characteristics of influential facilitators of elementary mathematics professional development. The current study utilized a survey design where results from the qualitative investigation were quantitized to develop an instrument that allowed participants to identify…

Linder, Sandra M.; Eckhoff, Angela; Igo, Larry B.; Stegelin, Dolores



Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for combining research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining qualitative and quantitative methods, is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively integrate both fieldwork (e.g. case studies) and survey research are rare. Moreover, some journals tend tacitly to specialize by methodology thereby encouraging purity of method. The multi-method model of research while not new, has not been

Guy G. Gable



Design-Build and CM at Risk- comparative analysis for owner decision making based on case studies and project surveys  

E-print Network

for her patience and love. vi NOMENCLATURE CMAR Construction Management- At- Risk DB Design-Build DBB Design-Bid-Build ENR Engineering New Record GMP Guaranty Maximum Price IPD Integrated Project Delivery NCTM National Center for Therapeutics... ..................................... 34 5.3 Cost Data of TIPS Project .......................................................................... 36 5.4 Cost Data of NCTM Project ....................................................................... 37 5.5 Cost Comparison between...

Park, Soon Rock



A Retrospective Survey of Research Design and Statistical Analyses in Selected Chinese Medical Journals in 1998 and 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHigh quality clinical research not only requires advanced professional knowledge, but also needs sound study design and correct statistical analyses. The number of clinical research articles published in Chinese medical journals has increased immensely in the past decade, but study design quality and statistical analyses have remained suboptimal. The aim of this investigation was to gather evidence on the quality

Zhichao Jin; Danghui Yu; Luoman Zhang; Hong Meng; Jian Lu; Qingbin Gao; Yang Cao; Xiuqiang Ma; Cheng Wu; Qian He; Rui Wang; Jia He



Comparing Model-based and Design-based Structural Equation Modeling Approaches in Analyzing Complex Survey Data  

E-print Network

researcher can either use the ad-hoc robust sandwich standard error estimators to correct the standard error estimates (Design-based approach) or perform multilevel analysis to model the multilevel data structure (Model-based approach) to analyze dependent...

Wu, Jiun-Yu




Microsoft Academic Search

This paper was prepared for the conference on Doctoral Education in Design held in October, 1998 at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio (U.S.A.). Responding to the issues proposed by conference organizers, this paper addresses the questions: What are the job prospects for a Ph.D. in design? and What motivates interest (on a personal level) in doctoral education in

Jay Melican; Izabel Falcão Barros; Roberto Holguin; Jooyun Melanie Joh


Behavioral Norms and ExpectationsA Quantitative Approach To the Assessment of Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational culture—the shared beliefs and values guiding the thinking and behavioral styles of members—traditionally has been assessed by qualitative methods. However, quantitative approaches such as culture surveys offer important advantages for both cross-sectional organizational research and data-based cultural change programs. The Organizational Culture Inventory, an instrument designed for such uses, profiles the culture of organizations and their subunits in terms

Robert A. Cooke; Denise M. Rousseau



Towards a capabilities database to inform inclusive design: experimental investigation of effective survey-based predictors of human-product interaction.  


A key issue in the field of inclusive design is the ability to provide designers with an understanding of people's range of capabilities. Since it is not feasible to assess product interactions with a large sample, this paper assesses a range of proxy measures of design-relevant capabilities. It describes a study that was conducted to identify which measures provide the best prediction of people's abilities to use a range of products. A detailed investigation with 100 respondents aged 50-80 years was undertaken to examine how they manage typical household products. Predictor variables included self-report and performance measures across a variety of capabilities (vision, hearing, dexterity and cognitive function), component activities used in product interactions (e.g. using a remote control, touch screen) and psychological characteristics (e.g. self-efficacy, confidence with using electronic devices). Results showed, as expected, a higher prevalence of visual, hearing, dexterity, cognitive and product interaction difficulties in the 65-80 age group. Regression analyses showed that, in addition to age, performance measures of vision (acuity, contrast sensitivity) and hearing (hearing threshold) and self-report and performance measures of component activities are strong predictors of successful product interactions. These findings will guide the choice of measures to be used in a subsequent national survey of design-relevant capabilities, which will lead to the creation of a capability database. This will be converted into a tool for designers to understand the implications of their design decisions, so that they can design products in a more inclusive way. PMID:22133976

Tenneti, Raji; Johnson, Daniel; Goldenberg, Liz; Parker, Richard A; Huppert, Felicia A



Electronic Survey Methodology Page 1 Electronic Survey Methodology  

E-print Network

Electronic Survey Methodology Page 1 Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard, Maryland 2002 © Andrews, Nonnecke and Preece #12;Electronic Survey Methodology Page 2 Conducting Research on the Internet: Electronic survey Design, Development and Implementation Guidelines

Nonnecke, Blair


Fundamentals of quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this article is to introduce some important fundamental concepts of quantitative research to readers especially novice researchers. It comprises types of research, definitions of quantitative research, different types and assumptions of quantitative research, when to use and not to use quantitative methods, advantages, common approaches and samples of quantitative research, and common misconceptions. Besides, a set

Suphat Sukamolson


Reflective Filters Design for Self-Filtering Narrowband Ultraviolet Imaging Experiment Wide-Field Surveys (NUVIEWS) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the design of multilayer reflective filters for the self-filtering cameras of the NUVIEWS project. Wide angle self-filtering cameras were designed to image the C IV (154.9 nm) line emission, and H2 Lyman band fluorescence (centered at 161 nm) over a 20 deg x 30 deg field of view. A key element of the filter design includes the development of pi-multilayers optimized to provide maximum reflectance at 154.9 nm and 161 nm for the respective cameras without significant spectral sensitivity to the large cone angle of the incident radiation. We applied self-filtering concepts to design NUVIEWS telescope filters that are composed of three reflective mirrors and one folding mirror. The filters with narrowband widths of 6 and 8 rim at 154.9 and 161 nm, respectively, have net throughputs of more than 50 % with average blocking of out-of-band wavelengths better than 3 x 10(exp -4)%.

Park, Jung- Ho; Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.



Web Survey Design in ASP.Net 2.0: A Simple Task with One Line of Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few years, more and more companies have been investing in electronic commerce (EC) by designing and implementing Web-based applications. In the world of practice, the importance of using Web technology to reach individual customers has been presented by many researchers. This paper presents an easy way of conducting marketing…

Liu, Chang



Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Raef, A.



Measuring health literacy in populations: illuminating the design and development process of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q)  

PubMed Central

Background Several measurement tools have been developed to measure health literacy. The tools vary in their approach and design, but few have focused on comprehensive health literacy in populations. This paper describes the design and development of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q), an innovative, comprehensive tool to measure health literacy in populations. Methods Based on a conceptual model and definition, the process involved item development, pre-testing, field-testing, external consultation, plain language check, and translation from English to Bulgarian, Dutch, German, Greek, Polish, and Spanish. Results The development process resulted in the HLS-EU-Q, which entailed two sections, a core health literacy section and a section on determinants and outcomes associated to health literacy. The health literacy section included 47 items addressing self-reported difficulties in accessing, understanding, appraising and applying information in tasks concerning decisions making in healthcare, disease prevention, and health promotion. The second section included items related to, health behaviour, health status, health service use, community participation, socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Conclusions By illuminating the detailed steps in the design and development process of the HLS-EU-Q, it is the aim to provide a deeper understanding of its purpose, its capability and its limitations for others using the tool. By stimulating a wide application it is the vision that HLS-EU-Q will be validated in more countries to enhance the understanding of health literacy in different populations. PMID:24112855



Quantitative real-time PCR primer design, cDNA amplification and sequence analysis from 22 genes mainly associated with lipid metabolism in Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata) ducks.  


Few genomic tools are available in ducks. To produce some new resources, we have designed Pekin (Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy (Cairina moschata) duck-specific primers for 22 genes involved mainly in lipid metabolism, and to a lesser extent in carbohydrate metabolism and other functions. Primers were designed according to duck sequences when available and otherwise from the corresponding conserved regions in chicken and human sequences. These primers allowed quantitative RT-PCR amplification of RNA from Pekin and Muscovy ducks. Amplified cDNA products from both species were sequenced and were found to be very similar to chicken sequences (about 94%). This work provides additional genomic resources and polymorphism information for some genes in duck species and represents a first step towards gene expression analyses in Pekin and Muscovy ducks. PMID:18454809

Hérault, F; Robert, E; Diot, C



Precursor to lunar resource commercialization: Preliminary design of a robotic roving vehicle payload to survey regolith volatile gas concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes a lunar robotic roving vehicle payload designed to assay the volatile gases that can be recovered by heating the lunar maria regolith. These gases include H2, He, N2, CO2, and CO. He is of interest because it contains a high abundance of the 3He isotope which has been identified as a potential fuel for nuclear fusion power plants sited on the earth. H2 could be reacted with the mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) to form H2O which along with the gases N2 and CO2 would be useful for human life-support. The primary objective of the robotic mission payload would be to quantify the abundance, location, and recovery technology required to exploit these lunar resources. This information would be communicated to earth stations so that extraction of significant quantities of these volatiles for commercial use could be planned and initiated. In this preliminary design presented, the payload, robotic roving vehicle, and landing stage were optimized to fit on a medium sized current production launch vehicle (Delta II 7925) to reduce mission cost and make a near term schedule feasible.

Bartos, Bruce; Duffie, Neil; Sviatoslavsky, Igor; Wittenberg, Layton; Kulcinski, Gerald



Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.



OSCE Mission Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on January 17 by the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE), this survey provides an overview of the mandates and other key information related to current OSCE field activities. Intended for practitioners involved in support of OSCE field activities as well as the interested public, the survey is designed to "facilitate reference to official OSCE documents and decisions on the subject." Users can read the survey by chapter in HTML format or in its entirety in .pdf format.


Thermodynamics-based Rational Design of DNA Block Copolymers for Quantitative Detection of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms by Affinity Capillary Electrophoresis.  


Diblock copolymers composed of allele-specific oligodeoxyribonucleotide (ODN) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are used as an affinity probe of free-solution capillary electrophoresis to quantitatively detect single-base substitutions in genetic samples. During electrophoresis, the probe binds strongly to a wild-type single-stranded DNA analyte (WT) through hybridization, while it binds weakly to its single-base-mutated DNA analyte (MT) due to a mismatch. Complex formation with the probe augments the hydrodynamic friction of either analyte, thereby retarding its migration. The difference in affinity strength leads to separation of the WT, MT, and contaminants, including the PCR primers used for sample preparation. The optimal sequence of the probe's ODN segment is rationally determined in such a way that the binding constant between the ODN segment and MT at the capillary temperature is on the order of 10(6) M(-1). The validity of this guideline is verified using various chemically synthesized DNA analytes, as well as those derived from a bacterial genome. The peak area ratio of MT agrees well with its feed ratio, suggesting the prospective use of the present method in SNP allele frequency estimation. PMID:25358129

Kimura, Ayumi; Kanayama, Naoki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Shibata, Hideaki; Nakashita, Hideo; Takarada, Tohru; Maeda, Mizuo



AIPS technology survey report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a technology survey conducted for the NASA/JSC by the CSDL during Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) program at the CSDL are discussed. The purpose of the survey was to ensure that all technology relevant to the configuration, design, development, verification, implementation, and validation of an advanced information processing system, whether existing or under development and soon to be available, would be duly considered in the development of the AIPS. The emphasis in the survey was on technology items which were clearly relevant to the AIPS. Requirements were developed which guided the planning of contacts with the outside sources to be surveyed, and established practical limits on the scope and content of the Technology Survey. Subjects surveyed included architecture, software, hardware, methods for evaluation of reliability and performance, and methods for the verification of the AIPS design and the validation of the AIPS implementation. Survey requirements and survey results in each of these areas are presented, including analyses of the potential effects on the AIPS development process of using or not using the surveyed technology items. Another output of the survey was the identification of technology areas of particular relevance to the AIPS and for which further development, in some cases by the CSDL and in some cases by the NASA, would be fruitful. Appendices are provided in which are presented: (1) reports of some of the actual survey interactions with industrial and other outside information sources; (2) the literature list from the comprehensive literature survey which was conducted; (3) reduced-scale images of an excerpt ('Technology Survey' viewgraphs) from the set of viewgraphs used at the 14 April 1983 Preliminary Requirements Review by the CSDL for the NASA; and (4) reduced-scale images of the set of viewgraphs used in the AIPS Technology Survey Review presentation to the NASA monitors by the CSDL at the NASA Langley Research Center on 28 Sep. 1983.

Ogletree, Glenn (editor)



Teaching quantitative biology: goals, assessments, and resources.  


More than a decade has passed since the publication of BIO2010, calling for an increased emphasis on quantitative skills in the undergraduate biology curriculum. In that time, relatively few papers have been published that describe educational innovations in quantitative biology or provide evidence of their effects on students. Using a "backward design" framework, we lay out quantitative skill and attitude goals, assessment strategies, and teaching resources to help biologists teach more quantitatively. Collaborations between quantitative biologists and education researchers are necessary to develop a broader and more appropriate suite of assessment tools, and to provide much-needed evidence on how particular teaching strategies affect biology students' quantitative skill development and attitudes toward quantitative work. PMID:25368425

Aikens, Melissa L; Dolan, Erin L



Coverage Evaluation of Academic Libraries Survey (ALS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates universe coverage, data coverage, and response rates of the Academic Libraries Survey. Includes examination of survey design and data collection, perceptions of regional survey coordinators, and reporting by public versus private institutions. (Author)

Marston, Christopher C.



Flat conductor cable survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design handbook contains data and illustrations concerned with commercial and Government flat-conductor-cable connecting and terminating hardware. Material was obtained from a NASA-sponsored industry-wide survey of approximately 150 companies and Government agencies.

Swanson, C. R.; Walker, G. L.



Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information  

PubMed Central

Background In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Methods Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Results Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame compared to the dual-phone users in the landline frame. The overall weight effect for the first quarter of 2012 was 1.93 and the coefficient of variation of the weights was 0.96. The weight effects for 2012 were similar to, and in many cases less than, the effects found in the corresponding quarter of the 2011 NSWPHS when only a landline based sample was used. Conclusions The inclusion of mobile phone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, improved the coverage of the survey and an appropriate weighing procedure is feasible, although it added substantially to the complexity of the weighting strategy. Access to accurate Australian, State and Territory estimates of the number of landline and mobile phone numbers and type of phone use by at least age group and sex would greatly assist in the weighting of dual-frame surveys in Australia. PMID:25189826



Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book looks at quantitative research methods in education. The book is structured to start with chapters on conceptual issues and designing quantitative research studies before going on to data analysis. While each chapter can be studied separately, a better understanding will be reached by reading the book sequentially. This book is intended…

Muijs, Daniel




E-print Network

(TTS) PROGRAM 3 3. PLANNING ISSUES WITHIN THE GTA 7 4. PANEL SURVEYS 10 5. OTHER SURVEY ISSUES 43 6.1 Alternative GTA Panel Survey Design Options 44 List of Tables Page No. 2.1 TTS Aggregate Attributes 45 6.1 Preliminary Cost Estimates for a GTA Panel Survey 46 #12;Panels & Other Surveys 1 1

Toronto, University of


Quantitative models for reverse logistics: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the recently emerged field of reverse logistics. The management of return flows induced by the various forms of reuse of products and materials in industrial production processes has received growing attention throughout this decade. Many authors have proposed quantitative models taking those changes in the logistics environment into account. However, no general framework has been suggested yet.

Moritz Fleischmann; Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Rommert Dekker; Erwin van der Laan; Jo A. E. E. van Nunen; Luk N. Van Wassenhove




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods.  


Ecologists often discount presence-absence surveys as a poor way to gain insight into population dynamics, in part because these surveys are not amenable to many standard statistical tests. Still, presence-absence surveys are sometimes the only feasible alternative for monitoring large areas when funds are limited, especially for sparse or difficult-to-detect species. I undertook a detailed simulation study to compare the power of presence-absence, count, and time-to-encounter surveys to detect regional declines in a population. I used a modeling approach that simulates both population numbers and the monitoring process, accounting for observation and other measurement errors. In gauging the efficacy of presence-absence surveys versus other approaches, I varied the number of survey sites, the spatial variation in encounter rate, the mean encounter rate, and the type of population loss. My results showed that presence-absence data can be as or more powerful than count data in many cases. Quantitative guidelines for choosing between presence-absence surveys and count surveys depend on the biological and logistical constraints governing a conservation monitoring situation. Generally, presence-absence surveys work best when there is little variability in abundance among the survey sites, the organism is rare, and the species is difficult to detect so that the time spent getting to each survey site is less than or equal to the time spent surveying each site. Count surveys work best otherwise. I present a case study with count data on the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to illustrate how the method might be used with field-survey data. The case study demonstrates that a count survey would be the most cost-effective design but would entail reduction in the number of sites. If this site reduction is not desirable, a presence-absence survey would be the most cost-effective survey. PMID:16909580

Pollock, Jacob E



Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sophisticated quantitative skills are an essential tool for the professional geoscientist. While students learn many of these sophisticated skills in graduate school, it is increasingly important that they have a strong grounding in quantitative geoscience as undergraduates. Faculty have developed many strong approaches to teaching these skills in a wide variety of geoscience courses. A workshop in June 2005 brought together eight faculty teaching surface processes and climate change to discuss and refine activities they use and to publish them on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website ( for broader use. Workshop participants in consultation with two mathematics faculty who have expertise in math education developed six review criteria to guide discussion: 1) Are the quantitative and geologic goals central and important? (e.g. problem solving, mastery of important skill, modeling, relating theory to observation); 2) Does the activity lead to better problem solving? 3) Are the quantitative skills integrated with geoscience concepts in a way that makes sense for the learning environment and supports learning both quantitative skills and geoscience? 4) Does the methodology support learning? (e.g. motivate and engage students; use multiple representations, incorporate reflection, discussion and synthesis) 5) Are the materials complete and helpful to students? 6) How well has the activity worked when used? Workshop participants found that reviewing each others activities was very productive because they thought about new ways to teach and the experience of reviewing helped them think about their own activity from a different point of view. The review criteria focused their thinking about the activity and would be equally helpful in the design of a new activity. We invite a broad international discussion of the criteria( Teaching activities can be found on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website ( In addition to the teaching activity collection (85 activites), this site contains a variety of resources to assist faculty with the methods they use to teach quantitative skills at both the introductory and advanced levels; information about broader efforts in quantitative literacy involving other science disciplines, and a special section of resources for students who are struggling with their quantitative skills. The site is part of the Digital Library for Earth Science Education and has been developed by geoscience faculty in collaboration with mathematicians and mathematics educators with funding from the National Science Foundation.

Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.



Towards a flexible online mixed method design with a feedback loop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of mixed methods design relates to the research studies that combine qualitative and quantitative approaches. However,\\u000a most of these studies are tailored to specific research problem in a particular study and are typically limited to a fixed\\u000a sequence of qualitative and quantitative approaches (e.g. qualitative interviews followed by a survey or vice-versa). This\\u000a limitation historically arises from time,

Bojana Lobe; Vasja Vehovar




EPA Science Inventory

Methods applicable to zooplankton sampling and analysis in quantitative baseline and monitoring surveys are evaluated and summarized. Specific recommendations by managers must take into account characteristics of the water mass under investigation, the abundance of contained zoop...


Quantitative research and issues of political sensitivity in rural China  

E-print Network

Political sensitivity is always a challenge for the scholar doing fieldwork in nondemocratic and transitional systems, especially when doing surveys and quantitative research. Not only are more research topics likely to ...

Tsai, Lily L.


HPLC and HPTLC methods by design for quantitative characterization and in vitro anti-oxidant activity of polyherbal formulation containing Rheum emodi.  


Safoof-e-Pathar phori (SPP) is a traditional polyherbal formulation and has been used since long time for its anti-urolithiatic activity. It contains three plant constituents Didymocarpous pedicellata, Dolichous biflorus and Rheum emodi. Emodin and chrysophanic acid were selected as chemical markers for SPP and quantified using simultaneous HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods in R. emodi and in SPP. The simultaneous methods were found linear r(2) = 0.991 in a wide range (10-800 ng spot(-1) with HPTLC, 5-500 µg mL(-1) with HPLC) precise, accurate and robust for both the drugs. Anti-oxidant activity of SPP, R. emodi as well as standard emodin and chrysophanic acid were determined by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical), which showed better activity of R. emodi (IC50 = 12.27) extract when compared with SPP (IC50 = 32.99) and standard drugs (IC50 = 66.81). The robustness of methods were proved by applying the Box-Behnken response surface design software and other validation parameters evaluated were satisfactorily met; hence, the developed method found suitable for application in the quality control of several formulations containing emodin and chrysophanic acid. PMID:23978770

Ahmad, Wasim; Zaidi, Syed Mohammad Arif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Ahmad, Sayeed



Impact of physics education research on the teaching of introductory quantitative physics in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Fall of 2008 we designed and administered a web survey to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices of physics faculty. The survey was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (a 50.3% response rate). This paper presents results of one part of the survey where faculty were asked to rate their level of knowledge and use of 24 Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS) that are applicable to an introductory quantitative physics course. Almost all faculty (87.1%) indicated familiarity with one or more RBIS and approximately half of faculty (48.1%) said that they currently use at least one RBIS. Results also indicate that faculty rarely use RBIS as recommended by the developer, but instead commonly make significant modifications.

Henderson, Charles R.; Dancy, Melissa H.



A Dublin schools smoking survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In this paper the results of a survey of 4,500 boys and girls aged 11-18 years in Dublin city and county are analysed. The\\u000a survey was designed to elicit information on smoking habits. The survey population covered Secondary, Secondary tops and Vocational\\u000a Schools-the intermediate and leaving certificate cycles.

Angus O’rourke; Noelie O’sullivan; Keith Wilson-Davis



National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) is a national survey designed to collect information about ambulatory medical care services in the United States. Patient data is collected from physicians primarily engaged in direct patient care, excluding those in the specialties of anesthesiology, pathology, and radiology. The survey was conducted annually from 1973 to 1981, in 1985, and annually since 1989.


Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-? mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NF?B was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of I?B? degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms. PMID:25009775

Stamellou, E.; Storz, D.; Botov, S.; Ntasis, E.; Wedel, J.; Sollazzo, S.; Kramer, B.K.; van Son, W.; Seelen, M.; Schmalz, H.G.; Schmidt, A.; Hafner, M.; Yard, B.A.



Use of Web and In-Person Survey Modes to Gather Data From Young Adults on Sex and Drug Use: An Evaluation of Cost, Time, and Survey Error Based on a Randomized Mixed-Mode Design  

PubMed Central

In a randomized test of mixed-mode data collection strategies, 386 participants in the Raising Healthy Children (RHC) Project were either (1) asked to complete a survey over the Internet and later offered the opportunity to complete the survey in person or (2) first offered an in-person survey, with Web follow-up. The web-first condition resulted in cost savings while the overall completion rates for the two conditions were similar. On average, in-person-first condition participants completed surveys earlier in the field period than web-first condition participants. Based on intent-to-treat analyses, little evidence of condition effects on response bias, with respect to rates or levels of reported behavior, was found. PMID:19029360

McMorris, Barbara J.; Petrie, Renee S.; Catalano, Richard F.; Fleming, Charles B.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Abbott, Robert D.



Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of conservation concern.

Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.



Appendix of Surveys from the Provider Survey Methods Workshop

In November 2010, ARP sponsored a Provider Survey Methods Workshop to review and discuss current methodologies in designing and fielding large-scale surveys of physicians and medical group practices. The workshop included a review of methods used in fielding and reporting on large-scale provider surveys over the decade 2000-2010. The following is an Appendix of the 117 surveys included in the review.


Application of TaqMan fluorescent probe-based quantitative real-time PCR assay for the environmental survey of Legionella spp. and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water reservoirs in Taiwan.  


In this study, TaqMan fluorescent quantitative real-time PCR was performed to quantify Legionella species in reservoirs. Water samples were collected from 19 main reservoirs in Taiwan, and 12 (63.2%) were found to contain Legionella spp. The identified species included uncultured Legionella spp., L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii. The concentrations of Legionella spp. and L. pneumophila in the water samples were in the range of 1.8×10(2)-2.6×10(3) and 1.6×10(2)-2.4×10(2) cells/L, respectively. The presence and absence of Legionella spp. in the reservoir differed significantly in pH values. These results highlight the importance that L. pneumophila, L. jordanis, and L. drancourtii are potential pathogens in the reservoirs. The presence of L. pneumophila in reservoirs may be a potential public health concern that must be further examined. PMID:24867705

Kao, Po-Min; Hsu, Bing-Mu; Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Ji, Wen-Tsai; Huang, Po-Hsiang; Hsueh, Chih-Jen; Chiang, Chuen-Sheue; Huang, Shih-Wei; Huang, Yu-Li



The Survey Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.



Imaging without Fluorescence: Nonlinear Optical Microscopy for Quantitative Cellular Imaging.  


Quantitative single-cell analysis enables the characterization of cellular systems with a level of detail that cannot be achieved with ensemble measurement. In this Feature we explore quantitative cellular imaging applications with nonlinear microscopy techniques. We first offer an introductory tutorial on nonlinear optical processes and then survey a range of techniques that have proven to be useful for quantitative live cell imaging without fluorescent labels. PMID:25079337

Streets, Aaron M; Li, Ang; Chen, Tao; Huang, Yanyi



Graduate Student Survey: Questions Graduate Student Survey  

E-print Network

Administration Public Health Sociology Soil Science Theoretical Physics #12;4 Urban Design Urban Planning Excellent Good Average Fair Poor N/A i. Graduate student activities Excellent Good Average Fair in this questionnaire that can disclose your identity. Thank you for taking the time to complete this important survey

Shihadeh, Alan


Design, Data Collection, Monitoring, Interview Administration Time, and Data Editing in the 1993 National Household Education Survey (NHES:93). Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Household Education Survey (NHES) is a data collection system of the National Center for Education Statistics that collects and publishes data on the condition of education in the United States. It is a telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized population of the country, and it focuses on issues that are best studied through…

Brick, J. Michael; Collins, Mary A.; Nolin, Mary Jo; Davies, Elizabeth; Feibus, Mary L.


A Survey of Systemic Risk Analytics  

E-print Network

We provide a survey of 31 quantitative measures of systemic risk in the economics and finance literature, chosen to span key themes and issues in systemic risk measurement and management. We motivate these measures from ...

Bisias, Dimitrios


Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a survey of existing hypertext systems, their applications, and their design. It is both an introduction to the world of hypertext and, at a deeper cut, a survey of some of the most important design issues that go into fashioning a hypertext environment. The concept of hypertext is quite simple: Windows on the screen are associated with

Jeff Conklin



Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24833697

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd



Engineering DesignEngineering Design ...... ... is a creative process,... is a creative process,  

E-print Network

good design decisions.govern good design decisions. A good designer needs to useA good designer needs) ·· Literature and patent surveysLiterature and patent surveys An inventive design approachAn inventive design

Kostic, Milivoje M.


A whole genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting milk protein percentage in Israeli-Holstein cattle, by means of selective milk DNA pooling in a daughter design, using an adjusted false discovery rate criterion.  

PubMed Central

Selective DNA pooling was employed in a daughter design to screen all bovine autosomes for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting estimated breeding value for milk protein percentage (EBVP%). Milk pools prepared from high and low daughters of each of seven sires were genotyped for 138 dinucleotide microsatellites. Shadow-corrected estimates of sire allele frequencies were compared between high and low pools. An adjusted false discovery rate (FDR) method was employed to calculate experimentwise significance levels and empirical power. Significant associations with milk protein percentage were found for 61 of the markers (adjusted FDR = 0.10; estimated power, 0.68). The significant markers appear to be linked to 19--28 QTL. Mean allele substitution effects of the putative QTL averaged 0.016 (0.009--0.028) in units of the within-sire family standard deviation of EBVP% and summed to 0.460 EBVP%. Overall QTL heterozygosity was 0.40. The identified QTL appear to account for all of the variation in EBVP% in the population. Through use of selective DNA pooling, 4400 pool data points provided the statistical power of 600,000 individual data points. PMID:11290723

Mosig, M O; Lipkin, E; Khutoreskaya, G; Tchourzyna, E; Soller, M; Friedmann, A



Quantitative nuclear hepatology  

SciTech Connect

This is the first in a series of four Continuing Education articles on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) compare the radiopharmaceuticals available for hepatobiliary imaging; 2) discuss quantitation of hepatobiliary studies; and 3) discuss the clinical applications of these techniques.

Gilbert, S.A.; Brown, P.H.; Krishnamurthy, G.T.



Modern quantitative schlieren techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schlieren optical techniques have traditionally been used to qualitatively visualize refractive flowfields in transparent media. Modern schlieren optics, however, are increasingly focused on obtaining quantitative information such as temperature and density fields in a flow -- once the sole purview of interferometry -- without the need for coherent illumination. Quantitative data are obtained from schlieren images by integrating the measured

Michael Hargather; Gary Settles



Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey

Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.



Iron deficiency in older people: Interactions between food and nutrient intakes with biochemical measures of iron; further analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey of people aged 65 years and over  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To quantitatively investigate relationships between food consumption, nutrient intake and biochemical markers of iron status in a population of older people.Design: National Diet and Nutrition Survey: cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative population of men and women aged 65 y and over.Setting: Mainland Great BritainSubjects: 1268 participants (651 men and 617 women) who provided both dietary intake and blood

W Doyle; H Crawley; H Robert; CJ Bates; Wendy Doyle



A Framework for Quantitative Security Analysis of Machine Learning  

E-print Network

for quantitative security analysis of machine learning methods. Key issus of this framework are a formalA Framework for Quantitative Security Analysis of Machine Learning Pavel Laskov Universität--Parameter learning; I.5.2 [Pattern Recognition]: Design Methodology--Classifier design and evaluation General Terms

Freytag, Johann-Christoph


Recapturing Quantitative Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a classroom activity on estimating animal populations. Uses shoe boxes and candies to emphasize the importance of mathematics in biology while introducing the methods of quantitative ecology. (JRH)

Pernezny, Ken; And Others



Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this module, Wes Junker, retired Senior Branch Forecaster at NCEP/HPC provides an introduction to Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting. This presentation assumes a familiarity with basic meteorological processes.




Quantitative film radiography  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.



Quantitative PCR Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This protocol describes how to genotype mice using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The protocol focuses specifically on Ts65Dn mice, but can be used as a basis for genotyping ohter strains.

The Jackson Laboratory (The Jackson Laboratory)



Multivariate Quantitative Chemical Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technique of multivariate quantitative chemical analysis devised for use in determining relative proportions of two components mixed and sprayed together onto object to form thermally insulating foam. Potentially adaptable to other materials, especially in process-monitoring applications in which necessary to know and control critical properties of products via quantitative chemical analyses of products. In addition to chemical composition, also used to determine such physical properties as densities and strengths.

Kinchen, David G.; Capezza, Mary



The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of a survey of the potential demand for electric vehicles (EVs) among a subset of California households. We limit our analysis to one group of potential hybrid households. These households own two or more light duty vehicles and buy new vehicles of the body styles we expect will be offered as electric vehicles. These characteristics identify

Thomas Turrentine; Kenneth Kurani




Microsoft Academic Search

Using detailed interviews and data on 130 commercial program participants we explored resource efficiency program benefits beyond bill or energy savings. As one component of the evaluation of a commercial audit program, we augmented the survey discussions of barriers, budgets, and program participation decisions. We also gathered detailed information on the array of benefits participants recognized from the program. Respondents

Dennis Pearson


Survey of Solar Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven


A Survey Transition Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.




EPA Science Inventory

The Maryland Biological Stream Survey (MBSS) is a multi-year probability-based sampling program designed to assess the status of biological resources in non-tidal streams of Maryland. The MBSS is quantifying the extent to which acidic deposition and other human activities have af...



EPA Science Inventory

National Alcohol Survey (NAS) is designed to assess the trends in drinking practices and problems in the national population, including attitudes, norms, treatment and experiences and adverse consequences. It also studies the effects of public policy on drinking practices (i.e., ...


The Impact of Physics Education Research on the Teaching of Introductory Quantitative Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Fall of 2008 a web survey, designed to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices, was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (a 50.3% response rate). This paper presents results of one part of the survey where faculty were asked to rate their level of knowledge and use of 24 Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS) that are applicable to an introductory quantitative physics course. Almost all faculty (87.1%) indicated familiarity with one or more RBIS and approximately half of faculty (48.1%) say that they currently use at least one RBIS. Results also indicate that faculty rarely use RBIS as recommended by the developer, but instead commonly make significant modifications.

Henderson, Charles R.; Dancy, Melissa H.



Accounting for Imperfect Detection in Ecology: A Quantitative Review  

PubMed Central

Detection in studies of species abundance and distribution is often imperfect. Assuming perfect detection introduces bias into estimation that can weaken inference upon which understanding and policy are based. Despite availability of numerous methods designed to address this assumption, many refereed papers in ecology fail to account for non-detection error. We conducted a quantitative literature review of 537 ecological articles to measure the degree to which studies of different taxa, at various scales, and over time have accounted for imperfect detection. Overall, just 23% of articles accounted for imperfect detection. The probability that an article incorporated imperfect detection increased with time and varied among taxa studied; studies of vertebrates were more likely to incorporate imperfect detection. Among articles that reported detection probability, 70% contained per-survey estimates of detection that were less than 0.5. For articles in which constancy of detection was tested, 86% reported significant variation. We hope that our findings prompt more ecologists to consider carefully the detection process when designing studies and analyzing results, especially for sub-disciplines where incorporation of imperfect detection in study design and analysis so far has been lacking. PMID:25356904

Kellner, Kenneth F.; Swihart, Robert K.



Assimilation and Language. Survey Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pew Hispanic Center/Kaiser Family Foundation 2002 National Survey of Latinos explored the attitudes and experiences of Latinos on a wide variety of topics. The survey sample was designed to include enough Hispanics from various backgrounds and national origin groups so that in addition to describing Latinos overall, comparisons also could be…

Pew Hispanic Center, 2004



Student Intent Survey, Fall 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Student Intent Survey at Westchester Community College (WCC), in New York, is designed to determine students' primary reasons for attending WCC, where they learned about the college, and their future plans for completing their education. In November 1994, the survey was distributed to students in 66 English Literature and Composition courses,…

Westchester Community Coll., Valhalla, NY. Office of Institutional Research.


The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is currently by far the most ambitious proposed ground-based optical survey. With initial funding from the US National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories and private sponsors, the design and development efforts are well underway at many institutions, including top universities and leading national laboratories. The main science themes that drive the

Zeljko Ivezic



Internet dating: a British survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – An online survey was carried out with the purpose of finding out the extent to which internet users subscribe to online dating services. The paper aims to assess users' experiences of such services and their eventual outcomes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were obtained through a self-completion online questionnaire survey posted on the website of a leading internet research agency,

Barrie Gunter



Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter B  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525



Targeted quantitation of proteins by mass spectrometry.  


Quantitative measurement of proteins is one of the most fundamental analytical tasks in a biochemistry laboratory, but widely used immunochemical methods often have limited specificity and high measurement variation. In this review, we discuss applications of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, which allows sensitive, precise quantitative analyses of peptides and the proteins from which they are derived. Systematic development of MRM assays is permitted by databases of peptide mass spectra and sequences, software tools for analysis design and data analysis, and rapid evolution of tandem mass spectrometer technology. Key advantages of MRM assays are the ability to target specific peptide sequences, including variants and modified forms, and the capacity for multiplexing that allows analysis of dozens to hundreds of peptides. Different quantitative standardization methods provide options that balance precision, sensitivity, and assay cost. Targeted protein quantitation by MRM and related mass spectrometry methods can advance biochemistry by transforming approaches to protein measurement. PMID:23517332

Liebler, Daniel C; Zimmerman, Lisa J



Surveying System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.



ICF-Based Disability Survey in a Rural Population of Adults and Older Adults Living in Cinco Villas, Northeastern Spain: Design, Methods and Population Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This article describes the methods of a door-to-door screening survey exploring the distribution of disability and its major determinants in northeastern Spain. This study will set the basis for the development of disability-related services for the rural elderly in northeastern Spain. Methods: The probabilistic sample was composed of 1,354 de facto residents from a population of 12,784 Social Security

Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta; Magdalena Comín Comín; Javier Virués-Ortega; Javier Almazán Isla; Fuencisla Avellanal; Enrique Alcalde Cabero; Olga Burzaco; Juan Manuel Castellote; Alarcos Cieza; Javier Damián; Maria João Forjaz; Belén Frades; Esther Franco; Luis Alberto Larrosa; Rosa Magallón; Gloria Martín García; Cristina Martínez; Pablo Martínez Martín; Roberto Pastor-Barriuso; Ana Peña Jiménez; Adolfo Población Martínez; Geoffrey Reed; Cristina Ruíz




E-print Network


Burton, Geoffrey R.


Fostering the Development of Quantitative Life Skills through Introductory Astronomy: Can it be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from a student survey designed to test whether the all-important life skill of numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved upon in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in Astronomy. Many instructors of introductory science courses for non-majors would state that a major goal of our classes is to teach our students to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, truth and fiction, in their everyday lives. It is difficult to believe that such a skill can truly be mastered without a fair amount of mathematical sophistication in the form of arithmetic, statistical and graph reading skills that many American college students unfortunately lack when they enter our classrooms. In teaching what is frequently their "terminal science course in life” can we instill in our students the numerical skills that they need to be savvy consumers, educated citizens and discerning interpreters of the ever-present polls, studies and surveys in which our society is awash? In what may well be their final opportunity to see applied mathematics in the classroom, can we impress upon them the importance of mathematical sophistication in interpreting the statistics that they are bombarded with by the media? Our study is in its second semester, and is designed to investigate to what extent it is possible to improve important quantitative skills in college students through a single semester introductory Astronomy course.

Follette, Katherine B.; McCarthy, D. W.



Quantitative Glycomics Strategies*  

PubMed Central

The correlations between protein glycosylation and many biological processes and diseases are increasing the demand for quantitative glycomics strategies enabling sensitive monitoring of changes in the abundance and structure of glycans. This is currently attained through multiple strategies employing several analytical techniques such as capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The detection and quantification of glycans often involve labeling with ionic and/or hydrophobic reagents. This step is needed in order to enhance detection in spectroscopic and mass spectrometric measurements. Recently, labeling with stable isotopic reagents has also been presented as a very viable strategy enabling relative quantitation. The different strategies available for reliable and sensitive quantitative glycomics are herein described and discussed. PMID:23325767

Mechref, Yehia; Hu, Yunli; Desantos-Garcia, Janie L.; Hussein, Ahmed; Tang, Haixu



Robotic Surveying  

SciTech Connect

ZAPATA ENGINEERING challenged our engineers and scientists, which included robotics expertise from Carnegie Mellon University, to design a solution to meet our client's requirements for rapid digital geophysical and radiological data collection of a munitions test range with no down-range personnel. A prime concern of the project was to minimize exposure of personnel to unexploded ordnance and radiation. The field season was limited by extreme heat, cold and snow. Geographical Information System (GIS) tools were used throughout this project to accurately define the limits of mapped areas, build a common mapping platform from various client products, track production progress, allocate resources and relate subsurface geophysical information to geographical features for use in rapidly reacquiring targets for investigation. We were hopeful that our platform could meet the proposed 35 acres per day, towing both a geophysical package and a radiological monitoring trailer. We held our breath and crossed our fingers as the autonomous Speedrower began to crawl across the playa lakebed. We met our proposed production rate, and we averaged just less than 50 acres per 12-hour day using the autonomous platform with a path tracking error of less than +/- 4 inches. Our project team mapped over 1,800 acres in an 8-week (4 days per week) timeframe. The expertise of our partner, Carnegie Mellon University, was recently demonstrated when their two autonomous vehicle entries finished second and third at the 2005 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Grand Challenge. 'The Grand Challenge program was established to help foster the development of autonomous vehicle technology that will some day help save the lives of Americans who are protecting our country on the battlefield', said DARPA Grand Challenge Program Manager, Ron Kurjanowicz. Our autonomous remote-controlled vehicle (ARCV) was a modified New Holland 2550 Speedrower retrofitted to allow the machine-actuated functions to be controlled by an onboard computer. The computer-controlled Speedrower was developed at Carnegie Mellon University to automate agricultural harvesting. Harvesting tasks require the vehicle to cover a field using minimally overlapping rows at slow speeds in a similar manner to geophysical data acquisition. The Speedrower had demonstrated its ability to perform as it had already logged hundreds of acres of autonomous harvesting. This project is the first use of autonomous robotic technology on a large-scale for geophysical surveying.

Suzy Cantor-McKinney; Michael Kruzic



Mineral Industry Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Surveys Mineral Industry Survey's Web site provides "periodic on-line statistical and economic publications designed to provide timely statistical data on production, distribution, stocks, and consumption of significant mineral commodities." Visitors to the site will find an alphabetical listing of minerals that includes everything from Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, and Asbestos, to Zeolite, Zinc, and Zirconium. Once clicked, a brief description of the mineral is provided along with links to yearly information publications as well as special publications such as its historical statistics, other agency links, contact information, and more.


Quantitative Hydrocarbon Surface Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The elimination of ozone depleting substances, such as carbon tetrachloride, has resulted in the use of new analytical techniques for cleanliness verification and contamination sampling. The last remaining application at Rocketdyne which required a replacement technique was the quantitative analysis of hydrocarbons by infrared spectrometry. This application, which previously utilized carbon tetrachloride, was successfully modified using the SOC-400, a compact portable FTIR manufactured by Surface Optics Corporation. This instrument can quantitatively measure and identify hydrocarbons from solvent flush of hardware as well as directly analyze the surface of metallic components without the use of ozone depleting chemicals. Several sampling accessories are utilized to perform analysis for various applications.

Douglas, Vonnie M.



Reliability of the Nursing Home Survey Process: A Simultaneous Survey Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: We designed this study to examine the reliability of the nursing home survey process in the state of Kansas using regular and simultaneous survey teams. In particular, the study examined how two survey teams exposed to the same information at the same time differed in their interpretations. Design and Methods: The protocol for…

Lee, Robert H.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Thompson, Sarah



The quantitative single-neuron modeling competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

As large-scale, detailed network modeling projects are flourishing in the field of computational neu- roscience, it is more and more important to design single neuron models that not only capture qualitative features of real neurons but are quantitatively accurate in silico repre- sentations of those. Recent years have seen substantial effort beingputinthedevelopmentofalgorithmsforthesystematic evaluation and optimization of neuron models with respect

Renaud Jolivet; Felix Schürmann; Thomas K. Berger; Richard Naud; Wulfram Gerstner; Arnd Roth



Quantitative effects of weight adjustments in ?? ? control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In an H? design, when weights are adjusted, corresponding modifications occur in the synthesized H? controller and the resulting closed-loop transfer function matrices of interest. In this paper, we seek to understand and provide quantitative results on how weight adjustments directly affect an H? controller and, more importantly, the corresponding closed-loop transfer function matrices. Here, we explore issues such

Brian D. O. Anderson; Alexander Lanzon; Arvin Dehghani; Xavier Bombois



Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.



Quantitative criteria for insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, ICSD, and ICD-10) do not provide adequate quantitative criteria to diagnose insomnia. This may not present a serious problem in clinical settings where extensive interviews determine the need for clinical management. However, lack of standard criteria introduce disruptive variability into the insomnia research domain. The present study reviewed two decades of psychology clinical trials for insomnia

K. L. Lichstein; H. H. Durrence; D. J. Taylor; A. J. Bush; B. W. Riedel



The Kilo-Degree Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) is a 1500 square degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST). A suite of data products will be delivered to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the community by the KiDS survey team. Spread over Europe, the KiDS team uses Astro-WISE as its main tool to collaborate efficiently and pool hardware resources. In Astro-WISE the team shares, calibrates and archives all survey data. The data-centric architectural design realizes a dynamic `live archive' in which new KiDS survey products of improved quality can be shared with the team and eventually the full astronomical community in a flexible and controllable manner.

de Jong, Jelte T. A.; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs A.; Kuijken, Konrad H.; Valentijn, Edwin A.



The KMOS^3D Survey: design, first results, and the evolution of galaxy kinematics from 0.7  

E-print Network

We present the KMOS^3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.71$, implying that the star-forming 'main sequence' (MS) is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the Halpha kinematic maps indicate at least ~70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous IFS studies at z>0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km/s at z~2.3 to 25 km/s at z~0.9 while the rotational velocities at the two redshifts are comparable. Combined with existing results spanning z~0-3, disk velocity dispersions follow an approximate (1+z) evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally-stable disk theory.

Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Wuyts, E; Bandara, K; Wilman, D; Genzel, R; Bender, R; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Lang, P; Mendel, J T; Beifiori, A; Brammer, G; Chan, J; Fabricius, M; Fudamoto, Y; Kulkarni, S; Kurk, J; Lutz, D; Nelson, E J; Momcheva, I; Rosario, D; Saglia, R; Seitz, S; Tacconi, L J; van Dokkum, P G



Getting Started with Quantitative Methods in Physics Education Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article we provide a brief overview of three groups of quantitative research methods commonly used in physics education research (PER): descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and measurement instrument development and validation. These quantitative research methods are used respectively in three major types of PER, namely survey research, experimental/quasi-experimental studies, and measurement and evaluation studies. In order to highlight the importance of the close alignment between research questions and selected quantitative research methods, we review these quantitative techniques within each research type from three perspectives: data collection, data analysis, and result interpretation. We discuss the purpose, key aspects and potential issues of each quantitative technique, and where possible, specific PER studies are included as examples to illustrate how these methods fulfill specific research goals.

Ding, Lin; Liu, Xiufeng



2012 Mask Industry Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.



Drug Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a survey of student perceptions of drugs and drug use that was conducted at Bowie State College are presented. Studies that have been conducted on college students' use of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine in the last five years are reviewed, along with additional studies relating to the general population and the following drugs:…

Gill, Wanda E.; And Others


Space Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about society and space exploration. Learners will survey the public about their different opinions about space exploration and the use of robotics in space exploration. Then they will represent and analyze the results. This is lesson 5 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module.


A Life in the Universe Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Life in the Universe Survey" is a twelve-question assessment instrument. Largely based on the factors of the Drake equation, it is designed to survey students' initial estimates of its factors and to gauge how estimates change with instruction. The survey was used in sections of a seminar course focusing specifically on life in the universe…

LoPresto, Michael C.; Hubble-Zdanowski, Jennifer



Proteus Survey: Technical Manual and Codebook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1987 Proteus Survey was based on the 1986 Proteus Survey designed by the United States Military Academy and administered by Michigan State University. The Proteus Survey was transferred to the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social...

B. C. Harris, K. Wochinger



Survey and Questionnaire Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.



PubMed Central

The field of proteomics is undergoing rapid development in a number of different areas including improvements in mass spectrometric platforms, peptide identification algorithms and bioinformatics. In particular, new and/or improved approaches have established robust methods that not only allow for in-depth and accurate peptide and protein identification and modification, but also allow for sensitive measurement of relative or absolute quantitation. These methods are beginning to be applied to the area of neuroproteomics, but the central nervous system poses many specific challenges in terms of quantitative proteomics, given the large number of different neuronal cell types that are intermixed and that exhibit distinct patterns of gene and protein expression. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in quantitative neuroproteomics, with a focus on work published over the last five years that applies emerging methods to normal brain function as well as to various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and drug addiction as well as of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. While older methods such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis continued to be used, a variety of more in-depth MS-based approaches including both label (ICAT, iTRAQ, TMT, SILAC, SILAM), label-free (label-free, MRM, SWATH) and absolute quantification methods, are rapidly being applied to neurobiological investigations of normal and diseased brain tissue as well as of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While the biological implications of many of these studies remain to be clearly established, that there is a clear need for standardization of experimental design and data analysis, and that the analysis of protein changes in specific neuronal cell types in the central nervous system remains a serious challenge, it appears that the quality and depth of the more recent quantitative proteomics studies is beginning to shed light on a number of aspects of neuroscience that relates to normal brain function as well as of the changes in protein expression and regulation that occurs in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23623823

Craft, George E; Chen, Anshu; Nairn, Angus C



Energy & Climate: Getting Quantitative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A noted environmentalist claims that buying an SUV instead of a regular car is energetically equivalent to leaving your refrigerator door open for seven years. A fossil-fuel apologist argues that solar energy is a pie-in-the-sky dream promulgated by na"ive environmentalists, because there's nowhere near enough solar energy to meet humankind's energy demand. A group advocating shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant claims that 70% of its electrical energy is lost in transmission lines. Around the world, thousands agitate for climate action, under the numerical banner ``350.'' Neither the environmentalist, the fossil-fuel apologist, the antinuclear activists, nor most of those marching under the ``350'' banner can back up their assertions with quantitative arguments. Yet questions about energy and its environmental impacts almost always require quantitative answers. Physics can help! This poster gives some cogent examples, based on the newly published 2^nd edition of the author's textbook Energy, Environment, and Climate.

Wolfson, Richard



Quantitative Activities for Introductory Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a collection of short lecture-tutorial (or homework) activities, designed to be both quantitative and accessible to the introductory astronomy student. Each of these involves interpreting some real data, solving a problem using ratios and proportionalities, and making a conclusion based on the calculation. Selected titles include: "The Mass of Neptune” "The Temperature on Titan” "Rocks in the Early Solar System” "Comets Hitting Planets” "Ages of Meteorites” "How Flat are Saturn's Rings?” "Tides of the Sun and Moon on the Earth” "The Gliese 581 Solar System"; "Buckets in the Rain” "How Hot, Bright and Big is Betelgeuse?” "Bombs and the Sun” "What Forms Stars?” "Lifetimes of Cars and Stars” "The Mass of the Milky” "How Old is the Universe?” "Is The Universe Speeding up or Slowing Down?"

Keohane, Jonathan W.; Bartlett, J. L.; Foy, J. P.



Primary enzyme quantitation  


The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

Saunders, G.C.



Quantitative quantum chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the current status of quantum chemistry as a predictive tool of chemistry and molecular physics, capable of providing highly accurate, quantitative data about molecular systems. We begin by reviewing wave-function based electronic-structure theory, emphasizing the N-electron hierarchy of coupled-cluster theory and the one-electron hierarchy of correlation-consistent basis sets. Following a discussion of the slow basis-set convergence of dynamical

Trygve Helgaker; Wim Klopper; David P. Tew



Survey of northern informal and formal mental health practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background This survey is part of a multi-year research study on informal and formal mental health support in northern Canada involving the use of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods in an effort to better understand mental health in a northern context. Objective The main objective of the 3-year study was to document the situation of formal and informal helpers in providing mental health support in isolated northern communities in northern British Columbia, northern Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. The intent of developing a survey was to include more participants in the research and access those working in small communities who would be concerned regarding confidentiality and anonymity due to their high profile within smaller populations. Design Based on the in-depth interviews from the qualitative phase of the project, the research team developed a survey that reflected the main themes found in the initial qualitative analysis. The on-line survey consisted of 26 questions, looking at basic demographic information and presenting lists of possible challenges, supports and client mental health issues for participants to prioritise. Results Thirty-two participants identified various challenges, supports and client issues relevant to their mental health support work. A vast majority of the respondents felt prepared for northern practice and had some level of formal education. Supports for longevity included team collaboration, knowledgeable supervisors, managers, leaders and more opportunities for formal education, specific training and continuity of care to support clients. Conclusion For northern-based research in small communities, the development of a survey allowed more participants to join the larger study in a way that protected their identity and confidentiality. The results from the survey emphasise the need for team collaboration, interdisciplinary practice and working with community strengths as a way to sustain mental health support workers in the North. PMID:23984276

O'Neill, Linda; George, Serena; Sebok, Stefanie



American Time Use Survey

The American Time Use Survey (ATUS), conducted by the US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, is designed to collect information on how Americans spend their time on work, household chores, child care, recreation and other activities. The Applied Research Program (ARP) has provided funds to the US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (USDA, ERS) to support the Eating and Health Module of the ATUS.