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Survey on Seaplane Hydro-Ski Design Technology. Phase 2: Quantitative Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers the second part of a two-phase survey and analysis of hydro-ski seaplane technology. It contains quantitative correlations and parametric analyses of significant data used to define optimum hydro-ski size, ski location with respect to th...

P. A. Pepper L. Kaplan



Telephone Survey Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concepts, definitions, and notation that have evolved with the development of telephone survey design methodology are discussed and presented as a unified structure. This structure is then applied to some of the more well-known telephone survey designs and alternative designs are developed. The relative merits of the different survey designs

Casady, Robert J.


Quantitative resilience analysis through control design.  

SciTech Connect

Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently assessing all aspects of critical infrastructure resilience. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the development of quantitative resilience through application of control design methods. Specifically, we conducted a survey of infrastructure models to assess what types of control design might be applicable for critical infrastructure resilience assessment. As a result of this survey, we developed a decision process that directs the resilience analyst to the control method that is most likely applicable to the system under consideration. Furthermore, we developed optimal control strategies for two sets of representative infrastructure systems to demonstrate how control methods could be used to assess the resilience of the systems to catastrophic disruptions. We present recommendations for future work to continue the development of quantitative resilience analysis methods.

Sunderland, Daniel; Vugrin, Eric D.; Camphouse, Russell Chris (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM)



Survey Design - How to Begin Your Survey Design Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, produced by Creative Research Systems, takes the user through the steps and decisions necessary when designing a survey. Pros and cons for each method are outlined and other issues in survey design are presented. The site does contain products which need to be purchased, such as a survey done by the corporation, but the page still contains a great deal of free resources which can be applied to conducting your own survey.

Systems, Creative R.



Web Survey Design and Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many claims are being made about the advantages of conducting surveys on the Web. However, there has been little research on the effects of format or design on the levels of unit and item response or on data quality. In a study conducted at the University of Michigan, a number of experiments were added to a survey of the student

Mick P. Couper; Michael W. Traugott; Mark J. Lamias




EPA Science Inventory

The development of watershed-based design and assessment tools will help to serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional condition to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or wate...


Report on Solar Water Heating Quantitative Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report details the results of a quantitative research study undertaken to better understand the marketplace for solar water-heating systems from the perspective of home builders, architects, and home buyers.

Focus Marketing Services



Watershed-based survey designs.  


Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs. PMID:15861987

Detenbeck, Naomi E; Cincotta, Dan; Denver, Judith M; Greenlee, Susan K; Olsen, Anthony R; Pitchford, Ann M



Watershed-based survey designs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Watershed-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification of impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Section 303(d), and development of empirical relationships between causes or sources of impairment and biological responses. Creation of GIS databases for hydrography, hydrologically corrected digital elevation models, and hydrologic derivatives such as watershed boundaries and upstream-downstream topology of subcatchments would provide a consistent seamless nationwide framework for these designs. The elements of a watershed-based sample framework can be represented either as a continuous infinite set defined by points along a linear stream network, or as a discrete set of watershed polygons. Watershed-based designs can be developed with existing probabilistic survey methods, including the use of unequal probability weighting, stratification, and two-stage frames for sampling. Case studies for monitoring of Atlantic Coastal Plain streams, West Virginia wadeable streams, and coastal Oregon streams illustrate three different approaches for selecting sites for watershed-based survey designs. ?? Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005.

Detenbeck, N. E.; Cincotta, D.; Denver, J. M.; Greenlee, S. K.; Olsen, A. R.; Pitchford, A. M.



Systems Analysis of Water Quality Survey Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of water quality surveys is being investigated by an interdisciplinary team using systems analysis techniques. The class of surveys under study are nominally fifteen days in length and designed to characterize pollutant types and levels at the ...

B. E. Gilliland J. F. Andrews L. C. Wilcox R. W. Gilchrist T. L. Drake



Applying Web-Based Survey Design Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based surveys are used as research tools in a wide range of disciplines. Web-based surveys present a unique set of challenges concerning survey design, not known in previous survey modes. The flexibility of screen design allows for Web-based surveys to take on many appearances, some having a negative impact on data quality. In this article, we propose and illustrate several

Scott Crawford; Sean Esteban McCabe; Duston Pope



Survey of the Diet of Pima Indians Using Quantitative Food Frequency Assessment and 24Hour Recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective A dietary survey was conducted in the Gila River Indian Community in Arizona using two methods of dietary assessment — 24-hour recall and quantitative food frequency (QFF) assessment — to determine the usual intake of the population.Design Interviews were conducted by Pima women who were trained and monitored by a research dietitian. Energy and nutrient intake were calculated using




Examining Stress in Graduate Assistants: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to employ qualitative and quantitative survey methods in a concurrent mixed model design to assess stressors and strains in graduate assistants. The stressors most frequently reported qualitatively were work overload, interpersonal conflict, and organizational constraints; the most frequently reported psychological…

Mazzola, Joseph J.; Walker, Erin J.; Shockley, Kristen M.; Spector, Paul E.



Quantitative three-dimensional low-speed wake surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and practical aspects of conducting three-dimensional wake measurements in large wind tunnels are reviewed with emphasis on applications in low-speed aerodynamics. Such quantitative wake surveys furnish separate values for the components of drag, such as profile drag and induced drag, but also measure lift without the use of a balance. In addition to global data, details of the wake flowfield as well as spanwise distributions of lift and drag are obtained. The paper demonstrates the value of this measurement technique using data from wake measurements conducted by Boeing on a variety of low-speed configurations including the complex high-lift system of a transport aircraft.

Brune, G. W.



An Integrative Model for Teaching Quantitative Research Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching quantitative research design continues to challenge management educators. Challenges arise because this research requires expertise in multiple design elements including theory development, measurement, and statistical analysis. Moreover, capable design necessitates the seamless integration of these separate elements with each other. To aid educators, this article proposes an integrative model for teaching quantitative research. The model specifically focuses on matching

Patricia Doyle Corner



Quantitative Methods for Evaluating Hospital Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study provides an integrated quantitative-qualitative basis for decisions involving the relative locations of functions, and hence facilities, within the individual short-term, general, voluntary hospital. The approach used in attacking the problem wa...

G. L. Delon H. E. Smalley




EPA Science Inventory

Water-based sampling design and assessment tools help serve the multiple goals for water quality monitoring required under the Clean Water Act, including assessment of regional conditions to meet Section 305(b), identification if impaired water bodies or watersheds to meet Sectio...


Statistical considerations in designing raptor surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Careful sampling design is required to obtain useful estimates of raptor abundance. Well-defined objectives, selection of appropriate sample units and sampling scheme, and attention to detail to reduce extraneous sources of variability and error are all important considerations in designing a raptor survey.

Pendleton, G.W.



Health Professional’s Perceptions and Practices in Relation to Functional Capacity Evaluations: Results of a Quantitative Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction This study investigated the perceptions and practices of Australian health professionals in relation to the use of functional\\u000a capacity evaluations (FCE’s). Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study design was used to survey health professionals who conduct FCE’s and who were working\\u000a for one of 219 rehabilitation providers in NSW, Australia. Seventy seven returned surveys were eligible for inclusion. Results Eleven

Carole James; Lynette Mackenzie



Quantitative resilience analysis through control design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. Few quantitative resilience methods exist, and those existing approaches tend to be rather simplistic and, hence, not capable of sufficiently

Daniel Sunderland; Eric D. Vugrin; Russell Chris Camphouse



Spatially balanced survey designs for natural resources  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological resource monitoring programs typically require the use of a probability survey design to select locations or entities to be physically sampled in the field. The ecological resource of interest, the target population, occurs over a spatial domain and the sample selecte...


Research Design and Methods of Quantitative Synthesis of Medical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the scientific principles, strengths, and limitations of research designs and methods of quantitative synthesis of medical evidence.Data Sources: We used MEDLINE to perform a systematic search for literature using the keywords research design, epidemiology, and biometry. Journals searched included six major journals in obstetrics and gynecology and three in general medicine. These sources were supplemented with texts

Jeffrey F Peipert; Deidre S Gifford; Lori A Boardman



Optimal design of focused experiments and surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and surveys are often performed to obtain data that constrain some previously underconstrained model. Often, constraints are most desired in a particular subspace of model space. Experiment design optimization requires that the quality of any particular design can be both quantified and then maximized. This study shows how the quality can be defined such that it depends on the amount of information that is focused in the particular subspace of interest. In addition, algorithms are presented which allow one particular focused quality measure (from the class of focused measures) to be evaluated efficiently. A subclass of focused quality measures is also related to the standard variance and resolution measures from linearized inverse theory. The theory presented here requires that the relationship between model parameters and data can be linearized around a reference model without significant loss of information. Physical and financial constraints define the space of possible experiment designs. Cross-well tomographic examples are presented, plus a strategy for survey design to maximize information about linear combinations of parameters such as bulk modulus, ? =?+ 2?/3.

Curtis, Andrew



76 FR 27384 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agency Information Collection Activity (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Under OMB Review AGENCY...Veterans and their families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In...



76 FR 9637 - Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...10-0513)] Proposed Information Collection (Veteran Suicide Prevention Online Quantitative Surveys) Activity: Comment...Veterans and their families' awareness of VA's suicide prevention and mental health support services. In...



The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design  

SciTech Connect

The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne



Effects of the Quantitative Easing Policy: A Survey of Empirical Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the empirical analyses that examine the effects of the Bank of Japanfs (BOJfs) quantitative easing policy (QEP), which was implemented from March 2001 through March 2006. The survey confirms a clear effect whereby the commitment to maintain the QEP fostered the expectations that the zero interest rate would continue into the future, thereby lowering the yield curve

Hiroshi Ugai



New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. METHODS: Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the

Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe; Katsuhiko Omoe; Nobuhiko Okabe



Evaluation of cockpit design by using quantitative and qualitative tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cockpit displays and the controls are sophisticated human machine interface applications. Display systems, present at cockpits are complex environments causing excessive mental workload and the consequences of errors can be catastrophic. In order to prevent any human error a user-friendly display panel must be designed. In this study quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to evaluate the positions of analogue

M. B. Senol; M. Dagdeviren; M. Kurt; C. Cilingir



Online Survey Design and Development: A Janus-Faced Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we propose a "Janus-faced" approach to survey design--an approach that encourages researchers to consider how they can design and implement surveys more effectively using the latest web and database tools. Specifically, this approach encourages researchers to look two ways at once; attending to both the survey interface…

Lauer, Claire; McLeod, Michael; Blythe, Stuart



The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys Coma Cluster Survey. I. Survey Objectives and Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the HST ACS Coma Cluster Treasury survey, a deep two-passband imaging survey of one of the nearest rich clusters of galaxies, the Coma Cluster (Abell 1656). The survey was designed to cover an area of 740 arcmin2 in regions of different density of both galaxies and intergalactic medium within the cluster. The ACS failure of 2007 January 27 leaves the survey 28% complete, with 21 ACS pointings (230 arcmin2) complete, and partial data for a further four pointings (44 arcmin2). The predicted survey depth for 10 ? detections for optimal photometry of point sources is g'=27.6 in the F475W filter and IC=26.8 mag in F814 (AB magnitudes). Initial simulations with artificially injected point sources show 90% recovered at magnitude limits of g'=27.55 and IC=26.65. For extended sources, the predicted 10 ? limits for a 1 arcsec2 region are g'=25.8 mag arcsec-2 and IC=25.0 mag arcsec-2. We highlight several motivating science goals of the survey, including study of the faint end of the cluster galaxy luminosity function, structural parameters of dwarf galaxies, stellar populations and their effect on colors and color gradients, evolution of morphological components in a dense environment, the nature of ultracompact dwarf galaxies, and globular cluster populations of cluster galaxies of a range of luminosities and types. This survey will also provide a local rich cluster benchmark for various well-known global scaling relations and explore new relations pertaining to the nuclear properties of galaxies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO10861.

Carter, David; Goudfrooij, Paul; Mobasher, Bahram; Ferguson, Henry C.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Aguerri, Alfonso L.; Balcells, Marc; Batcheldor, Dan; Bridges, Terry J.; Davies, Jonathan I.; Erwin, Peter; Graham, Alister W.; Guzmán, Rafael; Hammer, Derek; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hoyos, Carlos; Hudson, Michael J.; Huxor, Avon; Jogee, Shardha; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lotz, Jennifer; Lucey, John R.; Marzke, Ronald O.; Merritt, David; Miller, Bryan W.; Miller, Neal A.; Mouhcine, Mustapha; Okamura, Sadanori; Peletier, Reynier F.; Phillipps, Steven; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Sharples, Ray M.; Smith, Russell J.; Trentham, Neil; Tully, R. Brent; Valentijn, Edwin; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs



Practical Guidelines for Evaluating Sampling Designs in Survey Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of sample surveys in evaluation and research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good survey from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design used in a survey study. The sources are either too limited or too extensive to be useful practically. The purpose of this paper is to…

Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin


Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required.

Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.



Policy Commitment and Market Expectations: Lessons Learned from Survey Based Evidence under Japan's Quantitative Easing Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bank of Japan conducted its quantitative easing policy ( QEP) from 2001 to 2006, with the policy commitment to maintaining its QEP until the CPI inflation rate became stably zero or higher. We evaluate its effects by using individual survey data on inflation expectations as well as interest rate expectations. Our analysis reveals a kinked relationship between interest rate

Yoshiyuki Nakazono; Kozo Ueda



Interim Quantitative Manpower Projections for Proposed Hydrographic Survey Ship System (AGS) Candidate Configurations (Navships Subproject S46-27012, Task 14408).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This personnel research report basically represents a consolidation of three research working papers designed to enumerate the quantitative Navy manpower requirements for various proposed candidate configurations of a new Hydrographic Survey Ship System (AGS). Included is a description of the various AGS candidate proposals and a breakdown of the…

Malec, Vernon M.; Lansville, Anthony


Research on Basic Design Education: An International Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the results of a survey and qualitative analysis on the teaching of "Basic Design" in schools of design and architecture located in 22 countries. In the context of this research work, Basic Design means the teaching and learning of design fundamentals that may also be commonly referred to as the Principles of Two- and…

Boucharenc, C. G.



Survey of Research Methods to Study Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report identifies and evaluates methods used by the design research community that could be used to establish requirements for improving the effectiveness of the engineering design process in a Unified Life Cycle Engineering (ULCE) environment. More ...

D. A. Dierolf K. J. Richter M. Brei



Airborne electromagnetic and magnetic surveys for long tunnel construction design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Airborne geophysical surveys enable us to clarify three-dimensional subsurface structures in large and inaccessible areas. Therefore, they have been used recently to investigate large-scale landslides and volcanoes, as well as in mineral and hydrocarbon explorations. This paper describes a geological assessment for tunnel design and construction using helicopter-borne geophysical surveys.Airborne electromagnetic surveys using a grounded electric dipole source and magnetic

Kenji Okazaki; Toru Mogi; Mitsuru Utsugi; Yoshihiko Ito; Hideki Kunishima; Takashi Yamazaki; Yukitsugu Takahashi; Takeshi Hashimoto; Yusuke Ymamaya; Hisatoshi Ito; Hideshi Kaieda; Kazuhiro Tsukuda; Youichi Yuuki; Akira Jomori


Survey of Oxidase-Positive and Negative Bacteria Using a Quantitative Kovacs Oxidase Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

A manometric assay system employing ascorbate and N,N,N',N'-tetra- methyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used to quantitate terminal oxidase activity in bacterial non-proliferating whole cells. A wide variety of physiologi- cally diverse bacteria, all of which were grown heterotrophically, was tested by this assay. For this survey study, 79 bacterial strains, which represented 34 genera, were used. Turbidimetrically standardized resting (non-proliferat- ing) cell



Designing surveys for tests of gravity.  


Modified gravity theories may provide an alternative to dark energy to explain cosmic acceleration. We argue that the observational programme developed to test dark energy needs to be augmented to capture new tests of gravity on astrophysical scales. Several distinct signatures of gravity theories exist outside the 'linear' regime, especially owing to the screening mechanism that operates inside halos such as the Milky Way to ensure that gravity tests in the solar system are satisfied. This opens up several decades in length scale and classes of galaxies at low redshift that can be exploited by surveys. While theoretical work on models of gravity is in the early stages, we can already identify new regimes that cosmological surveys could target to test gravity. These include: (i) a small-scale component that focuses on the interior and vicinity of galaxy and cluster halos, (ii) spectroscopy of low-redshift galaxies, especially galaxies smaller than the Milky Way, in environments that range from voids to clusters, and (iii) a programme of combining lensing and dynamical information, from imaging and spectroscopic surveys, respectively, on the same (or statistically identical) sample of galaxies. PMID:22084295

Jain, Bhuvnesh



Use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys using a computer software package is described. The system allows evaluation of a number of alternative sampling systems and, with appropriate cost data, estimates the implementation cost for each.

Titus, S. J.; Wensel, L. C.



7. Historic American Buildings Survey ORIGINAL DESIGN SUBMITTED BY PEABODY ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey ORIGINAL DESIGN SUBMITTED BY PEABODY AND STEARNS (FROM THE ORIGINAL IN THE LIBRARY OF THE VOLTA BUREAU) - Volta Bureau, 1537 Thirty-fifth Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC


A survey of spacecraft thermal design solutions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of thermal projects are outlined giving a perspective on the scope and depth of activities in the thermal control group. A set of designs are presented in a form to illustrate some of the more innovative work. Design configurations, solution techniques, and flight anomalies are discussed. Activities include the instruments of the Hubble Space Telescope, Space Station Freedom, and Spacelab.

Humphries, R.; Wegrich, R.; Pierce, E.; Patterson, W.



The Coordinated Radio and Infrared Survey for High-Mass Star Formation (The CORNISH Survey). I. Survey Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the motivation, design, and implementation of the CORNISH survey, an arcsecond-resolution radio continuum survey of the inner galactic plane at 5 GHz using the Very Large Array (VLA). It is a blind survey coordinated with the northern Spitzer GLIMPSE I region covering 10° l < 65° and |b| < 1° at similar resolution. We discuss in detail the strategy that we employed to control the shape of the synthesised beam across this survey, which covers a wide range of fairly low declinations. Two snapshots separated by 4h kept the beam elongation to less that 1.5 over 75% of the survey area and less than 2 over 98% of the survey. The prime scientific motivation is to provide an unbiased survey for ultra-compact H II regions to study this key phase in massive star formation. A sensitivity around 2 mJy will allow the automatic distinction between radio-loud and radio-quiet mid-IR sources found in the Spitzer surveys. This survey has many legacy applications beyond star formation, including evolved stars, active stars and binaries, and extragalactic sources. The CORNISH survey for compact ionized sources complements other Galactic plane surveys that target diffuse and nonthermal sources, as well as atomic and molecular phases to build up a complete picture of the interstellar medium in the Galaxy.

Hoare, M. G.; Purcell, C. R.; Churchwell, E. B.; Diamond, P.; Cotton, W. D.; Chandler, C. J.; Smethurst, S.; Kurtz, S. E.; Mundy, L. G.; Dougherty, S. M.; Fender, R. P.; Fuller, G. A.; Jackson, J. M.; Garrington, S. T.; Gledhill, T. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Lumsden, S. L.; Martí, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Muxlow, T. W. B.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Pandian, J. D.; Paredes, J. M.; Shepherd, D. S.; Spencer, R. E.; Thompson, M. A.; Umana, G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Zijlstra, A. A.



Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

Not Available



Survey of Antenna Design Computer Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents an overview of existing computer models available for antenna design and performance evaluation. It discusses the various solution techniques, such as the method of moments, finite element and high frequency (asymptotic) techniques, a...

W. L. Lippincott P. A. Lyon



Industrial HVAC: a survey of design considerations  

SciTech Connect

Industrial facilities offer a wide variety of design challenges to engineers, including the mechanical engineers who design the HVAC, the process, exhaust, and other required mechanical systems; the mechanical contractors who install and maintain the systems (and who also may do design work); and the owners` engineers who are responsible for the day-to-day operation of their facilities. Along with the responsibility to see that all systems function as intended is the responsibility to ensure that all worker health concerns are addressed. These include heat stress avoidance and the proper control of harmful substances. The services of industrial hygienists may be required to ensure this. These may be independent consultants or the staff members of mechanical design firms. In addition, it is not unusual for major corporations that own manufacturing plants to have staff industrial hygienists. The accompanying sidebar presents a checklist of items to be considered when designing environmental control systems for industrial buildings. This article will present an overview of some of the factors to consider.

Pannkoke, T.



Mobile Libraries, Design and Construction: A Survey of Current Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-one country libraries in Wales, Scotland and England were surveyed in 1970 in an attempt to establish current practice in the design and construction of mobile libraries. This report is the first step of the Branch and Mobile Libraries Group of the Library Association to establish standards for mobile library design and construction. The…

Eastwood, C. R.; And Others


Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Detection in Multicross Inbred Designs  

PubMed Central

Mapping quantitative trait loci in plants is usually conducted using a population derived from a cross between two inbred lines. The power of such QTL detection and the parameter estimates depend largely on the choice of the two parental lines. Thus, the QTL detected in such populations represent only a small part of the genetic architecture of the trait. In addition, the effects of only two alleles are characterized, which is of limited interest to the breeder, while common pedigree breeding material remains unexploited for QTL mapping. In this study, we extend QTL mapping methodology to a generalized framework, based on a two-step IBD variance component approach, applicable to any type of breeding population obtained from inbred parents. We then investigate with simulated data mimicking conventional breeding programs the influence of different estimates of the IBD values on the power of QTL detection. The proposed method would provide an alternative to the development of specifically designed recombinant populations, by utilizing the genetic variation actually managed by plant breeders. The use of these detected QTL in assisting breeding would thus be facilitated.

Crepieux, Sebastien; Lebreton, Claude; Servin, Bertrand; Charmet, Gilles



On Kernel Nonparametric Regression Designed for Complex Survey Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this article, we consider nonparametric regression analysis between two variables when,data are sampled,through,a complex,survey. While nonparametric regression anal- ysis has been,widely used with data that may,be assumed,to be generated,from inde- pendently and identically distributed (iid) random variables, the methods and asymptotic analyses established for iid data need to be extended,in the framework,of complex,survey designs. Local polynomial regression estimators

Torsten Harms; Pierre Duchesne



Survey of quantitative data on the solar energy and its spectra distribution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a survey of available quantitative data on the total and spectral solar irradiance at ground level and outside the atmosphere. Measurements from research aircraft have resulted in the currently accepted NASA/ASTM standards of the solar constant and zero air mass solar spectral irradiance. The intrinsic variability of solar energy output and programs currently under way for more precise measurements from spacecraft are discussed. Instrumentation for solar measurements and their reference radiation scales are examined. Insolation data available from the records of weather stations are reviewed for their applicability to solar energy conversion. Two alternate methods of solarimetry are briefly discussed.

Thekaekara, M. P.



Database design and implementation for quantitative image analysis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative image analysis (QIA) goes beyond sub- jective visual assessment to provide computer measurements of the image content, typically following image segmentation to iden- tify anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Commercially available picture archiving and communication systems focus on storage of image data. They are not well suited to efficient storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. In

Matthew S. Brown; Sumit K. Shah; Richard C. Pais; Yeng-zhong Lee; Michael F. Mcnitt-gray; Jonathan G. Goldin; Alfonso F. Cardenas; Denise R. Aberle




SciTech Connect

Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)



Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: Survey of recent developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly the survey is focussed on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges. The survey is organized by a breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components. Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics, and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.



Design of expendable conductivity temperature depth survey data processing system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme of economical and easy to carry XCTD survey data processing system is designed. In this design, the Cortex-M3 core-based high-performance processor STM32 is used as a host controller and communicates with SD memory card on SPI Bus. lt establishes FAT32 file system. So the problems of large data storage and interface with PC are solved by the system.

Hanbai Fan; Shaoxian Wang



Particle design using supercritical fluids: Literature and patent survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

As particle design is presently a major development of supercritical fluids applications, mainly in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and specialty chemistry industries, number of publications are issued and numerous patents filed every year. This document presents a survey (that cannot pretend to be exhaustive!) of published knowledge classified according to the different concepts currently used to manufacture particles, microspheres or

Jennifer Jung; Michel Perrut



Use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys using a computer software package, WILLIAM, is described. The system allows evaluation of a number of alternative sampling systems and, with appropriate cost data, estimates the implementation cost for each.

Titus, S. J.; Wensel, L. C.



Evolvable Systems in Hardware Design: Taxonomy, Survey and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a taxonomy, presents a survey and describes a set of applications on Evolvable Hardware Systems (EHW). The taxonomy is based on the following properties: Hardware Evaluation Process, Evolutionary Approach, Target Application Area and Evolving Platform. Recent reported applications on EHW are also reviewed, according to the proposed taxonomy. Additionally, a set of digital design applications, developed by

Ricardo Salem Zebulum; Marco Aurélio Cavalcanti Pacheco; Marley B. R. Vellasco



Survey design and extent estimates for the National Lakes Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a National Lake Assessment (NLA) in the conterminous USA in 2007 as part of a national assessment of aquatic resources using probability based survey designs. The USEPA Office of Water led the assessment, in cooperation with...


Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design  

SciTech Connect

In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the LSST science drivers led to these choices of system parameters.

Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana



Lack of quantitative training among early-career ecologists: a survey of the problem and potential solutions  

PubMed Central

Proficiency in mathematics and statistics is essential to modern ecological science, yet few studies have assessed the level of quantitative training received by ecologists. To do so, we conducted an online survey. The 937 respondents were mostly early-career scientists who studied biology as undergraduates. We found a clear self-perceived lack of quantitative training: 75% were not satisfied with their understanding of mathematical models; 75% felt that the level of mathematics was “too low” in their ecology classes; 90% wanted more mathematics classes for ecologists; and 95% more statistics classes. Respondents thought that 30% of classes in ecology-related degrees should be focused on quantitative disciplines, which is likely higher than for most existing programs. The main suggestion to improve quantitative training was to relate theoretical and statistical modeling to applied ecological problems. Improving quantitative training will require dedicated, quantitative classes for ecology-related degrees that contain good mathematical and statistical practice.

Ezard, Thomas H.G.; J?rgensen, Peter S.; Zimmerman, Naupaka; Chamberlain, Scott; Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Curran, Timothy J.; Poisot, Timothee



Metamodels for Computer-Based Engineering Design: Survey and Recommendations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of statistical techniques to build approximations of expensive computer analysis codes pervades much of todays engineering design. These statistical approximations, or metamodels, are used to replace the actual expensive computer analyses, facilitating multidisciplinary, multiobjective optimization and concept exploration. In this paper we review several of these techniques including design of experiments, response surface methodology, Taguchi methods, neural networks, inductive learning, and kriging. We survey their existing application in engineering design and then address the dangers of applying traditional statistical techniques to approximate deterministic computer analysis codes. We conclude with recommendations for the appropriate use of statistical approximation techniques in given situations and how common pitfalls can be avoided.

Simpson, Timothy W.; Peplinski, Jesse; Koch, Patrick N.; Allen, Janet K.



Ergonomic Chair Design by Fusing Qualitative and Quantitative Criteria Using Interactive Genetic Algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper emphasizes the necessity of formally bringing qualitative and quantitative criteria of ergonomic design together, and provides a novel complementary design framework with this aim. Within this framework, different design criteria are viewed as optimization objectives, and design solutions are iteratively improved through the cooperative efforts of computer and user. The framework is rooted in multiobjective optimization, genetic algorithms,

Alexandra Melike Brintrup; Jeremy Ramsden; Hideyuki Takagi; Ashutosh Tiwari



A survey of optimization techniques for integrated-circuit design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contemporary optimization techniques are surveyed and related to optimization problems which arise in the design of integrated circuits. Theory, algorithms, and programs are reviewed, and an assessment is made of the impact optimization has had and will have on integrated-circuit design. Integrated circuits are characterized by complex tradeoffs between multiple nonlinear objectives with multiple nonlinear and sometimes nonconvex constraints. Function and gradient evaluations require the solution of very large sets of nonlinear differential equations; consequently they are inaccurate and extremely expensive. Futhermore, the parameters to be optimized are subject to inherent statistical fluctuations. Particular emphasis is given to those multiobjective constrained optimization techniques which are appropriate to this environment.

Brayton, R. K.; Hachtel, G. D.; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A. L.



Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  


In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G



Introduction to Quantitative Feedback Theory for lateral robust flight control systems design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT), is a frequency-domain-based robust control design approach that was developed in the early 1970s and has received considerable attention over the past two decades. In the last few years, its application to aircraft flight control systems design has been widely investigated. In this paper the basic concepts, principles, design procedure, and features of QFT are reviewed

S.-F. Wu; M. J. Grimble; S. G. Breslin



Quantitative and qualitative cost estimating for engineering design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a cost estimating methodology for predicting the cost of engineering design effort during the conceptual stages of product development. The research was carried out within a large European aerospace manufacturer whose traditional costing practices had become outdated. The main objective was to generate a suite of technical Cost Estimating Relationships (CERs) that integrate both

Rajkumar Roy; Sara Kelvesjo; Sara Forsberg; Chris Rush



Multivariable gas turbine engine controller design using quantitative feedback theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex thermo-fluid systems pose many difficult engineering problems in the area of automatic control system design. Typically, thermo-fluid systems exhibit nonlinear behavior, a high degree of process uncertainty, as well as transport lag and other time delay behaviors. The jet aircraft engine is a good example of one such system where the linearized dynamical behavior varies widely over the ranges

Richard E Nordgren



Designing automation for human use: empirical studies and quantitative models  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emerging knowledge base of human performance research can provide guidelines for designing automation that can be used effectively by human operators of complex systems. Which functions should be automated and to what extent in a given system? A model for types and levels of automation that provides a framework and an objective basis for making such choices is described.

Raja Parasuraman



Quantitative structural design of high voltage potted electronic modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Failure analysis of traveling wave tubes (TWT's) revealed high voltage arc-overs due to cracks in the potting material. It is suggested that the geometric features of the design caused stresses during thermal cycling, which were less than the static strength of the material, but high enough to cause slow crack growth from flaws in the material. The USAF helped sponsor a program to investigate this phenomenon in relation to the 40 W 293H TWT, and to develop a new design which would have high reliability with respect to potting compound structural failures. An iterated design-analysis process was used and coupled with life predictions based on an understanding of the fracture mechanics of the materials involved. The fundamental design data and analysis procedures consisted of: (1) materials characterization; (2) stress, dynamics and thermal analysis of the TWT and its redesign; (3) measurement of the rate of crack growth in the potting compound as a function of stress and temperature; and (4) life prediction of the redesigned TWT.

Tweedie, A. T.; Lieberman, P. A.


Epidemiological Survey of Quantitative Ultrasound in Risk Assessment of Falls in Middle-Aged and Elderly People  

PubMed Central

The risk assessment of falls is important, but still unsatisfactory and time-consuming. Our objective was to assess quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the risk assessment of falls. Our study was designed as epidemiological cross-sectional study occurring from March 2009 to February 2010 by community survey at a medical center. The participants were collected from systemic sample of 1,200 community-dwelling people (Male/Female?=?524/676) 40 years old and over in Yunlin County, Mid-Taiwan. Structural questionnaires including socioeconomic status, living status, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and medical history were completed. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the non-dominant distal radial area (QUS-R) and the left calcaneal area (QUS-C) were measured. The overall prevalence of falls was 19.8%. In men, the independently associated factors for falls were age (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01?1.06), fracture history (OR: 1.89; 95%CI: 1.12?3.19), osteoarthritis history (OR: 3.66; 95%CI: 1.15?11.64) and speed of sound (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.99?1.00; p<0.05) by QUS-R. In women, the independently associated factors for falls were current drinking (OR: 3.54; 95%CI: 1.35?9.31) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97?0.99; p<0.01) by QUS-C. The cutoffs at -2.5< T-score<-1 derived using QUS-R (OR: 2.85; 95%CI: 1.64?4.96; p<0.01) in men or T-score ?-2.5 derived using QUS-C (OR: 2.72; 95%CI: 1.42?5.21; p<0.01) in women showed an independent association with falls. The lowest T-score derived using either QUS-R or QUS-C was also revealed as an independent factor for falls in both men (OR: 2.13; 95%CI: 1.03?4.43; p<0.05) and women (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.13?4.91; p<0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasounds, measured either at the radial or calcaneal area, are convenient tools by which to assess the risk of falls in middle-aged and elderly people.

Ou, Ling-Chun; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chang, Yin-Fan; Chang, Chin-Sung; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Wu, Chih-Hsing



Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.



The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope preliminary design overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) Project is a public-private partnership that is well into the design and development of the complete observatory system to conduct a wide fast deep survey and to process and serve the data. The telescope has a 3-mirror wide field optical system with an 8.4 meter primary, 3.4 meter secondary, and 5 meter tertiary mirror. The reflective optics feed three refractive elements and a 64 cm 3.2 gigapixel camera. The LSST data management system will reduce, transport, alert and archive the roughly 15 terabytes of data produced nightly, and will serve the raw and catalog data accumulating at an average of 7 petabytes per year to the community without any proprietary period. The project has completed several data challenges designed to prototype and test the data management system to significant pre-construction levels. The project continues to attract institutional partners and has acquired non-federal funding sufficient to construct the primary mirror, already in progress at the University of Arizona, build the secondary mirror substrate, completed by Corning, and fund detector prototype efforts, several that have been tested on the sky. A focus of the project is systems engineering, risk reduction through prototyping and major efforts in image simulation and operation simulations. The project has submitted a proposal for construction to the National Science Foundation Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) program and has prepared project advocacy papers for the National Research Council's Astronomy 2010 Decadal Survey. The project is preparing for a 2012 construction funding authorization.

Krabbendam, V. L.; Sweeney, D.



QuantPrime - a flexible tool for reliable high-throughput primer design for quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Medium- to large-scale expression profiling using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays are becoming increasingly important in genomics research. A major bottleneck in experiment preparation is the design of specific primer pairs, where researchers have to make several informed choices, often outside their area of expertise. Using currently available primer design tools, several interactive decisions have to be made,

Samuel Arvidsson; Miroslaw Kwasniewski; Diego Mauricio Riaño-pachón; Bernd Mueller-roeber



50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417...designation based on submission of recreational survey data. (a) To be designated as an...state's participation in a regional survey of marine and anadromous...



Quantitative Modeling of Selective Lysosomal Targeting for Drug Design  

PubMed Central

Lysosomes are acidic organelles and are involved in various diseases, the most prominent is malaria. Accumulation of molecules in the cell by diffusion from the external solution into cytosol, lysosome and mitochondrium was calculated with the Fick-Nernst-Planck-equation. The cell model considers the diffusion of neutral and ionic molecules across biomembranes, dissociation to mono- or bivalent ions, adsorption to lipids, and electrical attraction or repulsion. Based on simulation results, high and selective accumulation in lysosomes was found for weak mono- and bivalent bases with intermediate to high log Kow. These findings were validated with experimental results and by a comparison to the properties of antimalarial drugs in clinical use. For ten active compounds, nine were predicted to accumulate to a greater extent in lysosomes than in other organelles, six of these were in the optimum range predicted by the model and three were close. Five of the antimalarial drugs were lipophilic weak dibasic compounds. The predicted optimum properties for a selective accumulation of weak bivalent bases in lysosomes are consistent with experimental values and are more accurate than any prior calculation. This demonstrates that the cell model can be a useful tool for the design of effective lysosome-targeting drugs with minimal off-target interactions.

Rosania, Gus R.; Horobin, Richard W.; Kornhuber, Johannes



Using Design Effects From Previous Cluster Surveys to Guide Sample Size Calculation in Emergency Settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A good estimate of the design effect is critical for calculating the most efficient sample size for cluster surveys. We reviewed the design effects for seven nutrition and health outcomes from nine population- based cluster surveys conducted in emergency settings. Most of the design effects for outcomes in children, and one-half of the design effects for crude mortality, were below

Reinhard Kaiser; Bradley A. Woodruff; Oleg Bilukha; Paul B. Spiegel; Peter Salama



The XMM-LSS survey I. Scientic motivations, design and rst results?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have designed a medium deep large area X-ray survey with XMM { the XMM Large Scale Structure survey, XMM-LSS { with the scope of extending the cosmological tests attempted using ROSAT cluster samples to two redshift bins between 0 < z < 1 while maintaining the precision of earlier studies. Two main goals have constrained the survey design: the

M. Pierre; I. Valtchanov; S. Dos Santos; B. Altieri; S. Andreon; M. Bolzonella; M. Bremer; C. Jean; A. Refregier; J. Willis; C. Adami; D. Alloin; M. Birkinshaw; L. Chiappetti; A. Cohen; A. Detal; P. A. Duc; E. Gosset; L. R. Jones; D. Maccagni; B. McBreen; H. McCracken; Y. Mellier; T. J. Ponman; H. Quintana; H. Rottgering; A. Smette; J. Surdej; L. Vigroux; H. Bohringer; J. Hjorth; C. Lonsdale; S. D. M. White


Induced Polarization Surveying for Acid Rock Screening in Highway Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highway and pipeline construction agencies have become increasingly vigilant in their efforts to avoid cutting through sulphide-bearing bedrock that has potential to produce acid rock drainage. Blasting and fragmentation of such rock increases the surface area available for sulphide oxidation and hence increases the risk of acid rock drainage unless the rock contains enough natural buffering capacity to neutralize the pH. In December, 2001, the New Brunswick Department of Transportation (NBOT) sponsored a field trial of geophysical surveying in order to assess its suitability as a screening tool for locating near-surface sulphides along proposed highway alignments. The goal was to develop a protocol that would allow existing programs of drilling and geochemical testing to be targeted more effectively, and provide design engineers with the information needed to reduce rock cuts where necessary and dispose of blasted material in a responsible fashion. Induced polarization (IP) was chosen as the primary geophysical method given its ability to detect low-grade disseminated mineralization. The survey was conducted in dipole-dipole mode using an exploration-style time domain IP system, dipoles 8 to 25 m in length, and six potential dipoles for each current dipole location (i.e. n = 1 - 6). Supplementary information was provided by resistivity and VLF-EM surveys sensitive to lateral changes in electrical conductivity, and by magnetic field surveying chosen for its sensitivity to the magnetic susceptibility of pyrrhotite. Geological and geochemical analyses of samples taken from several IP anomalies located along 4.3 line-km of proposed highway confirmed the effectiveness of the screening technique. IP pseudosections from a region of metamorphosed shales and volcaniclastic rocks identified discrete, well-defined mineralized zones. Stronger, overlapping, and more laterally extensive IP anomalies were observed over a section of graphitic and sulphide-bearing metasedimentary rocks. Attempts to use spectral IP characteristics to determine relative abundances of sulphides and graphite were not conclusive. The overall effectiveness of the screening technique however encouraged NBDOT to apply it to an additional 50 km of planned rock cuts along the corridor selected for the new Trans-Canada Highway.

Butler, K. E.; Al, T.; Bishop, T.



Iterative optimization method for design of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging experiments.  


Quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (QMTI) using spoiled gradient echo sequences with pulsed off-resonance saturation can be a time-consuming technique. A method is presented for selection of an optimum experimental design for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging based on the iterative reduction of a discrete sampling of the Z-spectrum. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated for human brain white matter imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T, and optimal designs are produced to target specific model parameters. The optimal number of measurements and the signal-to-noise ratio required for stable parameter estimation are also investigated. In vivo imaging results demonstrate that this optimal design approach substantially improves parameter map quality. The iterative method presented here provides an advantage over free form optimal design methods, in that pragmatic design constraints are readily incorporated. In particular, the presented method avoids clustering and repeated measures in the final experimental design, an attractive feature for the purpose of magnetization transfer model validation. The iterative optimal design technique is general and can be applied to any method of quantitative magnetization transfer imaging. PMID:21748796

Levesque, Ives R; Sled, John G; Pike, G Bruce



Current State of Agile User-Centered Design: A Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agile software development methods are quite popular nowadays and are being adopted at an increasing rate in the industry every year. However, these methods are still lacking usability awareness in their development lifecycle, and the integration of usability/User-Centered Design (UCD) into agile methods is not adequately addressed. This paper presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey regarding the current state of the integration of agile methods and usability/UCD. A world wide response of 92 practitioners was received. The results show that the majority of practitioners perceive that the integration of agile methods with usability/UCD has added value to their adopted processes and to their teams; has resulted in the improvement of usability and quality of the product developed; and has increased the satisfaction of the end-users of the product developed. The top most used HCI techniques are low-fidelity prototyping, conceptual designs, observational studies of users, usability expert evaluations, field studies, personas, rapid iterative testing, and laboratory usability testing.

Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas


Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan



Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIt has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical

Ulrika Östlund; Lisa Kidd; Yvonne Wengström; Neneh Rowa-Dewar



A Critical Analysis of Interview, Telephone, and Mail Survey Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A critical analysis is presented of the literature as it relates to survey research, including personal interviews, telephone interviews, and mail questionnaires. Additional research concerns are explored, and a code of ethics for survey researchers is presented. Focus groups, interviews, long interviews, telephone interviews, and mail surveys are…

Katz, Elinor


Surveys of Need for Office Design and Other Design Skills Among Former Interior Design Graduates and Employers of Designers. Volume IX, No. 15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to measure the demand for an office design course among interior design graduates of Harper College and to determine the design skill needs of area employers, two studies were undertaken. An initial mail survey, a second mailing, and a series of telephone calls yielded a 75% response rate from the program's 88 graduates. Of the…

Daly, Pat; Lucas, John A.


Curriculum Design of Computer Graphics Programs: A Survey of Art/Design Programs at the University Level.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This master's thesis reports the results of a survey submitted to over 30 colleges and universities that currently offer computer graphics courses or are in the planning stage of curriculum design. Intended to provide a profile of the computer graphics programs and insight into the process of curriculum design, the survey gathered data on program…

McKee, Richard Lee


Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Surveys of Dental Student Values: Limitations of Cross-Sectional Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys of dental student values are described that were designed to assess value ratings by four dental classes in 1976, annual value ratings of a freshman class as they progressed through their four year program, and the usefulness of the cross-sectional design versus the longitudinal design. Each of the two surveys, which were conducted by the…

Sakumura, Joseph S.


Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

PubMed Central

In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented.

Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Goncalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro



Trajectory Design for the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission, scheduled to be launched in 2017. TESS will travel in a highly eccentric orbit around Earth, with initial perigee radius near 17 Earth radii (Re) and apogee radius near 59 Re. The orbit period is near 2:1 resonance with the Moon, with apogee nearly 90 degrees out-of-phase with the Moon, in a configuration that has been shown to be operationally stable. TESS will execute phasing loops followed by a lunar flyby, with a final maneuver to achieve 2:1 resonance with the Moon. The goals of a resonant orbit with long-term stability, short eclipses and limited oscillations of perigee present significant challenges to the trajectory design. To rapidly assess launch opportunities, we adapted the Schematics Window Methodology (SWM76) launch window analysis tool to assess the TESS mission constraints. To understand the long-term dynamics of such a resonant orbit in the Earth-Moon system we employed Dynamical Systems Theory in the Circular Restricted 3-Body Problem (CR3BP). For precise trajectory analysis we use a high-fidelity model and multiple shooting in the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to optimize the maneuver delta-V and meet mission constraints. Finally we describe how the techniques we have developed can be applied to missions with similar requirements. Keywords: resonant orbit, stability, lunar flyby, phasing loops, trajectory optimization

Dichmann, Donald J.; Parker, Joel J. K.; Williams, Trevor W.; Mendelsohn, Chad R.



Spatial Statistical Models and Optimal Survey Design for Rapid Geophysical characterization of UXO Sites  

SciTech Connect

Unexploded ordnance(UXO)surveys encompass large areas, and the cost of surveying these areas can be high. Enactment of earlier protocols for sampling UXO sites have shown the shortcomings of these procedures and led to a call for development of scientifically defensible statistical procedures for survey design and analysis. This project is one of three funded by SERDP to address this need.

G. Ostrouchov; W.E.Doll; D.A.Wolf; L.P.Beard; M.D. Morris; D.K.Butler



Findings from a survey on the current use of daylight simulations in building design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from a web-based survey on the current use of daylight simulations in building design. The survey was administered from December 2nd 2003 to January 19th 2004. One hundred and eighty five individuals from 27 countries completed the survey. The majority of respondents worked in Canada (20%), the United States (20%), and Germany (12%). Most participants were

Christoph Reinhart; Annegret Fitz



Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa



Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious

Z. Ivezic; T. Axelrod; W. N. Brandt; D. L. Burke; C. F. Claver; A. Connolly; K. H. Cook; P. Gee; D. K. Gilmore; S. H. Jacoby; R. L. Jones; S. M. Kahn; J. P. Kantor; V. Krabbendam; R. H. Lupton; D. G. Monet; P. A. Pinto; A. Saha; T. L. Schalk; D. P. Schneider; Michael A. Strauss



Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers To Reference Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious

Z. Ivezic; T. Axelrod; W. N. Brandt; D. L. Burke; C. F. Claver; A. Connolly; K. H. Cook; P. Gee; D. K. Gilmore; S. H. Jacoby; R. L. Jones; S. M. Kahn; J. P. Kantor; V. V. Krabbendam; R. H. Lupton; D. G. Monet; P. A. Pinto; A. Saha; T. L. Schalk; D. P. Schneider; M. A. Strauss; C. W. Stubbs; D. Sweeney; A. Szalay; J. J. Thaler; J. A. Tyson



A Survey of Former Drafting & Engineering Design Technology Students. Summary Findings of Respondents District-Wide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2001 staff of the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research collaborated with occupational deans, academic deans, and faculty to develop and administer a survey of former Drafting and Engineering Design Technology students. The survey was designed to determine how well courses had met the needs of former drafting…

Glyer-Culver, Betty


Connecting Business Models with Service Platform Designs - Quantitative, Scenario-Based Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heterogeneity of technical and business designs, complexity of collaborations, and incentives are just some of the consequences of service platform evolution that complicate their business analysis. Business models are usually on a higher abstraction level than service platform designs, which requires detailing prior to their financial analysis. This work proposes a framework for quantitative analysis, which “reinterprets” the business models by underlying service platforms technical and business entities, processes and scenarios. In such a way it prepares them for business analysis and valuation, focusing also on incentives of collaborating business actors. We explain the approach theoretically and demonstrate its use on the proof-of-the-concept service platform.

Zoric, Josip


Design and analysis of quantitative differential proteomics investigations using LC-MS technology.  


Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomics is becoming an increasingly important tool in characterizing the abundance of proteins in biological samples of various types and across conditions. Effects of disease or drug treatments on protein abundance are of particular interest for the characterization of biological processes and the identification of biomarkers. Although state-of-the-art instrumentation is available to make high-quality measurements and commercially available software is available to process the data, the complexity of the technology and data presents challenges for bioinformaticians and statisticians. Here, we describe a pipeline for the analysis of quantitative LC-MS data. Key components of this pipeline include experimental design (sample pooling, blocking, and randomization) as well as deconvolution and alignment of mass chromatograms to generate a matrix of molecular abundance profiles. An important challenge in LC-MS-based quantitation is to be able to accurately identify and assign abundance measurements to members of protein families. To address this issue, we implement a novel statistical method for inferring the relative abundance of related members of protein families from tryptic peptide intensities. This pipeline has been used to analyze quantitative LC-MS data from multiple biomarker discovery projects. We illustrate our pipeline here with examples from two of these studies, and show that the pipeline constitutes a complete workable framework for LC-MS-based differential quantitation. Supplementary material is available at PMID:18324749

Bukhman, Yury V; Dharsee, Moyez; Ewing, Rob; Chu, Peter; Topaloglou, Thodoros; Le Bihan, Thierry; Goh, Theo; Duewel, Henry; Stewart, Ian I; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Ng, Nancy F



Survey and Analysis on Design Management Facing Small and Medium Enterprises in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper firstly designed a questionnaire on basis of industrial design and design management for the product development in small and medium enterprises in China. The survey was done through field interview and internet. According to statistics result and the field interviewing record, the problems of design management existed were analyzed, mainly focusing on incorrect or shallow understanding of Industrial

Yanmin Xue; Hong Yao



Inappropriate Survey Design Analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey May Produce Biased Results  

PubMed Central

Objectives The inherent nature of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) design requires special analysis by incorporating sample weights, stratification, and clustering not used in ordinary statistical procedures. Methods This study investigated the proportion of research papers that have used an appropriate statistical methodology out of the research papers analyzing the KNHANES cited in the PubMed online system from 2007 to 2012. We also compared differences in mean and regression estimates between the ordinary statistical data analyses without sampling weight and design-based data analyses using the KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Results Of the 247 research articles cited in PubMed, only 19.8% of all articles used survey design analysis, compared with 80.2% of articles that used ordinary statistical analysis, treating KNHANES data as if it were collected using a simple random sampling method. Means and standard errors differed between the ordinary statistical data analyses and design-based analyses, and the standard errors in the design-based analyses tended to be larger than those in the ordinary statistical data analyses. Conclusions Ignoring complex survey design can result in biased estimates and overstated significance levels. Sample weights, stratification, and clustering of the design must be incorporated into analyses to ensure the development of appropriate estimates and standard errors of these estimates.

Kim, Yangho; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Nam-Soo



A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

Gorder, Peter James



Quantitative Hydrogeological Framework Interpretations from Modeling Helicopter Electromagnetic Survey Data, Nebraska Panhandle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for allocation and management of water resources within the state of Nebraska has created a demand for innovative approaches to data collection for development of hydrogeologic frameworks to be used for 2D and 3D groundwater models. In 2008, the USGS in cooperation with the North Platte Natural Resources District, the South Platte Natural Resources District, and the University of Nebraska Conservation and Survey Division began using frequency domain helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys to map selected sections of the Nebraska Panhandle. The surveys took place in selected sections of the North Platte River valley, Lodgepole Creek, and portions of the adjacent tablelands. The objective of the surveys is to map the aquifers of the area to improve understanding of the groundwater-surface water relationships and develop better hydrogeologic frameworks used in making more accurate 3D groundwater models of the area. For the HEM method to have an impact in a groundwater model at the basin scale, hydrostratigraphic units need to have detectable physical property (electrical resistivity) contrasts. When these contrasts exist within the study area and they are detectable from an airborne platform, large areas can be surveyed to rapidly generate 2D and 3D maps and models of 3D hydrogeologic features. To make the geophysical data useful to multidimensional groundwater models, numerical inversion is necessary to produce a depth-dependent physical property data set reflecting hydrogeologic features. These maps and depth images of electrical resistivity in themselves are not useful for the hydrogeologist. They need to be turned into maps and depth images of the hydrostratigraphic units and hydrogeologic features. Through a process of numerical imaging, inversion, sensitivity analysis, geological ground truthing (boreholes), geological interpretation, hydrogeologic features are characterized. Resistivity depth sections produced from this process are used to pick contacts between hydrostratigraphic units. This provides a 3D image of the hydrostratigraphic units interpreted from the electrical resistivity derived from the HEM tied to statistical confidences on the picked contacts. The interpreted 2D and 3D data provides the groundwater modeler with a high-resolution hydrogeologic framework and a solid understanding of the uncertainty in the information it provides. This interpretation facilitates more informed modeling decisions, more accurate groundwater models, and development of more effective water-resources management strategies.

Abraham, J. D.; Ball, L. B.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Cannia, J. C.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Minsley, B. J.; Peterson, S. M.; Smith, B. D.



Customer Surveying for Public Transit: A Design Manual for On-Board Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Presented is a best practices manual that describes the necessary steps in conducting a successful on-board survey of public transit customers. It was specifically developed for the public transit professional that has at least a rudimentary understanding...

M. R. Baltes



Software for quantitative analysis of radiotherapy: overview, requirement analysis and design solutions.  


Radiotherapy is a fast-developing discipline which plays a major role in cancer care. Quantitative analysis of radiotherapy data can improve the success of the treatment and support the prediction of outcome. In this paper, we first identify functional, conceptional and general requirements on a software system for quantitative analysis of radiotherapy. Further we present an overview of existing radiotherapy analysis software tools and check them against the stated requirements. As none of them could meet all of the demands presented herein, we analyzed possible conceptional problems and present software design solutions and recommendations to meet the stated requirements (e.g. algorithmic decoupling via dose iterator pattern; analysis database design). As a proof of concept we developed a software library "RTToolbox" following the presented design principles. The RTToolbox is available as open source library and has already been tested in a larger-scale software system for different use cases. These examples demonstrate the benefit of the presented design principles. PMID:23523366

Zhang, Lanlan; Hub, Martina; Mang, Sarah; Thieke, Christian; Nix, Oliver; Karger, Christian P; Floca, Ralf O



Obstructed Telescopes Versus Unobstructed Telescopes for Wide Field Survey-A Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telescopes with unobstructed pupils are known to deliver clean point-spread function (PSF) to their focal plane, in contrast to traditional telescopes with obstructed pupils. Recent progress in the manufacturing of aspheric surfaces and mounting accuracy favors unobstructed telescopes over obstructed telescopes for science cases that demand stable and clean PSF over the entire field of view. In this paper we compare the image quality of an unobstructed three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) design with that of an obstructed TMA. Both the designs have the same primary mirror, effective focal length, field of view, and detector characteristics. We demonstrate, using simulated images of faint elliptical galaxies imaged through the two designs, that both the designs can measure morphological parameters with the same precision, if the PSF is reconstructed within 12' of the source. We also demonstrate that the unobstructed design delivers desirable precision even if the PSF is reconstructed 50' away from the source. Therefore, the PSF of unobstructed design is uniform over a wider field of view compared to an obstructed design. The precision of the designs is given by the 1? error bars (68% confidence level) in the fitted values of the axis ratio and position angle of the simulated galaxies.

Singaravelu, Balasubramanian; Cabanac, Remi A.



Quantitative differential geomorphology of the Monterey Canyon from time-separated multibeam surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes of bathymetry derived from multibeam sonars are useful for quantifying the effects of many sedimentary and tectonic processes. The assessment of resolution limits is an essential component of the analysis This research compares submarine morphology as they manifest tectonics in a rapidly transform continental margin (Monterey Bay - California). We study modern submarine processes from a geomorphic change using high-resolution multibeam bathymetry. We first used different techniques that quantify uncertainties and reveals the spatial variations of errors. An sub-area of immobile seafloor in the study area, mapped by the high-resolution multibeam record of the seafloor of the MBR collected by MBARI in each survey in a four years period (spring 2003 to winter 2006), provides a common 'benchmark'. Each survey dataset over the benchmark is filtered with a simple moving-averaging window and depth differences between the two surveys are collated to derive a difference histogram. The procedure is repeated using different length-scales of filtering. By plotting the variability of the differences versus the length-scale of the filter, the different effects of spatially uncorrelated and correlated noise can be deduced. Beside that, a variography analysis is conducted on the dataset build by differencing the benchmark surveys to highlight spatial structures and anisotropies of the measure errors. Data analysis of the Monterey Bay area indicates that the canyon floor contains an axial channel laterally bounded by elevated complex terrace surfaces. Asymmetrical megaripples dominate the active part of the canyon floor, indicating sediment transport. Terraces represent the evidence of recent degradation of the canyon floor. Slump scars and gullies, having a variety of size, shape the canyon walls. Significant changes over the analyzed period include: (a) complete reorganization of the megaripples on the channel floor, (b) local slump scar on the head of the canyon and on the channel flanks, (c) local channel widening that laterally eroded older channel, (d) extension of gully head on canyon walls, (e) erosion and sedimentation cycles all over the canyon. The analyses carried out shows how the results are based on a map of uncertainties, which can be used to remove insignificant data from the bathymetric change map.

Taramelli, A.; Zucca, F.; Innocenti, C.; Sorichetta, A.; Seeber, L.



The Optically Unbiased Gamma-Ray Burst Host (TOUGH) Survey. I. Survey Design and Catalogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful tracers of star-forming galaxies. We have defined a homogeneous subsample of 69 Swift GRB-selected galaxies spanning a very wide redshift range. Special attention has been devoted to making the sample optically unbiased through simple and well-defined selection criteria based on the high-energy properties of the bursts and their positions on the sky. Thanks to our extensive follow-up observations, this sample has now achieved a comparatively high degree of redshift completeness, and thus provides a legacy sample, useful for statistical studies of GRBs and their host galaxies. In this paper, we present the survey design and summarize the results of our observing program conducted at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) aimed at obtaining the most basic properties of galaxies in this sample, including a catalog of R and Ks magnitudes and redshifts. We detect the host galaxies for 80% of the GRBs in the sample, although only 42% have Ks -band detections, which confirms that GRB-selected host galaxies are generally blue. The sample is not uniformly blue, however, with two extremely red objects detected. Moreover, galaxies hosting GRBs with no optical/NIR afterglows, whose identification therefore relies on X-ray localizations, are significantly brighter and redder than those with an optical/NIR afterglow. This supports a scenario where GRBs occurring in more massive and dusty galaxies frequently suffer high optical obscuration. Our spectroscopic campaign has resulted in 77% now having redshift measurements, with a median redshift of 2.14 ± 0.18. TOUGH alone includes 17 detected z > 2 Swift GRB host galaxies suitable for individual and statistical studies—a substantial increase over previous samples. Seven hosts have detections of the Ly? emission line and we can exclude an early indication that Ly? emission is ubiquitous among GRB hosts, but confirm that Ly? is stronger in GRB-selected galaxies than in flux-limited samples of Lyman break galaxies. .

Hjorth, Jens; Malesani, Daniele; Jakobsson, Páll; Jaunsen, Andreas O.; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Gorosabel, Javier; Krühler, Thomas; Levan, Andrew J.; Micha?owski, Micha? J.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Møller, Palle; Schulze, Steve; Tanvir, Nial R.; Watson, Darach



Rotorcraft control system design for uncertain vehicle dynamics using quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which must meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. This theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear model of the BO-105C rotorcraft. Uncertainty in the vehicle model is due to the variation in the vehicle dynamics over a range of airspeeds from 0-100 kts. For purposes of exposition, the vehicle description contains no rotor or actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model. The advantage of using a sequential loop closure technique to reduce the cost of feedback is demonstrated by example.

Hess, R. A.



Design principles and accuracy of an inertial surveying system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of new surveying technology based on inertial methods and equipment is a priority at the All-Russian Scientific-Research Institute of Mechanical Engineering (ASIME). Such technology is based on an inertial system including inertial measuring components - gyroscopes and accelerometers, which permit the measurement of the apparent acceleration (the difference between the absolute and gravitational acceleration) when they move and

D. V. Yakovlev; Yu. S. Lukovatyi; N. O. Spirina



Design of an airborne plutonium survey program for personnel protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various options were considered for surveying and real-time monitoring for airborne plutonium for optimum protection of personnel. Placement of samplers, dilution factors, and analysis time were considered in the strategy for achieving regulatory compliance and maintaining internal dose as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It was found that protection was relatively insensitive to placement as was sensitivity of detection. It

J. L. Alvarez; W. S. Bennett; T. L. Davidson



Rotorcraft flight control design using quantitative feedback theory and dynamic crossfeeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-input, multi-output controls design with robust crossfeeds is presented for a rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Decoupling criteria are developed for dynamic crossfeed design and implementation. Frequency dependent performance metrics focusing on piloted flight are developed and tested on 23 flight configurations. The metrics show that the resulting design is superior to alternative control system designs using conventional fixed-gain crossfeeds and to feedback-only designs which rely on high gains to suppress undesired off-axis responses. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets current handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensator successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective.

Cheng, Rendy P.



Quantitatively structural control of the karst based on speleological cave survey data: Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speleological cave survey characterizes each cave passage by a 3D line (called shot survey) defined by its length, direction and dipping. This line represents the three-dimensional geometry of the karst system and cave passage scale and can be statistically analyzed and compared with the geometry of the massif discontinuities. The aim of this work is to establish the quantitative influence of the structural geology in caves based on the comparison between cave survey data, joint and bedding measurements with stereographic projection. 15 km of cave surveys from Cabeza Llerosos massif (Picos de Europa, Northern Spain) were chosen to illustrate the method. The length of the cavities range between 50 to 4,438 m and their depth is up to 738 m. The methodology of work includes: 1) cave survey collection from caving reports; 2) geological mapping and cross-sections with cavities projection;3) data collection of bedding and joints in caves and near outcrops;4) definition of families of joints and bedding planes by stereographic projection; 5) definition of groups of cave passages from stereographic projection (based on their directions and dipping) and 6) comparison between bedding, families of joints and cave survey data by stereographic projection. Seven families of joints have been defined in all the area of study. The joint families are: J1) sub-vertical, J2) N63/68SE, J3) N29E/46NW, J4) N52E/72NW, J5) N129E/17NE, J6) N167E/57NE and J7) N180E/26E; the bedding is N30-55/60-80NE. Five groups of cave passages have been defined. "A" group of cave passage is formed by sub-vertical series; it is represented by the 61 % of all the cave passages and is conditioned by the joint families J1, J3, J4 and J6, as well as their intersections. "B" group is formed by N10W-N10E/3-20N galleries; it corresponds with the 13 % of the series and is controlled by the intersection between families J5 and J6. "C" group is defined by N20-70E/0-50NE passages; it is represented by the 13 % of the cavities and is ruled by the intersection between families J1, J2, J5 and J7. "D" group is formed by N125-145E horizontal galleries; it includes the 6 % of the passages and follows the bedding. "E" group is defined by N105-151W/38-65SW passages; it is represented by the 3 % of the passages and is conditioned by the families J1, J2, J3 and J4. This work proposes a new methodology of work in speleogenesis based on the establishment of the quantitative relationships between cave survey with joints and bedding. The method shows some advantages when compared with other methodologies (e.g. statistically models based on structural analysis of the discontinuities of the rock massif or based on the Inception Horizon concept): it is a 3D analysis that can be applied on complex geological settings to make accurate estimations of the percentage of the caves controlled by each joint family and bedding.

Ballesteros, D.; Jiménez-Sánchez, M.; García-Sansegundo, J.; Borreguero, M.; Sendra, G.



Measuring access to medicines: a review of quantitative methods used in household surveys  

PubMed Central

Background Medicine access is an important goal of medicine policy; however the evaluation of medicine access is a subject under conceptual and methodological development. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative methodologies to measure medicine access on household level, access expressed as paid or unpaid medicine acquisition. Methods Searches were carried out in electronic databases and health institutional sites; within references from retrieved papers and by contacting authors. Results Nine papers were located. The methodologies of the studies presented differences in the recall period, recruitment of subjects and medicine access characterization. Conclusions The standardization of medicine access indicators and the definition of appropriate recall periods are required to evaluate different medicines and access dimensions, improving studies comparison. Besides, specific keywords must be established to allow future literature reviews about this topic.



The Health Effects of Climate Change: A Survey of Recent Quantitative Research  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or long-run climate variations affect the occurrence of infectious diseases? Second, is it possible to build more accurate quantitative models which are capable of predicting the future effects of different climate conditions on the transmissibility of particularly dangerous infectious diseases? The primary goal of this paper is to review the most relevant contributions which have directly tackled those questions, both with respect to the effects of climate changes on the diffusion of non-infectious and infectious diseases, with malaria as a case study. Specific attention will be drawn on the methodological aspects of each study, which will be classified according to the type of quantitative model considered, namely time series models, panel data and spatial models, and non-statistical approaches. Since many different disciplines and approaches are involved, a broader view is necessary in order to provide a better understanding of the interactions between climate and health. In this respect, our paper also presents a critical summary of the recent literature related to more general aspects of the impacts of climate changes on human health, such as: the economics of climate change; how to manage the health effects of climate change; the establishment of Early Warning Systems for infectious diseases.

Grasso, Margherita; Manera, Matteo; Chiabai, Aline; Markandya, Anil



Blade root design: A state of art survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass fiber reinforced plastic wind turbine blades are discussed, and 10 blade root designs are presented. They are considered to represent the state of the art. Suggestions are made as to how to proceed in the development of the bonded bolt type of root retention. For this type of very high cycle fatigue designs there is a need for two redundant design principles.

Sandberg, Olof



Survey design for lakes and reservoirs in the United States to assess contaminants in fish tissue  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Lake Fish Tissue Study (NLFTS) was the first survey of fish contamination in lakes and reservoirs in the 48 conterminous states based on probability survey design. This study included the largest set (268) of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals ev...


An Estimation Procedure for the New Public Employment Survey Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2009 Public Employment Survey uses a new m ulti-stage sample method which combines cut-off sampling based on unit size with stratified sampling to reduce the sample size, save resources, and improve the precision of the estimates. In this paper, we propose fitting either two separate linear models within size-based strata or one overall, based on the results of a

Yang Cheng; Casey Corcoran; Joe Barth; Carma Hogue


Surveying current research in object-oriented design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of object-oriented is evolving rapidly. This survey describes what are currently thought to be the key ideas. Although it is necessarily incomplete, it contains both academic and industrial efforts and describes work in both the United States and Europe. It ignores well-known ideas, like that of Coad and Meyer [34], in favor of less widely known projects.Research in

Rebecca J. Wirfs-Brock; Ralph E. Johnson



On kernel nonparametric regression designed for complex survey data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we consider nonparametric regression analysis between two variables when data are sampled through a complex\\u000a survey. While nonparametric regression analysis has been widely used with data that may be assumed to be generated from independently\\u000a and identically distributed (iid) random variables, the methods and asymptotic analyses established for iid data need to be\\u000a extended in the framework

Torsten Harms; Pierre Duchesne



A survey of what customers want in a cell phone design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell phone is an information appliance that has been widely used. It provides instant access to information and makes people more ‘connected’. The objective of our study is to investigate the relationship among the design features of the cell phone and identify the most important design features and design factors. In our survey study, we asked 1,006 college students

Chen Ling; Wonil Hwang; Gavriel Salvendy



Crowd Modeling in Military Simulations: Requirements Analysis, Survey, and Design Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a comprehensive requirements analysis, literature survey, and engineering design study of crowd modeling in military simulations. This report has five main sections. An introductory section is followed by a brief overview of the resea...

F. D. McKenzie M. D. Petty R. C. Gaskins



Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (?0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.



Translating HIV sequences into quantitative fitness landscapes predicts viral vulnerabilities for rational immunogen design  

PubMed Central

Summary A prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine offers the best hope to curb the HIV-AIDS epidemic gripping sub-Saharan Africa, but remains elusive. A major challenge is the extreme viral sequence variability among strains. Systematic means to guide immunogen design for highly variable pathogens like HIV are not available. Using computational models, we have developed an approach to translate available viral sequence data into quantitative landscapes of viral fitness as a function of the amino acid sequences of its constituent proteins. Predictions emerging from our computationally defined landscapes for the proteins of HIV-1 clade B Gag were positively tested against new in vitro fitness measurements, and were consistent with previously defined in vitro measurements and clinical observations. These landscapes chart the peaks and valleys of viral fitness as protein sequences change, and inform the design of immunogens and therapies that can target regions of the virus most vulnerable to selection pressure.

Ferguson, Andrew L.; Mann, Jaclyn K.; Omarjee, Saleha; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Chakraborty, Arup K.



Translating HIV sequences into quantitative fitness landscapes predicts viral vulnerabilities for rational immunogen design.  


A prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine offers the best hope to curb the HIV-AIDS epidemic gripping sub-Saharan Africa, but it remains elusive. A major challenge is the extreme viral sequence variability among strains. Systematic means to guide immunogen design for highly variable pathogens like HIV are not available. Using computational models, we have developed an approach to translate available viral sequence data into quantitative landscapes of viral fitness as a function of the amino acid sequences of its constituent proteins. Predictions emerging from our computationally defined landscapes for the proteins of HIV-1 clade B Gag were positively tested against new in vitro fitness measurements and were consistent with previously defined in vitro measurements and clinical observations. These landscapes chart the peaks and valleys of viral fitness as protein sequences change and inform the design of immunogens and therapies that can target regions of the virus most vulnerable to selection pressure. PMID:23521886

Ferguson, Andrew L; Mann, Jaclyn K; Omarjee, Saleha; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Chakraborty, Arup K



The IMACS Cluster Building Survey. V. Further Evidence for Starburst Recycling from Quantitative Galaxy Morphologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using J- and K s-band imaging obtained as part of the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS), we measure Sérsic indices for 2160 field and cluster galaxies at 0.31 < z < 0.54. Using both mass- and magnitude-limited samples, we compare the distributions for spectroscopically determined passive, continuously star-forming, starburst, and post-starburst systems and show that previously established spatial and statistical connections between these types extend to their gross morphologies. Outside of cluster cores, we find close structural ties between starburst and continuously star-forming, as well as post-starburst and passive types, but not between starbursts and post-starbursts. These results independently support two conclusions presented in Paper II of this series: (1) most starbursts are the product of a non-disruptive triggering mechanism that is insensitive to global environment, such as minor mergers; (2) starbursts and post-starbursts generally represent transient phases in the lives of "normal" star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively, originating from and returning to these systems in closed "recycling" loops. In this picture, spectroscopically identified post-starbursts constitute a minority of all recently terminated starbursts, largely ruling out the typical starburst as a quenching event in all but the densest environments. Data were obtained using the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

Abramson, Louis E.; Dressler, Alan; Gladders, Michael D.; Oemler, Augustus, Jr.; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Monson, Andrew; Persson, Eric; Vulcani, Benedetta



A Systematic Approach for Quantitative Analysis of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization Framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient Multidisciplinary Design and Optimization (MDO) framework for an aerospace engineering system should use and integrate distributed resources such as various analysis codes, optimization codes, Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools, Data Base Management Systems (DBMS), etc. in a heterogeneous environment, and need to provide user-friendly graphical user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach for determining a reference MDO framework and for evaluating MDO frameworks. The proposed approach incorporates two well-known methods, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD), in order to provide a quantitative analysis of the qualitative criteria of MDO frameworks. Identification and hierarchy of the framework requirements and the corresponding solutions for the reference MDO frameworks, the general one and the aircraft oriented one were carefully investigated. The reference frameworks were also quantitatively identified using AHP and QFD. An assessment of three in-house frameworks was then performed. The results produced clear and useful guidelines for improvement of the in-house MDO frameworks and showed the feasibility of the proposed approach for evaluating an MDO framework without a human interference.

Kim, Sangho; Park, Jungkeun; Lee, Jeong-Oog; Lee, Jae-Woo


New design of null screens to simplify the correspondence during the quantitative evaluation of optical surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been working in a method for testing fast aspheric convex surfaces with flat null screens in an array of LCD's, based on the null screen principles accordingly; i.e. we have demonstrated qualitatively that using three LCD's forming a triangular prism, we can evaluate aspheric fast surfaces instead of using the traditional test with a cylindrical null screen. This setup of LCD's has the advantage of display a series of 3 null screens for sampling an optical surface simultaneously, where in the ideal case, the position of the drop-shaped spots should be forming a regular square array of points in the image plane. However, due to typical problems of illumination and directionality with the transmitted light through the LCD's, some spots on the image are missing which complicates the correspondence between centroids and coordinates of the null screens; this is important for the numerical integration procedure used for the quantitative evaluation . In this paper we propose the design of null screens with reference marks, which provide unambiguous correspondence. Specific designs include some strategic color and position coding to ease the image spots identification. We show the method as used during the quantitative evaluation of a spherical steel ball.

Rodríguez Rodríguez, M. I.; Jaramillo-Núñez, A.; Díaz-Uribe, R.



First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.  

PubMed Central

From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis.

Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C



European cardiac resynchronization therapy survey: rationale and design  

PubMed Central

Aims The European cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) Survey is a joint initiative taken by the Heart Failure Association (HFA) and European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) of the European Society of Cardiology. The primary objective is to describe the current European practice and routines associated with CRT/CRT-D implantations based on a wide range of sampling in 13 countries. Methods and results The data collected should provide useful information, including demographics and clinical characteristics, diagnostic criteria, implantation routines and techniques, short-term outcomes, adverse experience, and assessment of adherence to guideline recommendations.



Preliminary design of the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From theoretical analysis and site testing work for 4 years on Dome A, Antarctica, we can reasonably predict that it is a very good astronomical site, as good as or even better than Dome C and suitable for observations ranging from optical to infrared & sub-mm wavelengths. After the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR), which was composed of four small fixed telescopes with diameter of 145mm and the three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) with 500mm entrance diameter, the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST) with diameter of 2.5m is proposed. KDUST will adopt an innovative optical system which can deliver very good image quality over a 2 square degree flat field of view. Some other features are: a fixed focus suitable for different instruments, active optics for miscollimation correction, a lens-prisms that can be used as an atmospheric dispersion corrector or as a very low-dispersion spectrometer when moved in / out of the main optical path without changing the performance of the system, and a compact structure to make easier transportation to Dome A. KDUST will be mounted on a tower with height 15m in order to make a full use of the superb free atmospheric seeing.

Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Su, Ding-qiang; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lifan; Gu, Bozhong; Gong, Xuefei; Li, Xinnan



Quantitative optical imaging and sensing by joint design of point spread functions and estimation algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The joint application of tailored optical Point Spread Functions (PSF) and estimation methods is an important tool for designing quantitative imaging and sensing solutions. By enhancing the information transfer encoded by the optical waves into an image, matched post-processing algorithms are able to complete tasks with improved performance relative to conventional designs. In this thesis, new engineered PSF solutions with image processing algorithms are introduced and demonstrated for quantitative imaging using information-efficient signal processing tools and/or optical-efficient experimental implementations. The use of a 3D engineered PSF, the Double-Helix (DH-PSF), is applied as one solution for three-dimensional, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. The DH-PSF is a tailored PSF which was engineered to have enhanced information transfer for the task of localizing point sources in three dimensions. Both an information- and optical-efficient implementation of the DH-PSF microscope are demonstrated here for the first time. This microscope is applied to image single-molecules and micro-tubules located within a biological sample. A joint imaging/axial-ranging modality is demonstrated for application to quantifying sources of extended transverse and axial extent. The proposed implementation has improved optical-efficiency relative to prior designs due to the use of serialized cycling through select engineered PSFs. This system is demonstrated for passive-ranging, extended Depth-of-Field imaging and digital refocusing of random objects under broadband illumination. Although the serialized engineered PSF solution is an improvement over prior designs for the joint imaging/passive-ranging modality, it requires the use of multiple PSFs---a potentially significant constraint. Therefore an alternative design is proposed, the Single-Helix PSF, where only one engineered PSF is necessary and the chromatic behavior of objects under broadband illumination provides the necessary information transfer. The matched estimation algorithms are introduced along with an optically-efficient experimental system to image and passively estimate the distance to a test object. An engineered PSF solution is proposed for improving the sensitivity of optical wave-front sensing using a Shack-Hartmann Wave-front Sensor (SHWFS). The performance limits of the classical SHWFS design are evaluated and the engineered PSF system design is demonstrated to enhance performance. This system is fabricated and the mechanism for additional information transfer is identified.

Quirin, Sean Albert



SciTech Connect

We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 {open_square}' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} depending on the wavelength, and Ly{alpha} luminosities between 3 x 10{sup 42} and 6 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Ly{alpha} emission at 1.9 < z < 3.8, and the majority of the remainder objects are low-redshift [O II]3727 emitters at z < 0.56. The classification between low- and high-redshift objects depends on rest-frame equivalent width (EW), as well as other indicators, where available. Based on matches to X-ray catalogs, the active galactic nuclei fraction among the Ly{alpha} emitters is 6%. We also analyze the survey's completeness and contamination properties through simulations. We find five high-z, highly significant, resolved objects with FWHM sizes >44 {open_square}' which appear to be extended Ly{alpha} nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Ly{alpha} EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW{sub 0}>240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1402, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf [Max-Planck Instituet fur extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Finkelstein, Steven L. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, 4242 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kelz, Andreas [Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)



Survey of Auto Seat Design Recommendations for Improved Comfort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Seat design recommendations from a large body of literature are reviewed. Emphasis is given to fit parameters related to anthropometric measurements, feel parameters, including pressure distribution and vapor permeability, and support parameters defined w...

M. P. Reed L. W. Schneider L. L. Ricci



A survey of methods for control structure design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Control Structure Design (CSD) is a subproblem,of control system,design and is con- cerned with the selection of appropriate manipulated variables, measured variables, and decentralized,control configurations. Due to the combinatorial,nature,of the selection problem, the number of candidate control structures may be huge and favorable candi- dates are easily overlooked. To circumvent this, CSD must be performed systematically. Despite its major

Marc van de Wal



Analysis of counterfeits and public survey results as design input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both Canada and the United States have undertaken recent studies of public knowledge and human perception related to bank notes and counterfeits. These two types of studies yield complementary results that confirm or refute accepted beliefs regarding security features and bank notes, and provide guidance in their design. However, to be useful, the results of these studies need to be evaluated and applied in the context of note design, such evaluation and incorporation of results can be used to improve how bank notes are designed for different users, such as members of the general public, cash handlers, bank tellers and law enforcement personnel. Analysis of the counterfeits used in the perception studies and comparative evaluation of results can lead to better understanding of types of counterfeiters and help identify gaps in note designs to address those types. In this paper, the results from two recent studies conducted by the Bank of Canada on public awareness of currency design features and on human perception of genuine and counterfeit notes are used to illustrate the method of analysis and application of results to bank note design. Interpretations for specific features are highlighted.

Church, Sara E.; Setlakwe, Linda




SciTech Connect

We present the first results on the search for very bright (M{sub AB} {approx} -21) galaxies at redshift z {approx} 8 from the Brightest of Reionizing Galaxies (BoRG) survey. BoRG is a Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) pure-parallel survey that is obtaining images on random lines of sight at high Galactic latitudes in four filters (F606W, F098M, F125W, and F160W), with integration times optimized to identify galaxies at z {approx}> 7.5 as F098M dropouts. We discuss here results from a search area of approximately 130 arcmin{sup 2} over 23 BoRG fields, complemented by six other pure-parallel WFC3 fields with similar filters. This new search area is more than two times wider than previous WFC3 observations at z {approx} 8. We identify four F098M-dropout candidates with high statistical confidence (detected at greater than 8{sigma} confidence in F125W). These sources are among the brightest candidates currently known at z {approx} 8 and approximately 10 times brighter than the z = 8.56 galaxy UDFy-38135539. They thus represent ideal targets for spectroscopic follow-up observations and could potentially lead to a redshift record, as our color selection includes objects up to z {approx} 9. However, the expected contamination rate of our sample is about 30% higher than typical searches for dropout galaxies in legacy fields, such as the GOODS and HUDF, where deeper data and additional optical filters are available to reject contaminants.

Trenti, M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; MacKenty, J. W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Oesch, P.; Carollo, C. M. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Treu, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Bouwens, R. J.; Illingworth, G. D. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Shull, J. M., E-mail: [CASA, Department of Astrophysics and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)



Assessment of Tissue Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Levels: A Survey of Current Practice, Techniques, and Quantitation Methods.  


The assessment of steroid hormone receptors in resected breast carcinoma tissue is currently the standard of practice. The traditional method for assessment of receptor status is the ligand binding assay. More recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become a popular method for such testing. Despite the widespread use of IHC and the availability of many antibodies, standardization of quantitative IHC for assessment of estrogen and progesterone receptors has not been achieved. While the College of American Pathologists (CAP) offers a Quality Assurance (QA) program for IHC quantitation of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR), no universal standard is currently recognized in assessment of ER and PgR by IHC. We surveyed 300 laboratories within the United States for their current practices regarding the assessment of ER and PgR status in breast cancer tissue specimens. Eighty usable responses were received. Forty-nine (61%) laboratories performed the assay in-house, while the remainder sent the material out for assay. All responding laboratories performing their steroid receptor analysis in-house used the IHC technique. Forty-three (80%) laboratories answering the question on material accepted for analysis performed the assay only on paraffin-embedded material, three (6%) used either paraffin block or frozen material, and two (4%) used only frozen material. Eighty-eight percent of laboratories performing steroid receptor analysis in-house used a manual quantitation technique. Four (8%) used computer-assisted image analysis, and a single laboratory used laser scanning cytometry. Eight different antibodies were used among the 44 laboratories documenting the antibody supplier, and for any given commercially prepared antibody a wide variety of dilutions were used, with the exception of the standard solution used with the Ventana antibody. Of the laboratories using manual estimation techniques, 61% simply estimated the percentage of positive cells, 29% evaluated both the intensity of staining and percentage of nuclei staining, 6% used formal H-score analysis, 2% evaluated only intensity of nuclear staining, and 2% mainly counted the percentage of nuclei staining for ER but used a formal H score in the assessment of PgR. Cutoff points for the separation of positive and negative results varied widely, with some laboratories assessing any demonstrable positivity as a positive result, while others required as many as 19% of the nuclei to stain before a specimen was declared positive. Standardization techniques differed considerably among laboratories. Eighty-six percent used the CAP program for QA. While all laboratories utilized some form of intralaboratory control for assessment of ER and PgR, the nature of that control varied from laboratory to laboratory. Our survey indicates that a majority of laboratories perform their steroid hormone receptor analysis in-house using IHC. There is considerable variability in the antibodies utilized, the dilutions applied, and the quantitation method and level of expression used to dichotomize specimens into positive and negative groups. Finally, no universal control for interlaboratory standardization appears to exist. PMID:11348363

Layfield, Lester J.; Gupta, Dilip; Mooney, Eoghan E.



Survey of electrical submersible systems design, application, and testing  

SciTech Connect

The electrical submersible pump industry has numerous recommended practices and procedures addressing various facets of the operation. Ascertaining the appropriate technique is tedious. Seldom are all the documents available at one location. This synopsis of all the industry practices provides a ready reference for testing, design, and application of electrical submersible pumping systems. An extensive bibliography identifies significant documents for further reference.

Durham, M.O. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Lea, J.F. [Amoco EPTG, Tulsa, OK (United States)



Designing Your Sample Efficiently: Clustering Effects in Education Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Education, and information about education, is highly structured: individuals are grouped into classes, which are grouped into schools, which are grouped into local authorities, which are grouped into countries. The degree of similarity among members of a group, such as a school or classroom, is a very important factor in the design

Hutchison, Dougal



Sub 1 V CMOS bandgap reference design techniques: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a review of constraints, limitation factors and challenges to implement sub 1 V CMOS bandgap voltage reference\\u000a (BVR) circuits in today’s and future submicron technology. Moreover, we provide insight analysis of BVR circuit architectures\\u000a a designer can relay upon when building CMOS voltage reference.

Christian Jésus B. Fayomi; Gilson I. Wirth; Hervé Facpong Achigui; Akira Matsuzawa



Towards OLAP security designsurvey and research issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the use of data warehousing and online analytical processing (OLAP) for decision support applications new security issues arise. The goal of this paper is to introduce an OLAP security design methodology, pointing out fields that require further re- search work. We present possible access control requirements categorized by their complexity. OLAP security mechanisms and their implementations in commercial systems

Torsten Priebe; Günther Pernul



Net Survey: "Top Ten Mistakes" in Academic Web Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the top ten mistakes in academic Web design: (1) bloated graphics; (2) scaling images; (3) dense text; (4) lack of contrast; (5) font size; (6) looping animations; (7) courseware authoring software; (8) scrolling/long pages; (9) excessive download; and (10) the nothing site. Includes resources. (CMK)

Petrik, Paula



A quantitative study to design an experimental setup for photoacoustic imaging.  


During the last decade, a new modality called photoacoustic imaging has emerged. The increasing interest for this new modality is due to the fact that it combines advantages of ultrasound and optical imaging, i.e. the high contrast due to optical absorption and the low acoustic attenuation in biological tissues. It is thus possible to study vascularization because blood has high optical absorption coefficient. Papers in the literature often focus on applications and rarely discuss quantitative parameters. The goal of this paper is to provide quantitative elements to design an acquisition setup. By defining the targeted resolution and penetration depth, it is then possible to evaluate which kind of excitation and reception systems have to be used. First, we recall theoretical background related to photoacoustic effect before to describe the experiments based on a nanosecond laser at 1064 nm and 2.25-5 MHz transducers. Second, we present results about the relation linking fluence laser to signal amplitude and axial and lateral resolutions of our acquisition setup. We verify the linear relation between fluence and amplitude before to estimate axial resolution at 550 ?m for a 2.25 MHz ultrasonic transducer. Concerning lateral resolution, we show that a reconstruction technique based on curvilinear acquisition of 30 lines improves it by a factor of 3 compared to a lateral displacement. Future works will include improvement of lateral resolution using probes, like in ultrasound imaging, instead of single-element transducers. PMID:22256002

Marion, Adrien; Boutet, Jérôme; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Vray, Didier



Modified Universal Design Survey: Enhancing Operability of Launch Vehicle Ground Crew Worksites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.

Blume, Jennifer L.



A Survey of Hardware Accelerators Used in Computer-Aided Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware accelerators, or special-purpose engines, have been used in computer-aided design applications for nearly 20 years. In this time, roughly 20 machines have been built and tested specifically for such purposes as simulation, design rule checking, placement, and routing. Their uses are increasing, and the machines are becoming commercially available. This survey describes not only the machines but also their

Tom Blank



Effects of sample survey design on the accuracy of classification tree models in species distribution models  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We evaluated the effects of probabilistic (hereafter DESIGN) and non-probabilistic (PURPOSIVE) sample surveys on resultant classification tree models for predicting the presence of four lichen species in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Models derived from both survey forms were assessed using an independent data set (EVALUATION). Measures of accuracy as gauged by resubstitution rates were similar for each lichen species irrespective of the underlying sample survey form. Cross-validation estimates of prediction accuracies were lower than resubstitution accuracies for all species and both design types, and in all cases were closer to the true prediction accuracies based on the EVALUATION data set. We argue that greater emphasis should be placed on calculating and reporting cross-validation accuracy rates rather than simple resubstitution accuracy rates. Evaluation of the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models on the EVALUATION data set shows significantly lower prediction accuracy for the PURPOSIVE tree models relative to the DESIGN models, indicating that non-probabilistic sample surveys may generate models with limited predictive capability. These differences were consistent across all four lichen species, with 11 of the 12 possible species and sample survey type comparisons having significantly lower accuracy rates. Some differences in accuracy were as large as 50%. The classification tree structures also differed considerably both among and within the modelled species, depending on the sample survey form. Overlap in the predictor variables selected by the DESIGN and PURPOSIVE tree models ranged from only 20% to 38%, indicating the classification trees fit the two evaluated survey forms on different sets of predictor variables. The magnitude of these differences in predictor variables throws doubt on ecological interpretation derived from prediction models based on non-probabilistic sample surveys. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Edwards, Jr. , T. C.; Cutler, D. R.; Zimmermann, N. E.; Geiser, L.; Moisen, G. G.



Controls design with crossfeeds for hovering rotorcraft using quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-input, multi-output controls design with dynamic crossfeed pre-compensation is presented for rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). The resulting closed-loop control system bandwidth allows the rotorcraft to be considered for use as an inflight simulator. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets most handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. Handling qualities are Level 1 for both low-gain tasks and high-gain tasks in the roll, pitch, and yaw axes except for the 10 deg/sec moderate-amplitude yaw command where the rotorcraft exhibits Level 2 handling qualities in the yaw axis caused by phase lag. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensators successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective. This is an area to be investigated in future research.

Tischler, Mark B.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Cheng, Rendy



Improved Optical Design for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an improved optical design for the LSST, an fll.25 three-mirror telescope covering 3.0 degrees full field angle, with 6.9 m effective aperture diameter. The telescope operates at five wavelength bands spanning 386.5 nm to 1040 nm (B, V, R, I and Z). For all bands, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy is collected within 0.20 arc-seconds diameter. The reflective telescope uses an 8.4 m f/1.06 concave primary, a 3.4 m convex secondary and a 5.2 m concave tertiary in a Paul geometry. The system length is 9.2 m. A refractive corrector near the detector uses three fused silica lenses, rather than the two lenses of previous designs. Earlier designs required that one element be a vacuum barrier, but now the detector sits in an inert gas at ambient pressure. The last lens is the gas barrier. Small adjustments lead to optimal correction at each band. The filters have different axial thicknesses. The primary and tertiary mirrors are repositioned for each wavelength band. The new optical design incorporates features to simplify manufacturing. They include a flat detector, a far less aspheric convex secondary (10 {micro}m from best fit sphere) and reduced aspheric departures on the lenses and tertiary mirror. Five aspheric surfaces, on all three mirrors and on two lenses, are used. The primary is nearly parabolic. The telescope is fully baffled so that no specularly reflected light from any field angle, inside or outside of the full field angle of 3.0 degrees, can reach the detector.

Seppala, L



Improved optical design for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved optical design for the LSST, an f\\/1.25 three-mirror telescope covering 3.0 degrees full field angle, with 6.9 m effective aperture diameter. The telescope operates at five wavelength bands spanning 386.5 nm to 1040 nm (B, V, R, I and Z). For all bands, 80% of the polychromatic diffracted energy is collected within 0.20 arc- seconds

Lynn G. Seppala


Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: telescope design and simulated performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics missions by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of the Astro2010 Decadal Survey, the team has been working with the WFIRST Science Definition Team to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the current interim reference mission point design of the payload, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slit-less spectroscopy science channels. We also present the first results of Structural/Thermal/Optical performance modeling of the telescope point design.

Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.



Quantitative insights for the design of substrate-based SIRT1 inhibitors.  


Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is the most studied human sirtuin and it catalyzes the deacetylation reaction of acetylated lysine residues of its target proteins, for example histones. It is a promising drug target in the treatment of age-related diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. In this study, a series of known substrate-based sirtuin inhibitors was analyzed with comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), which is a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) technique. The CoMFA model was validated both internally and externally, producing the statistical values concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.88, the mean value r(2)m of 0.66 and Q(2)F3 of 0.89. Based on the CoMFA interaction contours, 13 new potential inhibitors with high predicted activity were designed, and the activities were verified by in vitro measurements. This work proposes an effective approach for the design and activity prediction of new potential substrate-based SIRT1 inhibitors. PMID:24747578

Kokkonen, Piia; Mellini, Paolo; Nyrhilä, Olli; Rahnasto-Rilla, Minna; Suuronen, Tiina; Kiviranta, Päivi; Huhtiniemi, Tero; Poso, Antti; Jarho, Elina; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija



Analysis on quantitative relationship between design parameters of infrared remote sensor and NIIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS) is a 10-level scale (0 to 9) of imagery interpretability, these criteria indicate the level of information that can be extracted from an image of a given interpretability, the lowest is Level 0 and the highest is Level 9. The General Image Quality Equation (GIQE) is a model that relates physical parameters of an imaging sensor to NIIRS rating of the sensors image products. The scale has become an important tool for defining image requirements, selecting and tasking imaging system. In this paper, we first introduce briefly NIIRS and GIQE, and make an initial analysis about the factors affecting perceived interpretability of imagery, such as ground sample distance(GSD), relative edge response(RER), height overshoot(H), noise gain(G), and signal-to-noise ratio(SNR). Then, the design parameters of infrared remote sensor and GSD, RER, H, SNR, and NIIRS scale quantitative relation is first determined, and the simulation curve of NIIRS scale versus R is presented. Finally, the analysis between NIIRS scale and GSD, RER, H and G/SNR shows that it is evident that the GSD and RER are the dominant terms in the equation, and that the overshoot H and the G/SNR have a much smaller impact. Comparisons with calculation results show that the research can provide preliminary theory evidence for the optimum design of remote-sensors although more validation experiments are needed.

Jin, Yingji; Bai, Honggang



Quantitative fault tolerant control design for a hydraulic actuator with a leaking piston seal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic actuators are complex fluid power devices whose performance can be degraded in the presence of system faults. In this thesis a linear, fixed-gain, fault tolerant controller is designed that can maintain the positioning performance of an electrohydraulic actuator operating under load with a leaking piston seal and in the presence of parametric uncertainties. Developing a control system tolerant to this class of internal leakage fault is important since a leaking piston seal can be difficult to detect, unless the actuator is disassembled. The designed fault tolerant control law is of low-order, uses only the actuator position as feedback, and can: (i) accommodate nonlinearities in the hydraulic functions, (ii) maintain robustness against typical uncertainties in the hydraulic system parameters, and (iii) keep the positioning performance of the actuator within prescribed tolerances despite an internal leakage fault that can bypass up to 40% of the rated servovalve flow across the actuator piston. Experimental tests verify the functionality of the fault tolerant control under normal and faulty operating conditions. The fault tolerant controller is synthesized based on linear time-invariant equivalent (LTIE) models of the hydraulic actuator using the quantitative feedback theory (QFT) design technique. A numerical approach for identifying LTIE frequency response functions of hydraulic actuators from acceptable input-output responses is developed so that linearizing the hydraulic functions can be avoided. The proposed approach can properly identify the features of the hydraulic actuator frequency response that are important for control system design and requires no prior knowledge about the asymptotic behavior or structure of the LTIE transfer functions. A distributed hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation architecture is constructed that enables the performance of the proposed fault tolerant control law to be further substantiated, under realistic operating conditions. Using the HIL framework, the fault tolerant hydraulic actuator is operated as a flight control actuator against the real-time numerical simulation of a high-performance jet aircraft. A robust electrohydraulic loading system is also designed using QFT so that the in-flight aerodynamic load can be experimentally replicated. The results of the HIL experiments show that using the fault tolerant controller to compensate the internal leakage fault at the actuator level can benefit the flight performance of the airplane.

Karpenko, Mark


Musculoskeletal impairment survey in Rwanda: Design of survey tool, survey methodology, and results of the pilot study (a cross sectional survey)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal impairment (MSI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Prevalence studies for MSI in the developing world have used varying methodologies and are seldom directly comparable. This study aimed to develop a new tool to screen for and diagnose MSI and to pilot test the methodology for a national survey in Rwanda.

Oluwarantimi Atijosan; Hannah Kuper; Dorothea Rischewski; Victoria Simms; Christopher Lavy



Final report on the radiological surveys of designated DX firing sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

CHEMRAD was contracted by Los Alamos National Laboratory to perform USRADS{reg_sign} (UltraSonic Ranging And Data System) radiation scanning surveys at designated DX Sites at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The primary purpose of these scanning surveys was to identify the presence of Depleted Uranium (D-38) resulting from activities at the DX Firing Sites. This effort was conducted to update the most recent surveys of these areas. This current effort was initiated with site orientation on August 12, 1996. Surveys were completed in the field on September 4, 1996. This Executive Summary briefly presents the major findings of this work. The detail survey results are presented in the balance of this report and are organized by Technical Area and Site number in section 2. This organization is not in chronological order. USRADS and the related survey methods are described in section 3. Quality Control issues are addressed in section 4. Surveys were conducted with an array of radiation detectors either mounted on a backpack frame for man-carried use (Manual mode) or on a tricycle cart (RadCart mode). The array included radiation detectors for gamma and beta surface near surface contamination as well as dose rate at 1 meter above grade. The radiation detectors were interfaced directly to an USRADS 2100 Data Pack.




Application of a Modified Universal Design Survey for Evaluation of Ares 1 Ground Crew Worksites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operability is a driving requirement for NASA's Ares 1 launch vehicle. Launch site ground operations include several operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To support design evaluation, the Ares 1 Upper Stage (US) element Human Factors Engineering (HFE) group developed a survey based on the Universal Design approach. Universal Design is a process to create products that can be used effectively by as many people as possible. Universal Design per se is not a priority for Ares 1 because launch vehicle processing is a specialized skill and not akin to a consumer product that should be used by all people of all abilities. However, applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which is a priority for Ares 1. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey centers on the following seven principles: (1) Equitable use, (2) Flexibility in use, (3) Simple and intuitive use, (4) Perceptible information, (5) Tolerance for error, (6) Low physical effort, (7) Size and space for approach and use. Each principle is associated with multiple evaluation criteria which were rated with the degree to which the statement is true. All statements are phrased in the utmost positive, or the design goal so that the degree to which judgments tend toward "completely agree" directly reflects the degree to which the design is good. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several US analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability

Blume, Jennifer L.



Optical design trade study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets (via gravitational microlensing), probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

Content, D. A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, J. P.; Mentzell, J. E.



Quantitative insights towards the design of potent deazaxanthine antagonists of adenosine 2B receptors.  


Abstract Adenosine receptors have been considered as potential targets for drug development, but one of the main obstacles to this goal is to selectively inhibit one receptor subtype over the others. This subject is particularly crucial for adenosine A2b receptor antagonists (AdoRA2B). The structure--activity relationships of xanthine derivatives which are AdoRA2B have been comprehensively investigated, but the steric and electronic requirements of deazaxanthine AdoRA2B have not been described from a quantitative standpoint of view. Herein we report our efforts to shorten this knowledge gap through 2D-QSAR (HQSAR) and 3D-QSAR (CoMFA) approaches. The good statistical quality (HQSAR - r(2?)=?0.85, [Formula: see text]=?0.77; CoMFA - r(2?)=?0.86, q(2?)=?0.70) and predictive ability ([Formula: see text]=?0.78, [Formula: see text]?=?0.78 and [Formula: see text]?=?0.70, [Formula: see text]?=?0.70, respectively) of the models, along with the information provided by contribution and contour maps hints their usefulness to the design of more potent 9-deazaxanthine derivatives. PMID:24090420

Paz, Odailson Santos; Brito, Camila Carane Bitencourt; Castilho, Marcelo Santos



Estimation of quantitative trait locus allele frequency via a modified granddaughter design.  

PubMed Central

A method is described on the basis of a modification of the granddaughter design to obtain estimates of quantitative trait loci (QTL) allele frequencies in dairy cattle populations and to determine QTL genotypes for both homozygous and heterozygous grandsires. The method is based on determining the QTL allele passed from grandsires to their maternal granddaughters using haplotypes consisting of several closely linked genetic markers. This method was applied to simulated data of 10 grandsire families, each with 500 granddaughters, and a QTL with a substitution effect of 0.4 phenotypic standard deviations and to actual data for a previously analyzed QTL in the center of chromosome 6, with substitution effect of 1 phenotypic standard deviation on protein percentage. In the simulated data the standard error for the estimated QTL substitution effect with four closely linked multiallelic markers was only 7% greater than the expected standard error with completely correct identification of QTL allele origin. The method estimated the population QTL allelic frequency as 0.64 +/- 0.07, compared to the simulated value of 0.7. In the actual data, the frequency of the allele that increases protein percentage was estimated as 0.63 +/- 0.06. In both data sets the hypothesis of equal allelic frequencies was rejected at P < 0.05.

Weller, Joel Ira; Weller, Hayim; Kliger, David; Ron, Micha



Quantitative clinical nonpulsatile and localized visible light oximeter: design of the T-Stat tissue oximeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a general, quantitative, and localized visible light clinical tissue oximeter, sensitive to both hypoxemia and ischemia. Monitor design and operation were optimized over four instrument generations. A range of clinical probes were developed, including non-contact wands, invasive catheters, and penetrating needles with injection ports. Real-time data were collected (a) from probes, standards, and reference solutions to optimize each component, (b) from ex vivo hemoglobin solutions co-analyzed for StO2% and pO2 during deoxygenation, and (c) from normoxic human subject skin and mucosal tissue surfaces. Results show that (a) differential spectroscopy allows extraction of features with minimization of the effects of scattering, (b) in vitro oximetry produces a hemoglobin saturation binding curve of expected sigmoid shape and values, and (c) that monitoring human tissues allows real-time tissue spectroscopic features to be monitored. Unlike with near-infrared (NIRS) or pulse oximetry (SpO2%) methods, we found non-pulsatile, diffusion-based tissue oximetry (StO2%) to work most reliably for non-contact reflectance monitoring and for invasive catheter- or needle-based monitoring, using blue to orange light (475-600 nm). Measured values were insensitive to motion artifact. Down time was non-existent. We conclude that the T-Stat oximeter design is suitable for the collection of spectroscopic data from human subjects, and that the oximeter may have application in the monitoring of regional hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the capillary tissue spaces of human subjects.

Benaron, David A.; Parachikov, Ilian H.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Friedland, Shai; Duckworth, Joshua L.; Otten, David M.; Rubinsky, Boris E.; Horchner, Uwe B.; Kermit, Eben L.; Liu, Frank W.; Levinson, Carl J.; Murphy, Aileen L.; Price, John W.; Talmi, Yair; Weersing, James P.



HomoSAR: bridging comparative protein modeling with quantitative structural activity relationship to design new peptides.  


Peptides play significant roles in the biological world. To optimize activity for a specific therapeutic target, peptide library synthesis is inevitable; which is a time consuming and expensive. Computational approaches provide a promising way to simply elucidate the structural basis in the design of new peptides. Earlier, we proposed a novel methodology termed HomoSAR to gain insight into the structure activity relationships underlying peptides. Based on an integrated approach, HomoSAR uses the principles of homology modeling in conjunction with the quantitative structural activity relationship formalism to predict and design new peptide sequences with the optimum activity. In the present study, we establish that the HomoSAR methodology can be universally applied to all classes of peptides irrespective of sequence length by studying HomoSAR on three peptide datasets viz., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides, CAMEL-s antibiotic peptides, and hAmphiphysin-1 SH3 domain binding peptides, using a set of descriptors related to the hydrophobic, steric, and electronic properties of the 20 natural amino acids. Models generated for all three datasets have statistically significant correlation coefficients (r(2)) and predictive r2 (r(pred)2) and cross validated coefficient ( q(LOO)2). The daintiness of this technique lies in its simplicity and ability to extract all the information contained in the peptides to elucidate the underlying structure activity relationships. The difficulties of correlating both sequence diversity and variation in length of the peptides with their biological activity can be addressed. The study has been able to identify the preferred or detrimental nature of amino acids at specific positions in the peptide sequences. PMID:24105965

Borkar, Mahesh R; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C



Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: Telescope Design and Simulated Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey proposed multiple missions with NIR focal planes and 3 mirror wide field telescopes in the 1.5m aperture range. None of them would have won as standalone missions WFIRST is a combination of these missions, created by Astro 2010 committee. WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) tasked to examine the design. Project team is a GSFC-JPL-Caltech collaboration. This interim mission design is a result of combined work by the project team with the SDT.

Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.



Methodological Uses of TUS to Inform Design and Analysis of Tobacco Control Surveys

Methodological Uses of TUS to Inform Design and Analysis of Tobacco Control Surveys Cristine Delnevo, PhD, MPH UMDNJ-School of Public Health Why is methods research in Tobacco Surveillance important? z Measuring individual behavior over time is crucial


Conceptual Design of an Expert System for Planning Afloat Industrial Hygiene Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Industrial hygienists need to have access to up-to-date information from numerous and varied sources to perform thorough shipboard industrial hygiene surveys. This paper describes an expert system designed to provide U.S. Navy industrial hygienists with i...

L. A. Hermansen W. M. Pugh



Optical design of the Next-Generation Sky Survey (NGSS) telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Next Generation Sky Survey Telescope is a spaceborne cryogenic optical telescope with four channels covering the wavelength range 3.5 to 23 microns. The 0.5 m aperture telescope is based on a modified three mirror afocal design, with a scan mirror at the exit pupil compensating for the spacecraft motion. After the scan mirror, the light is spectrally split and

Michael P. Chrisp



Analysing Drug Abuse with British Crime Survey Data: Modelling and Questionnaire Design Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the British Crime Survey (BCS) to analyse the demand for illicit drugs, and the implications of drug use for the probability of subsequent unemployment. We demonstrate that the BCS ques- tionnaire has a serious design ‡aw for this purpose, and propose some simple modi…cations. We also develop a modelling technique suitable for existing BCS data, and apply it

Ziggy MacDonald; Stephen Pudney



Revised Procedural Guide For Designation Surveys of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Sites  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This procedural guide is a revision of that issued in 1981 and has been prepared to meet the needs of the Corps of Engineers in conducting surveys for the designation of ocean disposal sites for dredged material. Basic purposes of the guide are to provide...

B. J. Gallaway T. D. Wright W. E. Pequegnat



A Survey of Database Design Transformations Based on the Entity-Relationship Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the Entity-Relationship (ER) model is the most important paradigm for conceptual database design. Since the model was introduced in the mid-seventies, a large body of literature has been published on transforming conceptual ER schemas or diagrams into logical data models. The purpose of this paper is to survey this literature. A first focus is on transformation approaches from

Christian Fahrner; Gottfried Vossen



A survey of building envelope designs for commercial buildings in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 1 million m of gross floor area is represented by the survey which identified four different building envelope designs. To enable judgements to be made on construction cost and time, a comparative study was carried out based on a 40?storey generic office building.

J. C. Lam; C. J. Goodsall



The use of a two-phase design in a prevalence survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the use of a two-phase design in a prevalence survey of non-psychotic psychiatric morbidity. The method consists of screening a population sample, then giving a standardised psychiatric interview to varying proportions of those screened, stratified according to the probability of each respondent's being a case. Prevalence rates can then be calculated by weighting back to

P. Duncan-Jones; Scott Henderson



Robust controller design for course changing \\/ course keeping control of a ship using PSO enabled automated quantitative feedback theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design of a robust course controller for a cargo ship interacting with an uncertain environment using particle swarm optimization (PSO) enabled automated quantitative feedback theory. The plant model considers here is Nomotopsilas second order model, with structure parametric variation. In the present paper we have taken Nomotopsilas second order model as it is valid for high

B. Satpati; I. Bandyopadhyay; C. Koley; S. K. Ojha



Systematic assessment of survey scan and MS2-based abundance strategies for label-free quantitative proteomics using high-resolution MS data.  


Survey-scan-based label-free method have shown no compelling benefit over fragment ion (MS2)-based approaches when low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) was used, the growing prevalence of high-resolution analyzers may have changed the game. This necessitates an updated, comparative investigation of these approaches for data acquired by high-resolution MS. Here, we compared survey scan-based (ion current, IC) and MS2-based abundance features including spectral-count (SpC) and MS2 total-ion-current (MS2-TIC), for quantitative analysis using various high-resolution LC/MS data sets. Key discoveries include: (i) study with seven different biological data sets revealed only IC achieved high reproducibility for lower-abundance proteins; (ii) evaluation with 5-replicate analyses of a yeast sample showed IC provided much higher quantitative precision and lower missing data; (iii) IC, SpC, and MS2-TIC all showed good quantitative linearity (R(2) > 0.99) over a >1000-fold concentration range; (iv) both MS2-TIC and IC showed good linear response to various protein loading amounts but not SpC; (v) quantification using a well-characterized CPTAC data set showed that IC exhibited markedly higher quantitative accuracy, higher sensitivity, and lower false-positives/false-negatives than both SpC and MS2-TIC. Therefore, IC achieved an overall superior performance than the MS2-based strategies in terms of reproducibility, missing data, quantitative dynamic range, quantitative accuracy, and biomarker discovery. PMID:24635752

Tu, Chengjian; Li, Jun; Sheng, Quanhu; Zhang, Ming; Qu, Jun



Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: methodology and design of the Utrecht Student Survey  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences.

de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C



Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard-to-Involve Internet Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Internet to conduct quantitative research presents challenges not found in conventional research. Paper-based survey quality criteria cannot be completely adapted to electronic formats. Electronic surveys have distinctive technological, de- mographic, and response characteristics that affect their design, use, and implemen- tation. Survey design, participant privacy and confidentiality, sampling and subject solicitation, distribution methods and response rates, and survey

Dorine Andrews; Blair Nonnecke; Jennifer Preece



Design and test of postbuckled stiffened curved plates: A literature survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A designer's tool for compressive buckling of aircraft fuselage panels, currently being developed at the Structures and Materials Laboratory of the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering of Delft University of Technology, must be validated with experimental results. The tested materials will be either isotropic (metal), orthotropic (GLARE, a fiber-metal laminate), or anisotropic (fibre reinforced plastics). For the formulation of a test matrix, a literature survey concentrating on tests of flat and curved, stiffened and unstiffened plates is performed. At the same time, simple semi-empirical formulas are collected to construct a design procedure based on these formulas. The design procedure can be checked and validated with the results of the literature survey.

Verolme, J. L.



The C-Band All-Sky Survey: instrument design, status, and first-look data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS) aims to produce sensitive, all-sky maps of diffuse Galactic emission at 5 GHz in total intensity and linear polarization. These maps will be used (with other surveys) to separate the several astrophysical components contributing to microwave emission, and in particular will allow an accurate map of synchrotron emission to be produced for the subtraction of foregrounds from measurements of the polarized Cosmic Microwave Background. We describe the design of the analog instrument, the optics of our 6.1 m dish at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, the status of observations, and first-look data.

King, Oliver G.; Copley, Charles; Davies, Rod; Davis, Richard; Dickinson, Clive; Hafez, Yaser A.; Holler, Christian; John, Jaya John; Jonas, Justin L.; Jones, Michael E.; Leahy, J. Patrick; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.; Pearson, Timothy J.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Stevenson, Matthew A.; Taylor, Angela C.



Design, conduct and analysis of surveys on work-related asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Surveys on work-related asthma serve public health investigation, research on exposure-response relations, screening for pre-clinical\\u000a disease, and demonstrations of effectiveness of interventions. Hypotheses dictate survey design, which include cross-sectional,\\u000a case-control, cohort, and intervention studies. Tools for characterizing medical risk factors and outcomes include questionnaires,\\u000a spirometry, tests of bronchial hyperreactivity, exhaled indices, induced sputum, immunological tests, and nasal inflammatory\\u000a indices. An

Kathleen Kreiss; Dick Heederik


Estimation of wildlife population ratios incorporating survey design and visibility bias  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Age and sex ratio statistics are often a key component of the evaluation and management of wildlife populations. These statistics are determined from counts of animals that are commonly plagued by errors associated with either survey design or visibility bias. We present age and sex ratio estimators that incorporate both these sources of error and include the typical situation that animals are sampled in groups. Aerial surveys of elk (Cervus elaphus) in northcentral Idaho illustrate that differential visibility of age or sex classes can produce biased ratio estimates. Visibility models may be used to provide corrected estimates of ratios and their variability that incorporates errors due to sampling, visibility bias, and visibility estimation.

Samuel, M. D.; Steinhorst, R. K.; Garton, E. O.; Unsworth, J. W.



Old and new cluster designs in emergency field surveys: in search of a one-fits-all solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Cluster surveys are frequently used to measure key nutrition and health indicators in humanitarian emergencies. The survey design of 30 clusters of 7 children (30 × 7) was initially proposed by the World Health Organization for measuring vaccination coverage, and later a design of 30 clusters of 30 children (30 × 30) was introduced to measure acute malnutrition in

Oleg O Bilukha



The Design and Validation of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a new instrument designed to measure various facets of student attitudes and beliefs about learning physics. This instrument extends previous work by probing additional facets of student attitudes and beliefs. It has been written to be suitably worded for students in a variety of different courses. This paper introduces the CLASS and its design and validation studies, which include analyzing results from over 2400 students, interviews and factor analyses. Methodology used to determine categories and how to analyze the robustness of categories for probing various facets of student learning are also described. This paper serves as the foundation for the results and conclusions from the analysis of our survey data.

Adams, Wendy K.; Perkins, Katherine K.; Dubson, Michael; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Wieman, Carl E.



A survey of scientific literacy to provide a foundation for designing science communication in Japan.  


There are various definitions and survey methods for scientific literacy. Taking into consideration the contemporary significance of scientific literacy, we have defined it with an emphasis on its social aspects. To acquire the insights needed to design a form of science communication that will enhance the scientific literacy of each individual, we conducted a large-scale random survey within Japan of individuals older than 18 years, using a printed questionnaire. The data thus acquired were analyzed using factor analysis and cluster analysis to create a 3-factor/4-cluster model of people's interest and attitude toward science, technology and society and their resulting tendencies. Differences were found among the four clusters in terms of the three factors: scientific factor, social factor, and science-appreciating factor. We propose a plan for designing a form of science communication that is appropriate to this current status of scientific literacy in Japan. PMID:23885051

Kawamoto, Shishin; Nakayama, Minoru; Saijo, Miki



Metamodeling for the quantitative assessment of conceptual designs in an immersive virtual reality environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The engineering design process has undergone extensive research in the area of detailed design. Many computer aided design (CAD) software packages have been developed from this research to provide an integral analysis tool for companies in the detailed design phase. However with the development of more complex technologies and systems, decisions made earlier in the design process have been crucial

Christian John Noon



Assessing Invasion Impact: Survey Design Considerations and Implications for Management of An Invasive Marine Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a three-year study of sheltered low shore assemblages colonised by the non-indigenous Asian kelp Undariapinnatifida to explore survey design issues for assessing the ecological impacts of invasive species. The weight of evidence overall suggested little impact from Undaria on low shore assemblages, with control–impact contrasts that could plausibly be interpreted as impacts probably reflecting natural causes. We demonstrate

Barrie M. Forrest; Michael D. Taylor



R&M task automation macro capabilities computerization of RM&S in design survey results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary data from two industry surveys and data provided by workshop attendees via an R&M task automation questionnaire are presented that indicate the status of automation within industry from the respondents' viewpoint. An overview of the computer-aided technologies being used in industry for the development, design, and manufacture of weapon systems is provided, and a general baseline of industry-implemented computer-aided

D. R. Hoffman



Design and development of the 3.2 gigapixel camera for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a large aperture, wide-field facility designed to provide deep images of half the sky every few nights. There is only a single instrument on the telescope, a 9.6 square degree visible-band camera, which is mounted close to the secondary mirror, and points down toward the tertiary. The requirements of the LSST camera present

S. M. Kahn; N. Kurita; K. Gilmore; M. Nordby; P. O'Connor; R. Schindler; J. Oliver; R. van Berg; S. Olivier; V. Riot; P. Antilogus; T. Schalk; M. Huffer; G. Bowden; J. Singal; M. Foss



Fitting multilevel models in complex survey data with design weights: Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background Multilevel models (MLM) offer complex survey data analysts a unique approach to understanding individual and contextual determinants of public health. However, little summarized guidance exists with regard to fitting MLM in complex survey data with design weights. Simulation work suggests that analysts should scale design weights using two methods and fit the MLM using unweighted and scaled-weighted data. This article examines the performance of scaled-weighted and unweighted analyses across a variety of MLM and software programs. Methods Using data from the 2005–2006 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN: n = 40,723) that collected data from children clustered within states, I examine the performance of scaling methods across outcome type (categorical vs. continuous), model type (level-1, level-2, or combined), and software (Mplus, MLwiN, and GLLAMM). Results Scaled weighted estimates and standard errors differed slightly from unweighted analyses, agreeing more with each other than with unweighted analyses. However, observed differences were minimal and did not lead to different inferential conclusions. Likewise, results demonstrated minimal differences across software programs, increasing confidence in results and inferential conclusions independent of software choice. Conclusion If including design weights in MLM, analysts should scale the weights and use software that properly includes the scaled weights in the estimation.



Development of DNA-Designed Avian IgY Antibodies for Quantitative Determination of Bovine Interferon-Gamma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon-gamma (IFN-?), a cytokine produced by sensitized T lymphocytes, is one of the key elements in defining T helper\\u000a 1 lymphocyte immune responses. Quantitative evaluation of IFN-? expression could provide an important analytical tool for\\u000a measurement of cell-mediated immunity and investigating immune responses to infectious diseases. Method of DNA-designed avian\\u000a IgY antibodies was used for production of monospecific polyclonal antibodies

Gholamreza Nikbakht Brujeni; Sayed Amir Hossein Jalali; Mohammad Kazem Koohi



Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.



The United Kingdom’s quantitative easing policy: design, operation and impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the intensification of the financial crisis in Autumn 2008, the Bank of England, in common with other central banks, loosened monetary policy using both conventional and unconventional policy measures. In the United Kingdom, the principal element of these unconventional measures was the policy of asset purchases financed by central bank money, so-called quantitative easing (QE). Over the

Michael Joyce; Matthew Tong; Robert Woods



Design and methods of the Adult Inuit Health Survey 2007-2008  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. Design The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. Results The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Conclusion Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions.

Saudny, Helga; Leggee, Donna; Egeland, Grace



Quantitative comparison of randomization designs in sequential clinical trials based on treatment balance and allocation randomness.  


To evaluate the performance of randomization designs under various parameter settings and trial sample sizes, and identify optimal designs with respect to both treatment imbalance and allocation randomness, we evaluate 260 design scenarios from 14 randomization designs under 15 sample sizes range from 10 to 300, using three measures for imbalance and three measures for randomness. The maximum absolute imbalance and the correct guess (CG) probability are selected to assess the trade-off performance of each randomization design. As measured by the maximum absolute imbalance and the CG probability, we found that performances of the 14 randomization designs are located in a closed region with the upper boundary (worst case) given by Efron's biased coin design (BCD) and the lower boundary (best case) from the Soares and Wu's big stick design (BSD). Designs close to the lower boundary provide a smaller imbalance and a higher randomness than designs close to the upper boundary. Our research suggested that optimization of randomization design is possible based on quantified evaluation of imbalance and randomness. Based on the maximum imbalance and CG probability, the BSD, Chen's biased coin design with imbalance tolerance method, and Chen's Ehrenfest urn design perform better than popularly used permuted block design, EBCD, and Wei's urn design. PMID:21544929

Zhao, Wenle; Weng, Yanqiu; Wu, Qi; Palesch, Yuko



Result-driven strategies for protein identification and quantitation--a way to optimize experimental design and derive reliable results.  


Uni- or multidimensional microcapillary liquid chromatography (microLC) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) approaches have gained significant attention for quantifying and identifying proteins in complex biological samples. The off-line coupling of microLC with MS quantitation and MS/MS identification methods makes new result-dependent workflows possible. A relational database is used to store the results from multiple high performance liquid chromatography runs, including information about MALDI plate positions, and both peptide and protein quantitations, and identifications. Unlike electrospray methodology, where all the decisions about which peptide to fragment, must be made during peptide fractionations, in the MALDI experiments the samples are effectively "frozen in time". Therefore, additional MS and MS/MS spectra can be acquired, to promote more accurate quantitation or additional identifications until reliable results are derived that meet experimental design criteria. In the case of what can be designated the expression-dependent workflow, quantitation can be detached from identification and only peak pairs with biological relevant expression changes can be selected for further MS/MS analyses. Alternatively, additional MS/MS data can be acquired to confirm tentative peptide mass fingerprint hits in what is designated a search result-dependent workflow. In the MS data-dependent workflow, the goal is to collect as many meaningful spectra as possible by judiciously adjusting the acquisition parameters based on characteristics of the parent masses. This level of sophistication requires the development of innovative algorithms for these three result-dependent workflows that make MS and MS/MS analysis more efficient and also add confidence to experimental results. PMID:14760720

Graber, Armin; Juhasz, Peter S; Khainovski, Nikita; Parker, Kenneth C; Patterson, Dale H; Martin, Stephen A



Survey of end-use metering equipment, sensors, and designers/installers  

SciTech Connect

This report is a directory of resources available to utilities for procuring end-use metering hardware including sensors, and resources for the installation of metering systems. It presents the first comprehensive survey of available end-use metering and monitoring equipment, and of sensors typically used with such equipment. It also provides information about organizations that offer design and/or installation services for demand-side management metering and monitoring systems. While early end-use load survey work was accomplished with revenue meters or derivative products, laboratory data collection devices, or other equipment designed for slightly different purposes, specialized new metering technology has become available. This report describes more than fifty metering products from simple to complex and over sixty sensor devices that work with them. In addition, nineteen service organizations are identified that will install and/or design end-use metering systems. A special feature of the report is a brief bibliography of reference material that will be useful to utility personnel involved in the design or evaluation of demand-side management monitoring.

Abbott, R.E.; Hadden, S.G.; Gruber, T.L. (Plexus Research, Inc., Acton, MA (United States))



Design and operation methods of a mid-water trawl for quantitative sampling of a surface pelagic fish, Pacific saury ( Cololabis saira)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a quantitative sampling method using mid-water trawls for estimating the stock abundance of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira), we carried out experimental fishing surveys using two types of mid-water trawl (SM-trawl: 4 panels, trawler 397 GRT and KM-trawl: 6 panels, trawler 2630 GRT). To confirm the occurrence of saury in the survey areas, we simultaneously conducted experimental fishing of

Y. Ueno; S. Suyama; Y. Kurita; T. Kumazawa



Wide field instrument preliminary design for the Wide Field InfraRed Survey Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) wide field instrument concept based on the reuse of a 2.4m telescope recently made available to NASA. Two instrument channels are described, a wide field channel ( 0.8x0.4degrees, 300Mpix, imaging and spectroscopy over 0.76-2.0um), and an integral field unit (3x3 arcsec, 1Mpix, R{2pixel} 100 over 0.6-2.0um). For this mission concept, the telescope, instruments, and spacecraft are in a geosynchronous orbit and are designed for serviceability. This instrument can accomplish not only the baseline exoplanet microlensing, dark energy, and infrared surveys for WFIRST, but can perform at higher angular resolution and with deeper observations. This enables significant opportunities for more capable general observer programs. The emphasis on achieving very good imaging stability is maintained from the previous work.

Content, David A.; Armani, Nerses V.; Baker, Charles L.; Jackson, Clifton E.; Kahle, Duncan M.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Lehan, John P.; Melton, Mark E.; Mentzell, Eric; Miko, Joseph J.; Palace, David J.; Pasquale, Bert A.; Peabody, Hume L.; Smith, Brian S.; Smith, Walter F.; Stewart, Jeffrey W.; Vaughnn, David A.; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wallace, Thomas E.




SciTech Connect

A novel method of generating artificial scintillation noise is developed and used to evaluate occultation rates and false positive rates for surveys probing the Kuiper Belt with the method of serendipitous stellar occultations. A thorough examination of survey design shows that (1) diffraction-dominated occultations are critically (Nyquist) sampled at a rate of 2 Fsu{sup -1}, corresponding to 40 s{sup -1} for objects at 40 AU, (2) occultation detection rates are maximized when targets are observed at solar opposition, (3) Main Belt asteroids will produce occultations light curves identical to those of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) if target stars are observed at solar elongations of: 116{sup 0} {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 125 deg., or 131 deg. {approx}< {epsilon} {approx}< 141 deg., and (4) genuine KBO occultations are likely to be so rare that a detection threshold of {approx}>7-8{sigma} should be adopted to ensure that viable candidate events can be disentangled from false positives.

Bickerton, S. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Welch, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:



Design considerations for high speed quantitative mass spectrometry with MALDI ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A MALDI ion source on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer constructed for the purpose of obtaining high speed quantitative\\u000a measurements on drugs and other low molecular weight compounds is described. Particular attention is given to the ion generation\\u000a and transport phenomena that affect analysis speed, throughput, and practical instrument robustness. In this regard parameters\\u000a that affect desorption speed, beam spreading,

Jay J. Corr; Peter Kovarik; Bradley B. Schneider; Jan Hendrikse; Alexander Loboda; Thomas R. Covey



Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores



Improving the design of acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification, with an application to Lake Michigan prey fishes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Reliable estimates of fish biomass are vital to the management of aquatic ecosystems and their associated fisheries. Acoustic and midwater trawl surveys are an efficient sampling method for estimating fish biomass in large bodies of water. To improve the precision of biomass estimates from combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys, sampling effort should be optimally allocated within each stage of the survey design. Based on information collected during fish surveys, we developed an approach to improve the design of combined acoustic and midwater trawl surveys through stratification. Geographic strata for acoustic surveying and depth strata for midwater trawling were defined using neighbor-restricted cluster analysis, and the optimal allocation of sampling effort for each was then determined. As an example, we applied this survey stratification approach to data from lakewide acoustic and midwater trawl surveys of Lake Michigan prey fishes. Precision of biomass estimates from surveys with and without geographic stratification was compared through resampling. Use of geographic stratification with optimal sampling allocation reduced the variance of Lake Michigan acoustic biomass estimates by 77%. Stratification and optimal allocation at each stage of an acoustic and midwater trawl survey should serve to reduce the variance of the resulting biomass estimates.

Adams, J. V.; Argyle, R. L.; Fleischer, G. W.; Curtis, G. L.; Stickel, R. G.



Spatial structure of co-occurring anchovy and sardine populations from acoustic data: implications for survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A geostatistical analysis has been undertaken on the spatial structure of co-occurring adult and recruit populations of anchovy, Engraulis capensis, and sardine, Sardinops sagax, in the southern Benguela upwelling region, using information from two acoustic surveys. The study was prompted by the need for a more effi- cient design for surveying sardine abundance, which is increasing in relation to that




Campsite survey implications for managing designated campsites at Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Backcountry campsites and shelters in Great Smoky Mountains National Park were surveyed in 1993 as part of a new impact monitoring program. A total of 395 campsites and shelters were located and assessed, including 309 legal campsites located at 84 designated campgrounds, 68 illegal campsites, and 18 shelters. Primary campsite management problems identified by the survey include: (1) campsite proliferation, (2) campsite expansion and excessive size, (3) excessive vegetation loss and soil exposure, (4) lack of visitor solitude at campsites, (5) excessive tree damage, and (6) illegal camping. A number of potential management options are recommended to address the identified campsite management problems. Many problems are linked to the ability of visitors to determine the location and number of individual campsites within each designated campground. A principal recommendation is that managers apply site-selection criteria to existing and potential new campsite locations to identify and designate campsites that will resist and constrain the areal extent of impacts and enhance visitor solitude. Educational solutions are also offered.

Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y-F.



Design and Construction of Residential Slabs-on-Ground: State of the Art. Volume II: Literature Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The literature survey concerning design and construction of residential slabs - on - ground on which this annotated bibliography is based was conducted by searching three separate data files in two data banks: the National Technical Information Service Fi...



Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16?years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents.

Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard



Designing a gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) structured telephone-administered survey instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  As part of a larger study assessing the covariates and outcomes of GHB use, we developed a telephone-survey instrument for\\u000a hospitalized GHB exposed patients identified through poison control center surveillance and for self-identified GHB users\\u000a recruited from the general public.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used an iterative review process with an interdisciplinary team, including pharmacists, a physician, and a medical anthropologist.\\u000a In designing

Jo E. Dyer; Ilene B. Anderson; Susan Y. Kim; Judith C. Barker; Paul D. Blanc



Requirements and concept design for large earth survey telescope for SEOS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The efforts of a one year program of Requirements Analysis and Conceptual Design for the Large Earth Survey Telescope for the Synchronous Earth Observatory Satellite is summarized. A 1.4 meter aperture Cassegrain telescope with 0.6 deg field of view is shown to do an excellent job in satisfying the observational requirements for a wide range of earth resources and meteorological applications. The telescope provides imagery or thermal mapping in ten spectral bands at one time in a field sharing grouping of linear detector arrays. Pushbroom scanning is accomplished by spacecraft slew.

Mailhot, P.; Bisbee, J.



Mechanical design of NESSI: New Mexico Tech extrasolar spectroscopic survey instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NESSI: the New Mexico Tech Extrasolar Spectroscopic Survey Instrument is a ground-based multi-object spectrograph that operates in the near-infrared. It will be installed on one of the Nasmyth ports of the Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) 2.4-meter Telescope. NESSI operates stationary to the telescope fork so as not to produce differential flexure between internal opto-mechanical components during or between observations. In this paper we report on NESSI's detailed mechanical and opto-mechanical design, and the planning for mechanical construction, assembly, integration and verification.

Santoro, Fernando G.; Olivares, Andres M.; Salcido, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Stephen R.; Jurgenson, Colby A.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Hrynevych, Michael A.; Schmidt, Luke M.; Bloemhard, Heather; Napolitano, Matt; Selina, Robert; Boston, Penelope J.; Vasisht, Gautam; Swain, Mark R.; Deroo, Pieter D.



Overview of Test Design: A Survey of Black Box Software Testing Techniques  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This subset of the Black Box Software Testing collection includes resources for a broad survey of software test technique noticing different objectives, strengths, and blind spots. Materials present a few techniques more closely than the rest. Students will: gain familiarity with a variety of test techniques; learn structures for comparing objectives and strengths of different test techniques; use the Heuristic Test Strategy Model for test planning and design; and use concept mapping tools for test planning. Resources include lecture videos, slides, activities, suggested readings, and study guide materials.

Kaner, Cem; Fiedler, Rebecca L.



Evaluating a new logMAR chart designed to improve visual acuity assessment in population-based surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims This study aimed to evaluate a new chart designed to improve the collection of visual acuity data in population-based surveys. The Reduced logMAR E chart (RLME) employs three letters per line, ‘tumbling E’ optotypes, and conforms to accepted contemporary design principles.Methods The performance of the chart was assessed within a population-based glaucoma survey in Thailand. Performance indices were test–retest

R R A Bourne; D A Rosser; P Sukudom; B Dineen; D A H Laidlaw; G J Johnson; I E Murdoch; RRA Bourne



Integrated siRNA design based on surveying of features associated with high RNAi effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background Short interfering RNAs have allowed the development of clean and easily regulated methods for disruption of gene expression. However, while these methods continue to grow in popularity, designing effective siRNA experiments can be challenging. The various existing siRNA design guidelines suffer from two problems: they differ considerably from each other, and they produce high levels of false-positive predictions when tested on data of independent origins. Results Using a distinctly large set of siRNA efficacy data assembled from a vast diversity of origins (the siRecords data, containing records of 3,277 siRNA experiments targeting 1,518 genes, derived from 1,417 independent studies), we conducted extensive analyses of all known features that have been implicated in increasing RNAi effectiveness. A number of features having positive impacts on siRNA efficacy were identified. By performing quantitative analyses on cooperative effects among these features, then applying a disjunctive rule merging (DRM) algorithm, we developed a bundle of siRNA design rule sets with the false positive problem well curbed. A comparison with 15 online siRNA design tools indicated that some of the rule sets we developed surpassed all of these design tools commonly used in siRNA design practice in positive predictive values (PPVs). Conclusion The availability of the large and diverse siRNA dataset from siRecords and the approach we describe in this report have allowed the development of highly effective and generally applicable siRNA design rule sets. Together with ever improving RNAi lab techniques, these design rule sets are expected to make siRNAs a more useful tool for molecular genetics, functional genomics, and drug discovery studies.

Gong, Wuming; Ren, Yongliang; Xu, Qiqi; Wang, Yejun; Lin, Dong; Zhou, Haiyan; Li, Tongbin



Some New Three Level Designs for the Study of Quantitative Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of incomplete three level factorial designs useful for estimating the coefficients in a second degree graduating polynomial are described. The designs either meet, or approximately meet, the criterion of rotatability and for the most part can be orthogonally blocked. A fully worked example is included.

G. E. P. Box; D. W. Behnken



The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Design, Observations, Data Reduction, and Redshifts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z ~ 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude MB = -20 at z ~ 1 via ~90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg2 divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R AB = 24.1. Objects with z <~ 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted ~2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z ~ 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 Å doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm-1 grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R ~ 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate observations. Sky subtraction is essentially photon-limited even under bright OH sky lines; we describe the strategies that permitted this, based on high image stability, accurate wavelength solutions, and powerful B-spline modeling methods. We also investigate the impact of targets that appear to be single objects in ground-based targeting imaging but prove to be composite in Hubble Space Telescope data; they constitute several percent of targets at z ~ 1, approaching ~5%-10% at z > 1.5. Summary data are given that demonstrate the superiority of DEEP2 over other deep high-precision redshift surveys at z ~ 1 in terms of redshift accuracy, sample number density, and amount of spectral information. We also provide an overview of the scientific highlights of the DEEP2 survey thus far. Based on observations taken at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology, and on observations made with the NASA/ESO Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archives at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and from the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre.

Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Coil, Alison L.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Harker, Justin J.; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.; Lai, Kamson; Madgwick, Darren S.; Noeske, K. G.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Connolly, A. J.; Kaiser, N.; Kirby, Evan N.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lin, Lihwai; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Luppino, G. A.; Marinoni, C.; Matthews, Daniel J.; Metevier, Anne; Schiavon, Ricardo P.



Design considerations and quantitative assessment for the development of percutaneous mitral valve stent.  


Percutaneous heart valve replacement is gaining popularity, as more positive reports of satisfactory early clinical experiences are published. However this technique is mostly used for the replacement of pulmonary and aortic valves and less often for the repair and replacement of atrioventricular valves mainly due to their anatomical complexity. While the challenges posed by the complexity of the mitral annulus anatomy cannot be mitigated, it is possible to design mitral stents that could offer good anchorage and support to the valve prosthesis. This paper describes four new Nitinol based mitral valve designs with specific features intended to address migration and paravalvular leaks associated with mitral valve designs. The paper also describes maximum possible crimpability assessment of these mitral stent designs using a crimpability index formulation based on the various stent design parameters. The actual crimpability of the designs was further evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). Furthermore, fatigue modeling and analysis was also done on these designs. One of the models was then coated with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with leaflets sutured and put to: (i) leaflet functional tests to check for proper coaptation of the leaflet and regurgitation leakages on a phantom model and (ii) anchorage test where the stented valve was deployed in an explanted pig heart. Simulations results showed that all the stents designs could be crimped to 18F without mechanical failure. Leaflet functional test results showed that the valve leaflets in the fabricated stented valve coapted properly and the regurgitation leakage being within acceptable limits. Deployment of the stented valve in the explanted heart showed that it anchors well in the mitral annulus. Based on these promising results of the one design tested, the other stent models proposed here were also considered to be promising for percutaneous replacement of mitral valves for the treatment of mitral regurgitation, by virtue of their key features as well as effective crimping. These models will be fabricated and put to all the aforementioned tests before being taken for animal trials. PMID:24746106

Kumar, Gideon Praveen; Cui, Fangsen; Phang, Hui Qun; Su, Boyang; Leo, Hwa Liang; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt



Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe  

PubMed Central

Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions.

Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao



The proteome of human liver peroxisomes: identification of five new peroxisomal constituents by a label-free quantitative proteomics survey.  


The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or ?-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD(+) becomes regenerated during fatty acid ?-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease. PMID:23460848

Gronemeyer, Thomas; Wiese, Sebastian; Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E; Waterham, Hans R; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J; Warscheid, Bettina



The Proteome of Human Liver Peroxisomes: Identification of Five New Peroxisomal Constituents by a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Survey  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or ?-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD+ becomes regenerated during fatty acid ?-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease.

Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Waterham, Hans R.; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J.; Warscheid, Bettina



Large-visual-angle microstructure inspired from quantitative design of Morpho butterflies' lamellae deviation using the FDTD/PSO method.  


The wide angular range of the treelike structure in Morpho butterfly scales was investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) analysis. Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed. Then a wide angular range was realized by the PSO method from quantitatively designing the lamellae deviation (?y), which was a crucial parameter with angular range. The field map of the wide-range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the wide angular range. The tristimulus values and corresponding color coordinates for various viewing directions were calculated to confirm the blue color in different observation angles. The wide angular range realized by the FDTD/PSO method will assist us in understanding the scientific principles involved and also in designing artificial optical materials. PMID:23454951

Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Weixin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di



Loop Shaping Control Design for a Supersonic Propulsion System Model Using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Specifications and Bounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated mixed compression inlet and turbojet engine that will be used for an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. Using previously created nonlinear component-level propulsion system models, a linear integrated propulsion system model and loop shaping control design have been developed. The design includes both inlet normal shock position control and jet engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A preliminary investigation of the impacts of the aero-elastic effects on the incoming flow field to the propulsion system are discussed, however, the focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion controls design that prevents unstart in the inlet and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) specifications and bounds, and aspects of classical loop shaping are used in the control design process. Model uncertainty is incorporated in the design to address possible error in the system identification mapping of the nonlinear component models into the integrated linear model.

Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George



Design and development of the 3.2 gigapixel camera for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a large aperture, wide-field facility designed to provide deep images of half the sky every few nights. There is only a single instrument on the telescope, a 9.6 square degree visible-band camera, which is mounted close to the secondary mirror, and points down toward the tertiary. The requirements of the LSST camera present substantial technical design challenges. To cover the entire 0.35 to 1 ?m visible band, the camera incorporates an array of 189 over-depleted bulk silicon CCDs with 10 ?m pixels. The CCDs are assembled into 3 x 3 "rafts", which are then mounted to a silicon carbide grid to achieve a total focal plane flatness of 15 ?m p-v. The CCDs have 16 amplifiers per chip, enabling the entire 3.2 Gigapixel image to be read out in 2 seconds. Unlike previous astronomical cameras, a vast majority of the focal plane electronics are housed in the cryostat, which uses a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thompson system to maintain a -100ºC sensor temperature. The shutter mechanism uses a 3 blade stack design and a hall-effect sensor to achieve high resolution and uniformity. There are 5 filters stored in a carousel around the cryostat and the auto changer requires a dual guide system to control its position due to severe space constraints. This paper presents an overview of the current state of the camera design and development plan.

Kahn, S. M.; Kurita, N.; Gilmore, K.; Nordby, M.; O'Connor, P.; Schindler, R.; Oliver, J.; van Berg, R.; Olivier, S.; Riot, V.; Antilogus, P.; Schalk, T.; Huffer, M.; Bowden, G.; Singal, J.; Foss, M.



Survey of alternative gas turbine engine and cycle design. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In the period of the 1940's to 1960's much experimentation was performed in the areas of intercooling, reheat, and recuperation, as well as the use of low-grade fuels in gas turbines. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in an effort to document past experience which can be used as the basis for current design activities, commissioned a study to document alternate cycles and components used in gas turbine design. The study was performed by obtaining the important technical and operational criteria of the cycles through a literature search of published documents, articles, and papers. Where possible the information was augmented through dialogue with persons associated with those cycles and with the manufacturers. The survey indicated that many different variations of the simple open-cycle gas turbine plant were used. Many of these changes resulted in increases in efficiency over the low simple-cycle efficiency of that period. Metallurgy, as well as compressor and turbine design, limited the simple-cycle efficiency to the upper teens. The cycle modifications increased those efficiencies to the twenties and thirties. Advances in metallurgy as well as compressor and turbine design, coupled with the decrease in flue cost, stopped the development of these complex cycles. Many of the plants operated successfully for many years, and only because newer simple-cycle gas turbine plants and large steam plants had better heat rates were these units shutdown or put into stand-by service. 24 refs., 25 figs., 114 tabs.

Lukas, H.



Automated analysis of the Digitized Second Palomar Sky Survey : system design, implementation, and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, implementation, and initial scientific results of a system for analyzing the Digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). The system (SKICAT) facilitates and largely automates the pipeline processing of DPOSS from raw pixel data into calibrated, classified object catalog form.A fundamental constraint limiting the scientific usefulness of optical imaging surveys is the level at which objects may be reliably distinguished as stars, galaxies, or artifacts. We therefore expended great effort to explore techniques that would make most efficient use of the data for classification purposes. The classifier implemented within SKICAT was created using a new machine learning technology, whereby an algorithm determines a near-optimal set of classification rules based upon training examples. Using this approach, we were able to construct a classifier which distinguishes objects to the same level of accuracy as in previous surveys using comparable plate material, but nearly one magnitude fainter (or an equivalent [...]). Our first analysis of DPOSS using SICAT is of an overlapping set of four survey fields near the North Galactic Pole, in both the J and F passbands. Through detailed simulations of a subset of these data, we were able to analyze systematic aspects of our detection and measurement procedures, as well as optimize them. We discuss how we calibrate the plate magnitudes to the Gunn-Thuan g and r photometric system using CCD sequences obtained in a program devoted expressly to calibrating DPOSS. Our technique results in an estimated plate-to-plate zero point standard error of under [...] in g and below [...] in r, for J and F plates, respectively.Using the catalogs derived from these fields, we compare our differential galaxy counts in g and r with those from recent Schmidt plate surveys as well as predictions from evolutionary and non-evolutionary (NE) galaxy models. While we find some significant differences between our measurements and others, particularly at the bright end, we find generally good agreement between our counts and recent NE and mild evolutionary models calibrated to consistently fit bright and faint galaxy counts, colors, and redshift distributions. The consistency of our results with these predictions provides additional support to the view that very recent (z < 0.1) or exotic galaxy evolution, or some non-standard forms of cosmology, may not be necessary to reconcile these diverse observations with theory.

Weir, Nicholas


Automated Analysis of the Digitized Second Palomar Sky Survey: System Design, Implementation, and Initial Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the design, implementation, and initial scientific results of a system for analyzing the Digitized Second Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (DPOSS). The system (SKICAT) facilitates and largely automates the pipeline processing of DPOSS from raw pixel data into calibrated, classified object catalog form. A fundamental constraint limiting the scientific usefulness of optical imaging surveys is the level at which objects may be reliably distinguished as stars, galaxies, or artifacts. The classifier implemented within SKICAT was created using a new machine learning technology, whereby an algorithm determines a near-optimal set of classification rules based upon training examples. Using this approach, we were able to construct a classifier which distinguishes objects to the same level of accuracy as in previous surveys using comparable plate material, but nearly one magnitude fainter (or an equivalent BJ ~ 21.0). Our first analysis of DPOSS using SKICAT is of an overlapping set of four survey fields near the North Galactic Pole, in both the J and F passbands. Through detailed simulations of a subset of these data, we were able to analyze systematic aspects of our detection and measurement procedures, as well as optimize them. We discuss how we calibrate the plate magnitudes to the Gunn-Thuan g and r photometric system using CCD sequences obtained in a program devoted expressly to calibrating DPOSS. Our technique results in an estimated plate-to-plate zero point standard error of under 0.10m in g and below 0.05^{m } in r, for J and F plates, respectively. Using the catalogs derived from these fields, we compare our differential galaxy counts in g and r with those from recent Schmidt plate surveys as well as predictions from evolutionary and non-evolutionary (NE) galaxy models. We find generally good agreement between our counts and recent NE and mild evolutionary models calibrated to consistently fit bright and faint galaxy counts, colors, and redshift distributions. The consistency of our results with these predictions provides additional support to the view that very recent (z < 0.1) or exotic galaxy evolution, or some non -standard forms of cosmology, may not be necessary to reconcile these diverse observations with theory.

Weir, Nicholas



Helicopter pilot suits for offshore application. A survey of thermal comfort and ergonomic design.  


The objective of this study was to determine the existing problems associated with helicopter pilot survival suits currently in use. A survey was conducted of helicopter pilots from both Canadian commercial and military disciplines. Pilots commented on eight different types of survival suits. Reduced thermal comfort as well as lack of ventilation were the two most common criticisms of the pilot suits. The 'greenhouse' effect, common to helicopter cockpits, results in hot working ambients both in summer and winter. The air cooling mechanisms employed in summer may cause a 'chilling' effect following an on-ground stand-by where cockpit temperatures may reach 40 degrees C. Thermal stress may also be induced with high cockpit temperatures caused by the sun's radiation in winter and summer. Suit design was another area considered. 72% and 86% of military and commercial pilots respectively felt their freedom of movement was hindered by their survival suits. Certain designs were considered more hazardous than others with regard to clips and hooks catching switches on the control panel. Difficulty in donning suits appeared to be a universal problem irrespective of type of suit used. Lack of comfort and movement in addition to thermal stress may lead to reduced time to fatigue and, thus, occurrence of errors and accidents. The results of this survey reflect the inadequacies of the helicopter pilot survival suits presently in use. It is suggested that evaluation of these suits be made on the basis of their ventilation capabilities, ergonomic design and thermal properties in a variety of ambient environments. PMID:15676618

Gaul, C A; Mekjavic, I B



Design and Practice on Metadata Service System of Surveying and Mapping Results Based on Geonetwork  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the analysis and research on the current geographic information sharing and metadata service?we design, develop and deploy a distributed metadata service system based on GeoNetwork covering more than 30 nodes in provincial units of China.. By identifying the advantages of GeoNetwork, we design a distributed metadata service system of national surveying and mapping results. It consists of 31 network nodes, a central node and a portal. Network nodes are the direct system metadata source, and are distributed arround the country. Each network node maintains a metadata service system, responsible for metadata uploading and management. The central node harvests metadata from network nodes using OGC CSW 2.0.2 standard interface. The portal shows all metadata in the central node, provides users with a variety of methods and interface for metadata search or querying. It also provides management capabilities on connecting the central node and the network nodes together. There are defects with GeoNetwork too. Accordingly, we made improvement and optimization on big-amount metadata uploading, synchronization and concurrent access. For metadata uploading and synchronization, by carefully analysis the database and index operation logs, we successfully avoid the performance bottlenecks. And with a batch operation and dynamic memory management solution, data throughput and system performance are significantly improved; For concurrent access, , through a request coding and results cache solution, query performance is greatly improved. To smoothly respond to huge concurrent requests, a web cluster solution is deployed. This paper also gives an experiment analysis and compares the system performance before and after improvement and optimization. Design and practical results have been applied in national metadata service system of surveying and mapping results. It proved that the improved GeoNetwork service architecture can effectively adaptive for distributed deployment requirements, performance improvement and optimization of the system guarantee its continuous and stable running on the internet.

Zha, Z.; Zhou, X.



The COS-Halos Survey: Rationale, Design, and a Census of Circumgalactic Neutral Hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design and methods of the COS-Halos survey, a systematic investigation of the gaseous halos of 44 z = 0.15-0.35 galaxies using background QSOs observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This survey has yielded 39 spectra of z em ~= 0.5 QSOs with S/N ~10-15 per resolution element. The QSO sightlines pass within 150 physical kpc of the galaxies, which span early and late types over stellar mass log M */M ? = 9.5-11.5. We find that the circumgalactic medium exhibits strong H I, averaging ~= 1 Å in Ly? equivalent width out to 150 kpc, with 100% covering fraction for star-forming galaxies and 75% covering for passive galaxies. We find good agreement in column densities between this survey and previous studies over similar range of impact parameter. There is weak evidence for a difference between early- and late-type galaxies in the strength and distribution of H I. Kinematics indicate that the detected material is bound to the host galaxy, such that >~ 90% of the detected column density is confined within ±200 km s-1 of the galaxies. This material generally exists well below the halo virial temperatures at T <~ 105 K. We evaluate a number of possible origin scenarios for the detected material, and in the end favor a simple model in which the bulk of the detected H I arises in a bound, cool, low-density photoionized diffuse medium that is generic to all L* galaxies and may harbor a total gaseous mass comparable to galactic stellar masses. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO11598.

Tumlinson, Jason; Thom, Christopher; Werk, Jessica K.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Davé, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Meiring, Joseph D.; Ford, Amanda Brady; O'Meara, John M.; Peeples, Molly S.; Sembach, Kenneth R.; Weinberg, David H.




SciTech Connect

The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority ({approx}90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.

Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bickerton, Steven J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guo Yicheng [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, Seong-Kook [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)



Sampling design for an integrated socioeconomic and ecological survey by using satellite remote sensing and ordination  

PubMed Central

Environmental variability is an important risk factor in rural agricultural communities. Testing models requires empirical sampling that generates data that are representative in both economic and ecological domains. Detrended correspondence analysis of satellite remote sensing data were used to design an effective low-cost sampling protocol for a field study to create an integrated socioeconomic and ecological database when no prior information on ecology of the survey area existed. We stratified the sample for the selection of tambons from various preselected provinces in Thailand based on factor analysis of spectral land-cover classes derived from satellite data. We conducted the survey for the sampled villages in the chosen tambons. The resulting data capture interesting variations in soil productivity and in the timing of good and bad years, which a purely random sample would likely have missed. Thus, this database will allow tests of hypotheses concerning the effect of credit on productivity, the sharing of idiosyncratic risks, and the economic influence of environmental variability.

Binford, Michael W.; Lee, Tae Jeong; Townsend, Robert M.



The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2): design and methods.  


The psychiatric epidemiological population study NEMESIS-2 (Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2) replicates and expands the first Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-1) conducted from 1996 to 1999. The main objectives of the new study are to provide up-to-date figures on the prevalence, incidence, course and consequences of mental disorders, and to study trends in mental disorders and service use, with the use of a new sample. New topics not included in NEMESIS-1 were added, e.g. impulse-control disorders, and genetic correlates of mental disorders through gathering DNA from saliva samples. This paper gives an overview of the design of NEMESIS-2, especially of its recently completed first wave. NEMESIS-2 is a prospective study among Dutch-speaking subjects aged 18-64 years from the general Dutch population. Its baseline wave included 6646 subjects. Three waves are planned with three year-intervals between the waves. A multistage, stratified random sampling procedure was applied. The baseline wave of NEMESIS-2 was performed between November 2007 and July 2009. Face-to-face interviews were administered with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) 3.0. The response rate was 65.1%, and 76.4% of the respondents donated saliva. The sample was reasonably nationally representative, but younger subjects were somewhat underrepresented. In conclusion, we were able to build a comprehensive dataset of good quality, permitting several topics to be studied in the future. PMID:20641046

de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; van Dorsselaer, Saskia



Design of the stereoscopic eye-tracking system for quantitative remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal data derived from eye movements, compiled while the human eye observes geospatial imagery, retain meaningful and usable information. When human perceives the stereo effect, the virtual three dimensional (3D) model resulting from eye-brain interaction is generated in the mind. If the eye movements are recorded while the virtual model is observed, it is possible to reconstruct a 3D geometrical model almost identical to the one generated in the human brain. Information obtained from eye-movements can be utilized in many ways for remote sensing applications such as geospatial image analysis and interpretation. There are various eyetracking systems available on the market; however, none of them is designed to work with stereoscopic imagery. We explore different approaches and designs of the most suitable and non-intrusive scheme for stereoscopic image viewing in the eye-tracking systems to observe and analyze 3D visual models. The design of the proposed system is based on the optical separation method, which provides visually comfortable environment for perception of stereoscopic imagery. A proof of concept solution is based on multiple mirror-lens assembly that provides a significant reduction of geometrical constrains in eye-frame capturing. Two projected solutions: for wide-angle of viewing and helmet-integrated eye-tracker are also discussed here.

Sergeyev, Aleksandr; Levin, Eugene; Roggemann, Michael C.; Gienko, Gennady



Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform  

PubMed Central

Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs.



ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the 'new ParticipACTION': A quantitative survey of Canadian organizational awareness and capacity  

PubMed Central

Background ParticipACTION is a Canadian physical activity (PA) communications and social marketing organization that was relaunched in 2007 after a six-year hiatus. This study assesses the baseline awareness and capacity of Canadian organizations that promote physical activity, to adopt, implement and promote ParticipACTION's physical activity campaign. The three objectives were: (1) to determine organizational awareness of both the 'original' and 'new' ParticipACTION; (2) to report baseline levels of three organizational capacity domains (i.e., to adopt, implement and externally promote physical activity initiatives); and, (3) to explore potential differences in those domains based on organizational size, sector and primary mandate. Methods Organizations at local, provincial/territorial, and national levels were sent an invitation via email prior to the official launch of ParticipACTION to complete an on-line survey. The survey assessed their organization's capacity to adopt, implement and externally promote a new physical activity campaign within their organizational mandates. Descriptive statistics were employed to address the first two study objectives. A series of one-way analysis of variance were conducted to examine the third objective. Results The response rate was 29.7% (268/902). The majority of responding organizations had over 40 employees and had operated for over 10 years. Education was the most common primary mandate, followed by sport and recreation. Organizations were evenly distributed between government and not-for-profits. Approximately 96% of respondents had heard of the 'original' ParticipACTION while 54.6% had heard of the 'new' ParticipACTION (Objective 1). Findings indicate good organizational capacity in Canada to promote physical activity (Objective 2) based on reported means of approximately 4.0 (on 5-point scales) for capacity to adopt, implement, and externally promote new physical activity campaigns. Capacity to adopt new physical activity campaigns differed by organizational sector and mandate, and capacity to implement differed by organizational mandate (Objective 3). Conclusion At baseline, and without specific details of the campaign, respondents believe they have good capacity to work with ParticipACTION. ParticipACTION may do well to capitalize on the existing strong organizational capacity components of leadership, infrastructure and 'will' of national organizations to facilitate the success of its future campaigns.



Designing quantitative structure activity relationships to predict specific toxic endpoints for polybrominated diphenyl ethers in mammalian cells.  


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are known as effective flame retardants and have vast industrial application in products like plastics, building materials and textiles. They are found to be structurally similar to thyroid hormones that are responsible for regulating metabolism in the body. Structural similarity with the hormones poses a threat to human health because, once in the system, PBDEs have the potential to affect thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. This study was aimed at designing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for predicting toxic endpoints, namely cell viability and apoptosis, elicited by PBDEs in mammalian cells. Cell viability was evaluated quantitatively using a general cytotoxicity bioassay using Janus Green dye and apoptosis was evaluated using a caspase assay. This study has thus modelled the overall cytotoxic influence of PBDEs at an early and a late endpoint by the Genetic Function Approximation method. This research was a twofold process including running in vitro bioassays to collect data on the toxic endpoints and modeling the evaluated endpoints using QSARs. Cell viability and apoptosis responses for Hep G2 cells exposed to PBDEs were successfully modelled with an r(2) of 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. PMID:24738916

Rawat, S; Bruce, E D



Multiple quantitative trait locus analysis of bovine chromosome 6 in the Israeli Holstein population by a daughter design.  

PubMed Central

Nine Israeli Holstein sire families with 2978 daughters were analyzed for quantitative trait loci effects on chromosome 6 for five milk production traits by a daughter design. All animals were genotyped for 2 markers. The three families with significant effects were genotyped for up to 10 additional markers spanning positions 0-122 cM of BTA6. Two sires were segregating for a locus affecting protein and fat percentage near position 55 cM with an estimated substitution effect of 0.18% protein, which is equivalent to one phenotypic standard deviation. This locus was localized to a confidence interval of 4 cM. One of these sires was also heterozygous for a locus affecting milk, fat, and protein production near the centromere. The hypothesis of two segregating loci was verified by multiple regression analysis. A third sire was heterozygous for a locus affecting milk and protein percentage near the telomeric end of the chromosome. Possible candidates for the major quantitative gene near position 55 cM were determined by comparative mapping. IBSP and SSP1 were used as anchors for the orthologous region on human chromosome 4. Twelve genes were detected within a 2-Mbp sequence. None of these genes have been previously associated with lactogenesis.

Ron, M; Kliger, D; Feldmesser, E; Seroussi, E; Ezra, E; Weller, J I



An image analysis workstation designed for multiple users: application of quantitative digital imaging techniques to electron microscopy.  


The purpose of the present study is to describe the setup of an image analysis workstation designed for multiple users, and to show the application of digital imaging techniques to the analysis of electron microscopic images. The image analysis system consists of a conventional light microscope mounted on a table-top, vibration-free platform, a light box for viewing negatives, two separate video cameras, a switch box, a video monitor, a digitizing tablet, a computer, and morphometric software packages. The system can quantitate the amount that each of the 256 gray levels contributes to the image, perform morphometric analysis (eg, shape and size) on individual gray level-defined subimages, and perform statistical analysis. Each operator has access to his or her own data and program setups through the use of 21.4-Mb removable Bernoulli cartridges. This setup for multiple users prevents the cluttering of the hard drive of the computer and avoids the possibility of accidentally removing the stored data of another user. The quantitative capabilities of the digital imaging system is demonstrated using an image of a normal lymphocyte and an apoptotic cell (ie, a cell which has undergone programmed cell death), both captured on the same electron microscopic negative. A comparison of the histograms of nuclear densities determined for these two cells reveals subtleties in gray level distribution not appreciated by the naked eye. PMID:1557817

Payne, C M; Cromey, D W



Flow bioreactor design for quantitative measurements over endothelial cells using micro-particle image velocimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells (ECs) is a highly complex process through which cells respond to changes in hemodynamic loading by generating biochemical signals involving gene and protein expression. To study the effects of mechanical loading on ECs in a controlled fashion, different in vitro devices have been designed to simulate or replicate various aspects of these physiological phenomena. This paper describes the design, use, and validation of a flow chamber which allows for spatially and temporally resolved micro-particle image velocimetry measurements of endothelial surface topography and stresses over living ECs immersed in pulsatile flow. This flow chamber also allows the study of co-cultures (i.e., ECs and smooth muscle cells) and the effect of different substrates (i.e., coverslip and/or polyethylene terepthalate (PET) membrane) on cellular response. In this report, the results of steady and pulsatile flow on fixed endothelial cells seeded on PET membrane and coverslip, respectively, are presented. Surface topography of ECs is computed from multiple two-dimensional flow measurements. The distributions of shear stress and wall pressure on each individual cell are also determined and the importance of both types of stress in cell remodeling is highlighted.

Leong, Chia Min; Voorhees, Abram; Nackman, Gary B.; Wei, Timothy



Antileishmanial chalcones: statistical design, synthesis, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.  


A large number of substituted chalcones have been synthesized and tested for antileishmanial and lymphocyte-suppressing activities. A subset of the chalcones was designed by using statistical methods. 3D-QSAR analyses using 67 (antileishmanial activity) and 63 (lymphocyte-suppressing activity) of the compounds for the training sets and 9 compounds as an external validation set were performed by using the GRID/GOLPE methodology. The Smart Region Definition procedure with subsequent region selection as implemented in GOLPE reduced the number of variables to approximately 1300 yielding 3D-QSAR models of high quality (lymphocyte-suppressing model, R2 = 0. 90, Q2 = 0.80; antileishmanial model, R2 = 0.73, Q2 = 0.63). The coefficient plots indicate that steric interactions between the chalcones and the target are of major importance for the potencies of the compounds. A comparison of the coefficient plots for the antileishmanial effect and the lymphocyte-suppressing activity discloses significant differences which should make it possible to design chalcones having a high antileishmanial activity without suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes. PMID:9822551

Nielsen, S F; Christensen, S B; Cruciani, G; Kharazmi, A; Liljefors, T



Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Design, Implementation, and Interpretation Challenges Associated with Tracking Vaccination Coverage Using Household Surveys  

PubMed Central

Vaccination coverage is an important public health indicator that is measured using administrative reports and/or surveys. The measurement of vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries using surveys is susceptible to numerous challenges. These challenges include selection bias and information bias, which cannot be solved by increasing the sample size, and the precision of the coverage estimate, which is determined by the survey sample size and sampling method. Selection bias can result from an inaccurate sampling frame or inappropriate field procedures and, since populations likely to be missed in a vaccination coverage survey are also likely to be missed by vaccination teams, most often inflates coverage estimates. Importantly, the large multi-purpose household surveys that are often used to measure vaccination coverage have invested substantial effort to reduce selection bias. Information bias occurs when a child's vaccination status is misclassified due to mistakes on his or her vaccination record, in data transcription, in the way survey questions are presented, or in the guardian's recall of vaccination for children without a written record. There has been substantial reliance on the guardian's recall in recent surveys, and, worryingly, information bias may become more likely in the future as immunization schedules become more complex and variable. Finally, some surveys assess immunity directly using serological assays. Sero-surveys are important for assessing public health risk, but currently are unable to validate coverage estimates directly. To improve vaccination coverage estimates based on surveys, we recommend that recording tools and practices should be improved and that surveys should incorporate best practices for design, implementation, and analysis.

Cutts, Felicity T.; Izurieta, Hector S.; Rhoda, Dale A.



Body image in adolescence: cross-cultural research--results of the preliminary phase of a quantitative survey.  


This preliminary phase of a quantitative research had two main objectives: to identify the emotional and relational components of body image in adolescents, and to determine whether the experience of body changes is dependent upon individuals' context. Two samples of adolescents, both 13 to 17 years of age, who were healthy, middle- or upper middle-class, and randomly chosen, participated in the study. Subjects were 80 French adolescents (40 boys and 40 girls) from a center for preventive medicine, and 60 American adolescents (30 boys and 30 girls), from a suburban high school. Thorough individual interviews were conducted with these adolescents on the basis of a precise interview guide in order to determine their perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs about body image. A thematic analysis of the content of these recorded interviews revealed the differences between adolescents from the two countries. I was found that the main cultural differences were based on the belief that the real body and the ideal body coincide, and on the way physical appearance is included in the diversity of relational experiences. Gender differences were shown to be centered more on the level of control of body changes and on self-assessment modes; the signs of a failing or troubled body image may find their origin on an individual level, in the particularities of the family and parental language about the body, and on a collective level in the social representation of the body. The consequences of these symbolic representations on the adolescents' body image and attitudes toward their own health, are presented and discussed. PMID:9360745

Ferron, C



Research Design Decisions: An Integrated Quantitative and Qualitative Model for Decision-Making Researchers (You Too Can Be Lord of the Rings).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a concentric research design model based on need for research which transcends individuals' historic or experiential bias concerning choice of study design, tools, and data reduction strategies. Describes the following "rings": theory/knowledge orientation; theory versus applied research; quantitative versus qualitative research…

Geroy, Gary D.; Wright, Phillip C.



Designing Input Fields for Non-Narrative Open-Ended Responses in Web Surveys.  


Web surveys often collect information such as frequencies, currency amounts, dates, or other items requiring short structured answers in an open-ended format, typically using text boxes for input. We report on several experiments exploring design features of such input fields. We find little effect of the size of the input field on whether frequency or dollar amount answers are well-formed or not. By contrast, the use of templates to guide formatting significantly improves the well-formedness of responses to questions eliciting currency amounts. For date questions (whether month/year or month/day/year), we find that separate input fields improve the quality of responses over single input fields, while drop boxes further reduce the proportion of ill-formed answers. Drop boxes also reduce completion time when the list of responses is short (e.g., months), but marginally increases completion time when the list is long (e.g., birth dates). These results suggest that non-narrative open questions can be designed to help guide respondents to provide answers in the desired format. PMID:23411468

Couper, Mick P; Kennedy, Courtney; Conrad, Frederick G; Tourangeau, Roger



Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)



Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope WFIRST.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers...

D. A. Content J. E. Mentzell J. P. Lehan R. Goullioud



Measurement Error Webinar Series: Accounting for complex survey design in modeling usual intake

Identify considerations in the analysis of dietary data collected as part of a complex survey, including stratification, clustering, and weighting. Identify methods of variance estimation for complex survey samples and how these are incorporated into estimation of usual intake distributions.


Nonexperimental Quantitative Research and Its Role in Guiding Instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different research designs answer different questions. Educators cannot use nonexperimental quantitative research designs, such as descriptive surveys and correlational research, to determine definitively that an intervention causes improved student outcomes and is an evidence-based practice. However, such research can (a) inform educators about a number of issues related to the education of students with disabilities and (b) guide experimental research

Bryan G. Cook; Lysandra Cook




Microsoft Academic Search

This study is in two parts. The first part reviews statistical theory for choosing among random, stratified random, and systematic sample survey schemes when strata are of equal size and receive equal sampling effort. The theory is applied to data eollected during a pilot trawl survey for rockfish in Queen Charlotte Sound, British Columbia, and a full scale survey along




Designing Shots for the 2010 Seismic Refraction and Reflection Survey in the Salton Trough, Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NSF and the USGS have funded a large seismic refraction and reflection survey of the Salton Trough in southern California. The goals of the project are to study earthquake hazards on the San Andreas and Imperial Faults as well as rifting processes in the northernmost Gulf of California extensional province. Seismic velocity models and reflection images of the basins, whole crust, and upper mantle will constrain the structure and petrology of the rift valley, adjacent ranges and bounding faults. Fault and sedimentary basin geometry and 3-D seismic velocity will aid in the construction of seismic hazard models in an area considered at high risk. The obliquely rifted continent appears to be producing new lithosphere in the central trough by magmatic underplating and sedimentation. Interactions between extension, magmatism, sedimentation, and faulting will be constrained by the seismic images. Fieldwork is tentatively scheduled to take place in January 2010. To prepare for the upcoming fieldwork, shot design was investigated based on data from a 1979 USGS seismic survey, when 41 shots of varying sizes were detonated at 9 locations throughout the Imperial Valley. Picking errors in the first arrival travel times were correlated with source-receiver offset, shot size, and shot- hole geology. As expected, shots in the irrigated valley farmland in lake sediments produced much better shot coupling than those located in unsorted desert stream wash. This is likely due to better packing of the lake sediments and/or drilling through a shallower water table. The goals of the 2010 survey include two 250- km whole-crust refraction profiles. This would require shot sizes of 1000-1500 kg to record the entire length of these lines. Several shorter upper-crust refraction lines would require ~500-kg shots to record to distances greater than 50 km. Dense refraction and low-fold reflection shots spaced at 2-4 km in the valley floor need 100-200 kg to image both whole-crust low-fold reflectivity and refraction to distances greater than 20 km.

Feng, H. S.; Hole, J. A.; Fuis, G. S.; Stock, J. M.



Optimal design of a lagrangian observing system for hydrodynamic surveys in coastal areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimization of ocean observing systems is a pressing need for scientific research. In particular, the improvement of ocean short-term observing networks is achievable by reducing the cost-benefit ratio of the field campaigns and by increasing the quality of measurements. Numerical modeling is a powerful tool for determining the appropriateness of a specific observing system and for optimizing the sampling design. This is particularly true when observations are carried out in coastal areas and lagoons where, the use satellites is prohibitive due to the water shallowness. For such areas, numerical models are the most efficient tool both to provide a preliminary assess of the local physical environment and to make short -term predictions above its change. In this context, a test case experiment was carried out within an enclosed shallow water areas, the Cabras Lagoon (Sardinia, Italy). The aim of the experiment was to explore the optimal design for a field survey based on the use of coastal lagrangian buoys. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on the finite element method (SHYFEM3D, Umgiesser et al., 2004) was implemented to simulate the lagoon water circulation. The model domain extent to the whole Cabras lagoon and to the whole Oristano Gulf, including the surrounding coastal area. Lateral open boundary conditions were provided by the operational ocean model system WMED and only wind forcing, provided by SKIRON atmospheric model (Kallos et al., 1997), was considered as surface boundary conditions. The model was applied to provide a number of ad hoc scenarios and to explore the efficiency of the short-term hydrodynamic survey. A first field campaign was carried out to investigate the lagrangian circulation inside the lagoon under the main wind forcing condition (Mistral wind from North-West). The trajectories followed by the lagrangian buoys and the estimated lagrangian velocities were used to calibrate the model parameters and to validate the simulation results. A set of calibration runs were performed and the model accuracy in reproducing the surface circulation were defined. Therefore, a numerical simulation was conducted to predict the wind induced lagoon water circulation and the paths followed by numerical particles inside the lagoon domain. The simulated particles paths was analyzed and the optimal configuration for the buoys deployment was designed in real-time. The selected deployment geometry was then tested during a further field campaign. The obtained dataset revealed that the chosen measurement strategy provided a near-synoptic survey with the longest records for the considered specific observing experiment. This work is aimed to emphasize the mutual usefulness of observations and numerical simulations in coastal ocean applications and it proposes an efficient approach to harmonize different expertise toward the investigation of a given specific research issue. A Cucco, M Sinerchia, A Ribotti, A Olita, L Fazioli, A Perilli, B Sorgente, M Borghini, K Schroeder, R Sorgente. 2012. A high-resolution real-time forecasting system for predicting the fate of oil spills in the Strait of Bonifacio (western Mediterranean Sea). Marine Pollution Bulletin. 64. 6, 1186-1200. Kallos, G., Nickovic, S., Papadopoulos, A., Jovic, D., Kakaliagou, O., Misirlis, N., Boukas, L., Mimikou, N., G., S., J., P., Anadranistakis, E., and Manousakis, M.. 1997. The regional weather forecasting system Skiron: An overview, in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Regional Weather Prediction on Parallel Computer Environments, 109-122, Athens, Greece. Umgiesser, G., Melaku Canu, D., Cucco, A., Solidoro, C., 2004. A finite element model for the Venice Lagoon. Development, set up, calibration and validation. Journal of Marine Systems 51, 123-145.

Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Antognarelli, Fabio; Satta, Andrea; Maicu, Francesco; Ferrarin, Christian; Umgiesser, Georg



Final Design of the CARMENES M-Dwarf Radial-Velocity Survey Instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CARMENES (Calar Alto high-Resolution search for M dwarfs with Exo-earths with Near-infrared and optical Echelle Spectrographs) is a next-generation instrument being built for the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions. CARMENES will conduct a five-year exoplanet survey targeting ~300 M dwarfs. The CARMENES instrument consists of two separate échelle spectrographs covering the wavelength range from 0.55 to 1.7 ?m at a spectral resolution of R = 82,000, fed by fibers from the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. For late-M spectral types, the wavelength range around 1.0 ?m (Y band) is the most important wavelength region for radial velocity work. Therefore, the efficiency of CARMENES will be optimized in this range. Since CCDs do not provide high enough efficiency around 1.0 ?m and no signal at all beyond the Si cutoff at 1.1 ?m, a near-IR detector is required. It is thus natural to adopt an instrument concept with two spectrographs, one equipped with a CCD for the range 0.55-1.05 ?m, and one with HgCdTe detectors for the range from 0.9-1.7 ?m. Each spectrograph will be coupled to the 3.5m telescope with its own optical fiber. The front end will contain a dichroic beam splitter and an atmospheric dispersion corrector, to feed the light into the fibers leading to the spectrographs. Guiding is performed with a separate camera. Additional fibers are available for simultaneous injection of light from emission line lamps for RV calibration. The spectrographs are mounted on benches inside vacuum tanks located in the coudé laboratory of the 3.5m dome. Each vacuum tank is equipped with a temperature stabilization system capable of keeping the temperature constant to within ±0.01K over 24h. The visible-light spectrograph will be operated near room temperature, the NIR spectrograph will be cooled to 140K. The CARMENES instrument passed its preliminary design review in July 2011; the final design is just being completed. Commissioning of the instrument is planned for the first half of 2014. At least 600 useable nights have been allocated at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope for the CARMENES survey in the time frame from 2014 to 2018.

Quirrenbach, Andreas; Amado, P.; Seifert, W.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Mandel, H.; Caballero, J. A.; Mundt, R.; Galadí, D.; Consortium, CARMENES



A Geometric Approach to Trajectory Design for an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Surveying the Bulbous Bow of a Ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a control strategy design technique for an autonomous underwater vehicle based on solutions to the motion planning problem derived from differential geometric methods. The motion planning problem is motivated by the practical application of surveying the hull of a ship for implications of harbor and port security. In recent years, engineers and researchers have been

R. N. Smith; D. Cazzaro; L. Invernizzi; G. Marani; S. K. Choi; M. Chyba




Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey of several aspects in the design of a 6-Bev total ; absorption Cherenkov radiation counter was effected. The size of the radiating ; block necessary to contain, on the average, a very large percentage of a cascade ; shower initiated by an electron or photon was estimated. The results are ; presented graphically and include transi-tion curves




Design, Data Collection, Interview Timing, and Data Editing in the 1995 National Household Education Survey (NHES:95). Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Household Education Survey (NHES) is a data collection effort of the National Center for Education Statistics that collects and publishes data on the condition of education in the United States. The NHES is designed to provide information on issues that are best addressed by contacting households rather than institutions. It is a…

Collins, Mary A.; Brick, J. Michael; Loomis, Laura S.; Nicchitta, Patricia G.; Fleischman, Susan


A two-phase sampling design for increasing detections of rare species in occupancy surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magnified when working with rare species when effort can be wasted in areas with none or very few individuals. 2. Here, we develop a two-phase sampling approach that mitigates these problems by using a design that places more effort in areas with higher predicted probability of occurrence. We compare our new sampling design to traditional single-season occupancy estimation under a range of conditions and population characteristics. We develop an intuitive measure of predictive error to compare the two approaches and use simulations to assess the relative accuracy of each approach. 3. Our two-phase approach exhibited lower predictive error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach in highly spatially correlated environments. The difference was greatest when detection probability was high (0·75) regardless of the habitat or sample size. When the true occupancy rate was below 0·4 (0·05-0·4), we found that allocating 25% of the sample to the first phase resulted in the lowest error rates. 4. In the majority of scenarios, the two-phase approach showed lower error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach suggesting our new approach is fairly robust to a broad range of conditions and design factors and merits use under a wide variety of settings. 5. Synthesis and applications. Conservation and management of rare species are a challenging task facing natural resource managers. It is critical for studies involving rare species to efficiently allocate effort and resources as they are usually of a finite nature. We believe our approach provides a framework for optimal allocation of effort while maximizing the information content of the data in an attempt to provide the highest conservation value per unit of effort.

Pacifici, Krishna; Dorazio, Robert M.; Dorazio, Michael J.



Measuring the Urologic Iceberg: Design and Implementation of The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey, a National Institutes of Health[en]supported epidemiological study of symptoms suggestive of the following urologic conditions: urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia, interstitial cystitis, chronic pelvic pain of bladder origin, prostatitis, hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, and female sexual dysfunction. Methods: BACH used a two-stage stratified cluster design to recruit a community-based random sample of 5506, divided between males (2301) and females (3205), three racial/ethnic groups (black, Hispanic, and white), and four age groups (30[en]39, 40[en]49, 50[en]59, 60[en]79 yr). Validated questionnaires were used to collect information on urologic symptoms, comorbidities, prescribed and over-the-counter medications, reproductive history, quality of life, health care utilization, physical activity, depressive symptoms, interpersonal stress, smoking, alcohol use, fluid intake, nutrition, menopausal status, sexual activity, abuse, anthropometrics (measured height, weight, hip and waist circumference, pulse rate, blood pressure), and sociodemographics including country of origin, marital status, employment status, and income. Blood samples were collected from 68% of all subjects. Results: A large representative community-based sample was successfully recruited to provide both cross-sectional and eventually longitudinal data to address important urologic questions. Conclusions: BACH has features distinguishing it from most other epidemiological studies in urology. It uses a random community-based sample of people who are racially/ethnically diverse and includes a broad age range (30[en]79 yr). It includes both males and females The study focuses on symptoms rather than variably defined disease conditions, it is multidisciplinary, and it is designed to become longitudinal.

McKinlay, John B.; Link, Carol L.



High-Resolution Linkage and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Aided by Genome Survey Sequencing: Building Up An Integrative Genomic Framework for a Bivalve Mollusc  

PubMed Central

Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in genetic and genomic studies. Recent development of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods holds great promise for constructing high-resolution linkage maps in organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present study, linkage mapping was conducted for a bivalve mollusc (Chlamys farreri) using a newly developed GBS method—2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD). Genome survey sequencing was performed to generate a preliminary reference genome that was utilized to facilitate linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in C. farreri. A high-resolution linkage map was constructed with a marker density (3806) that has, to our knowledge, never been achieved in any other molluscs. The linkage map covered nearly the whole genome (99.5%) with a resolution of 0.41 cM. QTL mapping and association analysis congruously revealed two growth-related QTLs and one potential sex-determination region. An important candidate QTL gene named PROP1, which functions in the regulation of growth hormone production in vertebrates, was identified from the growth-related QTL region detected on the linkage group LG3. We demonstrate that this linkage map can serve as an important platform for improving genome assembly and unifying multiple genomic resources. Our study, therefore, exemplifies how to build up an integrative genomic framework in a non-model organism.

Jiao, Wenqian; Fu, Xiaoteng; Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Hengde; Su, Hailin; Mao, Junxia; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin



Development of DNA-designed avian IgY antibodies for quantitative determination of bovine interferon-gamma.  


Interferon-gamma (IFN-?), a cytokine produced by sensitized T lymphocytes, is one of the key elements in defining T helper 1 lymphocyte immune responses. Quantitative evaluation of IFN-? expression could provide an important analytical tool for measurement of cell-mediated immunity and investigating immune responses to infectious diseases. Method of DNA-designed avian IgY antibodies was used for production of monospecific polyclonal antibodies that allows quantification of the recombinant bovine IFN-? protein. IFN-? cDNA was subcloned and expressed in mammalian expression plasmid (pcDNA3.1(+)) under the control of the human cytomegalovirus promoter. Chickens were immunized by plasmid DNA, and egg yolk antibodies extracted from eggs were collected after immunization. IgY-specific antibodies were evaluated by an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant IFN-?. Based on the results, developed bovine IFN-? capture ELISA could detect up to 1 ng/ml of IFN-? by 64-fold diluted IgY. Monospecific anti-bovine IFN-? antibodies generated in chickens are useful for quantifying different concentrations of recombinant bovine IFN-?, which is expressed in cell culture. PMID:20652441

Nikbakht Brujeni, Gholamreza; Jalali, Sayed Amir Hossein; Koohi, Mohammad Kazem



A systematic quantitative approach to rational drug design and discovery of novel human carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.  


Abstract Drug design involves the design of small molecules that are complementary in shape and charge to the biomolecular target with which they interact and therefore will bind to it. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) studies were performed for a series of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors using comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) techniques with the help of SYBYL 7.1 software. The large set of 36 different aromatic/heterocyclic sulfamates carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC inhibitors, such as hCA IX, was chosen for this study. The conventional ligand-based 3D-QSAR studies were performed based on the low energy conformations employing database alignment rule. The ligand-based model gave q(2) values 0.802 and 0.829 and r(2) values 1.000 and 0.994 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively, and the predictive ability of the model was validated. The predicted r(2) values are 0.999 and 0.502 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. SEA (steric, electrostatic, hydrogen bond acceptor) of CoMSIA has the significant contribution for the model development. The docking of inhibitors into hCA IX active site using Glide XP (Schrödinger) software revealed the vital interactions and binding conformation of the inhibitors. The CoMFA and CoMSIA field contour maps are well in agreement with the structural characteristics of the binding pocket of hCA IX active site, which suggests that the information rendered by 3D-QSAR models and the docking interactions can provide guidelines for the development of improved hCA IX inhibitors as leads for various types of metastatic cancers including those of cervical, renal, breast and head and neck origin. PMID:24090419

Sethi, Kalyan K; Verma, Saurabh M



National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Multiple objectives and constraints lead to design complexity  

EPA Science Inventory

The US Environmental Protection Agency began conducting the National Aquatic resource Surveys (NARS) in 2007 with a national survey of lakes (NLA 2007) followed by rivers and streams in 2008-9 (NRSA 2008), coastal waters in 2010 (NCCA 2010) and wetlands in 2011 (NWCA). The surve...


Minnesota Statewide Mussel (Bivalvia: Unionidae) Survey and Long-Term Monitoring Design 2005 - 2009: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Freshwater mussels were surveyed at 534 river and lake sites of Minnesota's major river drainages, effectively completing an initial survey of the state. A total of 83,868 live mussels of 35 species were collected, as well as an additional nine species as...

B. Sietman



Designing a Household Survey to Address Seasonality in Child Care Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In household telephone surveys, a long field period may be required to maximize the response rate and achieve adequate sample sizes. However, long field periods can be problematic when measures of seasonally affected behavior are sought. Surveys of child care use are one example because child care arrangements vary by season. Options include…

Schmidt, Stefanie R.; Wang, Kevin H.; Sonenstein, Freya L.



Spatial Statistical Model and Optimal Survey Design for Rapid Geophysical Characterization of UXO Sites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unexploded ordnance (UXO) surveys encompass large areas, and the cost of surveying these areas can be high. Enactment of earlier protocols for sampling UXO sites (SiteStats/GridStats) have shown the shortcomings of these procedures and led to a call for d...

D. A. Wolf G. Ostrouchov L. P. Beard M. D. Morris W. E. Doll



A Review of Quantitative Research in Management Control Systems and Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews and critiques quantitative research that focuses on the relation between management control systems (MCS) and strategy. This quantitative research typically relies on survey evidence, and to a lesser extent, interviews and archival data. The focus of research up to the late 1990s was on the fit between the design of MCS and strategy. Controls included cost controls,

Kim Langfield-Smith



Use of Design Effects and Sample Weights in Complex Health Survey Data: A Review of Published Articles Using Data From 3 Commonly Used Adolescent Health Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We assessed how frequently researchers reported the use of statistical techniques that take into account the complex sampling structure of survey data and sample weights in published peer-reviewed articles using data from 3 commonly used adolescent health surveys. Methods. We performed a systematic review of 1003 published empirical research articles from 1995 to 2010 that used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n?=?765), Monitoring the Future (n?=?146), or Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (n?=?92) indexed in ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Results. Across the data sources, 60% of articles reported accounting for design effects and 61% reported using sample weights. However, the frequency and clarity of reporting varied across databases, publication year, author affiliation with the data, and journal. Conclusions. Given the statistical bias that occurs when design effects of complex data are not incorporated or sample weights are omitted, this study calls for improvement in the dissemination of research findings based on complex sample data. Authors, editors, and reviewers need to work together to improve the transparency of published findings using complex sample data.

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Ferron, John M.; Jiao, Qun G.; Hibbard, Susan T.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.



A National Baseline Prevalence Survey of Schistosomiasis in the Philippines Using Stratified Two-Step Systematic Cluster Sampling Design  

PubMed Central

For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion.

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Villacorte, Elena; Lebanan, May Antonnette; Crisostomo, Bobby; Hernandez, Leda; Baquilod, Mario; Erce, Edgardo; Martinez, Ruth; Velayudhan, Raman



A national baseline prevalence survey of schistosomiasis in the Philippines using stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling design.  


For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion. PMID:22518170

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Villacorte, Elena; Lebanan, May Antonnette; Crisostomo, Bobby; Hernandez, Leda; Baquilod, Mario; Erce, Edgardo; Martinez, Ruth; Velayudhan, Raman



Integrating a multimode design into a national random-digit-dialed telephone survey.  


The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) was originally conducted by using a landline telephone survey mode of data collection. To meet challenges of random-digit-dial (RDD) surveys and to ensure data quality and validity, BRFSS is integrating multiple modes of data collection to enhance validity. The survey of adults who use only cellular telephones is now conducted in parallel with ongoing, monthly landline telephone BRFSS data collection, and a mail follow-up survey is being implemented to increase response rates and to assess nonresponse bias. A pilot study in which respondents' physical measurements are taken is being conducted to assess the feasibility of collecting these data for a subsample of adults in 2 states. Physical measures would allow for the adjustment of key self-reported risk factor and health condition estimates and improve the accuracy and usefulness of BRFSS data. This article provides an overview of these new modes of data collection. PMID:22005638

Hu, Shaohua Sean; Pierannunzi, Carol; Balluz, Lina



Designing Anti-Influenza Aptamers: Novel Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach Gives Insights into Aptamer - Virus Interaction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus’ infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer’s binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers’ binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model’s sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer’s binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed.

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia



Designing anti-influenza aptamers: novel quantitative structure activity relationship approach gives insights into aptamer - virus interaction.  


This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus' infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer's binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers' binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model's sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer's binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed. PMID:24846127

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the analysis of complex health survey data by using multivariate modeling techniques. Our main interests are in design-based and model-based methods that aim at accounting for clustering, stratification and weighting effects. Our main interests are in clustering effects. Methods considered include generalized linear modeling with on pseudo-likelihood and generalized estimating equations, linear mixed models estimated

Risto Lehtonen; Kari Djerf; Tommi Härkänen; Johanna Laiho



Design of Reconnaissance Helicopter Electromagnetic and Magnetic Geophysical Surveys of the North Platte River and Lodgepole Creek, Nebraska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An innovative flight line layout using widely separated lines was used for frequency domain helicopter electromagnetic (HEM) surveys in 2008 and 2009 in the Panhandle of western Nebraska. The HEM survey design was developed as part of a joint hydrologic study by the North Platte Natural Resource District, South Platte Natural Resource District, UNL-Conservation and Survey Division, and U.S. Geological Survey to improve the understanding of relationships between surface water and groundwater systems critical to developing groundwater flow models used in water resources management programs. Use of HEM methods for hydrologic mapping had been demonstrated by HEM surveys conducted in 2007 of sites in the glaciated Platte River Basin in eastern Nebraska. These surveys covered township-scale areas with flight lines laid out in blocks where the lines were spaced about 270m apart. The HEM successfully mapped the complex 3D geometry of shallow sand and gravel aquifers through and within conductive till to a depth of about 40m in a total area of about 680 km2 (263 mi2). Current groundwater flow models in western Nebraska include the Cooperative Hydrologic Study (COHYST), run by a consortium of state agencies, which is tasked to develop scientifically supportable hydrologic databases, analyses, and models, and the North Platte River Valley Optimization Model (NPRVOM). The COHYST study area, about 75,000 km2 (29,000 mi2), includes the Platte River Basin from the Nebraska - Wyoming border to Lincoln. Considering the large area of the groundwater models, the USGS decided in collaboration with the NRD to use a more reconnaissance-style layout for the 2008 HEM survey which encompassed about 21,000 km2 (8,000 mi2). A reconnaissance-type HEM survey is made possible due to technical capabilities of applicable HEM systems and due to the level of hydrogeologic information available in the NRD. The particular capabilities of the HEM system are careful calibration, low drift, low noise, and leveling. The widely spaced lines do not provide as much opportunity for self-checking by line-to-line correlation as closely spaced lines. The final project design in 2008 consisted of flight lines paralleling the major drainages and lines perpendicular to the drainages spaced about 10 km (6 mi) apart. Layout of lines following the drainages is similar to the design of previous HEM surveys of levees. Although the general geologic features are known to be broad (sandstone channels and bedrock topography) from wells spaced about 2.5 km (1.5 mi), two “standard blocks” were flown with 270 m line spacing in critical areas to both better resolve of electrical signatures and to provide greater detail than the reconnaissance survey. The processed data from the two detailed survey blocks confirmed hypothesized electrical signatures of major hydrostratigraphic units in the area. Interpretation of data from the widely spaced lines, lines along the rivers, and the detail blocks fit well with the known hydrogeology.

Smith, B. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Abraham, J. D.



Essential Steps for Web Surveys: A Guide to Designing, Administering and Utilizing Web Surveys for University Decision-Making. Professional File. Number 102, Winter 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past few years, several Harvard paper surveys were converted to Web surveys. These were high-profile surveys endorsed by the Provost and the Dean of the College, and covered major portions of the university population (all undergraduates, all graduate students, tenured and non-tenured faculty). When planning for these surveys started in…

Cheskis-Gold, Rena; Loescher, Ruth; Shepard-Rabadam, Elizabeth; Carroll, Barbara



Analyzing the design criteria of primary settlers for small sewage treatment systems: a national survey in Taiwan.  


An onsite wastewater treatment facility normally has a treatment capacity of 5-200 population equivalents. The small system is receiving increasing attention in Asia countries to make up for the shortage of public sewer system. While many countries rely on large centralized system, small systems in Taiwan have significantly contributed to the treatment of municipal wastewater (21.6%) to make up for the low sewer connection (17.0%). To resolve disputes on the design criteria of primary settlers in small systems recommended by the government, a nationwide survey of 350 permit applications were conducted. This result of the survey revealed that 53% adopted self-proven criteria to reduce the size of the primary settlers using a design flow rate (Q) of 10 m(3)/d or less. The official design criteria were thus analyzed by using two new approaches of design criteria, scale-down factor and sludge blanket height ratio, as proposed in this study. The analysis indicated that sizing of primary settlers must consider the diurnal flow fluctuation and storage of settled sludge in primary settlers for a sufficient period of time, preferably up to 6 months. The official design criteria may be too conservative for Q<5m(3)/d, but inadequate for Q>20 m(3)/d. Based on the result of this study, new measures are suggested to strengthen the onsite program. PMID:19944531

Chiang, Chow F; Tsai, Ching T; Pai, Tzu Y; Lo, Huang M; Chao, Keh-Ping



A Survey of the Use and Documentation of Architecture Design Rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many claims have been made about the problems caused by not documenting design rationale. The general perception is that designers and architects usually do not fully understand the critical role of systematic use and capture of design rationale. However, there is to date little empirical evidence available on what design rationale mean to practitioners, how valuable they consider them, and

Antony Tang; Muhammad Ali Babar; Ian Gorton; Jun Han



Geological and seismological survey for new design-basis earthquake ground motion of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa NPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At about 10:13 on July 16, 2007, a strong earthquake named 'Niigata-ken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake' of Mj6.8 on Japan Meteorological Agencyfs scale occurred offshore Niigata prefecture in Japan. However, all of the nuclear reactors at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (KKNPS) in Niigata prefecture operated by Tokyo Electric Power Company shut down safely. In other words, automatic safety function composed of shutdown, cooling and containment worked as designed immediately after the earthquake. During the earthquake, the peak acceleration of the ground motion exceeded the design-basis ground motion (DBGM), but the force due to the earthquake applied to safety-significant facilities was about the same as or less than the design basis taken into account as static seismic force. In order to assess anew the safety of nuclear power plants, we have evaluated a new DBGM after conducting geomorphological, geological, geophysical, seismological survey and analyses. [Geomorphological, Geological and Geophysical survey] In the land area, aerial photograph interpretation was performed at least within the 30km radius to extract geographies that could possibly be tectonic reliefs as a geomorphological survey. After that, geological reconnaissance was conducted to confirm whether the extracted landforms are tectonic reliefs or not. Especially we carefully investigated Nagaoka Plain Western Boundary Fault Zone (NPWBFZ), which consists of Kakuda-Yahiko fault, Kihinomiya fault and Katakai fault, because NPWBFZ is the one of the active faults which have potential of Mj8 class in Japan. In addition to the geological survey, seismic reflection prospecting of approximate 120km in total length was completed to evaluate the geological structure of the faults and to assess the consecutiveness of the component faults of NPWBFZ. As a result of geomorphological, geological and geophysical surveys, we evaluated that the three component faults of NPWBFZ are independent to each other from the viewpoint of geological structure, however we have decided to take into consideration simultaneous movement of the three faults which is 91km long in seismic design as a case of uncertainty. In the sea area, we conducted seismic reflection prospecting with sonic wave in the area stretching for about 140km along the coastline and 50km in the direction of perpendicular to the coastline. When we analyze the seismic profiles, we evaluated the activities of faults and foldings carefully on the basis of the way of thinking of 'fault-related-fault' because the sedimentary layers in the offing of Niigata prefecture are very thick and the geological structures are characterized by foldings. As a result of the seismic reflection survey and analyses, we assess that five active faults (foldings) to be taken into consideration to seismic design in the sea area and we evaluated that the F-B fault of 36km will have the largest impact on the KKNPS. [Seismological survey] As a result of analyses of the geological survey, data from NCOE and data from 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake, it became clear that there are factors that intensifies seismic motions in this area. For each of the two selected earthquake sources, namely NPWBFZ and F-B fault, we calculated seismic ground motions on the free surface of the base stratum as the design-basis ground motion (DBGM) Ss, using both empirical and numerical ground motion evaluation method. PGA value of DBGM is 2,300Gal for unit 1 to 4 located in the southern part of the KKNPS and 1,050Gal for unit 5 to 7 in the northern part of the site.

Takao, M.; Mizutani, H.



German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave  

PubMed Central

Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79?years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79?years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79?years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma, allergies, cardiovascular conditions, diabetes mellitus, and musculoskeletal diseases. Other core topics include vaccine-preventable diseases and immunization status, nutritional deficiencies, health in older age, and the association between health-related behavior and mental health.



The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.



The Results of the National Heritage Language Survey: Implications for Teaching, Curriculum Design, and Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a survey of heritage language learners (HLLs) across different heritage languages (HLs) and geographic regions in the United States. A general profile of HLLs emerges as a student who (1) acquired English in early childhood, after acquiring the HL; (2) has limited exposure to the HL outside the home; (3) has relatively…

Carreira, Maria; Kagan, Olga



Object-oriented modeling and design for Sloan Digital Sky Survey retained data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SDSS project will produce tens of terabytes of data with nonionships among them and with uncertain complexity in their usage. The data archive must provide adequate access to all collaborating partners during the five-year survey lifetime to support: ...

C. H. Huang J. Munn B. Yanny S. Kent D. Petravick



Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. With the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe, different observational probes have been proposed to investigate the presence of dark energy, including possible modifications to the gravitation laws by accurately measuring the expansion of the Universe and the growth of structures. We need to optimize the return from future dark energy surveys to obtain the best results

S. Jouvel; J.-P. Kneib; G. Bernstein; O. Ilbert; P. Jelinsky; B. Milliard; A. Ealet; C. Schimd; T. Dahlen; S. Arnouts



A design of strategic alliance based on value chain of surveying and mapping enterprises in China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use value chain and strategic alliance theories to analyzing the surveying and mapping Industry and enterprises. The value chain of surveying and mapping enterprises is highly-contacted but split by administrative interference, the enterprises are common small scale. According to the above things, we consider that establishing a nonequity- Holding strategic alliance based on value chain is an available way, it can not only let the enterprises share the superior resources in different sectors of the whole value chain each other but avoid offending the interests of related administrative departments, by this way, the surveying and mapping enterprises gain development respectively and totally. Then, we give the method to building up the strategic alliance model through parting the value chain and the using advantage of companies in different value chain sectors. Finally, we analyze the internal rule of strategic alliance and prove it is a suitable way to realize the development of surveying and mapping enterprises through game theory.

Duan, Hong; Huang, Xianfeng



Designing and Mining Multi-Terabyte Astronomy Archives: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next -generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays, through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The ar- chives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. One of the first of the se projects, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is creating a 5 -wavelength catalog over 10,000 square degrees of

Alexander S. Szalay; Peter Z. Kunszt; Ani Thakar; Jim Gray; Donald R. Slutz; Robert J. Brunner



Survey on Seaplane Hydro-Ski Design Technology. Phase I: Qualitative Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the first part of a two-phase study for the survey and analysis of hydro-ski seaplane technology. As such, it contains qualitative correlations of the results of As such, it contains qualitative correlations of the results of all data to def...

P. A. Pepper L. Kaplan



A Survey of Web Log Data and their Application in Use-based Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based logs contain potentially useful data with which designers can assess the usability and effectiveness of their choices. Most guides to World Wide Web (Web) design derived from artistic or usability principles feature no empirical validation, while empirical studies of Web use typically rely on observer ratings. Several sources of unobtrusive usage data are available to Web designers, including Web

Mary C. Burton; Joseph B. Walther



The APACHE survey hardware and software design: Tools for an automatic search of small-size transiting exoplanets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small-size ground-based telescopes can effectively be used to look for transiting rocky planets around nearby low-mass M stars using the photometric transit method, as recently demonstrated for example by the MEarth project. Since 2008 at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of Aosta Valley (OAVdA), we have been preparing for the long-term photometric survey APACHE, aimed at finding transiting small-size planets around thousands of nearby early and mid-M dwarfs. APACHE (A PAthway toward the Characterization of Habitable Earths) is designed to use an array of five dedicated and identical 40-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescopes and its observations started at the beginning of summer 2012. The main characteristics of the survey final set up and the preliminary results from the first weeks of observations will be discussed.

Christille, Jean-Marc; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Calcidese, P.; Carbognani, A.; Cenadelli, D.; Damasso, M.; Giacobbe, P.; Lanteri, L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Sozzetti, A.; Smart, R.



Using SEM to Analyze Complex Survey Data: A Comparison between Design-Based Single-Level and Model-Based Multilevel Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both ad-hoc robust sandwich standard error estimators (design-based approach) and multilevel analysis (model-based approach) are commonly used for analyzing complex survey data with nonindependent observations. Although these 2 approaches perform equally well on analyzing complex survey data with equal between- and within-level model structures…

Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man



Designing Messaging to Engage Patients in an Online Suicide Prevention Intervention: Survey Results From Patients With Current Suicidal Ideation  

PubMed Central

Background Computerized, Internet-delivered interventions can be efficacious; however, uptake and maintaining sustained client engagement are still big challenges. We see the development of effective engagement strategies as the next frontier in online health interventions, an area where much creative research has begun. We also argue that for engagement strategies to accomplish their purpose with novel targeted populations, they need to be tailored to such populations (ie, content is designed with the target population in mind). User-centered design frameworks provide a theoretical foundation for increasing user engagement and uptake by including users in development. However, deciding how to implement this approach to enage users in mental health intervention development is challenging. Objective The aim of this study was to get user input and feedback on acceptability of messaging content intended to engage suicidal individuals. Methods In March 2013, clinic intake staff distributed flyers announcing the study, “Your Feedback Counts” to potential participants (individuals waiting to be seen for a mental health appointment) together with the Patient Health Questionnaire. The flyer explained that a score of two or three (“more than half the days” or “nearly every day” respectively) on the suicide ideation question made them eligible to provide feedback on components of a suicide prevention intervention under development. The patient could access an anonymous online survey by following a link. After providing consent online, participants completed the anonymous survey. Results Thirty-four individuals provided data on past demographic information. Participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that they were cared about, that was personalized, that others like them had found it helpful, and that included examples with real people. Participants preferred email invitations with subject lines expressing concern and availability of extra resources. Participants also provided feedback about a media prototype including a brand design and advertisement video for introducing the intervention. Conclusions This paper provides one model (including development of an engagement survey, audience for an engagement survey, methods for presenting results of an engagement survey) for including target users in the development of uptake strategies for online mental health interventions.

Lungu, Anita; Richards, Julie; Simon, Gregory E; Clingan, Sarah; Siler, Jaeden; Snyder, Lorilei; Ludman, Evette



The Design of the GPS-Based Surveying Robot Automatic Monitoring System for Underground Mining Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earth subsidence in underground mining is an unavoidable problem in mining production, and timely and scientific observation\\u000a and early warning is one of the important factors in the security of mining production. Though the surveying robot (i.e. automatic\\u000a electronic total station) can automatically (or semi-automatically) monitor ground deformation for underground mining, the\\u000a stability of the station location (monitor base station)

Chenguang Jiang; Jianguo Peng; Chunqiao Yuan; Guohui Wang; Yong He; Shaohong Li; Bo Liu



An analysis of innovation performance of industrial design and its influential factors—Based on a survey of firms in Ningbo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a Survey of 190 enterprises in Ningbo City, China, this thesis aims at finding out which is the most inflecting factor for the innovation performance of industrial design. After analyzing the innovation status of industrial design such as the enterprises' willingness on innovation of industrial design, their investment and innovation performance, it gives an practical analyze on innovation

Limin Liu



Sample frame and related sample design issues for surveys of physicians and physician practices.  


A sample frame is the listing of the units from which a sample is to be selected. When deciding upon a file to serve as a source for a sample frame for a survey, perhaps the most important consideration is the extent to which the target population will be covered by the frame. However, other issues also come into play such as the accuracy of contact and other information appearing on the file as well as its cost. The American Medical Association Masterfile has long been considered the preferred choice for surveys of physicians, although it does have drawbacks. Here we consider two alternative files, discussing their relative advantages and disadvantages. For surveys of physician practices (or other organizations that employ physicians), there have been no files that are obvious choices to serve as the basis for a sample frame. Here we discuss data collection on physician practices from an analytic perspective and consider how sampling physicians to obtain practice level data may be a desirable approach. PMID:23975759

Digaetano, Ralph



Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Lukacs, P. M.; Gude, J. A.; Russell, R. E.; Ackerman, B. B.




SciTech Connect

Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) were measured at 3.6 {mu}m, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early-type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius beyond the end of the bar, and they tend to be short, low amplitude, and exponential-profiled in late Hubble types, with arm contrasts that are constant or increase with radius. Longer bars tend to have larger amplitudes and stronger arms.

Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Yau, Andrew [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), UMR6110, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Technopole de Marseille Etoile, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Helou, George; Sheth, Kartik [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Menendez-Delmestre, KarIn [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Department of Physical Sciences/Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 (Finland); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 2EH (United Kingdom); Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)



FY86 OMA Project, Energy Survey of Designated U.S. Army Garrison Honshu Facilities, Energy Analysis Program (EEAP), Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides the Executive Summary of the Energy Savings Opportunity Survey (ESOS) and Energy Monitoring and Control System (EMCS) Feasibility Study of Designated U.S. Army Garrison, Honshu Facilities, for Camp Zama, Japan prepared under Contrac...



A Survey on Analysis and Design of Model-Based Fuzzy Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy logic control was originally introduced and developed as a model free control design approach. However, it unfortunately suffers from criticism of lacking of systematic stability analysis and controller design though it has a great success in industry applications. In the past ten years or so, prevailing research efforts on fuzzy logic control have been devoted to model-based fuzzy control

Gang Feng



Some New Bases and Needs for Interior Design from Environmental Research. A Preliminary Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research which can form new bases for interior design is being greatly accelerated. Investigations in psychology, anthropology, psychiatry, and biology, as well as interdisciplinary projects, turn up literally hundreds of studies, the results of which will vitally affect interior design. This body of research falls into two parts--(1) human…

Kleeman, Walter, Jr.


A Survey of Applications and Research in Integrated Design Systems Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial part of the study was begun with a combination of literature searches, World Wide Web searches, and contacts with individuals and companies who were known to members of our team to have an interest in topics that seemed to be related to our study. There is a long list of such topics, such as concurrent engineering, design for manufacture, life-cycle engineering, systems engineering, systems integration, systems design, design systems, integrated product and process approaches, enterprise integration, integrated product realization, and similar terms. These all capture, at least in part, the flavor of what we describe here as integrated design systems. An inhibiting factor in this inquiry was the absence of agreed terminology for the study of integrated design systems. It is common for the term to be applied to what are essentially augmented Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems, which are integrated only to the extent that agreements have been reached to attach proprietary extensions to proprietary CAD programs. It is also common for some to use the term integrated design systems to mean a system that applies only, or mainly, to the design phase of a product life cycle. It is likewise common for many of the terms listed earlier to be used as synonyms for integrated design systems. We tried to avoid this ambiguity by adopting the definition of integrated design systems that is implied in the introductory notes that we provided to our contacts, cited earlier. We thus arrived at this definition: Integrated Design Systems refers to the integration of the different tools and processes that comprise the engineering, of complex systems. It takes a broad view of the engineering of systems, to include consideration of the entire product realization process and the product life cycle. An important aspect of integrated design systems is the extent to which they integrate existing, "islands of automation" into a comprehensive design and product realization environment. As the study progressed, we relied increasingly upon a networking approach to lead us to new information. The departure point for such searches often was a government-sponsored project or a company initiative. The advantage of this approach was that short conversations with knowledgeable persons would usually cut through confusion over differences of terminology, thereby somewhat reducing the search space of the study. Even so, it was not until late in our eight-month inquiry that we began to see signs of convergence of the search, in the sense that a number of the latest inquiries began to turn up references to earlier contacts. As suggested above, this convergence often occurred with respect to particular government or company projects.



Design and performance testing of quantitative real time PCR assays for influenza A and B viral load measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The antiviral effect of anti-influenza drugs such as zanamivir may be demonstrated in patients as an increased rate of decline in viral load over a time course of treatment as compared with placebo. Historically this was measured using plaque assays, or Culture Enhanced Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (CE-ELISA). Objectives: to develop and characterise real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays

C. L. Ward; M. H. Dempseyb; C. J. A Ring; R. E Kempson; L Zhang; D Gor; B. W Snowden; M Tisdale



Mail and Web Surveys: A Comparison of Demographic Characteristics and Response Quality When Respondents Self-Select the Survey Administration Mode  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to use a nonexperimental, quantitative design to compare mail and web surveys with survey mode self-selection at two data collection waves. Research questions examined differences and predictabilities among demographics (gender, ethnicity, age, and professional employment) and response quality (pronoun use, item…

Mackety, Dawn M.



Is the Linear Modeling Technique Good Enough for Optimal Form Design? A Comparison of Quantitative Analysis Models  

PubMed Central

How to design highly reputable and hot-selling products is an essential issue in product design. Whether consumers choose a product depends largely on their perception of the product image. A consumer-oriented design approach presented in this paper helps product designers incorporate consumers' perceptions of product forms in the design process. The consumer-oriented design approach uses quantification theory type I, grey prediction (the linear modeling technique), and neural networks (the nonlinear modeling technique) to determine the optimal form combination of product design for matching a given product image. An experimental study based on the concept of Kansei Engineering is conducted to collect numerical data for examining the relationship between consumers' perception of product image and product form elements of personal digital assistants (PDAs). The result of performance comparison shows that the QTTI model is good enough to help product designers determine the optimal form combination of product design. Although the PDA form design is used as a case study, the approach is applicable to other consumer products with various design elements and product images. The approach provides an effective mechanism for facilitating the consumer-oriented product design process.

Lin, Yang-Cheng; Yeh, Chung-Hsing; Wang, Chen-Cheng; Wei, Chun-Chun



Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper surveys the use of aerothermodynamic facilities which have been useful in the study of external flows and propulsion aspects of hypersonic, air-breathing vehicles. While the paper is not a survey of all facilities, it covers the utility of shock tunnels and conventional hypersonic blow-down facilities which have been used for hypersonic air-breather studies. The problems confronting researchers in the field of aerothermodynamics are outlined. Results from the T5 GALCIT tunnel for the shock-on lip problem are outlined. Experiments on combustors and short expansion nozzles using the semi-free jet method have been conducted in large shock tunnels. An example which employed the NASA Ames 16-Inch shock tunnel is outlined, and the philosophy of the test technique is described. Conventional blow-down hypersonic wind tunnels are quite useful in hypersonic air-breathing studies. Results from an expansion ramp experiment, simulating the nozzle on a hypersonic air-breather from the NASA Ames 3.5 Foot Hypersonic wind tunnel are summarized. Similar work on expansion nozzles conducted in the NASA Langley hypersonic wind tunnel complex is cited. Free-jet air-frame propulsion integration and configuration stability experiments conducted at Langley in the hypersonic wind tunnel complex on a small generic model are also summarized.

Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, George S.



Survey and analysis of research on supersonic drag-due-to-lift minimization with recommendations for wing design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of research on drag-due-to-lift minimization at supersonic speeds, including a study of the effectiveness of current design and analysis methods was conducted. The results show that a linearized theory analysis with estimated attainable thrust and vortex force effects can predict with reasonable accuracy the lifting efficiency of flat wings. Significantly better wing performance can be achieved through the use of twist and camber. Although linearized theory methods tend to overestimate the amount of twist and camber required for a given application and provide an overly optimistic performance prediction, these deficiencies can be overcome by implementation of recently developed empirical corrections. Numerous examples of the correlation of experiment and theory are presented to demonstrate the applicability and limitations of linearized theory methods with and without empirical corrections. The use of an Euler code for the estimation of aerodynamic characteristics of a twisted and cambered wing and its application to design by iteration are discussed.

Carlson, Harry W.; Mann, Michael J.



[The mixed design in nursing sciences or when a question of research calls for qualitative and quantitative strategies].  


The use of a mixed method research design raises many questions, especially regarding the paradigmatic position. With this paradigm, we may consider the mixed method design as the best way of answering a research question and the latter orients to one of the different subtypes of mixed method design. To illustrate the use of this kind of design, we propose a study such as conducted in nursing sciences. In this article, the challenges raised by the mixed method design, and the place of this type of research in nursing sciences is discussed. PMID:21322192

Bourgault, Patricia; Gallagher, Frances; Michaud, Cécile; Saint-Cyr-Tribble, Denise



Design and methods in a survey of living conditions in the Arctic - the SLiCA study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The main objective of this study is to describe the methods and design of the survey of living conditions in the Arctic (SLiCA), relevant participation rates and the distribution of participants, as applicable to the survey data in Alaska, Greenland and Norway. This article briefly addresses possible selection bias in the data and also the ways to tackle it in future studies. Study design Population-based cross-sectional survey. Methods Indigenous individuals aged 16 years and older, living in Greenland, Alaska and in traditional settlement areas in Norway, were invited to participate. Random sampling methods were applied in Alaska and Greenland, while non-probability sampling methods were applied in Norway. Data were collected in 3 periods: in Alaska, from January 2002 to February 2003; in Greenland, from December 2003 to August 2006; and in Norway, in 2003 and from June 2006 to June 2008. The principal method in SLiCA was standardised face-to-face interviews using a questionnaire. Results A total of 663, 1,197 and 445 individuals were interviewed in Alaska, Greenland and Norway, respectively. Very high overall participation rates of 83% were obtained in Greenland and Alaska, while a more conventional rate of 57% was achieved in Norway. A predominance of female respondents was obtained in Alaska. Overall, the Sami cohort is older than the cohorts from Greenland and Alaska. Conclusions Preliminary assessments suggest that selection bias in the Sami sample is plausible but not a major threat. Few or no threats to validity are detected in the data from Alaska and Greenland. Despite different sampling and recruitment methods, and sociocultural differences, a unique database has been generated, which shall be used to explore relationships between health and other living conditions variables.

Eliassen, Bent-Martin; Melhus, Marita; Kruse, Jack; Poppel, Birger; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild



A combined pulmonary -radiology workshop for visual evaluation of COPD: study design, chest CT findings and concordance with quantitative evaluation  

PubMed Central

The purposes of this study were: to describe chest CT findings in normal non-smoking controls and cigarette smokers with and without COPD; to compare the prevalence of CT abnormalities with severity of COPD; and to evaluate concordance between visual and quantitative chest CT (QCT) scoring Methods Volumetric inspiratory and expiratory CT scans of 294 subjects, including normal non-smokers, smokers without COPD, and smokers with GOLD Stage I-IV COPD, were scored at a multi-reader workshop using a standardized worksheet. There were fifty-eight observers (33 pulmonologists, 25 radiologists); each scan was scored by 9–11 observers. Interobserver agreement was calculated using kappa statistic. Median score of visual observations was compared with QCT measurements. Results Interobserver agreement was moderate for the presence or absence of emphysema and for the presence of panlobular emphysema; fair for the presence of centrilobular, paraseptal, and bullous emphysema subtypes and for the presence of bronchial wall thickening; and poor for gas trapping, centrilobular nodularity, mosaic attenuation, and bronchial dilation. Agreement was similar for radiologists and pulmonologists. The prevalence on CT readings of most abnormalities (e.g. emphysema, bronchial wall thickening, mosaic attenuation, expiratory gas trapping) increased significantly with greater COPD severity, while the prevalence of centrilobular nodularity decreased. Concordances between visual scoring and quantitative scoring of emphysema, gas trapping and airway wall thickening were 75%, 87% and 65%, respectively. Conclusions Despite substantial inter-observer variation, visual assessment of chest CT scans in cigarette smokers provides information regarding lung disease severity; visual scoring may be complementary to quantitative evaluation.

Lynch, David A; Murphy, James R; Crapo, James D; Criner, Gerard J; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Jacobson, Francine L; Lipson, David A; Mamary, A James; Newell, John D; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; van Beek, Edwin JR



Beyond the Cost of Biologics: Employer Survey Reveals Gap in Understanding Role of Specialty Pharmacy and Benefit Design  

PubMed Central

Background Advances in biotechnology have led to the development of many new medical therapies for a variety of diseases. These agents, known as biologics or specialty drugs, represent the fastest-growing segment of pharmaceuticals. They have often proved effective in cases where conventional medications have failed; however, they can cost up to $350,000 per patient annually. Employers sponsor a significant proportion of plans that provide healthcare benefits, but surveys on benefit coverage have neglected to measure employers’ understanding of these drugs or their use. Objective To establish a baseline understanding of specialty pharmacy drug benefit coverage from the perspective of the employer (ie, commercial benefit plan sponsors). Methods The Midwest Business Group on Health (MBGH), a Chicago-based, nonprofit coalition of more than 100 large employers, in collaboration with the Institute for Integrated Healthcare, conducted a national web-based survey to determine the extent of employer understanding of specialty pharmacy drug management. MBGH, along with 15 business coalitions nationwide, distributed the survey to their employer members. A total of 120 employers, representing more than 1 million employee lives, completed the survey online. The results were then analyzed by MBGH. Results Of the 120 employers surveyed, 25% had “little to no understanding” of biologics, and only 53% claimed a “moderate understanding” of these agents. When asked to rank the effectiveness of biologics-related disease management support for their employees, 45% of the participating employers did not know whether productivity had increased, and 43% did not know whether their employees had experienced increased quality of life as a result of taking these drugs. The majority (76%) of employers continued to rely heavily on print medium to communicate with their covered population. Overall, the vast majority of employers (78%) claimed either “little to no understanding” or a “moderate understanding” of specialty pharmacy. Conclusions That the majority of employers admit they do not understand specialty pharmacy indicates that efforts are needed to fill in this knowledge gap to enable employers to design useful or appropriate drug benefit programs and manage them more effectively to control costs and optimize their employees’ healthcare outcomes. Efforts to educate employers will require continued evaluation to ensure an effective communication between them and their employees while this area of medicine continues to grow.

Vogenberg, F. Randy; Larson, Cheryl; Rehayem, Margaret; Boress, Larry



Quantitative histologic analysis of the mitral valve anterior leaflet: ischemic alterations and implications for valve replacement design  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a current trend to design innovative mitral valve replacements that mimic the native mitral valve (MV). A prerequisite for these new designs is the characterization of MV structure. This study was conducted to determine the distribution of MV collagen and glycosaminoglycan (GAGs) in MV anterior leaflets. Methods: Specimens from the mid-line of eight sheep MV anterior leaflets were

David W. Quick; Karyn S. Kunzelman; Richard P. Cochran




EPA Science Inventory

Great River Ecosystems (GRE) include the river channel and associated backwaters and floodplain habitats. The challenge in designing a GRE monitoring and assessment program is to choose a set of habitats, indicators, and sampling locations that reveal the ecological condition of ...


A Study of Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Puerto Rican Youth: I. Background, Design, and Survey Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This is the first of two related articles on a study carried out between 2000 and 2003 designed to assess the prevalence, associated comorbidities, and correlates of disruptive behavior disorders in two populations of Puerto Rican children: one in the Standard Metropolitan Areas of San Juan and Caguas in Puerto Rico, and the other in…

Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Davies, Mark; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Febo, Vivian; Ramirez, Rafael; Hoven, Christina; Wicks, Judith; Musa, George; Loeber, Rolf



Context-based design of mobile applications for museums: a survey of existing practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a review of mobile applications used in museum environments, focusing on the notion of context and its constituent dimensions. Museums are a representative example in which the context influences interaction. During a museum visit, the visitors interact with the exhibits through mobile devices. We argue that, effective interaction design needs to take into consideration multiple dimensions of

Dimitrios Raptis; Nikolaos K. Tselios; Nikolaos M. Avouris



Survey Design and Methodology in the Health and Retirement Study and the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale data collection has become the kernel of the growth of knowl- edge in the social sciences. Nowhere is this more evident than in research in the demography of aging and the life course, where scientific progress has been stimulated and sustained by complementary longitudinal studies of aging populations. In this chapter, we review the history, organization, and design of



A survey of systems approaches to green design with illustrations from the computer industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased recognition of the importance of sustainable development is posing new challenges for industry. A systems approach provides a framework for reconciling the needs of sustainable development with all of the other demands on industry. The computer industry has been chosen to illustrate the application of a systems approach to green design in industry on account of both its increasing

Marion A. Hersh



A Survey of Career Guidance Needs of Industrial Design Students in Taiwanese Universities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School pupils in Taiwan spend most of their time in studying and having examinations, and consequently many of them decide what major to study in universities rather hastily. Industrial design (ID) programs in universities nowadays recruit students from general and vocational senior high schools through a variety of channels. As a consequence, ID…

Yang, Ming-Ying; You, Manlai



Survey and analysis of the design issues of a low cost micro power DC-DC step up converter for indoor light energy harvesting applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the pertinent issues in designing and developing a DC-DC converter for a low cost, micro power indoor light harvesting system using CMOS technology. The different issues associated to this problem are studied and the relevant literature is analysed. The paper surveys and analyses the design options available for the PV cells, step-up voltage converter circuit architecture, maximum

Carlos Carvalho; Joao P. Oliveira; Nuno Paulino



Design of small impact-resistant RTGs for Mars environmental survey (MESUR) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing studies by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the robotic exploration of Mars contemplate a network of about twenty small and relatively inexpensive landers distributed over both low and high latitudes of the Martian globe. They are intended to explore the structural, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics of the Martian soil, search for possible subsurface trapped ice, and collect long-term seismological and meteorological data over a period of ten years. They can also serve as precursors for later unmanned and manned Mars missions. The collected data will be transmitted periodically, either directly to Earth or indirectly via an orbiting relay. The choice of transmission will determine the required power, which is currently expected to be between 2 and 12 watts(e) per lander. This could be supplied either by solar arrays or by Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Solar-powered landers could only be used for low Martian latitudes, but RTG-powered landers can be used for both low and high latitudes. Moreover, RTGs are less affected by Martian sandstorms and can be modified to resist high-g-load impacts. High impact resistance is a critical goal. It is desired by the mission designers, to minimize the mass and complexity of the system needed to decelerate the landers to a survivable impact velocity. To support the NASA system studies, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications (DOE/OSA) asked Fairchild to perform RTG design studies for this mission. The key problem in designing these RTGs is how to enable the generators to tolerate substantially higher g-loads than those encountered on previous RTG missions. The Fairchild studies resulted in designs of compact RTGs based on flight-proven and safety-qualified heat source components, with a number of novel features designed to provide the desired high impact tolerance. The present paper describes those designs and their rationale, and a preliminary, quasi-static impact analysis that yielded very encouraging results. They indicate that these RTGs have sufficient impact resistance to enable survival of landers without retrorockets. This would result in significant cost savings.

Schock, Alfred



Survey of Aerothermodynamics Facilities Useful for the Design of Hypersonic Vehicles Using Air-Breathing Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dream of producing an air-breathing, hydrogen fueled, hypervelocity aircraft has been before the aerospace community for decades. However, such a craft has not yet been realized, even in an experimental form. Despite the simplicity and beauty of the concept, many formidable problems must be overcome to make this dream a reality. This paper summarizes the aero/aerothermodynamic issues that must be addressed to make the dream a reality and discusses how aerothermodynamics facilities and their modem companion, real-gas computational fluid dynamics (CFD), can help solve the problems blocking the way to realizing the dream. The approach of the paper is first to outline the concept of an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle and then discuss the nose-to-tail aerothermodynamics issues and special aerodynamic problems that arise with such a craft. Then the utility of aerothermodynamic facilities and companion CFD analysis is illustrated by reviewing results from recent United States publications wherein these problems have been addressed. Papers selected for the discussion have k e n chosen such that the review will serve to survey important U.S. aero/aerothermodynamic real gas and conventional wind tunnel facilities that are useful in the study of hypersonic, hydrogen propelled hypervelocity vehicles.

Arnold, James O.; Deiwert, G. S.



A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie



The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS): objectives and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the objectives and design of a prospective study of the prevalence, incidence and course of psychiatric\\u000a disorders in a representative sample of non-institutionalized Dutch adults. A total of 7146 men and women aged 18–64, contacted\\u000a through a multistage sample of municipalities and households, were interviewed at home in 1996. The primary diagnostic instrument\\u000a was the CIDI, which

R. V. Bijl; G. van Zessen; A. Ravelli; C. de Rijk; Y. Langendoen



Security analysis survey and framework design for IP connected LoWPANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.15.4 standard for low power wireless personal area networks (LoWPANs) is emerging as a promising technology to bring envisioned ubiquitous paragon, into realization. Considerable efforts are being carried on to integrate LoWPANs with other wired and wireless IP networks, in order to make use of pervasive nature and existing infrastructure associated with IP technologies. Designing a security solution becomes

Rabia Riaz; Ki-Hyung Kim; H. Farooq Ahmed



Design and Application of Nucleic Acid Standards for Quantitative Detection of Enteric Viruses by Real-Time PCR.  


Synthetic multiple-target RNA and DNA oligonucleotides were constructed for use as quantification standards for nucleic acid amplification assays for human norovirus genogroup I and II, hepatitis E virus, murine norovirus, human adenovirus, porcine adenovirus and bovine polyomavirus. This approach overcomes the problems related to the difficulty of obtaining practical quantities of viral RNA and DNA from these viruses. The quantification capacity of assays using the standards was excellent in each case (R(2) > 0.998 and PCR efficiency > 0.89). The copy numbers of the standards were equivalent to the genome equivalents of representative viruses (murine norovirus and human adenovirus), ensuring an accurate determination of virus presence. The availability of these standards should facilitate the implementation of nucleic acid amplification-based methods for quantitative virus detection. PMID:21765877

Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David



A Quantitative Study on Risk Issues in Safety Feature Control System Design in Digitalized Nuclear Power Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment for the engineered safety feature component control system (ESF-CCS) designed as part of the Korean Nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I&C) System project for application to the advanced pressurized reactor (APR1400) by using newly developed safety-class microprocessor-based modules was performed for risk-informed design feedback. The fault-tree models were developed to assess the failure probability of a system function, which

Hyun Gook KANG; Seung-Cheol JANG



The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS): design and implementation of the northern receiver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C-Band All-Sky Survey is a project to map the full sky in total intensity and linear polarization at 5 GHz. The northern component of the survey uses a broad-band single-frequency analogue receiver fitted to a 6.1-m telescope at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory in California, USA. The receiver architecture combines a continuous-comparison radiometer and a correlation polarimeter in a single receiver for stable simultaneous measurement of both total intensity and linear polarization, using custom-designed analogue receiver components. The continuous-comparison radiometer measures the temperature difference between the sky and temperature-stabilized cold electrical reference loads. A cryogenic front-end is used to minimize receiver noise, with a system temperature of ?30 K in both linear polarization and total intensity. Custom cryogenic notch filters are used to counteract man-made radio frequency interference. The radiometer 1/f noise is dominated by atmospheric fluctuations, while the polarimeter achieves a 1/f noise knee frequency of 10 mHz, similar to the telescope azimuthal scan frequency.

King, O. G.; Jones, Michael E.; Blackhurst, E. J.; Copley, C.; Davis, R. J.; Dickinson, C.; Holler, C. M.; Irfan, M. O.; John, J. J.; Leahy, J. P.; Leech, J.; Muchovej, S. J. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Stevenson, M. A.; Taylor, Angela C.



Design and operation of a deep seismic survey in the Tasman Sea Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep crustal reflections, appearing at two-way times of 6-20 s, are characterised by a low signal-to-noise ratio and a low-frequency content (~ 5-30 Hz). Optimising the visibility of these reflections requires that: (1) the source energy be concentrated in this band; (2) the receiver be as long as practically possible; (3) the shot spacing be as snail as possible. An airgun array simulation program was used to investigate the effect of operating a 10-gun array at different depths. It predicted that the source energy could be enhanced at low frequencies by running the gun array at depths of up to 25 m, which would improve the signal-to-noise ratio for deep reflectors by a factor of 2 relative to the same array at 7.5 m depth at the expense of some loss of temporal resolution. The receiver length was limited to 4.4 km by the number of cable sections available and the maximum tension allowable in the cable. It was configured as 88 channels of 50 m length. To reduce the shot spacing, minimise the tow noise and reduce tension in the cable, the ship speed was reduced to 4 knots. A cable depth of 20 m was chosen to reduce sea state noise and keep the receiver ghost notch frequency outside the frequency band of interest. A variety of operational problems was encountered. Fish bites holed 50% of the total cable inventory and cable sections were damaged when they sank below their maximum rated depth after being holed. Shot-generated noise was the limiting factor in deep water. Despite these problems, useful data were obtained over the Lord Howe Rise, Dampier Ridge, Gippsland Basin margin and the deep abyssal plain and the survey demonstrated the use of an airgun array tuned for maximum energy.

Kravis, S. P.; Coffin, M. F.; Whitworth, R.



Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept with the goal of taking scientific measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface of Mars by using an airplane as the payload platform. ARES team first conducted a Phase-A study for a 2007 launch opportunity, which was completed in May 2003. Following this study, significant efforts were undertaken to reduce the risk of the atmospheric flight system, under the NASA Langley Planetary Airplane Risk Reduction Project. The concept was then proposed to the Mars Scout program in 2006 for a 2011 launch opportunity. This paper summarizes the design and development of the ARES airplane propulsion subsystem beginning with the inception of the ARES project in 2002 through the submittal of the Mars Scout proposal in July 2006.

Kuhl. Christopher A.



Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

Houbolt, J. C.



A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications  

SciTech Connect

Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (A1) processing are discussed. The issues discussed are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and scheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representation. Solutions in each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems.

Wah, B.W. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Coordinated Science Lab.); Li, G.J. (Institute of Computing Technology, Academia Sinica, Bejing (CN))



Design and Calibration of a Flowfield Survey Rake for Inlet Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Propulsion Flight Test Fixture at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is a unique test platform available for use on NASA's F-15B aircraft, tail number 836, as a modular host for a variety of aerodynamics and propulsion research. For future flight data from this platform to be valid, more information must be gathered concerning the quality of the airflow underneath the body of the F-15B at various flight conditions, especially supersonic conditions. The flow angularity and Mach number must be known at multiple locations on any test article interface plane for measurement data at these locations to be valid. To determine this prerequisite information, flight data will be gathered in the Rake Airflow Gauge Experiment using a custom-designed flowfield rake to probe the airflow underneath the F-15B at the desired flight conditions. This paper addresses the design considerations of the rake and probe assembly, including the loads and stress analysis using analytical methods, computational fluid dynamics, and finite element analysis. It also details the flow calibration procedure, including the completed wind-tunnel test and posttest data reduction, calibration verification, and preparation for flight-testing.

Flynn, Darin C.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.; Frederick, Michael



Methodological survey of designed uneven randomization trials (DU-RANDOM): a protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although even randomization (that is, approximately 1:1 randomization ratio in study arms) provides the greatest statistical power, designed uneven randomization (DUR), (for example, 1:2 or 1:3) is used to increase participation rates. Until now, no convincing data exists addressing the impact of DUR on participation rates in trials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology and to explore factors associated with DUR. Methods We will search for reports of RCTs published within two years in 25 general medical journals with the highest impact factor according to the Journal Citation Report (JCR)-2010. Teams of two reviewers will determine eligibility and extract relevant information from eligible RCTs in duplicate and using standardized forms. We will report the prevalence of DUR trials, the reported reasons for using DUR, and perform a linear regression analysis to estimate the association between the randomization ratio and the associated factors, including participation rate, type of informed consent, clinical area, and so on. Discussion A clearer understanding of RCTs with DUR and its association with factors in trials, for example, participation rate, can optimize trial design and may have important implications for both researchers and users of the medical literature.



Quantitative radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernable by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated

C. M. Logan; J. M. Hernandez; G. J. Devine



Quality control systems for pipeline welding -a model and quantitative analysis; Part I: quality control system design and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper relies in part on experience gained in conjunction with the Office of the Federal Inspector's (OFI) monitoring of construction of the Eastern and Western Legs of the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System (ANGTS). The OFI is an independent federal agency established to monitor ANGTS, a 4800 mile (7700 km), large-diameter, high-pressure gas pipeline designed to transport 2 to




Disposable surface plasmon resonance aptasensor with membrane-based sample handling design for quantitative interferon-gamma detection.  


ELISA and ELISPOT methods are utilized for interferon-gamma (IFN-?) release assays (IGRAs) to detect the IFN-? secreted by T lymphocytes. However, the multi-step protocols of the assays are still performed with laboratory instruments and operated by well-trained people. Here, we report a membrane-based microfluidic device integrated with a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor to realize an easy-to-use and cost effective multi-step quantitative analysis. To conduct the SPR measurements, we utilized a membrane-based SPR sensing device in which a rayon membrane was located 300 ?m under the absorbent pad. The basic equation covering this type of transport is based on Darcy's law. Furthermore, the concentration of streptavidin delivered from a sucrose-treated glass pad placed alongside the rayon membrane was controlled in a narrow range (0.81 ?M ± 6%). Finally, the unbound molecules were removed by a washing buffer that was pre-packed in the reservoir of the chip. Using a bi-functional, hairpin-shaped aptamer as the sensing probe, we specifically detected the IFN-? and amplified the signal by binding the streptavidin. A high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.995) was obtained, in the range from 0.01 to 100 nM. A detection limit of 10 pM was achieved within 30 min. Thus, the SPR assay protocols for IFN-? detection could be performed using this simple device without an additional pumping system. PMID:24931052

Chuang, Tsung-Liang; Chang, Chia-Chen; Chu-Su, Yu; Wei, Shih-Chung; Zhao, Xi-Hong; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lin, Chii-Wann



Expert systems as design aids for artificial vision systems: a survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of software that would be to computer vision what expert system shells are to expert systems has been the subject of considerable inquiry over the last ten years; this paper reviews the pertinent publications and tries to present a coherent view of the field. We start by outlining two major differences between would be `vision shells' and conventional expert system shells. The first is the need for an intermediate level of symbolic representation between image pixels and the knowledge base. The second is that the mental operations that people perform to interpret images lie almost totally below the threshold of consciousness. Vision system designers therefore cannot, as domain experts normally do, examine their own mental processes and cast them into rules to extract information from images. The vision shell should thus contain, in addition to the usual knowledge engineering toolbox, knowledge on the pertinence of specific imaging operations towards various goals. After a review of the role of explicit knowledge in artificial vision, we examine the architecture a vision shell should have, and look at ways of facilitating the entry of domain-pertinent knowledge into it. Final remarks are made on knowledge representation and acquisition aspects particular to industrial applications.

Crevier, Daniel



Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.




Quantitative simultaneous 99mTc\\/123I SPECT: design study and validation with Monte Carlo simulations and physical acquisitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous dual isotope imaging (99mTc\\/123I) has potential clinical applications but has not been implemented in the clinic. The aim of this work was to design an artificial neural network (ANN) for crosstalk and scatter correction using a smaller number of energy windows (8) than we had previously proposed (26) to allow implementation on some clinical cameras, and to validate our

G. El Fakhri; P. Maksud; M. F. Kijewski; R. E. Zimmerman; S. C. Moore



Flow field survey near the rotational plane of an advanced design propeller on a JetStar airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to obtain upper fuselage surface static pressures and boundary layer velocity profiles below the centerline of an advanced design propeller. This investigation documents the upper fuselage velocity flow field in support of the in-flight acoustic tests conducted on a JetStar airplane. Initial results of the boundary layer survey show evidence of an unusual flow disturbance, which is attributed to the two windshield wiper assemblies on the aircraft. The assemblies were removed, eliminating the disturbances from the flow field. This report presents boundary layer velocity profiles at altitudes of 6096 and 9144 m (20,000 and 30,000 ft) and Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.8, and it investigated the effects of windshield wiper assemblies on these profiles. Because of the unconventional velocity profiles that were obtained with the assemblies mounted, classical boundary layer parameters, such as momentum and displacement thicknesses, are not presented. The effects of flight test variables (Mach number and angles of attack and sideslip) and an advanced design propeller on boundary layer profiles - with the wiper assemblies mounted and removed - are presented.

Walsh, K. R.



Design and implementation of a GPS?based field survey system for land consolidation and rehabilitation projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field survey is a very important step in the process of land consolidation and rehabilitation. Traditional methods of field survey take much time and effort and it is difficult to locate facilities of projects, to measure area or length and to spot and record problems quickly and accurately. A global positioning system (GPS)?based field survey system is introduced. Firstly, the

Jia Wentao; Liu Junming; Yu Lina; Yan Xiang Yang; Zhang Xiaopei; L. V. Jing; Zhao Qingli; Wang Maohua




SciTech Connect

We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data cubes have 5.''6 FWHM spatial resolution, {approx}5 A FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600 A-6800 A range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to {approx}0.7R{sub 25}. These data cubes can be used to produce two-dimensional maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are described, as well as the construction of the data cube, our spectral fitting method, and the fitting of the stellar and ionized gas velocity fields. We also propose a new method to measure the inclination of nearly face-on systems based on the matching of the stellar and gas rotation curves using asymmetric drift corrections. VENGA will measure relevant physical parameters across different environments within these galaxies, allowing a series of studies on star formation, structure assembly, stellar populations, chemical evolution, galactic feedback, nuclear activity, and the properties of the interstellar medium in massive disk galaxies.

Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Weinzirl, Tim; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J. II; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Van den Bosch, Remco C. E. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Luo Rongxin; Hao Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China); Drory, Niv [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Fabricius, Maximilian [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Fisher, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Yoachim, Peter [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)



The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Survey Design, Data Processing, and Spectral Analysis Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data cubes have 5.''6 FWHM spatial resolution, ~5 Å FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600 Å-6800 Å range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to ~0.7R 25. These data cubes can be used to produce two-dimensional maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are described, as well as the construction of the data cube, our spectral fitting method, and the fitting of the stellar and ionized gas velocity fields. We also propose a new method to measure the inclination of nearly face-on systems based on the matching of the stellar and gas rotation curves using asymmetric drift corrections. VENGA will measure relevant physical parameters across different environments within these galaxies, allowing a series of studies on star formation, structure assembly, stellar populations, chemical evolution, galactic feedback, nuclear activity, and the properties of the interstellar medium in massive disk galaxies.

Blanc, Guillermo A.; Weinzirl, Tim; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J., II; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Luo, Rongxin; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Hao, Lei; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Yoachim, Peter



Design, methods and demographic findings of the DEMINVALL survey: a population-based study of Dementia in Valladolid, Northwestern Spain  

PubMed Central

Background This article describes the rationale and design of a population-based survey of dementia in Valladolid (northwestern Spain). The main aim of the study was to assess the epidemiology of dementia and its subtypes. Prevalence of anosognosia in dementia patients, nutritional status, diet characteristics, and determinants of non-diagnosed dementia in the community were studied. The main sociodemographic, educational, and general health status characteristics of the study population are described. Methods Cross-over and cohort, population-based study. A two-phase door-to-door study was performed. Both urban and rural environments were included. In phase 1 (February 2009 – February 2010) 28 trained physicians examined a population of 2,989 subjects (age: ? 65 years). The seven-minute screen neurocognitive battery was used. In phase 2 (May 2009 – May 2010) 4 neurologists, 1 geriatrician, and 3 neuropsychologists confirmed the diagnosis of dementia and subtype in patients screened positive by a structured neurological evaluation. Specific instruments to assess anosognosia, the nutritional status and diet characteristics were used. Of the initial sample, 2,170 subjects were evaluated (57% female, mean age 76.5?±?7.8, 5.2% institutionalized), whose characteristics are described. 227 persons were excluded for various reasons. Among those eligible were 592 non-responders. The attrition bias of non-responders was lower in rural areas. 241 screened positive (11.1%). Discussion The survey will explore some clinical, social and health related life-style variables of dementia. The population size and the diversification of social and educational backgrounds will contribute to a better knowledge of dementia in our environment.



Surveying the Commons: Current Implementation of Information Commons Web sites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the content of 72 academic library Information Commons (IC) Web sites using content analysis, quantitative assessment and qualitative surveys of site administrators to analyze current implementation by the academic library community. Results show that IC Web sites vary widely in content, design and functionality, with few…

Leeder, Christopher




EPA Science Inventory

The National Stream Survey - Phase I, conducted during the spring of 1986, was designed to assess quantitatively the present chemical status of streams in regions of the eastern United States where aquatic resources are potentially at risk as a result of acidic deposition. A qual...


A survey of multi-agent organizational paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have demonstrated that the organiza- tional design employed by a system can have a significant, quantitative effect on its performance characteristics. A range of organizational strategies have emerged from this line of research, each with different strengths and weak- nesses. In this article we present a survey of the major orga- nizational paradigms used in multi-agent systems. These




Quantitative molecular methods in virology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the past few years, significant technical effort was made to develop molecular methods for the absolute quantitation of nucleic acids in biological samples. In virology, semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques of different principle, complexity, and reliability were designed, optimized, and applied in basic and clinical researches. The principal data obtained in successful pilot applications in vivo are reported in

M. Clementi; S. Menzo; A. Manzin; P. Bagnarelli



Quantitative analysis for the effect of plant oil and fatty acid on Tuber melanosporum culture by uniform design combined with partial least squares regression.  


Uniform design and partial least squares regression were adopted to quantitatively analyze the effects of plant oil and fatty acid as well as their addition amount and addition time on the performance of Tuber melanosporum submerged fermentation. The regression models showed the optimal scheme was the addition of 1.2 mL soybean oil on day 9, which was validated by experiment. The maximal biomass of 25.89 +/- 1.01 g/L and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production of 6.51 +/- 0.68 g/L were obtained, which were enhanced by 18.5% and 86%, respectively. Palmitic acid was identified to be the key component to stimulate the cell growth and EPS biosynthesis, and stearic acid was beneficial for the production of intracellular polysaccharides. Not only the biomass but also EPS production obtained in this work are the highest reported in the batch fermentation of truffle. PMID:20473608

Liu, Rui-Sang; Tang, Ya-Jie



A Study Investigating Indian Middle School Students' Ideas of Design and Designers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on an investigation into middle school students' naive ideas about, and attitudes towards design and designers. The sample for the survey consisted of students from Classes 7 to 9 from a school located in Mumbai. The data were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively to look for trends in students' responses. Results show that…

Ara, Farhat; Chunawala, Sugra; Natarajan, Chitra



Quantitative analysis  

PubMed Central

Quantitative analysis permits the isolation of invariant relations in the study of behavior. The parameters of these relations can serve as higher-order dependent variables in more extensive analyses. These points are illustrated by reference to quantitative descriptions of performance maintained by concurrent schedules, multiple schedules, and signal-detection procedures. Such quantitative descriptions of empirical data may be derived from mathematical theories, which in turn can lead to novel empirical analyses so long as their terms refer to behavioral and environmental events. Thus, quantitative analysis is an integral aspect of the experimental analysis of behavior.

Nevin, John A.



Prevalence of coronary artery disease and coronary risk factors in Kerala, South India: A population survey - Design and methods  

PubMed Central

Background There is paucity of reliable contemporary data on prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and risk factors in Indians. Only a few studies on prevalence of CAD have been conducted in Kerala, a Southern Indian state. The main objective of the Cardiological Society of India Kerala Chapter Coronary Artery Disease and Its Risk Factors Prevalence Study (CSI Kerala CRP Study) was to determine the prevalence of CAD and risk factors of CAD in men and women aged 20–79 years in urban and rural settings of three geographical areas of Kerala. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional population survey. We estimated the sample size based on an anticipated prevalence of 7.4% of CAD for rural and 11% for urban Kerala. The derived sample sizes for rural and urban areas were 3000 and 2400, respectively. The urban areas for sampling constituted one ward each from three municipal corporations at different parts of the state. The rural sample was drawn from two panchayats each in the same districts as the urban sample. One adult from each household in the age group of 20–59 years was selected using Kish method. All subjects between 60 and 79 years were included from each household. A detailed questionnaire was administered to assess the risk factors, history of CAD, family history, educational status, socioeconomic status, dietary habits, physical activity and treatment for CAD; anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, electrocardiogram and fasting blood levels of glucose and lipids were recorded.

Zachariah, Geevar; Harikrishnan, S.; Krishnan, M.N.; Mohanan, P.P.; Sanjay, G.; Venugopal, K.; Thankappan, K.R.



Autonomous application of quantitative PCR in the deep sea: in situ surveys of aerobic methanotrophs using the deep-sea environmental sample processor.  


Recent advances in ocean observing systems and genomic technologies have led to the development of the deep-sea environmental sample processor (D-ESP). The D-ESP filters particulates from seawater at depths up to 4000 m and applies a variety of molecular assays to the particulates, including quantitative PCR (qPCR), to identify particular organisms and genes in situ. Preserved samples enable laboratory-based validation of in situ results and expanded studies of genomic diversity and gene expression. Tests of the D-ESP at a methane-rich mound in the Santa Monica Basin centered on detection of 16S rRNA and particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA) genes for two putative aerobic methanotrophs. Comparison of in situ qPCR results with laboratory-based assays of preserved samples demonstrates the D-ESP generated high-quality qPCR data while operating autonomously on the seafloor. Levels of 16S rRNA and pmoA cDNA detected in preserved samples are consistent with an active community of aerobic methanotrophs near the methane-rich mound. These findings are substantiated at low methane sites off Point Conception and in Monterey Bay where target genes are at or below detection limits. Successful deployment of the D-ESP is a major step toward developing autonomous systems to facilitate a wide range of marine microbiological investigations. PMID:23883184

Ussler, William; Preston, Christina; Tavormina, Patricia; Pargett, Doug; Jensen, Scott; Roman, Brent; Marin, Roman; Shah, Sunita R; Girguis, Peter R; Birch, James M; Orphan, Victoria; Scholin, Christopher



Quantitative Easing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central banks around the world have moved to cut interest rates to record lows, with many in advanced economies going further and embracing full quantitative easing – creating new money to inject into the economy. This paper examines why quantitative easing has been necessary, and whether it is likely to result in higher demand or instead show up in higher

Colin Ellis



Erratum: "The Spitzer South Pole Telescope Deep Field: Survey Design and Infrared Array Camera Catalogs" (2013, ApJS, 209, 22)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spitzer-South Pole Telescope Deep Field (SSDF) is a wide-area survey using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to cover 94 square degrees of extragalactic sky, making it the largest IRAC survey completed to date outside the Milky Way midplane. The SSDF is centered at 23:30,-55:00, in a region that combines observations spanning a broad wavelength range from numerous facilities. These include millimeter imaging from the South Pole Telescope, far-infrared observations from Herschel/SPIRE, X-ray observations from the XMM XXL survey, near-infrared observations from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey, and radio-wavelength imaging from the Australia Telescope Compact Array, in a panchromatic project designed to address major outstanding questions surrounding galaxy clusters and the baryon budget. Here we describe the Spitzer/IRAC observations of the SSDF, including the survey design, observations, processing, source extraction, and publicly available data products. In particular, we present two band-merged catalogs, one for each of the two warm IRAC selection bands. They contain roughly 5.5 and 3.7 million distinct sources, the vast majority of which are galaxies, down to the SSDF 5-sigma sensitivity limits of 19.0 and 18.2 Vega mag (7.0 and 9.4 microJy) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively.

Ashby, M. L. N.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, M.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Martinez-Manso, J.; Bartlett, J. G.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Crawford, T. M.; Dey, A.; Dressler, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Galametz, A.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Marrone, D. P.; Mei, S.; Muzzin, A.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Stern, D.; Vieira, J. D.



Quantitative Methods of Edge Detection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Most local operators used in edge detection can be modelled by one of two methods: edge enhancement/thresholding and edge fitting. This dissertation presents a quantitative design and performance evaluation of these methods. The design techniques are base...

I. E. Abdou



Surveys: Tracking Opinion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Surveys are the scientific instrument of the social and behavioral sciences. The National Science Foundation (NSF) conducts or supports surveys that document peopleâs demographic information, income, attitudes, voting behavior, and feelings. Major survey activities supported include the General Social Survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and the American National Election Studies. Other NSF surveys are the principal source of information about the science and engineering enterprise in the United States. An overview of survey design relative to sample selection and type of question is presented along with discussion of specific surveys and the future use of surveys.


A Mixed Model Design Study of RN to BS Distance Learning:Survey of Graduates' Perceptions of Strengths and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on findings from a survey administered to graduates of a distance learning RN-to-BS completion program. A questionnaire was constructed to examine graduate experiences and perceptions regarding distance learning formats, course content, time management, student empowerment, and program support. A total of 251 surveys were…

Lock, Leonard K.; Schnell, Zoanne; Pratt-Mullen, Jerrilynn



Design, Data Collection, Interview Administration Time, and Data Editing in the 1996 National Household Education Survey. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Household Education Survey (NHES) is a data collection system of the National Center for Education Statistics that concentrates on aspects of education that can best be addressed through contacts with households rather than institutions. The NHES is a telephone survey of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of the United…

Vaden-Kiernan, Nancy; Nicchitta, Patricia G.; Montaquila, Jill; Collins, Mary A.


Inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia: design, methods, call outcomes, costs and sample representativeness  

PubMed Central

Background In Australia telephone surveys have been the method of choice for ongoing jurisdictional population health surveys. Although it was estimated in 2011 that nearly 20% of the Australian population were mobile-only phone users, the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into these existing landline population health surveys has not occurred. This paper describes the methods used for the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into an existing ongoing landline random digit dialling (RDD) health survey in an Australian state, the New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS). This paper also compares the call outcomes, costs and the representativeness of the resultant sample to that of the previous landline sample. Methods After examining several mobile phone pilot studies conducted in Australia and possible sample designs (screening dual-frame and overlapping dual-frame), mobile phone numbers were included into the NSWPHS using an overlapping dual-frame design. Data collection was consistent, where possible, with the previous years’ landline RDD phone surveys and between frames. Survey operational data for the frames were compared and combined. Demographic information from the interview data for mobile-only phone users, both, and total were compared to the landline frame using ?2 tests. Demographic information for each frame, landline and the mobile-only (equivalent to a screening dual frame design), and the frames combined (with appropriate overlap adjustment) were compared to the NSW demographic profile from the 2011 census using ?2 tests. Results In the first quarter of 2012, 3395 interviews were completed with 2171 respondents (63.9%) from the landline frame (17.6% landline only) and 1224 (36.1%) from the mobile frame (25.8% mobile only). Overall combined response, contact and cooperation rates were 33.1%, 65.1% and 72.2% respectively. As expected from previous research, the demographic profile of the mobile-only phone respondents differed most (more that were young, males, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, overseas born and single) compared to the landline frame responders. The profile of respondents from the two frames combined, with overlap adjustment, was most similar to the latest New South Wales (NSW) population profile. Conclusions The inclusion of the mobile phone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, did not impact negatively on response rates or data collection, and although costing more the design was still cost-effective because of the additional interviews that were conducted with young people, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and people who were born overseas resulting in a more representative overall sample.



Three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationships analysis guided rational design of a highly selective ligand for the cannabinoid receptor 2.  


This paper describes a three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationships (3D-QSSR) study for selectivity of a series of ligands for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. 3D-QSSR exploration was expected to provide design information for drugs with high selectivity toward the CB2 receptor. The proposed 3D computational model was performed by Phase and generated taking into account a number of structurally diverse compounds characterized by a wide range of selectivity index values. The model proved to be predictive, with r2 of 0.95 and Q2 of 0.63. In order to get prospective experimental validation, the selectivity of an external data set of 39 compounds reported in the literature was predicted. The correlation coefficient (r2=0.56) obtained on this unrelated test set provided evidence that the correlation shown by the model was not a chance result. Subsequently, we essayed the ability of our approach to help the design of new CB2-selective ligands. Accordingly, based on our interest in studying the cannabinergic properties of quinolones, the N-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-oxo-8-methyl-1-pentyl-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (65) was considered as a potential synthetic target. The log(SI) value predicted by using our model was indicative of high CB2 selectivity for such a compound, thus spurring us to synthesize it and to evaluate its CB1 and CB2 receptor affinity. Compound 65 was found to be an extremely selective CB2 ligand as it displayed high CB2 affinity (Ki=4.9 nM), while being devoid of CB1 affinity (Ki>10,000 nM). The identification of a new selective CB2 receptor ligand lends support for the practicability of quantitative ligand-based selectivity models for cannabinoid receptors. These drug discovery tools might represent a valuable complementary approach to docking studies performed on homology models of the receptors. PMID:21183257

Brogi, Simone; Corelli, Federico; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Ligresti, Alessia; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Tafi, Andrea



Quantitative NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a learning module focused on principles and practice of NMR for quantitative analysis, an application less commonly associated with the technique than is structure determination. Links to simulation packages are included.

Korir, Albert K.; Larive, Cynthia K.



On Quantitizing  

PubMed Central

Quantitizing, commonly understood to refer to the numerical translation, transformation, or conversion of qualitative data, has become a staple of mixed methods research. Typically glossed are the foundational assumptions, judgments, and compromises involved in converting disparate data sets into each other and whether such conversions advance inquiry. Among these assumptions are that qualitative and quantitative data constitute two kinds of data, that quantitizing constitutes a unidirectional process essentially different from qualitizing, and that counting is an unambiguous process. Among the judgments are deciding what and how to count. Among the compromises are balancing numerical precision with narrative complexity. The standpoints of “conditional complementarity,” “critical remediation,” and “analytic alternation” clarify the added value of converting qualitative data into quantitative form.

Sandelowski, Margarete; Voils, Corrine I.; Knafl, George



Quantitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By means of the previously introduced Research Pyramid this chapter provides a concise overview of the quantitative research\\u000a approach. The essence of quantitative research is to use a ‘theory’ to frame and thus understand the problem at hand. Its\\u000a starting point if not focus can be to contribute to the development of theory. It is grounded in the basic attitude

Jan Jonker; Bartjan W. Pennink


Rules for the preparation of manuscript and illustrations designed for publication by the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the annual report of the Director of the U. S. Geological Survey for 1885-'86, pages 40 and 41, you set forth the functions of the chief of the editorial division as follows: "To secure clear and accurate statement in the material sent to press, careful proof-reading, and uniformity in the details of book-making, as well as to assist the Director in exercising a general supervision over the publications of the Survey."

Hampson, Thomas




Microsoft Academic Search

The craftsmanship concept in vehicle interior design is explored in a quantitative manner. A proprietary process by Johnson Controls, Inc. was used as a basis to investigate customer perceptions through surveys. A list of vehicle interior characteristics and perceived craftsmanship attributes was developed and analyzed using multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and decomposition. Designers can use this list to guide their

Ilkin Hossoy; Panos Papalambros; Richard Gonzalez; Thomas J. Aitken



Flexibility in Research Designs in Empirical Software Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem outline: It is common to classify empirical research designs as either qualitative or quantitative. Typically, particular research methods (e.g., case studies, action research, experiments and surveys) are associated with one or the other of these types of design. Studies in empirical software engineering (ESE) are often exploratory and often involve software developers and development organizations. As a consequence, it

Tore Dybå


Stream Surveying  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The class breaks into groups of 3-4. Each week we go out to the same stream channel, and perform the stream survey activities in the USFS Harrelson document, one chapter per week. After the snow flies, collected data are used to calculate channel hydrologic and hydraulic data such as bankfull flow and critical shear stress. Designed for a geomorphology course

Williams, Karen


Relationship of ISO 9001:2000 quality system certification with operational and business performance : A survey in Australia and New Zealand-based manufacturing and service companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research paper aims to explore the relationship between ISO 9000 certification and organisational performance by developing an ISO 9000 relationship model. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey instrument was used for quantitative data collection based on a global survey in collaboration with the Anderson School of Business, UCLA. All items were measured on a five point modified Likert scale.

Mei Feng; Milé Terziovski; Danny Samson



Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system: A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). The DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over pi steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document.

Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.



The Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile (MUSYC): Survey Design and Deep Public UBVRIz' Images and Catalogs of the Extended Hubble Deep Field-South  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present UBVRIz' optical images taken with MOSAIC on the CTIO 4 m telescope of the 0.32 deg2 Extended Hubble Deep Field-South. This is one of four fields comprising the MUSYC survey, which is optimized for the study of galaxies at z=3, active galactic nucleus (AGN) demographics, and Galactic structure. Our methods used for astrometric calibration, weighted image combination, and photometric calibration in AB magnitudes are described. We calculate corrected aperture photometry and its uncertainties and find through tests that these provide a significant improvement upon standard techniques. Our photometric catalog of 62,968 objects is complete to a total magnitude of RAB=25, with R-band counts consistent with results from the literature. We select z~=3 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates from their UVR colors and find a sky surface density of 1.4 arcmin-2 and an angular correlation function w(?)=(2.3+/-1.0)?-0.8, consistent with previous findings that high-redshift Lyman break galaxies reside in massive dark matter halos. Our images and catalogs are available online. Based on observations obtained at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

Gawiser, Eric; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Herrera, David; Maza, José; Castander, Francisco J.; Infante, Leopoldo; Lira, Paulina; Quadri, Ryan; Toner, Ruth; Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, C. Megan; Altmann, Martin; Assef, Roberto; Christlein, Daniel; Coppi, Paolo S.; Durán, MarÍa Fernanda; Franx, Marijn; Galaz, Gaspar; Huerta, Leonor; Liu, Charles; López, Sebastián; Méndez, René; Moore, David C.; Rubio, Mónica; Ruiz, MarÍa Teresa; Toft, Sune; Yi, Sukyoung K.



Quantitative Graphics in Newspapers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of quantitative graphics in newspapers requires achieving a balance between being accurate and getting the attention of the reader. The statistical representations in newspapers are drawn by graphic designers whose key technique is fusion--the striking combination of two visual images. This technique often results in visual puns,…

Tankard, James W., Jr.


EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well as the correlates of engagement in these risk behaviours.



A survey of surveys  

SciTech Connect

A new era for the field of Galactic structure is about to be opened with the advent of wide-area digital sky surveys. In this article, the author reviews the status and prospects for research for 3 new ground-based surveys: the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Deep Near-Infrared Survey of the Southern Sky (DENIS) and the Two Micron AU Sky Survey (2MASS). These surveys will permit detailed studies of Galactic structure and stellar populations in the Galaxy with unprecedented detail. Extracting the information, however, will be challenging.

Kent, S.M.




EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: In toxicology, the role of quantitative assessment of brain morphology can be understood in the context of two types of treatment-related alterations. One type of alteration is specifically associated with treatment and is not observed in control animals. Measurement ...


Application of Screening Experimental Designs to Assess Chromatographic Isotope Effect upon Isotope-Coded Derivatization for Quantitative Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.  


Isotope effect may cause partial chromatographic separation of labeled (heavy) and unlabeled (light) isotopologue pairs. Together with a simultaneous matrix effect, this could lead to unacceptable accuracy in quantitative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assays, especially when electrospray ionization is used. Four biologically relevant reactive aldehydes (acrolein, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and 4-oxo-2-nonenal) were derivatized with light or heavy (d3-, (13)C6-, (15)N2-, or (15)N4-labeled) 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and used as model compounds to evaluate chromatographic isotope effects. For comprehensive assessment of retention time differences between light/heavy pairs under various gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography conditions, major chromatographic parameters (stationary phase, mobile phase pH, temperature, organic solvent, and gradient slope) and different isotope labelings were addressed by multiple-factor screening using experimental designs that included both asymmetrical (Addelman) and Plackett-Burman schemes followed by statistical evaluations. Results confirmed that the most effective approach to avoid chromatographic isotope effect is the use of (15)N or (13)C labeling instead of deuterium labeling, while chromatographic parameters had no general influence. Comparison of the alternate isotope-coded derivatization assay (AIDA) using deuterium versus (15)N labeling gave unacceptable differences (>15%) upon quantifying some of the model aldehydes from biological matrixes. On the basis of our results, we recommend the modification of the AIDA protocol by replacing d3-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with (15)N- or (13)C-labeled derivatizing reagent to avoid possible unfavorable consequences of chromatographic isotope effects. PMID:24922593

Szarka, Szabolcs; Prokai-Tatrai, Katalin; Prokai, Laszlo



Towards Efficient Wireless Video Sensor Networks: A Survey of Existing Node Architectures and Proposal for A Flexi-WVSNP Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The video capture, processing, and communication in wireless video sensor networks critically depend on the resources of the nodes forming the sensor networks. We provide a survey of wireless video sensor node platforms (WVSNPs). From a comprehensive literature review, we first select the node architectures that meet basic requirements for a WVSNP. We then introduce a classification of WVSNPs into

Adolph Seema; Martin Reisslein




EPA Science Inventory

Assessing conditions on large bodies of water presets multiple statistical and logistical challenges. As part of the Upper Missouri River Program of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Project (EMAP) we surveyed water quality of Lake Oahe in July-August, 2002 using a spat...


Literature survey, numerical examples, and recommended design studies for main-coolant pumps. Final report. [PWR; BWR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents an up-to-date literature survey, examples of calculations of seal forces or other pump properties, and recommendations for future work pertaining to primary coolant pumps and primary recirculating pumps in the nuclear power industry. Five main areas are covered: pump impeller forces, fluid annuli, bearings, seals, and rotor calculations. The main conclusion is that forces in pump impellers

P. E. Allaire; L. E. Barrett



The Introductory Sociology Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Introductory Sociology Survey (ISS) is designed to teach introductory students basic skills in developing causal arguments and in using a computerized statistical package to analyze survey data. Students are given codebooks for survey data and asked to write a brief paper predicting the relationship between at least two variables. (Author)

Best, Joel




EPA Science Inventory

The Malaysian Family Life Surveys (MFLS) comprise a pair of surveys with partially overlapping samples, designed by RAND and administered in Peninsular Malaysia in 1976-77 (MFLS-1) and 1988-89 (MFLS-2). Each survey collected detailed current and retrospective information on famil...


Knowing Where You Are: Using coastal observatories to design and interpret plankton surveys in the New York Bight Apex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of LaTTE, the New York Bight Apex benefited from considerable integrated ocean observing system infrastructure. To apply this IOOS capability to a fisheries problem, a joint Rutgers-NOAA Fisheries pilot project was launched in June 2004 to conduct periodic hydroacoustic/ichthyoplankton surveys throughout the summer and into the autumn. These surveys were aimed at sampling important features (the Hudson River Plume, the Cold Pool, and shelf water) as they changed through time; identifying important water mass-community associations; and moving toward methods of Essential Fish Habitat determination for pelagic habitats. Here we present preliminary findings from the field effort, and outline our use of IOOS capability in fisheries research.

Quinlan, J. A.; Manderson, J. P.; Shaheen, P.; Law, C. G.



Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for combining research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining qualitative and quantitative methods, is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively integrate both fieldwork (e.g. case studies) and survey research are rare. Moreover, some journals tend tacitly to specialize by methodology thereby encouraging purity of method. The multi-method model of research while not new, has not been

Guy G. Gable



Top Ten Mistakes of Shopping Cart Design Revisited: A Survey of 500 Top E-Commerce Websites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A list of common mistakes with e-commerce shopping cart design were identified in a previous issue of Usability News. This article revisits that list and reviews how 500 of the top Internet retail sites of today implemented their shopping cart design.

Barbara S. Chaparro; Shivashankar Naidu


Cartography at the U.S. Geological Survey: the National Mapping Division's cartographic programs, products, design, and technology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the prime source of many kinds of topographic and special-purpose maps of the United States and its outlying areas. It is also a prime source of digital map data. One main goal of the USGS is to provide large-scale topographic map coverage of the entire United States. Most of the Nation is already covered. We expect that initial coverage will be completed by 1991. For many purposes, many public agencies, private organizations, and individuals need reliable cartographic and geographic knowledge about our Nation. To serve such needs, all USGS maps are compiled to exacting standards of accuracy and content.

Ogrosky, Charles; Gwynn, William; Jannace, Richard



A Quantitative Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Teaching and Learning in a Web-Conferencing Environment--The Efficacy of Student-Centred Learning Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a quantitative approach to multimodal discourse analysis for analyzing online collaborative learning. The coding framework draws together the fields of systemic functional linguistics and Activity Theory to analyze interactions between collaborative-, content- and technology-related discourse. The approach is used to examine…

Bower, Matt; Hedberg, John G.



The Math You Need, When You Need It: Student-Centered Web Resources Designed to Decrease Math Review and Increase Quantitative Geology in the Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introductory geoscience courses are rife with quantitative concepts from graphing to rates to unit conversions. Recent research suggests that supplementary mathematical instruction increases post-secondary students' retention and performance in science courses. Nonetheless, many geoscience faculty feel that they do not have enough time to cover all the geoscience content, let alone covering the math they often feel students should have

J. M. Wenner; E. M. Baer



Views About Sciences Survey: VASS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Views About Sciences Survey (VASS) is a survey of student views about science for the purpose of assessing the influence of these views on learning. This paper discusses the survey's design, development, results, and implications for science education. The survey assesses student views along seven dimensions with a novel Contrasting…

Halloun, Ibrahim; Hestenes, David


City Governments and Aging in Place: Community Design, Transportation and Housing Innovation Adoption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: To examine the characteristics associated with city government adoption of community design, housing, and transportation innovations that could benefit older adults. Design and methods: A mixed-methods study with quantitative data collected via online surveys from 62 city planners combined with qualitative data collected via…

Lehning, Amanda J.



Carleton Quantitative Inquiry, Reasoning, and Knowledge Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In an era increasingly awash with numbers, how can one parse it all out? How is it possible to separate the proverbial quantitative chaff from the valuable wheat? Carleton College has taken on this weighty matter with their Quantitative Inquiry, Reasoning, and Knowledge Initiative (QuIRK). On the site, visitors will find sections that include Curricular Materials, Quantitative Reasoning Assessment, and Program Design. Some key resources for educators include "10 Foundational Quantitative Reasoning Questions" and examples of assignments and courses designed to teach quantitative reasoning.


Reflective Filters Design for Self-Filtering Narrowband Ultraviolet Imaging Experiment Wide-Field Surveys (NUVIEWS) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the design of multilayer reflective filters for the self-filtering cameras of the NUVIEWS project. Wide angle self-filtering cameras were designed to image the C IV (154.9 nm) line emission, and H2 Lyman band fluorescence (centered at 161 nm) over a 20 deg x 30 deg field of view. A key element of the filter design includes the development of pi-multilayers optimized to provide maximum reflectance at 154.9 nm and 161 nm for the respective cameras without significant spectral sensitivity to the large cone angle of the incident radiation. We applied self-filtering concepts to design NUVIEWS telescope filters that are composed of three reflective mirrors and one folding mirror. The filters with narrowband widths of 6 and 8 rim at 154.9 and 161 nm, respectively, have net throughputs of more than 50 % with average blocking of out-of-band wavelengths better than 3 x 10(exp -4)%.

Park, Jung- Ho; Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.




Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, approaches for behavioral simulation of humans and human-artifact systems are reviewed The objective was to explore available knowledge for the development of a new method and system for the simulation of use processes of consumer durables in conceptual design. A key issue is to resolve the trade-off between minimizing the modeling and computing effort on the one

Imre Horváth


Web Survey Design in ASP.Net 2.0: A Simple Task with One Line of Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few years, more and more companies have been investing in electronic commerce (EC) by designing and implementing Web-based applications. In the world of practice, the importance of using Web technology to reach individual customers has been presented by many researchers. This paper presents an easy way of conducting marketing…

Liu, Chang



Designing an Environment for Learning. Proceedings of a Conference of Educational Survey Directors of Member Universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, (Madison, Wisconsin, April 27-28, 1967).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three topics are discussed--(1) designing the environment of educational enterprises, (2) capabilities and promise of data processing in comprehending the educational environment, and (3) optimum learning environments - design mechanisms, principles, and application. Consultants for the first topic were Sydney H. Williams, who surveyed the state…

Wakefield, Howard E.


Instrument Development, Study Design Implementation, and Survey Conduct for the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project  

PubMed Central

The National Opinion Research Center, led by a team of investigators at the University of Chicago, conducted more than 3,000 in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 57–85 years. Data collection included in-person questionnaire items, an extensive array of biomeasures, and a postinterview self-administered questionnaire. The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) interview included the collection of 13 biomeasures: weight, waist circumference, height, blood pressure, smell, saliva collection, taste, a self-administered vaginal swab for female respondents, “Get Up and Go,” distance vision, touch, oral mucosal transudate (Orasure®) human immunodeficiency virus test, and blood spots. This article discusses the development of NSHAP’s instruments and implementation of the study design. Measures, such as response and cooperation rates, are also provided to evaluate the effectiveness of the design and implementation.

Jaszczak, Angela; Graber, Jessica; Lundeen, Katie; Leitsch, Sara; Wargo, Erin; O'Muircheartaigh, Colm



Surveying drainage culvert use by carnivores: sampling design and cost-benefit analyzes of track-pads vs. video-surveillance methods.  


Environmental assessment studies often evaluate the effectiveness of drainage culverts as habitat linkages for species, however, the efficiency of the sampling designs and the survey methods are not known. Our main goal was to estimate the most cost-effective monitoring method for sampling carnivore culvert using track-pads and video-surveillance. We estimated the most efficient (lower costs and high detection success) interval between visits (days) when using track-pads and also determined the advantages of using each method. In 2006, we selected two highways in southern Portugal and sampled 15 culverts over two 10-day sampling periods (spring and summer). Using the track-pad method, 90% of the animal tracks were detected using a 2-day interval between visits. We recorded a higher number of crossings for most species using video-surveillance (n = 129) when compared with the track-pad technique (n = 102); however, the detection ability using the video-surveillance method varied with type of structure and species. More crossings were detected in circular culverts (1 m and 1.5 m diameter) than in box culverts (2 m to 4 m width), likely because video cameras had a reduced vision coverage area. On the other hand, carnivore species with small feet such as the common genet Genetta genetta were detected less often using the track-pad surveying method. The cost-benefit analyzes shows that the track-pad technique is the most appropriate technique, but video-surveillance allows year-round surveys as well as the behavior response analyzes of species using crossing structures. PMID:21181260

Mateus, Ana Rita A; Grilo, Clara; Santos-Reis, Margarida



Towards a User-Centered Design (UCD) for The National Map of the U.S. Geological Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The USGS has a long record in the development of cartographic products and geospatial data. The National Map is the United States topographic map for the 21st century, leveraging current developments in Internet technology, web services, and partnerships to enable online, interactive public access to high-quality geospatial data from multiple sources. A well-designed and user-friendly interface is essential for successful

Michael P. Finn; Barbara S. Poore


Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Raef, A.



[Dietary and lifestyle-induced diseases in children. Design, examination modules and study population of the baseline survey of the German IDEFICS cohort].  


The European IDEFICS (Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants) Study investigates risk factors of diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in children focusing on overweight, obesity and related metabolic co-morbidities based on a standardized study protocol. In parallel, the IDEFICS study developed, implemented and evaluated strategies for the primary prevention of diet- and lifestyle-related diseases in a controlled, community-oriented design. The prospective cohort study started with a baseline survey from September 2007 to May 2008 in eight European countries, with Germany among them. During the first survey 2,065 German children aged 2-9 years passed a comprehensive examination program. Their parents answered questions on sociodemographic characteristics; media consumption; dietary, activity and sleep patterns; as well as family life and the residential environment. The results of the study will contribute to the development of harmonized European guidelines on diet and lifestyle for health promotion and disease prevention in children. PMID:22736172

Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W



Measuring health literacy in populations: illuminating the design and development process of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q)  

PubMed Central

Background Several measurement tools have been developed to measure health literacy. The tools vary in their approach and design, but few have focused on comprehensive health literacy in populations. This paper describes the design and development of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q), an innovative, comprehensive tool to measure health literacy in populations. Methods Based on a conceptual model and definition, the process involved item development, pre-testing, field-testing, external consultation, plain language check, and translation from English to Bulgarian, Dutch, German, Greek, Polish, and Spanish. Results The development process resulted in the HLS-EU-Q, which entailed two sections, a core health literacy section and a section on determinants and outcomes associated to health literacy. The health literacy section included 47 items addressing self-reported difficulties in accessing, understanding, appraising and applying information in tasks concerning decisions making in healthcare, disease prevention, and health promotion. The second section included items related to, health behaviour, health status, health service use, community participation, socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Conclusions By illuminating the detailed steps in the design and development process of the HLS-EU-Q, it is the aim to provide a deeper understanding of its purpose, its capability and its limitations for others using the tool. By stimulating a wide application it is the vision that HLS-EU-Q will be validated in more countries to enhance the understanding of health literacy in different populations.



Experimental design approach for the optimisation of a HPLC-fluorimetric method for the quantitation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist telmisartan in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatographic method with fluorimetric detection has been developed for the quantitation of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARA II) 4-((2-n-propyl-4-methyl-6-(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)-benzimidazol-1-yl)methyl)biphenyl-2-carboxylic acid (telmisartan) in urine, using a Novapak C18 column 3.9×150 mm, 4 ?m. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture acetonitrile–phosphate buffer (pH 6.0, 5 mM) (45:55, v\\/v) pumped at a flow rate of 0.5 ml

N Torrealday; L González; R. M Alonso; R. M Jiménez; E Ortiz Lastra




EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The annual Beach Survey is designed to gather information about beach water quality, standards, monitoring, and beach health advisories or closures issued during the previous year's bathing season. Each year the survey updates previously submitted beach i...


Environmental Education: A State Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes survey results sent to all state environmental education coordinators designed to reveal a generalized picture of environmental education requirements, guidelines, resource materials, staff, and teacher education requirements in the United States. Includes survey. (MKR)

Holtz, Robert E.



Conduct a state-of-the-art survey of existing knowledge for the design of ground-source heat pumps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Horizontal serpentine coils have been and are at present the most common coil configuration. Best design data exist for horizontal coils in heating only applications with moist soil. Applications in dry soil or where significant summer cooling is required are not as well understood at this time. A seasonal performance factor of about 3.0 can be expected for a properly designed and installed residential ground-coupled heat-pump system. Long-term durability of buried steel and cooper tubing has been demonstrated. Life expectancy of thin-walled polyethylene tubing in the heating-only application is expected to be equally as good: however, present experience is limited to less than five years. In the cooling application with heat-rejection temperatures exceeding 100 F, some cracking has been experienced upon subsequent cool-down for heating operation due to localized stresses induced by conformity of the tubing to bedding material (stones) when hot. Receding of the soil from the pipe after a period of several years was experienced in the late 1940's. An understanding of this phenomenon may be crucial to the long-term operating success of these systems.

Ball, D. A.



OSCE Mission Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released on January 17 by the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE), this survey provides an overview of the mandates and other key information related to current OSCE field activities. Intended for practitioners involved in support of OSCE field activities as well as the interested public, the survey is designed to "facilitate reference to official OSCE documents and decisions on the subject." Users can read the survey by chapter in HTML format or in its entirety in .pdf format.


A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: A VLA L and C Band Survey of Historical Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new low frequency observations of the grand design spiral galaxy, M83, using the C and L bands of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Utilizing the newly expanded bandwidth of the VLA, we are exploring the radio spectral properties of the more than 150 radio point sources in M83. We present the initial results of our VLA analyses, focusing on the radio evolution of the six historical supernovae (SNe 1983N, 1968L, 1957D, 1950B, 1945B, and 1923A) discovered in the last century. These observations represent the fourth epoch of deep VLA observations of M83, and, with recent optical (HST) and X-ray (Chandra) observations, they allow us to probe the transition of supernovae into supernova remnants. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities.

Stockdale, Christopher; Pritchard, T. A.; Blair, W. P.; Cowan, J. J.; Godfrey, L.; Miller-Jones, J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Maddox, L. A.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Soria, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Winkler, P. F.



AIPS technology survey report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a technology survey conducted for the NASA/JSC by the CSDL during Phase 1 of the NASA Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) program at the CSDL are discussed. The purpose of the survey was to ensure that all technology relevant to the configuration, design, development, verification, implementation, and validation of an advanced information processing system, whether existing or under development and soon to be available, would be duly considered in the development of the AIPS. The emphasis in the survey was on technology items which were clearly relevant to the AIPS. Requirements were developed which guided the planning of contacts with the outside sources to be surveyed, and established practical limits on the scope and content of the Technology Survey. Subjects surveyed included architecture, software, hardware, methods for evaluation of reliability and performance, and methods for the verification of the AIPS design and the validation of the AIPS implementation. Survey requirements and survey results in each of these areas are presented, including analyses of the potential effects on the AIPS development process of using or not using the surveyed technology items. Another output of the survey was the identification of technology areas of particular relevance to the AIPS and for which further development, in some cases by the CSDL and in some cases by the NASA, would be fruitful. Appendices are provided in which are presented: (1) reports of some of the actual survey interactions with industrial and other outside information sources; (2) the literature list from the comprehensive literature survey which was conducted; (3) reduced-scale images of an excerpt ('Technology Survey' viewgraphs) from the set of viewgraphs used at the 14 April 1983 Preliminary Requirements Review by the CSDL for the NASA; and (4) reduced-scale images of the set of viewgraphs used in the AIPS Technology Survey Review presentation to the NASA monitors by the CSDL at the NASA Langley Research Center on 28 Sep. 1983.

Ogletree, Glenn (editor)



The Math You Need, When You Need It: Student-Centered Web Resources Designed to Decrease Math Review and Increase Quantitative Geology in the Classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introductory geoscience courses are rife with quantitative concepts from graphing to rates to unit conversions. Recent research suggests that supplementary mathematical instruction increases post-secondary students' retention and performance in science courses. Nonetheless, many geoscience faculty feel that they do not have enough time to cover all the geoscience content, let alone covering the math they often feel students should have learned before reaching their classes. We present our NSF-funded effort to create web modules for students that address these concerns. Our web resources focus on both student performance and faculty time issues by building students' quantitative skills through web-based, self-paced modular tutorials. Each module can be assigned to individual students who have demonstrated on a pre-test that they are in need of supplemental instruction. The pre-test involves problems that place mathematical concepts in a geoscience context and determines the students who need the most support with these skills. Students needing support are asked to complete a three-pronged web-based module just before the concept is needed in class. The three parts of each tutorial include: an explanation of the mathematics, a page of practice problems and an on-line quiz that is graded and sent to the instructor. Each of the modules is steeped in best practices in mathematics and geoscience education, drawing on multiple contexts and utilizing technology. The tutorials also provide students with further resources so that they can explore the mathematics in more depth. To assess the rigor of this program, students are given the pre-test again at the end of the course. The uniqueness of this program lies in a rich combination of mathematical concepts placed in multiple geoscience contexts, giving students the opportunity to explore the way that math relates to the physical world. We present several preliminary modules dealing with topics common in introductory geoscience courses. We seek feedback from faculty teaching all levels of geoscience addressing several questions: In what math/geoscience topics do you feel students need supplemental instruction? Where do students come up against quantitative topics that make them drop the class or perform poorly? Would you be willing to review or help us to test these modules in your class?

Wenner, J. M.; Baer, E. M.



Narrative survey: A Methodology for studying multiple populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The narrative survey is a qualitative research strategy which offers a method for surveying large populations. While the research community relies on several types of qualitative approaches as alternative research responses to the quantitative types, the survey strategy has been the exclusive domain of positivistic-quantitative re- search. However, if we seek qualitative understandings in relation to many people, each finding

Asher Shkedi



Fundamentals of quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this article is to introduce some important fundamental concepts of quantitative research to readers especially novice researchers. It comprises types of research, definitions of quantitative research, different types and assumptions of quantitative research, when to use and not to use quantitative methods, advantages, common approaches and samples of quantitative research, and common misconceptions. Besides, a set

Suphat Sukamolson


Streamlining volcano-related, web-based data display and design with a new U.S. Geological Survey Volcano Science Center website  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the newly designed U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Volcano Science Center website is to provide a reliable, easy to understand, and accessible format to display volcano monitoring data and scientific information on US volcanoes and their hazards. There are greater than 150 active or potentially active volcanoes in the United States, and the Volcano Science Center aims to advance the scientific understanding of volcanic processes at these volcanoes and to lessen the harmful impacts of potential volcanic activity. To fulfill a Congressional mandate, the USGS Volcano Hazards Program must communicate scientific findings to authorities and the public in a timely and understandable form. The easiest and most efficient way to deliver this information is via the Internet. We implemented a new database model to organize website content, ensuring consistency, accuracy, and timeliness of information display. Real-time monitoring data is available for over 50 volcanoes in the United States, and web-site visitors are able to interact with a dynamic, map-based display system to access and analyze these data, which are managed by scientists from the five USGS volcano observatories. Helicorders, recent hypocenters, webcams, tilt measurements, deformation, gas emissions, and changes in hydrology can be viewed for any of the real-time instruments. The newly designed Volcano Science Center web presence streamlines the display of research findings, hazard assessments, and real-time monitoring data for the U.S. volcanoes.

Stovall, W. K.; Randall, M. J.; Cervelli, P. F.



Utility FGD (Flue Gas Desulfurization) Survey, January-December 1985: Volume 2, Design Performance Data for Operating FGD Systems: (Part 2 of 2).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Utility FGD Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It sumarizes information contributed by the utility industry, sys...

F. M. Jones M. T. Melia R. S. McKibben




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an annotated bibliography of resources on this month's theme "Design" for K-8 language arts, art and architecture, music and dance, science, math, social studies, health, and physical education. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audiotapes, magazines, professional resources and classroom activities. Features Art…

Online-Offline, 1998



Feedwater heater survey  

SciTech Connect

Results of a utility survey of high-pressure feedwater heaters are compiled and evaluated, and recommendations are made for the design of heaters for future power plants or for retrofits of existing plants. 2 figs., 20 tabs.

Eberle, H.; von Boeckh, P. (ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)); Diaz-Tous, I. (Encor-America, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)); Bell, R.J. (Heat Exchanger Systems, Inc., Boston, MA (United States))



Flat conductor cable survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design handbook contains data and illustrations concerned with commercial and Government flat-conductor-cable connecting and terminating hardware. Material was obtained from a NASA-sponsored industry-wide survey of approximately 150 companies and Government agencies.

Swanson, C. R.; Walker, G. L.



Assessing the Impact and Effectiveness of the Advanced Technological Education (ATE) Program. 2004 Survey Results. Volume I: Evaluation of the ATE Program Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents results from the fifth annual survey of Advanced Technological Education (ATE) projects, centers, and articulation partnerships. ATE has approximately 220 active awards. Of these, 163 ATE-funded projects, centers, and articulation partnerships were asked to participate in the 2004 survey. During the survey administration…

Hanssen, Carl E.; Gullickson, Arlen R.



Creating an Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Set-Aside in the NOx Budget Trading Program: Designing the Administrative and Quantitative Elements. Draft Guidance. Volume 2 of 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA is providing states with guidance on designing an energy efficiency and renewable energy set-aside because a well-run set-aside program may lower the costs of compliance of a states NOx mitigation strategy, and because additional environmental benefit...



Staff Development Needs Assessment Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Staff Development Needs Assessment Survey was sent to all teachers, pupil services personnel, and administrators in Wyoming school districts. Of these, 1501 surveys from teachers and pupil services personnel (23 percent) and 138 administrator surveys (35 percent) were returned. The needs assessment was designed to address: (1) current staff…

Azin-Manley, Mariam; And Others



EPA Science Inventory

The 1993 National Mortality Followback Survey (NMFS) is the latest in a series of periodic surveys designed to supplement information routinely collected on the death certificate. The Mortality Followback Survey Program, begun in the 1960's by the National Center for Health Stati...


National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey

The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) is a national survey designed to collect information about ambulatory medical care services in the United States. Patient data is collected from physicians primarily engaged in direct patient care, excluding those in the specialties of anesthesiology, pathology, and radiology. The survey was conducted annually from 1973 to 1981, in 1985, and annually since 1989.


New Student Survey, Fall 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fall 1998 annual survey of new Johnson County Community College (JCCC) students was designed to determine new students' educational objectives and what factors influence new students' decisions to attend JCCC. Surveys mailed to 3874 students identified by the Admissions Office resulted in 713 usable returned surveys. This evaluation reports…

Weglarz, Shirley


Appendix of Surveys from the Provider Survey Methods Workshop

In November 2010, ARP sponsored a Provider Survey Methods Workshop to review and discuss current methodologies in designing and fielding large-scale surveys of physicians and medical group practices. The workshop included a review of methods used in fielding and reporting on large-scale provider surveys over the decade 2000-2010. The following is an Appendix of the 117 surveys included in the review.


Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of conservation concern.

Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.



Optimization of parameters for the quantitative surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of mephedrone using a fractional factorial design and a portable Raman spectrometer.  


A new optimization strategy for the SERS detection of mephedrone using a portable Raman system has been developed. A fractional factorial design was employed, and the number of statistically significant experiments (288) was greatly reduced from the actual total number of experiments (1722), which minimized the workload while maintaining the statistical integrity of the results. A number of conditions were explored in relation to mephedrone SERS signal optimization including the type of nanoparticle, pH, and aggregating agents (salts). Through exercising this design, it was possible to derive the significance of each of the individual variables, and we discovered four optimized SERS protocols for which the reproducibility of the SERS signal and the limit of detection (LOD) of mephedrone were established. Using traditional nanoparticles with a combination of salts and pHs, it was shown that the relative standard deviations of mephedrone-specific Raman peaks were as low as 0.51%, and the LOD was estimated to be around 1.6 ?g/mL (9.06 × 10(-6) M), a detection limit well beyond the scope of conventional Raman and extremely low for an analytical method optimized for quick and uncomplicated in-field use. PMID:23198960

Mabbott, Samuel; Correa, Elon; Cowcher, David P; Allwood, J William; Goodacre, Royston



A Very High Resolution, Deep-Towed Multichannel Seismic Survey in the Yaquina Basin off Peru ? Technical Design of the new Deep-Tow Streamer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project INGGAS a new deep towed acoustic profiling instrument consisting of a side scan sonar fish and a 26 channel seismic streamer has been developed for operation in full ocean depth. The digital channels are build by single hydrophones and three engineering nodes (EN) which are connected either by 1 m or 6.5 m long cable segments. Together with high frequent surface sources (e.g. GI gun) this hybrid system allows to complete surveys with target resolutions of higher frequency content than from complete surface based configurations. Consequently special effort has been addressed to positioning information of the submerged towed instrument. Ultra Short Base Line (USBL) navigation of the tow fish allows precise coordinate evaluation even with more than 7 km of tow cable. Specially designed engineering nodes comprise a single hydrophone with compass, depth, pitch and roll sensors. Optional extension of the streamer up to 96 hydrophone nodes and 75 engineering nodes is possible. A telemetry device allows up- and downlink transmission of all system parameters and all recorded data from the tow fish in real time. Signals from the streamer and the various side scan sensors are multiplexed along the deep-sea cable. Within the telemetry system coaxial and fiber optic connectors are available and can be chosen according to the ships needs. In case of small bandwidth only selected portions of data are transmitted onboard to provide full online quality control while a copy of the complete data set is stored within the submerged systems. Onboard the record strings of side scan and streamer are demultiplexed and distributed to the quality control (QC) systems by Ethernet. A standard marine multichannel control system is used to display shot gather, spectra and noise monitoring of the streamer channels as well as data storage in SEG format. Precise navigation post processing includes all available positioning information from the vessel (DGPS), the USBL, the streamer (EN) and optional first break information. Therefore exact positioning of each hydrophone can be provided throughout the entire survey which is an essential input for later migration processing of the seismic data.

Bialas, J.; Breitzke, M.



Development and standardization of multiplexed antibody microarrays for use in quantitative proteomics  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative proteomics is an emerging field that encompasses multiplexed measurement of many known proteins in groups of experimental samples in order to identify differences between groups. Antibody arrays are a novel technology that is increasingly being used for quantitative proteomics studies due to highly multiplexed content, scalability, matrix flexibility and economy of sample consumption. Key applications of antibody arrays in quantitative proteomics studies are identification of novel diagnostic assays, biomarker discovery in trials of new drugs, and validation of qualitative proteomics discoveries. These applications require performance benchmarking, standardization and specification. Results Six dual-antibody, sandwich immunoassay arrays that measure 170 serum or plasma proteins were developed and experimental procedures refined in more than thirty quantitative proteomics studies. This report provides detailed information and specification for manufacture, qualification, assay automation, performance, assay validation and data processing for antibody arrays in large scale quantitative proteomics studies. Conclusion The present report describes development of first generation standards for antibody arrays in quantitative proteomics. Specifically, it describes the requirements of a comprehensive validation program to identify and minimize antibody cross reaction under highly multiplexed conditions; provides the rationale for the application of standardized statistical approaches to manage the data output of highly replicated assays; defines design requirements for controls to normalize sample replicate measurements; emphasizes the importance of stringent quality control testing of reagents and antibody microarrays; recommends the use of real-time monitors to evaluate sensitivity, dynamic range and platform precision; and presents survey procedures to reveal the significance of biomarker findings.

Perlee, LT; Christiansen, J; Dondero, R; Grimwade, B; Lejnine, S; Mullenix, M; Shao, W; Sorette, M; Tchernev, VT; Patel, DD; Kingsmore, SF



Impact of physics education research on the teaching of introductory quantitative physics in the United States  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Fall of 2008 we designed and administered a web survey to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices of physics faculty. The survey was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (a 50.3% response rate). This paper presents results of one part of the survey where faculty were asked to rate their level of knowledge and use of 24 Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS) that are applicable to an introductory quantitative physics course. Almost all faculty (87.1%) indicated familiarity with one or more RBIS and approximately half of faculty (48.1%) said that they currently use at least one RBIS. Results also indicate that faculty rarely use RBIS as recommended by the developer, but instead commonly make significant modifications.

Henderson, Charles R.; Dancy, Melissa H.



The Survey Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Quantitative models for reverse logistics: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the recently emerged field of reverse logistics. The management of return flows induced by the various forms of reuse of products and materials in industrial production processes has received growing attention throughout this decade. Many authors have proposed quantitative models taking those changes in the logistics environment into account. However, no general framework has been suggested yet.

Moritz Fleischmann; Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Rommert Dekker; Erwin van der Laan; Jo A. E. E. van Nunen; Luk N. Van Wassenhove




EPA Science Inventory

Methods applicable to zooplankton sampling and analysis in quantitative baseline and monitoring surveys are evaluated and summarized. Specific recommendations by managers must take into account characteristics of the water mass under investigation, the abundance of contained zoop...


Militarism and Foreign Conflict Behavior: A Quantitative Study Revisited.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considerable information has been written about the phenomenon known as militarism; however, little or no quantitative research has been used to investigate it. This study surveyed the political, cultural and economic qualities of nations and used seven 1...

D. G. Hansen



The MOS social support survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development and evaluation of a brief, multidimensional, self- administered, social support survey that was developed for patients in the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS), a two-year study of patients with chronic conditions. This survey was designed to be comprehensive in terms of recent thinking about the various dimensions of social support. In addition, it was designed to

Cathy Donald Sherbourne; Anita L. Stewart



Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a survey of existing hypertext systems, their applications, and their design. It is both an introduction to the world of hypertext and, at a deeper cut, a survey of some of the most important design issues that go into fashioning a hypertext environment. The concept of hypertext is quite simple: Windows on the screen are associated with

Jeff Conklin



"Suntelligence" Survey  


... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...


Planctonological Survey of the Northaegean Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A planctonological survey in the North-Aegean sea was carried out in three different seasons during the years 1963-1964. Twenty standard seasonal stations were established and the collected plancton was studied qualitatively and quantitatively. Special em...

V. Kiortsis



Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs.

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd



Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation.  


Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-? mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NF?B was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of I?B? degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms. PMID:25009775

Stamellou, E; Storz, D; Botov, S; Ntasis, E; Wedel, J; Sollazzo, S; Krämer, B K; van Son, W; Seelen, M; Schmalz, H G; Schmidt, A; Hafner, M; Yard, B A



Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-? mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NF?B was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of I?B? degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms.

Stamellou, E.; Storz, D.; Botov, S.; Ntasis, E.; Wedel, J.; Sollazzo, S.; Kramer, B.K.; van Son, W.; Seelen, M.; Schmalz, H.G.; Schmidt, A.; Hafner, M.; Yard, B.A.



Prototype Ultrasonic Instrument for Quantitative Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prototype ultrasonic instrument has been designed and developed for quantitative testing. The complete delivered instrument consists of a pulser/receiver which plugs into a standard oscilloscope, an rf power amplifier, a standard decade oscillator, and ...

J. L. Dubois L. C. Lynnworth P. R. Kranz