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1

Quantitative evolutionary design  

PubMed Central

The field of quantitative evolutionary design uses evolutionary reasoning (in terms of natural selection and ultimate causation) to understand the magnitudes of biological reserve capacities, i.e. excesses of capacities over natural loads. Ratios of capacities to loads, defined as safety factors, fall in the range 1.2-10 for most engineered and biological components, even though engineered safety factors are specified intentionally by humans while biological safety factors arise through natural selection. Familiar examples of engineered safety factors include those of buildings, bridges and elevators (lifts), while biological examples include factors of bones and other structural elements, of enzymes and transporters, and of organ metabolic performances. Safety factors serve to minimize the overlap zone (resulting in performance failure) between the low tail of capacity distributions and the high tail of load distributions. Safety factors increase with coefficients of variation of load and capacity, with capacity deterioration with time, and with cost of failure, and decrease with costs of initial construction, maintenance, operation, and opportunity. Adaptive regulation of many biological systems involves capacity increases with increasing load; several quantitative examples suggest sublinear increases, such that safety factors decrease towards 1.0. Unsolved questions include safety factors of series systems, parallel or branched pathways, elements with multiple functions, enzyme reaction chains, and equilibrium enzymes. The modest sizes of safety factors imply the existence of costs that penalize excess capacities. Those costs are likely to involve wasted energy or space for large or expensive components, but opportunity costs of wasted space at the molecular level for minor components. PMID:12122135

Diamond, Jared

2002-01-01

2

Design of future surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This brief chapter addresses two related issues: how effort should be allocated to different parts of the sampling plan and, given optimal allocation, how large a sample will be required to achieve the PRISM accuracy target. Simulations based on data collected to date showed that 2 plots per cluster on rapid surveys, 2 intensive camps per field crew-year, 2-4 intensive plots per intensive camp, and 2-3 rapid surveys per intensive plot is the most efficient allocation of resources. Using this design, we investigated how crew-years should be allocated to each region in order to meet the PRISM accuracy target most efficiently. The analysis indicated that 40-50 crew-years would achieve the accuracy target for 18-24 of the 26 species breeding widely in the Arctic. This analysis was based on assuming that two rounds of surveys were conducted and that a 50% decline occurred between them. We discuss the complexity of making these estimates and why they should be viewed as first approximations.

Bart, Jonathan; Smith, Paul A.

2012-01-01

3

Adaptive Survey Design Andrew Sage  

E-print Network

Adaptive Survey Design Andrew Sage Iowa State University Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology March 14, 2014 Andrew Sage Iowa State University CSSM March 14, 2014 1 / 35 #12;Nonresponse Bias. Andrew Sage Iowa State University CSSM March 14, 2014 2 / 35 #12;Adaptive and Responsive Designs

Carriquiry, Alicia

4

Web Survey Design and Administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many claims are being made about the advantages of conducting surveys on the Web. However, there has been little research on the effects of format or design on the levels of unit and item response or on data quality. In a study conducted at the University of Michigan, a number of experiments were added to a survey of the student

Mick P. Couper; Michael W. Traugott; Mark J. Lamias

2001-01-01

5

TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE SURVEY  

E-print Network

TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY 2001 DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE SURVEY #12;TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY 2001 A Telephone Interview Survey on Household Travel Behaviour in Greater Toronto OF THE SURVEY Prepared for the Transportation Information Steering Committee by the Data Management Group

Toronto, University of

6

TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE SURVEY  

E-print Network

TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY 1996 DESIGN AND CONDUCT OF THE SURVEY FIRST REPORT OF THE 1996 SERIES #12;TRANSPORTATION TOMORROW SURVEY 1996 A Telephone Interview Survey on Household Travel Behaviour AND CONDUCT OF THE SURVEY Prepared for the Toronto Area Transportation Planning Data Collection Steering

Toronto, University of

7

Qualities of a Psychiatric Mentor: A Quantitative Singaporean Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Psychiatric mentors are an important part of the new, seamless training program in Singapore. There is a need to assess the qualities of a good psychiatric mentor vis-a-vis those of a good psychiatrist. Method: An anonymous survey was sent out to all psychiatry trainees and psychiatrists in Singapore to assess quantitatively the…

Tor, Phern-Chern; Goh, Lee-Gan; Ang, Yong-Guan; Lim, Leslie; Winslow, Rasaiah-Munidasa; Ng, Beng-Yeong; Wong, Sze-Tai; Ng, Tse-Pin; Kia, Ee-Heok

2011-01-01

8

Quantitative three-dimensional low-speed wake surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and practical aspects of conducting three-dimensional wake measurements in large wind tunnels are reviewed with emphasis on applications in low-speed aerodynamics. Such quantitative wake surveys furnish separate values for the components of drag, such as profile drag and induced drag, but also measure lift without the use of a balance. In addition to global data, details of the wake flowfield as well as spanwise distributions of lift and drag are obtained. The paper demonstrates the value of this measurement technique using data from wake measurements conducted by Boeing on a variety of low-speed configurations including the complex high-lift system of a transport aircraft.

Brune, G. W.

1992-01-01

9

New tools for evaluating LQAS survey designs.  

PubMed

Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys have become increasingly popular in global health care applications. Incorporating Bayesian ideas into LQAS survey design, such as using reasonable prior beliefs about the distribution of an indicator, can improve the selection of design parameters and decision rules. In this paper, a joint frequentist and Bayesian framework is proposed for evaluating LQAS classification accuracy and informing survey design parameters. Simple software tools are provided for calculating the positive and negative predictive value of a design with respect to an underlying coverage distribution and the selected design parameters. These tools are illustrated using a data example from two consecutive LQAS surveys measuring Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) preparation. Using the survey tools, the dependence of classification accuracy on benchmark selection and the width of the 'grey region' are clarified in the context of ORS preparation across seven supervision areas. Following the completion of an LQAS survey, estimation of the distribution of coverage across areas facilitates quantifying classification accuracy and can help guide intervention decisions. PMID:24528928

Hund, Lauren

2014-01-01

10

New tools for evaluating LQAS survey designs  

PubMed Central

Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys have become increasingly popular in global health care applications. Incorporating Bayesian ideas into LQAS survey design, such as using reasonable prior beliefs about the distribution of an indicator, can improve the selection of design parameters and decision rules. In this paper, a joint frequentist and Bayesian framework is proposed for evaluating LQAS classification accuracy and informing survey design parameters. Simple software tools are provided for calculating the positive and negative predictive value of a design with respect to an underlying coverage distribution and the selected design parameters. These tools are illustrated using a data example from two consecutive LQAS surveys measuring Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) preparation. Using the survey tools, the dependence of classification accuracy on benchmark selection and the width of the ‘grey region’ are clarified in the context of ORS preparation across seven supervision areas. Following the completion of an LQAS survey, estimation of the distribution of coverage across areas facilitates quantifying classification accuracy and can help guide intervention decisions. PMID:24528928

2014-01-01

11

Design-based and model-based inference in surveys of freshwater mollusks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Well-known concepts in statistical inference and sampling theory are used to develop recommendations for planning and analyzing the results of quantitative surveys of freshwater mollusks. Two methods of inference commonly used in survey sampling (design-based and model-based) are described and illustrated using examples relevant in surveys of freshwater mollusks. The particular objectives of a survey and the type of information observed in each unit of sampling can be used to help select the sampling design and the method of inference. For example, the mean density of a sparsely distributed population of mollusks can be estimated with higher precision by using model-based inference or by using design-based inference with adaptive cluster sampling than by using design-based inference with conventional sampling. More experience with quantitative surveys of natural assemblages of freshwater mollusks is needed to determine the actual benefits of different sampling designs and inferential procedures.

Dorazio, R.M.

1999-01-01

12

Statistical considerations in designing raptor surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Careful sampling design is required to obtain useful estimates of raptor abundance. Well-defined objectives, selection of appropriate sample units and sampling scheme, and attention to detail to reduce extraneous sources of variability and error are all important considerations in designing a raptor survey.

Pendleton, G.W.

1989-01-01

13

Approximations for Quantitative Feedback Theory Designs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The computational requirements for obtaining the results summarized in the preceding section were very modest and were easily accomplished using computer-aided control system design software. Of special significance is the ability of the PDT to indicate a loop closure sequence for MIMO QFT designs that employ sequential loop closure. Although discussed as part of a 2 x 2 design, the PDT is obviously applicable to designs with a greater number of inputs and system responses.

Henderson, D. K.; Hess, R. A.

1997-01-01

14

Flexible 3-D seismic survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using all available subsurface information in the design of a 3-D seismic survey, we can better adjust the acquisition effort to the demands of illum ination of the target horizon. I present a method that poses the choice of the acquisition parameters as an integer opti- mization problem. Rays are shot from grid points on the target reflector at uniform

Gabriel Alvarez

2003-01-01

15

Spatially balanced survey designs for natural resources  

EPA Science Inventory

Ecological resource monitoring programs typically require the use of a probability survey design to select locations or entities to be physically sampled in the field. The ecological resource of interest, the target population, occurs over a spatial domain and the sample selecte...

16

Six Criteria for Survey Sample Design Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of the sample survey in educational research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good study from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design. The sources are either limited or too extensive to use in a practical sense. The purpose of this paper is to recommend six important…

Wang, Lin; Fan, Xitao

17

Design for manufacturability: quantitative measures for design evaluation  

E-print Network

In a design for manufacturing (DFM) approach, the designer has to consider the interactions between the various parameters in the design and the ease with which it can be manufactured, very early in the design process. This research is aimed...

Polisetty, Francis Showry Kumar

2012-06-07

18

New journal selection for quantitative survey of infectious disease research: application for Asian trend analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative survey of research articles, as an application of bibliometrics, is an effective tool for grasping overall trends in various medical research fields. This type of survey has been also applied to infectious disease research; however, previous studies were insufficient as they underestimated articles published in non-English or regional journals. METHODS: Using a combination of Scopus™ and PubMed, the

Hiromi Takahashi-Omoe; Katsuhiko Omoe; Nobuhiko Okabe

2009-01-01

19

Quantitative design and evaluation of enhancement\\/thresholding edge detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative design and performance evaluation techniques are developed for the enhancement\\/thresholding class of image edge detectors. The design techniques are based on statistical detection theory and deterministic pattern-recognition classification procedures. The performance evaluation methods developed include: a)deterministic measurement of the edge gradient amplitude; b)comparison of the probabilities of correct and false edge detection; and c) figure of merit computation. The

I. E. Abdou; W. K. Pratt

1979-01-01

20

Online Survey Design and Development: A Janus-Faced Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we propose a "Janus-faced" approach to survey design--an approach that encourages researchers to consider how they can design and implement surveys more effectively using the latest web and database tools. Specifically, this approach encourages researchers to look two ways at once; attending to both the survey interface…

Lauer, Claire; McLeod, Michael; Blythe, Stuart

2013-01-01

21

Toward subsurface illumination-based seismic survey design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usual approach to the acquisition of 2-D and 3-D seismic surveys is to use a record- ing template designed from the maximum target dips and depths. This template is used through out the survey area irrespective of changes in the dips, depths or propagation velocities of the targets. I propose to base the survey design on an initial structural

Gabriel Alvarez

22

OHS certification and legal compliance management in France: a quantitative survey  

E-print Network

in the field of Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) has become a significant policy management challenge of OHS legal compliance through integration into a broader management system. Moreover, as standards the principal results. Keywords: Occupational health and safety, quantitative survey, management of legal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

23

Quantitative survey on the shape of the back of men's head as viewed from the side.  

PubMed

This article classifies quantitatively into 4 shapes men's back part of the head viewed from the side that are demonstrated in some of the figures in this article. Because of self-evident reasons, the shapes were blurred. The survey is based on the analysis of 2220 shapes obtained by photographing mainly bald men and by finding pictures in the Internet. To the best of the author's knowledge, this quantitative approach has never been implemented before. The results obtained are as follows: the percentage of 376 "flat heads" is 17%; the percentage of 755 "little round heads," 34%; the percentage of 1017 "round heads," 45.8%; and the percentage of 72 "very round heads," 3.2%. This quantitative survey is an additional step in analyzing quantitatively the shape of the parts of the face wherein, in articles that were previously published or that will be published in this magazine, shapes of the nose, ear conch, and human eye were analyzed quantitatively. In addition, the shapes of the leg toes were also analyzed. Finally, it should be noted that, because of obvious reasons, the survey is based on men's head, most of which are with baldness. PMID:23714907

Tamir, Abraham

2013-05-01

24

Survey of rural, private wells. Statistical design  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Half of Illinois' 38 million acres were planted in corn and soybeans in 1988. On the 19 million acres planted in corn and soybeans, approximately 1 million tons of nitrogen fertilizer and 50 million pounds of pesticides were applied. Because groundwater is the water supply for over 90 percent of rural Illinois, the occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater in Illinois is of interest to the agricultural community, the public, and regulatory agencies. The occurrence of agricultural chemicals in groundwater is well documented. However, the extent of this contamination still needs to be defined. This can be done by randomly sampling wells across a geographic area. Key elements of a random, water-well sampling program for regional groundwater quality include the overall statistical design of the program, definition of the sample population, selection of wells to be sampled, and analysis of survey results. These elements must be consistent with the purpose for conducting the program; otherwise, the program will not provide the desired information. The need to carefully design and conduct a sampling program becomes readily apparent when one considers the high cost of collecting and analyzing a sample. For a random sampling program conducted in Illinois, the key elements, as well as the limitations imposed by available information, are described.

Mehnert, Edward; Schock, Susan C.

1991-01-01

25

5 SURVEY PLANNING AND DESIGN 5.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

5 SURVEY PLANNING AND DESIGN 5.1 Introduction This chapter is intended to assist the user in planning a strategy for conducting a final status survey, with the ultimate objective being to demonstrate compliance with the derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs). The survey types that make up

26

Designing Strategic Survey Protocols for Bats Final Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary I present results from a project that evaluated design components and field-tested survey protocols necessary to initiate a strategic survey program for 8 Sensitive Species of bats throughout the NWFP area. Survey protocols were evaluated in 8 study areas distributed across the NWFP from northern California to the Olympic peninsula. Sample units within study areas were located consistent with

Theodore J. Weller

27

Practical Guidelines for Evaluating Sampling Designs in Survey Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The popularity of sample surveys in evaluation and research makes it necessary for consumers to tell a good survey from a poor one. Several sources were identified that gave advice on how to evaluate a sample design used in a survey study. The sources are either too limited or too extensive to be useful practically. The purpose of this paper is to…

Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin

28

A survey of user-centered design practice in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first time to report the results of a recent survey of user-centered design (UCD) practice in China, conducted in 2007. The survey involved over four hundred respondents who were at the user friendly conference or attended other UCD related activities. The survey identified, e.g. practitioners' demographics and experience, the type of organization, the usage frequency of

Ronggang Zhou; Shengshan Huang; Xiangang Qin; Jason Huang

2008-01-01

29

Survey design strategies for linearized nonlinear inversion Andrew Curtis and Carl Spencer, Schlumberger  

E-print Network

Survey design strategies for linearized nonlinear inversion Andrew Curtis and Carl Spencer, Schlumberger SUMMARY Standard nonlinear survey or experimental design criteria gen- erally contain a more robust, nonlinear design strat- egy. INTRODUCTION Many factors affect the design of a survey

30

Designing community surveys to provide a basis for noise policy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After examining reports from a large number of social surveys, two areas were identified where methodological improvements in the surveys would be especially useful for public policy. The two study areas are: the definition of noise indexes and the assessment of noise impact. Improvements in the designs of surveys are recommended which would increase the validity and reliability of the noise indexes. Changes in interview questions and sample designs are proposed which would enable surveys to provide measures of noise impact which are directly relevant for public policy.

Fields, J. M.

1980-01-01

31

A survey of architecture design rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many claims have been made about the consequences of not documenting design rationale. The general perception is that designers and architects usually do not fully understand the critical role of systematic use and capture of design rationale. However, there is to date little empirical evidence available on what design rationale mean to practitioners, how valuable they consider it, and how

Antony Tang; Muhammad Ali Babar; Ian Gorton; Jun Han

2006-01-01

32

Variance estimation for systematic designs in spatial surveys.  

PubMed

In spatial surveys for estimating the density of objects in a survey region, systematic designs will generally yield lower variance than random designs. However, estimating the systematic variance is well known to be a difficult problem. Existing methods tend to overestimate the variance, so although the variance is genuinely reduced, it is over-reported, and the gain from the more efficient design is lost. The current approaches to estimating a systematic variance for spatial surveys are to approximate the systematic design by a random design, or approximate it by a stratified design. Previous work has shown that approximation by a random design can perform very poorly, while approximation by a stratified design is an improvement but can still be severely biased in some situations. We develop a new estimator based on modeling the encounter process over space. The new "striplet" estimator has negligible bias and excellent precision in a wide range of simulation scenarios, including strip-sampling, distance-sampling, and quadrat-sampling surveys, and including populations that are highly trended or have strong aggregation of objects. We apply the new estimator to survey data for the spotted hyena?(Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania, and find that the reported coefficient of variation for estimated density is 20% using approximation by a random design, 17% using approximation by a stratified design, and 11% using the new striplet estimator. This large reduction in reported variance is verified by simulation. PMID:21534940

Fewster, R M

2011-12-01

33

Soil Survey and Ecological Sites: Integrated Map Unit Design and  

E-print Network

Soil Survey and Ecological Sites: Integrated Map Unit Design and Interpretation Arlene J. Tugel Soil Scientist, Liasion to ARS Natural Resources Conservation Service Las Cruces, NM #12;Objectives · Soil maps- a review · Soil survey legend development · Data collection · Soil-Site correlation

34

Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates  

E-print Network

Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates Stephen T. Buckland & Andrew J. Plumptre for estimating abundance of primate populations. The method relies on a small number of key assumptions, and if these are not met, substantial bias may occur. For a variety of reasons, primate surveys often do not follow what

Thomas, Len

35

DESIGN OF GEOPHYSICAL SURVEYS IN TRANSPORTATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing geophysical investigations for transportation related projects requires special attention to the constraints imposed by right-of-way, irregular topography, noise from traffic, and the need to avoid the interruption of traffic flow. A geophysical en- gineer needs to be prepared to consider these design issues that are not addressed in a standard procedure such as ASTM D-5777. The author presents design

Paul Michaels

36

Quantitative performance-based evaluation of a procedure for flexible design concept generation  

E-print Network

This thesis presents an experimental methodology for objective and quantitative design procedure evaluation based on anticipated lifecycle performance of design concepts, and a procedure for flexible design concept generation. ...

Cardin, Michel-Alexandre, 1979-

2011-01-01

37

Sample design for the residential energy consumption survey  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to provide detailed information about the multistage area-probability sample design used for the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). It is intended as a technical report, for use by statisticians, to better understand the theory and procedures followed in the creation of the RECS sample frame. For a more cursory overview of the RECS sample design, refer to the appendix entitled ``How the Survey was Conducted,`` which is included in the statistical reports produced for each RECS survey year.

Not Available

1994-08-01

38

Designing surveys for tests of gravity.  

PubMed

Modified gravity theories may provide an alternative to dark energy to explain cosmic acceleration. We argue that the observational programme developed to test dark energy needs to be augmented to capture new tests of gravity on astrophysical scales. Several distinct signatures of gravity theories exist outside the 'linear' regime, especially owing to the screening mechanism that operates inside halos such as the Milky Way to ensure that gravity tests in the solar system are satisfied. This opens up several decades in length scale and classes of galaxies at low redshift that can be exploited by surveys. While theoretical work on models of gravity is in the early stages, we can already identify new regimes that cosmological surveys could target to test gravity. These include: (i) a small-scale component that focuses on the interior and vicinity of galaxy and cluster halos, (ii) spectroscopy of low-redshift galaxies, especially galaxies smaller than the Milky Way, in environments that range from voids to clusters, and (iii) a programme of combining lensing and dynamical information, from imaging and spectroscopic surveys, respectively, on the same (or statistically identical) sample of galaxies. PMID:22084295

Jain, Bhuvnesh

2011-12-28

39

Optical design for a survey x-ray telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0 degree full field-of-view.

Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

2014-07-01

40

The Dark Energy Survey instrument design  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

41

A Survey and Taxonomy of GALS Design Styles  

E-print Network

A Survey and Taxonomy of GALS Design Styles Paul Teehan, Mark Greenstreet, and Guy Lemieux find the concepts and taxonomy presented here very useful. --Sandeep Shukla, Virginia Tech Figure 1. In this article, we describe some design examples and introduce our taxonomy of these techniques. Taxonomy

Lemieux, Guy

42

European Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Survey II: rationale and design.  

PubMed

The Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) Survey II is a 6 months snapshot survey initiated by two ESC Associations, the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Failure Association, which is designed to describe clinical practice regarding implantation of CRT devices in a broad sample of hospitals in 47 ESC member countries. The large volume of clinical and demographic data collected should reflect current patient selection, implantation, and follow-up practice and provide information relevant for assessing healthcare resource utilization in connection with CRT. The findings of this survey should permit representative benchmarking both nationally and internationally across Europe. PMID:25414481

Dickstein, Kenneth; Normand, Camilla; Anker, Stefan D; Auricchio, Angelo; Lundqvist, Carina Blomström; Bogale, Nigussie; Cleland, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Gasparini, Maurizio; Gitt, Anselm; Hindricks, Gerhard; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Ponikowski, Piotr; Stellbrink, Christoph; Ruschitzka, Frank; Linde, Cecilia

2015-01-01

43

Identifiability: A Predictive Quantitative Measure for the Comparison of a Task Designed  

E-print Network

Identifiability: A Predictive Quantitative Measure for the Comparison of a Task Designed 02155 USA jacob@cs.tufts.edu Abstract This paper presents a predictive quantitative measure the nearly universal state of practice in user interface design. Today, we see research that looks toward

Jacob, Robert J.K.

44

A Successful Broadband Survey for Giant Ly? Nebulae. I. Survey Design and Candidate Selection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant Ly? nebulae (or Ly? "blobs") are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly? nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly? nebulae at 2 <~ z <~ 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ?108 h -3 70 Mpc3, this is the largest volume survey for Ly? nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly? nebula.

Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

2012-04-01

45

A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION  

SciTech Connect

Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

2012-04-01

46

Lack of quantitative training among early-career ecologists: a survey of the problem and potential solutions  

PubMed Central

Proficiency in mathematics and statistics is essential to modern ecological science, yet few studies have assessed the level of quantitative training received by ecologists. To do so, we conducted an online survey. The 937 respondents were mostly early-career scientists who studied biology as undergraduates. We found a clear self-perceived lack of quantitative training: 75% were not satisfied with their understanding of mathematical models; 75% felt that the level of mathematics was “too low” in their ecology classes; 90% wanted more mathematics classes for ecologists; and 95% more statistics classes. Respondents thought that 30% of classes in ecology-related degrees should be focused on quantitative disciplines, which is likely higher than for most existing programs. The main suggestion to improve quantitative training was to relate theoretical and statistical modeling to applied ecological problems. Improving quantitative training will require dedicated, quantitative classes for ecology-related degrees that contain good mathematical and statistical practice. PMID:24688862

Ezard, Thomas H.G.; Jørgensen, Peter S.; Zimmerman, Naupaka; Chamberlain, Scott; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Curran, Timothy J.; Poisot, Timothée

2014-01-01

47

Acoustical Surveys Of Methane Plumes Using The Quantitative Echo Sounder In Japan Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research and training vessel Umitaka-maru (Tokyo Univ. of Marine Science and Technology) and the research vessel Natsushima (JAMSTEC) sailed to the methane seep area on a small ridge in the Naoetsu Basin, in the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan on July 2004, July 2005, August-September 2006 and July 2007 to survey the ocean floor gas hydrate and related acoustic signatures of methane plumes by using a quantitative echo sounder. We mapped minute details of active methane plumes by using a quantitative echo sounder with positioning data from GPS. We also measured averaged echo intensity from the methane plumes and sea bottom features both over every 1m range and every 4 seconds employing the echo integrator. We took still pictures and filmed the methane seep area. We obtained the following results from the present echo sounder survey. 1) We measured the size (diameter=5mm) and rising flux (6.4ml/sec/seep point) of methane bubbles. We also clarified the relationship between bubbles and water depth. 2) We calculated and measured Ts of methane bubble (=6.25 × 10-4) and methane hydrate (=1.56 × 10-6) floating in water tanks. 3) We showed the relation that exists between bubbles and volume backscattering strength (=3.16 × ~10-6) on the echogram. Our preliminary calculations indicate 2 methane hydrate bubbles/m3/sec and 40 seep points within a 100m perimeter. 4) On the survey in 2007, we checked on the echogram the migration of several methane plumes from the 2004, 2005 and 2006 survey positions. Based on the results, this acoustical method is an effective approach to record the behaviors of the methane hydrate in the water column and to monitor the course of methane hydrate bubbles floating up to the surface. As a following up project, we are planning to measure SV of the methane hydrate bubbles and the methane hydrate floating in water columns by using the submarine vehicle, called Hyper Dolphin, to observe minute acoustical characteristics of methane plumes and to make a trial calculation of the amount of floating methane bubbles and methane hydrates.

Aoyama, C.; Matsumoto, R.; Hiromatsu, M.; Snyder, G.; Ishizaki, O.

2007-12-01

48

Research on seismic survey design for doubly complex areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex geological conditions in doubly complex areas tend to result in difficult surface survey operations and poor target layer imaging in the subsurface which has a great impact on seismic data quality. In this paper, we propose an optimal crooked line survey method for decreasing the surface survey operational difficulties and improving the sub-layer event continuity. The method concentrates on the surface shooting conditions, first, selecting the proper shot positions based on the specific surface topographic features to reduce the shot difficulties and then optimizing the receiver positioning to meet the prerequisite that the subsurface reflection points remain in a straight line. Using this method cannot only lower the shooting difficulty of rough surface condition areas but also overcome the subsurface reflection point bending problem appearing in the traditional crooked line survey method. On the other hand, we use local infill shooting rather than conventional overall infill shooting to improve sublayer event continuity and uniformity with lower survey operation cost. A model has been calculated and processed with the proposed optimal crooked line survey and local infill shooting design method workflow and the results show that this new method can work for seismic surveys in double complex areas.

Zhao, Hu; Yin, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Pan, Shu-Lin

2012-06-01

49

Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: Survey of recent developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked increasing interest in multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper presents a survey of recent publications in the field of aerospace where interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The two main challenges of MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly the survey is focussed on various ways different researchers use to deal with these challenges. The survey is organized by a breakdown of MDO into its conceptual components. Accordingly, the survey includes sections on Mathematical Modeling, Design-oriented Analysis, Approximation Concepts, Optimization Procedures, System Sensitivity, and Human Interface. With the authors' main expertise being in the structures area, the bulk of the references focus on the interaction of the structures discipline with other disciplines. In particular, two sections at the end focus on two such interactions that have recently been pursued with a particular vigor: Simultaneous Optimization of Structures and Aerodynamics, and Simultaneous Optimization of Structures Combined With Active Control.

Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Haftka, Raphael T.

1995-01-01

50

Automatic detection and quantitative assessment of peculiar galaxy pairs in Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied computational tools for automatic detection of peculiar galaxy pairs. We first detected in Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 ˜400 000 galaxy images with i magnitude <18 that had more than one point spread function, and then applied a machine learning algorithm that detected ˜26 000 galaxy images that had morphology similar to the morphology of galaxy mergers. That data set was mined using a novelty detection algorithm, producing a short list of 500 most peculiar galaxies as quantitatively determined by the algorithm. Manual examination of these galaxies showed that while most of the galaxy pairs in the list were not necessarily peculiar, numerous unusual galaxy pairs were detected. In this paper, we describe the protocol and computational tools used for the detection of peculiar mergers, and provide examples of peculiar galaxy pairs that were detected.

Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

2014-10-01

51

Particle design using supercritical fluids: Literature and patent survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

As particle design is presently a major development of supercritical fluids applications, mainly in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmetic and specialty chemistry industries, number of publications are issued and numerous patents filed every year. This document presents a survey (that cannot pretend to be exhaustive!) of published knowledge classified according to the different concepts currently used to manufacture particles, microspheres or

Jennifer Jung; Michel Perrut

2001-01-01

52

Mathematical Models for Aircraft Trajectory Design : A Survey  

E-print Network

Mathematical Models for Aircraft Trajectory Design : A Survey D. Delahaye and S. Puechmorel and P. Tsiotras and E. Feron Abstract Air traffic management ensures the safety of flight by optimizing flows and maintaining separation between aircraft. After giving some definitions, some typical feature of aircraft

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

53

Survey Says? A Primer on Web-based Survey Design and Distribution  

PubMed Central

The internet has changed the way in which we gather and interpret information. While books were once the exclusive bearers of data, knowledge is now only a keystroke away. The internet has also facilitated the synthesis of new knowledge. Specifically, it has become a tool through which medical research is conducted. A review of the literature reveals that in the past year, over one-hundred medical publications have been based on web-based survey data alone. Due to emerging internet technologies, web-based surveys can now be launched with little computer knowledge. They may also be self-administered, eliminating personnel requirements. Ultimately, an investigator may build, implement, and analyze survey results with speed and efficiency, obviating the need for mass mailings and data processing. All of these qualities have rendered telephone and mail-based surveys virtually obsolete. Despite these capabilities, web-based survey techniques are not without their limitations, namely recall and response biases. When used properly, however, web-based surveys can greatly simplify the research process. This article discusses the implications of web-based surveys and provides guidelines for their effective design and distribution. PMID:21701347

Oppenheimer, Adam J.; Pannucci, Christopher J.; Kasten, Steven J.; Haase, Steven C.

2011-01-01

54

Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers To Reference Design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachón in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg2 field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg2 with ?<+34.5°, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg2 region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the LSST science drivers led to these choices of system parameters.

Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W. N.; Burke, D. L.; Claver, C. F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K. H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D. K.; Jacoby, S. H.; Jones, R. L.; Kahn, S. M.; Kantor, J. P.; Krabbendam, V. V.; Lupton, R. H.; Monet, D. G.; Pinto, P. A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T. L.; Schneider, D. P.; Strauss, M. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sweeney, D.; Szalay, A.; Thaler, J. J.; Tyson, J. A.; LSST Collaboration

2008-06-01

55

The ZInEP Epidemiology Survey: background, design and methods.  

PubMed

This article introduces the design, sampling, field procedures and instruments used in the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey. This survey is one of six ZInEP projects (Zürcher Impulsprogramm zur nachhaltigen Entwicklung der Psychiatrie, i.e. the "Zurich Program for Sustainable Development of Mental Health Services"). It parallels the longitudinal Zurich Study with a sample comparable in age and gender, and with similar methodology, including identical instruments. Thus, it is aimed at assessing the change of prevalence rates of common mental disorders and the use of professional help and psychiatric sevices. Moreover, the current survey widens the spectrum of topics by including sociopsychiatric questionnaires on stigma, stress related biological measures such as load and cortisol levels, electroencephalographic (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examinations with various paradigms, and sociophysiological tests. The structure of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey entails four subprojects: a short telephone screening using the SCL-27 (n of nearly 10,000), a comprehensive face-to-face interview based on the SPIKE (Structured Psychopathological Interview and Rating of the Social Consequences for Epidemiology: the main instrument of the Zurich Study) with a stratified sample (n?=?1500), tests in the Center for Neurophysiology and Sociophysiology (n?=?227), and a prospective study with up to three follow-up interviews and further measures (n?=?157). In sum, the four subprojects of the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey deliver a large interdisciplinary database. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24942564

Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Müller, Mario; Rodgers, Stephanie; Warnke, Inge; Hengartner, Michael P; Landolt, Karin; Hagenmuller, Florence; Meier, Magali; Tse, Lee-Ting; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Passardi, Marco; Knöpfli, Daniel; Schönfelder, Herdis; Eisele, Jochen; Rüsch, Nicolas; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf

2014-12-01

56

Design and Architecture of Collaborative Online Communities: A Quantitative Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers four aspects of online communities. Design, mechanisms, architecture, and the constructed knowledge. We hypothesize that different designs of communities drive different mechanisms, which give rise to different architectures, which in turn result in different levels of collaborative knowledge construction. To test this chain…

Aviv, Reuven; Erlich, Zippy; Ravid, Gilad

2004-01-01

57

Aspect-Oriented Composition of Design Patterns: a Quantitative Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pattern composition has been shown as a challenge to applying design patterns in real software systems. One of the main problems is that the implementations of multiple design patterns in a system are not limited to affect the application classes. They also crosscut each other in multiple heterogeneous ways so that their separation and composition are far from being trivial.

Nélio Alessandro Azevedo Cacho; Eduardo Magno; Lages Figueiredo; Cláudio Nogueira; Anna Alessandro; Fabricio Garcia; Thaís Vasconcelos Batista; Carlos José Pereira de Lucena

2005-01-01

58

Anthropometric survey for agricultural machinery design: an Indian case study.  

PubMed

In Indian agriculture, hand tools, animal-drawn equipment and tractor/power operated machinery are extensively used for various operations. These equipments are either operated or controlled by human workers. Use of anthropometric data can help in the proper design of equipment for better efficiency and more human comfort. Earlier anthropometric surveys carried out in the country were very few and inadequate for use in farm machinery design. Therefore, 52 body dimensions necessary for the design of these equipments were identified and a sample study was conducted on 39 farm workers. The collected anthropometric data were analysed to calculate mean, range, standard deviation and 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values. Through some examples, an effort is made here to illustrate the use of the data in the design of farm equipment. It has now been proposed that extensive surveys should be carried out in different regions of the country to generate the necessary data useful in farm machinery design. PMID:15676734

Gite, L P; Yadav, B G

1989-09-01

59

Epidemiological Survey of Quantitative Ultrasound in Risk Assessment of Falls in Middle-Aged and Elderly People  

PubMed Central

The risk assessment of falls is important, but still unsatisfactory and time-consuming. Our objective was to assess quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in the risk assessment of falls. Our study was designed as epidemiological cross-sectional study occurring from March 2009 to February 2010 by community survey at a medical center. The participants were collected from systemic sample of 1,200 community-dwelling people (Male/Female?=?524/676) 40 years old and over in Yunlin County, Mid-Taiwan. Structural questionnaires including socioeconomic status, living status, smoking and drinking habits, exercise and medical history were completed. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the non-dominant distal radial area (QUS-R) and the left calcaneal area (QUS-C) were measured. The overall prevalence of falls was 19.8%. In men, the independently associated factors for falls were age (OR: 1.04; 95%CI: 1.01?1.06), fracture history (OR: 1.89; 95%CI: 1.12?3.19), osteoarthritis history (OR: 3.66; 95%CI: 1.15?11.64) and speed of sound (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.99?1.00; p<0.05) by QUS-R. In women, the independently associated factors for falls were current drinking (OR: 3.54; 95%CI: 1.35?9.31) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (OR: 0.98; 95%CI: 0.97?0.99; p<0.01) by QUS-C. The cutoffs at -2.5< T-score<-1 derived using QUS-R (OR: 2.85; 95%CI: 1.64?4.96; p<0.01) in men or T-score ?-2.5 derived using QUS-C (OR: 2.72; 95%CI: 1.42?5.21; p<0.01) in women showed an independent association with falls. The lowest T-score derived using either QUS-R or QUS-C was also revealed as an independent factor for falls in both men (OR: 2.13; 95%CI: 1.03?4.43; p<0.05) and women (OR: 2.36; 95%CI: 1.13?4.91; p<0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative ultrasounds, measured either at the radial or calcaneal area, are convenient tools by which to assess the risk of falls in middle-aged and elderly people. PMID:23951077

Ou, Ling-Chun; Sun, Zih-Jie; Chang, Yin-Fan; Chang, Chin-Sung; Chao, Ting-Hsing; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Lin, Ruey-Mo; Wu, Chih-Hsing

2013-01-01

60

SEDS: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Survey Design, Photometry, and Deep IRAC Source Counts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg2 to a depth of 26 AB mag (3?) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 ± 1.0 and 4.4 ± 0.8 nW m-2 sr-1 at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Arendt, R.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G.; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Davé, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Illingworth, G.; Kashlinsky, A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Labbé, I.; Li, Y.; Lin, L.; Moseley, H.; Nandra, K.; Newman, J.; Noeske, K.; Ouchi, M.; Peth, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Robertson, B.; Sarajedini, V.; Simard, L.; Smith, H. A.; Wang, Z.; Wechsler, R.; Weiner, B.; Wilson, G.; Wuyts, S.; Yamada, T.; Yan, H.

2013-05-01

61

SEDS: THE SPITZER EXTENDED DEEP SURVEY. SURVEY DESIGN, PHOTOMETRY, AND DEEP IRAC SOURCE COUNTS  

SciTech Connect

The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg{sup 2} to a depth of 26 AB mag (3{sigma}) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 {+-} 1.0 and 4.4 {+-} 0.8 nW m{sup -2} sr{sup -1} at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arendt, R. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Barmby, P. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Barro, G.; Faber, S.; Guhathakurta, P. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High St., Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bell, E. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bouwens, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Cattaneo, A. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Croton, D. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218 Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Dave, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunlop, J. S. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Egami, E. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Finlator, K. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, CK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grogin, N. A., E-mail: mashby@cfa.harvard.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

2013-05-20

62

SEDS: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey. Survey Design, Photometry, and Deep IRAC Source Counts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg(exp 2) to a depth of 26 AB mag (3sigma) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 micron. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 +/- 1.0 and 4.4 +/- 0.8 nW / square m/sr at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.

Ashby, M. L. N.; Willner, S. P.; Fazio, G. G.; Huang, J.-S.; Arendt, A.; Barmby, P.; Barro, G; Bell, E. F.; Bouwens, R.; Cattaneo, A.; Croton, D.; Dave, R.; Dunlop, J. S.; Egami, E.; Faber, S.; Finlator, K.; Grogin, N. A.; Guhathakurta, P.; Hernquist, L.; Hora, J. L.; Illingworth, G.; Kashlinsky, A; Koekmoer, A. M.; Koo, D. C.; Moseley, H.

2013-01-01

63

Conceptual framework for designing a national survey of human exposure.  

PubMed

The development and implementation of a National Human Exposure Assessment Survey requires a sound conceptual framework in order to select the population for study, the chemicals of concern, and the media and routes of exposure requiring direct and indirect measurements. A three-level conceptual model is presented within a multidimensional space that provides the basic parameters needed to be considered in the design of such a study. The axis common to all three levels is the duration of exposure. A fundamental need in a national survey is information on environmentally relevant chemicals, the biological mechanisms and health responses, the types of personal contact, the environmental concentrations, the sources, and the populations at risk. Application of the model is appropriate for exposures that can lead to acute or chronic health effects. Five chemicals are used to illustrate the need for multimedia and multiroute exposure analyses of the general population. PMID:8814779

Lioy, P J; Pellizzari, E

1995-01-01

64

Designing Questionnaire Items: Lessons Learned from Faculty and Student Surveys.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys used for program and institutional evaluation, such as self-studies conducted for accreditation review, are discussed. Frequently, these evaluations take the form of faculty surveys and student surveys. This paper explores the following general considerations associated with mail surveys and other surveys: avoidance of response bias;…

Meld, Andrea

65

Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to the design of a rotorcraft flight control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantitative Feedback Theory describes a frequency-domain technique for the design of multi-input, multi-output control systems which meet time or frequency domain performance criteria when specified uncertainty exists in the linear description of the vehicle dynamics. Quantitative Feedback Theory is applied to the design of the longitudinal flight control system for a linear uncertain model of the AH-64 rotorcraft. In this model, the uncertainty is assigned, and is assumed to be attributable to actual uncertainty in the dynamic model and to the changes in the vehicle aerodynamic characteristics which occur near hover. The model includes an approximation to the rotor and actuator dynamics. The design example indicates the manner in which handling qualities criteria may be incorporated into the design of realistic rotorcraft control systems in which significant uncertainty exists in the vehicle model.

Hess, R. A.; Gorder, P. J.

1992-01-01

66

Quantitative Design of Regulatory Elements Based on High-Precision Strength Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network  

PubMed Central

Accurate and controllable regulatory elements such as promoters and ribosome binding sites (RBSs) are indispensable tools to quantitatively regulate gene expression for rational pathway engineering. Therefore, de novo designing regulatory elements is brought back to the forefront of synthetic biology research. Here we developed a quantitative design method for regulatory elements based on strength prediction using artificial neural network (ANN). One hundred mutated Trc promoter & RBS sequences, which were finely characterized with a strength distribution from 0 to 3.559 (relative to the strength of the original sequence which was defined as 1), were used for model training and test. A precise strength prediction model, NET90_19_576, was finally constructed with high regression correlation coefficients of 0.98 for both model training and test. Sixteen artificial elements were in silico designed using this model. All of them were proved to have good consistency between the measured strength and our desired strength. The functional reliability of the designed elements was validated in two different genetic contexts. The designed parts were successfully utilized to improve the expression of BmK1 peptide toxin and fine-tune deoxy-xylulose phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that the methodology based on ANN model can de novo and quantitatively design regulatory elements with desired strengths, which are of great importance for synthetic biology applications. PMID:23560087

Xiong, Zhiqiang; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Yong

2013-01-01

67

Study of Nurses’ Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey  

PubMed Central

Context: Studies have documented that nurses and other health care professionals are inadequately prepared to care for patients in palliative care. Several reasons have been identified including inadequacies in nursing education, absence of curriculum content related to pain management, and knowledge related to pain and palliative care. Aims: The objective of this paper was to assess the knowledge about palliative care amongst nursing professionals using the palliative care knowledge test (PCKT). Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey of 363 nurses in a multispecialty hospital. Materials and Methods: The study utilized a self-report questionnaire- PCKT developed by Nakazawa et al., which had 20 items (statements about palliative care) for each of which the person had to indicate ‘correct’, ‘incorrect’, or ‘unsure.’ The PCKT had 5 subscales (philosophy- 2 items, pain- 6 items, dyspnea- 4 items, psychiatric problems- 4 items, and gastro-intestinal problems- 4 items). Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison across individual and professional variables for both dimensions were done using one-way ANOVA, and correlations were done using Karl-Pearson's co-efficient using SPSS version 16.0 for Windows. Results: The overall total score of PCKT was 7.16 ± 2.69 (35.8%). The philosophy score was 73 ± .65 (36.5%), pain score was 2.09 ± 1.19 (34.83%), dyspnea score was 1.13 ± .95 (28.25%), psychiatric problems score was 1.83 ± 1.02 (45.75%), and gastro-intestinal problems score was 1.36 ± .97 (34%). (P = .00). The female nurses scored higher than their male counterparts, but the difference was not significant (P > .05). Conclusions: Overall level of knowledge about palliative care was poor, and nurses had a greater knowledge about psychiatric problems and philosophy than the other aspects indicated in PCKT. PMID:23093828

Prem, Venkatesan; Karvannan, Harikesavan; Kumar, Senthil P; Karthikbabu, Surulirajan; Syed, Nafeez; Sisodia, Vaishali; Jaykumar, Saroja

2012-01-01

68

The SCUBA Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey - I. Survey motivation, design and data processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) is a major new blank-field extragalactic submillimetre (submm) survey currently underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Ultimately, SHADES aims to cover half a square degree at 450 and 850?m to a 4? depth of ~= 8mJy at 850?m. Two fields are being observed, the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF) (02h18m- 05°) and the Lockman Hole East (10h52m+ 57°). The survey has three main aims: (i) to investigate the population of high-redshift submm galaxies and the cosmic history of massive dust-enshrouded star formation activity; (ii) to investigate the clustering properties of submm-selected galaxies in order to determine whether these objects could be progenitors of present-day massive ellipticals; and (iii) to investigate the fraction of submm-selected sources that harbour active galactic nuclei. To achieve these aims requires that the submm data be combined with co-spatial information spanning the radio-to-X-ray frequency range. Accordingly, SHADES has been designed to benefit from ultra-deep radio imaging obtained with the Very Large Array (VLA), deep mid-infrared observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, submm mapping by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimetre Telescope (BLAST), deep near-infrared imaging with the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, deep optical imaging with the Subaru Telescope and deep X-ray observations with the XMM-Newton observatory. It is expected that the resulting extensive multiwavelength data set will provide complete photometric redshift information accurate to as well as detailed spectral energy distributions for the vast majority of the submm-selected sources. In this paper, the first of a series on SHADES, we present an overview of the motivation for the survey, describe the SHADES survey strategy, provide a detailed description of the primary data-analysis pipeline and demonstrate the superiority of our adopted matched-filter source-extraction technique over, for example, Emerson-II style methods. We also report on the progress of the survey. As of 2004 February, 720arcmin2 had been mapped with SCUBA (about 40 per cent of the anticipated final total area) to a median 1? depth of 2.2mJy per beam at 850?m (25mJy per beam at 450?m), and the source-extraction routines give a source density of 650 +/- 50 sources deg-2 > 3? at 850?m. Although uncorrected for Eddington bias, this source density is more than sufficient for providing enough sources to answer the science goals of SHADES, once half a square degree is observed. A refined reanalysis of the original 8-mJy survey Lockman hole data was carried out in order to evaluate the new data-reduction pipeline. Of the 17 most secure sources in the original sample, 12 have been reconfirmed, including 10 of the 11 for which radio identifications were previously secured.

Mortier, A. M. J.; Serjeant, S.; Dunlop, J. S.; Scott, S. E.; Ade, P.; Alexander, D.; Almaini, O.; Aretxaga, I.; Baugh, C.; Benson, A. J.; Best, P. N.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Borys, C.; Bressan, A.; Carilli, C.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S.; Clements, D. L.; Coppin, K.; Crawford, M.; Devlin, M.; Dicker, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Edge, A. C.; Farrah, D.; Fox, M.; Frenk, C.; Gaztañaga, E.; Gear, W. K.; Gonzales-Solares, E.; Granato, G. L.; Greve, T. R.; Grimes, J. A.; Gundersen, J.; Halpern, M.; Hargrave, P.; Hughes, D. H.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Jenness, T.; Jimenez, R.; van Kampen, E.; King, A.; Lacey, C.; Lawrence, A.; Lepage, K.; Mann, R. G.; Marsden, G.; Mauskopf, P.; Netterfield, B.; Oliver, S.; Olmi, L.; Page, M. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Pearson, C. P.; Percival, W. J.; Pope, A.; Priddey, R. S.; Rawlings, S.; Roche, N.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Scott, D.; Sekiguchi, K.; Seigar, M.; Silva, L.; Simpson, C.; Smail, I.; Stevens, J. A.; Takagi, T.; Tucker, G.; Vlahakis, C.; Waddington, I.; Wagg, J.; Watson, M.; Willott, C.; Vaccari, M.

2005-10-01

69

Ten Years of LibQual: A Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Survey Results at the University of Mississippi 2001-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyzes quantitative adequacy gap scores and coded qualitative comments from LibQual surveys at the University of Mississippi from 2001 to 2010, looking for relationships between library policy changes and LibQual results and any other trends that emerged. Analysis found no relationship between changes in policy and survey results…

Greenwood, Judy T.; Watson, Alex P.; Dennis, Melissa

2011-01-01

70

Pragmatic soil survey design using flexible Latin hypercube sampling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and give a practical example of Latin hypercube sampling in soil science using an approach we call flexible Latin hypercube sampling. Recent studies of soil properties in large and remote regions have highlighted problems with the conventional Latin hypercube sampling approach. It is often impractical to travel far from tracks and roads to collect samples, and survey planning should recognise this fact. Another problem is how to handle target sites that, for whatever reason, are impractical to sample - should one just move on to the next target or choose something in the locality that is accessible? Working within a Latin hypercube that spans the covariate space, selecting an alternative site is hard to do optimally. We propose flexible Latin hypercube sampling as a means of avoiding these problems. Flexible Latin hypercube sampling involves simulated annealing for optimally selecting accessible sites from a region. The sampling protocol also produces an ordered list of alternative sites close to the primary target site, should the primary target site prove inaccessible. We highlight the use of this design through a broad-scale sampling exercise in the Burdekin catchment of north Queensland, Australia. We highlight the robustness of our design through a simulation study where up to 50% of target sites may be inaccessible.

Clifford, David; Payne, James E.; Pringle, M. J.; Searle, Ross; Butler, Nathan

2014-06-01

71

A quantitative and objective evaluation approach for optimal selection of design concept in conceptual design stage  

E-print Network

quantities: Projected Assembly Time and Projected Assembly Cost. Overall, the approach presented is a small step, but it aids in quantifying vague design information as numbers early in the design cycle and makes the concept evaluation and selection process...

Tiwari, Sanjay

2002-01-01

72

National Aquatic Resource Surveys: Integration of Geospatial Data in Their Survey Design and Analysis  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) are a series of four statistical surveys conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency working in collaboration with states, tribal nations and other federal agencies. The surveys are conducted for lakes and reservoirs, streams...

73

Textile Materials for the Design of Wearable Antennas: A Survey  

PubMed Central

In the broad context of Wireless Body Sensor Networks for healthcare and pervasive applications, the design of wearable antennas offers the possibility of ubiquitous monitoring, communication and energy harvesting and storage. Specific requirements for wearable antennas are a planar structure and flexible construction materials. Several properties of the materials influence the behaviour of the antenna. For instance, the bandwidth and the efficiency of a planar microstrip antenna are mainly determined by the permittivity and the thickness of the substrate. The use of textiles in wearable antennas requires the characterization of their properties. Specific electrical conductive textiles are available on the market and have been successfully used. Ordinary textile fabrics have been used as substrates. However, little information can be found on the electromagnetic properties of regular textiles. Therefore this paper is mainly focused on the analysis of the dielectric properties of normal fabrics. In general, textiles present a very low dielectric constant that reduces the surface wave losses and increases the impedance bandwidth of the antenna. However, textile materials are constantly exchanging water molecules with the surroundings, which affects their electromagnetic properties. In addition, textile fabrics are porous, anisotropic and compressible materials whose thickness and density might change with low pressures. Therefore it is important to know how these characteristics influence the behaviour of the antenna in order to minimize unwanted effects. This paper presents a survey of the key points for the design and development of textile antennas, from the choice of the textile materials to the framing of the antenna. An analysis of the textile materials that have been used is also presented. PMID:23202235

Salvado, Rita; Loss, Caroline; Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho, Pedro

2012-01-01

74

Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago  

E-print Network

9 Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores the Azores archipelago. Arquipélago. Life and Marine Sciences 27: XX-XX. Management schemes dedicated in the Azores. This paper had two aims: 1) to design a line transect shipboard survey to estimate the absolute

Thomas, Len

75

Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores archipelago  

E-print Network

49 Designing a shipboard line transect survey to estimate cetacean abundance off the Azores the Azores archipelago. Arquipelago. Life and Marine Sciences 27: 49-58. Management schemes dedicated in the Azores. This paper had two aims: 1) to design a line transect shipboard survey to estimate the absolute

Thomas, Len

76

A robust rotorcraft flight control system design methodology utilizing quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotorcraft flight control systems present design challenges which often exceed those associated with fixed-wing aircraft. First, large variations in the response characteristics of the rotorcraft result from the wide range of airspeeds of typical operation (hover to over 100 kts). Second, the assumption of vehicle rigidity often employed in the design of fixed-wing flight control systems is rarely justified in rotorcraft where rotor degrees of freedom can have a significant impact on the system performance and stability. This research was intended to develop a methodology for the design of robust rotorcraft flight control systems. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) was chosen as the basis for the investigation. Quantitative Feedback Theory is a technique which accounts for variability in the dynamic response of the controlled element in the design robust control systems. It was developed to address a Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) design problem, and utilizes two degrees of freedom to satisfy the design criteria. Two techniques were examined for extending the QFT MISO technique to the design of a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) flight control system (FCS) for a UH-60 Black Hawk Helicopter. In the first, a set of MISO systems, mathematically equivalent to the MIMO system, was determined. QFT was applied to each member of the set simultaneously. In the second, the same set of equivalent MISO systems were analyzed sequentially, with closed loop response information from each loop utilized in subsequent MISO designs. The results of each technique were compared, and the advantages of the second, termed Sequential Loop Closure, were clearly evident.

Gorder, Peter James

1993-01-01

77

Multidisciplinary aerospace design optimization: survey of recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing complexity of engineering systems has sparked rising interest in multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). This paper surveys recent publications in the field of aerospace, in which the interest in MDO has been particularly intense. The primary c hallenges in MDO are computational expense and organizational complexity. Accordingly, this survey focuses on various methods used by different researchers to address these

Jaroslaw Sobieszczanski-Sobieski; Raphael T. Haftka

1997-01-01

78

A quantitative framework for the forward design of synthetic miRNA circuits.  

PubMed

Synthetic genetic circuits incorporating regulatory components based on RNA interference (RNAi) have been used in a variety of systems. A comprehensive understanding of the parameters that determine the relationship between microRNA (miRNA) and target expression levels is lacking. We describe a quantitative framework supporting the forward engineering of gene circuits that incorporate RNAi-based regulatory components in mammalian cells. We developed a model that captures the quantitative relationship between miRNA and target gene expression levels as a function of parameters, including mRNA half-life and miRNA target-site number. We extended the model to synthetic circuits that incorporate protein-responsive miRNA switches and designed an optimized miRNA-based protein concentration detector circuit that noninvasively measures small changes in the nuclear concentration of ?-catenin owing to induction of the Wnt signaling pathway. Our results highlight the importance of methods for guiding the quantitative design of genetic circuits to achieve robust, reliable and predictable behaviors in mammalian cells. PMID:25218181

Bloom, Ryan J; Winkler, Sally M; Smolke, Christina D

2014-11-01

79

Obstructed Telescopes Versus Unobstructed Telescopes for Wide Field Survey-A Quantitative Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Telescopes with unobstructed pupils are known to deliver clean point-spread function (PSF) to their focal plane, in contrast to traditional telescopes with obstructed pupils. Recent progress in the manufacturing of aspheric surfaces and mounting accuracy favors unobstructed telescopes over obstructed telescopes for science cases that demand stable and clean PSF over the entire field of view. In this paper we compare the image quality of an unobstructed three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) design with that of an obstructed TMA. Both the designs have the same primary mirror, effective focal length, field of view, and detector characteristics. We demonstrate, using simulated images of faint elliptical galaxies imaged through the two designs, that both the designs can measure morphological parameters with the same precision, if the PSF is reconstructed within 12' of the source. We also demonstrate that the unobstructed design delivers desirable precision even if the PSF is reconstructed 50' away from the source. Therefore, the PSF of unobstructed design is uniform over a wider field of view compared to an obstructed design. The precision of the designs is given by the 1? error bars (68% confidence level) in the fitted values of the axis ratio and position angle of the simulated galaxies.

Singaravelu, Balasubramanian; Cabanac, Remi A.

2014-04-01

80

Inappropriate Survey Design Analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey May Produce Biased Results  

PubMed Central

Objectives The inherent nature of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) design requires special analysis by incorporating sample weights, stratification, and clustering not used in ordinary statistical procedures. Methods This study investigated the proportion of research papers that have used an appropriate statistical methodology out of the research papers analyzing the KNHANES cited in the PubMed online system from 2007 to 2012. We also compared differences in mean and regression estimates between the ordinary statistical data analyses without sampling weight and design-based data analyses using the KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Results Of the 247 research articles cited in PubMed, only 19.8% of all articles used survey design analysis, compared with 80.2% of articles that used ordinary statistical analysis, treating KNHANES data as if it were collected using a simple random sampling method. Means and standard errors differed between the ordinary statistical data analyses and design-based analyses, and the standard errors in the design-based analyses tended to be larger than those in the ordinary statistical data analyses. Conclusions Ignoring complex survey design can result in biased estimates and overstated significance levels. Sample weights, stratification, and clustering of the design must be incorporated into analyses to ensure the development of appropriate estimates and standard errors of these estimates. PMID:23573374

Kim, Yangho; Park, Sunmin; Kim, Nam-Soo

2013-01-01

81

Rotorcraft flight control design using quantitative feedback theory and dynamic crossfeeds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-input, multi-output controls design with robust crossfeeds is presented for a rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using quantitative feedback theory (QFT). Decoupling criteria are developed for dynamic crossfeed design and implementation. Frequency dependent performance metrics focusing on piloted flight are developed and tested on 23 flight configurations. The metrics show that the resulting design is superior to alternative control system designs using conventional fixed-gain crossfeeds and to feedback-only designs which rely on high gains to suppress undesired off-axis responses. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets current handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensator successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective.

Cheng, Rendy P.

1995-01-01

82

Applications of numerical optimization methods to helicopter design problems: A survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of applications of mathematical programming methods is used to improve the design of helicopters and their components. Applications of multivariable search techniques in the finite dimensional space are considered. Five categories of helicopter design problems are considered: (1) conceptual and preliminary design, (2) rotor-system design, (3) airframe structures design, (4) control system design, and (5) flight trajectory planning. Key technical progress in numerical optimization methods relevant to rotorcraft applications are summarized.

Miura, H.

1984-01-01

83

The Health Effects of Climate Change: A Survey of Recent Quantitative Research  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been a large scientific and public debate on climate change and its direct as well as indirect effects on human health. In particular, a large amount of research on the effects of climate changes on human health has addressed two fundamental questions. First, can historical data be of some help in revealing how short-run or long-run climate variations affect the occurrence of infectious diseases? Second, is it possible to build more accurate quantitative models which are capable of predicting the future effects of different climate conditions on the transmissibility of particularly dangerous infectious diseases? The primary goal of this paper is to review the most relevant contributions which have directly tackled those questions, both with respect to the effects of climate changes on the diffusion of non-infectious and infectious diseases, with malaria as a case study. Specific attention will be drawn on the methodological aspects of each study, which will be classified according to the type of quantitative model considered, namely time series models, panel data and spatial models, and non-statistical approaches. Since many different disciplines and approaches are involved, a broader view is necessary in order to provide a better understanding of the interactions between climate and health. In this respect, our paper also presents a critical summary of the recent literature related to more general aspects of the impacts of climate changes on human health, such as: the economics of climate change; how to manage the health effects of climate change; the establishment of Early Warning Systems for infectious diseases. PMID:22754455

Grasso, Margherita; Manera, Matteo; Chiabai, Aline; Markandya, Anil

2012-01-01

84

Abstract Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reac-tion (PCR) assays were designed that enabled the zygosi-  

E-print Network

Introduction The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be tremendously useful in many scientific fieldsAbstract Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reac- tion (PCR) assays were designed that enabled

Parrott, Wayne

85

The SCUBA Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey - I. Survey motivation, design and data processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) is a major new blank-field extragalactic submillimetre (submm) survey currently underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Ultimately, SHADES aims to cover half a square degree at 450 and 850mum to a 4sigma depth of ~= 8mJy at 850mum. Two fields are being observed, the Subaru\\/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF)

A. M. J. Mortier; S. Serjeant; J. S. Dunlop; S. E. Scott; P. Ade; D. Alexander; O. Almaini; I. Aretxaga; C. Baugh; A. J. Benson; P. N. Best; A. Blain; J. Bock; C. Borys; A. Bressan; C. Carilli; E. L. Chapin; S. Chapman; D. L. Clements; K. Coppin; M. Crawford; M. Devlin; S. Dicker; L. Dunne; S. A. Eales; A. C. Edge; D. Farrah; M. Fox; C. Frenk; E. Gaztañaga; W. K. Gear; E. Gonzales-Solares; G. L. Granato; T. R. Greve; J. A. Grimes; J. Gundersen; M. Halpern; P. Hargrave; D. H. Hughes; R. J. Ivison; M. J. Jarvis; T. Jenness; R. Jimenez; E. van Kampen; A. King; C. Lacey; A. Lawrence; K. Lepage; R. G. Mann; G. Marsden; P. Mauskopf; B. Netterfield; S. Oliver; L. Olmi; M. J. Page; J. A. Peacock; C. P. Pearson; W. J. Percival; A. Pope; R. S. Priddey; S. Rawlings; N. Roche; M. Rowan-Robinson; D. Scott; K. Sekiguchi; M. Seigar; L. Silva; C. Simpson; I. Smail; J. A. Stevens; T. Takagi; G. Tucker; C. Vlahakis; I. Waddington; J. Wagg; M. Watson; C. Willott; M. Vaccari

2005-01-01

86

Design-based treatment of unit nonresponse in environmental surveys using calibration weighting.  

PubMed

Unit nonresponse is often a problem in sample surveys. It arises when the values of the survey variable cannot be recorded for some sampled units. In this paper, the use of nonresponse calibration weighting to treat nonresponse is considered in a complete design-based framework. Nonresponse is viewed as a fixed characteristic of the units. The approach is suitable in environmental and forest surveys when sampled sites cannot be reached by field crews. Approximate expressions of design-based bias and variance of the calibration estimator are derived and design-based consistency is investigated. Choice of auxiliary variables to perform calibration is discussed. Sen-Yates-Grundy, Horvitz-Thompson, and jackknife estimators of the sampling variance are proposed. Analytical and Monte Carlo results demonstrate the validity of the procedure when the relationship between survey and auxiliary variables is similar in respondent and nonrespondent strata. An application to a forest survey performed in Northeastern Italy is considered. PMID:24022794

Fattorini, Lorenzo; Franceschi, Sara; Maffei, Daniela

2013-11-01

87

SURVEY GUIDE SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS  

E-print Network

SURVEY GUIDE 1 SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS A GUIDE TO DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING SURVEYS #12;S U R V E Y GU I D E OFFICE OF QUALITY IMPROVEMENT SURVEY FUNDAMENTALS This guide describes in non-technical terms the underlying principles of good survey design and implementation. Clear, simple explanations lead the reader

Shapiro, Vadim

88

THE OPTICALLY UNBIASED GAMMA-RAY BURST HOST (TOUGH) SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CATALOGS  

SciTech Connect

Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful tracers of star-forming galaxies. We have defined a homogeneous subsample of 69 Swift GRB-selected galaxies spanning a very wide redshift range. Special attention has been devoted to making the sample optically unbiased through simple and well-defined selection criteria based on the high-energy properties of the bursts and their positions on the sky. Thanks to our extensive follow-up observations, this sample has now achieved a comparatively high degree of redshift completeness, and thus provides a legacy sample, useful for statistical studies of GRBs and their host galaxies. In this paper, we present the survey design and summarize the results of our observing program conducted at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) aimed at obtaining the most basic properties of galaxies in this sample, including a catalog of R and K{sub s} magnitudes and redshifts. We detect the host galaxies for 80% of the GRBs in the sample, although only 42% have K{sub s} -band detections, which confirms that GRB-selected host galaxies are generally blue. The sample is not uniformly blue, however, with two extremely red objects detected. Moreover, galaxies hosting GRBs with no optical/NIR afterglows, whose identification therefore relies on X-ray localizations, are significantly brighter and redder than those with an optical/NIR afterglow. This supports a scenario where GRBs occurring in more massive and dusty galaxies frequently suffer high optical obscuration. Our spectroscopic campaign has resulted in 77% now having redshift measurements, with a median redshift of 2.14 {+-} 0.18. TOUGH alone includes 17 detected z > 2 Swift GRB host galaxies suitable for individual and statistical studies-a substantial increase over previous samples. Seven hosts have detections of the Ly{alpha} emission line and we can exclude an early indication that Ly{alpha} emission is ubiquitous among GRB hosts, but confirm that Ly{alpha} is stronger in GRB-selected galaxies than in flux-limited samples of Lyman break galaxies.

Hjorth, Jens; Malesani, Daniele; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Kruehler, Thomas; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Watson, Darach [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Jakobsson, Pall; Schulze, Steve [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 3, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Jaunsen, Andreas O. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Gorosabel, Javier [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Levan, Andrew J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michalowski, Michal J. [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Moller, Palle [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching by Muenchen (Germany); Tanvir, Nial R., E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

2012-09-10

89

THE IMACS CLUSTER BUILDING SURVEY. V. FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR STARBURST RECYCLING FROM QUANTITATIVE GALAXY MORPHOLOGIES  

SciTech Connect

Using J- and K{sub s}-band imaging obtained as part of the IMACS Cluster Building Survey (ICBS), we measure Sérsic indices for 2160 field and cluster galaxies at 0.31 < z < 0.54. Using both mass- and magnitude-limited samples, we compare the distributions for spectroscopically determined passive, continuously star-forming, starburst, and post-starburst systems and show that previously established spatial and statistical connections between these types extend to their gross morphologies. Outside of cluster cores, we find close structural ties between starburst and continuously star-forming, as well as post-starburst and passive types, but not between starbursts and post-starbursts. These results independently support two conclusions presented in Paper II of this series: (1) most starbursts are the product of a non-disruptive triggering mechanism that is insensitive to global environment, such as minor mergers; (2) starbursts and post-starbursts generally represent transient phases in the lives of 'normal' star-forming and quiescent galaxies, respectively, originating from and returning to these systems in closed 'recycling' loops. In this picture, spectroscopically identified post-starbursts constitute a minority of all recently terminated starbursts, largely ruling out the typical starburst as a quenching event in all but the densest environments.

Abramson, Louis E.; Gladders, Michael D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Dressler, Alan; Oemler, Augustus Jr.; Monson, Andrew; Persson, Eric [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Poggianti, Bianca M.; Vulcani, Benedetta, E-mail: labramson@uchicago.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)

2013-11-10

90

ESTIMATING PROPORTION OF AREA OCCUPIED UNDER COMPLEX SURVEY DESIGNS  

EPA Science Inventory

Estimating proportion of sites occupied, or proportion of area occupied (PAO) is a common problem in environmental studies. Typically, field surveys do not ensure that occupancy of a site is made with perfect detection. Maximum likelihood estimation of site occupancy rates when...

91

Effect of survey design and catch rate estimation on total catch estimates in Chinook salmon fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roving–roving and roving–access creel surveys are the primary techniques used to obtain information on harvest of Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in Idaho sport fisheries. Once interviews are conducted using roving–roving or roving–access survey designs, mean catch rate can be estimated with the ratio-of-means (ROM) estimator, the mean-of-ratios (MOR) estimator, or the MOR estimator with exclusion of short-duration (?0.5 h) trips. Our objective was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates obtained from use of the two survey designs and three catch rate estimators for Idaho Chinook salmon fisheries. Information on angling populations was obtained by direct visual observation of portions of Chinook salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over an 18-d period. Based on data from the angling populations, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the properties of the catch rate estimators and survey designs. Among the three estimators, the ROM estimator provided the most accurate and precise estimates of mean catch rate and total catch for both roving–roving and roving–access surveys. On average, the root mean square error of simulated total catch estimates was 1.42 times greater and relative bias was 160.13 times greater for roving–roving surveys than for roving–access surveys. Length-of-stay bias and nonstationary catch rates in roving–roving surveys both appeared to affect catch rate and total catch estimates. Our results suggest that use of the ROM estimator in combination with an estimate of angler effort provided the least biased and most precise estimates of total catch for both survey designs. However, roving–access surveys were more accurate than roving–roving surveys for Chinook salmon fisheries in Idaho.

McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

2012-01-01

92

First National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing: survey design and methods for the allergen and endotoxin components.  

PubMed Central

From July 1998 to August 1999, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences conducted the first National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. The purpose of the survey was to assess children's potential household exposure to lead, allergens, and bacterial endotoxins. We surveyed a sample of 831 homes, representing 96 million permanently occupied, noninstitutional housing units that permit resident children. We administered questionnaires to household members, made home observations, and took environmental samples. This article provides general background information on the survey, an overview of the survey design, and a description of the data collection and laboratory methods pertaining to the allergen and endotoxin components. We collected dust samples from a bed, the bedroom floor, a sofa or chair, the living room floor, the kitchen floor, and a basement floor and analyzed them for cockroach allergen Bla g 1, the dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, the cat allergen Fel d 1, the dog allergen Can f 1, the rodent allergens Rat n 1 and mouse urinary protein, allergens of the fungus Alternaria alternata, and endotoxin. This article provides the essential context for subsequent reports that will describe the prevalence of allergens and endotoxin in U.S. households, their distribution by various housing characteristics, and their associations with allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis. PMID:12003758

Vojta, Patrick J; Friedman, Warren; Marker, David A; Clickner, Robert; Rogers, John W; Viet, Susan M; Muilenberg, Michael L; Thorne, Peter S; Arbes, Samuel J; Zeldin, Darryl C

2002-01-01

93

Estimating effects of a single gene and polygenes on quantitative traits from a diallel design.  

PubMed

A genetic model is developed with additive and dominance effects of a single gene and polygenes as well as general and specific reciprocal effects for the progeny from a diallel mating design. The methods of ANOVA, minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation (MINQUE), restricted maximum likelihood estimation (REML), and maximum likelihood estimation (ML) are suggested for estimating variance components, and the methods of generalized least squares (GLS) and ordinary least squares (OLS) for fixed effects, while best linear unbiased prediction, linear unbiased prediction (LUP), and adjusted unbiased prediction are suggested for analyzing random effects. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to evaluate the unbiasedness and efficiency of statistical methods involving two diallel designs with commonly used sample sizes, 6 and 8 parents, with no and missing crosses, respectively. Simulation results show that GLS and OLS are almost equally efficient for estimation of fixed effects, while MINQUE (1) and REML are better estimators of the variance components and LUP is most practical method for prediction of random effects. Data from a Drosophila melanogaster experiment (Gilbert 1985a, Theor appl Genet 69:625-629) were used as a working example to demonstrate the statistical analysis. The new methodology is also applicable to screening candidate gene(s) and to other mating designs with multiple parents, such as nested (NC Design I) and factorial (NC Design II) designs. Moreover, this methodology can serve as a guide to develop new methods for detecting indiscernible major genes and mapping quantitative trait loci based on mixture distribution theory. The computer program for the methods suggested in this article is freely available from the authors. PMID:17028974

Lou, Xiang-Yang; Yang, Mark C K

2006-01-01

94

A quantitative study to design an experimental setup for photoacoustic imaging.  

PubMed

During the last decade, a new modality called photoacoustic imaging has emerged. The increasing interest for this new modality is due to the fact that it combines advantages of ultrasound and optical imaging, i.e. the high contrast due to optical absorption and the low acoustic attenuation in biological tissues. It is thus possible to study vascularization because blood has high optical absorption coefficient. Papers in the literature often focus on applications and rarely discuss quantitative parameters. The goal of this paper is to provide quantitative elements to design an acquisition setup. By defining the targeted resolution and penetration depth, it is then possible to evaluate which kind of excitation and reception systems have to be used. First, we recall theoretical background related to photoacoustic effect before to describe the experiments based on a nanosecond laser at 1064 nm and 2.25-5 MHz transducers. Second, we present results about the relation linking fluence laser to signal amplitude and axial and lateral resolutions of our acquisition setup. We verify the linear relation between fluence and amplitude before to estimate axial resolution at 550 ?m for a 2.25 MHz ultrasonic transducer. Concerning lateral resolution, we show that a reconstruction technique based on curvilinear acquisition of 30 lines improves it by a factor of 3 compared to a lateral displacement. Future works will include improvement of lateral resolution using probes, like in ultrasound imaging, instead of single-element transducers. PMID:22256002

Marion, Adrien; Boutet, Jérôme; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Vray, Didier

2011-01-01

95

Integrated intelligent design and assembly planning: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the relevant literature of the development of methodologies and systems for integrated intelligent design of assembled products and processes. Based on a combination of the concurrent engineering approach and artificial intelligence techniques, an assembly oriented intelligent scheme for the integration of design and planning is proposed, in which the following components or activities are considered and carried

X. F. Zha; S. Y. E. Lim; S. C. Fok

1998-01-01

96

On standard and optimal designs of industrial-scale 2-D seismic surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal aim of performing a survey or experiment is to maximize the desired information within a data set by minimizing the post-survey uncertainty on the ranges of the model parameter values. Using Bayesian, non-linear, statistical experimental design (SED) methods we show how industrial scale amplitude variations with offset (AVO) surveys can be constructed to maximize the information content contained in AVO crossplots, the principal source of petrophysical information from seismic surveys. The design method allows offset dependent errors, previously not allowed in non-linear geoscientific SED methods. The method is applied to a single common-midpoint gather. The results show that the optimal design is highly dependent on the ranges of the model parameter values when a low number of receivers is being used, but that a single optimal design exists for the complete range of parameters once the number of receivers is increased above a threshold value. However, when acquisition and processing costs are considered we find that a design with constant spatial receiver separation survey becomes close to optimal. This explains why regularly-spaced, 2-D seismic surveys have performed so well historically, not only from the point of view of noise attenuation and imaging in which homogeneous data coverage confers distinct advantages, but also to provide data to constrain subsurface petrophysical information.

Guest, T.; Curtis, A.

2011-08-01

97

Review of Quantitative Surveys of the Length and Stability of MTBE, TBA, and Benzene Plumes in Groundwater at UST Sites.  

PubMed

Quantitative information regarding the length and stability condition of groundwater plumes of benzene, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) has been compiled from thousands of underground storage tank (UST) sites in the United States where gasoline fuel releases have occurred. This paper presents a review and summary of 13 published scientific surveys, of which 10 address benzene and/or MTBE plumes only, and 3 address benzene, MTBE, and TBA plumes. These data show the observed lengths of benzene and MTBE plumes to be relatively consistent among various regions and hydrogeologic settings, with median lengths at a delineation limit of 10?µg/L falling into relatively narrow ranges from 101 to 185?feet for benzene and 110 to 178?feet for MTBE. The observed statistical distributions of MTBE and benzene plumes show the two plume types to be of comparable lengths, with 90th percentile MTBE plume lengths moderately exceeding benzene plume lengths by 16% at a 10-µg/L delineation limit (400?feet vs. 345?feet) and 25% at a 5-µg/L delineation limit (530?feet vs. 425?feet). Stability analyses for benzene and MTBE plumes found 94 and 93% of these plumes, respectively, to be in a nonexpanding condition, and over 91% of individual monitoring wells to exhibit nonincreasing concentration trends. Three published studies addressing TBA found TBA plumes to be of comparable length to MTBE and benzene plumes, with 86% of wells in one study showing nonincreasing concentration trends. PMID:25040137

Connor, John A; Kamath, Roopa; Walker, Kenneth L; McHugh, Thomas E

2014-07-12

98

Controls design with crossfeeds for hovering rotorcraft using quantitative feedback theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multi-input, multi-output controls design with dynamic crossfeed pre-compensation is presented for rotorcraft in near-hovering flight using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT). The resulting closed-loop control system bandwidth allows the rotorcraft to be considered for use as an inflight simulator. The use of dynamic, robust crossfeeds prior to the QFT design reduces the magnitude of required feedback gain and results in performance that meets most handling qualities specifications relative to the decoupling of off-axis responses. Handling qualities are Level 1 for both low-gain tasks and high-gain tasks in the roll, pitch, and yaw axes except for the 10 deg/sec moderate-amplitude yaw command where the rotorcraft exhibits Level 2 handling qualities in the yaw axis caused by phase lag. The combined effect of the QFT feedback design following the implementation of low-order, dynamic crossfeed compensators successfully decouples ten of twelve off-axis channels. For the other two channels it was not possible to find a single, low-order crossfeed that was effective. This is an area to be investigated in future research.

Tischler, Mark B.; Biezad, Daniel J.; Cheng, Rendy

1996-01-01

99

Preliminary design of the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From theoretical analysis and site testing work for 4 years on Dome A, Antarctica, we can reasonably predict that it is a very good astronomical site, as good as or even better than Dome C and suitable for observations ranging from optical to infrared & sub-mm wavelengths. After the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR), which was composed of four small fixed telescopes with diameter of 145mm and the three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3) with 500mm entrance diameter, the Kunlun Dark Universe Survey Telescope (KDUST) with diameter of 2.5m is proposed. KDUST will adopt an innovative optical system which can deliver very good image quality over a 2 square degree flat field of view. Some other features are: a fixed focus suitable for different instruments, active optics for miscollimation correction, a lens-prisms that can be used as an atmospheric dispersion corrector or as a very low-dispersion spectrometer when moved in / out of the main optical path without changing the performance of the system, and a compact structure to make easier transportation to Dome A. KDUST will be mounted on a tower with height 15m in order to make a full use of the superb free atmospheric seeing.

Yuan, Xiangyan; Cui, Xiangqun; Su, Ding-qiang; Zhu, Yongtian; Wang, Lifan; Gu, Bozhong; Gong, Xuefei; Li, Xinnan

2013-01-01

100

Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates Stephen T. Buckland Andrew J. Plumptre Len Thomas Eric A. Rexstad  

E-print Network

1 1 2 3 4 5 Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates Stephen T. Buckland · Andrew transect surveys for primates Corresponding author: S.T. Buckland, CREEM, The Observatory, Buchanan Gardens 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Design and Analysis of Line Transect Surveys for Primates Stephen T. Buckland

Thomas, Len

101

A Survey of Hardware Accelerators Used in Computer-Aided Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hardware accelerators, or special-purpose engines, have been used in computer-aided design applications for nearly 20 years. In this time, roughly 20 machines have been built and tested specifically for such purposes as simulation, design rule checking, placement, and routing. Their uses are increasing, and the machines are becoming commercially available. This survey describes not only the machines but also their

Tom Blank

1984-01-01

102

Hit by a Perfect Storm? Art & Design in the National Student Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has long been the suspicion amongst staff in Art & Design that the ratings given to their subject disciplines in the UK's National Student Survey are adversely affected by a combination of circumstances--a "perfect storm". The "perfect storm" proposition is tested by comparing ratings for Art & Design with…

Yorke, Mantz; Orr, Susan; Blair, Bernadette

2014-01-01

103

The Effect of Cluster Sampling Design in Survey Research on the Standard Error Statistic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard statistical methods are used to analyze data that is assumed to be collected using a simple random sampling scheme. These methods, however, tend to underestimate variance when the data is collected with a cluster design, which is often found in educational survey research. The purposes of this paper are to demonstrate how a cluster design…

Wang, Lin; Fan, Xitao

104

A Survey of Human-Computer Interaction Design in Science Fiction Movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Fiction movies have always been a medium for spec- ulation about the future of technology. The most visible part of technology often is its interaction design, which therefore appears prominently in these movies. This paper presents a survey of human-computer interaction designs in SciFi movies during the past decades and it relates the techniques shown there to existing technologies

Michael Schmitz; Christoph Endres

2008-01-01

105

A survey of human-computer interaction design in science fiction movies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science Fiction movies have always been a medium for speculation about the future of technology. The most visible part of technology often is its interaction design, which therefore appears prominently in these movies. This paper presents a survey of human-computer interaction designs in SciFi movies during the past decades and it relates the techniques shown there to existing technologies and

Michael Schmitz; Christoph Endres; Andreas Butz

2007-01-01

106

Design study of the deepsky ultraviolet survey telescope. [Spacelab payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary mechanical design and specifications are presented for a wide field ultraviolet telescope and detector to be carried as a Spacelab payload. Topics discussed include support structure stiffness (torsional and bending), mirror assembly, thermal control, optical alignment, attachment to the instrument pointing pallet, control and display, power requirements, acceptance and qualification test plans, cost analysis and scheduling. Drawings are included.

Page, N. A.; Callaghan, F. G.; Killen, R. H.; Willis, W.

1977-01-01

107

Designing Your Sample Efficiently: Clustering Effects in Education Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Education, and information about education, is highly structured: individuals are grouped into classes, which are grouped into schools, which are grouped into local authorities, which are grouped into countries. The degree of similarity among members of a group, such as a school or classroom, is a very important factor in the design…

Hutchison, Dougal

2009-01-01

108

The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.  

PubMed

The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. PMID:24902590

Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

2014-09-01

109

A survey of design methods for failure detection in dynamic systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of methods for the detection of abrupt changes (such as failures) in stochastic dynamical systems were surveyed. The class of linear systems were emphasized, but the basic concepts, if not the detailed analyses, carry over to other classes of systems. The methods surveyed range from the design of specific failure-sensitive filters, to the use of statistical tests on filter innovations, to the development of jump process formulations. Tradeoffs in complexity versus performance are discussed.

Willsky, A. S.

1975-01-01

110

Analytical modeling in complex surveys of work practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative industrial relations research frequently relies on data collected from large surveys of establishments that use complex sampling designs, such as stratified and unequal probability sampling. The authors analyze two complex surveys of establishments, the National Organizations Survey and the National Survey of Establishments. They discuss design-based (survey-weighted) and model-based (unweighted) strategies for analyzing these data. They show that the

Jerome P. Reiter; Elaine L. Zanutto; Larry W. Hunter

2005-01-01

111

Compatible immuno-NASBA LOC device for quantitative detection of waterborne pathogens: design and validation.  

PubMed

Waterborne pathogens usually pose a global threat to animals and human beings. There has been a growing demand for convenient and sensitive tools to detect the potential emerging pathogens in water. In this study, a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device based on the real-time immuno-NASBA (immuno-nucleic acid sequence-based amplification) assay was designed, fabricated and verified. The disposable immuno-NASBA chip is modelled on a 96-well ELISA microplate, which contains 43 reaction chambers inside the bionic channel networks. All valves are designed outside the chip and are reusable. The sample and reagent solutions were pushed into each chamber in turn, which was controlled by the valve system. Notably, the immuno-NASBA chip is completely compatible with common microplate readers in a biological laboratory, and can distinguish multiple waterborne pathogens in water samples quantitatively and simultaneously. The performance of the LOC device was demonstrated by detecting the presence of a synthetic peptide, ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and two common waterborne pathogens, Escherichia coli (E. coli) and rotavirus, in artificial samples. The results indicated that the LOC device has the potential to quantify traces of waterborne pathogens at femtomolar levels with high specificity, although the detection process was still subject to some factors, such as ribonuclease (RNase) contamination and non-specific adsorption. As an ultra-sensitive tool to quantify waterborne pathogens, the LOC device can be used to monitor water quality in the drinking water system. Furthermore, a series of compatible high-throughput LOC devices for monitoring waterborne pathogens could be derived from this prototype with the same design idea, which may render the complicated immuno-NASBA assays convenient to common users without special training. PMID:22146918

Zhao, Xinyan; Dong, Tao; Yang, Zhaochu; Pires, Nuno; Høivik, Nils

2012-02-01

112

The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA): Design, Technical Overview and Performance  

E-print Network

The Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) is the 4-metre wide-field survey telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory, equipped with the world's largest near-infrared imaging camera (VISTA IR Camera, VIRCAM), with 1.65 degree diameter field of view, and 67 Mpixels giving 0.6 square degrees active pixel area, operating at wavelengths 0.8 - 2.3 microns. We provide a short history of the project, and an overview of the technical details of the full system including the optical design, mirrors, telescope structure, IR camera, active optics, enclosure and software. The system includes several innovative design features such as the f/1 primary mirror, the cold-baffle camera design and the sophisticated wavefront sensing system delivering closed-loop 5-axis alignment of the secondary mirror. We conclude with a summary of the delivered performance, and a short overview of the six ESO public surveys in progress on VISTA.

Sutherland, Will; Dalton, Gavin; Atad-Ettedgui, Eli; Beard, Steven; Bennett, Richard; Bezawada, Naidu; Born, Andrew; Caldwell, Martin; Clark, Paul; Craig, Simon; Henry, David; Jeffers, Paul; Little, Bryan; McPherson, Alistair; Murray, John; Stewart, Malcolm; Stobie, Brian; Terrett, David; Ward, Kim; Whalley, Martin; Woodhouse, Guy

2014-01-01

113

Spatial coverage and inference: Trade-offs between survey design and model assumptions in the North American Breeding Bird Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Route selection in the North American Breeding Bird Survey is based on a quasi-stratified random sampling design motivated (in part) by the desire to achieve unbiased estimates of trends and other summaries of avian population status. In practice, some departure from design intentions is realized because active routes become concentrated around urban areas, and this yields unbalanced sampling with respect to habitat and land use patterns, and temporal changes in land use. The need to consider potential biases induced by factors not controlled for (or uncontrollable) by design has motivated the development of a model-based framework for conducting inference about population status and trend assessments from BBS data. The present modeling framework is sufficiently generic to allow consideration of designs that deviate from random sampling. Thus, for example, redundant information that results from clustering routes around urban areas, or targeted sampling to assess specific hypotheses (e.g., about the effect of land-use patterns on population status), can be viewed not as deficiencies in the design, but as features that necessitate extension of existing models used for assessment. In this paper, we consider whether the sampling design is relevant to conducting inference about population status and trends, and we provide a framework for addressing potential biases induced by an imbalance in spatial coverage of sampled routes.

Royle, J.A.; Sauer, J.R.

2005-01-01

114

Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

Plonsky, Luke

2013-01-01

115

Quantitative clinical nonpulsatile and localized visible light oximeter: design of the T-Stat tissue oximeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the development of a general, quantitative, and localized visible light clinical tissue oximeter, sensitive to both hypoxemia and ischemia. Monitor design and operation were optimized over four instrument generations. A range of clinical probes were developed, including non-contact wands, invasive catheters, and penetrating needles with injection ports. Real-time data were collected (a) from probes, standards, and reference solutions to optimize each component, (b) from ex vivo hemoglobin solutions co-analyzed for StO2% and pO2 during deoxygenation, and (c) from normoxic human subject skin and mucosal tissue surfaces. Results show that (a) differential spectroscopy allows extraction of features with minimization of the effects of scattering, (b) in vitro oximetry produces a hemoglobin saturation binding curve of expected sigmoid shape and values, and (c) that monitoring human tissues allows real-time tissue spectroscopic features to be monitored. Unlike with near-infrared (NIRS) or pulse oximetry (SpO2%) methods, we found non-pulsatile, diffusion-based tissue oximetry (StO2%) to work most reliably for non-contact reflectance monitoring and for invasive catheter- or needle-based monitoring, using blue to orange light (475-600 nm). Measured values were insensitive to motion artifact. Down time was non-existent. We conclude that the T-Stat oximeter design is suitable for the collection of spectroscopic data from human subjects, and that the oximeter may have application in the monitoring of regional hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the capillary tissue spaces of human subjects.

Benaron, David A.; Parachikov, Ilian H.; Cheong, Wai-Fung; Friedland, Shai; Duckworth, Joshua L.; Otten, David M.; Rubinsky, Boris E.; Horchner, Uwe B.; Kermit, Eben L.; Liu, Frank W.; Levinson, Carl J.; Murphy, Aileen L.; Price, John W.; Talmi, Yair; Weersing, James P.

2003-07-01

116

Optical Design Trade Study for the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission concept was ranked first in new space astrophysics mission by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey incorporating the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM)-Omega payload concept and multiple science white papers. This mission is based on a space telescope at L2 studying exoplanets [via gravitational microlensing], probing dark energy, and surveying the near infrared sky. Since the release of NWNH, the WFIRST project has been working with the WFIRST science definition team (SDT) to refine mission and payload concepts. We present the driving requirements. The current interim reference mission point design, based on the use of a 1.3m unobscured aperture three mirror anastigmat form, with focal imaging and slitless spectroscopy science channels, is consistent with the requirements, requires no technology development, and out performs the JDEM-Omega design.

Content, David A.; Goullioud, R.; Lehan, John P.; Mentzell, John E.

2011-01-01

117

Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope [WFIRST]: Telescope Design and Simulated Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey proposed multiple missions with NIR focal planes and 3 mirror wide field telescopes in the 1.5m aperture range. None of them would have won as standalone missions WFIRST is a combination of these missions, created by Astro 2010 committee. WFIRST Science Definition Team (SDT) tasked to examine the design. Project team is a GSFC-JPL-Caltech collaboration. This interim mission design is a result of combined work by the project team with the SDT.

Goullioud, R.; Content, D. A.; Kuan, G. M.; Moore, J. D.; Chang, Z.; Sunada, E. T.; Villalvazo, J.; Hawk, J. P.; Armani, N. V.; Johnson, E. L.; Powell, C. A.

2012-01-01

118

Design Techniques of Stated Preference Method in Travel Behavior Research: A Research on Data Collection Method and Survey Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stated preference (SP) method is a crucial tool widely used in travel behavior research. The main theme addressed was two design techniques of SP surveys: data collection method and survey method. The definition and characteristics of three data collection methods were discussed. Then an evaluation and applicability analysis were achieved. The five major survey methods were elaborated and evaluated.The research

Zhang Yi; Yun Meiping; Yang Xiaoguang

2009-01-01

119

A Critical Decision in Survey/Feedback Designs: To Identify Respondents or Not?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses one of those technical questions that has profound implications about which we know so little and assume so much: should survey/feedback designs identify respondents? Convenience and caution usually dictate anonymity. However, this study shows that identifiers and nonidentifiers differ significantly. (Author)

Golembiewski, Robert T.; Billingsley, Keith R.

1976-01-01

120

Designing fecal pellet surveys for snowshoe hares K.E. Hodges *, L.S. Mills  

E-print Network

(Vernes, 1999), and elephants (Walsh et al., 2001). For snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus in revised form 15 July 2008 Accepted 15 July 2008 Keywords: Abundance index Fecal pellet plots Lepus americanus Monte Carlo simulations Negative binomial Snowshoe hare Survey design A B S T R A C T Index

Mills, L. Scott

121

USING GIS TO GENERATE SPATIALLY-BALANCED RANDOM SURVEY DESIGNS FOR NATURAL RESOURCE APPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling of a population is frequently required to understand trends and patterns in natural resource management because financial and time constraints preclude a complete census. A rigorous probability-based survey design specifies where to sample so that inferences from the sam...

122

Iteratively constructive sequential design of experiments and surveys with nonlinear parameter-data relationships  

E-print Network

. We introduce an iteratively constructive method that reduces the computational demand by introducing are invested every year in scientific surveys and experiments by both industry and scientific funding agencies. For each experiment a design process must first take place. Physical and logistical con- straints define

123

Methodological Uses of TUS to Inform Design and Analysis of Tobacco Control Surveys  

Cancer.gov

Methodological Uses of TUS to Inform Design and Analysis of Tobacco Control Surveys Cristine Delnevo, PhD, MPH UMDNJ-School of Public Health Why is methods research in Tobacco Surveillance important? z Measuring individual behavior over time is crucial

124

The C-Band All-Sky Survey: instrument design, status, and first-look data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS) aims to produce sensitive, all-sky maps of diffuse Galactic emission at 5 GHz in total intensity and linear polarization. These maps will be used (with other surveys) to separate the several astrophysical components contributing to microwave emission, and in particular will allow an accurate map of synchrotron emission to be produced for the subtraction of foregrounds from measurements of the polarized Cosmic Microwave Background. We describe the design of the analog instrument, the optics of our 6.1 m dish at the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, the status of observations, and first-look data.

King, Oliver G.; Copley, Charles; Davies, Rod; Davis, Richard; Dickinson, Clive; Hafez, Yaser A.; Holler, Christian; John, Jaya John; Jonas, Justin L.; Jones, Michael E.; Leahy, J. Patrick; Muchovej, Stephen J. C.; Pearson, Timothy J.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Stevenson, Matthew A.; Taylor, Angela C.

2010-07-01

125

Surveys  

Cancer.gov

Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) The world's largest, on-going telephone health survey system, tracking health conditions and risk behaviors in the United States yearly since 1984. Currently, data are collected monthly in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Guam.

126

I.4 Screening Experimental Designs for Quantitative Trait Loci, Association Mapping, Genotype-by Environment Interaction, and Other Investigations  

PubMed Central

Crop breeding programs using conventional approaches, as well as new biotechnological tools, rely heavily on data resulting from the evaluation of genotypes in different environmental conditions (agronomic practices, locations, and years). Statistical methods used for designing field and laboratory trials and for analyzing the data originating from those trials need to be accurate and efficient. The statistical analysis of multi-environment trails (MET) is useful for assessing genotype?×?environment interaction (GEI), mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs), and studying QTL?×?environment interaction (QEI). Large populations are required for scientific study of QEI, and for determining the association between molecular markers and quantitative trait variability. Therefore, appropriate control of local variability through efficient experimental design is of key importance. In this chapter we present and explain several classes of augmented designs useful for achieving control of variability and assessing genotype effects in a practical and efficient manner. A popular procedure for unreplicated designs is the one known as “systematically spaced checks.” Augmented designs contain “c” check or standard treatments replicated “r” times, and “n” new treatments or genotypes included once (usually) in the experiment. PMID:22675304

Federer, Walter T.; Crossa, José

2012-01-01

127

"Do I really want to do this?" Longitudinal cohort study participants' perspectives on postal survey design: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Randomised controlled trials have investigated aspects of postal survey design yet cannot elaborate on reasons behind participants' decision making and survey behaviour. This paper reports participants' perspectives of the design of, and participation in, a longitudinal postal cohort survey. It describes strengths and weaknesses in study design from the perspectives of study participants and aims to contribute to the: 1) design of future cohort surveys and questionnaires generally and, 2) design of cohort surveys for people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) specifically. Methods In-depth interviews explored the design of postal surveys previously completed by participants. Interviews used open ended questioning with a topic guide for prompts if areas of interest were not covered spontaneously. Thematic data analysis was undertaken based on the framework method. A second researcher verified all coding. Results Data from fourteen interviews were analysed within three main themes; participation, survey design and survey content. One of the main findings was the importance of clear communication aimed at the correct audience both when inviting potential participants to take part and within the survey itself. Providing enough information about the study, having a topic of interest and an explanation of likely benefits of the study were important when inviting people to participate. The neutrality of the survey and origination from a reputable source were both important; as was an explanation about why information was being collected within the survey itself. Study findings included participants' impressions when invited to take part, why they participated, the acceptability of follow-up of non-responders and why participants completed the follow-up postal survey. Also discussed were participants' first impression of the survey, its length, presentation and participants' views about specific questions within the survey. Conclusions Ideas generated in this study provide an insight into participants' decision making and survey behaviour and may enhance the acceptability of future surveys to potential participants. As well as clear communication, participants valued incentives and survey questions that were relevant to them. However, opinions varied as to the preferred format for responses with some advising more opportunity for open-ended feedback. We also found that some standard format questions can raise quandaries for individual participants. PMID:21269515

2011-01-01

128

Assessing Invasion Impact: Survey Design Considerations and Implications for Management of An Invasive Marine Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a three-year study of sheltered low shore assemblages colonised by the non-indigenous Asian kelp Undariapinnatifida to explore survey design issues for assessing the ecological impacts of invasive species. The weight of evidence overall suggested little impact from Undaria on low shore assemblages, with control–impact contrasts that could plausibly be interpreted as impacts probably reflecting natural causes. We demonstrate

Barrie M. Forrest; Michael D. Taylor

2002-01-01

129

Design and development of the 3.2 gigapixel camera for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a large aperture, wide-field facility designed to provide deep images of half the sky every few nights. There is only a single instrument on the telescope, a 9.6 square degree visible-band camera, which is mounted close to the secondary mirror, and points down toward the tertiary. The requirements of the LSST camera present

S. M. Kahn; N. Kurita; K. Gilmore; M. Nordby; P. O'Connor; R. Schindler; J. Oliver; R. van Berg; S. Olivier; V. Riot; P. Antilogus; T. Schalk; M. Huffer; G. Bowden; J. Singal; M. Foss

2010-01-01

130

Lessons Learned in Interdisciplinary Professional Development Designed to Promote the Teaching of Quantitative Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we will describe the challenges and insights gained from conducting professional development workshops aimed at helping faculty prepare materials to support the development of students' quantitative skills in different disciplinary contexts. We will examine some of the mistakes we made, and misconceptions we had, in conducting…

Lardner, Emily; Bookman, Jack

2013-01-01

131

Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

132

Quantitative comparison of randomization designs in sequential clinical trials based on treatment balance and allocation randomness  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the performance of randomization designs under various parameter settings and trial sample sizes, and identify optimal designs with respect to both treatment imbalance and allocation randomness, we evaluate 260 design scenarios from 14 randomization designs under 15 sample sizes range from 10 to 300, using three measures for imbalance and three measures for randomness. The maximum absolute imbalance and the correct guess (CG) probability are selected to assess the trade-off performance of each randomization design. As measured by the maximum absolute imbalance and the CG probability, we found that performances of the 14 randomization designs are located in a closed region with the upper boundary (worst case) given by Efron’s biased coin design (BCD) and the lower boundary (best case) from the Soares and Wu’s big stick design (BSD). Designs close to the lower boundary provide a smaller imbalance and a higher randomness than designs close to the upper boundary. Our research suggested that optimization of randomization design is possible based on quantified evaluation of imbalance and randomness. Based on the maximum imbalance and CG probability, the BSD, Chen’s biased coin design with imbalance tolerance method, and Chen’s Ehrenfest urn design perform better than popularly used permuted block design, EBCD, and Wei’s urn design. PMID:21544929

Zhao, Wenle; Weng, Yanqiu; Wu, Qi; Palesch, Yuko

2012-01-01

133

Quantitative design and experimental validation for a single-molecule DNA nanodevice transformable among three structural states  

PubMed Central

In this work, we report the development and experimental validation of a coupled statistical thermodynamic model allowing prediction of the structural transitions executed by a novel DNA nanodevice, for quantitative operational design. The efficiency of target structure formation by this nanodevice, implemented with a bistable DNA molecule designed to transform between three distinct structures, is modeled by coupling the isolated equilibrium models for the individual structures. A peculiar behavior is predicted for this nanodevice, which forms the target structure within a limited temperature range by sensing thermal variations. The predicted thermal response is then validated via fluorescence measurements to quantitatively assess whether the nanodevice performs as designed. Agreement between predictions and experiment was substantial, with a 0.95 correlation for overall curve shape over a wide temperature range, from 30C to 90C. The obtained accuracy, which is comparable to that of conventional melting behavior prediction for DNA duplexes in isolation, ensures the applicability of the coupled model for illustrating general DNA reaction systems involving competitive duplex formation. Finally, tuning of the nanodevice using the current model towards design of a thermal band pass filter to control chemical circuits, as a novel function of DNA nanodevices is proposed. PMID:20385575

Komiya, Ken; Yamamura, Masayuki; Rose, John A.

2010-01-01

134

Explanatory chapter: quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

Quantitative PCR (qPCR), also called real-time PCR or quantitative real-time PCR, is a PCR-based technique that couples amplification of a target DNA sequence with quantification of the concentration of that DNA species in the reaction. This method enables calculation of the starting template concentration and is therefore a frequently used analytical tool in evaluating DNA copy number, viral load, SNP detection, and allelic discrimination. When preceded by reverse-transcription PCR, qPCR is a powerful tool to measure mRNA expression and is the gold standard for microarray gene expression data confirmation. Given the broad applications of qPCR and the many technical variations that have been developed, a brief survey of qPCR, including technical background, available chemistries, and data analysis techniques will provide a framework for both experimental design and evaluation. PMID:24011054

Dymond, Jessica S

2013-01-01

135

Design and methods of the Adult Inuit Health Survey 2007–2008  

PubMed Central

Background The Canadian International Polar Year (IPY) program made it possible to undertake much needed health research in 3 jurisdictions within the Canadian Inuit Nunangat (homeland) over a 2-year period: Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), Nunavut Territory, and Nunatsiavut. Design The Adult Inuit Health Survey (IHS) was a cross-sectional survey and provides baseline data upon which future comparisons can be made for prospectively assessing factors leading to the progression of chronic diseases among Canadian Inuit. With the help of the Canadian Coast Guard Ship Amundsen, which was equipped with research and laboratory facilities, 33 coastal communities were visited; land survey teams visited 3 inland communities. Results The Adult IHS succeeded in obtaining important baseline information concerning the health status and living conditions of 2,595 adults living in ISR, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut. Conclusion Information from this survey will be useful for future comparisons and the opportunity to link with the International Inuit Cohort, a follow-up evaluation, and for the development of future health policies and public health interventions. PMID:23166895

Saudny, Helga; Leggee, Donna; Egeland, Grace

2012-01-01

136

"Intelligent design" of a 3D reflection survey for the SAFOD drill-hole site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAFOD seeks to better understand the earthquake process by drilling though the San Andreas fault (SAF) to sample an earthquake in situ. To capitalize fully on the opportunities presented by the 1D drill-hole into a complex fault zone we must characterize the surrounding 3D geology at a scale commensurate with the drilling observations, to provide the structural context to extrapolate 1D drilling results along the fault plane and into the surrounding 3D volume. Excellent active-2D and passive-3D seismic observations completed and underway lack the detailed 3D resolution required. Only an industry-quality 3D reflection survey can provide c. 25 m subsurface sample-spacing horizontally and vertically. A 3D reflection survey will provide subsurface structural and stratigraphic control at the 100-m level, mapping major geologic units, structural boundaries, and subsurface relationships between the many faults that make up the SAF fault system. A principal objective should be a reflection-image (horizon-slice through the 3D volume) of the near-vertical fault plane(s) to show variations in physical properties around the drill-hole. Without a 3D reflection image of the fault zone, we risk interpreting drilled anomalies as ubiquitous properties of the fault, or risk missing important anomalies altogether. Such a survey cannot be properly costed or technically designed without major planning. "Intelligent survey design" can minimize source and receiver effort without compromising data-quality at the fault target. Such optimization can in principal reduce the cost of a 3D seismic survey by a factor of two or three, utilizing the known surface logistic constraints, partially-known sub-surface velocity field, and the suite of scientific targets at SAFOD. Our methodology poses the selection of the survey parameters as an optimization process that allows the parameters to vary spatially in response to changes in the subsurface. The acquisition geometry is locally optimized for uniformity of subsurface illumination by a micro-genetic algorithm. We start by accurately establishing the correspondence between the subsurface area of the target reflector (in this case, the steeply-dipping SAF) and the part of the surface area whose sources and receivers contribute to its image using 3D ray-tracing. We then use dense acquisition parameters in that part of the survey area and use standard parameters in the rest of the survey area. This is the key idea that allows us to get optimum image quality with the least acquisition effort. The optimization also requires constraints from structural geologists and from the community who will interpret the results. The most critical parameters to our optimization process are the structural model of the target(s) (depth and geological dips) and the velocity model in the subsurface. We seek community input, and have formed a scientific advisory committee of academic and industry leaders, to help evaluate trade-offs for the community between cost, resolution and volume of the resultant data-set, and to ensure that an appropriate range of piggy-back experiments is developed to utilize the seismic sources available during the 3D experiment. The scientific output of our project will be a community-vetted design for a 3D reflection survey over SAFOD that is technically feasible, cost-effective, and most likely to yield the image and seismic parameter measurements that will best constrain the physical properties of the fault zone and their spatial variation.

Alvarez, G.; Hole, J. A.; Klemperer, S. L.; Biondi, B.; Imhof, M.

2003-12-01

137

Implementing the World Mental Health Survey Initiative in Portugal – rationale, design and fieldwork procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The World Mental Health Survey Initiative was designed to evaluate the prevalence, the correlates, the impact and the treatment patterns of mental disorders. This paper describes the rationale and the methodological details regarding the implementation of the survey in Portugal, a country that still lacks representative epidemiological data about psychiatric disorders. Methods The World Mental Health Survey is a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of the Portuguese population, aged 18 or older, based on official census information. The WMH-Composite International Diagnostic Interview, adapted to the Portuguese language by a group of bilingual experts, was used to evaluate the mental health status, disorder severity, impairment, use of services and treatment. Interviews were administered face-to-face at respondent’s dwellings, which were selected from a nationally representative multi-stage clustered area probability sample of households. The survey was administered using computer-assisted personal interview methods by trained lay interviewers. Data quality was strictly controlled in order to ensure the reliability and validity of the collected information. Results A total of 3,849 people completed the main survey, with 2,060 completing the long interview, with a response rate of 57.3%. Data cleaning was conducted in collaboration with the WMHSI Data Analysis Coordination Centre at the Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School. Collected information will provide lifetime and 12-month mental disorders diagnoses, according to the International Classification of Diseases and to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Conclusions The findings of this study could have a major influence in mental health care policy planning efforts over the next years, specially in a country that still has a significant level of unmet needs regarding mental health services organization, delivery of care and epidemiological research. PMID:23837605

2013-01-01

138

A survey of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction internal reference genes for expression studies in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Eight reference genes of Brassica napus were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) data, focusing on vegetative tissues and developing embryos. Analyses of expression stability indicated that UP1, UBC9, UBC21, and TIP41 were the top four choices as stably expressed reference genes for vegetative tissues, whereas ACT7, UBC21, TIP41, and PP2A were the top four choices for maturing embryos. In addition, radiolabeling of overall messenger RNA (mRNA) of maturing embryos indicated that the expression patterns of the top four ranked reference genes reflected the overall mRNA content changes in maturing embryos. PMID:20522329

Chen, Xue; Truksa, Martin; Shah, Saleh; Weselake, Randall J

2010-10-01

139

Designing, Testing, and Validating an Attitudinal Survey on an Environmental Topic: A Groundwater Pollution Survey Instrument for Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in environmental attitudes' assessment has significantly increased in recent years. The development of specific attitude scales for specific environmental problems has often been proposed. This paper describes the Groundwater Pollution Test (GPT), a 19-item survey instrument using a Likert-type scale. The survey has been used with…

Lacosta-Gabari, Idoya; Fernandez-Manzanal, Rosario; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Dolores

2009-01-01

140

Campsite survey implications for managing designated campsites at Great Smoky Mountains National Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Backcountry campsites and shelters in Great Smoky Mountains National Park were surveyed in 1993 as part of a new impact monitoring program. A total of 395 campsites and shelters were located and assessed, including 309 legal campsites located at 84 designated campgrounds, 68 illegal campsites, and 18 shelters. Primary campsite management problems identified by the survey include: (1) campsite proliferation, (2) campsite expansion and excessive size, (3) excessive vegetation loss and soil exposure, (4) lack of visitor solitude at campsites, (5) excessive tree damage, and (6) illegal camping. A number of potential management options are recommended to address the identified campsite management problems. Many problems are linked to the ability of visitors to determine the location and number of individual campsites within each designated campground. A principal recommendation is that managers apply site-selection criteria to existing and potential new campsite locations to identify and designate campsites that will resist and constrain the areal extent of impacts and enhance visitor solitude. Educational solutions are also offered.

Marion, J.L.; Leung, Y.-F.

1998-01-01

141

Cigarette pack design and adolescent smoking susceptibility: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare adolescents’ responses to three different styles of cigarette packaging: novelty (branded packs designed with a distinctive shape, opening style or bright colour), regular (branded pack with no special design features) and plain (brown pack with a standard shape and opening and all branding removed, aside from brand name). Design Cross-sectional in-home survey. Setting UK. Participants Random location quota sample of 1025 never smokers aged 11–16?years. Main outcome measures Susceptibility to smoking and composite measures of pack appraisal and pack receptivity derived from 11 survey items. Results Mean responses to the three pack types were negative for all survey items. However, ‘novelty’ packs were rated significantly less negatively than the ‘regular’ pack on most items, and the novelty and regular packs were rated less negatively than the ‘plain’ pack. For the novelty packs, logistic regressions, controlling for factors known to influence youth smoking, showed that susceptibility was associated with positive appraisal and also receptivity. For example, those receptive to the innovative Silk Cut Superslims pack were more than four times as likely to be susceptible to smoking than those not receptive to this pack (AOR=4.42, 95% CI 2.50 to 7.81, p<0.001). For the regular pack, an association was found between positive appraisal and susceptibility but not with receptivity and susceptibility. There was no association with pack appraisal or receptivity for the plain pack. Conclusions Pack structure (shape and opening style) and colour are independently associated, not just with appreciation of and receptivity to the pack, but also with susceptibility to smoke. In other words, those who think most highly of novelty cigarette packaging are also the ones who indicate that they are most likely to go on to smoke. Plain packaging, in contrast, was found to directly reduce the appeal of smoking to adolescents. PMID:24056481

Ford, Allison; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford; Richardson, Sol; Hastings, Gerard

2013-01-01

142

The Proteome of Human Liver Peroxisomes: Identification of Five New Peroxisomal Constituents by a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Survey  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or ?-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD+ becomes regenerated during fatty acid ?-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease. PMID:23460848

Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Waterham, Hans R.; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J.; Warscheid, Bettina

2013-01-01

143

Recommended survey designs for occupancy modelling using motion-activated cameras: insights from empirical wildlife data  

PubMed Central

Motion-activated cameras are a versatile tool that wildlife biologists can use for sampling wild animal populations to estimate species occurrence. Occupancy modelling provides a flexible framework for the analysis of these data; explicitly recognizing that given a species occupies an area the probability of detecting it is often less than one. Despite the number of studies using camera data in an occupancy framework, there is only limited guidance from the scientific literature about survey design trade-offs when using motion-activated cameras. A fuller understanding of these trade-offs will allow researchers to maximise available resources and determine whether the objectives of a monitoring program or research study are achievable. We use an empirical dataset collected from 40 cameras deployed across 160 km2 of the Western Slope of Colorado, USA to explore how survey effort (number of cameras deployed and the length of sampling period) affects the accuracy and precision (i.e., error) of the occupancy estimate for ten mammal and three virtual species. We do this using a simulation approach where species occupancy and detection parameters were informed by empirical data from motion-activated cameras. A total of 54 survey designs were considered by varying combinations of sites (10–120 cameras) and occasions (20–120 survey days). Our findings demonstrate that increasing total sampling effort generally decreases error associated with the occupancy estimate, but changing the number of sites or sampling duration can have very different results, depending on whether a species is spatially common or rare (occupancy = ?) and easy or hard to detect when available (detection probability = p). For rare species with a low probability of detection (i.e., raccoon and spotted skunk) the required survey effort includes maximizing the number of sites and the number of survey days, often to a level that may be logistically unrealistic for many studies. For common species with low detection (i.e., bobcat and coyote) the most efficient sampling approach was to increase the number of occasions (survey days). However, for common species that are moderately detectable (i.e., cottontail rabbit and mule deer), occupancy could reliably be estimated with comparatively low numbers of cameras over a short sampling period. We provide general guidelines for reliably estimating occupancy across a range of terrestrial species (rare to common: ? = 0.175–0.970, and low to moderate detectability: p = 0.003–0.200) using motion-activated cameras. Wildlife researchers/managers with limited knowledge of the relative abundance and likelihood of detection of a particular species can apply these guidelines regardless of location. We emphasize the importance of prior biological knowledge, defined objectives and detailed planning (e.g., simulating different study-design scenarios) for designing effective monitoring programs and research studies. PMID:25210658

Lewis, Jesse S.; Gerber, Brian D.

2014-01-01

144

Recommended survey designs for occupancy modelling using motion-activated cameras: insights from empirical wildlife data.  

PubMed

Motion-activated cameras are a versatile tool that wildlife biologists can use for sampling wild animal populations to estimate species occurrence. Occupancy modelling provides a flexible framework for the analysis of these data; explicitly recognizing that given a species occupies an area the probability of detecting it is often less than one. Despite the number of studies using camera data in an occupancy framework, there is only limited guidance from the scientific literature about survey design trade-offs when using motion-activated cameras. A fuller understanding of these trade-offs will allow researchers to maximise available resources and determine whether the objectives of a monitoring program or research study are achievable. We use an empirical dataset collected from 40 cameras deployed across 160 km(2) of the Western Slope of Colorado, USA to explore how survey effort (number of cameras deployed and the length of sampling period) affects the accuracy and precision (i.e., error) of the occupancy estimate for ten mammal and three virtual species. We do this using a simulation approach where species occupancy and detection parameters were informed by empirical data from motion-activated cameras. A total of 54 survey designs were considered by varying combinations of sites (10-120 cameras) and occasions (20-120 survey days). Our findings demonstrate that increasing total sampling effort generally decreases error associated with the occupancy estimate, but changing the number of sites or sampling duration can have very different results, depending on whether a species is spatially common or rare (occupancy = ?) and easy or hard to detect when available (detection probability = p). For rare species with a low probability of detection (i.e., raccoon and spotted skunk) the required survey effort includes maximizing the number of sites and the number of survey days, often to a level that may be logistically unrealistic for many studies. For common species with low detection (i.e., bobcat and coyote) the most efficient sampling approach was to increase the number of occasions (survey days). However, for common species that are moderately detectable (i.e., cottontail rabbit and mule deer), occupancy could reliably be estimated with comparatively low numbers of cameras over a short sampling period. We provide general guidelines for reliably estimating occupancy across a range of terrestrial species (rare to common: ? = 0.175-0.970, and low to moderate detectability: p = 0.003-0.200) using motion-activated cameras. Wildlife researchers/managers with limited knowledge of the relative abundance and likelihood of detection of a particular species can apply these guidelines regardless of location. We emphasize the importance of prior biological knowledge, defined objectives and detailed planning (e.g., simulating different study-design scenarios) for designing effective monitoring programs and research studies. PMID:25210658

Shannon, Graeme; Lewis, Jesse S; Gerber, Brian D

2014-01-01

145

Loop Shaping Control Design for a Supersonic Propulsion System Model Using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Specifications and Bounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated mixed compression inlet and turbojet engine that will be used for an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. Using previously created nonlinear component-level propulsion system models, a linear integrated propulsion system model and loop shaping control design have been developed. The design includes both inlet normal shock position control and jet engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A preliminary investigation of the impacts of the aero-elastic effects on the incoming flow field to the propulsion system are discussed, however, the focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion controls design that prevents unstart in the inlet and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) specifications and bounds, and aspects of classical loop shaping are used in the control design process. Model uncertainty is incorporated in the design to address possible error in the system identification mapping of the nonlinear component models into the integrated linear model.

Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George

2010-01-01

146

A survey of airway responsiveness in 36 inbred mouse strains facilitates gene mapping studies and identification of quantitative trait loci  

PubMed Central

Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) is a critical phenotype of human asthma and animal models of asthma. Other studies have measured AHR in nine mouse strains, but only six strains have been used to identify genetic loci underlying AHR. Our goals were to increase the genetic diversity of available strains by surveying 27 additional strains, to apply haplotype association mapping to the 36-strain survey, and to identify new genetic determinants for AHR. We derived AHR from the increase in airway resistance in females subjected to increasing levels of methacholine concentrations. We used haplotype association mapping to identify associations between AHR and haplotypes on chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, and 14. And we used bioinformatics techniques to narrow the identified region on chromosome 13, reducing the region to 29 candidate genes, with 11 of considerable interest. Our combined use of haplotype association mapping with bioinformatics tools is the first study of its kind for AHR on these 36 strains of mice. Our analyses have narrowed the possible QTL genes and will facilitate the discovery of novel genes that regulate AHR in mice. PMID:20143096

Leme, Adriana S.; Williams, Laura K.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Verdugo, Ricardo; Paigen, Beverly; Shapiro, Steven D.

2010-01-01

147

Targeting spatiotemporal dynamics of planktonic SAGMGC-1 and segregation of ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeota ecotypes by newly designed primers and quantitative polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

The annual dynamics of three different ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) ecotypes (amoA gene) and of the SAGMGC-1 (Nitrosotalea-like aquatic Thaumarchaeota) group (16S rRNA gene) were studied by newly designed specific primers and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in a deep oligotrophic high mountain lake (Lake Redon, Limnological Observatory of the Pyrenees, Spain). We observed segregated distributions of the main AOA populations, peaking separately in time and space, and under different ammonia concentrations and irradiance conditions. Strong positive correlation in gene abundances was found along the annual survey between 16S rRNA SAGMAGC-1 and one of the amoA ecotypes suggesting the potential for ammonia oxidation in the freshwater SAGMAGC-1 clade. We also observed dominance of Nitrosotalea-like ecotypes over Nitrosopumilus-like (Marine Group 1.1a) and not the same annual dynamics for the two thaumarchaeotal clades. The fine scale segregation in space and time of the different AOA ecotypes indicated the presence of phylogenetically close but ecologically segregated AOA species specifically adapted to specific environmental conditions. It remains to be elucidated what would be such environmental drivers. PMID:23848190

Restrepo-Ortiz, Claudia X; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Casamayor, Emilio O

2014-03-01

148

A quantitative method for groundwater surveillance monitoring network design at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site, mandated by the US Department of Energy, hundreds of groundwater wells are sampled each year, with each sample typically analyzed for a variety of constituents. The groundwater sampling program must satisfy several broad objectives. These objectives include an integrated assessment of the condition of groundwater and the identification and quantification of existing, emerging, or potential groundwater problems. Several quantitative network desip objectives are proposed and a mathematical optimization model is developed from these objectives. The model attempts to find minimum cost network alternatives that maximize the amount of information generated by the network. Information is measured both by the rats of change with respect to time of the contaminant concentration and the uncertainty in contaminant concentration. In an application to tritium monitoring at the Hanford Site, both information measures were derived from historical data using time series analysis.

Meyer, P.D.

1993-12-01

149

Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions.

Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

2014-06-01

150

Quantitatively Mapping Cellular Viscosity with Detailed Organelle Information via a Designed PET Fluorescent Probe  

PubMed Central

Viscosity is a fundamental physical parameter that influences diffusion in biological processes. The distribution of intracellular viscosity is highly heterogeneous, and it is challenging to obtain a full map of cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information. In this work, we report 1 as the first fluorescent viscosity probe which is able to quantitatively map cellular viscosity with detailed organelle information based on the PET mechanism. This probe exhibited a significant ratiometric fluorescence intensity enhancement as solvent viscosity increases. The emission intensity increase was attributed to combined effects of the inhibition of PET due to restricted conformational access (favorable for FRET, but not for PET), and the decreased PET efficiency caused by viscosity-dependent twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT). A full map of subcellular viscosity was successfully constructed via fluorescent ratiometric detection and fluorescence lifetime imaging; it was found that lysosomal regions in a cell possess the highest viscosity, followed by mitochondrial regions. PMID:24957323

Liu, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaogang; Spring, David R.; Qian, Xuhong; Cui, Jingnan; Xu, Zhaochao

2014-01-01

151

THE DEEP2 GALAXY REDSHIFT SURVEY: DESIGN, OBSERVATIONS, DATA REDUCTION, AND REDSHIFTS  

SciTech Connect

We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z {approx} 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude M{sub B} = -20 at z {approx} 1 via {approx}90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 deg{sup 2} divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R{sub AB} = 24.1. Objects with z {approx}< 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted {approx}2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z {approx} 1.45, where the [O II] 3727 A doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm{sup -1} grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R {approx} 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate observations. Sky subtraction is essentially photon-limited even under bright OH sky lines; we describe the strategies that permitted this, based on high image stability, accurate wavelength solutions, and powerful B-spline modeling methods. We also investigate the impact of targets that appear to be single objects in ground-based targeting imaging but prove to be composite in Hubble Space Telescope data; they constitute several percent of targets at z {approx} 1, approaching {approx}5%-10% at z > 1.5. Summary data are given that demonstrate the superiority of DEEP2 over other deep high-precision redshift surveys at z {approx} 1 in terms of redshift accuracy, sample number density, and amount of spectral information. We also provide an overview of the scientific highlights of the DEEP2 survey thus far.

Newman, Jeffrey A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Cooper, Michael C. [Center for Galaxy Evolution, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Davis, Marc [Department of Astronomy and Physics, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Faber, S. M.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Harker, Justin J.; Lai, Kamson [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Coil, Alison L. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Finkbeiner, Douglas P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gerke, Brian F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd., MS 90R4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Rosario, David J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Weiner, Benjamin J.; Willmer, C. N. A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Yan Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Kassin, Susan A. [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Konidaris, N. P., E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu, E-mail: djm70@pitt.edu, E-mail: m.cooper@uci.edu, E-mail: mdavis@berkeley.edu, E-mail: faber@ucolick.org, E-mail: koo@ucolick.org, E-mail: raja@ucolick.org, E-mail: phillips@ucolick.org [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

2013-09-15

152

The DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey: Design, Observations, Data Reduction, and Redshifts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the design and data analysis of the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest high-precision redshift survey of galaxies at z approx. 1 completed to date. The survey was designed to conduct a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude MB = -20 at z approx. 1 via approx.90 nights of observation on the Keck telescope. The survey covers an area of 2.8 Sq. deg divided into four separate fields observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R(sub AB) = 24.1. Objects with z approx. < 0.7 are readily identifiable using BRI photometry and rejected in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted approx. 2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately 60% of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets that fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z approx. 1.45, where the [O ii] 3727 Ang. doublet lies in the infrared. The DEIMOS 1200 line mm(exp -1) grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R approx. 6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. Extensive details are provided on object selection, mask design, biases in target selection and redshift measurements, the spec2d two-dimensional data-reduction pipeline, the spec1d automated redshift pipeline, and the zspec visual redshift verification process, along with examples of instrumental signatures or other artifacts that in some cases remain after data reduction. Redshift errors and catastrophic failure rates are assessed through more than 2000 objects with duplicate observations. Sky subtraction is essentially photon-limited even under bright OH sky lines; we describe the strategies that permitted this, based on high image stability, accurate wavelength solutions, and powerful B-spline modeling methods. We also investigate the impact of targets that appear to be single objects in ground-based targeting imaging but prove to be composite in Hubble Space Telescope data; they constitute several percent of targets at z approx. 1, approaching approx. 5%-10% at z > 1.5. Summary data are given that demonstrate the superiority of DEEP2 over other deep high-precision redshift surveys at z approx. 1 in terms of redshift accuracy, sample number density, and amount of spectral information. We also provide an overview of the scientific highlights of the DEEP2 survey thus far.

Newman, Jeffrey A.; Cooper, Michael C.; Davis, Marc; Faber, S. M.; Coil, Alison L; Guhathakurta, Puraga; Koo, David C.; Phillips, Andrew C.; Conroy, Charlie; Dutton, Aaron A.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Gerke, Brian F.; Rosario, David J.; Weiner, Benjamin J.; Wilmer, C. N. A.; Yan, Renbin; Harker, Justin J.; Kassin, Susan A.; Konidaris, N. P.; Lai, Kamson; Madgwick, Darren S.; Noeske, K. G.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Kirby, Evan N.; Lotz, Jennifer M.

2013-01-01

153

Statistical methods for efficient design of community surveys of response to noise: Random coefficients regression models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research studies of residents' responses to noise consist of interviews with samples of individuals who are drawn from a number of different compact study areas. The statistical techniques developed provide a basis for those sample design decisions. These techniques are suitable for a wide range of sample survey applications. A sample may consist of a random sample of residents selected from a sample of compact study areas, or in a more complex design, of a sample of residents selected from a sample of larger areas (e.g., cities). The techniques may be applied to estimates of the effects on annoyance of noise level, numbers of noise events, the time-of-day of the events, ambient noise levels, or other factors. Methods are provided for determining, in advance, how accurately these effects can be estimated for different sample sizes and study designs. Using a simple cost function, they also provide for optimum allocation of the sample across the stages of the design for estimating these effects. These techniques are developed via a regression model in which the regression coefficients are assumed to be random, with components of variance associated with the various stages of a multi-stage sample design.

Tomberlin, T. J.

1985-01-01

154

Preliminary design of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a NASA MIDEX mission, will survey the entire sky in four bands from 3.3 to 23 microns with a sensitivity 1000 times greater than the IRAS survey. The WISE survey will extend the Two Micron All Sky Survey into the thermal infrared and will provide an important catalog for the James Webb Space Telescope.

Amanda K. Mainzer; Peter Eisenhardt; Edward L. Wright; Feng-Chuan Liu; William Irace; Ingolf Heinrichsen; Roc Cutri; Valerie Duval

2005-01-01

155

Utility FGD survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems: Part 2  

SciTech Connect

This is Volume 2 part 2, of the Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. This volume particularly contains basic design and performance data.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)] [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1992-03-01

156

Survey of alternative gas turbine engine and cycle design. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In the period of the 1940's to 1960's much experimentation was performed in the areas of intercooling, reheat, and recuperation, as well as the use of low-grade fuels in gas turbines. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in an effort to document past experience which can be used as the basis for current design activities, commissioned a study to document alternate cycles and components used in gas turbine design. The study was performed by obtaining the important technical and operational criteria of the cycles through a literature search of published documents, articles, and papers. Where possible the information was augmented through dialogue with persons associated with those cycles and with the manufacturers. The survey indicated that many different variations of the simple open-cycle gas turbine plant were used. Many of these changes resulted in increases in efficiency over the low simple-cycle efficiency of that period. Metallurgy, as well as compressor and turbine design, limited the simple-cycle efficiency to the upper teens. The cycle modifications increased those efficiencies to the twenties and thirties. Advances in metallurgy as well as compressor and turbine design, coupled with the decrease in flue cost, stopped the development of these complex cycles. Many of the plants operated successfully for many years, and only because newer simple-cycle gas turbine plants and large steam plants had better heat rates were these units shutdown or put into stand-by service. 24 refs., 25 figs., 114 tabs.

Lukas, H.

1986-02-01

157

Design and development of the 3.2 gigapixel camera for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a large aperture, wide-field facility designed to provide deep images of half the sky every few nights. There is only a single instrument on the telescope, a 9.6 square degree visible-band camera, which is mounted close to the secondary mirror, and points down toward the tertiary. The requirements of the LSST camera present substantial technical design challenges. To cover the entire 0.35 to 1 ?m visible band, the camera incorporates an array of 189 over-depleted bulk silicon CCDs with 10 ?m pixels. The CCDs are assembled into 3 x 3 "rafts", which are then mounted to a silicon carbide grid to achieve a total focal plane flatness of 15 ?m p-v. The CCDs have 16 amplifiers per chip, enabling the entire 3.2 Gigapixel image to be read out in 2 seconds. Unlike previous astronomical cameras, a vast majority of the focal plane electronics are housed in the cryostat, which uses a mixed refrigerant Joule-Thompson system to maintain a -100ºC sensor temperature. The shutter mechanism uses a 3 blade stack design and a hall-effect sensor to achieve high resolution and uniformity. There are 5 filters stored in a carousel around the cryostat and the auto changer requires a dual guide system to control its position due to severe space constraints. This paper presents an overview of the current state of the camera design and development plan.

Kahn, S. M.; Kurita, N.; Gilmore, K.; Nordby, M.; O'Connor, P.; Schindler, R.; Oliver, J.; Van Berg, R.; Olivier, S.; Riot, V.; Antilogus, P.; Schalk, T.; Huffer, M.; Bowden, G.; Singal, J.; Foss, M.

2010-07-01

158

Caregiving in the Philippines: a quantitative survey on adult-child caregivers' perceptions of burden, stressors, and social support.  

PubMed

This study aims to describe the present caregiving situation of Filipino adult-child caregivers (CGs) particularly aiming to identify the predictors of CG burden and to assess the effect of social support on stressors and perception of burden. A cross-sectional survey employing face-to-face interviews with 193 adult-child CGs in Davao City, Philippines, measured the perception of burden using the Cost of Care Index (CCI) by Kosberg and Cairl. Results indicated the majority were daughter CGs living with their elderly parents, who were receiving high levels of informal social support. A moderate to high level of burden perception (mean+/-S.D. score of 47.0+/-9.1) was found among respondents. CGs with higher educational attainment showed low burden perception. However, higher family income and higher State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) anxiety scores were associated with higher burden perception. Also, longer caregiving hours, a male care recipient (CR), and the presence of CR's memory and behavior problems predicted higher CG burden. The interaction between stressors and perceived burden showed that social support provided a buffering effect for CGs experiencing higher burden perception. This suggests that respite and support resources including community-based counseling and education programs to assist CGs in dealing with stress may positively contribute to reduce burden. PMID:16982103

Varona, Rachel; Saito, Tami; Takahashi, Miyako; Kai, Ichiro

2007-01-01

159

Design of the stereoscopic eye-tracking system for quantitative remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatial and temporal data derived from eye movements, compiled while the human eye observes geospatial imagery, retain meaningful and usable information. When human perceives the stereo effect, the virtual three dimensional (3D) model resulting from eye-brain interaction is generated in the mind. If the eye movements are recorded while the virtual model is observed, it is possible to reconstruct a 3D geometrical model almost identical to the one generated in the human brain. Information obtained from eye-movements can be utilized in many ways for remote sensing applications such as geospatial image analysis and interpretation. There are various eyetracking systems available on the market; however, none of them is designed to work with stereoscopic imagery. We explore different approaches and designs of the most suitable and non-intrusive scheme for stereoscopic image viewing in the eye-tracking systems to observe and analyze 3D visual models. The design of the proposed system is based on the optical separation method, which provides visually comfortable environment for perception of stereoscopic imagery. A proof of concept solution is based on multiple mirror-lens assembly that provides a significant reduction of geometrical constrains in eye-frame capturing. Two projected solutions: for wide-angle of viewing and helmet-integrated eye-tracker are also discussed here.

Sergeyev, Aleksandr; Levin, Eugene; Roggemann, Michael C.; Gienko, Gennady

2008-08-01

160

Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills Within Food Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve them and secondly, to have a quantitative understanding of chemical reactions in food. Until 3 years ago the learning situation for this module was inefficient for both teachers and students. For this learning situation a staff/student ratio of 1/25 was experienced to be insufficient: the level of student frustration was high and many students could not finish the tasks within the scheduled time. To make this situation more efficient for both students and teachers and to lower the level of frustration, digital learning material was designed. The main characteristic of this learning material is that it provides just-in-time information, such as feedback, hints and links to background information. The material was evaluated in three case studies in a normal educational setting ( n = 22, n = 31, n = 33). The results show that now frustration of students is low, the time in classes is efficiently used, and the staff/student ratio of 1/25 is indeed sufficient. A staff student ratio of around 1/40 is now regarded as realistic.

Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

2005-12-01

161

Sampling design for an integrated socioeconomic and ecological survey by using satellite remote sensing and ordination  

PubMed Central

Environmental variability is an important risk factor in rural agricultural communities. Testing models requires empirical sampling that generates data that are representative in both economic and ecological domains. Detrended correspondence analysis of satellite remote sensing data were used to design an effective low-cost sampling protocol for a field study to create an integrated socioeconomic and ecological database when no prior information on ecology of the survey area existed. We stratified the sample for the selection of tambons from various preselected provinces in Thailand based on factor analysis of spectral land-cover classes derived from satellite data. We conducted the survey for the sampled villages in the chosen tambons. The resulting data capture interesting variations in soil productivity and in the timing of good and bad years, which a purely random sample would likely have missed. Thus, this database will allow tests of hypotheses concerning the effect of credit on productivity, the sharing of idiosyncratic risks, and the economic influence of environmental variability. PMID:15254298

Binford, Michael W.; Lee, Tae Jeong; Townsend, Robert M.

2004-01-01

162

Antileishmanial chalcones: statistical design, synthesis, and three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis.  

PubMed

A large number of substituted chalcones have been synthesized and tested for antileishmanial and lymphocyte-suppressing activities. A subset of the chalcones was designed by using statistical methods. 3D-QSAR analyses using 67 (antileishmanial activity) and 63 (lymphocyte-suppressing activity) of the compounds for the training sets and 9 compounds as an external validation set were performed by using the GRID/GOLPE methodology. The Smart Region Definition procedure with subsequent region selection as implemented in GOLPE reduced the number of variables to approximately 1300 yielding 3D-QSAR models of high quality (lymphocyte-suppressing model, R2 = 0. 90, Q2 = 0.80; antileishmanial model, R2 = 0.73, Q2 = 0.63). The coefficient plots indicate that steric interactions between the chalcones and the target are of major importance for the potencies of the compounds. A comparison of the coefficient plots for the antileishmanial effect and the lymphocyte-suppressing activity discloses significant differences which should make it possible to design chalcones having a high antileishmanial activity without suppressing the proliferation of lymphocytes. PMID:9822551

Nielsen, S F; Christensen, S B; Cruciani, G; Kharazmi, A; Liljefors, T

1998-11-19

163

Hot rocket plume experiment - Survey and conceptual design. [of rhenium-iridium bipropellants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Attention is given to a space-borne engine plume experiment study to fly an experiment which will both verify and quantify the reduced contamination from advanced rhenium-iridium earth-storable bipropellant rockets (hot rockets) and provide a correlation between high-fidelity, in-space measurements and theoretical plume and surface contamination models. The experiment conceptual design is based on survey results from plume and contamination technologists throughout the U.S. With respect to shuttle use, cursory investigations validate Hitchhiker availability and adaptability, adequate remote manipulator system (RMS) articulation and dynamic capability, acceptable RMS attachment capability, adequate power and telemetry capability, and adequate flight altitude and attitude/orbital capability.

Millard, Jerry M.; Luan, Taylor W.; Dowdy, Mack W.

1992-01-01

164

Designing HIGH-COST Medicine Hospital Surveys, Health Planning, and the Paradox of Progressive Reform  

PubMed Central

Inspired by social medicine, some progressive US health reforms have paradoxically reinforced a business model of high-cost medical delivery that does not match social needs. In analyzing the financial status of their areas’ hospitals, for example, city-wide hospital surveys of the 1910s through 1930s sought to direct capital investments and, in so doing, control competition and markets. The 2 national health planning programs that ran from the mid-1960s to the mid-1980s continued similar strategies of economic organization and management, as did the so-called market reforms that followed. Consequently, these reforms promoted large, extremely specialized, capital-intensive institutions and systems at the expense of less complex (and less costly) primary and chronic care. The current capital crisis may expose the lack of sustainability of such a model and open up new ideas and new ways to build health care designed to meet people's health needs. PMID:20019312

2010-01-01

165

Appraisal analysis for nonlinear problems: Tool for image interpretation and survey design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present there is no formal theory for nonlinear appraisal analysis. A lthough this makes the problem difficult but there are number of methods proposed in the past such as linearized analysis (Backus and Gilbert, 1 970), funnel function approach (Oldenburg, 1983) and nonlinear Backus-Gi lbert theory (Snieder, 1990) have provided direction to look at this pro blem. In this paper I will briefly review these methods and discuss some new developments in the nonlinear and linearized point spread function analysis as a model const ruction problem. Point spread functions (PSF) describes how an impulse f unction in the model is observed in the inversion result. Knowledge of P SF provides insight into the inverse operator. It allows to carry out image interpretation such as regions of the model supported by data and provides the ability to design focused surveys.Examples from seismic tomography and controlled source EM will be presented.

Routh, P. S.

2005-12-01

166

Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Survey Design for Monitoring Carbon Capture and Storage Sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring of sub-seabed Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) sites will require systems that are flexible, independent, and have long-endurance. In this presentation we will discuss the utility of autonomous underwater vehicles equipped with different sensor packages in monitoring storage sites. We will present data collected using Autosub AUV, as part of the ECO2 project, from the Sleipner area of the North Sea. The Autosub AUV was equipped with sidescan sonar, an EM2000 multibeam systems, a Chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a variety of chemical sensors. Our presentation will focus on survey design, and the simultaneous use of multiple sensor packages in environmental monitoring on the continental shelf.

Bull, J. M.; Cevatoglu, M.; Connelly, D.; Wright, I. C.; McPhail, S.; Shitashima, K.

2013-12-01

167

Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Design, Implementation, and Interpretation Challenges Associated with Tracking Vaccination Coverage Using Household Surveys  

PubMed Central

Vaccination coverage is an important public health indicator that is measured using administrative reports and/or surveys. The measurement of vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries using surveys is susceptible to numerous challenges. These challenges include selection bias and information bias, which cannot be solved by increasing the sample size, and the precision of the coverage estimate, which is determined by the survey sample size and sampling method. Selection bias can result from an inaccurate sampling frame or inappropriate field procedures and, since populations likely to be missed in a vaccination coverage survey are also likely to be missed by vaccination teams, most often inflates coverage estimates. Importantly, the large multi-purpose household surveys that are often used to measure vaccination coverage have invested substantial effort to reduce selection bias. Information bias occurs when a child's vaccination status is misclassified due to mistakes on his or her vaccination record, in data transcription, in the way survey questions are presented, or in the guardian's recall of vaccination for children without a written record. There has been substantial reliance on the guardian's recall in recent surveys, and, worryingly, information bias may become more likely in the future as immunization schedules become more complex and variable. Finally, some surveys assess immunity directly using serological assays. Sero-surveys are important for assessing public health risk, but currently are unable to validate coverage estimates directly. To improve vaccination coverage estimates based on surveys, we recommend that recording tools and practices should be improved and that surveys should incorporate best practices for design, implementation, and analysis. PMID:23667334

Cutts, Felicity T.; Izurieta, Hector S.; Rhoda, Dale A.

2013-01-01

168

Utility FGD Survey, January--December 1989. Volume 2, Design performance data for operating FGD systems, Part 1  

SciTech Connect

The Utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) Survey report, which is generated by a computerized data base management system, represents a survey of operational and planned domestic utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, system and equipment suppliers, system designers, research organizations, and regulatory agencies. The data cover system design, fuel characteristics, operating history, and actual system performance. Also included is a unit-by-unit discussion of problems and solutions associated with the boilers, scrubbers, and FGD systems. The development status (operational, under construction, or in the planning stages), system supplier, process, waste disposal practice, and regulatory class are tabulated alphabetically by utility company.

Hance, S.L.; McKibben, R.S.; Jones, F.M. [IT Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1992-03-01

169

Mapping epistatic quantitative trait loci underlying endosperm traits using all markers on the entire genome in a random hybridization design.  

PubMed

Triploid endosperm is of great economic importance owing to its nutritious quality. Mapping endosperm trait loci (ETL) can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. However, most triploid ETL mapping methods do not produce unbiased estimates of the two dominant effects of ETL. A random hybridization design is an alternative method that may be used to overcome this problem. However, epistasis has an important role in the dissection of genetic architecture for complex traits. In this study, therefore, an attempt was made to map epistatic ETL (eETL) under a triploid genetic model of endosperm traits in a random hybridization design. The endosperm trait means of random hybrid lines, together with known marker genotype information from their corresponding parental F(2) plants, were used to estimate, efficiently and without bias, the positions and all of the effects of eETL using a penalized maximum likelihood method. The method proposed in this article was verified by a series of Monte Carlo simulation experiments. Results from the simulated studies show that the proposed method provides accurate estimates of eETL parameters with a low false-positive rate and a relatively short running time. This new method enables us to map triploid eETL in the same way as diploid quantitative traits. PMID:18461088

He, X-H; Zhang, Y-M

2008-07-01

170

Methodology and Accuracy of Estimation of Quantitative Trait Loci Parameters in a Half-Sib Design Using Maximum Likelihood  

PubMed Central

Maximum likelihood methods were developed for estimation of the six parameters relating to a marker-linked quantitative trait locus (QTL) segregating in a half-sib design, namely the QTL additive effect, the QTL dominance effect, the population mean, recombination between the marker and the QTL, the population frequency of the QTL alleles, and the within-family residual variance. The method was tested on simulated stochastic data with various family structures under two genetic models. A method for predicting the expected value of the likelihood was also derived and used to predict the lower bound sampling errors of the parameter estimates and the correlations between them. It was found that standard errors and confidence intervals were smallest for the population mean and variance, intermediate for QTL effects and allele frequency, and highest for recombination rate. Correlations among standard errors of the parameter estimates were generally low except for a strong negative correlation (r = -0.9) between the QTL's dominance effect and the population mean, and medium positive and negative correlations between the QTL's additive effect and, respectively, recombination rate (r = 0.5) and residual variance (r = -0.6). The implications for experimental design and method of analysis on power and accuracy of marker-QTL linkage experiments were discussed. PMID:8647408

Mackinnon, M. J.; Weller, J. I.

1995-01-01

171

High-Resolution Linkage and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Aided by Genome Survey Sequencing: Building Up An Integrative Genomic Framework for a Bivalve Mollusc  

PubMed Central

Genetic linkage maps are indispensable tools in genetic and genomic studies. Recent development of genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods holds great promise for constructing high-resolution linkage maps in organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present study, linkage mapping was conducted for a bivalve mollusc (Chlamys farreri) using a newly developed GBS method—2b-restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD). Genome survey sequencing was performed to generate a preliminary reference genome that was utilized to facilitate linkage and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in C. farreri. A high-resolution linkage map was constructed with a marker density (3806) that has, to our knowledge, never been achieved in any other molluscs. The linkage map covered nearly the whole genome (99.5%) with a resolution of 0.41 cM. QTL mapping and association analysis congruously revealed two growth-related QTLs and one potential sex-determination region. An important candidate QTL gene named PROP1, which functions in the regulation of growth hormone production in vertebrates, was identified from the growth-related QTL region detected on the linkage group LG3. We demonstrate that this linkage map can serve as an important platform for improving genome assembly and unifying multiple genomic resources. Our study, therefore, exemplifies how to build up an integrative genomic framework in a non-model organism. PMID:24107803

Jiao, Wenqian; Fu, Xiaoteng; Dou, Jinzhuang; Li, Hengde; Su, Hailin; Mao, Junxia; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaoli; Huang, Xiaoting; Wang, Yangfan; Wang, Shi; Bao, Zhenmin

2014-01-01

172

Measurement Error Webinar Series: Accounting for complex survey design in modeling usual intake  

Cancer.gov

Identify considerations in the analysis of dietary data collected as part of a complex survey, including stratification, clustering, and weighting. Identify methods of variance estimation for complex survey samples and how these are incorporated into estimation of usual intake distributions.

173

Using Formative Research to Design an Epidemiologic Survey: The North Carolina Study of Home Care and Hospice Nurses  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Formative research can serve as a means of obtaining important information for designing an epidemiologic study, but descriptions of this approach in the epidemiologic literature are lacking. The objective of this paper is to describe the use of three formative research techniques in designing a survey of home care and hospice nurses. METHODS We conducted two focus groups, seven key informant interviews, and approximately fifteen hours of direct observation among home care and hospice nurses recruited by word of mouth in North Carolina in 2006. RESULTS We used information obtained from the formative research to decide which survey design would likely be most successful with this population (mail survey, as opposed to Internet survey or in-person interviews), which measure to use for the denominator of the blood exposure incidence rates (number of visits, as opposed to patient-time), and which items and response options to include in the questionnaire, as well as to identify specific survey techniques that would likely increase the response rate (emphasizing the regional focus of the study; sending the questionnaire to the home address). CONCLUSION When particular information for planning a study is unavailable from the literature or the investigator's experience, formative research can be an effective means of obtaining that information. PMID:21977337

Lyden, Jennifer T.; Klein, Cynthia

2011-01-01

174

Contributions that patients and the public can make to the design and conduct of research The table below details specific contributions that patients and the public can make to the design and conduct of quantitative and qualitative research, as well  

E-print Network

and the public can make to the design and conduct of quantitative and qualitative research, as well as systematicSchool Of Health And Related Research. Contributions that patients and the public can make to the design and conduct of research The table below details specific contributions that patients

Oakley, Jeremy

175

A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF SEVERAL ASPECTS IN THE DESIGN OF A HIGH ENERGY TOTAL ABSORPTION CERENKOV RADIATION COUNTER (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive survey of several aspects in the design of a 6-Bev total ; absorption Cherenkov radiation counter was effected. The size of the radiating ; block necessary to contain, on the average, a very large percentage of a cascade ; shower initiated by an electron or photon was estimated. The results are ; presented graphically and include transi-tion curves

Kolouch

1960-01-01

176

Design of the IL-HUMASS survey on information literacy in higher education: A self-assessment approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IL-HUMASS survey on information literacy has been designed, based on and aimed to be applied to a population of students, teachers and librarians holding various degrees in social sciences and humanities at Spanish and Portuguese universities. The case-study method, experts’ opinions, and a literature review were used to prepare an initial version that was refined through student focus groups,

Maria Pinto

2010-01-01

177

A simple taste analyzing system design for visual and quantitative analysis of different tastes using multi-array chemical sensors and pattern recognition techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe design of a simple taste analyzing system using sensory system based on a multi-array chemical sensor (MACS) and personal digital assistant (PDA) for visual and quantitative analysis of different tastes using pattern recognition techniques. The sensory system is communicated with PDA, which has several interesting benefits for data analysis and display, via wireless using the

Jeong-Do Kim; Hyung-Gi Byun; Dong-Jin Kim; Yu-Kyung Ham; Woo-Suk Jung; Chul-Oh Yoon

2006-01-01

178

Design and evaluation of group-specific oligonucleotide probes for quantitative analysis of intestinal ecosystems: their application to assessment of equine colonic microflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine oligonucleotide probes complementary to conserved regions of small subunit rRNA from phylogenetically defined clusters of intestinal anaerobic bacteria were designed and evaluated for use in quantitative analysis of intestinal microflora. Optimum wash temperatures (Tw) were determined according to the temperature of dissociation (Td) of each probe and target group specificity was demonstrated by comparing hybridisation to target and non-target

Kristian Daly; Soraya P Shirazi-Beechey

2003-01-01

179

A two-phase sampling design for increasing detections of rare species in occupancy surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. Occupancy estimation is a commonly used tool in ecological studies owing to the ease at which data can be collected and the large spatial extent that can be covered. One major obstacle to using an occupancy-based approach is the complications associated with designing and implementing an efficient survey. These logistical challenges become magnified when working with rare species when effort can be wasted in areas with none or very few individuals. 2. Here, we develop a two-phase sampling approach that mitigates these problems by using a design that places more effort in areas with higher predicted probability of occurrence. We compare our new sampling design to traditional single-season occupancy estimation under a range of conditions and population characteristics. We develop an intuitive measure of predictive error to compare the two approaches and use simulations to assess the relative accuracy of each approach. 3. Our two-phase approach exhibited lower predictive error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach in highly spatially correlated environments. The difference was greatest when detection probability was high (0·75) regardless of the habitat or sample size. When the true occupancy rate was below 0·4 (0·05-0·4), we found that allocating 25% of the sample to the first phase resulted in the lowest error rates. 4. In the majority of scenarios, the two-phase approach showed lower error rates compared to the traditional single-season approach suggesting our new approach is fairly robust to a broad range of conditions and design factors and merits use under a wide variety of settings. 5. Synthesis and applications. Conservation and management of rare species are a challenging task facing natural resource managers. It is critical for studies involving rare species to efficiently allocate effort and resources as they are usually of a finite nature. We believe our approach provides a framework for optimal allocation of effort while maximizing the information content of the data in an attempt to provide the highest conservation value per unit of effort.

Pacifici, Krishna; Dorazio, Robert M.; Dorazio, Michael J.

2012-01-01

180

Quantitative Assessment of a Senge Learning Organization Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To quantitatively assess a Senge learning organization (LO) intervention to determine if it would result in improved employee satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach: A Senge LO intervention in Division 123 of Company ABC was undertaken in 2000. Three employee surveys using likert-scale questions over five years and correlation analysis…

Kiedrowski, P. Jay

2006-01-01

181

SIS Mixer Design for a Broadband Millimeter Spectrometer Suitable for Rapid Line Surveys and Redshift Determinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present some detail of the waveguide probe and SIS mixer chip designs for a low-noise 180-300 GHz double- sideband receiver with an instantaneous RF bandwidth of 24 GHz. The receiver's single SIS junction is excited by a broadband, fixed-tuned waveguide probe on a silicon substrate. The IF output is coupled to a 6-18 GHz MMIC low- noise preamplifier. Following further amplification, the output is processed by an array of 4 GHz, 128-channel analog autocorrelation spectrometers (WASP 11). The single-sideband receiver noise temperature goal of 70 Kelvin will provide a prototype instrument capable of rapid line surveys and of relatively efficient carbon monoxide (CO) emission line searches of distant, dusty galaxies. The latter application's goal is to determine redshifts by measuring the frequencies of CO line emissions from the star-forming regions dominating the submillimeter brightness of these galaxies. Construction of the receiver has begun; lab testing should begin in the fall. Demonstration of the receiver on the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) telescope should begin in spring 2003.

Rice, F.; Sumner, M.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Hu, R.; LeDuc, H.; Harris, A.; Miller, D.

2004-01-01

182

The Household Market for Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis--A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-buying, Multi-vehicle California Households  

E-print Network

ELECTRIC VEHICLES How many hybrid households are in the California new carElectric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis - A Reflively Designed Survey of New-car-Electric Vehicles: Testing the Hybrid Household Hypothesis— A Reflexively Designed Survey of New-car-

Turrentine, Thomas; Kurani, Kenneth

1995-01-01

183

Improving the design of amphibian surveys using soil data: A case study in two wilderness areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amphibian populations are known, or thought to be, declining worldwide. Although protected natural areas may act as reservoirs of biological integrity and serve as benchmarks for comparison with unprotected areas, they are not immune from population declines and extinctions and should be monitored. Unfortunately, identifying survey sites and performing long-term fieldwork within such (often remote) areas involves a special set of problems. We used the USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database to identify, a priori, potential habitat for aquatic-breeding amphibians on North and South Manitou Islands, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan, and compared the results to those obtained using National Wetland Inventory (NWI) data. The SSURGO approach identified more target sites for surveys than the NWI approach, and it identified more small and ephemeral wetlands. Field surveys used a combination of daytime call surveys, night-time call surveys, and perimeter surveys. We found that sites that would not have been identified with NWI data often contained amphibians and, in one case, contained wetland-breeding species that would not have been found using NWI data. Our technique allows for easy a priori identification of numerous survey sites that might not be identified using other sources of spatial information. We recognize, however, that the most effective site identification and survey techniques will likely use a combination of methods in addition to those described here.

Bowen, K.D.; Beever, E.A.; Gafvert, U.B.

2009-01-01

184

Designing a Household Survey to Address Seasonality in Child Care Arrangements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In household telephone surveys, a long field period may be required to maximize the response rate and achieve adequate sample sizes. However, long field periods can be problematic when measures of seasonally affected behavior are sought. Surveys of child care use are one example because child care arrangements vary by season. Options include…

Schmidt, Stefanie R.; Wang, Kevin H.; Sonenstein, Freya L.

2008-01-01

185

Survey Says  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Survey Says is a lesson plan designed to teach college students how to access Internet resources for valid data related to the sexual health of young people. Discussion questions based on the most recent available data from two national surveys, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance-United States, 2003 (CDC, 2004) and the National Survey of…

McCarthy, Susan K.

2005-01-01

186

Designing Anti-Influenza Aptamers: Novel Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship Approach Gives Insights into Aptamer – Virus Interaction  

PubMed Central

This study describes the development of aptamers as a therapy against influenza virus infection. Aptamers are oligonucleotides (like ssDNA or RNA) that are capable of binding to a variety of molecular targets with high affinity and specificity. We have studied the ssDNA aptamer BV02, which was designed to inhibit influenza infection by targeting the hemagglutinin viral protein, a protein that facilitates the first stage of the virus’ infection. While testing other aptamers and during lead optimization, we realized that the dominant characteristics that determine the aptamer’s binding to the influenza virus may not necessarily be sequence-specific, as with other known aptamers, but rather depend on general 2D structural motifs. We adopted QSAR (quantitative structure activity relationship) tool and developed computational algorithm that correlate six calculated structural and physicochemical properties to the aptamers’ binding affinity to the virus. The QSAR study provided us with a predictive tool of the binding potential of an aptamer to the influenza virus. The correlation between the calculated and actual binding was R2?=?0.702 for the training set, and R2?=?0.66 for the independent test set. Moreover, in the test set the model’s sensitivity was 89%, and the specificity was 87%, in selecting aptamers with enhanced viral binding. The most important properties that positively correlated with the aptamer’s binding were the aptamer length, 2D-loops and repeating sequences of C nucleotides. Based on the structure-activity study, we have managed to produce aptamers having viral affinity that was more than 20 times higher than that of the original BV02 aptamer. Further testing of influenza infection in cell culture and animal models yielded aptamers with 10 to 15 times greater anti-viral activity than the BV02 aptamer. Our insights concerning the mechanism of action and the structural and physicochemical properties that govern the interaction with the influenza virus are discussed. PMID:24846127

Musafia, Boaz; Oren-Banaroya, Rony; Noiman, Silvia

2014-01-01

187

A national baseline prevalence survey of schistosomiasis in the Philippines using stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling design.  

PubMed

For the first time in the country, a national baseline prevalence survey using a well-defined sampling design such as a stratified two-step systematic cluster sampling was conducted in 2005 to 2008. The purpose of the survey was to stratify the provinces according to prevalence of schistosomiasis such as high, moderate, and low prevalence which in turn would be used as basis for the intervention program to be implemented. The national survey was divided into four phases. Results of the first two phases conducted in Mindanao and the Visayas were published in 2008. Data from the last two phases showed three provinces with prevalence rates higher than endemic provinces surveyed in the first two phases thus changing the overall ranking of endemic provinces at the national level. Age and sex distribution of schistosomiasis remained the same in Luzon and Maguindanao. Soil-transmitted and food-borne helminthes were also recorded in these surveys. This paper deals with the results of the last 2 phases done in Luzon and Maguindanao and integrates all four phases in the discussion. PMID:22518170

Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Villacorte, Elena; Lebanan, May Antonnette; Crisostomo, Bobby; Hernandez, Leda; Baquilod, Mario; Erce, Edgardo; Martinez, Ruth; Velayudhan, Raman

2012-01-01

188

A survey of ground operations tools developed to simulate the pointing of space telescopes and the design for WISE  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

WISE, the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer, is scheduled for launch in June 2010. The mission operations system for WISE requires a software modeling tool to help plan, integrate and simulate all spacecraft pointing and verify that no attitude constraints are violated. In the course of developing the requirements for this tool, an investigation was conducted into the design of similar tools for other space-based telescopes. This paper summarizes the ground software and processes used to plan and validate pointing for a selection of space telescopes; with this information as background, the design for WISE is presented.

Fabinsky, Beth

2006-01-01

189

Analyzing the design criteria of primary settlers for small sewage treatment systems: a national survey in Taiwan.  

PubMed

An onsite wastewater treatment facility normally has a treatment capacity of 5-200 population equivalents. The small system is receiving increasing attention in Asia countries to make up for the shortage of public sewer system. While many countries rely on large centralized system, small systems in Taiwan have significantly contributed to the treatment of municipal wastewater (21.6%) to make up for the low sewer connection (17.0%). To resolve disputes on the design criteria of primary settlers in small systems recommended by the government, a nationwide survey of 350 permit applications were conducted. This result of the survey revealed that 53% adopted self-proven criteria to reduce the size of the primary settlers using a design flow rate (Q) of 10 m(3)/d or less. The official design criteria were thus analyzed by using two new approaches of design criteria, scale-down factor and sludge blanket height ratio, as proposed in this study. The analysis indicated that sizing of primary settlers must consider the diurnal flow fluctuation and storage of settled sludge in primary settlers for a sufficient period of time, preferably up to 6 months. The official design criteria may be too conservative for Q<5m(3)/d, but inadequate for Q>20 m(3)/d. Based on the result of this study, new measures are suggested to strengthen the onsite program. PMID:19944531

Chiang, Chow F; Tsai, Ching T; Pai, Tzu Y; Lo, Huang M; Chao, Keh-Ping

2010-03-15

190

Design of a Mars Airplane Propulsion System for the Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mission Concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aerial Regional-Scale Environmental Survey (ARES) is a Mars exploration mission concept that utilizes a rocket propelled airplane to take scientific measurements of atmospheric, surface, and subsurface phenomena. The liquid rocket propulsion system design has matured through several design cycles and trade studies since the inception of the ARES concept in 2002. This paper describes the process of selecting a bipropellant system over other propulsion system options, and provides details on the rocket system design, thrusters, propellant tank and PMD design, propellant isolation, and flow control hardware. The paper also summarizes computer model results of thruster plume interactions and simulated flight performance. The airplane has a 6.25 m wingspan with a total wet mass of 185 kg and has to ability to fly over 600 km through the atmosphere of Mars with 45 kg of MMH / MON3 propellant.

Kuhl, Christopher A.

2008-01-01

191

Essential Steps for Web Surveys: A Guide to Designing, Administering and Utilizing Web Surveys for University Decision-Making. Professional File. Number 102, Winter 2006  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the past few years, several Harvard paper surveys were converted to Web surveys. These were high-profile surveys endorsed by the Provost and the Dean of the College, and covered major portions of the university population (all undergraduates, all graduate students, tenured and non-tenured faculty). When planning for these surveys started in…

Cheskis-Gold, Rena; Loescher, Ruth; Shepard-Rabadam, Elizabeth; Carroll, Barbara

2006-01-01

192

Survey of waste package designs for disposal of high-level waste/spent fuel in selected foreign countries  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of a survey of the waste package strategies for seven western countries with active nuclear power programs that are pursuing disposal of spent nuclear fuel or high-level wastes in deep geologic rock formations. Information, current as of January 1989, is given on the leading waste package concepts for Belgium, Canada, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. All but two of the countries surveyed (France and the UK) have developed design concepts for their repositories, but none of the countries has developed its final waste repository or package concept. Waste package concepts are under study in all the countries surveyed, except the UK. Most of the countries have not yet developed a reference concept and are considering several concepts. Most of the information presented in this report is for the current reference or leading concepts. All canisters for the wastes are cylindrical, and are made of metal (stainless steel, mild steel, titanium, or copper). The canister concepts have relatively thin walls, except those for spent fuel in Sweden and Germany. Diagrams are presented for the reference or leading concepts for canisters for the countries surveyed. The expected lifetimes of the conceptual canisters in their respective disposal environment are typically 500 to 1,000 years, with Sweden's copper canister expected to last as long as one million years. Overpack containers that would contain the canisters are being considered in some of the countries. All of the countries surveyed, except one (Germany) are currently planning to utilize a buffer material (typically bentonite) surrounding the disposal package in the repository. Most of the countries surveyed plan to limit the maximum temperature in the buffer material to about 100{degree}C. 52 refs., 9 figs.

Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

1989-09-01

193

A Survey of the Use and Documentation of Architecture Design Rationale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many claims have been made about the problems caused by not documenting design rationale. The general perception is that designers and architects usually do not fully understand the critical role of systematic use and capture of design rationale. However, there is to date little empirical evidence available on what design rationale mean to practitioners, how valuable they consider them, and

Antony Tang; Muhammad Ali Babar; Ian Gorton; Jun Han

2005-01-01

194

Chandra Multi-wavelength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey: Design and Initial Results  

E-print Network

The Chandra Multiwavength Plane (ChaMPlane) Survey of the galactic plane incorporates serendipitous sources from selected Chandra pointings in or near the galactic plane (b 20 ksec; lack of bright diffuse or point sources) to measure or constrain the luminosity function of low-luminosity accretion sources in the Galaxy. The primary goal is to detect and identify accreting white dwarfs (cataclysmic variables, with space density still uncertain by a factor of >10-100), neutron stars and black holes (quiescent low mass X-ray binaries) to constrain their space densities and thus origin and evolution. Secondary objectives are to identify Be stars in high mass X-ray binaries and constrain their space densities, and to survey the H-R diagram for stellar coronal sources. A parallel optical imaging under the NOAO Long Term Survey program provides deep optical images using the Mosaic imager on the CTIO and KPNO 4-m telescopes. The 36arcmin X 36arcmin optical images (Halpha, R, V and I) cover ~5X the area of each enclosed Chandra ACIS FOV, providing an extended survey of emission line objects for comparison with Chandra. Spectroscopic followup of optical counterparts is then conducted, thus far with WIYN and Magellan. The X-ray preliminary results from both the Chandra and optical surveys will be presented, including logN-logS vs. galactic position (l,b) and optical idenifications.

Jonathan Grindlay; Ping Zhao; JaeSub Hong; Johnathan Jenkins; Dong-Woo Kim; Eric Schlegel; Jeremy Drake; Vinay Kashyap; Peter Edmonds; Haldan Cohn; Phyllis Lugger; Adrienne Cool

2002-11-25

195

Design and Specification of Optical Bandpass Filters for Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced optical bandpass filters for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) have been developed on a filter-by-filter basis through detailed studies which take into account the instrument's science goals, available optical filter fabrication technology, and developments in ACS's charge-coupled-device (CCD) detector technology. These filters include a subset of filters for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are optimized for astronomical photometry using today's charge-coupled-devices (CCD's). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements for these filters include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, a high degree of parfocality, and immunity to environmental degradation. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The highly successful paradigm in which final specifications for flight filters were derived through interaction amongst the ACS Science Team, the instrument designer, the lead optical engineer, and the filter designer and vendor is described. Examples of iterative design trade studies carried out in the context of science needs and budgetary and schedule constraints are presented. An overview of the final design specifications for the ACS bandpass and ramp filters is also presented.

Leviton, Douglas B.; Tsevetanov, Zlatan; Woodruff, Bob; Mooney, Thomas A.

1998-01-01

196

Psychology 815 Quantitative Research Design & Analysis in Psychology -Fall 2013 Instructor: Dr. Debby Kashy Office Hours: Arranged via email  

E-print Network

, multiple factor designs, breaking down interaction effects, nested designs, repeated measures designs, effect size, & sample size KW-8 The linear model and ANOVA assumptions KW-7 Comparisons among means KW, and mixed designs. We will then move on to Multiple Regression techniques. In this section of the course we

Liu, Taosheng

197

Using SEM to Analyze Complex Survey Data: A Comparison between Design-Based Single-Level and Model-Based Multilevel Approaches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both ad-hoc robust sandwich standard error estimators (design-based approach) and multilevel analysis (model-based approach) are commonly used for analyzing complex survey data with nonindependent observations. Although these 2 approaches perform equally well on analyzing complex survey data with equal between- and within-level model structures…

Wu, Jiun-Yu; Kwok, Oi-man

2012-01-01

198

Design and Evaluation of Digital Learning Material to Support Acquisition of Quantitative Problem-Solving Skills within Food Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the modules in the course Food Chemistry at Wageningen University (Wageningen, The Netherlands) focuses on quantitative problem-solving skills related to chemical reactions. The intended learning outcomes of this module are firstly, to be able to translate practical food chemistry related problems into mathematical equations and to solve…

Diederen, Julia; Gruppen, Harry; Hartog, Rob; Voragen, Alphons G. J.

2005-01-01

199

Designing and Mining Multi-Terabyte Astronomy Archives: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next -generation astronomy digital archives will cover most of the sky at fine resolution in many wavelengths, from X-rays, through ultraviolet, optical, and infrared. The ar- chives will be stored at diverse geographical locations. One of the first of the se projects, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is creating a 5 -wavelength catalog over 10,000 square degrees of

Alexander S. Szalay; Peter Z. Kunszt; Ani Thakar; Jim Gray; Donald R. Slutz; Robert J. Brunner

2000-01-01

200

The TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): Design, Current Status, and Selected Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The objectives of this study were as follows: to present a concise overview of the sample, outcomes, determinants, non-response and attrition of the ongoing TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), which started in 2001; to summarize a selection of recent findings on continuity, discontinuity, risk, and protective…

Ormel, Johan; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Sijtsema, Jelle; van Oort, Floor; Raven, Dennis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Verhulst, Frank C.

2012-01-01

201

A SURVEY OF IMPLEMENTATION EFFORTS AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN FOR COOPERATIVE COMMUNICATIONS  

E-print Network

such practical work, surveys existing ef- forts in the area, and offers future direction for architectural, and interference re- duction. A number of characteristics of cooperative schemes make experimentation essential to identify conflicts that may degrade performance. Cooperative gains determined by theoretical work

Laneman, J. Nicholas

202

Measuring the Urologic Iceberg: Design and Implementation of the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo describe the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey, a National Institutes of Health-supported epidemiological study of symptoms suggestive of the following urologic conditions: urinary incontinence, benign prostatic hyperplasia, interstitial cystitis, chronic pelvic pain of bladder origin, prostatitis, hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, and female sexual dysfunction.

John B. McKinlay; Carol L. Link

2007-01-01

203

Performance of small cluster surveys and the clustered LQAS design to estimate local-level vaccination coverage in Mali  

PubMed Central

Background Estimation of vaccination coverage at the local level is essential to identify communities that may require additional support. Cluster surveys can be used in resource-poor settings, when population figures are inaccurate. To be feasible, cluster samples need to be small, without losing robustness of results. The clustered LQAS (CLQAS) approach has been proposed as an alternative, as smaller sample sizes are required. Methods We explored (i) the efficiency of cluster surveys of decreasing sample size through bootstrapping analysis and (ii) the performance of CLQAS under three alternative sampling plans to classify local VC, using data from a survey carried out in Mali after mass vaccination against meningococcal meningitis group A. Results VC estimates provided by a 10 × 15 cluster survey design were reasonably robust. We used them to classify health areas in three categories and guide mop-up activities: i) health areas not requiring supplemental activities; ii) health areas requiring additional vaccination; iii) health areas requiring further evaluation. As sample size decreased (from 10 × 15 to 10 × 3), standard error of VC and ICC estimates were increasingly unstable. Results of CLQAS simulations were not accurate for most health areas, with an overall risk of misclassification greater than 0.25 in one health area out of three. It was greater than 0.50 in one health area out of two under two of the three sampling plans. Conclusions Small sample cluster surveys (10 × 15) are acceptably robust for classification of VC at local level. We do not recommend the CLQAS method as currently formulated for evaluating vaccination programmes. PMID:23057445

2012-01-01

204

Survey of Sustainable Building Design Practices in North America, Europe, and Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable design should be applied in all phases of the life cycle of a building, including programming, design, building construction, building operation, and finally demolition. This paper compares and contrasts sustainable design programs based on the life cycle of a building in North America, Europe, and Asia. Tables comparing programs from these three regions are provided for each phase in

Kimberly R. Bunz; Gregor P. Henze; Dale K. Tiller

2006-01-01

205

Designing Messaging to Engage Patients in an Online Suicide Prevention Intervention: Survey Results From Patients With Current Suicidal Ideation  

PubMed Central

Background Computerized, Internet-delivered interventions can be efficacious; however, uptake and maintaining sustained client engagement are still big challenges. We see the development of effective engagement strategies as the next frontier in online health interventions, an area where much creative research has begun. We also argue that for engagement strategies to accomplish their purpose with novel targeted populations, they need to be tailored to such populations (ie, content is designed with the target population in mind). User-centered design frameworks provide a theoretical foundation for increasing user engagement and uptake by including users in development. However, deciding how to implement this approach to enage users in mental health intervention development is challenging. Objective The aim of this study was to get user input and feedback on acceptability of messaging content intended to engage suicidal individuals. Methods In March 2013, clinic intake staff distributed flyers announcing the study, “Your Feedback Counts” to potential participants (individuals waiting to be seen for a mental health appointment) together with the Patient Health Questionnaire. The flyer explained that a score of two or three (“more than half the days” or “nearly every day” respectively) on the suicide ideation question made them eligible to provide feedback on components of a suicide prevention intervention under development. The patient could access an anonymous online survey by following a link. After providing consent online, participants completed the anonymous survey. Results Thirty-four individuals provided data on past demographic information. Participants reported that they would be most drawn to an intervention where they knew that they were cared about, that was personalized, that others like them had found it helpful, and that included examples with real people. Participants preferred email invitations with subject lines expressing concern and availability of extra resources. Participants also provided feedback about a media prototype including a brand design and advertisement video for introducing the intervention. Conclusions This paper provides one model (including development of an engagement survey, audience for an engagement survey, methods for presenting results of an engagement survey) for including target users in the development of uptake strategies for online mental health interventions. PMID:24509475

Lungu, Anita; Richards, Julie; Simon, Gregory E; Clingan, Sarah; Siler, Jaeden; Snyder, Lorilei; Ludman, Evette

2014-01-01

206

GRAND DESIGN AND FLOCCULENT SPIRALS IN THE SPITZER SURVEY OF STELLAR STRUCTURE IN GALAXIES (S{sup 4}G)  

SciTech Connect

Spiral arm properties of 46 galaxies in the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S{sup 4}G) were measured at 3.6 {mu}m, where extinction is small and the old stars dominate. The sample includes flocculent, multiple arm, and grand design types with a wide range of Hubble and bar types. We find that most optically flocculent galaxies are also flocculent in the mid-IR because of star formation uncorrelated with stellar density waves, whereas multiple arm and grand design galaxies have underlying stellar waves. Arm-interarm contrasts increase from flocculent to multiple arm to grand design galaxies and with later Hubble types. Structure can be traced further out in the disk than in previous surveys. Some spirals peak at mid-radius while others continuously rise or fall, depending on Hubble and bar type. We find evidence for regular and symmetric modulations of the arm strength in NGC 4321. Bars tend to be long, high amplitude, and flat-profiled in early-type spirals, with arm contrasts that decrease with radius beyond the end of the bar, and they tend to be short, low amplitude, and exponential-profiled in late Hubble types, with arm contrasts that are constant or increase with radius. Longer bars tend to have larger amplitudes and stronger arms.

Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Yau, Andrew [Vassar College, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), UMR6110, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Technopole de Marseille Etoile, 38 rue Frederic Joliot Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Buta, Ronald J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Helou, George; Sheth, Kartik [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ho, Luis C.; Madore, Barry F.; Menendez-Delmestre, KarIn [The Observatories, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Department of Physical Sciences/Astronomy Division, University of Oulu, FIN 90014 (Finland); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 2EH (United Kingdom); Meidt, Sharon E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Zaritsky, Dennis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, Manuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

2011-08-10

207

Design and performance testing of quantitative real time PCR assays for influenza A and B viral load measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The antiviral effect of anti-influenza drugs such as zanamivir may be demonstrated in patients as an increased rate of decline in viral load over a time course of treatment as compared with placebo. Historically this was measured using plaque assays, or Culture Enhanced Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (CE-ELISA). Objectives: to develop and characterise real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays

C. L. Ward; M. H. Dempseyb; C. J. A Ring; R. E Kempson; L Zhang; D Gor; B. W Snowden; M Tisdale

2004-01-01

208

Longitudinal emittance: An introduction to the concept and survey of measurement techniques including design of a wall current monitor  

SciTech Connect

The properties of charged particle beams associated with the distribution of the particles in energy and in time can be grouped together under the category of longitudinal emittance. This article is intended to provide an intuitive introduction to the concepts longitudinal emittance; to provide an incomplete survey of methods used to measure this emittance and the related properties of bunch length and momentum spread; and to describe the detailed design of a 6 Ghz bandwidth resistive wall current monitor useful for measuring bunch shapes of moderate to high intensity beams. Overall, the article is intended to be broad in scope, in most cases deferring details to cited original papers. 37 refs., 21 figs.

Webber, R.C.

1990-03-01

209

A Meta-analysis Method to Advance Design of Technology-Based Learning Tool: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research to Understand Learning in Relation to Different Technology Features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educators design and create various technology tools to scaffold students' learning. As more and more technology designs are incorporated into learning, growing attention has been paid to the study of technology-based learning tool. This paper discusses the emerging issues, such as how can learning effectiveness be understood in relation to different technology features? And how can pieces of qualitative and quantitative results be integrated to achieve a broader understanding of technology designs? To address these issues, this paper proposes a meta-analysis method. Detailed explanations about the structure of the methodology and its scientific mechanism are provided for discussions and suggestions. This paper ends with an in-depth discussion on the concerns and questions that educational researchers might raise, such as how this methodology takes care of learning contexts.

Zhang, Lin

2013-07-01

210

Spectroscopic Survey Telescope design. III - Optical support structure and overall configuration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Universities of Texas and Penn State are working together on an Arecibo-type optical telescope to be utilized in a semitransit mode for spectroscopic survey work. Its optics include a spherical primary mirror, a 2-element all-reflecting Gregorian spherical aberration corrector, and a series of optical fibers that will transmit light to a family of spectrographs. An optical support structure is

F. B. Ray

1990-01-01

211

Evaluating cost-efficiency and accuracy of hunter harvest survey designs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Effective management of harvested wildlife often requires accurate estimates of the number of animals harvested annually by hunters. A variety of techniques exist to obtain harvest data, such as hunter surveys, check stations, mandatory reporting requirements, and voluntary reporting of harvest. Agencies responsible for managing harvested wildlife such as deer (Odocoileus spp.), elk (Cervus elaphus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are challenged with balancing the cost of data collection versus the value of the information obtained. We compared precision, bias, and relative cost of several common strategies, including hunter self-reporting and random sampling, for estimating hunter harvest using a realistic set of simulations. Self-reporting with a follow-up survey of hunters who did not report produces the best estimate of harvest in terms of precision and bias, but it is also, by far, the most expensive technique. Self-reporting with no followup survey risks very large bias in harvest estimates, and the cost increases with increased response rate. Probability-based sampling provides a substantial cost savings, though accuracy can be affected by nonresponse bias. We recommend stratified random sampling with a calibration estimator used to reweight the sample based on the proportions of hunters responding in each covariate category as the best option for balancing cost and accuracy. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

Lukacs, P.M.; Gude, J.A.; Russell, R.E.; Ackerman, B.B.

2011-01-01

212

A Survey on Analysis and Design of Model-Based Fuzzy Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy logic control was originally introduced and developed as a model free control design approach. However, it unfortunately suffers from criticism of lacking of systematic stability analysis and controller design though it has a great success in industry applications. In the past ten years or so, prevailing research efforts on fuzzy logic control have been devoted to model-based fuzzy control

Gang Feng

2006-01-01

213

PROBABILITY SURVEY DESIGN ALTERNATIVES FOR WATERSHED-BASED STREAM AND RIVER MONITORING PROGRAMS  

EPA Science Inventory

National, state, and tribal nation monitoring programs are designed to address multiple objectives. One objective comes from Clean Water Act Section 305(b) and is to provide status and trend estimates of the number (or percent) of stream and river lengths that meet designated u...

214

A Survey of Applications and Research in Integrated Design Systems Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The initial part of the study was begun with a combination of literature searches, World Wide Web searches, and contacts with individuals and companies who were known to members of our team to have an interest in topics that seemed to be related to our study. There is a long list of such topics, such as concurrent engineering, design for manufacture, life-cycle engineering, systems engineering, systems integration, systems design, design systems, integrated product and process approaches, enterprise integration, integrated product realization, and similar terms. These all capture, at least in part, the flavor of what we describe here as integrated design systems. An inhibiting factor in this inquiry was the absence of agreed terminology for the study of integrated design systems. It is common for the term to be applied to what are essentially augmented Computer-Aided Design (CAD) systems, which are integrated only to the extent that agreements have been reached to attach proprietary extensions to proprietary CAD programs. It is also common for some to use the term integrated design systems to mean a system that applies only, or mainly, to the design phase of a product life cycle. It is likewise common for many of the terms listed earlier to be used as synonyms for integrated design systems. We tried to avoid this ambiguity by adopting the definition of integrated design systems that is implied in the introductory notes that we provided to our contacts, cited earlier. We thus arrived at this definition: Integrated Design Systems refers to the integration of the different tools and processes that comprise the engineering, of complex systems. It takes a broad view of the engineering of systems, to include consideration of the entire product realization process and the product life cycle. An important aspect of integrated design systems is the extent to which they integrate existing, "islands of automation" into a comprehensive design and product realization environment. As the study progressed, we relied increasingly upon a networking approach to lead us to new information. The departure point for such searches often was a government-sponsored project or a company initiative. The advantage of this approach was that short conversations with knowledgeable persons would usually cut through confusion over differences of terminology, thereby somewhat reducing the search space of the study. Even so, it was not until late in our eight-month inquiry that we began to see signs of convergence of the search, in the sense that a number of the latest inquiries began to turn up references to earlier contacts. As suggested above, this convergence often occurred with respect to particular government or company projects.

1998-01-01

215

Undergraduate Quantitative  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Quantitative Research Methods with: Childhood Studies | Geography | Politics | Social.ac.uk/study The University of Bristol is introducing a new quantitative research methods pathway to a range of social science new courses, work placements and pathways to Why enhance your degree with quantitative research

Bristol, University of

216

A Study of Program Management Procedures in the Campus-Based and Basic Grant Programs. Technical Report No. 1: Sample Design, Student Survey Yield and Bias.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a study of program management procedures in the campus-based and Basic Educational Opportunity Grant programs reports on the design of the site visit component of the study and the results of the student survey, both in terms of the yield obtained and the quality of the data. Chapter 2 describes the design of sampling methodology employed…

Puma, Michael J.; Ellis, Richard

217

Fitting statistical distributions to sea duck count data: implications for survey design and abundance estimation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Determining appropriate statistical distributions for modeling animal count data is important for accurate estimation of abundance, distribution, and trends. In the case of sea ducks along the U.S. Atlantic coast, managers want to estimate local and regional abundance to detect and track population declines, to define areas of high and low use, and to predict the impact of future habitat change on populations. In this paper, we used a modified marked point process to model survey data that recorded flock sizes of Common eiders, Long-tailed ducks, and Black, Surf, and White-winged scoters. The data come from an experimental aerial survey, conducted by the United States Fish & Wildlife Service (USFWS) Division of Migratory Bird Management, during which east-west transects were flown along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida during the winters of 2009–2011. To model the number of flocks per transect (the points), we compared the fit of four statistical distributions (zero-inflated Poisson, zero-inflated geometric, zero-inflated negative binomial and negative binomial) to data on the number of species-specific sea duck flocks that were recorded for each transect flown. To model the flock sizes (the marks), we compared the fit of flock size data for each species to seven statistical distributions: positive Poisson, positive negative binomial, positive geometric, logarithmic, discretized lognormal, zeta and Yule–Simon. Akaike’s Information Criterion and Vuong’s closeness tests indicated that the negative binomial and discretized lognormal were the best distributions for all species for the points and marks, respectively. These findings have important implications for estimating sea duck abundances as the discretized lognormal is a more skewed distribution than the Poisson and negative binomial, which are frequently used to model avian counts; the lognormal is also less heavy-tailed than the power law distributions (e.g., zeta and Yule–Simon), which are becoming increasingly popular for group size modeling. Choosing appropriate statistical distributions for modeling flock size data is fundamental to accurately estimating population summaries, determining required survey effort, and assessing and propagating uncertainty through decision-making processes.

Zipkin, Elise F.; Leirness, Jeffery B.; Kinlan, Brian P.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Silverman, Emily D.

2014-01-01

218

Design and construction of instrument rotator for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will describe the concerns, parameters and restrictions in the design and construction of the instrument rotator used on the SDSS telescope. The rotator provides support for two 600 Lb. Spectrographs, through all axes motion, without causing harmful radial moments to be translated to its inner ring which supports the mosaic imaging camera. This is accomplished using an outer-inner ring design. The outer ring is a thin-walled box structure incorporating the drive surface and is attached to the inner ring through a steel membrane. This rotator design requires the telescope"s primary support structure to provide final structural integrity. Due to this feature, a special fixture was needed to transport the rotator from the vendor and to install it onto the telescope. Positional accuracy and feedback is provided by an optical tape and read-head system manufactured by Heidenhain and attached to the inner ring. The drive motor was designed to use the same motor as those employed for the other two telescope axes, thus minimizing the spare-parts inventory and maintenance. Its drive pinion is of a pinch design, with the pinion axis parallel to rotator radius. A great deal of attention and planning was required in the construction of the box frame outer ring and the induction heat-treating of the drive surface. Drive surface tolerances were maintained within +/-0.001 inches, and internal stress cracks from heat-treating were minimal.

Leger, R. French; Long, Dan; Carey, Larry N.; Owen, Russell E.; Sigmund, Walter

2003-02-01

219

Smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent girls: qualitative and quantitative findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To use qualitative and quantitative findings to describe patterns of smoking experimentation and initiation among adolescent girls. DESIGN: Ethnographic in-person interviews, focus groups, telephone interviews, and a survey questionnaire were used over a one-year period. The paper reports on cross-sectional data drawn from a three-year longitudinal study. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: 205 girls participated in the survey and interviews during

M. Nichter; N. Vuckovic; G. Quintero; C. Ritenbaugh

1997-01-01

220

A survey of multi-agent organizational paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many researchers have demonstrated that the organiza- tional design employed by a system can have a significant, quantitative effect on its performance characteristics. A range of organizational strategies have emerged from this line of research, each with different strengths and weak- nesses. In this article we present a survey of the major orga- nizational paradigms used in multi-agent systems. These

BRYAN HORLING; VICTOR LESSER

2005-01-01

221

Calculating zones of glare and shadowless zones in satellite scanner surveys and optimizing the conditions of illumination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shadowless zones and zones of glare encountered in satellite scanner surveys are described quantitatively. The description makes it possible to select the partial-scan sensor and value of t sub 0 for which these zones will not appear in the frame; it also makes it possible to conduct a survey specially designed for studying the indicatrix of scattering of objects, for

I. G. Maltseva

1984-01-01

222

A survey of systems approaches to green design with illustrations from the computer industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased recognition of the importance of sustainable development is posing new challenges for industry. A systems approach provides a framework for reconciling the needs of sustainable development with all of the other demands on industry. The computer industry has been chosen to illustrate the application of a systems approach to green design in industry on account of both its increasing

Marion A. Hersh

1998-01-01

223

Computer Game Theories for Designing Motivating Educational Software: A Survey Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to evaluate computer game theories for educational software. We propose a framework for designing engaging educational games based on contemporary game studies which includes ludology and narratology. Ludology focuses on the study of computer games as play and game activities, while narratology revolves around the…

Ang, Chee Siang; Rao, G. S. V. Radha Krishna

2008-01-01

224

DESIGN AND INDICATOR CONSIDERATIONS FOR A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF USA GREAT RIVERS: MISSOURI, MISSISSIPPI, OHIO  

EPA Science Inventory

Great River Ecosystems (GRE) include the river channel and associated backwaters and floodplain habitats. The challenge in designing a GRE monitoring and assessment program is to choose a set of habitats, indicators, and sampling locations that reveal the ecological condition of ...

225

Instructional Design Career Environments: Survey of the Alignment of Preparation and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that there are differing competency requirements for instructional design and technology professionals working in different career environments such as business and industry, higher education, K-12 education, government, military, nonprofit organizations and the health professions. Over the past two decades, the instructional…

Larson, Miriam B.

2005-01-01

226

Interface Design for an Interactive Information Retrieval System: A Literature Survey and a Research System Description  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this article is on the human interaction characteristics of an information retrieval system, some design considerations to improve man-machine cooperation, and a research system at Stanford that is exploring some of these techniques. (55 references) (Author/NH)

Thompson, David A.

1971-01-01

227

The SuperMacho+SuperNova Survey Database Design: Supporting Time Domain Analysis of GB to TB Astronomical Datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two large scale survey projects to discover transient events have recently been initiated at NOAO's Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The SuperMacho project (see Stubbs et al 2002 poster) seeks to detect and follow microlensing events toward the Large Magellanic Cloud and the ESSENCE SuperNova project (see Garnavich et al. 2002 poster) seeks to detect and follow intermediate to high-redshift supernovae. Together, these projects (SM+SN) present challenging data management needs both for the large size of the datasets and the kind of analysis to performed on the data. The data reduction pipeline is described elsewhere at this conference (see Miceli et al. 2002 poster). The database requirements of the SM+SN projects can be divided in three broad categories: support for the survey operations, storage and analysis of the data that comes from the image reduction and transient detection pipeline, and communication of the results for the project users and the astronomical community. Current relational database technologies are being applied to address these requirements. The open source database PostgreSQL has been selected for the implementation of the system. This work presents the design of the database, along with some performance considerations that are necessary for the fast retrieval of information, thus allowing the development of data mining applications to take full advantage of the database.

Hiriart, R.; Smith, R. C.; Becker, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Miknaitis, G.; Rest, A.; Stubbs, C.; Cook, K.; Nikolaev, S.; Prochter, G.

2002-12-01

228

TOPoS: I. Survey design and analysis of the first sample  

E-print Network

The metal-weak tail of the metallicity distribution function (MDF) of the Galactic Halo stars contains crucial information on the formation mode of the first generation of stars. To determine this observationally, it is necessary to observe large numbers of extremely metal-poor stars. We present here the Turn-Off Primordial Stars survey (TOPoS) that is conducted as an ESO Large Programme at the VLT. This project has {four} main goals: (i) to understand the formation of low-mass stars in a low-metallicity gas: determine the metal-weak tail of the halo MDF below [M/H]=-3.5. In particular, we aim at determining the critical metallicity, that is the lowest metallicity sufficient for the formation of low-mass stars; (ii) to determine the relative abundance of the elements in extremely metal-poor stars, which are the signature of the massive first stars; (iii) to determine the trend of the lithium abundance at the time when the Galaxy formed; and (iv) to derive the fraction of C-enhanced extremely metal-poor stars ...

Caffau, E; Sbordone, L; Francois, P; Monaco, L; Spite, M; Plez, B; Cayrel, R; Christlieb, N; Clark, P; Glover, S; Klessen, R; Koch, A; Ludwig, H -G; Spite, F; Steffen, M; Zaggia, S

2013-01-01

229

The measurement of public opinion on abortion: the effects of survey design.  

PubMed

A factorial experiment examined the effects of the wording and sequence of survey questions on the measurement of attitudes toward abortion. When a first-trimester pregnancy is specified, 55% of respondents agree that a woman should be able to obtain a legal abortion for any reason, compared with 44% when no pregnancy duration is stated. Specifying first-trimester pregnancies has little effect on the proportion of respondents who agree that abortion should be available for maternal health, fetal defects or rape, but it significantly increases the proportion who agree that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion if she is single, has financial constraints or wants no more children. When gestational lengths from one to six months are presented to respondents in ascending order, agreement that a woman should be able to obtain an abortion for any reason is lower for any given length of gestation than when pregnancy durations are presented in descending order. Forty-eight percent of respondents agree that abortion should be legal for any reason when that question is posed after a series of specific reasons; however, 60% do so when it is the first question in the sequence. The difference in agreement with abortion for any reason between Catholics and non-Baptist Protestants, and between Republicans and Democrats, is much smaller when the question is asked first than when it is presented last. PMID:9258650

Bumpass, L L

1997-01-01

230

A survey on the design of multiprocessing systems for artificial intelligence applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some issues in designing computers for artificial intelligence (AI) processing are discussed. These issues are divided into three levels: the representation level, the control level, and the processor level. The representation level deals with the knowledge and methods used to solve the problem and the means to represent it. The control level is concerned with the detection of dependencies and parallelism in the algorithmic and program representations of the problem, and with the synchronization and sheduling of concurrent tasks. The processor level addresses the hardware and architectural components needed to evaluate the algorithmic and program representations. Solutions for the problems of each level are illustrated by a number of representative systems. Design decisions in existing projects on AI computers are classed into top-down, bottom-up, and middle-out approaches.

Wah, Benjamin W.; Li, Guo Jie

1989-01-01

231

Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

Houbolt, J. C.

1973-01-01

232

A framework for community assessment: designing and conducting a survey in a Hispanic immigrant and refugee community.  

PubMed

This article introduces a framework for the study of access to medical care that has been used extensively in national and local surveys, and demonstrates its application to an assessment of health and health care needs in a Hispanic immigrant and refugee community. The presentation of the framework, study design, findings, and implications for research and planning points out the utility of this framework for organizing systematic community assessment data-gathering activities; demonstrates how such an assessment could be incorporated into a public health nursing curriculum or readily adopted by public health nurse professionals in their communities; illustrates the potential for effective partnerships between public health practitioners and academics in conducting and disseminating the findings; and provides a broader conceptual, empirical, and policy-oriented context in which to view local community-assessment activities and their relevance for health policy and program development. PMID:2023852

Urrutia-Rojas, X; Aday, L A

1991-03-01

233

The Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS): objectives and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article describes the objectives and design of a prospective study of the prevalence, incidence and course of psychiatric\\u000a disorders in a representative sample of non-institutionalized Dutch adults. A total of 7146 men and women aged 18–64, contacted\\u000a through a multistage sample of municipalities and households, were interviewed at home in 1996. The primary diagnostic instrument\\u000a was the CIDI, which

R. V. Bijl; G. van Zessen; A. Ravelli; C. de Rijk; Y. Langendoen

1998-01-01

234

Design on Integral Monitoring System for Subway Tunnel Construction Based on GPS and Surveying Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a At present, the comparative deformation in the inner of the tunnel is attached more importance to during soft-soil tunnel\\u000a construction, so when taking tunnel analysis and design, we think much of comparative deformation in the inner of the tunnel.\\u000a As a matter of fact, inner and outer deformations of the tunnel are a uniform organism, none but considering and analyzing

Chen-guang Jiang; Jian-guo Peng; Bao-guo Qian

2010-01-01

235

ROBUST CONTROL DESIGN OF A SINGLE DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM MAGNETIC LEVITATION SYSTEM BY QUANTITATIVE FEEDBACK THEORY  

E-print Network

Milwaukee, WI 53233 Email: mark.nagurka@marquette.edu ABSTRACT A magnetic levitation (maglev) system for maglev systems are designed based on a nominal linearized model. System variations and uncertainties method based on Quan- titative Feedback Theory (QFT) applied to a single degree-of- freedom (DOF) maglev

Nagurka, Mark L.

236

Development of a quantitative structure activity relations (QSAR) model to guide the design of fluorescent dyes for detecting amyloid fibrils.  

PubMed

Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed on a set of polymethine compounds to develop new fluorescent probes for detecting amyloid fibrils. Two different approaches were evaluated for developing a predictive model: part least squares (PLS) regression and an artificial neural network (ANN). A set of 60 relevant molecular descriptors were selected by performing principal component analysis on more than 1600 calculated molecular descriptors. Through QSAR analysis, two predictive models were developed. The final versions produced an average prediction accuracy of 72.5 and 84.2% for the linear PLS and the non-linear ANN procedures, respectively. A test of the ANN model was performed by using it to predict the activity, i.e., staining or non-staining of amyloid fibrils, using 320 compounds. The five candidates whose greatest activities were selected by the ANN model underwent confirmation of their predicted properties by empirical testing. The results indicated that the ANN model potentially is useful for facilitating prediction of activity of untested compounds as dyes for detecting amyloid fibrils. PMID:24251531

Inshyn, D I; Kovalska, V B; Losytskyy, M Y; Slominskii, Yl; Tolmachev, O I; Yarmoluk, S M

2014-01-01

237

Surveying & Mapping Surveying  

E-print Network

A Career In Surveying & Mapping Surveying Engineering Technology-of-Doors, Responsibility, Independence, and Professional Licensing? Surveying Engineering-5711 http://www.umaine.edu/set/svt About the Program The Surveying Engineering

Thomas, Andrew

238

Quantitative nodule detection in low dose chest CT scans: new template modeling and evaluation for CAD system design.  

PubMed

Automatic diagnosis of lung nodules for early detection of lung cancer is the goal of a number of screening studies worldwide. With the improvements in resolution and scanning time of low dose chest CT scanners, nodule detection and identification is continuously improving. In this paper we describe the latest improvements introduced by our group in automatic detection of lung nodules. We introduce a new template for nodule detection using level sets which describes various physical nodules irrespective of shape, size and distribution of gray levels. The template parameters are estimated automatically from the segmented data (after the first two steps of our CAD system for automatic nodule detection) - no a priori learning of the parameters density function is needed. We show quantitatively that this template modeling approach drastically reduces the number of false positives in the nodule detection (the third step of our CAD system for automatic nodule detection), thus improving the overall accuracy of CAD systems. We compare the performance of this approach with other approaches in the literature and with respect to human experts. The impact of the new template model includes: 1) flexibility with respect to nodule topology - thus various nodules can be detected simultaneously by the same technique; 2) automatic parameter estimation of the nodule models using the gray level information of the segmented data; and 3) the ability to provide exhaustive search for all the possible nodules in the scan without excessive processing time - this provides an enhanced accuracy of the CAD system without increase in the overall diagnosis time. PMID:16685910

Farag, Aly A; El-Baz, Ayman; Gimelfarb, Georgy; El-Ghar, Mohamed Abou; Eldiasty, Tarek

2005-01-01

239

Quantitative Analysis of Adulterations in Oat Flour by FT-NIR Spectroscopy, Incomplete Unbalanced Randomized Block Design, and Partial Least Squares  

PubMed Central

This paper developed a rapid and nondestructive method for quantitative analysis of a cheaper adulterant (wheat flour) in oat flour by NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. Reflectance FT-NIR spectra in the range of 4000 to 12000?cm?1 of 300 oat flour objects adulterated with wheat flour were measured. The doping levels of wheat flour ranged from 5% to 50% (w/w). To ensure the generalization performance of the method, both the oat and the wheat flour samples were collected from different producing areas and an incomplete unbalanced randomized block (IURB) design was performed to include the significant variations that may be encountered in future samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to develop calibration models for predicting the levels of wheat flour. Different preprocessing methods including smoothing, taking second-order derivative (D2), and standard normal variate (SNV) transformation were investigated to improve the model accuracy of PLS. The root mean squared error of Monte Carlo cross-validation (RMSEMCCV) and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) were 1.921 and 1.975 (%, w/w) by D2-PLS, respectively. The results indicate that NIR and chemometrics can provide a rapid method for quantitative analysis of wheat flour in oat flour. PMID:25143857

Wang, Ning; Zhang, Xingxiang; Yu, Zhuo; Li, Guodong; Zhou, Bin

2014-01-01

240

Methodological survey of designed uneven randomization trials (DU-RANDOM): a protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Although even randomization (that is, approximately 1:1 randomization ratio in study arms) provides the greatest statistical power, designed uneven randomization (DUR), (for example, 1:2 or 1:3) is used to increase participation rates. Until now, no convincing data exists addressing the impact of DUR on participation rates in trials. The objective of this study is to evaluate the epidemiology and to explore factors associated with DUR. Methods We will search for reports of RCTs published within two years in 25 general medical journals with the highest impact factor according to the Journal Citation Report (JCR)-2010. Teams of two reviewers will determine eligibility and extract relevant information from eligible RCTs in duplicate and using standardized forms. We will report the prevalence of DUR trials, the reported reasons for using DUR, and perform a linear regression analysis to estimate the association between the randomization ratio and the associated factors, including participation rate, type of informed consent, clinical area, and so on. Discussion A clearer understanding of RCTs with DUR and its association with factors in trials, for example, participation rate, can optimize trial design and may have important implications for both researchers and users of the medical literature. PMID:24456965

2014-01-01

241

Quantitative analysis for the effect of plant oil and fatty acid on Tuber melanosporum culture by uniform design combined with partial least squares regression.  

PubMed

Uniform design and partial least squares regression were adopted to quantitatively analyze the effects of plant oil and fatty acid as well as their addition amount and addition time on the performance of Tuber melanosporum submerged fermentation. The regression models showed the optimal scheme was the addition of 1.2 mL soybean oil on day 9, which was validated by experiment. The maximal biomass of 25.89 +/- 1.01 g/L and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) production of 6.51 +/- 0.68 g/L were obtained, which were enhanced by 18.5% and 86%, respectively. Palmitic acid was identified to be the key component to stimulate the cell growth and EPS biosynthesis, and stearic acid was beneficial for the production of intracellular polysaccharides. Not only the biomass but also EPS production obtained in this work are the highest reported in the batch fermentation of truffle. PMID:20473608

Liu, Rui-Sang; Tang, Ya-Jie

2010-08-01

242

Flow field survey near the rotational plane of an advanced design propeller on a JetStar airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation was conducted to obtain upper fuselage surface static pressures and boundary layer velocity profiles below the centerline of an advanced design propeller. This investigation documents the upper fuselage velocity flow field in support of the in-flight acoustic tests conducted on a JetStar airplane. Initial results of the boundary layer survey show evidence of an unusual flow disturbance, which is attributed to the two windshield wiper assemblies on the aircraft. The assemblies were removed, eliminating the disturbances from the flow field. This report presents boundary layer velocity profiles at altitudes of 6096 and 9144 m (20,000 and 30,000 ft) and Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.8, and it investigated the effects of windshield wiper assemblies on these profiles. Because of the unconventional velocity profiles that were obtained with the assemblies mounted, classical boundary layer parameters, such as momentum and displacement thicknesses, are not presented. The effects of flight test variables (Mach number and angles of attack and sideslip) and an advanced design propeller on boundary layer profiles - with the wiper assemblies mounted and removed - are presented.

Walsh, K. R.

1985-01-01

243

50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01...of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States...of recreational survey data. (a) To...

2013-10-01

244

50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01...of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States...of recreational survey data. (a) To...

2012-10-01

245

50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01...of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States...of recreational survey data. (a) To...

2010-10-01

246

50 CFR 600.1417 - Requirements for exempted state designation based on submission of recreational survey data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01...of recreational survey data. 600.1417 Section 600.1417 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... Marine Recreational Fisheries of the United States...of recreational survey data. (a) To...

2011-10-01

247

Survey of Technical Preventative Measures to Reduce Whole-Body Vibration Effects when Designing Mobile Machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Engineering solutions to minimize the effects on operators of vibrating mobile machinery can be conveniently grouped into three areas: Reduction of vibration at source by improvement of the quality of terrain, careful selection of vehicle or machine, correct loading, proper maintenance, etc.Reduction of vibration transmission by incorporating suspension systems (tyres, vehicle suspensions, suspension cab and seat) between the operator and the source of vibration.Improvement of cab ergonomics and seat profiles to optimize operator posture. These paper reviews the different techniques and problems linked to categories (2) and (3). According to epidemiological studies, the main health risk with whole-body vibration exposure would appear to be lower back pain. When designing new mobile machinery, all factors which may contribute to back injury should be considered in order to reduce risk. For example, optimized seat suspension is useless if the suspension seat cannot be correctly and easily adjusted to the driver's weight or if the driver is forced to drive in a bent position to avoid his head striking the ceiling due to the spatial requirement of the suspension seat.

DONATI, P.

2002-05-01

248

THE VIRUS-P EXPLORATION OF NEARBY GALAXIES (VENGA): SURVEY DESIGN, DATA PROCESSING, AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS METHODS  

SciTech Connect

We present the survey design, data reduction, and spectral fitting pipeline for the VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA). VENGA is an integral field spectroscopic survey, which maps the disks of 30 nearby spiral galaxies. Targets span a wide range in Hubble type, star formation activity, morphology, and inclination. The VENGA data cubes have 5.''6 FWHM spatial resolution, {approx}5 A FWHM spectral resolution, sample the 3600 A-6800 A range, and cover large areas typically sampling galaxies out to {approx}0.7R{sub 25}. These data cubes can be used to produce two-dimensional maps of the star formation rate, dust extinction, electron density, stellar population parameters, the kinematics and chemical abundances of both stars and ionized gas, and other physical quantities derived from the fitting of the stellar spectrum and the measurement of nebular emission lines. To exemplify our methods and the quality of the data, we present the VENGA data cube on the face-on Sc galaxy NGC 628 (a.k.a. M 74). The VENGA observations of NGC 628 are described, as well as the construction of the data cube, our spectral fitting method, and the fitting of the stellar and ionized gas velocity fields. We also propose a new method to measure the inclination of nearly face-on systems based on the matching of the stellar and gas rotation curves using asymmetric drift corrections. VENGA will measure relevant physical parameters across different environments within these galaxies, allowing a series of studies on star formation, structure assembly, stellar populations, chemical evolution, galactic feedback, nuclear activity, and the properties of the interstellar medium in massive disk galaxies.

Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Weinzirl, Tim; Song, Mimi; Heiderman, Amanda; Gebhardt, Karl; Jogee, Shardha; Evans, Neal J. II; Kaplan, Kyle; Marinova, Irina; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Van den Bosch, Remco C. E. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Luo Rongxin; Hao Lei [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai (China); Drory, Niv [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Fabricius, Maximilian [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Fisher, David [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Yoachim, Peter [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

2013-05-15

249

Tailings Pond Characterization And Designing Through Geophysical Surveys In Dipping Sedimentary Formations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mining activities results into generation of disintegrated waste materials attaining increased mobilization status and requires a safe disposal mechanism through back filling process or secluded storage on surface with prevention of its interaction with environment cycle. The surface disposal of waste materials will become more critical in case of mined minerals having toxic or radioactive elements. In such cases, the surface disposal site is to be characterized for its sub-surface nature to understand its role in environmental impact due to the loading of waste materials. Near surface geophysics plays a major role in mapping the geophysical characters of the sub-surface formations in and around the disposal site and even to certain extent helps in designing of the storage structure. Integrated geophysical methods involving resistivity tomography, ground magnetic and shallow seismic studies were carried out over proposed tailings pond area of 0.3 sq. kms underlined by dipping sedimentary rocks consisting of ferruginous shales and dolomitic to siliceous limestone with varying thicknesses. The investigated site being located in tectonically disturbed area, geophysical investigations were carried out with number of profiles to visualize the sub-surface nature with clarity. The integration of results of twenty profiles of resistivity tomography with 2 m (shallow) and 10 m (moderate depth) electrode spacing’s enabled in preparing probable sub-surface geological section along the strike direction of the formation under the tailings pond with some geo-tectonic structure inferred to be a fault. Similarly, two resistivity tomography profiles perpendicular to the strike direction of the formations brought out the existence of buried basic intrusive body on the northern boundary of the proposed tailings pond. Two resistivity tomography profiles in criss-cross direction over the suspected fault zone confirmed fault existence on the north-eastern part of tailings pond. Thirty two magnetic profiles inside the tailings pond and surrounding areas on the southern part of the tailings pond enabled in identifying two parallel east-west intrusive bodies forming the impermeable boundary for the tailings pond. The shallow seismic refraction and the geophysical studies in and around the proposed tailings pond brought out the suitability of the site, even when the toxic elements percolates through the subsurface formations in to the groundwater system, the existence of dykes on either side of the proposed ponding area won’t allow the water to move across them thus by restricting the contamination within the tailings pond area. Similarly, the delineation of a fault zone within the tailings pond area helped in shifting the proposed dam axis of the pond to avoid leakage through the fault zone causing concern to environment pollution.

Muralidharan, D.; Andrade, R.; Anand, K.; Sathish, R.; Goud, K.

2009-12-01

250

Quantitative NMR  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a learning module focused on principles and practice of NMR for quantitative analysis, an application less commonly associated with the technique than is structure determination. Links to simulation packages are included.

Korir, Albert K.; Larive, Cynthia K.

2011-07-18

251

Biological effect of low-head sea lamprey barriers: Designs for extensive surveys and the value of incorporating intensive process-oriented research  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four sampling designs for quantifying the effect of low-head sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) barriers on fish communities were evaluated, and the contribution of process-oriented research to the overall confidence of results obtained was discussed. The designs include: (1) sample barrier streams post-construction; (2) sample barrier and reference streams post-construction; (3) sample barrier streams pre- and post-construction; and (4) sample barrier and reference streams pre- and post-construction. In the statistical literature, the principal basis for comparison of sampling designs is generally the precision achieved by each design. In addition to precision, designs should be compared based on the interpretability of results and on the scale to which the results apply. Using data collected in a broad survey of streams with and without sea lamprey barriers, some of the tradeoffs that occur among precision, scale, and interpretability are illustrated. Although circumstances such as funding and availability of pre-construction data may limit which design can be implemented, a pre/post-construction design including barrier and reference streams provides the most meaningful information for use in barrier management decisions. Where it is not feasible to obtain pre-construction data, a design including reference streams is important to maintain the interpretability of results. Regardless of the design used, process-oriented research provides a framework for interpreting results obtained in broad surveys. As such, information from both extensive surveys and intensive process-oriented research provides the best basis for fishery management actions, and gives researchers and managers the most confidence in the conclusions reached regarding the effects of sea lamprey barriers.

Hayes, D.B.; Baylis, J.R.; Carl, L.M.; Dodd, H.R.; Goldstein, J.D.; McLaughlin, R.L.; Noakes, D.L.G.; Porto, L.M.

2003-01-01

252

Three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationships analysis guided rational design of a highly selective ligand for the cannabinoid receptor 2.  

PubMed

This paper describes a three-dimensional quantitative structure-selectivity relationships (3D-QSSR) study for selectivity of a series of ligands for cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. 3D-QSSR exploration was expected to provide design information for drugs with high selectivity toward the CB2 receptor. The proposed 3D computational model was performed by Phase and generated taking into account a number of structurally diverse compounds characterized by a wide range of selectivity index values. The model proved to be predictive, with r2 of 0.95 and Q2 of 0.63. In order to get prospective experimental validation, the selectivity of an external data set of 39 compounds reported in the literature was predicted. The correlation coefficient (r2=0.56) obtained on this unrelated test set provided evidence that the correlation shown by the model was not a chance result. Subsequently, we essayed the ability of our approach to help the design of new CB2-selective ligands. Accordingly, based on our interest in studying the cannabinergic properties of quinolones, the N-(adamantan-1-yl)-4-oxo-8-methyl-1-pentyl-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (65) was considered as a potential synthetic target. The log(SI) value predicted by using our model was indicative of high CB2 selectivity for such a compound, thus spurring us to synthesize it and to evaluate its CB1 and CB2 receptor affinity. Compound 65 was found to be an extremely selective CB2 ligand as it displayed high CB2 affinity (Ki=4.9 nM), while being devoid of CB1 affinity (Ki>10,000 nM). The identification of a new selective CB2 receptor ligand lends support for the practicability of quantitative ligand-based selectivity models for cannabinoid receptors. These drug discovery tools might represent a valuable complementary approach to docking studies performed on homology models of the receptors. PMID:21183257

Brogi, Simone; Corelli, Federico; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Ligresti, Alessia; Mugnaini, Claudia; Pasquini, Serena; Tafi, Andrea

2011-02-01

253

Geothermal energy as a source of electricity. A worldwide survey of the design and operation of geothermal power plants  

SciTech Connect

An overview of geothermal power generation is presented. A survey of geothermal power plants is given for the following countries: China, El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Turkey, USSR, and USA. A survey of countries planning geothermal power plants is included. (MHR)

DiPippo, R.

1980-01-01

254

Survey Sense.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides advice on how to plan and conduct an alumni census through the mail, drawing on the experiences of Stonehill College in North Easton, Massachusetts, which undertook such a survey in 1992. It focuses on costs, information needs, questionnaire design, mailing considerations, reporting the results, and expected response rates.…

Pollick, Anne M.

1995-01-01

255

Quantitative Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An appeal for more research to determine how to educate children as effectively as possible is made. Mathematics teachers can readily examine the educational problems of today in their classrooms since learning progress in mathematics can easily be measured and evaluated. Since mathematics teachers have learned to think in quantitative terms and…

DuBridge, Lee A.

256

Surveying drainage culvert use by carnivores: sampling design and cost–benefit analyzes of track-pads vs. video-surveillance methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental assessment studies often evaluate the effectiveness of drainage culverts as habitat linkages for species, however,\\u000a the efficiency of the sampling designs and the survey methods are not known. Our main goal was to estimate the most cost-effective\\u000a monitoring method for sampling carnivore culvert using track-pads and video-surveillance. We estimated the most efficient\\u000a (lower costs and high detection success) interval

Ana Rita A. Mateus; Clara Grilo; Margarida Santos-Reis

257

78 FR 5459 - Medicare Program; Request for Information To Aid in the Design and Development of a Survey...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...such as communication between patients and health care providers...care; care coordination; patient preferences; environment; and safety. Publicly available surveys...measures indicating-- (1) patient experience and/or level...

2013-01-25

258

Mapping indoor radon-222 in Denmark: design and test of the statistical model used in the second nationwide survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Denmark, a new survey of indoor radon-222 has been carried out. 1-year alpha track measurements (CR-39) have been made in 3019 single-family houses. There are from 3 to 23 house measurements in each of the 275 municipalities. Within each municipality, houses have been selected randomly. One important outcome of the survey is the prediction of the fraction of houses

Claus E. Andersen; Kaare Ulbak; Anders Damkjær; Peter Kirkegaard; Peter Gravesen

2001-01-01

259

Integrating case study and survey research methods: an example in information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case for combining research methods generally, and more specifically that for combining qualitative and quantitative methods, is strong. Yet, research designs that extensively integrate both fieldwork (e.g. case studies) and survey research are rare. Moreover, some journals tend tacitly to specialize by methodology thereby encouraging purity of method. The multi-method model of research while not new, has not been

Guy G. Gable

1994-01-01

260

Identifying Influential Facilitators of Mathematics Professional Development: A Survey Analysis of Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper builds on results from a previous phenomenological study examining characteristics of influential facilitators of elementary mathematics professional development. The current study utilized a survey design where results from the qualitative investigation were quantitized to develop an instrument that allowed participants to identify…

Linder, Sandra M.; Eckhoff, Angela; Igo, Larry B.; Stegelin, Dolores

2013-01-01

261

EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY) project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB) change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1) provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2) to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference), EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven European countries. This study will result in a unique dataset, enabling cross country comparisons in overweight, obesity, risk behaviours for these conditions as well as the correlates of engagement in these risk behaviours. PMID:21281466

2011-01-01

262

Behavioral Norms and ExpectationsA Quantitative Approach To the Assessment of Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizational culture—the shared beliefs and values guiding the thinking and behavioral styles of members—traditionally has been assessed by qualitative methods. However, quantitative approaches such as culture surveys offer important advantages for both cross-sectional organizational research and data-based cultural change programs. The Organizational Culture Inventory, an instrument designed for such uses, profiles the culture of organizations and their subunits in terms

Robert A. Cooke; Denise M. Rousseau

1988-01-01

263

SURVEY LEADERSHIP The Manager's Guide to Survey Feedback & Action Planning  

E-print Network

SURVEY LEADERSHIP The Manager's Guide to Survey Feedback & Action Planning A guide designed to help you understand and prepare to lead the survey feedback and action planning process, compiled is subject to change without notice. #12;Morehead Associates Page 2 of 115 Manager's Guide to Survey Feedback

Squire, Larry R.

264

1Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth  

E-print Network

1Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth Tue 13th September 9.00h session 1: Survey Systems 3D Chirp Sub-Bottom Imaging System: Design and 3D Volumes Martin Gutowski*, Jonathan M acknowledge support from the EPSRC and GeoAcoustics Ltd. #12;2Shallow Survey 2005 Plymouth 3D Chirp 3D High

Southampton, University of

265

Electronic Survey Methodology Page 1 Electronic Survey Methodology  

E-print Network

Electronic Survey Methodology Page 1 Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard, Maryland preece@umbc.edu 2002 © Andrews, Nonnecke and Preece #12;Electronic Survey Methodology Page 2 Conducting Research on the Internet: Electronic survey Design, Development and Implementation Guidelines

Nonnecke, Blair

266

Electron transport for spectrum analysis and experiment design  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey is presented on modeling the effects of electron transport on the energy and angular spectra of electrons emitted or reflected from non-crystalline solid surfaces and nanostructures. This is intended to aid in the quantitative interpretation of such spectra and should also provide a useful guideline for experiment design. A brief review of the most significant characteristics of the

Wolfgang S. M. Werner

2010-01-01

267

Stream chemistry in the eastern United States. 1. Synoptic survey design, acid-base status, and regional patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the regional acid-base status of streams in the mid-Atlantic and southern US, spring base flow chemistry was surveyed in a probability sample of 500 stream reaches representing a population of 64,300 reaches (224,000 km). Approximately half of the streams had acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) ⤠200 μeq L⁻¹. Acidic (ANC ⤠0) streams were located in the highlands of

Philip R. Kaufmann; Alan T. Herlihy; Mark E. Mitch; Jay J. Messer; W. Scott Overton

1991-01-01

268

Stream chemistry in the eastern United States: 1. Synoptic survey design, acid-base status, and regional patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the regional acid-base status of streams in the mid-Atlantic and southeastern United States, spring base flow chemistry was surveyed in a probability sample of 500 stream reaches representing a population of 64,300 reaches (224,000 km). Approximately half of the streams had acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) ? 200 ?eq L?1. Acidic (ANC ? 0) streams were located in the highlands

Philip R. Kaufmann; Alan T. Herlihy; Mark E. Mitch; Jay J. Messer; W. Scott Overton

1991-01-01

269

At a Glance: Quasimodo Quantitative System Properties in  

E-print Network

embedded systems with complex quantitative constraints. Research Projects Embedded Systems Design #12At a Glance: Quasimodo Quantitative System Properties in Model-Driven-Design of Embedded Systems o Quantitative System Properties in Model- Driven-Design of Embedded Systems Quasimodo will develop

Ábrahám, Erika

270

High resolution bathymetric survey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, (SSC-San Diego), California was selected by the United Kingdom Ministry of Defence (UK MoD) to design, develop and integrate a bathymetric navigation survey system aboard a survey ship that was designed specifically for deep water operations. In 1998, an operational survey system, installed aboard HMS Scott, was delivered to the United

S. J. Dunham; J. T. Handal; T. Peterson; M. O'Brien

2004-01-01

271

Cartography at the U.S. Geological Survey: the National Mapping Division's cartographic programs, products, design, and technology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the prime source of many kinds of topographic and special-purpose maps of the United States and its outlying areas. It is also a prime source of digital map data. One main goal of the USGS is to provide large-scale topographic map coverage of the entire United States. Most of the Nation is already covered. We expect that initial coverage will be completed by 1991. For many purposes, many public agencies, private organizations, and individuals need reliable cartographic and geographic knowledge about our Nation. To serve such needs, all USGS maps are compiled to exacting standards of accuracy and content.

Ogrosky, Charles; Gwynn, William; Jannace, Richard

1989-01-01

272

Sport Management Survey. Employment Perspectives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)

Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.

1986-01-01

273

Exploring the use of design-manufacturing integration (DMI) to facilitate product development: a test of some practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports results of a quantitative study of design-manufacturing integration (DMI) practices hypothesized to facilitate effective new product development (NPD). Results of a mail survey to manufacturing engineering managers indicate that effective NPD may best be facilitated by DMI practices such as group-based evaluation for design and manufacturing, and use of tools and techniques to transfer manufacturing information to

Cathy A. Rusinko

1999-01-01

274

Computational vaccinology: quantitative approaches.  

PubMed

The immune system is hierarchical and has many levels, exhibiting much emergent behaviour. However, at its heart are molecular recognition events that are indistinguishable from other types of biomacromolecular interaction. These can be addressed well by quantitative experimental and theoretical biophysical techniques, and particularly by methods from drug design. We review here our approach to computational immunovaccinology. In particular, we describe the JenPep database and two new techniques for T cell epitope prediction. One is based on quantitative structure-activity relationships (a 3D-QSAR method based on CoMSIA and another 2D method based on the Free-Wilson approach) and the other on atomistic molecular dynamic simulations using high performance computing. JenPep (http://www.jenner.ar.uk/ JenPep) is a relational database system supporting quantitative data on peptide binding to major histocompatibility complexes, TAP transporters, TCR-pMHC complexes, and an annotated list of B cell and T cell epitopes. Our 2D-QSAR method factors the contribution to peptide binding from individual amino acids as well as 1-2 and 1-3 residue interactions. In the 3D-QSAR approach, the influence of five physicochemical properties (volume, electrostatic potential, hydrophobicity, hydrogen-bond donor and acceptor abilities) on peptide affinity were considered. Both methods are exemplified through their application to the well-studied problem of peptide binding to the human class I MHC molecule HLA-A*0201. PMID:14712934

Flower, Darren R; McSparron, Helen; Blythe, Martin J; Zygouri, Christianna; Taylor, Debra; Guan, Pingping; Wan, Shouzhan; Coveney, Peter V; Walshe, Valerie; Borrow, Persephone; Doytchinova, Irini A

2003-01-01

275

Coverage Evaluation of Academic Libraries Survey (ALS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates universe coverage, data coverage, and response rates of the Academic Libraries Survey. Includes examination of survey design and data collection, perceptions of regional survey coordinators, and reporting by public versus private institutions. (Author)

Marston, Christopher C.

1999-01-01

276

Quantitative Reasoning in Environmental Science: A Learning Progression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR) learning progression was created with three progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. An iterative research design was used as it…

Mayes, Robert Lee; Forrester, Jennifer Harris; Christus, Jennifer Schuttlefield; Peterson, Franziska Isabel; Bonilla, Rachel; Yestness, Nissa

2014-01-01

277

Web Survey Design in ASP.Net 2.0: A Simple Task with One Line of Code  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past few years, more and more companies have been investing in electronic commerce (EC) by designing and implementing Web-based applications. In the world of practice, the importance of using Web technology to reach individual customers has been presented by many researchers. This paper presents an easy way of conducting marketing…

Liu, Chang

2007-01-01

278

Reflective Filters Design for Self-Filtering Narrowband Ultraviolet Imaging Experiment Wide-Field Surveys (NUVIEWS) Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the design of multilayer reflective filters for the self-filtering cameras of the NUVIEWS project. Wide angle self-filtering cameras were designed to image the C IV (154.9 nm) line emission, and H2 Lyman band fluorescence (centered at 161 nm) over a 20 deg x 30 deg field of view. A key element of the filter design includes the development of pi-multilayers optimized to provide maximum reflectance at 154.9 nm and 161 nm for the respective cameras without significant spectral sensitivity to the large cone angle of the incident radiation. We applied self-filtering concepts to design NUVIEWS telescope filters that are composed of three reflective mirrors and one folding mirror. The filters with narrowband widths of 6 and 8 rim at 154.9 and 161 nm, respectively, have net throughputs of more than 50 % with average blocking of out-of-band wavelengths better than 3 x 10(exp -4)%.

Park, Jung- Ho; Kim, Jongmin; Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

1994-01-01

279

Quantitative Languages KRISHNENDU CHATTERJEE  

E-print Network

Quantitative Languages KRISHNENDU CHATTERJEE IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology of Science and Technology Austria) and EPFL, Switzerland Quantitative generalizations of classical languages) to define several natural classes of quantitative languages over finite and infinite words; in particular

Doyen, Laurent

280

Surveying drainage culvert use by carnivores: sampling design and cost-benefit analyzes of track-pads vs. video-surveillance methods.  

PubMed

Environmental assessment studies often evaluate the effectiveness of drainage culverts as habitat linkages for species, however, the efficiency of the sampling designs and the survey methods are not known. Our main goal was to estimate the most cost-effective monitoring method for sampling carnivore culvert using track-pads and video-surveillance. We estimated the most efficient (lower costs and high detection success) interval between visits (days) when using track-pads and also determined the advantages of using each method. In 2006, we selected two highways in southern Portugal and sampled 15 culverts over two 10-day sampling periods (spring and summer). Using the track-pad method, 90% of the animal tracks were detected using a 2-day interval between visits. We recorded a higher number of crossings for most species using video-surveillance (n = 129) when compared with the track-pad technique (n = 102); however, the detection ability using the video-surveillance method varied with type of structure and species. More crossings were detected in circular culverts (1 m and 1.5 m diameter) than in box culverts (2 m to 4 m width), likely because video cameras had a reduced vision coverage area. On the other hand, carnivore species with small feet such as the common genet Genetta genetta were detected less often using the track-pad surveying method. The cost-benefit analyzes shows that the track-pad technique is the most appropriate technique, but video-surveillance allows year-round surveys as well as the behavior response analyzes of species using crossing structures. PMID:21181260

Mateus, Ana Rita A; Grilo, Clara; Santos-Reis, Margarida

2011-10-01

281

Detecting population declines over large areas with presence-absence, time-to-encounter, and count survey methods.  

PubMed

Ecologists often discount presence-absence surveys as a poor way to gain insight into population dynamics, in part because these surveys are not amenable to many standard statistical tests. Still, presence-absence surveys are sometimes the only feasible alternative for monitoring large areas when funds are limited, especially for sparse or difficult-to-detect species. I undertook a detailed simulation study to compare the power of presence-absence, count, and time-to-encounter surveys to detect regional declines in a population. I used a modeling approach that simulates both population numbers and the monitoring process, accounting for observation and other measurement errors. In gauging the efficacy of presence-absence surveys versus other approaches, I varied the number of survey sites, the spatial variation in encounter rate, the mean encounter rate, and the type of population loss. My results showed that presence-absence data can be as or more powerful than count data in many cases. Quantitative guidelines for choosing between presence-absence surveys and count surveys depend on the biological and logistical constraints governing a conservation monitoring situation. Generally, presence-absence surveys work best when there is little variability in abundance among the survey sites, the organism is rare, and the species is difficult to detect so that the time spent getting to each survey site is less than or equal to the time spent surveying each site. Count surveys work best otherwise. I present a case study with count data on the Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) from the North American Breeding Bird Survey to illustrate how the method might be used with field-survey data. The case study demonstrates that a count survey would be the most cost-effective design but would entail reduction in the number of sites. If this site reduction is not desirable, a presence-absence survey would be the most cost-effective survey. PMID:16909580

Pollock, Jacob E

2006-06-01

282

Land 3D-seismic data: Preprocessing quality control utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, normal moveout, first breaks, and offset  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The recent proliferation of the 3D reflection seismic method into the near-surface area of geophysical applications, especially in response to the emergence of the need to comprehensively characterize and monitor near-surface carbon dioxide sequestration in shallow saline aquifers around the world, justifies the emphasis on cost-effective and robust quality control and assurance (QC/QA) workflow of 3D seismic data preprocessing that is suitable for near-surface applications. The main purpose of our seismic data preprocessing QC is to enable the use of appropriate header information, data that are free of noise-dominated traces, and/or flawed vertical stacking in subsequent processing steps. In this article, I provide an account of utilizing survey design specifications, noise properties, first breaks, and normal moveout for rapid and thorough graphical QC/QA diagnostics, which are easy to apply and efficient in the diagnosis of inconsistencies. A correlated vibroseis time-lapse 3D-seismic data set from a CO2-flood monitoring survey is used for demonstrating QC diagnostics. An important by-product of the QC workflow is establishing the number of layers for a refraction statics model in a data-driven graphical manner that capitalizes on the spatial coverage of the 3D seismic data. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

Raef, A.

2009-01-01

283

Measuring health literacy in populations: illuminating the design and development process of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q)  

PubMed Central

Background Several measurement tools have been developed to measure health literacy. The tools vary in their approach and design, but few have focused on comprehensive health literacy in populations. This paper describes the design and development of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q), an innovative, comprehensive tool to measure health literacy in populations. Methods Based on a conceptual model and definition, the process involved item development, pre-testing, field-testing, external consultation, plain language check, and translation from English to Bulgarian, Dutch, German, Greek, Polish, and Spanish. Results The development process resulted in the HLS-EU-Q, which entailed two sections, a core health literacy section and a section on determinants and outcomes associated to health literacy. The health literacy section included 47 items addressing self-reported difficulties in accessing, understanding, appraising and applying information in tasks concerning decisions making in healthcare, disease prevention, and health promotion. The second section included items related to, health behaviour, health status, health service use, community participation, socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Conclusions By illuminating the detailed steps in the design and development process of the HLS-EU-Q, it is the aim to provide a deeper understanding of its purpose, its capability and its limitations for others using the tool. By stimulating a wide application it is the vision that HLS-EU-Q will be validated in more countries to enhance the understanding of health literacy in different populations. PMID:24112855

2013-01-01

284

Structure-based and multiple potential three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (SB-MP-3D-QSAR) for inhibitor design.  

PubMed

The inhibitions of enzymes (proteins) are determined by the binding interactions between ligands and targeting proteins. However, traditional QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship) is a one-side technique, only considering the structures and physicochemical properties of inhibitors. In this study, the structure-based and multiple potential three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (SB-MP-3D-QSAR) is presented, in which the structural information of host protein is involved in the QSAR calculations. The SB-MP-3D-QSAR actually is a combinational method of docking approach and QSAR technique. Multiple docking calculations are performed first between the host protein and ligand molecules in a training set. In the targeting protein, the functional residues are selected, which make the major contribution to the binding free energy. The binding free energy between ligand and targeting protein is the summation of multiple potential energies, including van der Waals energy, electrostatic energy, hydrophobic energy, and hydrogen-bond energy, and may include nonthermodynamic factors. In the foundational QSAR equation, two sets of weighting coefficients {aj} and {bp} are assigned to the potential energy terms and to the functional residues, respectively. The two coefficient sets are solved by using iterative double least-squares (IDLS) technique in the training set. Then, the two sets of weighting coefficients are used to predict the bioactivities of inquired ligands. In an application example, the new developed method obtained much better results than that of docking calculations. PMID:22480344

Du, Qi-Shi; Gao, Jing; Wei, Yu-Tuo; Du, Li-Qin; Wang, Shu-Qing; Huang, Ri-Bo

2012-04-23

285

The Personal Health Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Personal Health Survey (PHS) is a 200-item inventory designed to sample symptomatology as subjective experiences from the 12 principal domains of organ system and psychophysiological functioning. This study investigates the factorial validity of the empirically constructed scales. (Author)

Thorne, Frederick C.

1978-01-01

286

Teaching quantitative biology: goals, assessments, and resources.  

PubMed

More than a decade has passed since the publication of BIO2010, calling for an increased emphasis on quantitative skills in the undergraduate biology curriculum. In that time, relatively few papers have been published that describe educational innovations in quantitative biology or provide evidence of their effects on students. Using a "backward design" framework, we lay out quantitative skill and attitude goals, assessment strategies, and teaching resources to help biologists teach more quantitatively. Collaborations between quantitative biologists and education researchers are necessary to develop a broader and more appropriate suite of assessment tools, and to provide much-needed evidence on how particular teaching strategies affect biology students' quantitative skill development and attitudes toward quantitative work. PMID:25368425

Aikens, Melissa L; Dolan, Erin L

2014-11-01

287

Teaching quantitative biology: goals, assessments, and resources  

PubMed Central

More than a decade has passed since the publication of BIO2010, calling for an increased emphasis on quantitative skills in the undergraduate biology curriculum. In that time, relatively few papers have been published that describe educational innovations in quantitative biology or provide evidence of their effects on students. Using a “backward design” framework, we lay out quantitative skill and attitude goals, assessment strategies, and teaching resources to help biologists teach more quantitatively. Collaborations between quantitative biologists and education researchers are necessary to develop a broader and more appropriate suite of assessment tools, and to provide much-needed evidence on how particular teaching strategies affect biology students' quantitative skill development and attitudes toward quantitative work. PMID:25368425

Aikens, Melissa L.; Dolan, Erin L.

2014-01-01

288

DRAFT - Design of Radiological Survey and Sampling to Support Title Transfer or Lease of Property on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns, operates, and manages the buildings and land areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. As land and buildings are declared excess or underutilized, it is the intent of DOE to either transfer the title of or lease suitable property to the Community Reuse Organization of East Tennessee (CROET) or other entities for public use. It is DOE's responsibility, in coordination with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 4, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), to ensure that the land, facilities, and personal property that are to have the title transferred or are to be leased are suitable for public use. Release of personal property must also meet site requirements and be approved by the DOE contractor responsible for site radiological control. The terms title transfer and lease in this document have unique meanings. Title transfer will result in release of ownership without any restriction or further control by DOE. Under lease conditions, the government retains ownership of the property along with the responsibility to oversee property utilization. This includes involvement in the lessee's health, safety, and radiological control plans and conduct of site inspections. It may also entail lease restrictions, such as limiting access to certain areas or prohibiting digging, drilling, or disturbing material under surface coatings. Survey and sampling requirements are generally more rigorous for title transfer than for lease. Because of the accelerated clean up process, there is an increasing emphasis on title transfers of facilities and land. The purpose of this document is to describe the radiological survey and sampling protocols that are being used for assessing the radiological conditions and characteristics of building and land areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation that contain space potentially available for title transfer or lease. After necessary surveys and sampling and laboratory analyses are completed, the data are analyzed and included in an Environmental Baseline Summary (EBS) report for title transfer or in a Baseline Environmental Analysis Report (BEAR) for lease. The data from the BEAR is then used in a Screening-Level Human Health Risk Assessment (SHHRA) or a risk calculation (RC) to assess the potential risks to future owners/occupants. If title is to be transferred, release criteria in the form of specific activity concentrations called Derived Concentration Guideline Levels (DCGLs) will be developed for the each property. The DCGLs are based on the risk model and are used with the data in the EBS to determine, with statistical confidence, that the release criteria for the property have been met. The goal of the survey and sampling efforts is to (1) document the baseline conditions of the property (real or personal) prior to title transfer or lease, (2) obtain enough information that an evaluation of radiological risks can be made, and (3) collect sufftcient data so that areas that contain minimal residual levels of radioactivity can be identified and, following radiological control procedures, be released from radiological control. (It should be noted that release from radiological control does not necessarily mean free release because DOE may maintain institutional control of the site after it is released from radiological control). To meet the goals of this document, a Data Quality Objective (DQO) process will be used to enhance data collection efficiency and assist with decision-making. The steps of the DQO process involve stating the problem, identifying the decision, identifying inputs to the decision, developing study boundaries, developing the decision rule, and optimizing the design. This document describes the DQOs chosen for surveys and sampling efforts performed for the purposes listed above. The previous version to this document focused on the requirements for radiological survey and sampling protocols that are be used for leasing. Because the primary focus at this time is on title transfer, th

Cusick L.T.

2002-09-25

289

Photoelectric AFP quantitative detection of immunochromatographic assay strip  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An immunochromatographic assay (ICA) system for quantitative determination of analyte in sample is described in this paper. The designed system not only quantitatively detect target analytes in sample but also enhance detection precision in immunochromatographic assay technique.

Du, Min; Jiang, Hai-yan

2006-09-01

290

A Multiwavelength Exploration of the Grand Design Spiral M83: A VLA L and C Band Survey of Historical Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new low frequency observations of the grand design spiral galaxy, M83, using the C and L bands of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). Utilizing the newly expanded bandwidth of the VLA, we are exploring the radio spectral properties of the more than 150 radio point sources in M83. We present the initial results of our VLA analyses, focusing on the radio evolution of the six historical supernovae (SNe 1983N, 1968L, 1957D, 1950B, 1945B, and 1923A) discovered in the last century. These observations represent the fourth epoch of deep VLA observations of M83, and, with recent optical (HST) and X-ray (Chandra) observations, they allow us to probe the transition of supernovae into supernova remnants. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities.

Stockdale, Christopher; Pritchard, T. A.; Blair, W. P.; Cowan, J. J.; Godfrey, L.; Miller-Jones, J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Long, K. S.; Maddox, L. A.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Soria, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Winkler, P. F.

2013-01-01

291

A Quantitative Framework for Software Restructuring  

E-print Network

Research A Quantitative Framework for Software Restructuring BYUNG-KYOO KANG1 and JAMES M. BIEMAN2 introduce a quantitative framework for software restructuring. In the frame- work, restructuring decisions- surement and metrics; software design Contract grant sponsor: NASA Langley Research Center; Contract grant

Bieman, James M.

292

Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of conservation concern.

Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

2011-01-01

293

Quantitative research and issues of political sensitivity in rural China  

E-print Network

Political sensitivity is always a challenge for the scholar doing fieldwork in nondemocratic and transitional systems, especially when doing surveys and quantitative research. Not only are more research topics likely to ...

Tsai, Lily L.

294

Developing a weighting strategy to include mobile phone numbers into an ongoing population health survey using an overlapping dual-frame design with limited benchmark information  

PubMed Central

Background In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The weighting strategy needed to be significantly expanded to manage the differing probabilities of selection by frame, including that of children of mobile-only phone users, and to adjust for the increased chance of selection of dual-phone users. This paper describes the development of the final weighting strategy to properly combine the data from two overlapping sample frames accounting for the fact that population benchmarks for the different sampling frames were not available at the state or regional level. Methods Estimates of the number of phone numbers for the landline and mobile phone frames used to calculate the differing probabilities of selection by frame, for New South Wales (NSW) and by stratum, were obtained by apportioning Australian estimates as none were available for NSW. The weighting strategy was then developed by calculating person selection probabilities, selection weights, applying a constant composite factor to the dual-phone users sample weights, and benchmarking to the latest NSW population by age group, sex and stratum. Results Data from the NSWPHS for the first quarter of 2012 was used to test the weighting strategy. This consisted of data on 3395 respondents with 2171 (64%) from the landline frame and 1224 (36%) from the mobile frame. However, in order to calculate the weights, data needed to be available for all core weighting variables and so 3378 respondents, 2933 adults and 445 children, had sufficient data to be included. Average person weights were 3.3 times higher for the mobile-only respondents, 1.3 times higher for the landline-only respondents and 1.7 times higher for dual-phone users in the mobile frame compared to the dual-phone users in the landline frame. The overall weight effect for the first quarter of 2012 was 1.93 and the coefficient of variation of the weights was 0.96. The weight effects for 2012 were similar to, and in many cases less than, the effects found in the corresponding quarter of the 2011 NSWPHS when only a landline based sample was used. Conclusions The inclusion of mobile phone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, improved the coverage of the survey and an appropriate weighing procedure is feasible, although it added substantially to the complexity of the weighting strategy. Access to accurate Australian, State and Territory estimates of the number of landline and mobile phone numbers and type of phone use by at least age group and sex would greatly assist in the weighting of dual-frame surveys in Australia. PMID:25189826

2014-01-01

295

Study Quality in SLA: A Cumulative and Developmental Assessment of Designs, Analyses, Reporting Practices, and Outcomes in Quantitative L2 Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

I began this study with two assumptions. Assumption 1: Study quality matters. If the means by which researchers design, carry out, and report on their studies lack in rigor or transparency, theory and practice are likely to be misguided or at least decelerated. Assumption 2 is an implication of Assumption 1: Quality should be measured rather than…

Plonsky, Luke

2011-01-01

296

QUANTITATIVE DECISION TOOLS AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS ARTICLE OUTLINED THE CURRENT STATUS OF QUANTITATIVE METHODS AND OPERATIONS RESEARCH (OR), SKETCHED THE STRENGTHS OF TRAINING EFFORTS AND ISOLATED WEAKNESSES, AND FORMULATED WORKABLE CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING SUCCESS OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAMS. A SURVEY OF 105 COMPANIES REVEALED THAT PERT, INVENTORY CONTROL THEORY AND LINEAR…

BYARS, LLOYD L.; NUNN, GEOFFREY E.

297

Developing Geoscience Students' Quantitative Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sophisticated quantitative skills are an essential tool for the professional geoscientist. While students learn many of these sophisticated skills in graduate school, it is increasingly important that they have a strong grounding in quantitative geoscience as undergraduates. Faculty have developed many strong approaches to teaching these skills in a wide variety of geoscience courses. A workshop in June 2005 brought together eight faculty teaching surface processes and climate change to discuss and refine activities they use and to publish them on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website (serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills) for broader use. Workshop participants in consultation with two mathematics faculty who have expertise in math education developed six review criteria to guide discussion: 1) Are the quantitative and geologic goals central and important? (e.g. problem solving, mastery of important skill, modeling, relating theory to observation); 2) Does the activity lead to better problem solving? 3) Are the quantitative skills integrated with geoscience concepts in a way that makes sense for the learning environment and supports learning both quantitative skills and geoscience? 4) Does the methodology support learning? (e.g. motivate and engage students; use multiple representations, incorporate reflection, discussion and synthesis) 5) Are the materials complete and helpful to students? 6) How well has the activity worked when used? Workshop participants found that reviewing each others activities was very productive because they thought about new ways to teach and the experience of reviewing helped them think about their own activity from a different point of view. The review criteria focused their thinking about the activity and would be equally helpful in the design of a new activity. We invite a broad international discussion of the criteria(serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills/workshop05/review.html).The Teaching activities can be found on the Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences website (serc.Carleton.edu/quantskills/). In addition to the teaching activity collection (85 activites), this site contains a variety of resources to assist faculty with the methods they use to teach quantitative skills at both the introductory and advanced levels; information about broader efforts in quantitative literacy involving other science disciplines, and a special section of resources for students who are struggling with their quantitative skills. The site is part of the Digital Library for Earth Science Education and has been developed by geoscience faculty in collaboration with mathematicians and mathematics educators with funding from the National Science Foundation.

Manduca, C. A.; Hancock, G. S.

2005-12-01

298

The Survey Questionnaire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet-based surveys are still relatively new, and researchers are just beginning to articulate best practices for questionnaire design. Online questionnaire design has generally been guided by the principles applying to other self-administered instruments, such as paper-based questionnaires. Web-based questionnaires, however, have the potential…

Ritter, Lois A. Ed.; Sue, Valerie M., Ed.

2007-01-01

299

Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence  

E-print Network

Climate policy and competitiveness: Policy guidance and quantitative evidence Jared C. Carbone NicholasRivers July 2014 Abstract When considering adoption of a domestic climate change policy survey the literature on the quantitative impacts of unilateral climate change policy derived from

300

Experimental Evaluation in Computer Science: A Quantitative Study  

E-print Network

Experimental Evaluation in Computer Science: A Quantitative Study Paul Lukowicz, Ernst A. Heinz A survey of over 400 recent research articles sug­ gests that computer scientists publish relatively few­ tion of papers lacking quantitative evaluation in OE and NC is only 15% and 12%, respectively

Prechelt, Lutz

301

A Survey of Systemic Risk Analytics  

E-print Network

We provide a survey of 31 quantitative measures of systemic risk in the economics and finance literature, chosen to span key themes and issues in systemic risk measurement and management. We motivate these measures from ...

Bisias, Dimitrios

302

Hypertext: An Introduction and Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a survey of existing hypertext systems, their applications, and their design. It is both an introduction to the world of hypertext and, at a deeper cut, a survey of some of the most important design issues that go into fashioning a hypertext environment. The concept of hypertext is quite simple: Windows on the screen are associated with

Jeff Conklin

1987-01-01

303

Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

2013-01-01

304

Sensitive quantitation of polyamines in plant foods by ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with the aid of experimental designs.  

PubMed

A new method involving ultrasound-assisted benzoylation and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was optimized with the aid of chemometrics for the extraction, cleanup, and determination of polyamines in plant foods. Putrescine, cadaverine, spermidine, and spermine were derivatized with 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl chloride and extracted by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction using acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride as dispersive and extraction solvents, respectively. Two-level full factorial design and central composite design were applied to select the most appropriate derivatization and extraction conditions. The developed method was linear in the 0.5-10.0 mg/L range, with a R(2) ? 0.9989. Intra- and interday precisions ranged from 0.8 to 6.9% and from 3.0 to 10.3%, respectively, and the limit of detection ranged between 0.018 and 0.042 ?g/g of fresh weight. This method was applied to the analyses of six different types of plant foods, presenting recoveries between 81.7 and 114.2%. The method is inexpensive, versatile, simple, and sensitive. PMID:24773181

Pinto, Edgar; Melo, Armindo; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

2014-05-14

305

Quantitative analysis of 'calanchi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years (2006 - 2009) of monitoring data from two calanchi sites located in the western Sicilian Appennines are analyzed and discussed: the data comes from two networks of erosion pins and a rainfall gauge station. The aim of the present research is to quantitatively analyze the effects of erosion by water and to investigate their relationships with rainfall trends and specific properties of the two calanchi fronts. Each of the sites was equipped with a grid of randomly distributed erosion pins, made of 41 nodes for the "Catalfimo" site, and 13 nodes for the "Ottosalme" site (in light of the general homogeneity of its geomorphologic conditions); the erosion pins consist in 2 cm graded iron stakes, 100 cm long, with a section having a diameter of 1.6 cm. Repeated readings at the erosion pins allowed to estimate point topographic height variations; a total number of 21 surveys have been made remotely by acquiring high resolution photographs from a fixed view point. Since the two calanchi sites are very close each other (some hundred meters), a single rainfall gauge station was installed, assuming a strict climatic homogeneity of the investigated area. Rainfall data have been processed to derive the rain erosivity index signal, detecting a total number of 27 erosive events. Despite the close distance between the two sites, because of a different geologic setting, the calanchi fronts are characterized by the outcropping of different levels of the same formation (Terravecchia fm., Middle-Late Miocene); as a consequence, both mineralogical, textural and geotechnical (index) properties, as well as the topographic and geomorphologic characteristics, change. Therefore, in order to define the "framework" in which the two erosion pin grids have been installed, 40 samples of rock have been analyzed, and a geomorphologic detailed survey has been carried out; in particular, plasticity index, liquid limit, carbonate, pH, granulometric fractions and their mineralogic properties, electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), have been characterized. The analysis of the data allows to define relationships between the response of each erosion pin and the erosive rainfall events, the micro-hydrologic of its position and lithotechnical properties of the outcropping rocks. The estimations of the mean annual erosion rate and of the erosivity index, as well as results of the terrain analysis, largely agree with available data from literature observed in similar sites affected by calanchi development. Moreover, the gained results well reflect the differences of the morphologic features and their distribution on the two calanchi fronts; of particular interest is the spatial distribution and variability of piping landforms that markedly influence the development of gullies, specially on "Catalfimo" site, where a high frequency of pipes of different typologies can be detected.

Agnesi, Valerio; Cappadonia, Chiara; Conoscenti, Christian; Costanzo, Dario; Rotigliano, Edoardo

2010-05-01

306

A Very High Resolution, Deep-Towed Multichannel Seismic Survey in the Yaquina Basin off Peru ? Technical Design of the new Deep-Tow Streamer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the project INGGAS a new deep towed acoustic profiling instrument consisting of a side scan sonar fish and a 26 channel seismic streamer has been developed for operation in full ocean depth. The digital channels are build by single hydrophones and three engineering nodes (EN) which are connected either by 1 m or 6.5 m long cable segments. Together with high frequent surface sources (e.g. GI gun) this hybrid system allows to complete surveys with target resolutions of higher frequency content than from complete surface based configurations. Consequently special effort has been addressed to positioning information of the submerged towed instrument. Ultra Short Base Line (USBL) navigation of the tow fish allows precise coordinate evaluation even with more than 7 km of tow cable. Specially designed engineering nodes comprise a single hydrophone with compass, depth, pitch and roll sensors. Optional extension of the streamer up to 96 hydrophone nodes and 75 engineering nodes is possible. A telemetry device allows up- and downlink transmission of all system parameters and all recorded data from the tow fish in real time. Signals from the streamer and the various side scan sensors are multiplexed along the deep-sea cable. Within the telemetry system coaxial and fiber optic connectors are available and can be chosen according to the ships needs. In case of small bandwidth only selected portions of data are transmitted onboard to provide full online quality control while a copy of the complete data set is stored within the submerged systems. Onboard the record strings of side scan and streamer are demultiplexed and distributed to the quality control (QC) systems by Ethernet. A standard marine multichannel control system is used to display shot gather, spectra and noise monitoring of the streamer channels as well as data storage in SEG format. Precise navigation post processing includes all available positioning information from the vessel (DGPS), the USBL, the streamer (EN) and optional first break information. Therefore exact positioning of each hydrophone can be provided throughout the entire survey which is an essential input for later migration processing of the seismic data.

Bialas, J.; Breitzke, M.

2002-12-01

307

Design of multiplex calibrant plasmids, their use in GMO detection and the limit of their applicability for quantitative purposes owing to competition effects.  

PubMed

Five double-target multiplex plasmids to be used as calibrants for GMO quantification were constructed. They were composed of two modified targets associated in tandem in the same plasmid: (1) a part of the soybean lectin gene and (2) a part of the transgenic construction of the GTS40-3-2 event. Modifications were performed in such a way that each target could be amplified with the same primers as those for the original target from which they were derived but such that each was specifically detected with an appropriate probe. Sequence modifications were done to keep the parameters of the new target as similar as possible to those of its original sequence. The plasmids were designed to be used either in separate reactions or in multiplex reactions. Evidence is given that with each of the five different plasmids used in separate wells as a calibrant for a different copy number, a calibration curve can be built. When the targets were amplified together (in multiplex) and at different concentrations inside the same well, the calibration curves showed that there was a competition effect between the targets and this limits the range of copy numbers for calibration over a maximum of 2 orders of magnitude. Another possible application of multiplex plasmids is discussed. PMID:20099062

Debode, Frédéric; Marien, Aline; Janssen, Eric; Berben, Gilbert

2010-03-01

308

HPLC and HPTLC methods by design for quantitative characterization and in vitro anti-oxidant activity of polyherbal formulation containing Rheum emodi.  

PubMed

Safoof-e-Pathar phori (SPP) is a traditional polyherbal formulation and has been used since long time for its anti-urolithiatic activity. It contains three plant constituents Didymocarpous pedicellata, Dolichous biflorus and Rheum emodi. Emodin and chrysophanic acid were selected as chemical markers for SPP and quantified using simultaneous HPTLC and RP-HPLC methods in R. emodi and in SPP. The simultaneous methods were found linear r(2) = 0.991 in a wide range (10-800 ng spot(-1) with HPTLC, 5-500 µg mL(-1) with HPLC) precise, accurate and robust for both the drugs. Anti-oxidant activity of SPP, R. emodi as well as standard emodin and chrysophanic acid were determined by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical), which showed better activity of R. emodi (IC50 = 12.27) extract when compared with SPP (IC50 = 32.99) and standard drugs (IC50 = 66.81). The robustness of methods were proved by applying the Box-Behnken response surface design software and other validation parameters evaluated were satisfactorily met; hence, the developed method found suitable for application in the quality control of several formulations containing emodin and chrysophanic acid. PMID:23978770

Ahmad, Wasim; Zaidi, Syed Mohammad Arif; Mujeeb, Mohd; Ansari, Shahid Hussain; Ahmad, Sayeed

2014-09-01

309

Terminating Sequential Delphi Survey Data Collection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Delphi survey technique is an iterative mail or electronic (e-mail or web-based) survey method used to obtain agreement or consensus among a group of experts in a specific field on a particular issue through a well-designed and systematic multiple sequential rounds of survey administrations. Each of the multiple rounds of the Delphi survey…

Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

2012-01-01

310

Montana State University 1 Land Surveying Minor  

E-print Network

Montana State University 1 Land Surveying Minor This minor is designed to provide students with perspective and skills to pursue a successful career in surveying or a surveying related field. The focus is on courses related to surveying such as photogrammetry, global positioning systems

Maxwell, Bruce D.

311

Integrating GIS into the Survey Research Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter shows how institutional researchers can make use of geographic information systems (GIS) to improve the quality of their surveys and extract more information from their results. GIS can contribute to at least three stages of the survey process: (1) survey design (through a better understanding of the population being surveyed); (2)…

Blough, David Roy

2003-01-01

312

Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation  

PubMed Central

Acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-? mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NF?B was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of I?B? degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene–Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms. PMID:25009775

Stamellou, E.; Storz, D.; Botov, S.; Ntasis, E.; Wedel, J.; Sollazzo, S.; Krämer, B.K.; van Son, W.; Seelen, M.; Schmalz, H.G.; Schmidt, A.; Hafner, M.; Yard, B.A.

2014-01-01

313

Different design of enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs) reveals quantitative differences in biological activities in terms of toxicity and inflammation.  

PubMed

Acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes can act as enzyme-triggered CO-releasing molecules (ET-CORMs). Their biological activity strongly depends on the mother compound from which they are derived, i.e. cyclohexenone or cyclohexanedione, and on the position of the ester functionality they harbour. The present study addresses if the latter characteristic affects CO release, if cytotoxicity of ET-CORMs is mediated through iron release or inhibition of cell respiration and to what extent cyclohexenone and cyclohexanedione derived ET-CORMs differ in their ability to counteract TNF-? mediated inflammation. Irrespective of the formulation (DMSO or cyclodextrin), toxicity in HUVEC was significantly higher for ET-CORMs bearing the ester functionality at the outer (rac-4), as compared to the inner (rac-1) position of the cyclohexenone moiety. This was paralleled by an increased CO release from the former ET-CORM. Toxicity was not mediated via iron as EC50 values for rac-4 were significantly lower than for FeCl2 or FeCl3 and were not influenced by iron chelation. ATP depletion preceded toxicity suggesting impaired cell respiration as putative cause for cell death. In long-term HUVEC cultures inhibition of VCAM-1 expression by rac-1 waned in time, while for the cyclohexanedione derived rac-8 inhibition seems to increase. NF?B was inhibited by both rac-1 and rac-8 independent of I?B? degradation. Both ET-CORMs activated Nrf-2 and consequently induced the expression of HO-1. This study further provides a rational framework for designing acyloxydiene-Fe(CO)3 complexes as ET-CORMs with differential CO release and biological activities. We also provide a better understanding of how these complexes affect cell-biology in mechanistic terms. PMID:25009775

Stamellou, E; Storz, D; Botov, S; Ntasis, E; Wedel, J; Sollazzo, S; Krämer, B K; van Son, W; Seelen, M; Schmalz, H G; Schmidt, A; Hafner, M; Yard, B A

2014-01-01

314

Identification of Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms and Design of 16S rRNA-Directed Probes for Their Detection and Quantitation  

PubMed Central

Laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) as models for activated sludge processes were used to study enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Enrichment for polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) was achieved essentially by increasing the phosphorus concentration in the influent to the SBRs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using domain-, division-, and subdivision-level probes was used to assess the proportions of microorganisms in the sludges. The A sludge, a high-performance P-removing sludge containing 15.1% P in the biomass, was comprised of large clusters of polyphosphate-containing coccobacilli. By FISH, >80% of the A sludge bacteria were ?-2 Proteobacteria arranged in clusters of coccobacilli, strongly suggesting that this group contains a PAO responsible for EBPR. The second dominant group in the A sludge was the Actinobacteria. Clone libraries of PCR-amplified bacterial 16S rRNA genes from three high-performance P-removing sludges were prepared, and clones belonging to the ?-2 Proteobacteria were fully sequenced. A distinctive group of clones (sharing ?98% sequence identity) related to Rhodocyclus spp. (94 to 97% identity) and Propionibacter pelophilus (95 to 96% identity) was identified as the most likely candidate PAOs. Three probes specific for the highly related candidate PAO group were designed from the sequence data. All three probes specifically bound to the morphologically distinctive clusters of PAOs in the A sludge, exactly coinciding with the ?-2 Proteobacteria probe. Sequential FISH and polyphosphate staining of EBPR sludges clearly demonstrated that PAO probe-binding cells contained polyphosphate. Subsequent PAO probe analyses of a number of sludges with various P removal capacities indicated a strong positive correlation between P removal from the wastewater as determined by sludge P content and number of PAO probe-binding cells. We conclude therefore that an important group of PAOs in EBPR sludges are bacteria closely related to Rhodocyclus and Propionibacter. PMID:10698788

Crocetti, Gregory R.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Bond, Philip L.; Schuler, Andrew; Keller, Jürg; Jenkins, David; Blackall, Linda L.

2000-01-01

315

The FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Florida Multi-object Imaging Near-IR Grism Observational Spectrometer (FLAMINGOS), we have conducted the FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX), a deep imaging survey covering 7.1 deg2 within the 18.6 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS) regions. FLAMEX is the first deep, wide-area, near-infrared survey to image in both the J and Ks filters, and is larger than any previous NIR survey of comparable depth. The intent of FLAMEX is to facilitate the study of galaxy and galaxy cluster evolution at 1designed to yield a public data set that complements and augments the suite of existing surveys in the NDWFS fields. We present an overview of FLAMEX and initial results based on ~150,000 Ks-selected sources in the Boötes field. We describe the observations and reductions, quantify the data quality, and verify that the number counts are consistent with results from previous surveys. Finally, we comment on the utility of this sample for detailed study of the ERO population, and present one of the first spectroscopically confirmed z>1 galaxy clusters detected using the joint FLAMEX, NDWFS, and Spitzer IRAC Shallow Survey data sets.

Elston, Richard J.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; McKenzie, Eric; Brodwin, Mark; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cardona, Gustavo; Dey, Arjun; Dickinson, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Mohr, Joseph J.; Raines, S. Nicholas; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, Daniel

2006-03-01

316

LSST Survey Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LSST will be a large, wide-field ground based telescope designed to obtain sequential images covering the entire visible sky from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4m (6.5m effective) primary mirror and a 9.6 sq.deg. field of view, will allow about 15,000 square degrees of sky to be covered in two photometric bands every four nights (assuming two 15-second exposures per field). The system is designed to yield high image quality as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 sq.deg. with Dec<+34.5, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. The vast majority (about 90%) of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 sq.deg. region in the ugrizy bands about 1000 times (including all bands) during the 10-year survey. The deep-wide-fast survey data will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We illustrate how LSST science drivers led to these choices of system design parameters.

Ivezic, Zeljko; Tyson, J. A.; Axelrod, A.; Burke, D.; Claver, C. F.; Kahn, S. M.; Lupton, R. H.; Monet, D. G.; Pinto, P. A.; Strauss, M. A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Cook, K. H.; Jones, L.; Saha, A.; Smith, C.; LSST Collaboration

2007-12-01

317

KE Basin underwater visual fuel survey  

SciTech Connect

Results of an underwater video fuel survey in KE Basin using a high resolution camera system are presented. Quantitative and qualitative information on fuel degradation are given, and estimates of the total fraction of ruptured fuel elements are provided. Representative photographic illustrations showing the range of fuel conditions observed in the survey are included.

Pitner, A.L.

1995-02-01

318

Very large radio surveys of the sky  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in electronics and computing have made possible a new generation of large radio surveys of the sky that yield an order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity and positional accuracy. Combined with the unique properties of the radio universe, these quantitative improvements open up qualitatively different and exciting new scientific applications of radio surveys. PMID:10220365

Condon, J. J.

1999-01-01

319

Very large radio surveys of the sky.  

PubMed

Recent advances in electronics and computing have made possible a new generation of large radio surveys of the sky that yield an order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity and positional accuracy. Combined with the unique properties of the radio universe, these quantitative improvements open up qualitatively different and exciting new scientific applications of radio surveys. PMID:10220365

Condon, J J

1999-04-27

320

Theory Survey or Survey Theory?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Matthew Moore's survey of political theorists in U.S. American colleges and universities is an impressive contribution to political science (Moore 2010). It is the first such survey of political theory as a subfield, the response rate is very high, and the answers to the survey questions provide new information about how political theorists look…

Dean, Jodi

2010-01-01

321

Towards global benchmarking of food environments and policies to reduce obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases: design and methods for nation-wide surveys  

PubMed Central

Introduction Unhealthy diets are heavily driven by unhealthy food environments. The International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases (NCDs) Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) has been established to reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities globally. This paper describes the design and methods of the first-ever, comprehensive national survey on the healthiness of food environments and the public and private sector policies influencing them, as a first step towards global monitoring of food environments and policies. Methods and analysis A package of 11 substudies has been identified: (1) food composition, labelling and promotion on food packages; (2) food prices, shelf space and placement of foods in different outlets (mainly supermarkets); (3) food provision in schools/early childhood education (ECE) services and outdoor food promotion around schools/ECE services; (4) density of and proximity to food outlets in communities; food promotion to children via (5) television, (6) magazines, (7) sport club sponsorships, and (8) internet and social media; (9) analysis of the impact of trade and investment agreements on food environments; (10) government policies and actions; and (11) private sector actions and practices. For the substudies on food prices, provision, promotion and retail, ‘environmental equity’ indicators have been developed to check progress towards reducing diet-related health inequalities. Indicators for these modules will be assessed by tertiles of area deprivation index or school deciles. International ‘best practice benchmarks’ will be identified, against which to compare progress of countries on improving the healthiness of their food environments and policies. Dissemination This research is highly original due to the very ‘upstream’ approach being taken and its direct policy relevance. The detailed protocols will be offered to and adapted for countries of varying size and income in order to establish INFORMAS globally as a new monitoring initiative to reduce obesity and diet-related NCDs. PMID:24833697

Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Swinburn, Boyd

2014-01-01

322

HEDGEROW SURVEY, GREAT CRESTED NEWT SURVEY, DORMOUSE SURVEY AND HORSESHOE BAT ACTIVITY SURVEYS AT UNIVERSITY OF  

E-print Network

HEDGEROW SURVEY, GREAT CRESTED NEWT SURVEY, DORMOUSE SURVEY AND HORSESHOE BAT ACTIVITY SURVEYS-UNIBAT-1624 HEDGEROW SURVEY, GREAT CRESTED NEWT SURVEY, DORMOUSE SURVEY AND HORSESHOE BAT ACTIVITY SURVEYS to undertake a hedgerow survey, a great crested newt survey, a dormouse survey and horseshoe bat activity

Burton, Geoffrey R.

323

Coal conversion submodels for design applications at elevated pressures. Part II. Char gasification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the database on char gasification at elevated pressures, first, to identify the tendencies that are essential to rational design of coal utilization technology, and second, to validate a gasification mechanism for quantitative design calculations. Four hundred and fifty-three independent tests with 28 different coals characterized pressures from 0.02 to 3.0MPa, CO2 and steam mole percentages from 0

Gui-Su Liu; Stephen Niksa

2004-01-01

324

The mental health module (BELLA study) within the German Health Interview and Examination Survey of Children and Adolescents (KiGGS): study design and methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BELLA study on mental health and well-being in children and adolescents is the mental health module of the German Health\\u000a Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). The cross-sectional KiGGS survey collected comprehensive\\u000a data on the health status of 17,641 children and adolescents, aged 0–17 years, living in Germany. The survey included physical\\u000a examinations and tests, questionnaires filled

Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer; Bärbel-Maria Kurth

2008-01-01

325

Qualitative and Quantitative  

E-print Network

Qualitative and Quantitative Reliability AssessmentKARAMA KANOUN, MOHAMED KAÃ?NICHE, and JEAN-CLAUDE LAPRIE French National Organization for Scientific Research Traditional system reliability efforts have

Kaâniche, Mohamed

326

Quick statistics Survey 55563 'Privacy Survey'  

E-print Network

Quick statistics Survey 55563 'Privacy Survey' Results Survey 55563 Number of records in this query: 277 Total records in survey: 277 Percentage of total: 100.00% Page 1 / 94 #12;Quick statistics Survey 55563 'Privacy Survey' Page 2 / 94 #12;Quick statistics Survey 55563 'Privacy Survey' Field summary

Kaiser, Gail E.

327

Prototype ultrasonic instrument for quantitative testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype ultrasonic instrument has been designed and developed for quantitative testing. The complete delivered instrument consists of a pulser/receiver which plugs into a standard oscilloscope, an rf power amplifier, a standard decade oscillator, and a set of broadband transducers for typical use at 1, 2, 5 and 10 MHz. The system provides for its own calibration, and on the oscilloscope, presents a quantitative (digital) indication of time base and sensitivity scale factors and some measurement data.

Lynnworth, L. C.; Dubois, J. L.; Kranz, P. R.

1972-01-01

328

Quantitative Review of a Political Science Documentary/Movie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This assignment is designed to introduce quantitative reasoning and critical thinking in viewing documentary videos on the issues of development. Students will write a review essay about one of three designated documentaries for the course.

Tun Myint

329

The Impact of Physics Education Research on the Teaching of Introductory Quantitative Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the Fall of 2008 a web survey, designed to collect information about pedagogical knowledge and practices, was completed by a representative sample of 722 physics faculty across the United States (a 50.3% response rate). This paper presents results of one part of the survey where faculty were asked to rate their level of knowledge and use of 24 Research-Based Instructional Strategies (RBIS) that are applicable to an introductory quantitative physics course. Almost all faculty (87.1%) indicated familiarity with one or more RBIS and approximately half of faculty (48.1%) say that they currently use at least one RBIS. Results also indicate that faculty rarely use RBIS as recommended by the developer, but instead commonly make significant modifications.

Henderson, Charles R.; Dancy, Melissa H.

2010-01-19

330

Using quantitative functional models to develop product architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing product architectures is a key phase in design and development processes. It encompasses the transformation from functional model to alternative product layouts. In this paper, we introduce a methodology for representing a functional model of a product in a quantitative manner. In addition to describing product functionality, the quantitative functional model also incorporates customer need ratings. Product design knowledge

Robert B. Stone; Kristin L. Wood; Richard H. Crawford

2000-01-01

331

Design, synthesis, and analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationships of 4-phenyl-acyl-substituted 3-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene-2,8-dione derivatives.  

PubMed

A series of 4-phenyl-acyl-substituted 3-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-4-hydroxy-1-azaspiro[4.5]dec-3-ene-2,8-dione derivatives were designed and synthesized, and their structures were characterized using (1)H NMR (or (13)C NMR), mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. The bioactivities of the new compounds were evaluated. These compounds exhibited good inhibition activities against bean aphids (Aphis fabae) and carmine spider mite (Tetranychus cinnabarinus), and 4-phenyl acyl esters showed stronger bioactivity than 4-arylesterases and alkyl esters. The results showed that compound 8-I-e, which contains a para-methoxy group on the phenyl acyl, and compound 8-I-m, which contains a para-trifluoromethyl group on the phenyl acyl, displayed potent insecticidal activity against A. fabae and T. cinnabarinus respectively. The insecticidal activity showed a clear structure-activity relationship, confirming the importance of the flexible bridge. The DFT/B3LYP/6-31(d) level method was used to calculate molecular geometries and electronic descriptors. These factors included total energy, charge distribution, and the linear orbital level of the title compounds. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies were performed on these compounds using quantum-chemical and physicochemical parameters as independent variables and insecticidal activity as a dependent variable. Insecticidal activity was most closely correlated (r > 0.8) with quantum chemical and physicochemical parameters. PMID:22531003

Zhao, Jinhao; Zhang, Jiangong; Xu, Bingrong; Wang, Zongcheng; Cheng, Jingli; Zhu, Guonian

2012-05-16

332

Geological Survey Research 1966, Chapter B  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This collection of 43 short papers is the first published chapter of 'Geological Survey Research 1966.' The papers report on scientific and economic results of current work by members of the Conservation, Geologic, Topographic, and Water Resources Divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey. Chapter A, to be published later in the year, will present a summary of significant results of work done during fiscal year 1966, together with lists of investigations in progress, reports published, cooperating agencies, and Geological Survey offices. 'Geological Survey Research 1966' is the seventh volume of the annual series Geological Survey Research. The six volumes already published are listed below, with their series designations. Geological Survey Research 1960-Prof. Paper 400 Geological Survey Research 1961-Prof. Paper 424 Geological Survey Research 1962-Prof. Paper 450 Geological Survey Research 1963-Prof. Paper 475 Geological Survey Research 1964-Prof. Paper 501 Geological Survey Research 1965-Prof. Paper 525

U.S. Geological Survey

1966-01-01

333

Survey of Solar Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven

334

A Survey Transition Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Successful outcomes for a "Transition Course in Mathematics" have resulted from two unique design features. The first is to run the course as a "survey course" in mathematics, introducing sophomore-level students to a broad set of mathematical fields. In this single mathematics course, undergraduates benefit from an introduction of proof…

Johnston, William; McAllister, Alex M.

2012-01-01

335

National Health Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The survey was designed to obtain national benchmarks on a wide range of health issues, and to enable changes in health to be monitored over time. Information was collected about: the health status of the population; health-related aspects of lifestyle and other health risk factors; and the use of health services and other actions people had recently taken for their health."

Australian Bureau of Statistics

336

NATIONAL ALCOHOL SURVEY (NAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

National Alcohol Survey (NAS) is designed to assess the trends in drinking practices and problems in the national population, including attitudes, norms, treatment and experiences and adverse consequences. It also studies the effects of public policy on drinking practices (i.e., ...

337

Redshift surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Present-day understanding of the large-scale galaxy distribution is reviewed. The statistics of the CfA redshift survey are briefly discussed. The need for deeper surveys to clarify the issues raised by recent studies of large-scale galactic distribution is addressed.

Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, J. P.

1991-01-01

338

Seismic Survey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologists conduct a seismic survey in New Orleans, Louisiana. The survey was one of several geophysical methods used during USGS applied research on the utility of the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method (no pictured here) for non-invasive assessment of earthen leve...

339

Electromagnetic Survey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts a broadband electromagnetic survey in New Orleans, Louisiana. The survey was one of several geophysical methods used during USGS applied research on the utility of the multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) seismic method for non-invasive assessment of earthen levee...

340

Electromagnetic Survey  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A USGS hydrologist conducts a near-surface electromagnetic induction survey to characterize the shallow earth. The survey was conducted as part of an applied research effort by the USGS Office of Groundwater Branch of Geophysics at Camp Rell, Connecticut, in 2008....

341

Survey on user interface programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the results of a survey of user interface programming. The survey was widely distributed, and we received 74 responses. The results show that in today's applications, an average of 48% of the code is devoted to the user interface portion. The average time spent on the user interface portion is 45% during the design phase, 50%

Brad A. Myers; Mary Beth Rosson

1992-01-01

342

Accounting for Imperfect Detection in Ecology: A Quantitative Review  

PubMed Central

Detection in studies of species abundance and distribution is often imperfect. Assuming perfect detection introduces bias into estimation that can weaken inference upon which understanding and policy are based. Despite availability of numerous methods designed to address this assumption, many refereed papers in ecology fail to account for non-detection error. We conducted a quantitative literature review of 537 ecological articles to measure the degree to which studies of different taxa, at various scales, and over time have accounted for imperfect detection. Overall, just 23% of articles accounted for imperfect detection. The probability that an article incorporated imperfect detection increased with time and varied among taxa studied; studies of vertebrates were more likely to incorporate imperfect detection. Among articles that reported detection probability, 70% contained per-survey estimates of detection that were less than 0.5. For articles in which constancy of detection was tested, 86% reported significant variation. We hope that our findings prompt more ecologists to consider carefully the detection process when designing studies and analyzing results, especially for sub-disciplines where incorporation of imperfect detection in study design and analysis so far has been lacking. PMID:25356904

Kellner, Kenneth F.; Swihart, Robert K.

2014-01-01

343

Fostering the Development of Quantitative Life Skills through Introductory Astronomy: Can it be Done?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from a student survey designed to test whether the all-important life skill of numeracy/quantitative literacy can be fostered and improved upon in college students through the vehicle of non-major introductory courses in Astronomy. Many instructors of introductory science courses for non-majors would state that a major goal of our classes is to teach our students to distinguish between science and pseudoscience, truth and fiction, in their everyday lives. It is difficult to believe that such a skill can truly be mastered without a fair amount of mathematical sophistication in the form of arithmetic, statistical and graph reading skills that many American college students unfortunately lack when they enter our classrooms. In teaching what is frequently their "terminal science course in life” can we instill in our students the numerical skills that they need to be savvy consumers, educated citizens and discerning interpreters of the ever-present polls, studies and surveys in which our society is awash? In what may well be their final opportunity to see applied mathematics in the classroom, can we impress upon them the importance of mathematical sophistication in interpreting the statistics that they are bombarded with by the media? Our study is in its second semester, and is designed to investigate to what extent it is possible to improve important quantitative skills in college students through a single semester introductory Astronomy course.

Follette, Katherine B.; McCarthy, D. W.

2012-01-01

344

A Survey Course in Catalysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 10-week survey course in catalysis for chemical engineering and chemistry students designed to show how modern chemistry and chemical engineering interact in the ongoing development of industrial catalysts. Includes course outline and instructional strategies. (Author/JN)

Skaates, J. M.

1982-01-01

345

STAT 3501: Survey Sampling Instructor: Dr. Jong-Min Kim  

E-print Network

of designing surveys. Topics include sample survey designs including simple random sampling, stratified random-imputation method, sample size estimation and other topics related to practical conduct of surveys. Textbooks. The course will cover the following topics: Basic Concepts of Survey Sampling Stratified Sampling

Kim, Jong-Min

346

Optimal Survey Designs for Targeting Chemotherapy Against Soil-Transmitted Helminths: Effect of Spatial Heterogeneity and Cost-Efficiency of Sampling  

PubMed Central

Implementation of helminth control programs requires information on the distribution and prevalence of infection to target mass treatment to areas of greatest need. In the absence of data, the question of how many schools/communities should be surveyed depends on the spatial heterogeneity of infection and the cost efficiency of surveys. We used geostatistical techniques to quantify the spatial heterogeneity of soil-transmitted helminths in multiple settings in eastern Africa, and using the example of Kenya, conducted conditional simulation to explore the implications of alternative sampling strategies in identifying districts requiring mass treatment. Cost analysis is included in the simulations using data from actual field surveys and control programs. The analysis suggests that sampling four or five schools in each district provides a cost-efficient strategy in identifying districts requiring mass treatment, and that efficiency of sampling was relatively insensitive to the number of children sampled per school. PMID:20519603

Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Gething, Peter W.; Clements, Archie C. A.; Brooker, Simon

2010-01-01

347

Sky Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sky surveys represent a fundamental data basis for astronomy. We usethem to map in a systematic way the universe and its constituents andto discover new types of objects or phenomena. We review the subject,with an emphasis on the wide-field, imaging surveys, placing them ina broader scientific and historical context. Surveys are now the largestdata generators in astronomy, propelled by the advances in informationand computation technology, and have transformed the ways in whichastronomy is done. This trend is bound to continue, especially with thenew generation of synoptic sky surveys that cover wide areas of the skyrepeatedly and open a new time domain of discovery. We describe thevariety and the general properties of surveys, illustrated by a number ofexamples, the ways in which they may be quantified and compared, andoffer some figures of merit that can be used to compare their scientificdiscovery potential. Surveys enable a very wide range of science, and that isperhaps their key unifying characteristic. As new domains of the observableparameter space open up thanks to the advances in technology, surveys areoften the initial step in their exploration. Some science can be done withthe survey data alone (or a combination of data from different surveys),and some require a targeted follow-up of potentially interesting sourcesselected from surveys. Surveys can be used to generate large, statisticalsamples of objects that can be studied as populations or as tracers of largerstructures to which they belong. They can be also used to discover orgenerate samples of rare or unusual objects and may lead to discoveriesof some previously unknown types. We discuss a general framework ofparameter spaces that can be used for an assessment and comparison ofdifferent surveys and the strategies for their scientific exploration. As we aremoving into the Petascale regime and beyond, an effective processing andscientific exploitation of such large data sets and data streams pose manychallenges, some of which are specific to any given survey and some ofwhich may be addressed in the framework of Virtual Observatory andAstroinformatics. The exponential growth of data volumes and complexity makesa broader application of data mining and knowledge discovery technologiescritical in order to take a full advantage of this wealth of information.Finally, we discuss some outstanding challenges and prospects for thefuture.

Djorgovski, S. George; Mahabal, Ashish; Drake, Andrew; Graham, Matthew; Donalek, Ciro

348

The Chandra Multiwavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane) is designed to identify the point X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the Galactic Plane and in particular in the Galactic Center [1]. Based on a multiwavelength dataset, we aim  

E-print Network

The Chandra Multiwavelength Plane Survey (ChaMPlane) is designed to identify the point X-ray sources discovered by the Chandra X-ray Observatory in the Galactic Plane and in particular and the evolution of those populations. The X-ray survey has now extended through 10 years of Chandra data. 193

349

Targeted Quantitation of Proteins by Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Quantitative measurement of proteins is one of the most fundamental analytical tasks in a biochemistry laboratory, but widely used immunochemical methods often have limited specificity and high measurement variation. In this review, we discuss applications of multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, which allows sensitive, precise quantitative analyses of peptides and the proteins from which they are derived. Systematic development of MRM assays is permitted by databases of peptide mass spectra and sequences, software tools for analysis design and data analysis, and rapid evolution of tandem mass spectrometer technology. Key advantages of MRM assays are the ability to target specific peptide sequences, including variants and modified forms, and the capacity for multiplexing that allows analysis of dozens to hundreds of peptides. Different quantitative standardization methods provide options that balance precision, sensitivity, and assay cost. Targeted protein quantitation by MRM and related mass spectrometry methods can advance biochemistry by transforming approaches to protein measurement. PMID:23517332

2013-01-01

350

Quantitative dispersion microscopy  

PubMed Central

Refractive index dispersion is an intrinsic optical property and a useful source of contrast in biological imaging studies. In this report, we present the first dispersion phase imaging of living eukaryotic cells. We have developed quantitative dispersion microscopy based on the principle of quantitative phase microscopy. The dual-wavelength quantitative phase microscope makes phase measurements at 310 nm and 400 nm wavelengths to quantify dispersion (refractive index increment ratio) of live cells. The measured dispersion of living HeLa cells is found to be around 1.088, which agrees well with that measured directly for protein solutions using total internal reflection. This technique, together with the dry mass and morphology measurements provided by quantitative phase microscopy, could prove to be a useful tool for distinguishing different types of biomaterials and studying spatial inhomogeneities of biological samples. PMID:21113234

Fu, Dan; Choi, Wonshik; Sung, Yongjin; Yaqoob, Zahid; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael

2010-01-01

351

Quantitative PCR Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This protocol describes how to genotype mice using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The protocol focuses specifically on Ts65Dn mice, but can be used as a basis for genotyping ohter strains.

The Jackson Laboratory (The Jackson Laboratory)

2012-01-06

352

Arizona Teacher Working Conditions: Designing Schools for Educator and Student Success. Results of the 2006 Phase-In Teacher Working Conditions Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many schools across the country face persistent teacher working condition challenges that are closely related to high teacher turnover rates and chronic difficulties in recruiting and retaining teachers. Center for Teaching Quality (CTQ) research examining working conditions survey results in both North Carolina and South Carolina demonstrates…

Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

2006-01-01

353

The Wide Field Imager Lyman-Alpha Search (WFILAS) for Galaxies at Redshift ~5.7: II. Survey Design and Sample Analysis  

E-print Network

Context: Wide-field narrowband surveys are an efficient way of searching large volumes of high-redshift space for distant galaxies. Aims: We describe the Wide Field Imager Lyman-Alpha Search (WFILAS) over 0.74 sq. degree for bright emission-line galaxies at z~5.7. Methods: WFILAS uses deep images taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO/MPI 2.2m telescope in three narrowband (70 A), one encompassing intermediate band (220 A) and two broadband filters, B and R. We use the novel technique of an encompassing intermediate band filter to exclude false detections. Images taken with broadband B and R filters are used to remove low redshift galaxies from our sample. Results: We present a sample of seven Lya emitting galaxy candidates, two of which are spectroscopically confirmed. Compared to other surveys all our candidates are bright, the results of this survey complements other narrowband surveys at this redshift. Most of our candidates are in the regime of bright luminosities, beyond the reach of less vol...

Westra, E; Jones, D H; Lidman, C E; Meisenheimer, K; Pompei, E; Szeifert, T; Vanzi, L; Wolf, C

2006-01-01

354

Mineral Industry Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Geological Surveys Mineral Industry Survey's Web site provides "periodic on-line statistical and economic publications designed to provide timely statistical data on production, distribution, stocks, and consumption of significant mineral commodities." Visitors to the site will find an alphabetical listing of minerals that includes everything from Aluminum, Antimony, Arsenic, and Asbestos, to Zeolite, Zinc, and Zirconium. Once clicked, a brief description of the mineral is provided along with links to yearly information publications as well as special publications such as its historical statistics, other agency links, contact information, and more.

355

Quantitative receptor autoradiography  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative receptor autoradiography addresses the topic of technical and scientific advances in the sphere of quantitative autoradiography. The volume opens with a overview of the field from a historical and critical perspective. Following is a detailed discussion of in vitro data obtained from a variety of neurotransmitter systems. The next section explores applications of autoradiography, and the final two chapters consider experimental models. Methodological considerations are emphasized, including the use of computers for image analysis.

Boast, C.A.; Snowhill, E.W.; Altar, C.A.

1986-01-01

356

Surveying System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sunrise Geodetic Surveys are setting up their equipment for a town survey. Their equipment differs from conventional surveying systems that employ transit rod and chain to measure angles and distances. They are using ISTAC Inc.'s Model 2002 positioning system, which offers fast accurate surveying with exceptional signals from orbiting satellites. The special utility of the ISTAC Model 2002 is that it can provide positioning of the highest accuracy from Navstar PPS signals because it requires no knowledge of secret codes. It operates by comparing the frequency and time phase of a Navstar signal arriving at one ISTAC receiver with the reception of the same set of signals by another receiver. Data is computer processed and translated into three dimensional position data - latitude, longitude and elevation.

1988-01-01

357

Compositional Quantitative Reasoning Krishnendu Chatterjee  

E-print Network

Compositional Quantitative Reasoning Krishnendu Chatterjee UC Berkeley Luca de Alfaro UC Santa Cruz express a wide variety of quantitative system prop- erties, such as resource consumption, price rules for compositional reasoning have quantitative counterparts in our setting. While our general

Henzinger, Thomas A.

358

75 FR 76993 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Surveys of Customers and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...these surveys will provide customer satisfaction input on various elements...quantitative and 4 qualitative) customer satisfaction surveys that will be conducted...will gather and measure customer and partner satisfaction with OER processes...

2010-12-10

359

75 FR 55585 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Surveys of Customers and Partners of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...these surveys will provide customer satisfaction input on various elements...quantitative and 4 qualitative) customer satisfaction surveys that will be conducted...will gather and measure customer and partner satisfaction with OER processes...

2010-09-13

360

PEP surveying procedures and equipment  

SciTech Connect

The PEP Survey and Alignment System, which employs both laser-based and optical survey methods, is described. The laser is operated in conjunction with the Tektronix 4051 computer and surveying instruments such as ARM and SAM, system which is designed to automate data input, reduction, and production of alignment instructions. The laser system is used when surveying ring quadrupoles, main bend magnets, sextupoles, and is optional when surveying RF cavities and insertion quadrupoles. Optical methods usually require that data be manually entered into the computer for alignment, but in some cases, an element can be aligned using nominal values of fiducial locations without use of the computer. Optical surveying is used in the alignment of NIT and SIT, low field bend magnets, wigglers, RF cavities, and insertion quadrupoles.

Linker, F.

1982-06-01

361

Comparing and Combining Effort and Catch Estimates from Aerial–Access Designs as Applied to a Large-Scale Angler Survey in the Delaware River  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used probability-based aerial?access surveys to estimate effort, catch, and harvest of American shad Alosa sapidissima and striped bass Morone saxatilis by recreational anglers in the Delaware River and upper estuary in 2002. Sampling of anglers at access points and flights over the river were conducted weekly from mid-March through October. Daily flight times were randomly selected; probabilities were proportional

Jon H. Vølstad; Kenneth H. Pollock; William A. Richkus

2006-01-01

362

The wide field imager Lyman-alpha search (WFILAS) for galaxies at redshift ~5.7. II. Survey design and sample analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: .Wide-field narrowband surveys are an efficient way of searching large volumes of high-redshift space for distant galaxies. Aims: .We describe the Wide Field Imager Lyman-Alpha Search (WFILAS) over 0.74 sq. degree for bright emission-line galaxies at z ˜ 5.7. Methods: .WFILAS uses deep images taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ESO\\/MPI 2.2 m telescope in three

E. Westra; D. Heath Jones; C. E. Lidman; K. Meisenheimer; R. M. Athreya; C. Wolf; T. Szeifert; E. Pompei; L. Vanzi

2006-01-01

363

ICF-Based Disability Survey in a Rural Population of Adults and Older Adults Living in Cinco Villas, Northeastern Spain: Design, Methods and Population Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This article describes the methods of a door-to-door screening survey exploring the distribution of disability and its major determinants in northeastern Spain. This study will set the basis for the development of disability-related services for the rural elderly in northeastern Spain. Methods: The probabilistic sample was composed of 1,354 de facto residents from a population of 12,784 Social Security

Jesús de Pedro-Cuesta; Magdalena Comín Comín; Javier Virués-Ortega; Javier Almazán Isla; Fuencisla Avellanal; Enrique Alcalde Cabero; Olga Burzaco; Juan Manuel Castellote; Alarcos Cieza; Javier Damián; Maria João Forjaz; Belén Frades; Esther Franco; Luis Alberto Larrosa; Rosa Magallón; Gloria Martín García; Cristina Martínez; Pablo Martínez Martín; Roberto Pastor-Barriuso; Ana Peña Jiménez; Adolfo Población Martínez; Geoffrey Reed; Cristina Ruíz

2010-01-01

364

Quantitative effects of weight adjustments in ?? ? control  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In an H? design, when weights are adjusted, corresponding modifications occur in the synthesized H? controller and the resulting closed-loop transfer function matrices of interest. In this paper, we seek to understand and provide quantitative results on how weight adjustments directly affect an H? controller and, more importantly, the corresponding closed-loop transfer function matrices. Here, we explore issues such

Brian D. O. Anderson; Alexander Lanzon; Arvin Dehghani; Xavier Bombois

2009-01-01

365

Quantitative Autonomic Testing  

PubMed Central

Disorders associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system are quite common yet frequently unrecognized. Quantitative autonomic testing can be invaluable tool for evaluation of these disorders, both in clinic and research. There are number of autonomic tests, however, only few were validated clinically or are quantitative. Here, fully quantitative and clinically validated protocol for testing of autonomic functions is presented. As a bare minimum the clinical autonomic laboratory should have a tilt table, ECG monitor, continuous noninvasive blood pressure monitor, respiratory monitor and a mean for evaluation of sudomotor domain. The software for recording and evaluation of autonomic tests is critical for correct evaluation of data. The presented protocol evaluates 3 major autonomic domains: cardiovagal, adrenergic and sudomotor. The tests include deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, head-up tilt, and quantitative sudomotor axon test (QSART). The severity and distribution of dysautonomia is quantitated using Composite Autonomic Severity Scores (CASS). Detailed protocol is provided highlighting essential aspects of testing with emphasis on proper data acquisition, obtaining the relevant parameters and unbiased evaluation of autonomic signals. The normative data and CASS algorithm for interpretation of results are provided as well. PMID:21788940

Novak, Peter

2011-01-01

366

Assessing the status of wild felids in a highly-disturbed commercial forest reserve in Borneo and the implications for camera trap survey design.  

PubMed

The proliferation of camera-trapping studies has led to a spate of extensions in the known distributions of many wild cat species, not least in Borneo. However, we still do not have a clear picture of the spatial patterns of felid abundance in Southeast Asia, particularly with respect to the large areas of highly-disturbed habitat. An important obstacle to increasing the usefulness of camera trap data is the widespread practice of setting cameras at non-random locations. Non-random deployment interacts with non-random space-use by animals, causing biases in our inferences about relative abundance from detection frequencies alone. This may be a particular problem if surveys do not adequately sample the full range of habitat features present in a study region. Using camera-trapping records and incidental sightings from the Kalabakan Forest Reserve, Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, we aimed to assess the relative abundance of felid species in highly-disturbed forest, as well as investigate felid space-use and the potential for biases resulting from non-random sampling. Although the area has been intensively logged over three decades, it was found to still retain the full complement of Bornean felids, including the bay cat Pardofelis badia, a poorly known Bornean endemic. Camera-trapping using strictly random locations detected four of the five Bornean felid species and revealed inter- and intra-specific differences in space-use. We compare our results with an extensive dataset of >1,200 felid records from previous camera-trapping studies and show that the relative abundance of the bay cat, in particular, may have previously been underestimated due to the use of non-random survey locations. Further surveys for this species using random locations will be crucial in determining its conservation status. We advocate the more wide-spread use of random survey locations in future camera-trapping surveys in order to increase the robustness and generality of inferences that can be made. PMID:24223717

Wearn, Oliver R; Rowcliffe, J Marcus; Carbone, Chris; Bernard, Henry; Ewers, Robert M

2013-01-01

367

The KMOS3D Survey: Design, First Results, and the Evolution of Galaxy Kinematics from 0.7 <= z <= 2.7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the KMOS3D survey, a new integral field survey of over 600 galaxies at 0.7 < z < 2.7 using KMOS at the Very Large Telescope. The KMOS3D survey utilizes synergies with multi-wavelength ground- and space-based surveys to trace the evolution of spatially resolved kinematics and star formation from a homogeneous sample over 5 Gyr of cosmic history. Targets, drawn from a mass-selected parent sample from the 3D-HST survey, cover the star formation-stellar mass (M *) and rest-frame (U – V) – M * planes uniformly. We describe the selection of targets, the observations, and the data reduction. In the first-year of data we detect H? emission in 191 M * = 3 × 109-7 × 1011 M ? galaxies at z = 0.7-1.1 and z = 1.9-2.7. In the current sample 83% of the resolved galaxies are rotation dominated, determined from a continuous velocity gradient and v rot/?0 > 1, implying that the star-forming "main sequence" is primarily composed of rotating galaxies at both redshift regimes. When considering additional stricter criteria, the H? kinematic maps indicate that at least ~70% of the resolved galaxies are disk-like systems. Our high-quality KMOS data confirm the elevated velocity dispersions reported in previous integral field spectroscopy studies at z >~ 0.7. For rotation-dominated disks, the average intrinsic velocity dispersion decreases by a factor of two from 50 km s–1at z ~ 2.3 to 25 km s–1at z ~ 0.9. Combined with existing results spanning z ~ 0-3, we show that disk velocity dispersions follow an evolution that is consistent with the dependence of velocity dispersion on gas fractions predicted by marginally stable disk theory. Based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile (ESO program IDS 092A-0091, 093.A-0079).

Wisnioski, E.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Wuyts, S.; Wuyts, E.; Bandara, K.; Wilman, D.; Genzel, R.; Bender, R.; Davies, R.; Fossati, M.; Lang, P.; Mendel, J. T.; Beifiori, A.; Brammer, G.; Chan, J.; Fabricius, M.; Fudamoto, Y.; Kulkarni, S.; Kurk, J.; Lutz, D.; Nelson, E. J.; Momcheva, I.; Rosario, D.; Saglia, R.; Seitz, S.; Tacconi, L. J.; van Dokkum, P. G.

2015-02-01

368

Getting Started with Quantitative Methods in Physics Education Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this article we provide a brief overview of three groups of quantitative research methods commonly used in physics education research (PER): descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and measurement instrument development and validation. These quantitative research methods are used respectively in three major types of PER, namely survey research, experimental/quasi-experimental studies, and measurement and evaluation studies. In order to highlight the importance of the close alignment between research questions and selected quantitative research methods, we review these quantitative techniques within each research type from three perspectives: data collection, data analysis, and result interpretation. We discuss the purpose, key aspects and potential issues of each quantitative technique, and where possible, specific PER studies are included as examples to illustrate how these methods fulfill specific research goals.

Ding, Lin; Liu, Xiufeng

2013-01-25

369

Global relative and absolute quantitation in microbial proteomics.  

PubMed

Proteomic studies are designed to yield either qualitative information on proteins (identification, distribution, posttranslational modifications, interactions, structure and function) or quantitative information (abundance, distribution within different localizations, temporal changes in abundance due to synthesis and degradation or both). To this end these studies can draw upon a wide range of qualitative and quantitative gel-based and gel-free techniques. This review summarizes current proteomic workflows for global relative or absolute protein quantitation and their application in microbial physiology. PMID:22445110

Otto, Andreas; Bernhardt, Jörg; Hecker, Michael; Becher, Dörte

2012-06-01

370

2012 Mask Industry Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey supported by SEMATECH and administered by David Powell Consulting was sent to semiconductor industry leaders to gather information about the mask industry as an objective assessment of its overall condition. The survey was designed with the input of semiconductor company mask technologists and merchant mask suppliers. 2012 marks the 11th consecutive year for the mask industry survey. This year's survey and reporting structure are similar to those of the previous years with minor modifications based on feedback from past years and the need to collect additional data on key topics. Categories include general mask information, mask processing, data and write time, yield and yield loss, delivery times, and maintenance and returns. Within each category are multiple questions that result in a detailed profile of both the business and technical status of the mask industry. Results, initial observations, and key comparisons between the 2011 and 2012 survey responses are shown here, including multiple indications of a shift towards the manufacturing of higher end photomasks.

Malloy, Matt; Litt, Lloyd C.

2012-11-01

371

Questions for Surveys  

PubMed Central

We begin with a look back at the field to identify themes of recent research that we expect to continue to occupy researchers in the future. As part of this overview, we characterize the themes and topics examined in research about measurement and survey questions published in Public Opinion Quarterly in the past decade. We then characterize the field more broadly by highlighting topics that we expect to continue or to grow in importance, including the relationship between survey questions and the total survey error perspective, cognitive versus interactional approaches, interviewing practices, mode and technology, visual aspects of question design, and culture. Considering avenues for future research, we advocate for a decision-oriented framework for thinking about survey questions and their characteristics. The approach we propose distinguishes among various aspects of question characteristics, including question topic, question type and response dimension, conceptualization and operationalization of the target object, question structure, question form, response categories, question implementation, and question wording. Thinking about question characteristics more systematically would allow study designs to take into account relationships among these characteristics and identify gaps in current knowledge. PMID:24970951

Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

2011-01-01

372

National Nursing Home Survey  

MedlinePLUS

... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . National Nursing Home Survey National Nursing Home Survey About NNHS What's New Survey Methodology, ... Data Files Long-term Care Medication Data National Nursing Assistant Survey Survey Publications and Products Listserv Related ...

373

Quantitative glycomics strategies.  

PubMed

The correlations between protein glycosylation and many biological processes and diseases are increasing the demand for quantitative glycomics strategies enabling sensitive monitoring of changes in the abundance and structure of glycans. This is currently attained through multiple strategies employing several analytical techniques such as capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The detection and quantification of glycans often involve labeling with ionic and/or hydrophobic reagents. This step is needed in order to enhance detection in spectroscopic and mass spectrometric measurements. Recently, labeling with stable isotopic reagents has also been presented as a very viable strategy enabling relative quantitation. The different strategies available for reliable and sensitive quantitative glycomics are herein described and discussed. PMID:23325767

Mechref, Yehia; Hu, Yunli; Desantos-Garcia, Janie L; Hussein, Ahmed; Tang, Haixu

2013-04-01

374

Quantitative phase spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Quantitative phase spectroscopy is presented as a novel method of measuring the wavelength-dependent refractive index of microscopic volumes. Light from a broadband source is filtered to an ~5 nm bandwidth and rapidly tuned across the visible spectrum in 1 nm increments by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Quantitative phase images of semitransparent samples are recovered at each wavelength using off-axis interferometry and are processed to recover relative and absolute dispersion measurements. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by (i) spectrally averaging phase images to reduce coherent noise, (ii) measuring absorptive and dispersive features in microspheres, and (iii) quantifying bulk hemoglobin concentrations by absolute refractive index measurements. Considerations of using low coherence illumination and the extension of spectral techniques in quantitative phase measurements are discussed. PMID:22567588

Rinehart, Matthew; Zhu, Yizheng; Wax, Adam

2012-01-01

375

Dialect Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sometimes individuals may find themselves wondering: "What do you call the long sandwich that contains cold cuts, lettuce, and so on?." Certainly there is a strong regional variation to this type of sandwich, as some people along the Eastern seaboard may refer to it as a "grinder," people in Louisiana may be more likely to refer to it as a "poor boy," and so on. This rather interesting dialect survey, conducted by Professor Bert Vaux (with his colleagues) at Harvard University, examines the spatial distribution of certain dialect phrases for various objects or phenomena, and also looks at the phonology behind certain words, such as caramel or lawyer. Over 30,000 participants took part in the survey, and visitors to the site can view these dialect maps and learn more about the breakdown of the participants in the survey as well.

376

Survey and Questionnaire Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the important factors to consider when designing a survey? Would it be best conducted via telephone? Or would it be better to have a face-to-face meeting? These are but a few of the topics covered on this site created as a public service by the StatPac group. Visitors can elect to download the entire report on survey design here, or they can just click through the topics that interest them. Each topic includes a brief discussion of its relative importance, and the areas covered include questionnaire length, time considerations, question wording, and sampling methods. It's a thoughtful and helpful resource overall, and it's one that might be put to good use in an introductory statistics course in college.

377

Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.

2014-01-01

378

Quantitative Population Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Alexei Sharov of the Department of Entomology at Virginia Tech has put together this excellent teaching resource on quantitative population ecology. The online resource contains thirteen lecture handouts and eight labs, targeting beginning graduate or advanced undergraduate students; the course requires a basic understanding of statistics and ecology. Each chapter contains a concise introduction to the topic plus several more detailed subsections. The chapters are well organized and easy to navigate, and include useful color illustrations and mathematical equations. For educators and students of quantitative population ecology alike, this exceptional resource is hard to beat.

379

Design, Implementation and Multisite Evaluation of a System Suitability Protocol for the Quantitative Assessment of Instrument Performance in Liquid Chromatography-Multiple Reaction Monitoring-MS (LC-MRM-MS)*  

PubMed Central

Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry coupled with stable isotope dilution (SID) and liquid chromatography (LC) is increasingly used in biological and clinical studies for precise and reproducible quantification of peptides and proteins in complex sample matrices. Robust LC-SID-MRM-MS-based assays that can be replicated across laboratories and ultimately in clinical laboratory settings require standardized protocols to demonstrate that the analysis platforms are performing adequately. We developed a system suitability protocol (SSP), which employs a predigested mixture of six proteins, to facilitate performance evaluation of LC-SID-MRM-MS instrument platforms, configured with nanoflow-LC systems interfaced to triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. The SSP was designed for use with low multiplex analyses as well as high multiplex approaches when software-driven scheduling of data acquisition is required. Performance was assessed by monitoring of a range of chromatographic and mass spectrometric metrics including peak width, chromatographic resolution, peak capacity, and the variability in peak area and analyte retention time (RT) stability. The SSP, which was evaluated in 11 laboratories on a total of 15 different instruments, enabled early diagnoses of LC and MS anomalies that indicated suboptimal LC-MRM-MS performance. The observed range in variation of each of the metrics scrutinized serves to define the criteria for optimized LC-SID-MRM-MS platforms for routine use, with pass/fail criteria for system suitability performance measures defined as peak area coefficient of variation <0.15, peak width coefficient of variation <0.15, standard deviation of RT <0.15 min (9 s), and the RT drift <0.5min (30 s). The deleterious effect of a marginally performing LC-SID-MRM-MS system on the limit of quantification (LOQ) in targeted quantitative assays illustrates the use and need for a SSP to establish robust and reliable system performance. Use of a SSP helps to ensure that analyte quantification measurements can be replicated with good precision within and across multiple laboratories and should facilitate more widespread use of MRM-MS technology by the basic biomedical and clinical laboratory research communities. PMID:23689285

Abbatiello, Susan E.; Mani, D. R.; Schilling, Birgit; MacLean, Brendan; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Feng, Xingdong; Cusack, Michael P.; Sedransk, Nell; Hall, Steven C.; Addona, Terri; Allen, Simon; Dodder, Nathan G.; Ghosh, Mousumi; Held, Jason M.; Hedrick, Victoria; Inerowicz, H. Dorota; Jackson, Angela; Keshishian, Hasmik; Kim, Jong Won; Lyssand, John S.; Riley, C. Paige; Rudnick, Paul; Sadowski, Pawel; Shaddox, Kent; Smith, Derek; Tomazela, Daniela; Wahlander, Asa; Waldemarson, Sofia; Whitwell, Corbin A.; You, Jinsam; Zhang, Shucha; Kinsinger, Christopher R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Borchers, Christoph H.; Buck, Charles; Fisher, Susan J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Liebler, Daniel; MacCoss, Michael; Neubert, Thomas A.; Paulovich, Amanda; Regnier, Fred; Skates, Steven J.; Tempst, Paul; Wang, Mu; Carr, Steven A.

2013-01-01

380

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

381

Gaussian Process Models for Computer Experiments With Qualitative and Quantitative Factors  

E-print Network

Gaussian Process Models for Computer Experiments With Qualitative and Quantitative Factors Peter Z (jeffwu@isye.gatech.edu) August 22, 2007 Abstract Modeling experiments with qualitative and quantitative WORDS: Cokriging; Design of experiments; Kriging; Multivariate Gaussian processes; Semi

Wu, Jeff

382

Survey of digital filtering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three part survey is made of the state-of-the-art in digital filtering. Part one presents background material including sampled data transformations and the discrete Fourier transform. Part two, digital filter theory, gives an in-depth coverage of filter categories, transfer function synthesis, quantization and other nonlinear errors, filter structures and computer aided design. Part three presents hardware mechanization techniques. Implementations by general purpose, mini-, and special-purpose computers are presented.

Nagle, H. T., Jr.

1972-01-01

383

American Time Use Survey  

Cancer.gov

The American Time Use Survey (ATUS), conducted by the US Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, is designed to collect information on how Americans spend their time on work, household chores, child care, recreation and other activities. The Applied Research Program (ARP) has provided funds to the US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (USDA, ERS) to support the Eating and Health Module of the ATUS.

384

The VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey  

E-print Network

The Tarantula Survey is an ambitious ESO Large Programme that has obtained multi-epoch spectroscopy of over 1,000 massive stars in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Here we introduce the scientific motivations of the survey and give an overview of the observational sample. Ultimately, quantitative analysis of every star, paying particular attention to the effects of rotational mixing and binarity, will be used to address fundamental questions in both stellar and cluster evolution.

Evans, C J; Beletsky, Y; Brott, I; Cantiello, M; Clark, J S; Crowther, P A; De Koter, A; de Mink, S; Dufton, P L; Dunstall, P; Gieles, M; Graefener, G; Henault-Brunet, V; Herrero, A; Howarth, I D; Langer, N; Lennon, D J; Apellaniz, J Maiz; Markova, N; Najarro, F; Puls, J; Sana, H; Simon-Diaz, S; Smartt, S J; Stroud, V E; Taylor, W D; Trundle, C; van Loon, J Th; Vink, J S; Walborn, N R

2009-01-01

385

Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade

WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

1987-01-01

386

Quantitative Articles: Developing Studies for Publication in Counseling Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is presented as a guide for developing quantitative studies and preparing quantitative manuscripts for publication in counseling journals. It is intended as an aid for aspiring authors in conceptualizing studies and formulating valid research designs. Material is presented on choosing variables and measures and on selecting…

Trusty, Jerry

2011-01-01

387

Complexity Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether consensus existed among teachers about the complexity of common classroom materials, a survey was administered to 66 pre-service and in-service kindergarten and prekindergarten teachers. Participants were asked to rate 14 common classroom materials as simple, complex, or super-complex. Simple materials have one obvious part,…

Gordon, Sandra L.; Anderson, Beth C.

388

Space Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about society and space exploration. Learners will survey the public about their different opinions about space exploration and the use of robotics in space exploration. Then they will represent and analyze the results. This is lesson 5 of 16 in the MarsBots learning module.

389

Surveying Altimeter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This type of altimeter is a precision aneroid barometer that translates barometric (air) pressure into altitude. Temperature compensation calculations, as well as calculations to account for diurnal barometric change need to be recorded during use. In the field the survey altimeter first must be pla...

2009-07-22

390

Quantitative criteria for insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formal diagnostic systems (DSM-IV, ICSD, and ICD-10) do not provide adequate quantitative criteria to diagnose insomnia. This may not present a serious problem in clinical settings where extensive interviews determine the need for clinical management. However, lack of standard criteria introduce disruptive variability into the insomnia research domain. The present study reviewed two decades of psychology clinical trials for insomnia

K. L. Lichstein; H. H. Durrence; D. J. Taylor; A. J. Bush; B. W. Riedel

2003-01-01

391

Invited Review Quantitative models for reverse logistics: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the recently emerged field of reverse logistics. The management of return flows induced by the various forms of reuse of products and materials in industrial production processes has received growing attention throughout this decade. Many authors have proposed quantitative models taking those changes in the logistics envir- onment into account. However, no general framework has been suggested

Moritz Fleischmann; Jacqueline M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard; Rommert Dekker; Erwin van der Laan; Jo A. E. E. van Nunen; Luk N. Van Wassenhove

392

A Quantitative Study of High School Yearbook Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze high school yearbooks, relative to quantitative page allotments, when classified by the size of the community, the type of socioeconomic environment of the school, and the size of the graduating class. A normative survey was conducted using a questionnaire requesting the respondent to furnish a copy of the…

Krepel, Wayne J.; DuVall, Charles R.

393

WESF natural phenomena hazards survey  

SciTech Connect

A team of engineers conducted a systematic natural hazards phenomena (NPH) survey for the 225-B Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The survey is an assessment of the existing design documentation to serve as the structural design basis for WESF, and the Interim Safety Basis (ISB). The lateral force resisting systems for the 225-B building structures, and the anchorages for the WESF safety related systems were evaluated. The original seismic and other design analyses were technically reviewed. Engineering judgment assessments were made of the probability of NPH survival, including seismic, for the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems. The method for the survey is based on the experience of the investigating engineers,and documented earthquake experience (expected response) data.The survey uses knowledge on NPH performance and engineering experience to determine the WESF strengths for NPH resistance, and uncover possible weak links. The survey, in general, concludes that the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems are designed and constructed commensurate with the current Hanford Site design criteria.

Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-01

394

Complex Systems: A Survey  

E-print Network

A complex system is a system composed of many interacting parts, often called agents, which displays collective behavior that does not follow trivially from the behaviors of the individual parts. Examples include condensed matter systems, ecosystems, stock markets and economies, biological evolution, and indeed the whole of human society. Substantial progress has been made in the quantitative understanding of complex systems, particularly since the 1980s, using a combination of basic theory, much of it derived from physics, and computer simulation. The subject is a broad one, drawing on techniques and ideas from a wide range of areas. Here I give a survey of the main themes and methods of complex systems science and an annotated bibliography of resources, ranging from classic papers to recent books and reviews.

Newman, M E J

2011-01-01

395

A Quantitative Comparison of Leading-edge Vortices in Incompressible and Supersonic Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When requiring quantitative data on delta-wing vortices for design purposes, low-speed results have often been extrapolated to configurations intended for supersonic operation. This practice stems from a lack of database owing to difficulties that plague measurement techniques in high-speed flows. In the present paper an attempt is made to examine this practice by comparing quantitative data on the nearwake properties of such vortices in incompressible and supersonic flows. The incompressible flow data are obtained in experiments conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Detailed flow-field properties, including vorticity and turbulence characteristics, obtained by hot-wire and pressure probe surveys are documented. These data are compared, wherever possible, with available data from a past work for a Mach 2.49 flow for the same wing geometry and angles-of-attack. The results indicate that quantitative similarities exist in the distributions of total pressure and swirl velocity. However, the streamwise velocity of the core exhibits different trends. The axial flow characteristics of the vortices in the two regimes are examined, and a candidate theory is discussed.

Wang, F. Y.; Milanovic, I. M.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

2002-01-01

396

RECENT ADVANCES IN QUANTITATIVE NEUROPROTEOMICS  

PubMed Central

The field of proteomics is undergoing rapid development in a number of different areas including improvements in mass spectrometric platforms, peptide identification algorithms and bioinformatics. In particular, new and/or improved approaches have established robust methods that not only allow for in-depth and accurate peptide and protein identification and modification, but also allow for sensitive measurement of relative or absolute quantitation. These methods are beginning to be applied to the area of neuroproteomics, but the central nervous system poses many specific challenges in terms of quantitative proteomics, given the large number of different neuronal cell types that are intermixed and that exhibit distinct patterns of gene and protein expression. This review highlights the recent advances that have been made in quantitative neuroproteomics, with a focus on work published over the last five years that applies emerging methods to normal brain function as well as to various neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and drug addiction as well as of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. While older methods such as two-dimensional polyacrylamide electrophoresis continued to be used, a variety of more in-depth MS-based approaches including both label (ICAT, iTRAQ, TMT, SILAC, SILAM), label-free (label-free, MRM, SWATH) and absolute quantification methods, are rapidly being applied to neurobiological investigations of normal and diseased brain tissue as well as of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). While the biological implications of many of these studies remain to be clearly established, that there is a clear need for standardization of experimental design and data analysis, and that the analysis of protein changes in specific neuronal cell types in the central nervous system remains a serious challenge, it appears that the quality and depth of the more recent quantitative proteomics studies is beginning to shed light on a number of aspects of neuroscience that relates to normal brain function as well as of the changes in protein expression and regulation that occurs in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23623823

Craft, George E; Chen, Anshu; Nairn, Angus C

2014-01-01

397

Applied Sampling and Surveying Instructor: Stephanie Eckman, Ph.D.  

E-print Network

Applied Sampling and Surveying Instructor: Stephanie Eckman, Ph.D. terpconnect and Analysis Leslie Kish Survey Sampling This class will provide students with practical methods for survey practical topics that students will encounter when designing and carrying out surveys. Topics will include

Gerkmann, Ralf

398

HMS Scott-United Kingdom ocean survey ship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing the cost per survey mile while insuring that survey products meet required standards is a prime consideration when evaluating oceanographic surveying systems. This was one of the prime factors that led to the United Kingdom Ministry of Defense Procurement Executive (UK MOD PE) selection of a U.S. Navy designed ocean survey system to be installed aboard a new construction

F. Pappalardi; S. J. Dunham; M. E. Leblang

2000-01-01

399

Passive solar building design  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the basic principles of passive solar design and offers quantitative design aids in the form of microcomputer programs to stimulate innovative passive designs. These programs are unlike most others, which focus on conventional designs. The volume also covers landscaping, energy conservation and aesthetics.

Carter, C.; De Villiers, J.

1987-01-01

400

Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

2004-01-01

401

Magnetism Conceptual Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 30-question research-based multiple-choice test is designed to evaluate studentsâ conceptual understanding of magnetism in algebra- and calculus-based introductory courses. The survey is based on investigations of studentsâ difficulties in magnetism up to Faradayâs law and should be given in a 50-minute period. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in J. Li and C. Singh, Developing Magnetism Conceptual Survey and Assessing gender differences in students' difficulties with magnetism, 2011 PERC Proceedings, AIP Conf. Proc. 1413, 43-46 (2012). This assessment is free for use by instructors in their classroom. However, as it takes years of development effort to create and validate reliable assessment instruments, the file is password-protected. Furthermore, the author requests that 1. students are not given copies following examination; and 2. none of the questions are incorporated into web-based question delivery systems without adequate security to prevent printing or unauthorized access by students. To obtain the password, please send a request with your name, email, institution, and a link to a page at your institution that confirms you are an instructor.

Singh, Chandralekha; Li, Jing

2012-04-29

402

Quantum Mechanics Survey (QMS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 31-question research-based multiple-choice test is designed to evaluate studentsâ conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics in junior-level courses. The survey is based on investigations of studentsâ difficulties in quantum mechanics and should be given in a 50-minute period. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in Surveying studentsâ understanding of quantum mechanics in one spatial dimension, Am. J. Phys. 80 (3), 252-259. This assessment is free for use by instructors in their classroom. However, as it takes years of development effort to create and validate reliable assessment instruments, the file is password-protected. Furthermore, the author requests that 1. students are not given copies following examination; and 2. none of the questions are incorporated into web-based question delivery systems without adequate security to prevent printing or unauthorized access by students. To obtain the password, please send a request with your name, email, institution, and a link to a page at your institution that confirms you are an instructor.

Singh, Chandralekha; Zhu, Guangtian

2012-04-29

403

Energy & Climate: Getting Quantitative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A noted environmentalist claims that buying an SUV instead of a regular car is energetically equivalent to leaving your refrigerator door open for seven years. A fossil-fuel apologist argues that solar energy is a pie-in-the-sky dream promulgated by na"ive environmentalists, because there's nowhere near enough solar energy to meet humankind's energy demand. A group advocating shutdown of the Vermont Yankee nuclear plant claims that 70% of its electrical energy is lost in transmission lines. Around the world, thousands agitate for climate action, under the numerical banner ``350.'' Neither the environmentalist, the fossil-fuel apologist, the antinuclear activists, nor most of those marching under the ``350'' banner can back up their assertions with quantitative arguments. Yet questions about energy and its environmental impacts almost always require quantitative answers. Physics can help! This poster gives some cogent examples, based on the newly published 2^nd edition of the author's textbook Energy, Environment, and Climate.

Wolfson, Richard

2011-11-01

404

Primary enzyme quantitation  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

Saunders, G.C.

1982-03-04

405

Quantitative nondestructive evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) provides techniques to assess deterioration of a material or a structure, and to detect and characterize discrete flaws. It plays, therefore, an important role in the prevention of failure. QNDE techniques are used in processing, manufacturing and for in-service inspection. QNDE is particularly important for the in-service inspection of high-cost and critical load-bearing structures whose failure

J. D Achenbach

2000-01-01

406

Acquisition of technological capability in development: A quantitative case study of Pakistan's capital goods sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is by now a substantial body of literature that points to the importance of technological capability acquisition for industrial development. This literature, however, is almost exclusively based on qualitative case studies. This paper addresses the lack of objective quantitative measurement and testing. Using data from a survey among capital goods manufacturers in Pakistan, it develops quantitative proxies for technological

Henny Romijn

1997-01-01

407

Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 33-question research-based multiple-choice survey is designed to evaluate students' attitudes and approaches towards physics problem solving. The survey is based on investigations of responses from introductory physics students, graduate students, and faculty members. It expands upon the Attitudes towards Problem Solving survey (Marx and Cummings, 2007) to also consider approaches to problem solving and different levels of problem solving expertise. Statistical results have shown the survey to be reliable and valid. A summary of the construction and analysis of the survey is available in A. J. Mason and C. Singh, "Surveying graduate students' attitudes and approaches to problem solving", PRST-PER, 6 (2), 020124 (2010). This survey is free for use by instructors in their classroom. The expert-like responses to the survey are enclosed.

Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

2012-05-10

408

Quantitative chemical analysis  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative Chemical Analysis is an excellent text for a classical undergraduate course in quantitative analysis. The greatest strengths of the text are the superb organization and the programmed approach toward the presentation of the material. It is directed at an audience with a minimal background in chemistry (i.e., one year of freshman-level chemistry) and provides introductory material (i.e., basic organic chemistry, stoichiometry, and solution equilibria) in the first chapter for those who need it. The book covers the basic principles of the quantitative treatment of data, including the concepts of accuracy, precision, and basic statistical methods. As in any classical text on this subject, the text is biased toward methods involving solution equilibria. Consequently, the bulk of the discussion centers on gravimetric analysis, pH, complexation, and oxidation-reduction titrations. The principles of electroanalytical measurements are explained clearly, and several chapters on potentiometric and amperometric methods are adequately detailed. Supplementary information concerning the basics of the other instrumental techniques is provided in the last 10 chapters.

Manhan, S.L.

1986-01-01

409

Methods and Design of the Baseline Survey of the Neurological Disorders in Salamanca (NEDISA) Cohort: A Population-Based Study in Central-Western Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To describe the design of the baseline assessment of an epidemiological study of elderly persons living in Salamanca, central-western Spain: the Neurological Diseases in Salamanca (NEDISA) study. We assessed the epidemiology of stroke, cognitive disorders, essential tremor (ET), Parkinson’s disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome. Methods: In phase 1 (February 1 to May 31, 2007), 4 neurologists and 2

Jesús Cacho; Julián Benito-León; Elan D. Louis

2011-01-01

410

MHEC Academic Scheduling Software Survey Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bulletin summarizes the chief quantitative findings of a survey of 264 small and medium sized colleges and universities in the midwest concerning their use of and interest in academic scheduling software. This type of software assists in planning course offerings, assigning instructors and course functions to facilities and time slots, and…

Midwestern Higher Education Commission Academic Software Committee Research Bulletin, 1995

1995-01-01

411

Survey of Geothermal Solid Toxic Waste  

SciTech Connect

This is an early survey and analysis of the types and quantities of solid toxic wastes to be expected from geothermal power systems, particularly at the Salton Sea, California. It includes a literature search (48 references/citations), descriptions of methods for handling wastes, and useful quantitative values. It also includes consideration of reclaiming metals and mineral byproducts from geothermal power systems. (DJE 2005)

Darnell, A.J.; Gay, R.L.; Klenck, M.M.; Nealy, C.L.

1982-09-30

412

Creating Case Study Presentations: A Survey of Senior Seminar Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Senior seminar students were surveyed on their opinions of a course that required them to create and present original formal case studies; this resulted in an accumulation of quantitative and qualitative data that were supportive of the case study method. The survey also revealed statistically significant correlations that support the case study method as an important pedagogical tool for learning scientific information.

Field, Patrick

2005-09-01

413

78 FR 70062 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: Clearance for Surveys of Customers and Partners of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...these surveys will provide customer satisfaction input on various elements...quantitative and 4 qualitative) customer satisfaction surveys that will be conducted...will gather and measure customer and partner satisfaction with OER processes...

2013-11-22

414

Metropolitan Travel Survey Archive  

E-print Network

Metropolitan Travel Survey Archive Pavithra Parthasarathi David Levinson Nexus Research Group University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Sponsor: USDOT - FHWA #12;Project Objectives Collect household travel Survey Documentation and Analysis (SDA) format to allow online analysis of surveys #12;Collected surveys

Levinson, David M.

415

EASTERN LAKE SURVEY-PHASE II AND NATIONAL STREAM SURVEY-PHASE I PROCESSING LABORATORY OPERATIONS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Surface Water Survey was designed to characterize surface water chemistry in regions of the United States believed to be potentially sensitive to acidic deposition. The National Stream Survey was a synoptic survey designed to quantify the chemistry of streams in area...

416

Quantitative Shape Analysis Radu Rugina  

E-print Network

Quantitative Shape Analysis Radu Rugina Computer Science Department Cornell University Ithaca, NY 14853 rugina@cs.cornell.edu Abstract. This paper presents a static analysis that computes quantitative structures and is able to extract quantitative information about the height and the balancing

Rugina, Radu

417

Quantitative Languages Krishnendu Chatterjee1  

E-print Network

Quantitative Languages Krishnendu Chatterjee1 , Laurent Doyen2 , and Thomas A. Henzinger2 1 University of California, Santa Cruz 2 EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract. Quantitative generalizations with transition weights) to define several natural classes of quantitative languages over finite and infinite

Henzinger, Thomas A.

418

Compositional Quantitative Reasoning # Krishnendu Chatterjee  

E-print Network

Compositional Quantitative Reasoning # Krishnendu Chatterjee UC Berkeley Luca de Alfaro UC Santa can express a wide variety of quantitative system prop­ erties, such as resource consumption, price rules for compositional reasoning have quantitative counterparts in our setting. While our general

Henzinger, Thomas A.

419

Quantitative Methods II Winter 2012  

E-print Network

1 of 3 Quantitative Methods II Winter 2012 Meets: Thursdays 9am ­ 11:50am Professor: Jonathan.northwestern.edu This course is intended to be a continuation of the quantitative methods sequence that began with Quantitative assumptions are violated. We will then discuss various methods researchers use to overcome these obstacles

Bustamante, Fabián E.

420

A Quantitative Analysis of the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Turnover Factors of Relational Database Support Professionals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This quantitative analysis explored the intrinsic and extrinsic turnover factors of relational database support specialists. Two hundred and nine relational database support specialists were surveyed for this research. The research was conducted based on Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job Diagnostic Survey. Regression analysis and a univariate ANOVA…

Takusi, Gabriel Samuto

2010-01-01

421

UNIT GUIDE 2014/15 SPAI20013 Principles of Quantitative Social Science  

E-print Network

1 UNIT GUIDE 2014/15 SPAI20013 Principles of Quantitative Social Science Teaching Block: 1 Weeks: 1 in the social sciences; and discussions of data sources. The two-hour computer lab sessions, via `hands on' work consulting the office. Aims and Objectives To: Introduce you to the random sample social survey and survey

Bristol, University of

422

Survey overview Instrument Construction  

E-print Network

#12;Outline Survey overview Instrument Construction Survey Logistics Response Rates Uses of Survey, to develop new initiatives for faculty on campus. University of Wisconsin Survey Center 630 W. Mifflin, Room. University of Wisconsin Survey Center 630 W. Mifflin, Room 174 Madison, WI 53703-2636 #12;Survey Overview

Sheridan, Jennifer

423

Quantitative gas-liquid chromatography of triglycerides  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine optimum operating conditions, an extensive study was made of the variables affecting quantitative recovery and\\u000a resolution of model triglyceride mixtures. Parameters investigated included: flash heater temperature, carrier gas flow rate,\\u000a type of carrier gas, column length, glass and metal columns, temperature program rate, linearity of detector response, physical\\u000a design of gas chromatograph, and molecular species of triglyceride.\\u000a \\u000a Results

Carter Litchfield; R. D. Harlow; Raymond Reiser

1965-01-01

424

INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SURVEY INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SURVEY  

E-print Network

INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SURVEY OCT 2010 1 SO L I D U MPE- internati- ona l s INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SURVEY SUMMARY AND RESULTS OCTOBER 2010 au AARHUS UNIVERSITET #12;Aarhus universitet International Centre;INTERNATIONAL STUDENT SURVEY OCT 2010 3 Introduction Survey Objectives

425

Utilizing qualitative methods in survey design: examining Texas cattle producers' intent to participate in foot-and-mouth disease detection and control.  

PubMed

The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies. PMID:21968089

Delgado, Amy H; Norby, Bo; Dean, Wesley R; McIntosh, W Alex; Scott, H Morgan

2012-02-01

426

Open-source social Network Assessment Survey System (NASS)  

E-print Network

The selection of targeted survey questions and the design of survey questionnaires are instrumental in the social networks research. With the accelerating growth of theory and experimental knowledge in the area of social ...

Du, Aaron (Aaron Yinan)

2005-01-01

427

MMAS and ACS for GPS Surveying Problem STEFKA FIDANOVA  

E-print Network

are developed to provide near-optimal solutions for Global Positioning System surveying problem. In designing Global Positioning System (GPS) surveying network, a given set of earth points must be observed

Fidanova, Stefka

428

Farmland Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 1981 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) study estimated that the nation is converting farmland to non-agricultural uses at the rate of 3 million acres a year. Seeking information on farmland loss in Florida, the state legislature, in 1984, directed establishment of a program for development of accurate data to enable intelligent legislation of state growth management. Thus was born Florida's massive Mapping and Monitoring of Agricultural Lands Project (MMALP). It employs data from the NASA-developed Landsat Earth resources survey satellite system as a quicker, less expensive alternative to ground surveying. The 3 year project involved inventory of Florida's 36 million acres classifying such as cropland, pastureland, citrus, woodlands, wetland, water and populated areas. Direction was assigned to Florida Department of Community Affairs (DCA) with assistance from the DOT. With the cooperation of the USDA, Soil Conservation Service, DCA decided that combining soil data with the Landsat land cover data would make available to land use planners a more comprehensive view of a county's land potential.

1988-01-01

429

Laser Surveying  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA technology has produced a laser-aided system for surveying land boundaries in difficult terrain. It does the job more accurately than conventional methods, takes only one-third the time normally required, and is considerably less expensive. In surveying to mark property boundaries, the objective is to establish an accurate heading between two "corner" points. This is conventionally accomplished by erecting a "range pole" at one point and sighting it from the other point through an instrument called a theodolite. But how do you take a heading between two points which are not visible to each other, for instance, when tall trees, hills or other obstacles obstruct the line of sight? That was the problem confronting the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The Forest Service manages 187 million acres of land in 44 states and Puerto Rico. Unfortunately, National Forest System lands are not contiguous but intermingled in complex patterns with privately-owned land. In recent years much of the private land has been undergoing development for purposes ranging from timber harvesting to vacation resorts. There is a need for precise boundary definition so that both private owners and the Forest Service can manage their properties with confidence that they are not trespassing on the other's land.

1978-01-01

430

In-depth survey report: design of improved workstations for handling dry chemical powders at B. F. Goodrich Company, Industrial Plastics Division, Marietta, Ohio  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to redesign a ventilated work station to achieve better control over dust during the weighing out and transferring of powdered materials. The control methods evaluated were booth flows of full, two thirds, and one third (of full flow), the presence of an air shower above the worker, and the presence of local ventilation in the form of a slot hood behind the bulk material drum. Twelve possible combinations of these controls were evaluated. The study indicated that it is possible to design a better ventilated booth by installing additional types of controls.

Gressel, M.G.; Fischbach, T.J.

1988-03-01

431

Quantitative bedrock geology of Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of sedimentary, igneous, metamorphic, and ultramafic bedrock on the basis of data from the digital geologic map of Brazil, published as a GIS map by the Brazilian Geological Survey. Bedrock units exclusively encompassing sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks, or metamorphic rocks cover 40.4%, 31.5%, and 17.7%, respectively, of the total bedrock area. These numbers have to be considered minimum estimates of the areal abundance of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic bedrock because polygons defined by mixed lithologies cover ˜8.5-9.5% of the total bedrock area. These mixed units are sedimentary rocks with igneous and/or metamorphic contributions (1.4%), metamorphic rocks with sedimentary contributions (1.2%), metamorphic rocks with igneous contributions (1.5%), igneous rocks with sedimentary and/or metamorphic contributions (4.4%), and ultramafic units with sedimentary, igneous, and/or metamorphic contributions (˜1-2%). The average ages of major lithologic units, weighted according to bedrock area, are as follows: sedimentary rocks (average stratigraphic age of 248 ± 5 [1?] Myr; median stratigraphic age of 87.5 Myr), igneous rocks (1153 ± 13 [1?] Myr), metamorphic rocks (1678 ± 30 [1?] Myr), and ultramafic rocks (˜1227 ± 25 [1?] Myr). The average bedrock age of Brazil is 946 ± 7 [1?] Myr. The range in lithologic composition and age structure of the various bedrock units reflects the complex tectonic makeup of Brazil that ranges from Neogene sedimentary cover in the Amazon Basin to Precambrian cratons (Guyana and Brazilian shields) and Transamazonian greenstone belts. The average spatial resolution of the data is 232 km2 polygon-1 and is sufficient to perform area-age analyses of individual river drainage basins larger than ˜5,000 km2.

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

2007-05-01

432

Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

2008-01-01

433

The multi-object, fiber-fed spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey  

E-print Network

We present the design and performance of the multi-object fiber spectrographs for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and their upgrade for the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Originally commissioned in ...

Burles, Scott

434

First Look Survey -- Extragalactic Component  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SIRTF First Look Survey extragalactic component is designed to: 1. detect enough extragalactic sources at unexplored sensitivity levels to generate a representative sample and reduce the uncertainties in the source counts, 2. characterize the dominant source populations with both MIPS and IRAC data from SIRTF plus ancillary surveys at optical, near-infrared, and radio wavelengths, and, 3. explore the cirrus foreground at moderately high |b|, and its effect on point-source detectability. This component is comprised of MIPS and IRAC surveys of four square degrees in the SIRTF northern continuous viewing zone (CVZ) and 1 square degree in the Elais N1 field. A verification survey covering a small region of the CVZ and Elais fields is also included.

Soifer, Tom; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa

2003-03-01

435

Aviation's role in earth resources surveys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.

Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.

1972-01-01

436

A comparison of risk assessment techniques from qualitative to quantitative  

SciTech Connect

Risk assessment techniques vary from purely qualitative approaches, through a regime of semi-qualitative to the more traditional quantitative. Constraints such as time, money, manpower, skills, management perceptions, risk result communication to the public, and political pressures all affect the manner in which risk assessments are carried out. This paper surveys some risk matrix techniques, examining the uses and applicability for each. Limitations and problems for each technique are presented and compared to the others. Risk matrix approaches vary from purely qualitative axis descriptions of accident frequency vs consequences, to fully quantitative axis definitions using multi-attribute utility theory to equate different types of risk from the same operation.

Altenbach, T.J.

1995-02-13

437

Robotic and Survey Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robotic telescopes are revolutionizing the way astronomers collect their dataand conduct sky surveys. This chapter begins with a discussion of principles thatguide the process of designing, constructing, and operating telescopes andobservatories that offer a varying degree of automation, from instruments remotelycontrolled by observers to fully autonomous systems requiring no humansupervision during their normal operations. Emphasis is placed on designtrade-offs involved in building end-to-end systems intended for a wide range ofscience applications. The second part of the chapter contains descriptions ofseveral projects and instruments, both existing and currently under development.It is an attempt to provide a representative selection of actual systems thatillustrates state of the art in technology, as well as important ideas and milestonesin the development of the field. The list of presented instruments spans the fullrange in size starting from small all-sky monitors, through midrange robotic andsurvey telescopes, and finishing with large robotic instruments and surveys.Explosive growth of telescope networking is enabling entirely new modesof interaction between the survey and follow-up observing. Increasingimportance of standardized communication protocols and software is stressed.These developments are driven by the fusion of robotic telescope hardware,massive storage and databases, real-time knowledge extraction, and datacross-correlation on a global scale. The chapter concludes with examplesof major science results enabled by these new technologies and futureprospects.

Wo?niak, Przemys?aw

438

Visual Design Principles: An Empirical Study of Design Lore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many books, designers, and design educators talk about visual design principles such as balance, contrast, and alignment, but with little consistency. This study uses empirical methods to explore the lore surrounding design principles. The study took the form of two stages: a quantitative literature review to determine what design principles are…

Kimball, Miles A.

2013-01-01

439

Experimental Surveys for Submerged Inlet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study is to define the Pareto set of designs for a subsonic submerged inlet that minimizes flow distortion and swirl at the engine face. A series of experimental surveys are performed to validate the accompanying computations and to provide additional information regarding the Pareto set. A stainless steel model with a removable submerged inlet (built using

Vasilije Jovanovic; Ezgi Taskinoglu; Gregory Elliott; Doyle Knight

2003-01-01

440

Pulsewidth modulation-a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulse-width modulation (PWM) is surveyed with reference to performance criteria, feedforward schemes, and feedback PWM control. It is stressed that the implementation of PWM techniques in the design of AC motor drive systems depends on the machine type, the power level, and the semiconductor devices used in the power converter. It is ultimately performance and cost criteria which determine the

Joachim Holtz

1992-01-01

441

Survey of American College Campuses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 8-page booklet is a survey instrument that was sent to randomly selected college and university senior administrators nationwide by the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The 29-item questionnaire is designed to learn more about alcohol and other drug prevention efforts taking place on college campuses. Information…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

442

Job Posting: An Industry Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a survey to determine practices among metalworking firms in Minnesota covering such topics as whether or not the company had a formal or informal job posting system, the actual mechanics of the system, union influence on its design, feedback to unsuccessful job bidders, and current employee acceptance of the system. Recommendations are…

Dahl, Dave R.; Pinto, Patrick R.

1977-01-01

443

Quantitative Mineralogical Characterization of Oregon Erionite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erionite has been classified as Group-I Human Carcinogen by the IARC Working Group. Fibrogenetic potential of erionite varies from low to high yield of mesothelioma. This may require quantitative characterization of physicochemical properties of erionite before any experimental design. The toxicity of the mineral is such that quantitative characterization of erionite is extremely important. Yet, often the erionite specimens were incompletely or incorrectly characterized throwing doubt on the results of the work. For example, none of the Turkish erionite published until recently had balance error (E%) less than 10%, and Mg cation of the type specimen of erionite-Ca from Maze, Niigita Prefecture, Japan is more than 0.8. In the present study, erionite sample near Rome, Oregon have been quantitatively characterized using powder x-ray diffraction, Reitveld refinement, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectroscopy, and Massbauer spectroscopy. The cell parameters of the erionite-K from Oregon is computed as a=13.2217(2) Å and c=15.0671 Å; chemical composition of the erionite as major oxides, rare earth elements and other trace elements, are characterized quantitatively. Crystal chemistries of the erionite are computed based upon the quidelines of the IMAA zeolite report of 1997.

Dogan, A.; Dogan, M.; Ballirano, P.

2006-12-01

444

Power information systems security: modeling and quantitative evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a modeling language and a quantitative evaluation approach for the security of power information systems. We firstly design a security architecture design trace language to universally describe system structures, services, security policies, attack behaviors and countermeasures. Next an automated risk analysis algorithm is proposed to get attack traces of power information systems. Then, based on the concept

Yan Hu; Xiaorong Xie; Yaozhong Xin

2004-01-01

445

Civil Technology. Surveying. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary civil technology--surveying education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for development of entry level skills in surveying in the areas of knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability, related supportive skills, and occupational survival skills. The first…

Fitzpatrick, Beverley J.; And Others

446

NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL ALCOHOL EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEY (NLAES)  

EPA Science Inventory

The NLAES is a household survey of 42,862 persons 18 years and older in the coterminous United States. The survey was designed to provide comprehensive information on amounts and patterns of alcohol consumption and on problems associated with alcohol. It is the only nationally-re...

447

NLS Handbook, 2005. National Longitudinal Surveys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Longitudinal Surveys (NLS), sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), are a set of surveys designed to gather information at multiple points in time on the labor market experiences of groups of men and women. Each of the cohorts has been selected to represent all people living in the United States at the initial…

Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2006

2006-01-01

448

Use a Survey to Fight Poverty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to help persons or groups plan, organize, and conduct efficient antipoverty action surveys. It shows how to use surveys to identify a specific problem in a slum neighborhood, measure the opinions, attitudes, and needs of the people involved, establish target areas, pinpoint problems needing immediate attention, decide…

New Jersey Community Action Training Inst., Trenton.

449

Multidisciplinary eHealth Survey Evaluation Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the development process of an evaluation framework for describing and comparing web survey tools. We believe that this approach will help shape the design, development, deployment, and evaluation of population-based health interventions. A conceptual framework for describing and evaluating web survey systems will enable the…

Karras, Bryant T.; Tufano, James T.

2006-01-01

450

NATIONAL SURVEY FOR AMBULATORY SURGERY (NSAS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS), which was initiated by the National Center for Health Statistics in 1994, is a national survey designed to meet the need for information about the use of ambulatory surgery services in the United States. For NSAS, ambulatory surge...

451

QTest: Quantitative Testing of Theories of Binary Choice  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to make modeling and quantitative testing accessible to behavioral decision researchers interested in substantive questions. We provide a novel, rigorous, yet very general, quantitative diagnostic framework for testing theories of binary choice. This permits the nontechnical scholar to proceed far beyond traditionally rather superficial methods of analysis, and it permits the quantitatively savvy scholar to triage theoretical proposals before investing effort into complex and specialized quantitative analyses. Our theoretical framework links static algebraic decision theory with observed variability in behavioral binary choice data. The paper is supplemented with a custom-designed public-domain statistical analysis package, the QTest software. We illustrate our approach with a quantitative analysis using published laboratory data, including tests of novel versions of “Random Cumulative Prospect Theory.” A major asset of the approach is the potential to distinguish decision makers who have a fixed preference and commit errors in observed choices from decision makers who waver in their preferences. PMID:24999495

Regenwetter, Michel; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Lim, Shiau Hong; Guo, Ying; Popova, Anna; Zwilling, Chris; Cha, Yun-Shil; Messner, William

2014-01-01

452

Methods and Design of the Baseline Survey of the Neurological Disorders in Salamanca (NEDISA) Cohort: A Population-Based Study in Central-Western Spain  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the design of the baseline assessment of an epidemiological study of elderly persons living in Salamanca, central-western Spain: the Neurological Diseases in Salamanca (NEDISA) study. We assessed the epidemiology of stroke, cognitive disorders, essential tremor (ET), Parkinson's disease (PD) and restless legs syndrome. Methods In phase 1 (February 1 to May 31, 2007), 4 neurologists and 2 trained general physicians examined and performed phlebotomy on all participants. In phase 2 (June 1, 2007, to June 1, 2008), the participants were reexamined and had a complete neuropsychological assessment. Neuroimaging was performed in participants with cognitive disorders, ET and PD. Results The registered study population consisted of 1,077 individuals, but 45 people were ineligible (address change, refusals or death), leaving a final sample of 1,032 (95.8%). The main demographic data on the 1,032 participants (408 men, 624 women) are provided. Conclusions Most of the registered study population was enrolled, and this may have been due to the close relationship between NEDISA researchers and the general physicians in the area of study. The NEDISA study will likely improve our knowledge of prevalence rates of the neurological diseases chosen for study as well as the set of risk factors that predispose individuals in Spain to these disorders. PMID:21252583

Cacho, Jesús; Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D.

2011-01-01

453

Sloan Digital Sky Survey - Sky Surveys  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) project tells the user about the history and importance of sky surveys. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is not the first effort that mankind has made to map the night sky. Using different instruments like telescopes (Palomar Sky Survey, POSS), infrared detectors (2 Micron All Sky Survey, 2MASS) and X-ray detectors (Röntgen Satellite, ROSAT), amongst others, astronomers have been able to not only been able to find objects in our universe, but also study their properties according to the emission dected. The website also challenges the user to compare images from different surveys, including the SDSS, and conclude about their efficiency.

2010-01-19

454

Chicago Office Survey Research Laboratory (MC 336)  

E-print Network

Report #12;survey research laboratory Editing and Design: Lisa Kelly-Wilson Technical and Editorial Assistance: Jie Chen, Eboni Craig, Marguerite Harris, Kris Hertenstein, Timothy P. Johnson, Linda Owens

Illinois at Chicago, University of

455

How To Conduct Interviews by Telephone and In Person. The Survey Kit, Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nine-volume Survey Kit is designed to help readers prepare and conduct surveys and become better users of survey results. All the books in the series contain instructional objectives, exercises and answers, examples of surveys in use, illustrations of survey questions, guidelines for action, checklists of "dos and don'ts," and annotated…

Frey, James H.; Oishi, Sabine Mertens

456

Submillimeter wave survey of the galactic plane  

SciTech Connect

The survey measured, over virtually the entire galactic plane, the distribution and basic physical conditions of the coolest dust component of the interstellar medium. The instrument designed for observations of extended, low surface brightness continuum emission consisted of a balloon borne, gyro stablized, 1.2 m Cassegrain telescope and a liquid cooled photometer. The design, integration, tests, and flight operation of the survey are presented.

Cheung, L.H.

1980-12-01

457

Introduction to the CANDELS Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) is designed to document the first third of galactic evolution, from z 8 to z 1.5. It will image >250,000 distant galaxies using three separate cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope from the mid-UV to near-IR and will find and measure Type Ia supernovae beyond z > 1.5 to test their accuracy as standard candles for cosmology. Five premier sky regions are selected, each with extensive multi-wavelength data. The use of five widely separated fields mitigates cosmic variance and yields statistically robust and complete samples of galaxies down to a stellar mass of 109 solar masses at z 2 and to the knee of the UV luminosity function at z 8. The survey covers approximately 800 arcmin2 and is divided into two parts. The CANDELS/Deep survey (5-sigma point-source limit HAB = 27.7 mag) covers 125 arcmin2 within GOODS-N and GOODS-S on ten separate visits. The CANDELS/Wide survey (5-sigma point-source limit HAB 27.0 mag) images all of GOODS and three additional fields (EGS, COSMOS, and UDS) and covers the full area on two visits. Together with the Hubble Ultradeep Fields, this strategy replicates the "wedding cake” approach that has proven effective for extragalactic surveys. Extensive parallel imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys creates a new ACS mosaic in UDS, deepens four existing ones, and provides high-resolution Hubble panchromatic imaging from 0.40 m to 1.6 m. Multiple visits to all fields permit variability studies and supernovae searches, and special deep UV observations cover half of GOODS-N. Data from the survey are non-proprietary and are useful for a wide variety of science investigations. In this talk, we review the scientific goals; observational requirements; field selection, geometry, and observing design; schedule; and the public data products.

Faber, S. M.; Ferguson, H. C.; CANDELS Team

2012-01-01

458

Introduction to quantitative research and analysis.  

PubMed

We have now gained appreciation for both qualitative and quantitative research. Whichever method we choose can only serve to strengthen our professional identity. It has been said that qualitative research attempts to uncover what needs to be learned while quantitative research seeks to determine the amount. My advice to all PACU nurses is to begin recording observations and keep an inventory. The design of a study can be determined later; it's the research question that bears merit. Above all, do not ever discount a feeling, a hunch, or an instinct. You may well be on the verge of a very important discovery. Carpe diem--or seize the opportunity--it's worth taking! PMID:2921766

Luczun, M E

1989-02-01

459

Indicators of Family Care for Development for Use in Multicountry Surveys  

PubMed Central

Indicators of family care for development are essential for ascertaining whether families are providing their children with an environment that leads to positive developmental outcomes. This project aimed to develop indicators from a set of items, measuring family care practices and resources important for caregiving, for use in epidemiologic surveys in developing countries. A mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) design was used for item selection and evaluation. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted to examine the validity of candidate items in several country samples. Qualitative methods included the use of global expert panels to identify and evaluate the performance of each candidate item as well as in-country focus groups to test the content validity of the items. The quantitative methods included analyses of item-response distributions, using bivariate techniques. The selected items measured two family care practices (support for learning/stimulating environment and limit-setting techniques) and caregiving resources (adequacy of the alternate caregiver when the mother worked). Six play-activity items, indicative of support for learning/stimulating environment, were included in the core module of UNICEF's Multiple Cluster Indictor Survey 3. The other items were included in optional modules. This project provided, for the first time, a globally-relevant set of items for assessing family care practices and resources in epidemiological surveys. These items have multiple uses, including national monitoring and cross-country comparisons of the status of family care for development used globally. The obtained information will reinforce attention to efforts to improve the support for development of children. PMID:23304914

Kariger, Patricia; Engle, Patrice; Britto, Pia M. Rebello; Sywulka, Sara M.; Menon, Purnima

2012-01-01

460

Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey